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Sample records for urine lead concentration

  1. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to conserve or excrete water. ... Increased urine concentration may be due to different conditions, such as: Heart failure Loss of body fluids (dehydration) from diarrhea or ...

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. Methods During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Results Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples. Conclusions The UPCR in samples with low or high specific gravity is more likely to overestimate or underestimate actual daily urine protein amount, respectively, especially in a dilute urine sample with its creatinine below 38.8 mg/dL or a concentrated sample with its creatinine above 61.5 mg/dL. In particular, UPCR results should be interpreted with caution in cases that involve dilute urine samples because its overestimation may lead to an erroneous diagnosis of proteinuric renal disease or an incorrect staging of chronic kidney disease. PMID:26353117

  3. Determination of Lead in Urine by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry1

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Stig; Cramé, Kim

    1968-01-01

    A method for the determination of lead in urine by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is described. A combination of wet ashing and extraction with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate into isobutylmethylketone was used. The sensitivity was about 0·02 μg./ml. for 1% absorption, and the detection limit was about 0·02 μg./ml. with an instrumental setting convenient for routine analyses of urines. Using the scale expansion technique, the detection limit was below 0·01 μg./ml., but it was found easier to determine urinary lead concentrations below 0·05 μg./ml. by concentrating the lead in the organic solvent by increasing the volume of urine or decreasing that of the solvent. The method was applied to fresh urines, stored urines, and to urines, obtained during treatment with chelating agents, of patients with lead poisoning. Urines with added inorganic lead were not used. The results agreed well with those obtained with a colorimetric dithizone extraction method (r = 0·989). The AAS method is somewhat more simple and allows the determination of smaller lead concentrations. PMID:5647975

  4. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  5. Correlation between plasma and urine phenylalanine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Manal; Boulat, Olivier; Van Melle, Guy; Guignard, Jean-Pierre; Matthieu, Jean-Marie

    2004-01-01

    In this pilot study, we show that plasma phenylalanine concentration can be predicted from urine concentration if the age of the patient is taken into consideration. This observation could open the way to a new monitoring of phenylketonuric patients in which painful frequent blood sampling, mandatory to adapt the low phenylalanine diet, could be mostly replaced by urinalysis. Compliance to treatment would be improved and hence also the ultimate mental development. Since this study was based on a small number of patients, validation of the model in a large multicentric survey is needed before it can be recommended. PMID:14739551

  6. Urine protein concentration estimation for biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Hiten D; Bramham, Kate; Weston, Andrew J; Ward, Malcolm A; Thompson, Andrew J; Chappell, Lucy C

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances have been made in the study of urinary proteomics as a diagnostic tool for renal disease and pre-eclampsia which requires accurate measurement of urinary protein. We compared different protein assays (Bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Lowry and Bradford) against the 'gold standard' amino-acid assay in urine from 43 women (8 non-pregnant, 34 pregnant, including 8 with pre-eclampsia). BCA assay was superior to both Lowry and Bradford assays (Bland Altman bias: 0.08) compared to amino-acid assay, which performed particularly poorly at higher protein concentrations. These data highlight the need to use amino-acid or BCA assays for unprocessed urine protein estimation. PMID:26103798

  7. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  8. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  9. Urine chemistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jones protein Urinary casts Urine amino acids Urine concentration test Urine culture (catheterized specimen) Urine culture (clean catch) Urine dermatan sulfate Urine - hemoglobin Urine metanephrine Urine pH Urine specific gravity Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)

  10. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol.

    PubMed

    Elers, J; Pedersen, L; Henninge, J; Hemmersbach, P; Dalhoff, K; Backer, V

    2011-08-01

    We examined blood and urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol in relation to the existing cut-off value used in routine doping control. We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy controls with no previous use of beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after the first inhalations. Urine samples were collected at baseline, 0-4 h, 4-8 h, and 8-12 h after the first inhalations. Median urine concentrations peaked in the period 4-8 h after the first inhalations in the asthmatics and between 8-12 h in controls and the median ranged from 268 to 611 ngmL (-1). No samples exceeded the WADA threshold value of 1000 ngmL (-1) when corrected for the urine specific gravity. When not corrected one sample exceeded the cut-off value with urine concentration of 1082 ngmL (-1). In conclusion we found no differences in blood and urine concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We found high variability in urine concentrations between subjects in both groups. The variability between subjects was still present after the samples were corrected for urine specific gravity. PMID:21563035

  11. Urine naloxone concentration at different phases of buprenorphine maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Heikman, Pertti; Häkkinen, Margareeta; Gergov, Merja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    In spite of the benefits of buprenorphine-naloxone co-formulation (BNX) in opioid maintenance treatment, the naloxone component has not prevented parenteral use of BNX. Current laboratory methods are not sufficient to differentiate between therapeutic and illicit use of buprenorphine, and little is known about urine naloxone concentrations. Measurement of urine naloxone, together with buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, might help to determine the naloxone source and administration route. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for this purpose. Naloxone, buprenorphine, and norbuprenorphine total concentrations were measured in urine samples from opioid-dependent patients before and during stable and unstable phases of maintenance treatment with BNX. The limit of quantification in urine was 1.0 µg/L for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Before treatment, all samples contained buprenorphine but the median naloxone concentration was 0 µg/L. During the maintenance treatment with BNX all urine samples were positive for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. The naloxone concentration at a stable phase of treatment (median 60 µg/L, range 5-200 µg/L) was not different from the naloxone concentration at an unstable phase (70 µg/L, 10-1700 µg/L). Applying an upper limit of 200 µg/L to the sample, the median naloxone/buprenorphine ratio was higher in the high than in the low naloxone concentration group (0.9 vs 0.3, respectively). This study suggests that naloxone in urine can act as an indicator of compliance with BNX. Parenteral use of BNX was associated with a high naloxone/buprenorphine ratio. Negative naloxone with positive buprenorphine suggests the use/abuse of buprenorphine alone. PMID:23512803

  12. Combined processing of lead concentrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubasov, V. L.; Paretskii, V. M.; Sidorin, G. N.; Travkin, V. F.

    2013-06-01

    A combined scheme of processing of lead concentrates with the production of pure metallic lead and the important components containing in these concentrates is considered. This scheme includes sulfating roasting of the lead concentrates and two-stage leaching of the formed cinder with the formation of a sulfate solution and lead sulfate. When transformed into a carbonate form, lead sulfate is used for the production of pure metallic lead. Silver, indium, copper, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, and other important components are separately extracted from a solution. At the last stage, zinc is extracted by either extraction followed by electrolytic extraction of a metal or the return of the forming solution of sulfuric acid to cinder leaching.

  13. Biomonitoring of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and mercury in urine and hair of children living near mining and industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Lacasaña, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Hernández, Antonio F; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Gil, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Huelva (South West Spain) and its surrounding municipalities represent one of the most polluted estuaries in the world owing to the discharge of mining and industrial related pollutants in their proximity. A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess exposure to arsenic and some trace metals (cadmium, mercury, manganese and lead) in urine and scalp hair from a representative sample of children aged 6-9 years (n=261). This is the only study simultaneously analyzing those five metal elements in children urine and hair. The potential contribution of gender, water consumption, residence area and body mass index on urinary and hair metal concentrations was also studied. Urine levels of cadmium and total mercury in a proportion (25-50%) of our children population living near industrial/mining areas might have an impact on health, likely due to environmental exposure to metal pollution. The only significant correlation between urine and hair levels was found for mercury. Children living near agriculture areas showed increased levels of cadmium and manganese (in urine) and arsenic (in hair). In contrast, decreased urine Hg concentrations were observed in children living near mining areas. Girls exhibited significantly higher trace metal concentrations in hair than boys. The greatest urine arsenic concentrations were found in children drinking well/spring water. Although human hair can be a useful tool for biomonitoring temporal changes in metal concentrations, levels are not correlated with those found in urine except for total mercury, thus providing additional information. PMID:25434277

  14. Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, K.; Hauser, R.; Calafat, A.M.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Duty, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 post-partum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women’s breast milk samples and infants’ urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results Total BPA was detected in 93% of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA (interquartile range [IQR]=1.2 – 4.4 μg/L). Similarly, 75% of the mothers’ breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR=0.4 – 1.4 μg/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children’s urine and the mothers’ breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions Total BPA was detected in 93% of this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant’s sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers’ breast milk and their infants’ urine. PMID:23212895

  15. Relationships of lead in breast milk to lead in blood, urine, and diet of the infant and mother.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Jameson, C W; Mahaffey, K R; Mizon, K J; Patison, N; Law, A J; Korsch, M J; Salter, M A

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained stable lead isotope and lead concentration data from a longitudinal study of mobilization of lead from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation and in which the newly born infants were monitored for 6 months postpartum to evaluate the effects of the local environment on lead body burden of the infant. Samples of maternal and infant blood, urine, and diet and especially breast milk were measured for 21 mothers and 24 infants. Blood lead concentrations were less than 5 microg/dl in all except one subject. The mean lead concentration in breast milk +/- standard deviation was 0.73 +/- 0.70 microg/kg. In seven subjects for whom serial breast milk sampling was possible, the lead concentration varied by factors of from 2 to 4, and for three subjects there was an increase at or after 90 days postpartum. For the first 60-90 days postpartum, the contribution from breast milk to blood lead in the infants varied from 36 to 80%. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated statistically significant relationships for some of the variables of isotope ratios and lead concentrations between breast milk, blood, urine, and diet for infants and mothers. For example, the analyses revealed that both a mother's breast milk 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios and lead concentration provide information to predict her infant's blood 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios. The major sources of lead in breast milk are from the maternal bone and diet. An evaluation of breast milk lead concentrations published over the last 15 years indicates that studies in which the ratio of lead concentrations in breast milk to lead concentrations in whole maternal blood (Multiple>100) were greater than 15 should be viewed with caution because of potential contamination during sampling and/or laboratory analyses. Selected studies also appear to show a linear relationship between breast milk and maternal whole blood, with the percentage of lead in breast milk compared with whole blood of <3% in subjects with blood lead levels ranging from 2 to 34 microgram/dl. The levels of lead in breast milk are thus similar to those in plasma. Breast-fed infants are only at risk if the mother is exposed to high concentrations of contaminants either from endogenous sources such as the skeleton or exogenous sources. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9755144

  16. Hydrocortisone concentrations in post-race urine from horses.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Neto, L M; Salvadori, M C; Spinosa, H S

    2000-05-01

    As hydrocortisone is an endogenous substance, it is first necessary to establish its normal concentrations so as to be able to control its use in racing animals. This study was designed to establish the hydrocortisone concentrations in post-race urine samples of horses racing in Brazil and also to evaluate the results in relation to the international threshold set for this drug. Urine samples were analysed by HPLC-UV. The results were evaluated according to the concentration range as well as sex and time of sample collection (afternoon or evening races). The results showed a high degree of variation in the concentrations of hydrocortisone in the urine (93 +/- 69 ng/ml). The maximum concentration observed was 646 ng/ml, although only a few horses (around 1%) showed levels within the range 500-650 ng/ml, 91% being in the range 0-150 ng/ml. The data suggested a normal distribution curve. Statistical analysis showed no significant influence of sex or time of sample collection. PMID:10836269

  17. An assessment of contemporary atomic spectroscopic techniques for the determination of lead in blood and urine matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Patrick J.; Geraghty, Ciaran; Verostek, Mary Frances

    2001-09-01

    The preparation and validation of a number of clinical reference materials for the determination of lead in blood and urine is described. Four candidate blood lead reference materials (Lots, 047-050), and four candidate urine lead reference materials (Lots, 034, 035, 037 and 038), containing physiologically-bound lead at clinically relevant concentrations, were circulated to up to 21 selected laboratories specializing in this analysis. Results from two interlaboratory studies were used to establish certified values and uncertainty estimates for these reference materials. These data also provided an assessment of current laboratory techniques for the measurement of lead in blood and urine. For the blood lead measurements, four laboratories used electrothermal atomization AAS, three used anodic stripping voltammetry and one used both ETAAS and ICP-MS. For the urine lead measurements, 11 laboratories used ETAAS (most with Zeeman background correction) and 10 used ICP-MS. Certified blood lead concentrations, ±S.D., ranged from 5.9±0.4 μg/dl (0.28±0.02 μmol/l) to 76.0±2.2 μg/dl (3.67±0.11 μmol/l) and urine lead concentrations ranged from 98±5 μg/l (0.47±0.02 μmol/l) to 641±36 μg/l (3.09±0.17 μmol/l). The highest concentration blood lead material was subjected to multiple analyses using ETAAS over an extended time period. The data indicate that more stringent internal quality control practices are necessary to improve long-term precision. While the certification of blood lead materials was accomplished in a manner consistent with established practices, the urine lead materials proved more troublesome, particularly at concentrations above 600 μg/l (2.90 μmol/l).

  18. Impact of diet on lead in blood and urine in female adults and relevance to mobilization of lead from bone stores.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Mahaffey, K R; Jameson, C W; Patison, N; Law, A J; Mizon, K J; Korsch, M J; Pederson, D

    1999-01-01

    We measured high precision lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations in blood, urine, and environmental samples to assess the significance of diet as a contributing factor to blood and urine lead levels in a cohort of 23 migrant women and 5 Australian-born women. We evaluated possible correlations between levels of dietary lead intake and changes observed in blood and urine lead levels and isotopic composition during pregnancy and postpartum. Mean blood lead concentrations for both groups were approximately 3 microg/dl. The concentration of lead in the diet was 5.8 +/- 3 microg Pb/kg [geometric mean (GM) 5.2] and mean daily dietary intake was 8.5 microg/kg/day (GM 7.4), with a range of 2-39 microg/kg/day. Analysis of 6-day duplicate dietary samples for individual subjects commonly showed major spikes in lead concentration and isotopic composition that were not reflected by associated changes in either blood lead concentration or isotopic composition. Changes in blood lead levels and isotopic composition observed during and after pregnancy could not be solely explained by dietary lead. These data are consistent with earlier conclusions that, in cases where levels of environmental lead exposure and dietary lead intake are low, skeletal contribution is the dominant contributor to blood lead, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10090703

  19. Elevated urine zinc concentration reduces the detection of methamphetamine, cocaine, THC and opiates in urine by EMIT.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ni; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2013-01-01

    Methods for circumventing positive drug tests continue to evolve and are often spread through internet websites reporting on the proposed effectiveness of various adulteration methods. Recent claims of the use of zinc added directly to urine or ingested prior to urine collection have prompted investigation into the vulnerability of ELISA-based testing, providing interesting but inconclusive results. We investigated the potential interference of zinc used as a direct adulterant and after zinc self-administration for enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT)-based drug abuse testing in urine. Negative urine samples and samples collected before and after zinc self-administration were fortified with d-methamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, morphine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol prior to analysis by the EMIT. Our data indicate that zinc added directly to urine in concentrations 5,000 times higher than a typical random urine total zinc concentration is capable of producing false-negative results; however, self-administration of oral zinc was unable to generate random urine total zinc concentrations in the required range. Further, no evidence of a secondary interfering substance was observed as a result of oral zinc self-administration. Our results indicate that the total zinc concentrations required to directly interfere with EMIT-based testing are easily distinguishable from routine random urine total zinc concentrations, and that alleged oral ingestion of zinc does not produce total zinc concentrations capable of direct interference. PMID:23843421

  20. Flash Smelting of Lead Concentrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nermes, Esko O.; Talonen, Timo T.

    1982-11-01

    Oxygen-autogenous flash smelting of lead concentrates followed by slag reduction by injection coal in an electric furnace has been developed and is ready for commercial application. Pilot-plant studies demonstrate that the process works. Pilot studies have established process characteristics. The process is easily controlled. Process equipment and operation are based on the extensive experience with Outokumpu flash smelting technology in smelting copper and nickel. The process equipment is small, even for high capacities. Flash smelter and electric furnace equipment are designed for close fit in order to meet the environmental control requirements.

  1. Mutagenicity studies with urine concentrates from coke plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Dybing, E.

    1980-01-01

    Urine from coke plant workers, collected before and after work, were tested for the content of mutagenic substances in the Salmonella test system. Urine extracts from exposed smokers showed mutagenic activity, whereas urine from exposed nonsmokers did not. The mutagenicity of exposed smoker's urine was not significantly different from that of urine from nonexposed smokers. Mutagenicity of smokers' urine was only evident in the presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system. The addition of beta-glucuronidase did not enhance the mutagenic effect. The facts that coke plant workers are exposed to very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and that there is no observed enhanced mutagenicity of their urine indicate that the mutagenicity observed with urine from smokers is not due to conventional PAH.

  2. Oestrogen effects on urine concentrating response in young women

    PubMed Central

    Stachenfeld, Nina S; Taylor, Hugh S; Leone, Cheryl A; Keefe, David L

    2003-01-01

    Oestrogen lowers the plasma osmotic threshold for arginine vasopressin (AVP) release but without commensurate changes in renal concentrating response, suggesting oestrogen (OE2) may lower renal sensitivity to AVP. Ten women (23 ± 1 years) received a gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa), leuprolide acetate, to suppress OE2 for 35 days, and then added OE2 (two patches each delivering 0.1 mg day−1) on days 32–35. On days 28 and 35 we tested blood and renal water and sodium (Na+) regulation during stepwise 60 min AVP infusions (10, 35, 100, 150 and 200 μu (kg body weight)−1 Pitressin). Plasma OE2 concentration increased from 19 ± 4 to 152 ± 3 pg ml−1 and plasma progesterone concentration was unchanged (1.0 ± 0.4 and 0.7 ± 0.1 ng ml−1) for GnRHa and OE2 administration, respectively. Standard log plots of plasma AVP concentration ([AVP]P) vs. urine osmolality (OsmU) were fitted to a sigmoidal curve, and EC50 was determined by non-linear regression curve fitting of concentration-response data. OsmU rose exponentially during AVP infusions, but hormone treatments did not affect EC50 (3.3 ± 0.07 and 3.1 ± 0.6 pg ml−1, for GnRHa and OE2, respectively). However, the urine osmolality increase was greater within the physiological range (˜2.5−3.4 pg ml−1[AVP]P) during OE2 treatment. Throughout most of the AVP infusion, the rate of clearance of AVP from plasma (PCRAVP) was increased during OE2 (45.5 ml (kg body weight)−1 min−1) compared to GnRHa administration (33.1 ml (kg body weight)−1 min−1; mean for the 100–200 μu (kg body weight)−1 infusion rates). The rate of renal free water clearance (CH2O) was similar between hormone treatments. Sodium excretion fell during OE2 administration due to greater distal tubular sodium reabsorption. Despite more rapid PCRAVP, renal concentrating response to graded AVP infusions was unaffected by oestrogen treatment suggesting oestrogen does not affect overall renal sensitivity to AVP. However, OE2 may increase renal fluid retention within a physiological range of AVP. PMID:12923212

  3. Individual variability in human tibia lead concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, A C; Parsons, P J; Tang, S; Moshier, E L

    2001-01-01

    Our aims in this study were to determine proximal-distal variability in adult human tibia lead concentration via electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and to determine whether there were any differences between core and surface tibia lead concentrations. We analyzed duplicate core and surface tibia samples for lead at multiple proximal-distal sections on 10 adult human cadaver legs. Dried bone samples were digested in nitric acid using microwave-assisted heating, and lead content was determined by ETAAS with Zeeman background correction. Lead concentrations in nine tibiae (one tibia was excluded because some of the data were compromised) ranged from 3.1 to 27.9 microg lead/g of dry bone. Both core and surface tibia lead concentrations were lower at the proximal and distal ends of the tibia. Surface tibia lead was approximately 5 microg/g greater than core tibia lead in six tibiae with relatively low lead concentration, and 8 microg/g greater in three tibiae with relatively high lead concentration. The difference between core and surface tibia lead was independent of proximal-distal tibia location. We conclude that these nine human tibiae showed a greater surface tibia lead concentration than core tibia lead concentration. This observation has consequences for the noninvasive measurement of tibia lead via K-shell and L-shell X-ray fluorescence. PMID:11712999

  4. Measurement of the glucose concentration in human urine with optical refractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rui-Yang; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Meng, Ching-Tang; Cheng, Chih-Ching; Liao, Yu-Ching

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of human urine glucose measurement system is proposed. We measured the phase variation of human urine with/without glucose-urine mixture (to simulate diabetes mellitus). We were able to achieve high resolution with the proposed method. The relation curve between the phase difference and glucose concentration can be estimated, and the glucose concentration of a urine sample can be determined by using this relation curve. The proposed method showed that theoretical resolution is approximated of 1.47 mg/dl.

  5. [Effect of tobacco smoking on albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smelters].

    PubMed

    Bizonń, Anna; Witt, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Malgorzata; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to estimate the nephrotoxicity of occupational exposure to heavy metals on albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in the urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters. The study was performed in urine of 101 smoking and non-smoking smelters as well as 65 smoking and non-smoking male subjects unexposed to heavy metals. Section into smoking and non-smoking groups was made on basis on direct personal interview and by determination of serum cotinine concentration. The concentration of albumin in urine was measured with commercial test (Micro-Albumin ELISA Cat. No 5MA 74212, ORGENTEC Diagnostika Gmbh, Germany). The activity of β-glucuronidase in urine were determined in urine using 4-nitrophenyl β D-glucuronide (Cat. No 73677, Sigma Aldrich, Germany) as a substrate. We have observed higher albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters when compared to control groups. We have also found the influence of tobacco smoke as well as amount of cigarettes smoked on albumin concentration in urine of smoking smelters. A statistically significant difference was detected between activity of β-glucuronidase in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters, which suggest as additional negative factor of exposure to tobacco smoke. Analyzing the impact of smoking intensity we have found higher albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smelters smoking ≥20 cigarettes per day when compared to smelters smoking <20 cigarettes per day. The elevation of albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of workers occupational exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke indicated, that environmental exposure on these factors can disorders kidney functions. PMID:25799848

  6. The silicon concentration in cat urine and its relationship with other elements.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumihito; Mochizuki, Mariko; Yogo, Takuya; Ishioka, Katsumi; Yumoto, Norio; Sako, Toshinori; Ueda, Fukiko; Tagawa, Masahiro; Tazaki, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    To understand the effects of silicon (Si) in the urine with respect to the formation of urinary stones, the distribution of Si in urine was observed. Urine samples from cats with urolithiasis (n=10) and healthy cats (n=15) were used. The concentration of Si in the cats with urolithiasis was significantly higher (P<0.001). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between the concentration of Si and those of other elements, such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and iron, only in the urine of the healthy cats. The distribution of elements in the urine differed between the cats with urolithiasis and the healthy cats. The Si concentration and its relationship with other elements were suggested to be useful biomarkers for urolithiasis in cats. PMID:24334829

  7. PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population

    SciTech Connect

    Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-09-15

    As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk. - Highlights: • Interpretation of urine cadmium concentrations in France • PBPK and Bayesian population modelling of cadmium exposure • Assessment of the historic time-trend of the cadmium exposure in France • Risk assessment from current and future external and internal exposure.

  8. Urinary concentrations and urine ex-vivo effect of mecillinam and sulphamethizole.

    PubMed

    Kerrn, M B; Frimodt-Mller, N; Espersen, F

    2004-01-01

    Healthy adult volunteers received 1 g of sulphamethizole orally (n = 10) and later 400 mg of pivmecillinam (274 mg of mecillinam) (n = 9). All urine was collected in defined periods over 24 h, and the drug concentrations in urine were determined. For sulphamethizole, the maximum urine concentration for seven subjects was reached in 0-3 h, and for the remaining three in 3-6 h. For mecillinam, eight of the nine subjects attained a maximum urine concentration in 0-3 h, after which the concentration declined rapidly for six subjects in 3-6 h. Strains of Escherichia coli with different MICs for sulphamethizole and mecillinam were exposed to collected urine for 2.5 h and 5 h. The results indicated that a sensitive E. coli population should be suppressed by sulphamethizole in urine for two-thirds of the time (with 1 g twice-daily) and by mecillinam in urine throughout the 24-h period (with 400 mg three times a day). There was a slight but significant correlation between the ex-vivo effect (Delta log10 CFU/mL) and the log10 concentration/MIC ratio after exposure to sulphamethizole for 5 h (r2 = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and a significant correlation between the variables with mecillinam (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.0001). PMID:14706087

  9. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a sorbent material for the solid phase extraction of lead from urine and subsequent determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Crecente, Rosa M.; Lovera, Carlha Gutiérrez; García, Julia Barciela; Méndez, Jennifer Álvarez; Martín, Sagrario García; Latorre, Carlos Herrero

    2014-11-01

    The determination of lead in urine is a way of monitoring the chemical exposure to this metal. In the present paper, a new method for the Pb determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) in urine at low levels has been developed. Lead was separated from the undesirable urine matrix by means of a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been used as a sorbent material. Lead from urine was retained at pH 4.0 and was quantitatively eluted using a 0.7 M nitric acid solution and was subsequently measured by ETAAS. The effects of parameters that influence the adsorption-elution process (such as pH, eluent volume and concentration, sampling and elution flow rates) and the atomic spectrometry conditions have been studied by means of different factorial design strategies. Under the optimized conditions, the detection and quantification limits obtained were 0.08 and 0.26 μg Pb L- 1, respectively. The results demonstrate the absence of a urine matrix effect and this is the consequence of the SPE process carried out. Therefore, the developed method is useful for the analysis of Pb at low levels in real samples without the influence of other urine components. The proposed method was applied to the determination of lead in urine samples of unexposed healthy people and satisfactory results were obtained (in the range 3.64-22.9 μg Pb L- 1).

  10. [Environmental tobacco smoke--assessment of formaldehyde concentration in urine samples of exposed medicine students].

    PubMed

    Szumska, Magdalena; Damasiewicz-Bodzek, Aleksandra; Tyrpień-Golder, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is ranked as one of the factors of confirmed carcinogenicity to human. It consists of the mixture of smoke exhaled by the smoker as well as the sidestream smoke and contains many times higher concentrations of some toxic substances in comparison to the amount of toxic compounds inhaled by a smoker. From many years the issue of passive smoking has been the subject of many research and still not all of its aspects of affecting human health have been explored. Apart from the tobacco varieties, also diverse additives added during the process of tobacco manufacturing, including particularly carbohydrates, influence the composition of the environmental tobacco smoke. During smoking they can undergo many complex transformations, as a result of which toxic components of the environmental tobacco smoke are formed, carbonyl compounds in particular, like aldehydes. They are marked by a significant chemical reactivity which enables them to modify amino groups of proteins leading to the changes in their structure, biological functions and often antigenicity. Therefore their influence to the human body is the cause of numerous adverse health effects caused by the increase in free radical processes which can constitute to the source of these compounds. Well known representative of this group of xenobiotics is formaldehyde as a compound that reflects well the environmental exposure to carbonyl compounds. The considerable source of this compound is tobacco smoke. Therefore analysis of formaldehyde in body fluids is a valuable biomonitoring tool of exposure to it. The aim of this study was the evaluation of formaldehyde concentration in urine samples of medicine students exposed to ETS. The study material consisted of 149 urine samples of students from School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia. The concentration of formaldehyde in urine samples was determined by a spectrophotometric method using the Purpald reagent. To verify the collected questionnaire data regarding exposure to constituents of tobacco smoke, the immuno-enzymatic method was used to determine main nicotine metabolites in tested urine samples. This enabled dividing the investigated students' group into active smokers, passively exposed to tobacco smoke and not exposed. Analysis of obtained results showed that mean concentration of formaldehyde in urine of active smokers (68.45 ± 58.67 µmol/l) and passive smokers (79.23 ± 53.64 µmol/l) were significantly higher in comparison to not exposed students (42.99 ± 30.29 µmol/l). Mean concentrations of formaldehyde in urine samples of active and passive smokers are comparable. The results of our study allow to conclude that passive exposure to tobacco smoke is an equivalent source of exposure to active smoking regarding formaldehyde adverse influence to human. Applied method enables to quick evaluation of formaldehyde concentration in biological samples. PMID:26731871

  11. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral salbutamol, subjects performed submaximal exercise for 15 min followed by two, 2-min exercise bouts at an intensity corresponding to 110% of VO2max and a bout to exhaustion at same intensity. Urine samples were collected 4, 8, and 12 h following administration of salbutamol. Samples were analyzed by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P = 0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4 h after administration when samples were adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment (3089 ± 911 vs. 1918 ± 1081 ng/mL). With the current urine decision limit of 1200 ng/mL for salbutamol on WADA's 2013 list of prohibited substances, fewer false negative urine samples were observed when adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020 g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol in doping cases. PMID:24166762

  12. Silver nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of human urine-derived stem cells at noncytotoxic concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hui; Zhu, Chen; An, Zhiquan; Jiang, Yao; Zhao, Yaochao; Wang, Jiaxin; Liu, Xin; Hui, Bing; Zhang, Xianlong; Wang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In tissue engineering, urine-derived stem cells are ideal seed cells and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are perfect antimicrobial agents. Due to a distinct lack of information on the effects of AgNPs on urine-derived stem cells, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of silver ions and AgNPs upon the cytotoxicity and osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells. Initially, AgNPs or AgNO3 were exposed to urine-derived stem cells for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity was measured using the Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) test. The effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 at the maximum safety concentration determined by the CCK-8 test on osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells were assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin Red S staining, and the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Lastly, the effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 on “urine-derived stem cell actin cytoskeleton organization” and RhoA activity were assessed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining and Western blotting. Concentration-dependent toxicity was observed starting at an AgNO3 concentration of 2 μg/mL and at an AgNP concentration of 4 μg/mL. At these concentrations, AgNPs were observed to promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells, induce actin polymerization and increase cytoskeletal tension, and activate RhoA; AgNO3 had no such effects. In conclusion, AgNPs can promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells at a suitable concentration, independently of silver ions, and are suitable for incorporation into tissue-engineered scaffolds that utilize urine-derived stem cells as seed cells. PMID:24899804

  13. Evaluation of Postmortem Drug Concentrations in Bile Compared with Blood and Urine in Forensic Autopsy Cases.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Mariko; Michiue, Tomomi; Oritani, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    For drug screening and pharmaco-/toxicokinetic analysis, bile as a major drug excretion route in addition to urine may be used in forensic autopsy cases; however, there are limited published data on correlations between bile and blood or urine drug concentrations. The present study retrospectively investigated drug concentrations in bile, compared with blood and urine concentrations, reviewing forensic autopsy cases during 6 years (January 2009-December 2014). Drugs were analyzed using automated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following solid-liquid phase extraction. Compared with peripheral blood concentrations, bile concentrations were higher for most drugs; however, caffeine concentrations were similar. Bile concentrations were mostly lower than urine concentrations for amphetamines, caffeine and methylephedrine, but were usually similar to or higher for other drugs. Significant correlations were detected between bile and peripheral blood concentrations for amphetamines, several cold remedies, phenobarbital, phenothiazine derivatives and diazepam, as well as between bile and urine concentrations for amphetamines, caffeine, diphenhydramine, phenobarbital and promethazine derivatives. These findings suggest that bile can provide supplemental data useful in routine forensic toxicology, for the spectrum of drugs mentioned above, as well as for investigating pharmaco-/toxicokinetics and postmortem redistribution when analyzed in combination with drug concentrations at other sites. PMID:27185819

  14. Measurement of Sterigmatocystin Concentrations in Urine for Monitoring the Contamination of Cattle Feed

    PubMed Central

    Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15–0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01–0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

  15. Measurement of sterigmatocystin concentrations in urine for monitoring the contamination of cattle feed.

    PubMed

    Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15-0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01-0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

  16. Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood

    DOEpatents

    Nogar, Nicholas S.

    2001-01-01

    Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood. The present invention includes the use of resonant laser ablation to analyze .ltoreq.1 .mu.L (or equivalent mass) samples of blood for lead content. A typical finger prick, for example, yields about 10 .mu.L. Solid samples may also readily be analyzed by resonant laser ablation. The sample is placed on a lead-free, electrically conducting substrate and irradiated with a single, focused laser beam which simultaneously vaporizes, atomizes, and resonantly ionizes an analyte of interest in a sample. The ions are then sorted, collected and detected using a mass spectrometer.

  17. Determination of lead concentrations in waters

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, F.J.; Joudah, L.; Vinson, J.

    1995-07-01

    Lead concentrations in the environment are of critical concern due to potential health risks. The maximum acceptable level of lead in water, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, is 15 ppb. Analysis of household waters supplied by submersible pumps and municipalities have been performed, and lead levels of 1-20 ppb were detected. Analyses were performed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Preconcentration of the aqueous samples using the ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate chelation/methyl isobutyl ketone extraction method was necessary to analyze using flame AA analysis.

  18. Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites in Milk, Urine, Saliva, and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Erin P.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Silva, Manori J.; Mendola, Pauline; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment, but concentrations in multiple media from breast-feeding U.S. women have not been evaluated. Objectives The objective of this study was to accurately measure and compare the concentrations of oxidative monoester phthalate metabolites in milk and surrogate fluids (serum, saliva, and urine) of 33 lactating North Carolina women. Methods We analyzed serum, saliva, urine, and milk for the oxidative phthalate metabolites mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. Because only urine lacks esterases, we analyzed it for the hydrolytic phthalate monoesters. Results We detected phthalate metabolites in few milk (< 10%) and saliva samples. MECPP was detected in > 80% of serum samples, but other metabolites were less common (3–22%). Seven of the 10 urinary metabolites were detectable in ≥ 85% of samples. Monoethyl phthalate had the highest mean concentration in urine. Metabolite concentrations differed by body fluid (urine > serum > milk and saliva). Questionnaire data suggest that frequent nail polish use, immunoglobulin A, and fasting serum glucose and triglyceride levels were increased among women with higher concentrations of urinary and/or serum phthalate metabolites; motor vehicle age was inversely correlated with certain urinary phthalate concentrations. Conclusions Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites are most frequently detected in urine of lactating women and are less often detected in serum, milk, or saliva. Urinary phthalate concentrations reflect maternal exposure and do not represent the concentrations of oxidative metabolites in other body fluids, especially milk. PMID:19165392

  19. Effect of water source on intake and urine concentration in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Grant, David C

    2010-06-01

    Increasing water intake and decreasing urine concentration are recommended for cats with urolithiasis and with idiopathic cystitis. Fountains are advocated to encourage drinking; however, effects on drinking of fountains have not been reported in cats living in pet owners homes. Thirteen healthy cats were assigned to have 24-h water intake and urine osmolality and specific gravity measured when water was offered from a bowl or fountain. One cat developed excessive barbering, vomiting, and refusal to drink water offered from the fountain. For the remaining 12 cats, intake was slightly greater from the fountain. However, urine osmolality was not significantly different. In this study, a fountain failed to substantially increase water intake and dilute urine in cats. A similar study including a greater period of time and additional cats may clarify the results of this study. PMID:20005758

  20. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  1. The Role of Nitric Oxide in the Dysregulation of the Urine Concentration Mechanism in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Penelope; Kim, Sunhye L.; Klein, Janet D.; Sim, Jae H.; von Bergen, Tobias N.; Blount, Mitsi A.

    2012-01-01

    Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus results in osmotic diuresis. Diabetic patients have lowered nitric oxide (NO) which may exacerbate polyuria. We examined how lack of NO affects the transporters involved in urine concentration in diabetic animals. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin. Control and diabetic rats were given L-NAME for 3 weeks. Urine osmolality, urine output, and expression of urea and water transporters and the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter were examined. Predictably, diabetic rats presented with polyuria (increased urine volume and decreased urine osmolality). Although metabolic parameters of control rats were unaffected by L-NAME, treated diabetic rats produced 30% less urine and osmolality was restored. UT-A1 and UT-A3 were significantly increased in diabetic rat inner medulla. While L-NAME treatment alone did not alter UT-A1 or UT-A3 abundance, absence of NO prevented the upregulation of both transporters in diabetic rats. Similarly, AQP2 and NKCC2 abundance was increased in diabetic animals however, expression of these transporters were unchanged by L-NAME treatment of diabetes. Increased expression of the concentrating transporters observed in diabetic rats provides a compensatory mechanism to decrease solute loss despite persistent glycosuria. Our studies found that although diabetic-induced glycosylation remained increased, total protein expression was decreased to control levels in diabetic rats treated with L-NAME. While the role of NO in urine concentration remains unclear, lowered NO associated with diabetes may be deleterious to the transporters’ response to the subsequent osmotic diuresis. PMID:22685437

  2. Short term effects of increasing dietary salt concentrations on urine composition in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, N; Burmeier, H; Brenten, T; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2014-09-01

    High dietary salt (NaCl) concentrations are assumed to be beneficial in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats, since increased water intake and urine volume have been observed subsequent to intake. In human beings, dietary NaCl restriction is recommended for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation, since high NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary Ca excretion. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of dietary NaCl in the formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight cats received four diets that differed in Na and Cl concentrations (0.38-1.43% Na and 0.56-2.52% Cl dry matter, DM). Each feeding period consisted of a 21 day adaptation period, followed by a 7 day sampling period for urine collection. Higher dietary NaCl concentrations were associated with increased urine volume and renal Na excretion. Urinary Ca concentration was constant, but renal Ca excretion increased from 0.62 to 1.05 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/day with higher dietary NaCl concentrations (P ≤ 0.05). Urinary oxalate (Ox), citrate, P and K concentrations decreased when NaCl intake was high (P ≤ 0.05), and urinary pH was low in all groups (6.33-6.45; P > 0.05). Relative supersaturation of CaOx in the urine was unaffected by dietary NaCl concentrations. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated several beneficial effects of high dietary NaCl intake over a relatively short time period. In particular, urinary Ca concentration remained unchanged because of increased urine volume. Decreased urinary Ox concentrations might help to prevent the formation of CaOx uroliths, but this should be verified in future studies in diseased or predisposed cats. PMID:24881513

  3. Caffeine renal clearance and urine caffeine concentrations during steady state dosing. Implications for monitoring caffeine intake during sports events.

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, D J; Miners, J O

    1991-01-01

    1. Relationships between the plasma and urine concentrations and clearances of caffeine over successive dosage intervals at steady-state were investigated in six healthy volunteers administered caffeine, 150 mg 8 hourly for 6 days. 2. There was marked inter-individual variability in the urine (15.9-fold range) and steady-state plasma (8.1-fold range) concentrations of caffeine. 3. Urine caffeine concentrations were similar to those in plasma, with mean ratios (plasma:urine) ranging from 1.10 to 1.74. There was a good correlation (r = 0.93, P less than 0.01) between caffeine urine and plasma concentrations. 4. There was a good correlation between caffeine renal clearance and urine flow rate (r = 0.89, P less than 0.01). Caffeine renal clearance was not significantly different from the product of fu and urine flow rate, where fu is the fraction of caffeine unbound in plasma. Urine caffeine concentration and urine flow rate were not correlated (r = 0.14, P greater than 0.05). 5. The results indicate that caffeine is reabsorbed from the renal tubule to equilibrium with unbound caffeine in plasma. 6. A regulatory urine caffeine concentration limit of 12 mg 1(-1) may be exceeded by some individuals with coffee intake in the range 3 to 6 cups per day. PMID:2049248

  4. Glycogen synthase kinase 3α regulates urine concentrating mechanism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nørregaard, Rikke; Tao, Shixin; Nilsson, Line; Woodgett, James R.; Kakade, Vijayakumar; Yu, Alan S. L.; Howard, Christiana

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 comprises GSK3α and GSK3β isoforms. GSK3β has been shown to play a role in the ability of kidneys to concentrate urine by regulating vasopressin-mediated water permeability of collecting ducts, whereas the role of GSK3α has yet to be discerned. To investigate the role of GSK3α in urine concentration, we compared GSK3α knockout (GSK3αKO) mice with wild-type (WT) littermates. Under normal conditions, GSK3αKO mice had higher water intake and urine output. GSK3αKO mice also showed reduced urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 levels but higher urinary vasopressin. When water deprived, they failed to concentrate their urine to the same level as WT littermates. The addition of 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin to isolated inner medullary collecting ducts increased the cAMP response in WT mice, but this response was reduced in GSK3αKO mice, suggesting reduced responsiveness to vasopressin. Gene silencing of GSK3α in mpkCCD cells also reduced forskolin-induced aquaporin-2 expression. When treated with LiCl, an isoform nonselective inhibitor of GSK3 and known inducer of polyuria, WT mice developed significant polyuria within 6 days. However, in GSK3αKO mice, the polyuric response was markedly reduced. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that GSK3α could play a crucial role in renal urine concentration and suggest that GSK3α might be one of the initial targets of Li+ in LiCl-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. PMID:25608967

  5. Impedimetric method for measuring ultra-low E. coli concentrations in human urine.

    PubMed

    Settu, Kalpana; Chen, Ching-Jung; Liu, Jen-Tsai; Chen, Chien-Lung; Tsai, Jang-Zern

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we developed an interdigitated gold microelectrode-based impedance sensor to detect Escherichia coli (E. coli) in human urine samples for urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis. E. coli growth in human urine samples was successfully monitored during a 12-h culture, and the results showed that the maximum relative changes could be measured at 10Hz. An equivalent electrical circuit model was used for evaluating the variations in impedance characteristics of bacterial growth. The equivalent circuit analysis indicated that the change in impedance values at low frequencies was caused by double layer capacitance due to bacterial attachment and formation of biofilm on electrode surface in urine. A linear relationship between the impedance change and initial E. coli concentration was obtained with the coefficient of determination R(2)>0.90 at various growth times of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12h in urine. Thus our sensor is capable of detecting a wide range of E. coli concentration, 7×10(0) to 7×10(8) cells/ml, in urine samples with high sensitivity. PMID:25437359

  6. Correlations between cadmium concentration in urine and exposure variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Elmar; Chutsch, Martina; Krause, Christian M.; Schulz, Christine; Thefeld, Wolfgang

    1993-03-01

    As part of the study 'UMWELT und GESUNDHEIT 1985/86', a representative samples of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany was examined for urinary Cd. A log-linear prediction model based on 2109 cases led to an explained variance portion of R2 equals .32. Strong associations were revealed between urinary cadmium and the smoking history and age of the subjects. This is evidence of the function urinary cadmium has as an indicator of the Cd body burden. However, there are also clear connections with physiological parameters (urinary creatinine and serum urea), which are taken to be a modification of Cd excretion by renal function. The association between urinary Cd and serum urea can also be interpreted as a cadmium-induced renal dysfunction. Urinary Cd concentrations tend to be lower in regions with low industrial nitrogen oxide emissions and high economic dynamics, as well as in non- urban residential structures.

  7. Plasma prolactin concentrations in lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Govoni, S; Battaini, F; Fernicola, C; Castelletti, L; Trabucchi, M

    1987-01-01

    Plasma Prolactin (Prl) Zinc protoporphyrin (Zpp) and blood lead concentrations (PbB) were measured in 76 exposed male workers. All of them were employed in small (not more than 30 persons) pewter factories and were randomly selected from those regularly controlled by the National Health Service, Occupational Health Unit of Brescia (USSL 41). Although all plasma Prl values were within the normal range, the mean value of the subgroup having Zpp and PbB higher than 40 micrograms/dl was significantly higher (+47%) than that observed in the group of workers having Zpp and PbB less than 40 micrograms/dl. The data indicate the possibility of a lead-induced Prl secretion dysfunction, probably mediated by a decrease in dopaminergic inhibitory control. PMID:3598878

  8. Concentrations and chemical species of arsenic in human urine and hair

    SciTech Connect

    Yamato, Naohisa )

    1988-05-01

    Because marine products are rich in arsenic, the concentration of arsenic in the human urine varies greatly with the state of ingestion of marine products. It has been revealed that inorganic arsenic is methylated in the human body to form MAA (methylarsonic acid) and DMAA (dimethylarsinic acid). It appears therefore that the arsenic present in the human urine is a mixture of the arsenic originating from marine products and the arsenic metabolized in vivo. Recent studies have shown that inorganic arsenic and methylarsenic compounds are quite different in toxicity and effect on the living body due to their difference in chemical species. Finding the chemical species of arsenic in the urine and hair of normal subjects will therefore provide valuable basal data for the biological monitoring of arsenic exposure and for toxicological studies of arsenic.

  9. Mercury concentrations in urine, scalp hair, and saliva in children from Germany.

    PubMed

    Pesch, A; Wilhelm, M; Rostek, U; Schmitz, N; Weishoff-Houben, M; Ranft, U; Idel, H

    2002-07-01

    Mercury levels measured in urine, hair, and saliva of 245 German children (8-10 years old) are reported. Mercury concentrations in urine ranged between <0.1 and 5.3 microg/l [geometric mean (GM) 0.26 microg/l or 0.25 microg/g creatinine; median for both, 0.22 in microg/l and microg/g, respectively]. Using multiple linear regression analysis, two predictors have been found accounting for 25.3% of the variance of mercury levels in urine: the number of teeth with amalgam fillings (23.2%) and the number of defective amalgam fillings (2.1%). The mercury content in hair ranged from <0.06 to 1.7 microg/g (GM 0.18 microg/g; median 0.18 microg/g). The frequency of fish consumption, the smoking habits of the parents, and the age of the children accounted for 20.4% of the variance of mercury levels in hair. The correlation between the hair mercury content and urine mercury concentration was low (r=0.297). Mercury levels in saliva ranged between <0.32 and 4.5 microg/l (median 0.16 microg/l). The mercury concentration in saliva was below the limit of quantification of 0.32 microg/l in more than 70% of the samples. Mercury analysis in urine is suitable to estimate mercury exposure due to amalgam fillings, whereas hair mercury better reflects mercury intake by fish consumption. Up to now, saliva does not seem to be a suitable tool to monitor the mercury burden, at least not at low exposure levels. PMID:12087431

  10. Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-08-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 μg/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 μg/L with a median peak concentration of 5239 μg/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000 μg/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6 h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18 h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 μg/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 μg/L, with peak concentrations of 658 μg/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

  11. Morphine and Codeine Concentrations in Human Urine following Controlled Poppy Seeds Administration of Known Opiate Content

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Nichols, Daniel C.; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A.; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A.; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45g oral poppy seed doses 8h apart, each containing 15.7mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2,000 and 300μg/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA® Heroin Metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6AM) and Lin-Zhi 6AM immunoassays with 10μg/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2,000 and 300μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7,522μg/L with a median peak concentration of 5,239μg/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2,000μg/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2,000μg/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300μg/L, with peak concentrations of 658 μg/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300μg/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

  12. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur

    2010-12-23

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

  13. Mercury, lead and cadmium levels in the urine of 170 Spanish adults: a pilot human biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Castao, Argelia; Snchez-Rodrguez, Jinny E; Caas, Ana; Esteban, Marta; Navarro, Carmen; Rodrguez-Garca, Ana C; Arribas, Misericordia; Daz, Gema; Jimnez-Guerrero, Jos A

    2012-02-01

    Human biomonitoring is a well-recognized tool for estimating the exposure of human populations to environmental pollutants. However, information regarding biomarker concentrations of many environmental chemicals in the general population is limited for many countries. The Spanish Environment Ministry has recently funded a human biomonitoring study on the Spanish general population. This study aims to determine reference levels for several biomarkers, especially heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and cotinine, in urine, whole blood, serum and hair, and will involve 2000 volunteers throughout Spain. Samples were taken during 2009-2010 and analyses are currently underway. The results presented herein were obtained in a pilot study carried out in the Madrid region. The study group comprised 170 volunteers, of which 79% were female and 21% male (age: 23-66 years). All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding diet and living habits and provides a morning urine sample. The geometric means for total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were 1.23, 1.11 and 0.25 ?g/g creatinine, respectively. Levels of Pb and Hg were higher than those reported for the general population in the USA and Germany, whereas Cd was in the same range (CDC, 2009; Becker et al., 2003). The values reported here are similar to those reported in other Spanish studies. PMID:21968334

  14. Methamphetamine and amphetamine isomer concentrations in human urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-10-01

    Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2. Every urine specimen was collected as an individual void for 32 h after the first dose and assayed for d- and l-amphetamines specific isomers with a GC-MS method with >99% purity of R-(-)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl derivatives and 10 µg/L lower limits of quantification. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any urine specimen by GC-MS. The median l-methamphetamine maximum concentration was 62.8 µg/L (range: 11.0-1,440). Only two subjects had detectable l-amphetamine, with maximum concentrations coinciding with l-methamphetamine peak levels, and always ≤ 4% of the parent's maximum. Three commercial immunoassays for amphetamines EMIT(®) II Plus, KIMS(®) II and DRI(®) had sensitivities, specificities and efficiencies of 100, 97.8, 97.8; 100, 99.6, 99.6 and 100, 100, 100%, respectively. The immunoassays had high efficiencies, but our first hypothesis was not affirmed. The EMIT(®) II Plus assay produced 2.2% false-positive results, requiring an enantiomer-specific confirmation. PMID:25217541

  15. Methamphetamine and Amphetamine Isomer Concentrations in Human Urine Following Controlled Vicks VapoInhaler Administration

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Nichols, Daniel C.; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A.; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A.; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2. Every urine specimen was collected as an individual void for 32 h after the first dose and assayed for d- and l-amphetamines specific isomers with a GC–MS method with >99% purity of R-(−)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl derivatives and 10 µg/L lower limits of quantification. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any urine specimen by GC–MS. The median l-methamphetamine maximum concentration was 62.8 µg/L (range: 11.0–1,440). Only two subjects had detectable l-amphetamine, with maximum concentrations coinciding with l-methamphetamine peak levels, and always ≤4% of the parent's maximum. Three commercial immunoassays for amphetamines EMIT® II Plus, KIMS® II and DRI® had sensitivities, specificities and efficiencies of 100, 97.8, 97.8; 100, 99.6, 99.6 and 100, 100, 100%, respectively. The immunoassays had high efficiencies, but our first hypothesis was not affirmed. The EMIT® II Plus assay produced 2.2% false-positive results, requiring an enantiomer-specific confirmation. PMID:25217541

  16. Fluoride in workplace air and in urine of workers concentrating fluorspar

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, D.; Rama, D.B.; Yousefi, V. )

    1990-01-01

    The urinary fluoride concentrations of workers exposed to calcium fluoride (CaF2) during fluorspar processing were measured. Personal dust measurement showed that the mean occupational exposure to fluoride for 12 workers in the most dusty environment was 24.3 mg/m3, which is 9.7 times the threshold limit value (TLV) of 2.5 mg/m3. Exposure was below the TLV for the remaining 23 workers. Urinary fluoride concentrations were measured pre- and postshift. The heavily exposed workers had a mean preshift concentration of 3.3 mg/liter (range 1.4-8.5 mg/liter), only slightly higher than the mean of 2.8 mg/liter (range 1.3-4.2 mg/liter) in the workers with fluoride exposure below the TLV. Four of the preshift concentrations exceeded the recommended upper limit of 4 mg/liter. The mean postshift concentration for workers exposed above the TLV was 4.4 mg/liter (range 2.4-7.1 mg/liter) and the difference between pre- and postshift concentrations was significant (p less than 0.05). Only one urinary concentration exceeded the recommended upper limit of 7 mg/liter. There was poor correlation between intensity of environmental exposure to fluorspar and postshift fluoride concentration in the urine. Eighteen workers provided a urine sample 7-14 hr after the end of a shift. The mean fluoride concentration was 4.7 mg/liter (range 2.4-11.7 mg/liter), which exceeded their postshift concentration by 0.2 mg/liter. These results indicate that the low aqueous solubility of fluorspar reduced the biologic availability of the fluoride ion but that this did not prevent excessive fluoride absorption in some workers.

  17. Urine Concentrating Ability in Infants with Sickle Cell Disease: Baseline Data from the Phase III Trial of Hydroxyurea (BABY HUG)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Scott T.; Wang, Winfred C.; Iyer, Rathi; Rana, Sohail; Lane, Peter; Ware, Russell E.; Li, Daner; Rees, Renée C.

    2009-01-01

    Background A urine concentrating defect is quite common in sickle cell anemia, has its onset in early childhood, and may be reversible with transfusion. The Pediatric Hydroxyurea Phase III Clinical Trial (BABY HUG) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess efficacy of hydroxyurea in preventing organ damage in young children with sickle cell anemia. Procedures Enrolled infants were subjected to parent-supervised fluid deprivation and urine and serum osmolality were determined. Results Of 185 infants age 7.5 – 17.9 months (mean 13.0+/-2.7) and fluid-deprived 7.4+/-2.4 hours (range 4-13), 178 had concurrent determinations of urine and serum osmolality. Mean serum osmolality was 286+/-6 mOsm/kg H2O (range 275-312) and independent of age, height, weight, or duration of fluid deprivation. Urine osmolality (mean 407+/-151, range 58-794 mOsm/ kg H2O) was greater than serum (p<0.0001) and correlated with duration of fluid deprivation (p=0.001). Of 142 (77.2%) who concentrated urine, 54 (29.4%) had urine osmolality > 500 mOsm/kg H2O. Urine osmolality correlated with 99mTc-DTPA clearance (p=0.02) and serum urea nitrogen (p<0.0001), but not with serum osmolality, gender, age, height, weight or serum creatinine. Infants able to produce urine with osmolality > 500 mOsm/kg H2O had higher mean fetal hemoglobin concentrations than did those who could not (p=0.014). Conclusions Even with often limited fluid deprivation, 77.2 percent of young infants with sickle cell anemia were able to concentrate urine. Preservation of concentrating ability was associated with higher fetal hemoglobin concentration. Assessment will be repeated after two years of hydroxyurea or placebo treatment. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00006400.) PMID:19621454

  18. Regression models to estimate the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic and as such their exposure is of serious concern. Regression models to estimate the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites (?PAH) in urine were developed. Using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2003-2008 and 2011-2012, regression models were developed to estimate ?PAH in urine. The performance of the fitted models were computed by comparing percent predicted values located between 0 and 5%, 5-10%, 15-20% and >20% of the observed values. While data for 2003-2008 were used to fit the regression models, the data for 2011-2012 were solely used to evaluate the performance of the fitted models. R(2) of the fitted model was 94.7%. About 46% of the predicted values for the 2003-2008 data and over 48% of the predicted values for the 2011-2012 data were found to be between 0 and 10% of the observed values. In order to use these models, in addition to age, gender, and smoking status, and optionally race/ethnicity, the knowledge of the levels of only 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, and 9-hydroxyfluorene is necessary. Models that optionally require the knowledge of the levels of urine creatinine were also developed. PMID:26735733

  19. Paired Serum and Urine Concentrations of Biomarkers of Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Paraben, and Triclosan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Li, Qian; Lambertini, Luca; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservisi, Fabiana; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental chemicals, including phthalates and phenols such as parabens and triclosan, is ubiquitous within the U.S. general population. Objective This proof-of-concept rodent study examined the relationship between oral doses of three widely used personal care product ingredients [diethyl phthalate (DEP), methyl paraben (MPB), and triclosan] and urine and serum concentrations of their respective biomarkers. Methods Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we carried out two rounds of experiments with oral gavage doses selected in accordance with no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) derived from previous studies: 1,735 (DEP), 1,050 (MPB), 50 (triclosan) mg/kg/day. Administered doses ranged from 0.005 to 173 mg/kg/day, 10–100,000 times below the NOAEL for each chemical. Controls for the MPB and triclosan experiments were animals treated with olive oil (vehicle) only; controls for the DEP serum experiments were animals treated with the lowest doses of MPB and triclosan. Doses were administered for 5 days with five rats in each treatment group. Urine and blood serum, collected on the last day of exposure, were analyzed for biomarkers. Relationships between oral dose and biomarker concentrations were assessed using linear regression. Results Biomarkers were detected in all control urine samples at parts-per-billion levels, suggesting a low endemic environmental exposure to the three chemicals that could not be controlled even with all of the precautionary measures undertaken. Among the exposed animals, urinary concentrations of all three biomarkers were orders of magnitude higher than those in serum. A consistently positive linear relationship between oral dose and urinary concentration was observed (R2 > 0.80); this relationship was inconsistent in serum. Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of carefully considering the oral dose used in animal experiments and provides useful information in selecting doses for future studies. Citation Teitelbaum SL, Li Q, Lambertini L, Belpoggi F, Manservisi F, Falcioni L, Bua L, Silva MJ, Ye X, Calafat AM, Chen J. 2016. Paired serum and urine concentrations of biomarkers of diethyl phthalate, methyl paraben, and triclosan in rats. Environ Health Perspect 124:39–45; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409586 PMID:26047088

  20. Lead Concentrations in Inner-City Soils as a Factor in the Child Lead Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Howard W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Excess lead concentration (resulting primarily from vehicular emissions) in Baltimore's inner city soils probably has a bearing on that city's child lead poisoning problem. Soil lead concentrations were lower outside the inner city. (GC)

  1. Electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of lead in urine: results of an interlaboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Patrick J.; Slavin, Walter

    1999-05-01

    Results of an interlaboratory study are reported for the determination of lead in urine. Two levels of a lyophilized material containing biologically-bound lead were prepared using pooled urine obtained from lead-poisoned children undergoing the CaNa 2EDTA mobilization test. The materials were circulated to a group of reference laboratories that participate in the `New York State Proficiency Testing Program for Blood Lead'. Results of the initial round-robin gave all-method consensus target values of 145±22 μg/l (S.D.) for lot 17 and 449±43 μg/l (S.D.) for lot 20. The interlaboratory exercise was repeated some 5 years later and consensus target values were re-calculated using the grand mean (excluding outliers) of results reported by laboratories using electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The re-calculated target values were 139±10 μg/l (S.D.) and 433±12 μg/l (S.D.). The urine reference materials were also analyzed for lead by several laboratories using other instrumental techniques including isotope dilution (ID), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS), flame atomic absorption with extraction, ICP-atomic emission spectrometry, ID-gas chromatography MS and flow injection-hydride generation AAS, thus providing a rich source of analytical data with which to characterize them. The materials were also used in a long-term validation study of an ETAAS method developed originally for blood lead determinations that has since been used unmodified for the determination of lead in urine also. Recently, urine lead method performance has been tracked in a proficiency testing program specifically for this analysis. In addition, a number of commercial control materials have been analyzed and evaluated.

  2. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine

    PubMed Central

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H. C.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex—a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units β-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x2 weighting with linear ranges (r2>0.990) of 2.5–100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5–500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7–105.3 %, imprecision 1.4–6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5–92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3–47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  3. Effects of tap water lead, water hardness, alcohol, and cigarettes on blood lead concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pocock, S J; Shaper, A G; Walker, M; Wale, C J; Clayton, B; Delves, T; Lacey, R F; Packham, R F; Powell, P

    1983-03-01

    A survey of middle-aged men in 24 British towns has found pronounced geographical variation in blood lead concentrations. Towns with the highest mean blood lead concentrations have soft water supplies and have the highest water lead concentrations. Individual blood lead can be considerably increased by raised household tap water lead concentrations. Mean blood lead is estimated to be 43% higher for men when the concentration of lead in first-draw domestic tap water is 100 micrograms/l compared with a zero concentration. Individual blood lead is also affected by alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, such that on average these two life-style habits together contribute an estimated 17% to the blood concentration of lead in middle-aged men. Lead in water should be given greater priority in any national campaign to reduce lead exposure. PMID:6875437

  4. Benzonphenone-type UV filters in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, source and exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-08-01

    Benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters are commonly used in our daily life. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-3), 4-hydroxy benzophenone (4-HBP), 2,4-dihydroxy benzophenone (BP-1), 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxy benzophenone (BP-2) and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-8) were measured in urine samples from Chinese young adults. The results indicated that Chinese young adults were widely exposed to BP-3, BP-1, and 4-HBP, with the median concentrations of 0.55, 0.21, and 0.08 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was found between males and females, between urban and rural population. The correlations between urinary concentrations provided important indications for sources and metabolic pathways of target compounds. The estimated daily excretion doses of BP-3, 4-HBP, BP-1, BP-2 and BP-8 were 27.2, 2.24, 5.86, 0.76 and 0.30 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. The ratio of exposure to excretion must be considered for the exposure assessment with chemicals based on urine measurement. This is the first nationwide study on BP-derivatives with young adults in China. PMID:25841211

  5. Osmolality urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and urine concentration. Osmolality is a more exact measurement of urine concentration than the urine specific gravity ... slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  6. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.

    PubMed

    Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. PMID:23867847

  7. Plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin following single subcutaneous administration to cats.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Manfred; Niedorf, Frank; Kramer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Marina; Schneider, Marc; Vallé, Marc; Pankow, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofoxacin, a third generation fluoroquinolone, were investigated in 12 healthy adult cats after single subcutaneous (SC) administration of 2 mg/kg BW (Part I, n=8 cats) and 4 mg/kg BW (Part II, n=4 cats). In each part of the study blood and urine samples were collected before treatment and thereafter for 5 days. The plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin were determined by HPLC with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed for each treated animal using an open one-compartment-model with first-order elimination after SC dosing. Marbofloxacin in plasma (means): Maximum concentrations (Cmax) of about 1.2 and 3.0 microg/ml were measured 2.3 and 4 hours (tmax) after dosing of 2 and 4 mg/kg BW, respectively. Elimination from the body was low with a total clearance (Cl/F) of approximately 0.1 l/h/kg for both dosages. The half-life (t 1/2) for this process was calculated with 8-10 hours. AUC increased almost proportional when doubling the dose, i.e., 19.77 +/- 6.25 microg * h/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 51.26 +/- 11.83 microg * h/ml (4 mg/kg BW). Plasma kinetics measured were in accordance with data from literature. Marbofloxacin in urine (means): Maximum drug concentrations were detected 4 and 8 hours after dosing with 70 microg/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 160 microg/ml (4 mg/kg BW), respectively. Inhibitory effects of the urinary matrix on the antimicrobial activity of the drug were taken into account when performing PK/PD calculations. However, a concentration-dependent bactericidal activity (Cmax/MIC > 8-10) which is claimed for fluoroquinolones was sufficiently met with focus on Escherichia (E.) coli (MIC90 0.5 microg/ml). In the same matrix a threshold value of 1.0 microg/ml was undercut 82 and 116 hours after SC dosing, respectively. Hence, a time-dependent bacteria killing kinetic (T > MIC) which may be of relevance for some Gram-positive germs like Staphylococcus spp. (MIC90 1.0 microg/ml) should be covered, too. PMID:21306059

  8. Acute changes in arginine vasopressin, sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations in exercising humans: does a coordinated homeostatic relationship exist?

    PubMed Central

    Hew-Butler, T; Noakes, T D; Soldin, S J; Verbalis, J G

    2013-01-01

    The parallel response of sweat rate and urine production to changes in plasma osmolality and volume support a role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) as the main endocrine regulator of both excretions. A maximal test to exhaustion and a steady-state run on a motorised treadmill were both completed by 10 moderately trained runners, 1 week apart. Sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations ([Na+]) were evaluated in association with the plasma concentrations of cytokines, neurohypophyseal and natriuretic peptides, and adrenal steroid hormones. When data from both the high-intensity and steady-state runs were combined, significant linear correlations were noted between: sweat [Na+] versus postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.80; p<0.001), postexercise serum [Na+] versus both postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.56; p<0.05) and sweat [Na+] (r = 0.64; p<0.01) and postexercise urine [Na+] versus postexercise plasma arginine vasopressin concentration ([AVP]P) (r = 0.48; p<0.05). A significant positive correlation was noted between postexercise [AVP]P and sweat [Na+] during the steady-state condition only (r = 0.66; p<0.05). These correlations suggest that changes in serum [Na+] during exercise may evoke corresponding changes in sweat and urine [Na+], which are likely regulated coordinately by changes in [AVP]P to preserve body fluid homeostasis. PMID:18801773

  9. An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.

    PubMed

    Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead concentrations in hot sauces. PMID:23581685

  10. Relationship Not Found Between Blood and Urine Concentrations and Body Mass Index in Humans With Apparently Adequate Boron Status.

    PubMed

    Koc, Fulya; Aysan, Erhan; Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Arpaci, Beyza; Gecer, Salih; Demirci, Selami; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2016-06-01

    The impact of boron on the development of obesity remains controversial in the analysis of experimental and clinical data. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between blood and urine boron concentrations and obesity in normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects in different age groups. A total of 105 subjects were categorized into 12 groups based on body mass index and three different age levels: as young adult (18 to 34 years old), adult (35 to 54 years old), and older adult (greater than 55 years old). Age, gender, body mass index, and blood and urine boron concentrations were recorded for each subject. There were 50 women and 55 men, with a mean age of 44.63 ± 17.9 years. Blood and urine boron concentrations were similar among the groups (p = 0.510 and p = 0.228, respectively). However, a positive correlation between age and blood boron concentration (p = 0.001) was detected in contrast to the presence of a negative correlation between age and urine boron concentration (p = 0.027). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between gender, age, and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject, and blood and urine boron concentrations. Although the relationship between boron and obesity has not been confirmed, changes of blood and urine boron concentrations with age may have some physiologic sequences to cause obesity. PMID:26458903

  11. Urine protein-to-creatinine concentration ratio in samples collected by means of cystocentesis versus manual compression in cats.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Hugo C R; Santos, Raquel R; Sargo, Teresa J; Lima, Tatiana B; Dias, Sofia S; Pastorinho, M Ramiro; Queiroga, Felisbina L; Silvestre-Ferreira, Ana C

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To compare urine protein-to-creatinine concentration (UPC) ratios in samples collected by means of cystocentesis versus manual compression in cats. Design-Evaluation study. Animals-43 client-owned cats requiring urinalysis. Procedures-In all cats, 5 mL of urine from the midstream phase of micturition was collected by means of manual compression and, subsequently, an additional 5 mL of urine was obtained by means of ultrasound-guided cystocentesis. A complete urinalysis was performed on all samples, and UPC ratios were determined. Results-Cats were classified on the basis of the International Renal Interest Society substaging system as being free from proteinuria (UPC ratio, < 0.2; n = 19) or as having borderline proteinuria (UPC ratio, 0.2 to 0.4; 7) or proteinuria (UPC ratio, > 0.4; 17). None of the cats had postrenal proteinuria. A significant linear correlation was identified between UPC ratios in urine samples obtained by means of manual compression and ratios in samples obtained by means of cystocentesis. For all cats, UPC ratios for samples obtained by the 2 collection methods resulted in classification in the same IRIS substage. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that collection of a urine sample from the midstream phase of micturition by manual compression would be a reliable alternative to cystocentesis for the determination of UPC ratio in cats, provided that postrenal proteinuria was excluded by means of urine sediment analysis. Once postrenal proteinuria was ruled out, the method used to collect urine samples did not appear to influence the quantification of urine protein concentration. PMID:25835170

  12. Concentrations of nandrolone metabolites in urine after the therapeutic administration of an ophthalmic solution.

    PubMed

    Avois, Lidia; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2007-05-01

    Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, is used for the treatment of several diseases and is available in various pharmaceutical formulations. The most widely used pharmaceutical formulation is Deca-Durabolin, but other products, such as Keratyl eye drops solution, are also currently administered. Nandrolone is one of the most abused anabolic steroid in sports. Analyses for this anabolic steroid according to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) protocol are based on the identification of the nandrolone two main urinary metabolites which, in humans, are glucuronides of 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone. A positive cut off limit of 2 ng/mL has been set by the anti-doping code for the first metabolite, 19-norandrosterone. In this preliminary study, an eye drops solution (Keratyl) containing a therapeutic dose of a nandrolone sodium sulphate was administered to several male volunteers during 3 days and urines were collected during 3 weeks. Surprisingly, contrary to all expectations, the urinary concentrations measured in urines reached 450 ng/mL and 70 ng/mL for norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone, respectively. Moreover, concentration levels near to 2 ng/mL were found, more than 2 weeks after the last administration, depending on individual metabolism. Inter-variability as well as intra-variability of nandrolone excretion kinetic, regarding this particular administration mode, were also evaluated. Quantification of nandrolone metabolites was performed by GC-MS. The method was previously validated in terms of specificity, precision, linearity, LOD, LOQ, robustness, accuracy and the expanded uncertainty was also evaluated. PMID:17391892

  13. Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Urine among Lactating Women of Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Henjum, Sigrun; Kjellevold, Marian; Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K; Shrestha, Prakash S; Frøyland, Livar; Strydom, Emmerentia E; Dhansay, Muhammad A; Strand, Tor A

    2016-01-01

    Adequate iodine concentration in breastmilk (BMIC) is essential for optimal neonatal thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development in breastfed infants. For many decades, iodine deficiency has been a public health problem in Nepal. However, recently, excessive iodine intakes among Nepali infants have been reported. This study aimed to measure BMIC and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Iodine concentration was measured in spot urine (n = 485) and breastmilk samples (n = 291) of 500 randomly selected lactating women. The median (p25, p75) BMIC and median UIC were 250 (130, 370) µg/L and 230 (135-377) µg/L, respectively. Around 82% had BMIC > 100 µg/L, 61% had BMIC > 200 µg/L and 81% had UIC > 100 µg/L, 37% had >300 µg/L and 20% had >500 µg/L. In multiple linear regression models, time since birth (β 3.0, 95% CI (0.2, 5.0)) and UIC (β 1.0, 95% CI (0.1, 2.0)) were associated with BMIC, explaining 26% of the variance. A large proportion of the women had adequate BMIC and UIC; however, a subset had high iodine concentrations. These findings emphasize the importance of carefully monitoring iodine intake to minimize the risk of iodine excess and subsequently preventing transient iodine-induced hypothyroidism in breastfed infants. PMID:27136582

  14. Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Urine among Lactating Women of Bhaktapur, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Henjum, Sigrun; Kjellevold, Marian; Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K.; Shrestha, Prakash S.; Frøyland, Livar; Strydom, Emmerentia E.; Dhansay, Muhammad A.; Strand, Tor A.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate iodine concentration in breastmilk (BMIC) is essential for optimal neonatal thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development in breastfed infants. For many decades, iodine deficiency has been a public health problem in Nepal. However, recently, excessive iodine intakes among Nepali infants have been reported. This study aimed to measure BMIC and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Iodine concentration was measured in spot urine (n = 485) and breastmilk samples (n = 291) of 500 randomly selected lactating women. The median (p25, p75) BMIC and median UIC were 250 (130, 370) µg/L and 230 (135–377) µg/L, respectively. Around 82% had BMIC > 100 µg/L, 61% had BMIC > 200 µg/L and 81% had UIC > 100 µg/L, 37% had >300 µg/L and 20% had >500 µg/L. In multiple linear regression models, time since birth (β 3.0, 95% CI (0.2, 5.0)) and UIC (β 1.0, 95% CI (0.1, 2.0)) were associated with BMIC, explaining 26% of the variance. A large proportion of the women had adequate BMIC and UIC; however, a subset had high iodine concentrations. These findings emphasize the importance of carefully monitoring iodine intake to minimize the risk of iodine excess and subsequently preventing transient iodine-induced hypothyroidism in breastfed infants. PMID:27136582

  15. Phthalate metabolites in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, profile, exposure and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Ying; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to their applications in daily life. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 108 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites ranged from 71.3 to 2670ng/mL, with the geometric mean concentration of 306ng/mL. mBP and miBP were the two most abundant compounds, accounting for 48% of the total concentrations. Principal component analysis suggested two major sources of phthalates: one dominated by the DEHP metabolites and one by the group of mCPP, mBP and miBP metabolites. The estimated daily intakes of DMP, DEP, DBP, DiBP and DEHP were 1.68, 2.14, 4.12, 3.52 and 1.26-2.98?g/kg-bw/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, urinary concentration and body weight were the most influential variables for human exposure estimation. Furthermore, cumulative risk for hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were evaluated. Nearly half of Chinese young adults had high HI values exceeding the safe threshold. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure to urinary phthalate metabolites with Chinese young adults. PMID:26575634

  16. Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gomez Ramos, M J; Heffernan, A L; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-03-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from <0.5 to 775ng/mL for all other metabolites. Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures. PMID:26760715

  17. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

  18. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

  19. Concentration of Selected Metals in Whole Blood, Plasma, and Urine in Short Stature and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Klatka, Maria; Błażewicz, Anna; Partyka, Małgorzata; Kołłątaj, Witold; Zienkiewicz, Ewa; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2015-08-01

    The short stature in children is defined as height below the third percentile from the mean for age and gender. This problem affects about 3% of young people. More than 20,000 children in Poland have problems with short stature. There is not much information available in the literature on the study of metals in blood, plasma, and urine in children with short stature. The study was conducted on a group of 56 short stature Polish children and 35 healthy children. The content of metals was determined using high-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods. The study revealed significant differences between the content of selected metals in body fluids between a short stature group and healthy children. There were significant differences in the Fe, Cu, and Ni concentrations between the groups with respect to the hormonal therapy. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the area where the children lived. The results showed no statistically significant differences between metal concentration and age, body weight, and height. The study demonstrated statistically significant differences between the content of metals in body fluids in short stature children compared with the healthy children. It seems that the difference in the concentration of certain elements may also be the result of growth hormone therapy and the interaction between various metals. Both the alterations in the content of metals and their mutual interactions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of short stature children. PMID:25855373

  20. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  1. Evaluation of Urine Aquaporin 1 and Perilipin 2 Concentrations as Biomarkers to Screen for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Jeremiah J.; Mellnick, Vincent M.; Luo, Jinquin; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Figenshau, R. Sherburne; Bhayani, Sam; Kharasch, Evan D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Early detection of small asymptomatic kidney tumors presages better patient outcome. Incidental discovery of asymptomatic renal tumors by abdominal imaging is expensive and cannot reliably distinguish benign from malignant tumors. OBJECTIVE This investigation evaluated the clinical utility, sensitivity and specificity of urine aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and perilipin-2 (PLIN2) concentrations as unique noninvasive biomarkers to diagnose malignant clear cell or papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in a screening paradigm. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Urine samples were obtained from 720 patients undergoing routine abdominal CT (screening population), 80 healthy controls and 19 patients with pathologically confirmed RCC. Urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations were measured by sensitive and specific ELISA and Western blot procedures, respectively. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES AQP1 and PLIN2 were measured prospectively in a screening paradigm in an otherwise asymptomatic population. The absence or presence of a renal mass and of RCC, were verified by abdominal computed tomography (CT) and by post-nephrectomy pathologic diagnosis, respectively. RESULTS Median urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations in patients with known RCC were more than 12-fold higher (P<0.0001 each) than controls and the screening population. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations individually or in combination was ≥0.92, with ≥85% sensitivity and ≥87% specificity compared with control or screening patients. Three of the 720 screening patients had biomarker concentrations suggestive of RCC and were found to have an imaged renal mass by CT. Two patients, evaluated further, had RCC. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These results demonstrate the clinical utility, specificity and sensitivity of urine AQP1 and PLIN2 to diagnose RCC. These novel tumor-specific proteins have high clinical validity and substantial potential as specific diagnostic and screening biomarkers for clear cell and papillary RCC, and in the differential diagnosis of imaged renal masses. PMID:26181025

  2. Automatic On-line Solid-phase Extraction-Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Exploiting Sequential Injection Analysis for Trace Vanadium, Cadmium and Lead Determination in Human Urine Samples.

    PubMed

    Giakisikli, Georgia; Ayala Quezada, Alejandro; Tanaka, Junpei; Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Murakami, Hiroya; Teshima, Norio; Sakai, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated sequential injection column preconcentration method for the on-line determination of trace vanadium, cadmium and lead in urine samples was successfully developed, utilizing electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Polyamino-polycarboxylic acid chelating resin (Nobias chelate PA-1) packed into a handmade minicolumn was used as a sorbent material. Effective on-line retention of chelate complexes of analytes was achieved at pH 6.0, while the highest elution effectiveness was observed with 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 in the reverse phase. Several analytical parameters, like the sample acidity, concentration and volume of the eluent as well as the loading/elution flow rates, have been studied, regarding the efficiency of the method, providing appropriate conditions for the analysis of real samples. For a 4.5 mL sample volume, the sampling frequency was 27 h(-1). The detection limits were found to be 3.0, 0.06 and 2.0 ng L(-1) for V(V), Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, with the relative standard deviations ranging between 1.9 - 3.7%. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing a certified reference material (Seronorm(TM) trace elements urine) and spiked urine samples. PMID:25958867

  3. Impacts of nitric oxide and superoxide on renal medullary oxygen transport and urine concentration.

    PubMed

    Fry, Brendan C; Edwards, Aurélie; Layton, Anita T

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the reciprocal interactions among oxygen (O2), nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide (O2 (-)) and their effects on medullary oxygenation and urinary output. To accomplish that goal, we developed a detailed mathematical model of solute transport in the renal medulla of the rat kidney. The model represents the radial organization of the renal tubules and vessels, which centers around the vascular bundles in the outer medulla and around clusters of collecting ducts in the inner medulla. Model simulations yield significant radial gradients in interstitial fluid oxygen tension (Po2) and NO and O2 (-) concentration in the OM and upper IM. In the deep inner medulla, interstitial fluid concentrations become much more homogeneous, as the radial organization of tubules and vessels is not distinguishable. The model further predicts that due to the nonlinear interactions among O2, NO, and O2 (-), the effects of NO and O2 (-) on sodium transport, osmolality, and medullary oxygenation cannot be gleaned by considering each solute's effect in isolation. An additional simulation suggests that a sufficiently large reduction in tubular transport efficiency may be the key contributing factor, more so than oxidative stress alone, to hypertension-induced medullary hypoxia. Moreover, model predictions suggest that urine Po2 could serve as a biomarker for medullary hypoxia and a predictor of the risk for hospital-acquired acute kidney injury. PMID:25651567

  4. Architecture of vasa recta in the renal inner medulla of the desert rodent Dipodomys merriami: potential impact on the urine concentrating mechanism.

    PubMed

    Issaian, Tadeh; Urity, Vinoo B; Dantzler, William H; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2012-10-01

    We hypothesize that the inner medulla of the kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami, a desert rodent that concentrates its urine to over 6,000 mosmol/kg H(2)O, provides unique examples of architectural features necessary for production of highly concentrated urine. To investigate this architecture, inner medullary vascular segments in the outer inner medulla were assessed with immunofluorescence and digital reconstructions from tissue sections. Descending vasa recta (DVR) expressing the urea transporter UT-B and the water channel aquaporin 1 lie at the periphery of groups of collecting ducts (CDs) that coalesce in their descent through the inner medulla. Ascending vasa recta (AVR) lie inside and outside groups of CDs. DVR peel away from vascular bundles at a uniform rate as they descend the inner medulla, and feed into networks of AVR that are associated with organized clusters of CDs. These AVR form interstitial nodal spaces, with each space composed of a single CD, two AVR, and one or more ascending thin limbs or prebend segments, an architecture that may lead to solute compartmentation and fluid fluxes essential to the urine concentrating mechanism. Although we have identified several apparent differences, the tubulovascular architecture of the kangaroo rat inner medulla is remarkably similar to that of the Munich Wistar rat at the level of our analyses. More detailed studies are required for identifying interspecies functional differences. PMID:22914749

  5. The German Environmental Survey 1990/1992 (GerES II): reference concentrations of selected environmental pollutants in blood, urine, hair, house dust, drinking water and indoor air.

    PubMed

    Seifert, B; Becker, K; Helm, D; Krause, C; Schulz, C; Seiwert, M

    2000-01-01

    The German Environmental Survey (GerES) is a large-scale, representative population study that has been carried out three times up to now with a time interval of about 7 years. GerES I was performed in 1985/1986, GerES IIa in 1990/1991 in West Germany, and GerES IIb in 1991/1992 in East Germany, the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). In GerES II, blood, urine, and scalp hair samples of 4021 adults aged 25-69 years and of 736 children aged 6-14 years were analysed as well as environmental samples (house dust, drinking water, indoor and personal air, diet). Characteristics of the frequency distributions of the substances analysed in the different media were calculated. The geometric mean (GM) for lead, cadmium, and mercury in the blood of adults amounted to 45.3, 0.36, and 0.51 microg/l, respectively. The corresponding values of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in urine were 6.3, 0.29, and 0.54 microg/l, respectively. The concentrations of lead in blood, cadmium in blood and urine, and mercury in blood are lower in children than in adults. The GM ofpentachlorophenol (PCP) in urine of adults was 2.67 microg/l and in urine of children, 4.15 microg/l. These results of GerES II were compared with the so-called HBM values which represent health-based exposure guidelines and have been defined by the Human Biomonitoring Commission (HBC) of the Federal Environmental Agency, interalia for lead in blood, cadmium in urine, mercury in blood and urine, and PCP in urine. They also provided asound basis for the setting of reference values to describe the status of the German population. A total of 1.8% and 0.6% of the German females in child-bearing age had a level of lead in blood higher than HBM-I (100 microg/l) and HBM-II ( 150 microg/l), respectively. One percent of the children had a blood lead level above HBM-I. House dust and drinking water were analysed to characterise exposure in the domestic environment. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead deposition in homes amounted to 5.4 ng/(m2 day), 11.7 ng/(m2 day), and 0.29 microg/(m2 day), respectively. In the content of vacuum cleaner bags, concentrations were 2.1,0.9, and 5.9 microg/g. PCP, lindane and permethrin could be detected in the house dust of most German households. The pollutant load of the drinking water is significantly influenced by the corrosion of pipe materials and fittings. The new EC limit value of 10 microg/l for lead was exceeded in 7.7% of the first draw samples. The relatively high percentage (14%) of samples from East Germany that exceeded the current German guideline value for formaldehyde of 0.1 ppm in indoor air may be explained by the widespread use of contaminated particleboard in the former GDR. PMID:11140439

  6. Relationship between ambient lead concentrations and lead in gasoline in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Helena A.; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang C.

    Lead concentrations were determined in total suspended particulate matter (TSP) from August 1975 to April 1978, in two districts of Rio de Janeiro with different sources of airborne particulate matter. Correlation coefficients between lead content in gasoline and average atmospheric lead concentrations are calculated. Results show a clear effect in the atmosphere if there is a large increase in the lead content of consumed gasoline.

  7. Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in bus drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.S.; Osterloh, J.; Becker, C.E.; Bernard, B.; Smith, A.H.; Fisher, J.M.; Syme, S.L.; Holman, B.L.; Johnston, T.

    1988-06-01

    San Francisco bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in 342 drivers. The analysis reported in this study was limited to subjects not on treatment for hypertension (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic pressure varied from 102 to 173 mm Hg and from 61 to 105 mm Hg, respectively. The blood lead concentration varied from 2 to 15 ..mu..g/dL. The relationship between blood pressure and the logarithm of blood lead concentration was examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The largest regression coefficient relating systolic blood pressure and blood lead concentration was 1.8 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). The coefficient for diastolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). These findings suggest effects of lead exposure at lower blood lead concentrations than those concentrations that have previously been linked with increases in blood pressure.

  8. Morphine to codeine concentration ratio in blood and urine as a marker of illicit heroin use in forensic autopsy samples.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Svetlana V; Normann, Per T; Arnestad, Marianne; Karinen, Ritva; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Mørland, Jørg

    2012-04-10

    A morphine to codeine ratio greater than unity (M/C>1) has been suggested as an indicator of heroin use in living individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the morphine to codeine ratio in a large population (N=2438) of forensically examined autopsy cases positive for 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and/or morphine in blood and/or urine. Blood and urine concentrations of 6-MAM, morphine and codeine were examined using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS methods. In 6-MAM positive samples, the M/C ratio was greater than unity in 98% (N=917) of the blood samples and 96% (N=665) of the urine samples. Stratification of 6-MAM negative cases by M/C above or below unity revealed similarities in morphine and codeine concentrations in cases where M/C>1 and 6-MAM positive cases. Median blood and urine morphine concentrations were 8-10 times greater than codeine for both groups. Similarly to 6-MAM positive cases, 25-44 year-old men prevailed in the M/C>1 group. In comparison to cases where M/C ≤ 1, the M/C ratio was a hundred times higher in both 6-MAM positive and M/C>1 cases. The range of morphine concentration between the lowest and the highest quintile of codeine in M/C>1 cases was similar to that in 6-MAM positive cases. This range was much higher than for M/C ≤ 1 cases. Moreover, linear regression analyses, adjusted for age and gender, revealed a strong positive association between morphine and codeine in 6-MAM positive and M/C>1 cases. The M/C ratio appeared to be a good marker of heroin use in post-mortem cases. Both blood and urine M/C>1 can be used to separate heroin users from other cases positive for morphine and codeine. PMID:22137531

  9. Cathepsin D serum and urine concentration in superficial and invasive transitional bladder cancer as determined by surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gorodkiewicz, Ewa; Guszcz, Tomasz; Roszkowska-Jakimiec, Wieslawa; Kozłowski, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Determination of cathepsin D (Cat D) concentration in serum and urine may be useful in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The present study included 54 healthy patients and 68 patients with bladder cancer, confirmed by transurethral resection or cystectomy. Cat D concentration was determined using a surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensor. Cat D concentration in the serum of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.3-5.59 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.28-0.52 ng/ml. In urine, the Cat D concentration of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.35-7.14 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.32-0.68 ng/ml. Cat D concentration may represent an efficient tumor marker, as its concentration in the serum and urine of transitional cell carcinoma patients is extremely high when compared with healthy subjects. PMID:25120717

  10. Stable lead isotopes reveal a natural source of high lead concentrations to gasoline-contaminated groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.; Bullen, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of total lead as high as 1,600 ??g/L were detected in gasoline-contaminated and uncontaminated groundwater at three gasoline-release sites in South Carolina. Total lead concentrations were highest in turbid groundwater samples from gasoline-contaminated and uncontaminated wells, whereas lower turbidity groundwater samples (collected using low-flow methods) had lower total lead concentrations. Dissolved lead concentrations in all wells sampled, however, were less than 15 ??g total lead/L, the current United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL). Because many total lead concentrations exceeded the MCL, the source of lead to the groundwater system at two of the three sites was investigated using a stable lead isotope ratio approach. Plots of the stable isotope ratios of lead (Pb) in groundwater as 207Pb/206Pb versus 208Pb/206Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb versus 206Pb/204Pb were similar to ratios characteristic of lead-based minerals in local rocks of the southeastern US, and were not similar to the stable lead isotopes ratios characteristic of distant lead ore deposits such as Broken Hill, Australia, used to produce tetraethyl lead in gasoline products prior to its phase-out and ban in the United States. Moreover, the isotopic composition of dissolved lead was equivalent to the isotopic composition of total lead in turbid samples collected from the same well, suggesting that the majority of the lead detected in the groundwater samples was associated with sediment particulates of indigenous aquifer material, rather than lead associated with spilled leaded gasoline. The results of this investigation indicate that (1) lead detected at some gasoline-release sites may be derived from the local aquifer material, rather than the gasoline release, and consequently may affect site-specific remediation goals; (2) non-low flow groundwater sampling methods, such as a disposable bailer, may result in turbid groundwater samples and high total lead concentrations, and; (3) stable lead isotopes can be used to clarify the source of lead detected above permissible levels in gasoline-contaminated groundwater systems.

  11. Measurement of sodium ion concentration in undiluted urine with cation-selective polymeric membrane electrodes after the removal of interfering compounds

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Feyisayo; Kaczor, Kim; Gandhi, Neel; Pendley, Bradford D.; Danish, Robert K.; Neuman, Michael R.; Toth, Blanka; Horvath, Viola; Lindner, Erno

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of sodium ion concentration in urine can provide diagnostic information and guide therapy. Unfortunately, neutral-carrier-based ion-selective electrodes show a large positive drift and loss in selectivity in undiluted urine. The extraction of electrically neutral lipids from the urine into the sensing membrane was suggested as the main source of the drift, loss of selectivity and the consequent incorrect concentration readings. In this work, (i) solvent-solvent extraction, (ii) membrane-immobilized solvent extraction, and (iii) solid phase extraction were used to remove interfering compounds from urine samples. The “cleaned” urine samples were subsequently analyzed using a calixarene (sodium ionophore X)-based, solid-contact, sodium-selective electrode in a flow-through manifold. The solid-contact sodium sensors had excellent stability in cleaned urine and an acceptable bias compared to commercial clinical analyzers. PMID:18371638

  12. Taurine concentrations in plasma, blood cells, and urine of children undergoing long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Vinton, N E; Laidlaw, S A; Ament, M E; Kopple, J D

    1987-04-01

    Taurine concentrations in plasma, platelets, lymphocytes, granulocytes, erythrocytes, and urine were measured in 19 children who were undergoing long-term home parenteral nutrition for 27.4 +/- 7.1 (SEM) months. The parenteral solutions contained methionine, but not taurine or cysteine. The patients' plasma, platelet, and urine taurine concentrations were significantly reduced to 54, 48, and 16%, respectively, of the values from normal children of similar ages. The most significant reductions in plasma and platelet taurine concentrations were observed in the children who were estimated to absorb less than 5% of their daily calorie needs from the enteral tract. Lymphocyte and erythrocyte taurine levels tended to be lower but were not significantly different from those in normal children. The patients' plasma methionine and cystine levels were not different from normal. There was a direct correlation between plasma and platelet taurine concentrations and between plasma and urine taurine. Both plasma and platelet taurine tended to be directly correlated with age and, after the 1st yr of total parenteral nutrition, with the duration of total parenteral nutrition therapy. PMID:3106924

  13. Factors associated with blood lead concentrations of children in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    RAHBAR, MOHAMMAD H.; SAMMS-VAUGHAN, MAUREEN; DICKERSON, AISHA S.; LOVELAND, KATHERINE A.; ARDJOMAND-HESSABI, MANOUCHEHR; BRESSLER, JAN; SHAKESPEARE-PELLINGTON, SYDONNIE; GROVE, MEGAN L.; BOERWINKLE, ERIC

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal known to be detrimental to neurologic, physiologic, and behavioral health of children. Previous studies from Jamaica reported that mean lead levels in soil are four times that of lead levels in some other parts of the world. Other studies detected lead levels in fruits and root vegetables, which were grown in areas with lead contaminated soil. In this study, we investigate environmental factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The participants in this study comprised 125 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2–8 years) who served as controls in an age- and sex-matched case-control study that enrolled children from 2009 – 2012 in Jamaica. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as potential exposures to lead through food. Using General Linear Models (GLMs), we identified factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The geometric mean blood lead concentration (GMBLC) in the sample of children in this study was 2.80 μg/dL. In univariable GLM analyses, GMBLC was higher for children whose parents did not have education beyond high school compared to those whose parents had attained this level (3.00 μg/dL vs. 2.31 μg/dL; P = 0.05), children living near a high traffic road compared to those who did not (3.43 μg/dL vs. 2.52 μg/dL; P < 0.01), and children who reported eating ackee compared to those who did not eat this fruit (2.89 μg/dL vs. 1.65 μg/dL; P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, living near a high traffic road was identified as an independent risk factor for higher adjusted GMBLC (3.05 μg/dL vs. 2.19 μg/dL; P = 0.01). While our findings indicate that GMBLC in Jamaican children has dropped by at least 62% during the past two decades, children living in Jamaica still have GMBLC that is twice that of children in more developed countries. In addition, we have identified significant risk factors for higher blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. We believe increasing awareness among parents regarding these risk factors could potentially lead to a lower level of lead exposure in Jamaican children. PMID:25837555

  14. Drying methods effects on nitrogen and energy concentrations in pig feces and urine, and poultry excreta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimation of digestibility coefficients are critical in nutrient balance and feed evaluation studies as errors that occur are often additive. However, there is no standard universal method for drying feces, urine, or excreta prior to laboratory analysis. The objective of this study was to ...

  15. Chronic use of chloroquine disrupts the urine concentration mechanism by lowering cAMP levels in the inner medulla

    PubMed Central

    von Bergen, Tobias N.

    2012-01-01

    Chloroquine, a widely used anti-malaria drug, has gained popularity for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Unfortunately, chloroquine may also negatively impact renal function for patients whose fluid and electrolyte homeostasis is already compromised by diseases. Chronic administration of chloroquine also results in polyuria, which may be explained by suppression of the antidiuretic response of vasopressin. Several of the transporters responsible for concentrating urine are vasopressin-sensitive including the urea transporters UT-A1 and UT-A3, the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2), and the Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC2). To examine the effect of chloroquine on these transporters, Sprague-Dawley rats received daily subcutaneous injections of 80 mg·kg−1·day−1 of chloroquine for 4 days. Twenty-four hour urine output was twofold higher, and urine osmolality was decreased by twofold in chloroquine-treated rats compared with controls. Urine analysis of treated rats detected the presence chloroquine as well as decreased urine urea and cAMP levels compared with control rats. Western blot analysis showed a downregulation of AQP2 and NKCC2 transporters; however, UT-A1 and UT-A3 abundances were unaffected by chloroquine treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed a marked reduction of UT-A1 and AQP2 in the apical membrane in inner medullary collecting ducts of chloroquine-treated rats. In conclusion, chloroquine-induced polyuria likely occurs as a result of lowered cAMP production. These findings suggest that chronic chloroquine treatment would exacerbate the already compromised fluid homeostasis observed in diseases like chronic kidney disease. PMID:22791344

  16. Cumulative concentrations of blood lead and postural stability.

    PubMed Central

    Chia, S E; Chia, H P; Ong, C N; Jeyaratnam, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association in a group of battery manufacturing workers between computerised postural sway parameters and present concentrations of blood lead (PPb), index of cumulative blood lead years (CBI), and cumulative blood lead at different years of exposure (CPbYs). METHODS: Postural stability was investigated with a computerised postural sway measurement system in 60 workers exposed to lead with exposure duration of 84 (range 3-366) months and in 60 control subjects. An index of CBIs in 55 workers (previous blood lead results of five workers were not available) and CPbYs were computed for each worker by calculating the area under the curve of concentrations of blood lead against time. RESULTS: The mean (SD) PPb was 36.0 (11.7) (range 6.4 to 64.5) micrograms/dl for the exposed workers and 6.3 (2.4) (range 3.1-10.9) micrograms/dl for the 14 randomly selected control subjects. Significant differences between groups for the postural sway parameters obtained when the eyes were closed were found for length of sway path (L); mean velocity of the centre of pressure along its path (Vel); area included within the path of the centre of pressure (Ao); 95% confidence elliptical area (Ae). The Romberg ratio (the relation between eyes closed and open) for the Vel, L, Ao, and Ae of the exposed group were also significantly different from those of the controls. The postural sway parameters (eyes closed) were not significantly correlated with PPb or CBI. However, the cumulative blood lead for the past two years before the postural sway assessment, CPbY2, was significantly correlated with all the postural sway parameters. CONCLUSION: The study showed that workers exposed to lead had significantly poorer postural stability than a control group. Lead may affect certain parts of the somatosensory system resulting in postural instability when the visual input is cut off. The CPbY2 was significantly positively correlated with most of the postural sway parameters. Effects of lead on postural stability may be related to recent increases in blood lead concentration among the exposed workers rather than to cumulative body burden. PMID:8664965

  17. Australian atmospheric lead deposition reconstructed using lead concentrations and isotopic compositions of archival lichen and fungi.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liqin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Handley, Heather K; Wu, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lead concentrations and their isotopic compositions were measured in lichen genera Cladonia and Usnea and fungi genus Trametes from the Greater Sydney region (New South Wales, Australia) that had been collected and archived over the past 120 years. The median lead contents were elevated in lichens and fungi prior to the introduction of leaded petrol (Cladonia 12.5 mg/kg; Usnea 15.6 mg/kg; Trametes 1.85 mg/kg) corresponding to early industrial development. During the use of leaded petrol for automobiles in Australia from 1932 to 2002, total median lead concentrations rose: Cladonia 18.8 mg/kg; Usnea 21.5 mg/kg; Trametes 4.3 mg/kg. Following the cessation of leaded petrol use, median total lead concentrations decreased sharply in the 2000s: Cladonia 4.8 mg/kg; Usnea 1.7 mg/kg. The lichen and fungi isotopic compositions reveal a significant decrease in (206)Pb/(207)Pb values from the end of 19th century to the 1970s. The following decades were characterised by lower allowable levels of lead additive in fuel and the introduction of unleaded petrol in 1985. The environmental response to these regulatory changes was that lichen and fungi (206)Pb/(207)Pb values increased, particularly from 1995 onwards. Although the lead isotope ratios of lichens continued to increase in the 2000s they do not return to pre-leaded petrol values. This demonstrates that historic leaded petrol emissions, inter alia other sources, remain a persistent source of anthropogenic contamination in the Greater Sydney region. PMID:26608874

  18. Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected within the right-of-way of a major Maryland highway were greater than those found in Barn Swallows nesting within a rural area. Lead concentrations in the feathers of adults from the highway colony were also greater than Lead concentrations in the carcasses and stomach contents of adult and nestling Barn those of rural adults, but concentrations in the feathers of nestlings from the two locations were similar. Activity of u-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in red blood cells was lower in highway-nesting adults and their young than in their rural counterparts, although hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits did not differ. The number of eggs, nestlings, and body weights of the latter at 16-18 days of age were similar in the two colonies, as were body weights of adults from the two areas. These results suggest that contamination of roadside habitats by lead from automotive emissions does not pose a serious hazard to birds that are aerial feeders.

  19. Leading concentration correction to polymer dynamic self-structure factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perico, Angelo; La Ferla, Roberto; Freed, Karl F.

    1989-10-01

    The discrete chain representation of multiple scattering theory of the concentration dependence of the hydrodynamics of polymer solutions is applied to the calculation of the leading concentration correction to the dynamic structure factor S(k,t) and its first and second cumulants of individual labeled Gaussian chains in theta solutions at nonzero concentrations. Contributions are separated into those from overall translational and internal chain motions as well as couplings between different internal modes and between translation and internal modes, coupling that are introduced by interchain hydrodynamic interactions. The separate contributions are analyzed as a function of k and of t in order to isolate regions where certain contributions are dominant. As expected, short times and larger k tend to favor contributions from internal chain dynamics, while longer times and smaller k make concentration dependent translational effects predominate. Computations for shorter chains are extrapolated to provide the asymptotic long chain behavior.

  20. Isoniazid/acetylisoniazid urine concentrations: markers of adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy in children

    PubMed Central

    Amlabu, V.; Mulligan, C.; Jele, N.; Evans, A.; Gray, D.; Zar, H. J.; McIlleron, H.; Smith, P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The Arkansas colorimetric method monitors adherence to isoniazid (INH) by the detection of INH metabolites in urine. Urine samples 4 h after INH administration in 31 human immunodeficiency virus infected children receiving daily or thrice weekly INH preventive therapy were Arkansas test-positive for 29/31 (94%), while acetylisoniazid (AcINH) was detected in 30/31 (97%) using mass spectrometry. At 24, 48 and 72 h, only 78%, 23% and 0 samples, respectively, were Arkansas-positive, while INH or AcINH was detected in respectively 94%, 69% and 33%. The Arkansas test reliably predicted INH ingestion at a clinic visit 4 h after morning doses, but did not perform well at 24 h. PMID:24903787

  1. Temporal trends in the lead concentrations of umbilical cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B.; Needleman, H.L.

    1982-06-25

    Umbilical cord blood specimens from 11,837 births between April 1979 and April 1981 have been analyzed for lead by anodic stripping voltammetry. The mean was 6.56 +- 3.19 (standard deviation) micrograms per deciliter of blood, and the range was 0.0 to 37.0 micrograms per deciliter. The mean decreased annually by 0.77 +- 0.03 microgram per deciliter, about 11 percent. Lead concentrations were higher in infants born in summer than in infants born in winter (7.17 versus 5.99, probability < .001). A Fourier model of the data is presented, and possible reasons for the decline are discussed.

  2. A Direct Aqueous Derivatization GSMS Method for Determining Benzoylecgonine Concentrations in Human Urine.

    PubMed

    Chericoni, Silvio; Stefanelli, Fabio; Da Valle, Ylenia; Giusiani, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive and reliable method for extraction and quantification of benzoylecgonine (BZE) and cocaine (COC) in urine is presented. Propyl-chloroformate was used as derivatizing agent, and it was directly added to the urine sample: the propyl derivative and COC were then recovered by liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect the analytes in selected ion monitoring mode. The method proved to be precise for BZE and COC both in term of intraday and interday analysis, with a coefficient of variation (CV)<6%. Limits of detection (LOD) were 2.7 ng/mL for BZE and 1.4 ng/mL for COC. The calibration curve showed a linear relationship for BZE and COC (r2>0.999 and >0.997, respectively) within the range investigated. The method, applied to thirty authentic samples, showed to be very simple, fast, and reliable, so it can be easily applied in routine analysis for the quantification of BZE and COC in urine samples. PMID:26300490

  3. Redecoration of external leaded paintwork and lead-in-dust concentrations in school playgrounds.

    PubMed

    Schwar, M J; Alexander, D J

    1988-01-01

    Playground lead-in-dust concentrations have been measured immediately after the external redecoration of 216 schools in 1983/4 and of 63 schools in 1984/5. Schools were divided into four age categories: A, pre-1914; B, 1914-1939; C, 1945-1965; and D, post-1965. The results show that concentrations can vary widely from school to school within a given age category. For each school, dust samples were collected from an area adjacent to the facade which had been redecorated, referred to here as the 'corridor' area, and from the 'remaining' playground area. The highest mean corridor concentrations were found in playgrounds of schools of age categories A and B, the highest mean value being 74,400 micrograms g-1. The highest value for age category D schools was 2600 micrograms g-1. The mean concentration for all schools in age categories A to D, was respectively 4720, 2820, 820 and 630 micrograms g-1 for the corridor area and 1180, 730, 400 and 440 micrograms g-1 for the remaining area. The highest lead-in-dust concentrations tended to occur within 2.5 m of the building facade. A limited number of measurements showed that concentrations in the corridor area tended to reduce with time, falling to half their initial value (after correcting for the local background level) in about 90-170 days. A model is suggested linking lead-in-dust concentrations in the corridor and remaining areas to lead-in-paint debris dust concentrations. PMID:3363323

  4. Secondhand smoke exposure and urine cotinine concentrations by occupation among Korean workers: results from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Ryong; Lee, Chae Kwan; Im, Hosub; Yang, Wonho; Urm, Sang-Hwa; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Jin Heon; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Se Yeong; Lee, Soo Woong; Lee, Jong Tae

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure through urine cotinine analysis among nonsmoking workers in Korea and to analyze factors affecting urine cotinine concentrations. Data were based on "The 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body," a cross-sectional study of the National Institute of Environmental Research of Korea. We selected 1448 nonsmoking adult workers from 200 localities to participate in this survey. Urine cotinine concentrations were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass selective detector. We calculated separate covariate-adjusted geometric means for socio-demographic variables for males, females, and total subjects by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill.). The prevalence of self-reported exposure to SHS was 36.9%. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) of urine cotinine concentrations among all participants was 16.50 (14.48-18.80) μg/L. Gender, living area, education, and SHS exposure showed significant differences in urine cotinine concentrations. The urine cotinine concentrations of farmworkers and blue-collar workers such as skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers, and elementary occupations were higher than those of white-collar workers such as clerical support workers, technicians, and associate professionals. Such a high proportion of the population having high urine cotinine levels indicates widespread exposure to SHS among nonsmoking workers in Korea. Furthermore, the urine cotinine levels among nonsmoking workers exposed to SHS varied by occupation. The measured urine cotinine concentration is suggested to be a valuable indication of SHS exposure in Korea. PMID:24219421

  5. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for selective solid phase extraction and pre-concentration of Tizanidine in human urine.

    PubMed

    Sheykhaghaei, Golaleh; Hossainisadr, Moayad; Khanahmadzadeh, Salah; Seyedsajadi, Mirabdollah; Alipouramjad, Awat

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MMIP-NPs) for the selective pre-concentration of Tizanidine have been described. The polymer nanoparticles were synthesized by the polymerization of methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator and Tizanidine as a template molecule. The MMIP-NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimeteric analysis (TGA). Imprinted Tizanidine molecules were removed from the polymeric structure using acetic acid in methanol (10:90 V/V%), as the eluent solvent. The limits of detection (L.O.D) for Tizanidine were 1.13×10(-6)M and 1.68×10(-6)M in ultrapure water and urine, respectively. Also, the relative standard deviations (R.S.D) in ultrapure water and urine were 2.21% and 2.58%, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of Tizanidine in the human urine samples. PMID:26744788

  6. Lead pellet ingestion and liver-lead concentrations in upland game birds from southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kreager, N; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; Tsuji, L J S

    2008-02-01

    One-hundred twenty-three gizzards from upland game birds (chukar, Alectoris chukar; and common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) harvested by hunters in southern Ontario, Canada, were examined for lead pellet ingestion by manual examination of gizzard contents and by radiography. Lead pellets were found to be ingested by chukars (6/76; 8%) and the common pheasant (16/47; 34%). Further, 13% (17/129) of the bird (wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo; Hungarian partridge, Perdix perdix; chukar; and common pheasant) livers analyzed had elevated lead concentrations (> or =6 microg/g wet weight [ww]). Liver-lead concentrations above Health Canada's guideline for human consumption of fish protein (<0.5 microg/g ww) were found in 40% (51/129) of livers analyzed. Data indicate that the ingestion of lead pellets in upland game birds and the potential consumption of lead-contaminated meat by humans are concerns related to the continued use of lead shotshell for hunting. PMID:17763885

  7. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - urine; Gamma globulin electrophoresis - urine; Urine immunoglobulin electrophoresis; IEP - urine ... is used to measure the amounts of various immunoglobulins in urine. Most often, it is done after ...

  8. Effects of alpha-thalassemia and sickle polymerization tendency on the urine-concentrating defect of individuals with sickle cell trait.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A K; Kirchner, K A; Nicholson, R; Adams, J G; Schechter, A N; Noguchi, C T; Steinberg, M H

    1991-01-01

    A defect in urine concentrating ability occurs in individuals with sickle cell trait (HbAS). This may result from intracellular polymerization of sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in erythrocytes, leading to microvascular occlusion, in the vasa recta of the renal medulla. To test the hypothesis that the severity of the concentrating defect is related to the percentage of sickle hemoglobin present in erythrocytes, urinary concentrating ability was examined after overnight water deprivation, and intranasal desmopressin acetate (dDAVP) in 27 individuals with HbAS. The HbAS individuals were separated into those who had a normal alpha-globin genotype (alpha alpha/alpha alpha), and those who were either heterozygous (-alpha/alpha alpha) or homozygous (-alpha/-alpha) for gene-deletion alpha-thalassemia, because alpha-thalassemia modulates the HbS concentration in HbAS. The urinary concentrating ability was less in the alpha alpha/alpha alpha genotype than in the -alpha/alpha alpha or -alpha/-alpha genotypes (P less than 0.05). After dDAVP, the urine osmolality was greater in patients with the -alpha/-alpha genotype than with the -alpha/alpha alpha genotype (882 +/- 37 vs. 672 +/- 38 mOsm/kg H2O) (P less than 0.05); patients with the -alpha/alpha alpha genotype had greater concentrating ability than individuals with a normal alpha-globin gene arrangement. There was an inverse linear correlation between urinary osmolality after dDAVP and the percentage HbS in all patients studied (r = -0.654; P less than 0.05). A linear correlation also existed for urine concentrating ability and the calculated polymerization tendencies for an oxygen saturation of 0.4 and O (r = -0.62 and 0.69, respectively). We conclude that the severity of hyposthenuria in HbAS is heterogeneous. It is determined by the amount of HbS polymer, that in turn is dependent upon the percentage HbS, which is itself related to the alpha-globin genotype. Images PMID:1752955

  9. Sociodemographic and lifestyle variables are compound- and class-specific correlates of urine phytoestrogen concentrations in the US population1,2,3,4

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, Michael E.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Pfeiffer, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Isoflavones and lignans are plant-derived dietary compounds generally believed to be beneficial to human health. We investigated the extent to which sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and income) and lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, and dietary supplement use) were correlates of spot urine concentration for daidzein (DAZ), genistein (GNS), O-desmethylangolensin (DMA), equol (EQU), enterodiol (ETD) and enterolactone (ETL) in the US population ≥20 y (NHANES 2003–2006). We performed correlation analyses with continuous variables and calculated stratified unadjusted geometric means for each sociodemographic and lifestyle variable. We used bivariate significance testing and covariate adjustment by use of multiple regression models to identify influential variables, and used beta coefficients to estimate relative effects. Urine creatinine was also included in our analyses because of its use in correcting for variable dilution in spot urine samples. We observed many statistically significant (P <0.05) associations with the sociodemographic and lifestyle variables that withstood covariate adjustment. Smoking was a significant correlate of urine DMA and ETL, with concentrations at least 25% lower in smokers vs. nonsmokers. Consumers of 1 daily alcoholic drink vs. none were estimated to have 18–21% lower urine EQU and DMA concentrations. A 25% increase in BMI was associated with 21% lower urine ETL, and increasing physical activity was associated with >6% higher urine ETL concentrations. Dietary supplement use was not significantly associated with any of the urine phytoestrogens. Overall, we found that relationships between sociodemographic and lifestyle variables and urine phytoestrogen concentration were highly compound- and class-specific. PMID:23596167

  10. Predicting the phenylalanine blood concentration from urine analyses. An approach to noninvasive monitoring of patients with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Langenbeck, U; Baum, F; Mench-Hoinowski, A; Luthe, H; Behbehani, A W

    2005-01-01

    The need for regular blood-drawing in the management of chronic metabolic disorders may negatively influence the compliance of patients and their parents; noninvasive analytical procedures could well alleviate this burden. Using data obtained in six adult probands with phenylketonuria, we evaluate the feasibility of noninvasive prediction of phenylalanine blood concentrations from analysis of phenylalanine and creatinine in urine. Cross-validated regression equations correct for the significant inter-individual variation of phenylalanine fractional excretion rates. With sensitive and specific enzymatic assays for phenylalanine and creatinine, the accuracy of this noninvasive procedure may also become clinically satisfactory for the purpose of self-monitoring. PMID:16435177

  11. Analysis of nutrient concentrations in the diet, serum, and urine of giraffe from surveyed North American zoological institutions.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kathleen; van Heugten, Eric; Ange-van Heugten, Kimberly; Poore, Matthew H; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Wolfe, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present research were to conduct a survey to investigate the health history and feeding practices of giraffe in captivity in North America and to obtain samples of hay, concentrate, browse, urine, and serum to compare across zoos, possible factors relating to the development of urolithiasis. Forty-one out of 98 institutions contacted responded, representing 218 giraffe. All responding zoos fed concentrate and alfalfa hay was the primary forage. Sixty-five percent of zoos fed browse and 43 different species of browse were listed. Six zoos reported a history of urolithiasis, seven reported wasting syndrome, and 10 reported sudden death. The median daily amount (as fed) of concentrate and hay offered were 5.45 kg (range of 2.73-9.55 kg) and 6.82 kg (range of 2.53-12.50 kg), respectively. The concentrate:hay ratio of the offered diet ranged from 0.22 to 3.47 with a median value of 0.79. Forty-three percent of the institutions offered a ratio greater than 1:1. Samples of concentrate and hay (six zoos), serum (five zoos), and urine (seven zoos) were obtained for chemical analyses. Analyzed nutrient content of the consumed diet, measured by weighing feed and orts for three consecutive days, met recommendations for giraffe, but was excessive for crude protein and P. Concentrate:hay and serum P were positively correlated (r=0.72; P<0.05). High dietary P content and a high level of concentrate relative to hay may be contributing factors to urolith formation and warrant further investigation. PMID:19816905

  12. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W

    2009-04-01

    The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species. PMID:19416182

  13. GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Busardò, Francesco P.; Jones, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t½ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines. PMID:26074743

  14. GHB pharmacology and toxicology: acute intoxication, concentrations in blood and urine in forensic cases and treatment of the withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Busard, Francesco P; Jones, Alan W

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines. PMID:26074743

  15. Effective radium concentration of lead-contaminated topsoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Douay, Francis; Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie; Bollinger, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    As the global amount of topsoil is decreasing and its importance for agricultural purposes is increasing, the detection and quantification of metallic pollutions in topsoils has become a topical concern of the utmost importance. Radium, which is generally concentrated in metal oxides and hydroxides and relatively easily leached from rock and soil, could potentially give precious information about the extent of the pollution at large spatial scales. In this study, the radon source term (effective radium concentration, ECRa) of more than 300 topsoils from a lead-contaminated site in the North of France has been measured using the accumulation technique. After placing the sample in a container, sampling of the air is done using a scintillation flask after some accumulation time. Radon concentration in the flask is inferred from counting in a photomultiplier 3.5 h after sampling, from which the effective radium concentration (ECRa) of the soil sample is calculated, expressed in Bq kg-1. This technique allows the measurement of large numbers of samples. The ECRa results of the topsoils, obtained over ca. 800 km2, show remarkable spatial organization and the values are compared with the results of their chemical analyses performed at ISA (Lille, France) and BRGM (Orléans, France). The highly lead-contaminated zone (with Pb concentrations larger than 250 ppm) is also relatively well circumscribed using ECRa apart. Indeed, ECRa values of topsoils are larger in the contaminated area than outside, compared with the average regional ECRa value. The mapping of ECRa of topsoils at large spatial scale appears therefore as an important asset to characterize this polluted area. Our ECRa data are also compared with the low-field specific magnetic susceptibility (Ξm) and other magnetic parameters to infer some insights from the magnetic fabrics in the soil and the ECRa-Ξm relations. Relations between ECRa and others metallic elements (Cr, Co, Hg, Ag) or others intrinsic characteristics (amount of sand, silt, organic matter) of the topsoils are also provided. ECRa appears as a powerful parameter to characterize the spatial structure of soils, and in addition provides clues on the susceptibility to heavy metal contamination. This study opens some interesting perspectives for the understanding of the relation between radium and heavy metals in the environment.

  16. Interleukin-6 concentrations in the urine and dipstick analyses were related to bacteriuria but not symptoms in the elderly: a cross sectional study of 421 nursing home residents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to half the residents of nursing homes for the elderly have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which should not be treated with antibiotics. A complementary test to discriminate between symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) and ABU is needed, as diagnostic uncertainty is likely to generate significant antibiotic overtreatment. Previous studies indicate that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the urine might be suitable as such a test. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between laboratory findings of bacteriuria, IL-6 in the urine, dipstick urinalysis and newly onset symptoms among residents of nursing homes. Methods In this cross sectional study, voided urine specimens for culture, urine dipstick and IL-6 analyses were collected from all residents capable of providing a voided urine sample, regardless of the presence of symptoms. Urine specimens and symptom forms were provided from 421 residents of 22 nursing homes. The following new or increased nonspecific symptoms occurring during the previous month were registered; fatigue, restlessness, confusion, aggressiveness, loss of appetite, frequent falls and not being herself/himself, as well as symptoms from the urinary tract; dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency. Results Recent onset of nonspecific symptoms was common among elderly residents of nursing homes (85/421). Urine cultures were positive in 32% (135/421), Escherichia coli was by far the most common bacterial finding. Residents without nonspecific symptoms had positive urine cultures as often as those with nonspecific symptoms with a duration of up to one month. Residents with positive urine cultures had higher concentrations of IL-6 in the urine (p < 0.001). However, among residents with positive urine cultures there were no differences in IL-6 concentrations or dipstick findings between those with or without nonspecific symptoms. Conclusions Nonspecific symptoms among elderly residents of nursing homes are unlikely to be caused by bacteria in the urine. This study could not establish any clinical value of using dipstick urinalysis or IL-6 in the urine to verify if bacteriuria was linked to nonspecific symptoms. PMID:25117748

  17. Influence of CYP2B6 genetic variants on plasma and urine concentrations of bupropion and metabolites at steady state

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Zhu, Andy Z. X.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton

    2013-01-01

    Background Bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation medication, is metabolized to hydroxybupropion (HB), an active metabolite, primarily by CYP2B6. Objectives To compare plasma concentrations of bupropion and metabolites at steady state in healthy volunteers with and without CYP2B6 genetic variants. Methods In a genotype-guided study of 42 healthy subjects we measured plasma and urine concentrations of bupropion and its metabolites, HB, threohydrobupropion (TB) and erythrohydrobupropion (EB) after 7 days of sustained release bupropion dosing. Results CYP2B6*6 and *18 gene variants were associated with approximately 33% reduced concentrations of HB, with no effects on concentrations of bupropion or other metabolites. We could account for 50% of the variation in HB concentrations in a model including genotype and sex. Conclusions Since HB is active and steady state concentrations of HB are more than 10 times higher than bupropion, CYP2B6 variants are likely to affect pharmacological activity. Due to the large individual variation within genotype group, the use of therapeutic drug monitoring for dose optimization may be necessary. PMID:23344581

  18. Catecholamines - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... collect your urine in a special bag or container every time you urinate for 24-hour period. ... and discard that urine. Urinate into the special container every time you use the bathroom for the ...

  19. Cloud point extraction for the determination of lead and cadmium in urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with multivariate optimization using Box Behnken design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranho, Tatiane De A.; Martendal, Edmar; Borges, Daniel L. G.; Carasek, Eduardo; Welz, Bernhard; Curtius, Adilson J.

    2007-09-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Pb and Cd in undigested urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). Aliquots of 0.5 mL urine were acidified with HCl and the chelating agent ammonium O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (DDTP) was added along with the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 at the optimized concentrations. Phase separation was achieved by heating the mixture to 50 C for 15 min. The surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by GF AAS, employing the optimized pyrolysis temperatures of 900 C for Pb and 800 C for Cd, using a graphite tube with a platform treated with 500 ?g Ru as permanent modifier. The reagent concentrations for CPE (HCl, DDTP and Triton X-114) were optimized using a Box Behnken design. The response surfaces and the optimum values were very similar for aqueous solutions and for the urine samples, demonstrating that aqueous standards submitted to CPE could be used for calibration. Detection limits of 40 and 2 ng L- 1 for Pb and Cd, respectively, were obtained along with an enhancement factor of 16 for both analytes. Three control urine samples were analyzed using this approach, and good agreement was obtained at a 95% statistical confidence level between the certified and determined values. Five real samples have also been analyzed before and after spiking with Pb and Cd, resulting in recoveries ranging from 97 to 118%.

  20. Dose-Response Relationship Between Orally Administered Ammonium Perchlorate and Urine Perchlorate Concentrations in Rats: Possible Biomarker to Quantify Environmental Ammonium Perchlorate Exposure on Thyroid Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong Xia; Ding, Miao Hong; Li, Yong Gan; Liu, Qin; Peng, Kai Liang

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of urine perchlorate as a biomarker of ammonium perchlorate (AP) exposure and to explore the correlation between the thyroid function indicators and the perchlorate concentrations, a sensitive and selective ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method was developed to detect perchlorate in urine samples. Rats were orally administrated with different doses of perchlorate. Serum free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined by radioimmunoassays. The results showed that a dose of AP up to 520 mg kg(-1) body weight induced a significant increase of TSH, with a decrease of FT4. Particularly, the levels of urine perchlorate increased dose-dependently on AP exposure from drinking water. The findings highlighted that urine perchlorate may be a useful biomarker for AP environmental exposure. PMID:24972017

  1. Effect of cattle urine addition on the surface emissions and subsurface concentrations of greenhouse gases from a UK lowland peatland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Chadwick, David; Cardenas, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Grazing systems represent a substantial percentage of the global anthropogenic flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) as a result of nitrogen addition to the soil. Cattle urine has been shown to stimulate N2O production due to the dual effect of a large pool of readily available N and C and increased soil water content. Studies indicate that even short-term grazing can cause a significant increase in N2O emissions, particularly when combined with compaction and seasonal water-table rise. Peat soils have different physical and chemical characteristics to mineral soils including higher organic carbon content, higher porosity and greater variation in hydraulic properties due to swell and shrink. Peat soils have been shown to have increased N2O emissions with respect to mineral soils as a result of a combination of these factors, particularly when amended with fertilisers or livestock excreta. Many lowland peatland environments in the UK are under seasonal grazing management and cattle are increasingly being introduced to manage fen vegetation in lowland peatland. In this study, we simulated small urination events on a conservation area of UK peat grassland that is intensively grazed for a short period of time during autumn seasonal water-table rise. We measured subsurface and surface emissions of N2O, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) alongside soil physical and chemical changes to determine the key mechanisms of greenhouse gas production and transport. CO2emission peaked at 5200 mg CO2 m-2 d-1 directly after application from a background value of 905 mg CO2 m-2 d-1. CH4 flux decreased to -2000 μg CH4 m-2 d-1two days after application (control plots -580 μg CH4 m-2 d-1); however, net CH4 flux was positive from urine treated plots and negative from control plots. N2O emission peaked at 37 mg N2O m-2 d-1 12 days after application (1.08 mg N2O m-2 d-1 in control plots). Subsurface CH4 and N2O concentrations were higher in the urine treated plots than the controls. There was no effect of treatment on subsurface CO2 concentrations. Subsurface N2O peaked at 500ppm 12 days after and 1200ppm 56 days after application. Subsurface NO3- concentration peaked at approximately 300 mg N kg dry soil-112 days after application. Results indicate that denitrification is the key driver for N2O release in peatlands and that production is strongly related to increased soil moisture. N2O production at depth continued long after emissions were detected at the surface. Increased study of the interaction between subsurface gas concentrations, surface emissions and soil hydrological conditions is required to successfully predict greenhouse gas production and emission.

  2. Decrease in the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers between 2009 and 2011 following implementation of stricter smoking regulations.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hyoung; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Se Yeong; Yu, Seung Do; Kim, Sue Jin; Choi, Wook Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Yeong Beom; Park, Seok Hwan; Lee, Soo Woong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if there was an association between the implementation of smoking regulation policies and the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers. The subjects of this study were 4612 non-smoking Korean citizens (aged 19 or older) selected from the first stage of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research from 2009 to 2011. Cotinine concentrations in urine were measured by GC-MS (limit of detection: 0.05 ng/mL). Changes in the urine cotinine concentration were analyzed using a weighted general linear model and linear regression and values were shown as geometric mean (GM). The GM urine cotinine concentration decreased over time (2.92 ng/mL in 2009, 1.93 ng/mL in 2010, and 1.25 ng/mL in 2011). The total decrease in the subjects' urine cotinine concentration between 2009 and 2011 was 2.79 ng/mL, representing a relative decrease of 54.7%. The decrease in GM urine cotinine concentration in each subgroup ranged from 2.17 ng/mL to 3.29 ng/mL (relative decreases of 46.4% and 62.8%, respectively), with the largest absolute reductions in subjects in the following groups: females, aged 40-49 years, detached residence type, no alcohol consumption, employed, secondhand smoke exposure. All groups had negative regression coefficients, all of which were significant (p < 0.001). Our results provide indirect indicators of the effectiveness of smoking regulation policies including the revision of the National Health Promotion Act in Korea. PMID:26507969

  3. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Corona, Aida; Ávila-Hermosillo, Antonio; Nelson, Robert G.; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ≥20 mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.6–59.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.5–13.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.2–16.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components. PMID:26347891

  4. Soluble (pro)renin receptor via β-catenin enhances urine concentration capability as a target of liver X receptor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaohan; Wang, Fei; Xu, Chuanming; Soodvilai, Sunny; Peng, Kexin; Su, Jiahui; Zhao, Long; Yang, Kevin T; Feng, Yumei; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Yang, Tianxin

    2016-03-29

    The extracellular domain of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is cleaved to produce a soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR) that is detected in biological fluid and elevated under certain pathological conditions. The present study was performed to define the antidiuretic action of sPRR and its potential interaction with liver X receptors (LXRs), which are known regulators of urine-concentrating capability. Water deprivation consistently elevated urinary sPRR excretion in mice and humans. A template-based algorithm for protein-protein interaction predicted the interaction between sPRR and frizzled-8 (FZD8), which subsequently was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. A recombinant histidine-tagged sPRR (sPRR-His) in the nanomolar range induced a remarkable increase in the abundance of renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) protein in primary rat inner medullary collecting duct cells. The AQP2 up-regulation relied on sequential activation of FZD8-dependent β-catenin signaling and cAMP-PKA pathways. Inhibition of FZD8 or tankyrase in rats induced polyuria, polydipsia, and hyperosmotic urine. Administration of sPRR-His alleviated the symptoms of diabetes insipidus induced in mice by vasopressin 2 receptor antagonism. Administration of the LXR agonist TO901317 to C57/BL6 mice induced polyuria and suppressed renal AQP2 expression associated with reduced renal PRR expression and urinary sPRR excretion. Administration of sPRR-His reversed most of the effects of TO901317. In cultured collecting duct cells, TO901317 suppressed PRR protein expression, sPRR release, and PRR transcriptional activity. Overall we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that sPRR exerts antidiuretic action via FZD8-dependent stimulation of AQP2 expression and that inhibition of this pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes insipidus induced by LXR agonism. PMID:26984496

  5. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Corona, Aida; Ávila-Hermosillo, Antonio; Nelson, Robert G; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ≥20 mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.6-59.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.5-13.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.2-16.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components. PMID:26347891

  6. Plasma and urine diketopiperazine concentrations in normal adults ingesting large quantities of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Cho, E S; Coon, J D; Stegink, L D

    1987-07-01

    In aqueous solution, aspartame can cyclicize to form its corresponding diketopiperazine (3-carboxymethyl-6-benzyl-2,5-diketopiperazine; DKP) and methanol. We measured plasma and urinary concentrations of DKP in samples obtained from six normal adult subjects ingesting 2.2 mg DKP/kg body weight. The DKP was administered as part of a dose of 200 mg aspartame/kg body weight. DKP concentrations in plasma were below the detection limit (less than 1 microgram/ml) of the high-pressure liquid chromatographic method at each time interval after ingestion at which they were measured. Mean (+/- SD) total urinary DKP excreted during the first 24-hr period after dosing was 6.68 +/- 1.30 mg (4.83 +/- 0.23% of the ingested DKP dose). Approximately 44% of the total DKP excreted was excreted in the first 4 hr after dosing. PMID:3623338

  7. Bisphenol A in Urine of Chinese Young Adults: Concentrations and Sources of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chongjing; Liu, Liyan; Ma, Wanli; Zhu, Ningzheng; Jiang, Ling; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental chemical. Urinary concentrations of BPA were measured in samples collected nationwide from Chinese young adults. The geometric mean urinary concentration of BPA in Chinese young adults was 2.23 ng/mL. The estimated daily exposure dose for BPA was 64.8 ng/kg bw/day. Contributions of various BPA sources to exposure in Chinese young adults were estimated. Dietary intake was the primary exposure pathway. The contribution of dietary intake, indoor dust, paper products and personal care products to BPA intake was 72.5 %, 0.74 %, 0.98 %, 0.22 % of the total exposure dose, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of BPA in young adults from most provinces and autonomous regions of China. The results can be used to establish a database for BPA exposure assessment for Chinese general population. PMID:26679324

  8. Isotope Concentrations from 24-h Urine and 3-h Serum Samples Can Be Used to Measure Intestinal Magnesium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women123

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karen E.; Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Shafer, Martin M.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral 26Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. 25Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0–24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0–24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (−0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01593501. PMID:24500940

  9. Mobilisation of heavy metals into the urine by CaEDTA: relation to erythrocyte and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Araki, S; Aono, H; Murata, K

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA) on the urinary excretion, erythrocyte, and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators of seven heavy metals, CaEDTA was administered by intravenous infusion to 20 workers exposed to lead, zinc, and copper. The workers' blood lead concentrations ranged from 22 to 59 micrograms/dl (mean 38 micrograms/dl (1.8 mumol/l]. The 24 hour urinary excretion of metals after CaEDTA administration (mobilisation yield) was on average 13 times the background excretion for lead, 11 times for zinc, 3.8 times for manganese, 3.4 times for cadmium, 1.3 times for copper, and 1.1 times for chromium; no significant increase was found for mercury. The mobilisation yield of lead (MPb) was significantly correlated with whole blood and erythrocyte concentrations and the urinary excretion of lead but not with its plasma concentration; similarly, the mobilisation yield of cadmium was significantly correlated with its erythrocyte concentration. In addition, MPb was significantly correlated with intra-erythrocytic enzyme delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase activity and urinary coproporphyrin excretion. The relation between the mobilisation yield of heavy metals and their body burden (and toxic signs) is discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:3092853

  10. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  11. Hypothyroidism leads to increased dopamine receptor sensitivity and concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, A.D.; Overstreet, D.H.; Crocker, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    Rats treated with iodine-131 were confirmed to be hypothyroid by their reduced baseline core body temperatures, reduced serum thyroxine concentrations and elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations. When hypothyroid rats were compared to euthyroid controls they were more sensitive to the effects of apomorphine (1.0 mumol/kg) on stereotypy, operant responding and body temperature and showed a smaller reduction in locomotor activity after injection of haloperidol (0.25 mumol/kg). Receptor binding studies on striatal homogenates indicated that hypothyroid rats had increased concentrations of D2 dopamine receptors but there was no change in the affinity. It is concluded that hypothyroidism increases dopamine receptor sensitivity by increasing receptor concentration.

  12. Association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (estimated from job category) with concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in urine from workers at a steel plant.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, D; Rothman, N; Cho, S H; Lim, H S; Kwon, H J; Kim, S M; Schwartz, B; Strickland, P T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Increased risk of lung cancer has been associated with employment in the steel industry. This association is thought to be due in part to increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air found in this work environment. Measurement of PAH metabolites in human urine provides a means of assessing individual internal dose of PAHs. This study examined the relative contribution of occupation and smoking to urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG) among a group of workers at a steel plant. METHODS--Concentrations of 1-OHPG in urine from 44 workers with jobs associated with increased air concentrations of PAHs and 40 workers with jobs with low or no exposure to PAHs were measured. 20 workers in each group were not current smokers. Urinary 1-OHPG was measured by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy after immunoaffinity chromatography specific for PAH metabolites. RESULTS--Mean (SEM) urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 2.16 (0.42) pmol/ml urine among the 44 occupationally exposed workers compared with 0.38 (0.05) among the 40 workers with no or low exposure (P < 0.0001). Mean urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 1.82 (0.41) pmol/ml urine among the 44 current smokers compared with 0.75 (0.20) among the 40 non-smokers (P < 0.005). Mean 1-OHPG concentrations in non-smokers were 0.26 (n = 20), 0.70 (n = 15), and 2.84 pmol/ml urine (n = 5) for strata of exposure to PAHs (no or low, mid, and high) based on job category; the corresponding values in smokers were 0.55 (n = 20), 0.94 (n = 12), and 4.91 pmol/ml (n = 12), respectively. Multiple linear regression showed significant differences between subjects in different PAH exposure with increased concentrations of 1-OHPG in urine. Amounts of foods containing PAHs ingested by this group of workers were relatively low and did not contribute significantly to urinary 1-OHPG concentrations. CONCLUSIONS--These results indicate that 1-OHPG is a common urinary metabolite in people with recent occupational exposure to PAHs and is associated with both job category and estimated stratum of PAH exposure. PMID:7550799

  13. Urine Metabolomics by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy Indicates Associations between Serum 3,5-T2 Concentrations and Intermediary Metabolism in Euthyroid Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pietzner, Maik; Homuth, Georg; Budde, Kathrin; Lehmphul, Ina; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Nauck, Matthias; Köhrle, Josef; Friedrich, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Context 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) is a thyroid hormone metabolite which exhibited versatile effects in rodent models, including the prevention of insulin resistance or hepatic steatosis typically forced by a high-fat diet. With respect to euthyroid humans, we recently observed a putative link between serum 3,5-T2 and glucose but not lipid metabolism. Objective The aim of the present study was to widely screen the urine metabolome for associations with serum 3,5-T2 concentrations in healthy individuals. Study Design and Methods Urine metabolites of 715 euthyroid participants of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Multinomial logistic and multivariate linear regression models were used to detect associations between urine metabolites and serum 3,5-T2 concentrations. Results Serum 3,5-T2 concentrations were positively associated with urinary levels of trigonelline, pyroglutamate, acetone and hippurate. In detail, the odds for intermediate or suppressed serum 3,5-T2 concentrations doubled owing to a 1-standard deviation (SD) decrease in urine trigonelline levels, or increased by 29-50% in relation to a 1-SD decrease in urine pyroglutamate, acetone and hippurate levels. Conclusion Our findings in humans confirmed the metabolic effects of circulating 3,5-T2 on glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and enhanced drug metabolism as postulated before based on interventional pharmacological studies in rodents. Of note, 3,5-T2 exhibited a unique urinary metabolic profile distinct from previously published results for the classical thyroid hormones. PMID:26601079

  14. Natural variation in 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in the urine of Finnish population groups.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja; Solatie, Dina; Vesterbacka, Pia

    2011-11-01

    A study to determine activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the urine of certain Finnish population groups was conducted, to investigate the variation in natural background level of urinary excretion. The study participants were divided into three groups mainly based on their diet. The first group comprised recreational fishermen and the second group represented people consuming more reindeer meat than an average Finn, while people using drinking water with very high activity concentrations of (210)Po were selected for the third group. The fourth group was a control group. The mean urinary excretion of (210)Po in groups 1 and 2 was 73 and 100 mBq d(-1), respectively. These values were higher than the value of the control group (20 mBq d(-1)) and the mean values reported in the literature. The mean daily urinary excretion of (210)Pb in groups 1 and 2, 70 and 52 mBq d(-1), was also slightly higher than that in the control group (32 mBq d(-1)). In contrast, the excretion rates of both (210)Po and (210)Pb for the members of group 3 were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. This was clearly due to the elevated levels of natural radionuclides in their drinking water. The present study demonstrates the importance of possessing good knowledge of the background levels, in order to allow the determination of the additional exposure due, for example, to the malevolent use of radiation. PMID:21922285

  15. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered species: correlations with physiologic events and use as a marker of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, Bernard G; Brown, Janine L; Roth, Terri L; Czekala, Nancy

    2005-05-01

    Many mammalian species are facing extinction due to problems created by human encroachment, agriculture, pollution, and willful slaughter. Among those at risk are the Asian and African elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros, and giant panda. Conservation groups try to save species in the wild by preserving habitat and limiting animal-human conflicts, often with limited success. Another alternative is to preserve the extant gene pool through captive breeding as a hedge against extinction. Measurement of circulating reproductive hormones is impractical for most wildlife species; determination of urinary or fecal hormone metabolites provides a more viable approach. To aid breeding management, one important tool is the ability to diagnose and monitor pregnancy, especially in species with long gestations (e.g., rhinos over 15 mo and elephants over 20 mo). Unfortunately, measuring progestins often is not useful diagnostically, because concentrations are similar during at least part of the pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase in some species (e.g., elephants, rhinoceroses, and giant pandas). As serum relaxin reliably distinguishes between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in bitches, relaxin measurement might also provide a method for detecting a successful pregnancy in endangered species. Appropriate immunoassay reagents have enabled the estimation of relaxin concentrations in the serum of elephants and rhinos and the determination of pregnancy establishment and the outcome. Relaxin was also detected in panda serum and urine. However, the extreme variability of the time between observed mating and parturition and the confounding factors of delayed implantation, pseudopregnancy, and frequent fetal resorptions made it impossible to use the panda relaxin data as a specific marker of pregnancy. PMID:15956734

  16. Breast milk lead concentrations of mothers living near tin smelters.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Moreira, Maria de Fátima R; Bernardi, José Vicente E; Dórea, José G

    2013-11-01

    We compared Pb concentration in human milk from 37 mothers living in a neighborhood of tin-ore smelters to that from 45 mothers living in a fishing community. The median breast-milk-Pb (BM-Pb) concentration was significantly (p = 0.0000001) higher (11.3 μg L(-1); ≤0.96-29.4 μg L(-1)) in mothers living in the vicinity of smelters than that of rural mothers (1.9 μg L(-1); ≤0.96-20.0 μg L(-1)). These mothers also showed a statistically significant correlation between length of residence and BM-Pb concentration (Spearman r = 0.6864; p < 0.0001). The estimated median exposure (for infants <6 months) was 3.0 μg kg(-1) b.w. for rural infants compared to 7.5 μg kg(-1) b.w. for infants in the vicinity of metal smelters. Overall, most BM-Pb concentrations (79 %) in the metal smelter area were above the critical limit of 5.0 μg L(-1) set by the WHO. PMID:24068462

  17. Lead and cadmium concentrations in livestock bred in Campania, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Amodio-Cocchieri, R.; Fiore, P.

    1987-09-01

    Among the various aspects of environmental pollution, special attention must be directed to heavy metals, which show a remarkable tendency to accumulate in tissues and organs of animals and humans. Particularly, lead and cadmium are of great concern when one considers that the variety of their uses has increased their level in the environment and that they have been identified as the causes of several clinical problems. Since heavy metals may be used as indicators of industrial contamination, the Italian Ministry of Health started a research program concerning the lead and cadmium levels in meat, cow's milk and eggs produce by Italian livestock and in well water, and in local and industrial feeds tuffs employed in their breeding. This is the object of the present study carried out in the Campania province.

  18. Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.

    2003-05-01

    At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

  19. Reduction of lead concentrations in vegetables grown in Tarragona Province, Spain, as a consequence of reduction of lead in gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, M.; Rico, A.; Schuhmacher, M.

    1995-12-31

    Lead concentrations were determined in 350 samples belonging to 13 different species of vegetables from Tarragona Province, Spain. The samples were subjected to lead analyses by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. During the period 1989-1994, an average decrease for lead concentrations of 69% was estimated. Spinach showed the lowest reduction2 in lead content (6%), while the highest decreases were observed for onion (87%) and leek (90%). Taking into account the average consumption of vegetable foodstuffs by the population of Tarragona Province, the daily lead intake through edible vegetables was reduced from 41.5 {mu}g/d in 1989 to 10.6 {mu}g/d in 1994. The results of the current study demonstrate a substantial decline in the lead levels of vegetables from Tarragona Province. The major cause of this decline is most likely the reduced leaded gasoline consumption.

  20. The Urinal Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranakis, Evangelos; Krizanc, Danny

    A man walks into a men's room and observes n empty urinals. Which urinal should he pick so as to maximize his chances of maintaining privacy, i.e., minimize the chance that someone will occupy a urinal beside him? In this paper, we attempt to answer this question under a variety of models for standard men's room behavior. Our results suggest that for the most part one should probably choose the urinal furthest from the door (with some interesting exceptions). We also suggest a number of variations on the problem that lead to many open problems.

  1. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

  2. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; R, Kannan; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  3. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  4. Phenolic acid concentrations in plasma and urine from men consuming green or black tea and potential chemopreventive properties for colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Susanne M.; Wang, Piwen; Abgaryan, Narine; Vicinanza, Roberto; de Oliveira, Daniela Moura; Zhang, Yanjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Carpenter, Catherine L.; Aronson, William J.; Heber, David

    2013-01-01

    Scope Tea polyphenols are metabolized by the colonic microflora yielding phenolic metabolites, which may contribute to the health benefits of tea. We determined the serum and urine concentrations of phenolic acids, hippuric acid and polyhydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactones during green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) administration. The effects of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4-DHPAA) alone and in combination on bioavailability, intracellular metabolism, and antiproliferative activity was determined in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Methods and Results The concentration of phenolic metabolites was quantified by HPLC with electrochemical detection and MS. Urine concentrations of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA) and polyhydroxy-γ-valerolactones were increased significantly in men drinking GT compared to control. Urine concentration of 3-O-methylgallic acid (3OMGA) was significantly increased in men drinking BT compared to control. Serum 3,4-DHPAA was significantly increased after consumption of GT and BT and 4-HPAA after GT consumption. In vitro treatment of HCT-116 colon cancer cells with 3,4-DHPAA and EGCG exhibited an additive antiproliferative effect, while methylation of 3,4-DHPAA was significantly decreased. 3OMGA exhibited the strongest antiproliferative activity among the phenolic acids. Conclusions The consumption of both, GT and BT, was associated with a significant increase in urinary and serum phenolic acids. PMID:23319439

  5. Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

  6. Use of an Acetyl Derivative to Improve GC-MS Determination of Norbuprenorphine in the Presence of High Concentrations of Buprenorphine in Urine.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Joel R; Hobbs, Gregory A

    2016-04-01

    Certain patients being treated with Suboxone™ or Subutex™ can exhibit very high buprenorphine and low norbuprenorphine concentrations in urine. Very high buprenorphine can interfere with buprenorphine-D4 used as an internal standard, causing errors in norbuprenorphine determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We used a modified method of Wu et al. to introduce norbuprenorphine-D3 as a separate internal standard for norbuprenorphine. This allowed us to accurately measure norbuprenorphine in neat urine specimens when buprenorphine is present in extremely high concentrations. Laboratories measuring buprenorphine and metabolite by GC-MS may face this problem if their clientele includes patients being treated with other medications that interfere with the cytochrome p450 CYP 3A4-mediated conversion of buprenorphine to norbuprenorphine. PMID:26811236

  7. Relationship between blood and urine alcohol concentrations in apprehended drivers who claimed consumption of alcohol after driving with and without supporting evidence.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan Wayne; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2010-01-30

    For various reasons, many people suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) are not apprehended sitting behind the wheel, but some time after the driving. This gives them the opportunity to claim they drank alcohol after the time of driving or after they were involved in a road-traffic crash. Alleged post-offence drinking is not easy for the prosecution to disprove, which often means that the DUIA charge is dropped or the person is acquitted if the case goes to trial. The routine practice of sampling and measuring the concentration of alcohol in blood (BAC) and urine (UAC) and calculating urine/blood ratios (UAC/BAC) and the changes in UAC between two successive voids furnishes useful information to support or challenge alleged drinking after driving. We present here a retrospective case series of DUIA offenders (N=40) in half of which there was supporting evidence of an after-drink (eye witness or police reports) and in the other half no such evidence existed apart from the suspect's admission. When there was supporting evidence of an after-drink, the UAC/BAC ratio for the first void was close to or less than unity (mean 1.04, median 1.08, range 0.54-1.21) and the UAC increased by 0.21 g/L (range 0.02-0.57) between the two voids. Without any supporting evidence of post-offence drinking the mean UAC/BAC ratio was 1.46 (range 1.35-1.93) for the first void, verifying that absorption and distribution of alcohol in all body fluids and tissues was complete. In these cases, the UAC between successive voids decreased by 0.25 g/L on average (range 0.10-0.49), indicating the post-absorptive phase of the BAC curve. Long experience from investigating claims of post-offence drinking leads us to conclude that in the vast majority of cases this lacks any substance and is simply a last resort by DUIA offenders to evade justice. Unless supporting evidence exists (eye witness, police reports, etc.) of post-offence drinking the courts are encouraged to ignore this defence argument. PMID:19942384

  8. Increased urinary cobalt and whole blood concentrations of cadmium and lead in women with uterine leiomyomata: Findings from the ENDO Study.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Erica B; Louis, Germaine M Buck; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Palmer, Christopher D; Chen, Zhen; Sun, Liping; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Dorais, Jessie; Peterson, C Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Multiple trace elements have estrogen receptor activity, but the association of these elements with uterine leiomyoma has not been defined. A cohort of 473 women aged 18-44 undergoing surgery for benign gynecologic indications provided whole blood and urine specimens for trace element analysis, which was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Twenty elements were analyzed in blood and 3 in urine. The surgeon documented whether fibroids were present. Geometric mean concentrations were compared between women with and without fibroids, and logistic regression models were generated to assess the impact of the concentration of each trace element on the odds of fibroids. In multivariate regressions, odds of a fibroid diagnosis were higher with increased whole blood cadmium (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.04) and lead (AOR 1.31 95% CI 1.02, 1.69), and urine cobalt (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02, 1.70). Urinary cadmium and lead were not related to fibroid diagnosis. Increased exposure to trace elements may contribute to fibroid growth, and fibroids may serve as a reservoir for these elements. Differences between urinary and whole blood findings merit further investigation, as urinary cadmium has been considered a superior marker of exposure. PMID:24994689

  9. Anthropogenic lead concentrations and sources in Baltic Sea sediments based on lead isotopic composition.

    PubMed

    Zaborska, Agata

    2014-08-15

    The Gulf of Gdańsk is influenced by heavy metals of anthropogenic origin. In this study, temporal concentration changes of Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were studied in six, 50 cm long sediment cores. The main aim of the study was to concentrate on the history of Pb fluxes and Pb isotopic composition ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) to trace Pb sources. The lowest Pb concentrations (19 μg g(-1)) were measured in sediments deposited circa 1860, while the highest Pb concentrations (63-147 μg g(-1)) were measured in sediments deposited between 1960s and 70s. Pre-industrial Pb fluxes were 7 Pb m(2)year(-1), while after WWII they reached 199 Pb m(2)year(-1). Highest (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios (∼1.22) were measured in the oldest sediment layers, and the lowest (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios (∼1.165) were measured in the sediments deposited in 1970s-90s. During the period of highest Pb contamination, the anthropogenic Pb fraction reached up to 93%. A general discussion of the Pb sources, emissions, and loads for Poland is included. PMID:25016419

  10. Lead concentrations in bullfrog Rana catesbeiana and green frog R. clamitans tadpoles inhabiting highway drainages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdsall, C.W.; Grue, C.E.; Anderson, A.

    1986-01-01

    Lead concentrations were determined in sediment and tadpoles of bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana and green frogs R. clamitans from drainages along highways with different daily average traffic volumes (range, 4272 to I08,800 vehicles day-I) and from ponds >0.4 km from the nearest highway. Lead concentrations (mg kg--I dry weight) in sediment (7-8 to 940) were usually greater (4-5 times) than those in the tadpoles (bullfrog, 0,07 to 270; green frog, 0,90 to 240 mg kg-I). Lead concentrations in sediment (r =0.63) and in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = 0.69; green frog, r = 0.57) were positively correlated with average daily traffic volume. Lead concentrations in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = (). 76: green frog, r = 0.75) were also positively correlated with lead concentrations in sediment. At sites where both bullfrog and green frog tadpoles were collected. lead concentrations in the two species were closely related (r = 0.84). Lead concentrations in tadpoles living near highways may contribute to the elevated lead levels reported in wildlife that are potential tadpole predators. Dietary lead concentrations similar to those in our tadpoles have been associated with physiological and reproductive effects in some species of birds and mammals. However, additional data are needed to determine the hazards to predators of lead concentrations in tadpoles.

  11. A surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method for the determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine and variation of endogenous urinary concentrations of GHB.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyoung; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun

    2014-09-01

    ?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a strong anesthetic effect; however, proving its ingestion through the quantification of GHB in biological specimens is not straightforward due to the endogenous presence of GHB in human blood, urine, saliva, etc. In the present study, a surrogate analyte approach was applied to accurate quantitative determination of GHB in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to overcome this issue. For this, (2)H6-GHB and (13)C2-dl-3-hydroxybutyrate were used as a surrogate standard and as an internal standard, respectively, and parallelism between the surrogate analyte approach and standard addition was investigated at the initial step. The validation results proved the method to be selective, accurate, and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges (0.1-1?g/ml). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of (2)H6-GHB were 0.05 and 0.1?g/ml, respectively. No significant variations were observed among urine matrices from different sources. The stability of (2)H6-GHB was satisfactory under sample storage and in-process conditions. However, in vitro production of endogenous GHB was observed when the urine sample was kept under the in-process condition for 4h and under the storage conditions of 4 and -20C. In order to facilitate the practical interpretation of urinary GHB, endogenous GHB was accurately measured in urine samples from 79 healthy volunteers using the surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method developed in the present study. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations in 74 urine samples with quantitative results ranged from 0.09 to 1.8?g/ml and from 4.5 to 530?g/mmol creatinine, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between the unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations. The urinary endogenous GHB concentrations were affected by gender and age while they were not significantly influenced by habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, or caffeine-containing beverage drinking. PMID:24929871

  12. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  13. Maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... be done to check for this disorder: Plasma amino acid test Urine organic acid test Genetic testing There ...

  14. Posidonia oceanica as a historical monitor device of lead concentration in marine environment.

    PubMed

    Tranchina, L; Miccich, S; Bartolotta, A; Brai, M; Mantegna, R N

    2005-05-01

    We show that Posidonia oceanica is able to reliably monitor the variability of environmental lead (Pb). We analyze lead concentration measured in the scales and rhizomes of Posidonia oceanica collected in seven sites along the coasts of the Sicily island and subsequently fractioned them according to a lepidochronological analysis. We measure lead concentration in Posidonia oceanica tissues by using the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. We compare the measured lead concentration with the estimated lead emission in air due to the gasoline sold and used for combustion in car engines in Sicily. By computation of the Pearson cross-correlation coefficient, we show that lead concentration, which is measured in the scales of Posidonia oceanica, is statistically correlated to lead emission in air and reflects the level of lead pollution in the coastal marine environment. PMID:15926545

  15. Indices of potential lead hazard.

    PubMed Central

    Posner, H S

    1977-01-01

    This review is concerned with the concentrations of lead in human whole blood, erythrocytes, plasma, serum, soft tissues, bone, and urine. The extent to which redistribution of some of the bound lead occurs is outlines. The effects of lead on enzyme activities and on the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in the blood and urine are described. A brief section deals with the range of signs and symptoms that can occur and differences seen between symptomatic children and adults. PMID:332498

  16. Effect of intravenous taurine supplementation on plasma, blood cell, and urine taurine concentrations in adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kopple, J D; Vinton, N E; Laidlaw, S A; Ament, M E

    1990-11-01

    Thirty-four adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition (TPN) were treated either with or without intravenous taurine for less than or equal to 24 mo. Statistical comparisons were carried out in eight patients randomly assigned to receive intravenous taurine, usually 10 mg.kg-1.d-1, and 10 patients not receiving taurine. Compared with normal adults, baseline plasma taurine and urine taurine-creatinine ratios were decreased in both groups and platelet taurine was reduced in the taurine-treated group. During taurine treatment the mean of the mean values for taurine became normal in plasma and platelets and remained normal in erythrocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes; urine taurine-creatinine ratios rose to approximately five times normal. During follow-up, patients not given taurine had plasma, erythrocyte, and granulocyte taurine and urine taurine-creatinine ratios below normal values and the concentrations of taurine-treated patients. Their platelet taurine was also subnormal. Thus, 10 mg taurine.kg-1.d-1 intravenously normalizes plasma and blood cell taurine concentrations in long-term TPN patients. PMID:2122710

  17. Improper sealing caused by the Styrofoam integrity seals in leakproof plastic bottles lead to significant loss of ethanol in frozen evidentiary urine samples.

    PubMed

    Sreerama, Lakshmaiah; Hardin, Glenn G

    2003-05-01

    Evidentiary urine samples (n = 345) stored frozen at -20 degrees C in their original containers (leakproof 100 mL plastic bottles) upon retesting for ethanol resulted in concentrations that were significantly lower (average loss = approximately 30%) than those prior to their storage at -20 degrees C (p < or = 0.0001). The observed loss of ethanol was independent of the method of thawing or the concentration of ethanol in the samples, but was dependent on the sample volume in the container, i.e., the larger the volume of sample the larger the magnitude of ethanol loss. The loss of ethanol was determined to be due to improper sealing by a Styrofoam integrity seal attached to the mouth of the container. Accordingly, adopting leakproof plastic containers that do not contain Styrofoam integrity seals, but rather an outside and across the cap tape integrity seal for evidence collection and long-term storage, will prevent loss of ethanol due to evaporation. PMID:12762546

  18. Characterization of the airborne concentrations of lead in U. S. industry

    SciTech Connect

    Froines, J.R.; Baron, S.; Wegman, D.H.; O'Rourke, S. )

    1990-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead represents a continuing problem of significant magnitude in the United States. To characterize the problem for surveillance purposes, an analysis of the airborne concentrations of lead identified in OSHA compliance inspections was conducted for the years 1979 to 1985. The five specific objectives of the study were: (1) to examine the distribution of air lead concentration in industrial environments; (2) to determine the secular trends in air lead concentrations for high lead industries; (3) to assess which job titles had excessive airborne lead concentrations; (4) to evaluate whether there was a relationship between lead overexposure and company size, unionization, or type of inspection; and (5) to investigate the prevalence of respirator violations for lead. Fifty-two industries were identified which had more than 1/3 of their inspection medians greater than the permissible exposure limit. These included primary and secondary lead smelting, battery manufacture, pigment manufacture, brass/bronze foundries, as well as 46 other industries. There has been little if any improvement in the prevalence and severity of airborne lead concentrations for the high lead industries, battery manufacture, secondary smelting, pigment manufacture, and brass/bronze foundries. Specific high exposure job titles are identified for certain high lead industries. The job title of painting stands out as an especially problematical job title across a number of industries. The prevalence of respirator violations is approximately 20% of all lead inspections.

  19. Comparative Study of Lead Concentration in Feathers of Urban and Rural Passerines in Merida, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava-Diaz, Remedios; Hoogesteijn, Almira L; Erosa, Mercy Dzul; Febles, Jose L; Mendez-Gonzalez, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    Lead is a commonly monitored heavy metal because of potential health effects on exposed organisms. We quantified lead in secondary feathers of two passerine bird species, clay-colored thrushes (Turdus grayi) and great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus), from an urban and a rural site in the municipality of Merida, Yucatan. Urban lead concentration was significantly higher than its rural counterpart for both species (p < 0.05). In the urban site, lead concentration was similar in both species (p = 0.14). However, data from the rural site showed that lead concentration was significantly higher in thrush feathers (p < 0.05). Lead levels herein presented are among the lowest ever reported suggesting that either lead accumulation or absorption is limited. Finally, our data seem to support the hypothesis that species feeding ecology plays a major role in lead accumulation. PMID:26253842

  20. Simultaneous quantification of vinblastine and desacetylvinblastine concentrations in canine plasma and urine samples using LC-APCI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Achanta, Satyanarayana; Ngo, Minh; Veitenheimer, Allison; Maxwell, Lara K; Wagner, Jarrad R

    2013-01-15

    A highly sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of vinblastine and its metabolite, desacetylvinblastine, in canine plasma and urine samples. Plasma and urine samples were processed by a solid phase extraction procedure. The optimal chromatographic behavior of these analytes was achieved on pentafluorophenyl (PFP) propyl analytical column (5μm, 50×2.1mm) under isocratic elution of 0.75mL/min with a mobile phase of 5mM ammonium acetate and methanol. The samples were analyzed in positive ion, multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curves were linear over 0.125-2ng/mL (lower calibration curve); 2-100ng/mL (higher calibration curve) and 0.125-5ng/mL for vinblastine and desacetylvinblastine in plasma, and over 1-2000ng/mL and 0.5-100ng/mL for vinblastine and desacetylvinblastine in urine samples, respectively. The limits of quantitation of vinblastine and desacetylvinblastine were 0.125ng/mL in both matrices. The intra and interday accuracy was above 89% and precision below 8.6% for both analytes in both matrices. The developed method was successfully applied to ongoing in vivo vinblastine pharmacokinetic studies in dogs. PMID:23314352

  1. Feather lead concentrations and207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gwiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, Allan P.; Clark, M.; Wynne, J.; Grantham, And J.; Smith, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ???10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. A longitudinal study of the relation of lead in blood to lead in air concentrations among battery workers.

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkins, D G; Robins, T G; Hinkamp, D L; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1992-01-01

    The relation between lead in air (PbA) and lead in blood (PbB), concentrations was investigated among 44 workers in five major operations in a United States high volume, lead acid battery plant. The study covered a 30 month period in which workers received frequent PbA and PbB determinations, workers remained in a single job, and PbA concentrations averaged below the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 50 micrograms/m3. In both univariate and multivariable linear regressions, longitudinal analyses averaging PbA concentrations over the 30 month study period appeared superior to cross sectional analyses using only six month PbA averages to model PbB concentrations. The covariate adjusted coefficient (alpha value) for PbA (mu/m3) in models of PbB (micrograms/100 g) was 1.14. This figure is strikingly higher than that reported in previous studies in the lead acid battery industry in all of which PbA concentrations were substantially higher than in the current study. Plausible explanations for the difference in alpha values include non-linearity of the PbA-PbB curve, a higher fraction of large size particulate associated with higher PbA concentrations, survivor bias among workers exposed to higher PbA concentrations, and the cross sectional designs of most previous studies. Despite previously reported problems with the model used by OSHA to predict PbA-PbB relations, the findings of this study are in good agreement with the predictions of that model. PMID:1571294

  3. A longitudinal study of the relation of lead in blood to lead in air concentrations among battery workers.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, D G; Robins, T G; Hinkamp, D L; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1992-04-01

    The relation between lead in air (PbA) and lead in blood (PbB), concentrations was investigated among 44 workers in five major operations in a United States high volume, lead acid battery plant. The study covered a 30 month period in which workers received frequent PbA and PbB determinations, workers remained in a single job, and PbA concentrations averaged below the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 50 micrograms/m3. In both univariate and multivariable linear regressions, longitudinal analyses averaging PbA concentrations over the 30 month study period appeared superior to cross sectional analyses using only six month PbA averages to model PbB concentrations. The covariate adjusted coefficient (alpha value) for PbA (mu/m3) in models of PbB (micrograms/100 g) was 1.14. This figure is strikingly higher than that reported in previous studies in the lead acid battery industry in all of which PbA concentrations were substantially higher than in the current study. Plausible explanations for the difference in alpha values include non-linearity of the PbA-PbB curve, a higher fraction of large size particulate associated with higher PbA concentrations, survivor bias among workers exposed to higher PbA concentrations, and the cross sectional designs of most previous studies. Despite previously reported problems with the model used by OSHA to predict PbA-PbB relations, the findings of this study are in good agreement with the predictions of that model. PMID:1571294

  4. The Effects of Different Concentrations of Lead Salts on a Variety of Crop Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Liz; Gibbon, Jamie; Hofgartner, Jon; Mason, Craig; Willmetts, Helen

    2003-01-01

    An investigation is described that would be suitable for A-level or first year degree Biology or Environmental Science students. Crop plants were grown in different concentrations of lead chloride and lead nitrate. French beans, carrots and Brussels sprouts were all inhibited at concentrations over 0.01 mol dm[superscript -3] showing stunted root

  5. The Effects of Different Concentrations of Lead Salts on a Variety of Crop Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Liz; Gibbon, Jamie; Hofgartner, Jon; Mason, Craig; Willmetts, Helen

    2003-01-01

    An investigation is described that would be suitable for A-level or first year degree Biology or Environmental Science students. Crop plants were grown in different concentrations of lead chloride and lead nitrate. French beans, carrots and Brussels sprouts were all inhibited at concentrations over 0.01 mol dm[superscript -3] showing stunted root…

  6. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.

  7. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices

    SciTech Connect

    Umoren, J.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-01

    Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Lead and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.

  8. Lead concentration in breast milk of lactating women who were living in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Sedigheh; Shahverdy, Mohammad Reza; Mazhari, Najmeh; Abdi, Khosrou; Gerayesh Nejad, Siavash; Shams, Sedigheh; Alebooyeh, Elham; Khaghani, Shahnaz

    2014-01-01

    It is obvious that lead intake is of concern not for its beneficial/essential effects on metabolism, but rather for its toxic actions, which can be especially damaging to children. The objective of this study was to analyze the concentration of lead in milk of mothers during prolonged lactation. Milk samples from 43 mothers were collected at 2 months postpartum. Lead was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The value of lead in human milk was 23.66±22.43 μg/l. Lead concentration in human milk of mothers was higher than other countries and no significant relationship was found between levels of human milk lead and mother's education, age, parity, height and weight. The concentrations of lead in the milk samples were high, which makes a major public health hazard for the inhabitants, especially neonatal and children, of the industrial locations. PMID:24658989

  9. Concentrations of isoflavones in plasma and urine of post-menopausal women chronically ingesting high quantities of soy isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Mathey, J; Lamothe, V; Coxam, V; Potier, M; Sauvant, P; Bennetau-Pelissero, C

    2006-06-01

    Soy food or food supplements based on soy containing isoflavones (Isos) are increasingly available in Western countries. However, the variability of Isos levels in urine and plasma in humans during chronic ingestion is poorly documented. Nevertheless, this is the way these compounds will most probably be used in the future, especially if the soy-based supplements market goes on increasing. Here, glycosilated Isos in an enriched extract of Prevastein equal to 100 mg of equivalent Isos aglycone was given daily to 27 post-menopausal women for 30 days and to 12 post-menopausal women for 60 days. Volunteers were given Prevastein in a cereal bar (25 mg Isos) and in a yoghurt (25 mg Isos) both at breakfast and dinner. Plasma samples were collected after overnight fasting. Urine samples were aliquots of a 24 h collection checked on volume and creatinin excretion levels. Genistein, daidzein and equol were measured at day 0 and every 15 days afterwards, using original specific ELISAs. Constant levels were reached from the 15th day. About 59.2% of the volunteers were significant equol producers in the first experiment and 58.3% in the second. A large variability in plasma and urine levels was observed among post-menopausal women consuming 100 mg Isos per day, although remaining relatively stable in each individual subject. This could partly account for the controversial effects of Isos recorded so far in clinical studies. So Isos plasma levels would have to be assayed during chronic exposures, and could help to better understand the large variability of the effects classically observed in clinical studies. ELISA techniques could be easily exported to analytical laboratories to help physicians and nutritionists with their prescriptions. PMID:16513315

  10. Lead concentrations and isotopic signatures in vintages of French wine between 1950 and 1991.

    PubMed

    Rosman, K J; Chisholm, W; Jimi, S; Candelone, J P; Boutron, C F; Teissedre, P L; Adams, F C

    1998-08-01

    Vintages of French wine from 1950 to 1991 were analyzed for lead isotopes and concentrations to investigate whether they might be used to archive the isotopic composition of the anthropogenic lead in aerosols to which the vineyard was exposed. Early vintages (1950-1980) contained 78-227 ng/g of lead with 206Pb/207Pb ratios between 1.152 and 1.173, while the later vintages displayed significantly lower concentrations and a smaller range of isotopic ratios. The concentration of trimethyl lead, which is associated with automobile emissions, was found to be poorly correlated with total lead in the wines, suggesting that automobile aerosols were not a significant source of the lead. This result was supported by lead isotope data which showed a poor correlation with the available petrol and aerosol data. To identify its origin lead isotopes were measured in vineyard aerosols, soil particles, bottle caps, corks, and brass components used to dispense the wine. Although a dominant source could not be identified there was some evidence to suggest that brass which had a high lead concentration was a significant contributor. Because the lead contribution from the processing of wine was probably relatively high in the past it is unlikely that old vintages of wine will be a suitable archive for lead isotopes in aerosols. PMID:9719620

  11. Lead concentrations and isotopic signatures in vintages of French wine between 1950 and 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rosman, K.J.R.; Chisholm, W.; Jimi, S.; Candelone, J.P.; Boutron, C.F.; Teissedre, P.L.; Adams, F.C.

    1998-08-01

    Vintages of French wine from 1950 to 1991 were analyzed for lead isotopes and concentration to investigate whether they might be used to archive the isotopic composition of the anthropogenic lead in aerosols to which the vineyard was exposed. Early vintages (1950--1980) contained 78--227 ng/g of lead with {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios between 1.152 and 1.173, while the later vintages displayed significantly lower concentrations and a smaller range of isotopic ratios. The concentration of trimethyl lead, which is associated with automobile emissions, was found to be poorly correlated with total lead in the wines, suggesting that automobile aerosols were not a significant source of the lead. This result was supported by lead isotope data which showed a poor correlation with the available petrol and aerosol data. To identify its origin lead isotopes were measured in vineyard aerosols, soil particles, bottle caps, corks, and brass components used to dispense the wine. Although a dominant source could not be identified there was some evidence to suggest that brass which had a high lead concentration was a significant contributor. Because the lead contribution from the processing of wine was probably relatively high in the past it is unlikely that old vintages of wine will be a suitable archive for lead isotopes in aerosols.

  12. Relationship of sociodemographic factors to blood lead concentrations in New Haven children.

    PubMed Central

    Stark, A D; Quah, R F; Meigs, J W; Delouise, E R

    1982-01-01

    From September 1974 to 28th February 1977 80% of the children in New Haven, Connecticut, aged from 1 month to 72 months were screened for blood lead concentrations. This report examines the relationship of several socioeconomic factors to blood lead concentrations. In addition, a set of hypotheses regarding the effect of environmental and social factors on blood level concentrations in racially defined groups was tested. Characteristics associated with increased blood lead concentrations were found to be those that tend to impair the ability of a family to provide the necessary care and supervision for the young child. The risk factors, however, produce different effects on the various race groups. The analyses support the belief that the elimination of childhood lead poisoning as a public health problem will require recognition of social-demographic and family operational factors that underlie the interactions of childhood behaviour and environmental lead potentially available to children. PMID:7119656

  13. Blood lead concentration, renal function, and blood pressure in London civil servants.

    PubMed Central

    Staessen, J; Yeoman, W B; Fletcher, A E; Markowe, H L; Marmot, M G; Rose, G; Semmence, A; Shipley, M J; Bulpitt, C J

    1990-01-01

    Blood lead concentration was measured in 398 male and 133 female London civil servants not subject to industrial exposure to heavy metals. The relation between blood lead and serum creatinine concentrations and blood pressure were examined. Blood lead concentration ranged from 0.20 to 1.70 mumol/l with a geometric mean concentrations of 0.58 mumol/l in men and 0.46 mumol/l in women (p less than 0.001). In women blood lead concentration increased with age (r = +0.27; p = 0.002). In the two sexes blood lead concentration was positively correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked a day (men r = +0.17 and women r = +0.22; p less than or equal to 0.01), with the reported number of alcoholic beverages consumed a day (men r = +0.34 and women r = 0.23; p less than 0.01), and with serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (men r = +0.23 and women r = +0.14; for men p less than 0.01). Blood lead concentration was not correlated with body weight, body mass index, and employment grade. In men 14% of the variance of blood lead concentration was explained by the significant and independent contributions of smoking and alcohol intake and in women 16% by age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In men serum creatinine concentration tended to rise by 0.6 mumol/l (95% confidence interval from -0.2 to +1.36 mumol/l) for each 25% increment in blood lead concentration. In men and women the correlations between blood lead concentration and systolic and diastolic blood did not approach statistical significance. In conclusion, in subjects not exposed to heavy metals at work gender, age, smoking, and alcohol intake are determinants of blood lead concentration. At a low level of exposure, lead accumulation may slightly impair renal function, whereas blood pressure does not seem to be importantly influenced. Alternatively, a slight impairment of renal function may give rise to an increase in blood lead concentration. PMID:1974456

  14. Blood lead concentration, renal function, and blood pressure in London civil servants.

    PubMed

    Staessen, J; Yeoman, W B; Fletcher, A E; Markowe, H L; Marmot, M G; Rose, G; Semmence, A; Shipley, M J; Bulpitt, C J

    1990-07-01

    Blood lead concentration was measured in 398 male and 133 female London civil servants not subject to industrial exposure to heavy metals. The relation between blood lead and serum creatinine concentrations and blood pressure were examined. Blood lead concentration ranged from 0.20 to 1.70 mumol/l with a geometric mean concentrations of 0.58 mumol/l in men and 0.46 mumol/l in women (p less than 0.001). In women blood lead concentration increased with age (r = +0.27; p = 0.002). In the two sexes blood lead concentration was positively correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked a day (men r = +0.17 and women r = +0.22; p less than or equal to 0.01), with the reported number of alcoholic beverages consumed a day (men r = +0.34 and women r = 0.23; p less than 0.01), and with serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (men r = +0.23 and women r = +0.14; for men p less than 0.01). Blood lead concentration was not correlated with body weight, body mass index, and employment grade. In men 14% of the variance of blood lead concentration was explained by the significant and independent contributions of smoking and alcohol intake and in women 16% by age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In men serum creatinine concentration tended to rise by 0.6 mumol/l (95% confidence interval from -0.2 to +1.36 mumol/l) for each 25% increment in blood lead concentration. In men and women the correlations between blood lead concentration and systolic and diastolic blood did not approach statistical significance. In conclusion, in subjects not exposed to heavy metals at work gender, age, smoking, and alcohol intake are determinants of blood lead concentration. At a low level of exposure, lead accumulation may slightly impair renal function, whereas blood pressure does not seem to be importantly influenced. Alternatively, a slight impairment of renal function may give rise to an increase in blood lead concentration. PMID:1974456

  15. Characterizing concentrations of diethylene glycol and suspected metabolites in human serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid samples from the Panama DEG mass poisoning

    PubMed Central

    SCHIER, J. G.; HUNT, D. R.; PERALA, A.; MCMARTIN, K. E.; BARTELS, M. J.; LEWIS, L. S.; MCGEEHIN, M. A.; FLANDERS, W. D.

    2015-01-01

    Context Diethylene glycol (DEG) mass poisoning is a persistent public health problem. Unfortunately, there are no human biological data on DEG and its suspected metabolites in poisoning. If present and associated with poisoning, the evidence for use of traditional therapies such as fomepizole and/or hemodialysis would be much stronger. Objective To characterize DEG and its metabolites in stored serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens obtained from human DEG poisoning victims enrolled in a 2006 case-control study. Methods In the 2006 study, biological samples from persons enrolled in a case-control study (42 cases with new-onset, unexplained AKI and 140 age-, sex-, and admission date-matched controls without AKI) were collected and shipped to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta for various analyses and were then frozen in storage. For this study, when sufficient volume of the original specimen remained, the following analytes were quantitatively measured in serum, urine, and CSF: DEG, 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA), diglycolic acid, ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. Analytes were measured using low resolution GC/MS, descriptive statistics calculated and case results compared with controls when appropriate. Specimens were de-identified so previously collected demographic, exposure, and health data were not available. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (with exact p-values) and bivariable exact logistic regression were used in SAS v9.2 for data analysis. Results The following samples were analyzed: serum, 20 case, and 20 controls; urine, 11 case and 22 controls; and CSF, 11 samples from 10 cases and no controls. Diglycolic acid was detected in all case serum samples (median, 40.7 mcg/mL; range, 22.6 – 75.2) and no controls, and in all case urine samples (median, 28.7 mcg/mL; range, 14 – 118.4) and only five (23%) controls (median, urine diglycolic acid (both OR >999; exact p <0.0001); and 3) urinary glycolic acid (OR = 0.057; 95% C I = 0.001–0.55). Two CSF sample results were excluded and two from the same case were averaged, yielding eight samples from eight cases. Diglycolic acid was detected in seven (88%) of case CSF samples (median, 2.03 mcg/mL; range, urine) concentrations were identified among cases, which is consistent with animal data. Low urinary glycolic acid concentrations in cases may have been due to concurrent AKI. Although serum glycolic concentrations among cases may have initially increased, further metabolism to oxalic acid may have occurred thereby explaining the similar glycolic acid concentrations in cases and controls. The increased serum oxalic acid concentration results in cases versus controls are consistent with this hypothesis. Conclusion Diglycolic acid is associated with human DEG poisoning and may be a biomarker for poisoning. These findings add to animal data suggesting a possible role for traditional antidotal therapies. The detection of HEAA and diglycolic acid in the CSF of cases suggests a possible association with signs and symptoms of DEG-associated neurotoxicity. Further work characterizing the pathophysiology of DEG-associated neurotoxicity and the role of traditional toxic alcohol therapies such as fomepizole and hemodialysis is needed. PMID:24266434

  16. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  17. Concentrations of lead in maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, C N; Phoon, W O; Law, H Y; Tye, C Y; Lim, H H

    1985-01-01

    Lead concentrations in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and breast milk from 114 women who were not occupationally exposed to lead were determined by graphite atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations of lead in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood and breast milk were 0.7, 0.55, and 0.23 mumol/l, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between maternal and umbilical cord blood (r = 0.63). A lower correlation was noted between maternal blood and breast milk (r = 0.29). These results suggest that lead freely crosses the placental barrier from mother to fetus and the transfer of this heavy metal from maternal tissues to breast milk is possible, but the metabolic mechanisms are more complicated. In addition, a longitudinal study was conducted of concentrations of lead in breast milk in nine lactating women. Results suggested no significant change in the content of lead in breast milk during early lactation. PMID:4037861

  18. Blood lead concentrations of spectacled eiders near the Kashunuk River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Creekmore, L.H.; Flint, P.; Smith, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    We collected, 342 blood samples from spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) on their breeding grounds in western Alaska from late May through to early August 1993a??1995. Lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. wet weight were found in the blood of 20% of the adult female eiders, 2% of the adult males and 6% of the ducklings. Lead was detected (a?Y0.02 p.p.m.) more frequently in the blood of adult females than in adult males or ducklings and the maximum concentrations were 14.37, 0.50 and 4.28 p.p.m. wet weight, respectively. In adult females, there was a significant difference in the proportion of detectable blood lead concentrations between three collection times (arrival/nesting, hatch and brood rearing), with the highest proportion (92%) occurring at hatch. Nine hens with blood lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. were captured a second time several weeks to 1 year later. In the hens sampled twice at intervals of several weeks, the blood lead concentrations increased and declined at mean daily rates of 1.10 and 0.94, respectively. The lead concentrations in the blood of adults were not correlated with body weights. Radiographs were taken of 119 eiders and corresponding blood samples from 98 of these birds were analysed for lead. Ingested shot was seen in X-rays of 12 adults and three ducklings and, of the 13 blood samples tested, all had detectable lead concentrations. Of the birds without radiographic evidence of ingested shot, 84% of the adult females, 19% of the adult males and 17% of the ducklings had detectable lead concentrations in their blood. Breeding ground exposure of waterfowl to lead shot is unusual and is of particular concern in spectacled eiders because of their threatened status and declining numbers in western Alaska.

  19. Lead and cadmium concentrations in the hair of fishermen from the Subae River basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F.; Tavares, T.M.; Souza, S.P.; Linhares, P.S.

    1984-04-01

    Previous studies have shown heavy pollution by lead and cadmium in the Subae River basin, State of Bahia, Brazil, caused by a lead smelter. Concentrations of these metals were determined in scalp hair of fishermen from three riverside towns and from a reference town. Increased levels for both metals were associated with increasing proximity to the smelter. Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were higher among fishermen with straight hair than among those with curly hair. The effects of hair washing, hair type, and color and age on metal concentrations in fishermen's hair were studied.

  20. Elevated soil lead concentrations in residential yards in Appleton, WI, a small Midwestern city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. J.; Knudsen, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated soil lead concentrations are well documented in large urban areas, having been attributed to a combination of leaded-paint, leaded-gasoline, and industrial emissions. Fewer studies, however, have been conducted in smaller communities. We analyzed 200 surface soils in the neighborhood near Lawrence University’s campus in Appleton, WI (population ~70,000). Like many larger cities Appleton has a historic city-center. However, it is has no high-density housing or commercial districts and has not seen heavy traffic. The socioeconomic pressures that lead to disrepair of inner city neighborhoods have been less prevalent here as well. At each property 3 integrated samples were taken, one adjacent to the front of the house, one in the front lawn, and one between the road and sidewalk. We correlated building and property traits (e.g. structure age, distance from road, exterior type, exterior condition, direction of exposure, and assessed home value) with soil lead concentrations determined by XRF and subsequently, mapped these data for geospatial patterns. Soil lead concentrations in the city park and campus greens were typically less than 100 ppm. The highest lead concentrations are close to campus, which has a number of civil war era buildings and homes. High lead concentrations (averaging over 1,000 ppm near the home, with concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm) were associated with aging, poorly maintained structures as expected. However, a number of well-maintained structures also show substantially elevated concentrations. These soil lead concentrations are not dissimilar to those found in much larger cities such as New Orleans, Milwaukee, and Chicago. Lead levels dropped quickly as distance from the house increased suggesting that the contamination is from lead paint and not from gasoline exhaust. Furthermore, samples taken adjacent to the main arterial through town exhibited relatively low, but slightly elevated lead levels (~250 ppm). Not surprisingly, these concentrations are in line with those typically found in suburban settings, rather than urban settings. Studying the nature and distribution of soil lead contamination in a smaller city such as Appleton will allow for a better understanding of the public health risks in this and similar cities. Additionally, with fewer likely contributors to soil lead contamination, this study allows a clearer connection to be drawn between one primary factor, paint, and the distribution of soil lead.

  1. Soil lead concentrations and prevalence of hyperactive behavior among school children in Ottawa, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, J.E.; Mishra, S.I. )

    1990-01-01

    This pilot study presents findings of a case study of the prevalence of hyperactive behavior among school children and soil lead concentrations in the urban environment of Ottawa, Canada. Preexisting data on the prevalence of hyperactivity were correlated with soil lead concentrations from soil samples collected in 1981. Soil lead concentrations of the samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Further, synagraphic mapping was done to facilitate spatial analyses of the topographical patterning of the prevalence of hyperactivity and soil lead concentrations. The two major trends in the prevalence of hyperactivity and soil lead data are overlapped and seen as topographical ridges running northeast-southwest in the central part of the city. Both trends are geographically bounded and parallel to the major thoroughfares of the city. The explained variability in prevalence of hyperactivity based on soil lead concentrations is 25% in areas of high concordance between the residence of the children and location of the sampling points. The results illustrate the effectiveness of soil lead as a significant indicator of the psychological effect of hyperactivity among urban children, and its importance as a monitor of ambient lead.

  2. Increased concentrations of serum inhibin B among male workers with long-term moderate lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Jung; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Li, Wan-Fen; Wu, Ching-Hu; Chen, Hsin-I; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2009-04-01

    Lead is known to have an adverse effect to human reproductive system. This study investigates the association between different lead indices (both current and cumulative) and serum inhibin B as well as hormone concentrations in a group of 181 male lead workers. We used data collected during annual health examinations, including measurements of blood lead levels, inhibin B, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (TTE) as well as age, gender, height, weight, smoking and drinking habits. The cumulative lead index included index of cumulative blood lead (ICL) and time weighted index of cumulative blood lead (TWICL) which were calculated from the series blood lead concentrations by annual health examinations since 1991 to the time of the study. Data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple regressions. We found the Pearson correlation coefficients of ICL and TWICL vs. inhibin B to be 0.220 (p=0.003) and 0.231 (p=0.008), respectively. After adjusting for age, smoking, drinking, LH, FSH, and TTE, our multiple regression models revealed that with each unit increase in ICL and TWICL, there was a 0.047 pg/mL (p=0.017) and 1.333 pg/mL (p=0.007) increase in inhibin B. We found an association between cumulative lead index and concentration of serum inhibin B in male workers exposed to lead over long period, possibly indirectly affecting spermatogenesis. PMID:19193394

  3. Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element. PMID:12471396

  4. Association between Concentrations of Metals in Urine and Adult Asthma: A Case-Control Study in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiji; Xie, Jungang; Cui, Xiuqing; Zhou, Yun; Wu, Xiaojie; Lu, Wei; Shen, Yan; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Background Several metals have been reported to be associated with childhood asthma. However, the results on relationships between metals and risk of childhood asthma are inconclusive, and the research on adult asthma in the Chinese general population is rare. Objectives To investigate potential associations between levels of urinary metals and adult asthma. Methods A case-control study of 551 adult asthma cases and 551 gender- and age-matched controls was conducted in Wuhan, China. Demographic information was obtained, and lung function was assessed. The urinary concentrations of 22 metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results After adjusting for other metalsand other covariates, urinary cadmium, molybdenum, chromium, copper, uranium and selenium were positively associated with asthma, with odds ratios (95% CI) of 1.69 (1.00, 2.85), 3.76 (2.30, 6.16), 4.89 (3.04, 7.89), 6.06 (3.27, 11.21), 6.99 (4.37, 11.19) and 9.17 (4.16, 20.21), respectively. By contrast, urinary lead, barium, iron, zinc, nickel, manganese and rubidium were negatively associated with asthma, with odds ratios (95% CI) of 0.48 (0.29, 0.80), 0.44 (0.27, 0.71), 0.41 (0.26, 0.64), 0.40 (0.24, 0.66), 0.30 (0.22, 0.41), 0.23 (0.14, 0.39) and 0.07 (0.03, 0.15), respectively. When comparing urinary metals in different subgroups of cases with those in matched controls, the associations of above 13 metals with asthma prevalence were nearly the same. Conclusions Our results suggested that asthma prevalence in the Chinese adults was positively associated with urinary chromium, chromium, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, and uranium, and negatively associated with urinary manganese, iron, nickel, zinc, rubidium, barium and lead. Additional research with larger populations in different regions is required to support our findings. PMID:27191859

  5. Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations and Vitamin D Deficiency in Winter and Summer in Young Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Francis W.; Neti, Prasad V.S.V.; Howell, Roger W.; Wenger, Peter; Louria, Donald B.; Bogden, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that blood lead concentrations are higher in the summer than in winter. Although the effects of some environmental factors such as lead in dust on this phenomenon have been studied, relationships to sunlight-induced vitamin D synthesis have not been adequately investigated. Vitamin D status is influenced by the diet, sunlight exposure, age, skin pigmentation, and other factors, and may modify gastrointestinal lead absorption or release of lead stored in bones into the bloodstream. Objective and Methods We collected paired blood samples from 142 young, urban African-American and Hispanic children in the winter and summer to study the seasonal increase in blood lead and its relationships to vitamin D nutrition, age, and race. Results A winter/summer (W/S) increase in blood lead concentrations of 32.4% was found for children 1–3 years of age. There was a smaller W/S increase of 13.0% in children 4–8 years of age. None of the 51 Hispanic children had an elevated blood lead concentration (≥ 10 μg/dL) during the winter, and only one had an elevated summertime concentration. In contrast, elevated blood lead concentrations were frequent in the 91 African-American children, especially those 1–3 years of age. For the latter, the percentage with elevated blood lead levels increased from 12.2% in winter to 22.5% in summer. A 1.2% W/S increase in serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (serum 25-OH-D) concentrations was found for children 1–3 years of age. However, in children 4–8 years of age the W/S increase in serum 25-OH-D was much larger—33.6%. The percentages of children with low (< 16 μg/L) serum 25-OH-D concentrations were 12.0% in winter and 0.7% in summer and were consistently greater in African-American than in Hispanic children. The seasonal increases in blood lead and serum 25-OH-D in children 4–8 years of age were significantly associated. Conclusion The higher summertime serum 25-OH-D concentrations for the 4- to 8-year-old children are likely caused by increased sunlight-induced vitamin D synthesis and may contribute to the seasonal increase in blood lead. Age and race are key factors that affect blood lead and vitamin D nutrition, as well as their interactions, in young urban children. PMID:17450235

  6. Blood lead concentrations in marine mammals validate estimates of 10{sup 2}- to 10{sup 3}-fold increase in human blood lead concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, B.D.; Flegal, A.R.

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of ultra-low ambient blood lead (PbB) concentrations (mean {+-} SD = 0.13 {+-} 0.06 {micro}g/dL) in Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) validate previous estimates of ultra-low PbB levels in preindustrial humans. These estimates had been unsubstituted, since PbB levels in this range had never been measured in any organisms prior to this study. Similarities in PbB levels among these contemporary and preindustrial mammals are consistent with similarities in their measured and estimated lead exposures, respectively. The marginally higher PbB levels and rates of lead exposure in contemporary marine mammals are, also, consistent with lead isotopic composition analyses that indicate their PbB levels have been elevated from exposure to industrial lead. Consequently, these analyses substantiate concerns that current baseline PbB levels in humans, which are estimated to be two to three orders of magnitude above natural levels, may still constitute public health risks.

  7. Increase in Lead Concentration in the Drinking Water of an Animal Care Facility.

    PubMed

    Davidowitz, Bradley; Boehm, Kirk; Banovetz, Sandra; Binkley, Neil

    1998-01-01

    We report here the unexpected detection, and subsequent correction, of a problem that resulted in an increase in lead concentration in the drinking water of an animal research facility. At the initiation of a study, analysis of a water sample obtained from the drinking spout of an animal cage revealed a lead concentration nearly twice the Environmental Protection Agency's maximum acceptable concentration. Because the municipal water supply routinely had been tested and found to be free of lead, it was assumed that this contamination was within the animal care facility. It was hypothesized that the brass fitting connecting the drinking spout to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe was the source of contamination. Water samples were obtained hourly from 0700 to 1600 hours before and after replacement of the brass fitting with a PVC fitting. After this change, lead concentrations in all samples were within acceptable limits. Although blood lead concentrations were undetectable in 47 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) housed in the facility, subclinical lead toxicosis could have resulted and potentially complicated studies in which these monkeys were used. We recommend that the water supply of research facilities be monitored periodically. PMID:12456178

  8. Drosophila subobscura flies adapted to low lead concentration carry no fitness cost.

    PubMed

    Kalajdzic, Predrag; Kenig, Bojan; Andjelkovic, Marko

    2015-09-01

    As a response to the long-term presence of heavy metals in the environment, populations can evolve resistance. Its maintenance may have detrimental effect on population's fitness, causing a fitness cost. Lead is one of the widely distributed elements in the environment exhibiting high toxicity on organisms. By analyzing developmental stages viability and developmental time, we evaluated fitness cost in Drosophila subobscura flies adapted to low lead concentration and control flies derived from the same wild population, as well as their hybrids. Significant changes in specific developmental stages viability were detected in both lines, as well as their hybrids, suggesting complex response to low lead concentration. The results show that a long-term exposure to low lead concentration may have a significant impact on a population's survival, especially in a changing environment conditions. PMID:25935609

  9. Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Quintanar-Escorza, M.A.; Gonzalez-Martinez, M.T.; Navarro, L.; Maldonado, M.; Arevalo, B.; Calderon-Salinas, J.V. . E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx

    2007-04-01

    Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples were taken from 15 workers exposed to lead (blood lead concentration 74.4 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/dl) and 15 non-exposed workers (9.9 {+-} 2 {mu}g/dl). In erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers, the intracellular free calcium was 79 {+-} 13 nM, a significantly higher concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.01) than the one detected in control (30 {+-} 9 nM). The enhanced intracellular free calcium was associated with a higher osmotic fragility and with important modifications in erythrocytes shape. The high intracellular free calcium in lead-exposed workers was also related to a 100% increase in calcium incorporation and to 50% reduction of (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity. Lipid peroxidation was 1.7-fold higher in erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers as compared with control. The alteration on calcium equilibrium in erythrocytes is discussed in light of the toxicological effects in lead-exposed workers.

  10. Novel DFO-functionalized mesoporous silica for iron sensing. Part 2. Experimental detection of free iron concentration (pFe) in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Giancarla; Emma, Giovanni; Colleoni, Roberta; Pesavento, Maria; Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Biesuz, Raffaela

    2014-08-21

    Successful in vivo chelation treatment of iron(iii) overload pathologies requires that a significant fraction of the administered drug actually chelates the toxic metal. Increased mobilization of the iron(iii) in experiments on animals or humans, most often evaluated from urinary output, is usually used as an assessment tool for chelation therapy. Alternatively, the efficiency of a drug is estimated by calculating the complexing ability of a chelating agent towards Fe(iii). The latter is calculated by the pFe value, defined as the negative logarithm of the concentration of the free metal ion in a solution containing 10 μM total ligand and 1 μM total metal at a physiological pH of 7.4. In theory, pFe has to be calculated taking into account all the complexation equilibria involving the metal and the possible ligands. Nevertheless, complexation reactions in complex systems such as serum and urine may hardly be accurately modelled by computer software. The experimental determination of the bioavailable fraction of iron(iii) in biological fluids would therefore be of the utmost relevance in the clinical practice. The efficiency of the therapy could be more easily estimated as well as the course of overload pathologies. In this context, the aim of the present work was the development of a sensor to assess the free iron directly in biological fluids (urine) of patients under treatment with chelating agents. In the proposed device (DFO-MS), the strong iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) is immobilized on the MCM-41 mesoporous silica. The characterization of the iron(iii) sorption on DFO-MS was undertaken, firstly in 0.1 M KNO3, then directly in urine samples, in order to identify the sorption mechanism. The stoichiometry of the reaction in the solid phase was found to be: with an exchange constant (average value) of log βex = 40(1). The application of DFO-MS to assess pFe in SPU (Simulating Pathology Urine) samples was also considered. The results obtained were very promising for a future validation and subsequent application of the sensor in samples of patients undergoing chelation therapy. PMID:24883429

  11. A modified LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously quantify glycerol and mannitol concentrations in human urine for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Yan, Kuan; Ma, Yanhua; Yang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jun; Ding, Jinglin

    2016-06-01

    Glycerol and mannitol have the potential to act as plasma volume expanders and have been prohibited as masking agents by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) accordingly. In this study, an improved strategy was developed and validated for the determination of urinary glycerol and mannitol levels simultaneously using a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry technique within 7min in an initial testing procedure. For confirmation, mannitol and all possible hexitols (allitol, altritol, galactitol, iditol and sorbitol) that can occur in human urine were baseline separated. This method made use of the derivatization of glycerol and mannitol by benzoyl chloride followed by analysis via LC-ESI-MS/MS with limited sample preparation. The limit of detection (LOD) for glycerol and mannitol was lower than 50ng/mL. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for both substances was below 150ng/mL. The assay was linear from 0.15 to 1000μg/mL for glycerol and mannitol in human urine. The coefficients of variation of all inter- and intra-assay determinations at three concentration levels (0.5, 500, 900μg/mL) were better than 13% for glycerol and under 15% for mannitol. The method also afforded satisfactory results in terms of accuracy, derivatization yield, extraction recovery, matrix effect and specificity for both substances. PMID:27093496

  12. Blood Lead Concentration and Thyroid Function during Pregnancy: Results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Linda G.; Liu, Xinhua; Rajovic, Biljana; Popovac, Dusan; Oberfield, Sharon; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk of adverse neonatal and obstetric outcomes as well as lower IQ in children, the environmental determinants of maternal thyroid dysfunction have yet to be fully explored. Objectives: We aimed to examine associations between mid-pregnancy blood lead (BPb) and concomitant measures of thyroid function among participants in the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Methods: As part of a population-based prospective study of two towns in Kosovo—one with high levels of environmental lead and one with low—women were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy, at which time blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. We measured concentrations of BPb, free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in archived serum samples. Results: Compared with women from the unexposed town, women from the exposed town had lower mean FT4 (0.91 ± 0.17 vs. 1.03 ± 0.16 ng/dL), higher mean TPOAb (15.45 ± 33.08 vs. 5.12 ± 6.38 IU/mL), and higher mean BPb (20.00 ± 6.99 vs. 5.57 ± 2.01 μg/dL). No differences in TSH levels were found. After adjustment for potential confounders, for each natural log unit increase in BPb, FT4 decreased by 0.074 ng/dL (95% CI: –0.10, –0.046 ng/dL), and the odds ratio for testing positive to TPOAb was 2.41 (95% CI: 1.53, 3.82). We found no association between BPb and TSH. Conclusions: Prolonged lead exposure may contribute to maternal thyroid dysfunction by stimulating autoimmunity to the thyroid gland. Citation: Kahn LG, Liu X, Rajovic B, Popovac D, Oberfield S, Graziano JH, Factor-Litvak P. 2014. Blood lead concentration and thyroid function during pregnancy: results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:1134–1140; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307669 PMID:24866691

  13. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  14. Urine test.

    PubMed

    1996-08-23

    On August 6, 1996, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first urine test to detect HIV antibodies. The FDA states that the urine test, developed by Calypte Biomedical Corp. of Berkeley, CA, should not be used to screen donors at blood banks and should be used only as a supplemental diagnostic tool because it is not as accurate as the standard blood-based test. The test, for use only by health care professionals and insurance companies, will be marketed by Seradum Inc. of Indianapolis under the trade name Sentinel. The price will be $40 to $50, comparable to the recently approved saliva-based tests. Advocates of the urine test say it is safer, easier, and less intrusive than blood testing. Critics say the tests are too unreliable and fear that the urine samples used in drug testing in the workplace also could be used to screen out HIV-positive job applicants. PMID:11363733

  15. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...

  16. Urination Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies ... Boys: Trouble "Down There" Getting a Urine Test (Video) Movie: Urinary System Quiz: Urinary System Your Kidneys ...

  17. Concentration of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, arsenic and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Desai, Charlene Coore; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  18. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  19. Total lead concentration in new decorative enamel paints in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Scott; Speranskaya, Olga; Brosche, Sara; Gonzalez, Hebe; Solis, Daniela; Kodeih, Naji; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Lead concentrations in new enamel decorative paints were determined in three countries in different areas of the world where data were not previously available. The average total lead concentration of the enamel decorative paints purchased in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia was 24,500ppm (ppm, dry weight), more than 270 times the current limit of 90ppm in Canada and in the United States. Sixty-three percent of these paints contained concentrations greater than 90ppm. Fifty-nine percent contained concentrations greater than 600ppm, the current limit in some countries. The maximum concentrations found were 236,000ppm in Lebanon, 169,000ppm in Paraguay and 52,900ppm in Russia. An average of 29% of the samples contained exceedingly high lead concentrations, >=10,000ppm. Five brands of paint were sampled in each of Lebanon and Paraguay and seven in Russia. Three colors from each brand were analyzed. For five of the six samples of the two brands in Lebanon with affiliations outside the country, the lead concentrations ranged from 1360ppm to 135,000ppm. In Lebanon the maximum concentration in the Egypt-affiliated brand (Sipes) was 135,000ppm and the maximum for the USA-affiliated brand (Dutch Boy) was 32,400ppm. Lead was not detected in any paints from the three of the four brands of paint purchased in Paraguay that had headquarters/affiliations in other countries (Brazil-Coralit), Germany (Suvinil) and USA (Novacor)). Two of the three paints from each of the other Paraguay brands contained high levels of lead with the maximum concentrations of 108,000 and 168,000ppm; one of these brands was manufactured under a license from ICI in the Netherlands. All of the paints purchased in Russia were from Russian brands and were manufactured in Russia. All three paints from one brand contained below detection levels of lead. The maximum levels of lead in the other six brands in Russia ranged from 3230 to 52,900ppm. The two brands with the highest lead concentration, TEKS and LAKRA, were produced by companies in the top three in market share.. Overall, lead concentrations were much higher in the colored paints such as red and yellow than in white paints. In each of the three countries a brand based in that country had a colored paint that either met a 90ppm limit or was close to meeting the limit-demonstrating that practical technology was available in each of these countries to produce low lead bright colored enamel decorative paints. Even though technology for producing paint without added lead existed in each of these countries, twenty-nine (29) percent of the paints analyzed contained exceedingly high concentrations (>=10,000ppm) of lead. PMID:25791866

  20. Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 μg/dL cases vs. 2.73 μg/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 μg/dL vs. 2.72 μg/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

  1. Effects of lead chloride on human erythrocyte membranes and on kinetic anion sulphate and glutathione concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gugliotta, Tiziana; De Luca, Grazia; Romano, Pietro; Rigano, Caterina; Scuteri, Adriana; Romano, Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    Our study concerns the effects of exposure to lead chloride on the morphology, K(+) efflux, SO(4)(-) influx and GSH levels of the human erythrocyte. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes and washed three times. The cells were suspended at 3% hematocrit and incubated for 1 h at 25°C in a medium containing increasing concentrations of lead chloride (0, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 μM). After incubation, the suspensions were centrifuged and the erythrocyte pellets were divided into three aliquots for testing. The results show: an increase in the permeability of erythrocytes treated with lead chloride with consequent damage and cellular death, especially in the presence of high concentrations; an increase in potassium ion efflux; alterations in the morphology and membrane structure of the red blood cells; and a decrease in sulphate uptake, due either to the oxidative effect of this compound on the band 3 protein, which loses its biological valence as a carrier of sulphate ions, or to a decrease in the ATP erythrocyte concentration. In conclusion, the exposure of erythrocytes to Pb(2+) ions leads to a reduction in the average lifetime of the erythrocytes and the subsequent development of anemia. These data are discussed in terms of the possible effect of lead on the reduction-oxidation systems of the cell. Oxidant agents, such as lead, are known to cross-link integral membrane proteins, leading to K/Cl-cotransport. The increased K(+) efflux affects the altered redox state. PMID:22941203

  2. Lead Concentration Levels in Drinking Water from Schools in Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araraso, I.; Huang, J.; Lau, S.; Le, A.

    2006-12-01

    Lead was often used in plumbing during the past century because of its malleability and ability to ensure water tight pipe connections. However, when this element was discovered to be poisonous, the use of lead pipes was outlawed. In spite of this, lead solder continued to be used until the late 1980's. In 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) passed an act that established a lead concentration limit of 15 ppb (parts per billion) in drinking water. Still, any trace of this heavy metal has been determined to be a health risk. Several schools in the Oakland Unified School District have been built close to one century ago. Many schools were built during the time in which lead pipes or lead solder were allowed. As a result, drinking water at these schools is a cause for concern. In an effort to begin assessing the drinking water quality in Oakland schools, five water samples were collected from each of thirteen schools between mid March and early May 2006. Schools were specifically chosen because of their age and location. The samples were taken to the Lawrence Hall of Science for analysis, and the results were tabulated and analyzed. Preliminary analysis of our data suggests that drinking water in schools built after the 1950's contain average lead concentrations above 15 ppb. Furthermore, out of the thirteen schools from which samples were collected, all but two issued water with lead concentrations that exceed the EPA action limit of 15 ppb. Overall, our work thus far indicates that greater attention should be devoted to investigating lead concentrations in Oakland schools' drinking water, and that in some cases immediate intervention strategies must be devised. To aid in such efforts, we plan to continue our study and further investigate water quality in Oakland Schools by collecting additional samples from a wider range of school sites.

  3. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  4. Trends in lead concentrations in major U.S. rivers and their relation to historical changes in gasoline-lead consumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Smith, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Declines in concentrations of dissolved lead occurred at nearly two-thirds of 306 locations on major U.S. rivers from 1974 to 1985. Declines in dissolved lead concentrations are statistically significant (p < 0.10) at approximately one-third of the sampling locations. Statistically significant increases in dissolved lead concentrations occurred at only 6 percent of the sites, but are clustered in the Texas-Gulf and Lower Mississippi region. Possible explanations for the observed trends in lead concentrations are tested through comparisons with (1) records of lead discharges from major sources including leaded-gasoline consumption and municipal- and industrial-point source discharges, (2) trends in various water-quality constituents such as pH and total alkalinity, and (3) basin characteristics such as drainage area. Statistically significant declines in lead concentrations in streams and gasoline lead (i.e., the largest source of lead at these sites) are highly coincident for the 1979 to 1980 period at most sampling locations. The greatest amount of decline in gasoline lead occurred at sites showing statistically significant downtrends in stream concentrations of lead from 1974 to 1985. No more than 5 percent of the trends in stream lead are influenced by municipal- and industrial-point sources of lead. Factors that affect the transport of dissolved lead, including lead solubility, suspended sediment, and basin characteristics such as drainage basin size, are not significantly related to trends in dissolved lead. Trends in streamflow explain no more than 7 percent of the downtrends in concentrations of lead and may partly explain the frequent increases in lead concentrations in the Texas-Gulf and Lower Mississippi regions.Declines in concentrations of dissolved lead occurred at nearly two-thirds of 306 locations on major US rivers from 1974 to 1985. Declines in dissolved lead concentrations are statistically significant at approximately one-third of the sampling locations. Statistically significant increases in dissolved lead concentrations occurred at only 6 percent of the sites, but are clustered in the Texas-Gulf and Lower Mississippi regions. Possible explanations for the observed trends in lead concentrations are tested through comparisons with records of lead discharges from major sources including leaded-gasoline consumption and municipal- and industrial-point source discharges, trends in various water-quality constituents such as pH and total alkalinity, and basin characteristics such as drainage area. Study results are discussed.

  5. Exposure to a Low Lead Concentration Impairs Contractile Machinery in Rat Cardiac Muscle.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marito A S C; de Oliveira, Thiago F; Almenara, Camila C P; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson B; Vassallo, Dalton V; Padilha, Alessandra S; Silveira, Edna A

    2015-10-01

    Lead exposure has been considered to be a risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of low plasma lead concentration on cardiac contractility in isolated papillary muscles. Wistar rats were divided in control group or group treated with 100 ppm of lead acetate in the drinking water for 15 days. Blood pressure (BP) was measured weekly. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were anesthetized and euthanized, and parameters related to isolated papillary muscle contractility were recorded. The lead concentrations in the blood reached 12.3 ± 2 μg/dL. The BP was increased in the group treated with 100 ppm of lead acetate. Lead treatment did not alter force and time derivatives of the force of left ventricular papillary muscles. In addition, the inotropic response induced by an increase in the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration was reduced in the Pb(2+) group. However, the uptake of Ca(2+) by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the protein expression of SERCA and phospholamban remained unchanged. Postrest contraction was similar in the both groups, and tetanic peak and plateau tension were reduced in lead group. These results demonstrated that the reduction in the inotropic response to calcium does not appear to be caused by changes in the trans-sarcolemmal calcium flux but suggest that an impairment of the contractile machinery might be taking place. Our results demonstrate that even at a concentration below the limit considered to be safe, lead exerts deleterious effects on the cardiac contractile machinery. PMID:25795172

  6. Increased urinary cobalt and whole blood concentrations of cadmium and lead in women with uterine leiomyomata: Findings from the ENDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Erica B.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Chen, Zhen; Sun, Liping; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Dorais, Jessie; Peterson, C. Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trace elements have estrogen receptor activity, but the association of these elements with uterine leiomyoma has not been defined. A cohort of 473 women aged 18–44 undergoing surgery for benign gynecologic indications provided whole blood and urine specimens for trace element analysis, which was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The surgeon documented whether fibroids were present. Geometric mean concentrations were compared between women with and without fibroids, and logistic regression models were generated to assess the impact of the concentration of each trace element on the odds of fibroids. In multivariate regressions, odds of a fibroid diagnosis was higher with increased whole blood cadmium (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.04) and lead (AOR 1.31 95% CI 1.02, 1.69), and urine cobalt (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02, 1.70). Increased exposure to trace elements may contribute to fibroid growth, and fibroids may serve as a reservoir for these elements. PMID:24994689

  7. [Studies on the behavior of chromium in serum and urine in polytraumatized patients as well as on the chromium concentration of various infusion solutions].

    PubMed

    Seeling, W; Dölp, R; Ahnefeld, F W; Dick, W

    1975-04-01

    Determinations of the oligoelement chromium were carried out by flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy in serum, whole blood, and urine of patients, undergoing intensive care, as well as in a great part of the solutions used for parenteral nutrition. With rising amino acid and protein content, respectively, the chromium content of the infusion solutions increased due to contamination. Pure nonglucose-carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions contained 16.5-49.0 mug chromium/litre, amino acid-carbohydrate solutions 36.5-105.0 mug chromium/litre and human albumin solutions, depending on concentration, 86.9-394.2 mug chromium/litre. The average chromium concentration in the patients' serum was 11.3 +/- 0.26 mug/litre, which is twenty times more than the normal values determined by this method, and increased from 8.3 to 16.4 mug/litre within the first seven days. The urinary chromium concentrations were 37.7 +/- 4.1 mug/litre, being three times higher than the average serum values, but remained constant from day to day. The approximate chromium administration by parenteral infusion therapy was 160-250 mug chromium/day, the urinary chromium excretion was 111 +/- 20.5 mug/day. Consequently, great amounts of parenterally supplied chromium seem to be stored in the patients' tissues. Effects and risks for the organism caused by these unphysiological chromium concentrations are discussed. PMID:810425

  8. Blood lead concentrations in mallards from Delevan and Colusa National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauser, David M.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Mensik, John G.; Brand, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 181 (108 adult drakes and 73 individuals of mixed age and sex) mallards, Anas platyrhynchos , from Colusa and Delevan National Wildlife Refuges during late winter and summer of 1987. The percentage of birds with elevated lead concentration was 28.7 for late winter and 16.4 for late summer. For summer trapped birds, a significantly greater proportion of males than females contained elevated lead levels. These findings indicate that lead poisoning may be a year-round event in certain areas of the Sacramento Valley.

  9. Skeletal concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver in ancient North American Pecos Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, J E; Smith, D R; Flegal, A R

    1991-01-01

    Bone samples of 14 prehistoric North American Pecos Indians from circa 1400 A.D. were analyzed for lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to establish the baseline levels of these elements in an ancient North American population. Measurements of outer and inner bone fractions indicate the former were contaminated postmortem for lead, zinc, and cadmium. The contamination-adjusted average (mean +/- SD) level of lead (expressed as the ratio of atomic lead to atomic calcium) in bones of the Indians was 8.4 +/- 4.4 x 10(-7)), which was similar to ratios in bones of ancient Peruvians (0.9 to 7.7 x 10(-7)) and significantly lower than ratios in bones of modern adults in England and the United States (210 to 350 x 10(-7]. The adjusted average concentrations (microgram per gram dry weight) of biologic cadmium, silver, and zinc in the Pecos Indian bones were 0.032 +/- 0.013, 0.094 +/- 0.044, and 130 +/- 66, as compared to concentrations of 1.8, 0.01 to 0.44, and 75 to 170 in the bones of modern people, respectively. Therefore, cadmium concentrations in Pecos Indian bones are also approximately 50-fold lower than those of contemporary humans. These data support earlier findings that most previously reported natural concentrations of lead in human tissues are erroneously high and indicate that natural concentrations of cadmium are also between one and two orders of magnitude lower than contemporary concentrations. PMID:1773793

  10. Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.

    1986-07-01

    Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

  11. Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukona??Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid-June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

  12. Direct Quantification of Rare Earth Elements Concentrations in Urine of Workers Manufacturing Cerium, Lanthanum Oxide Ultrafine and Nanoparticles by a Developed and Validated ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yu, Hua; Zheng, Siqian; Miao, Yang; Yin, Shi; Li, Peng; Bian, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial, agriculture and medical applications. With the aim of exploring a sensitive and reliable indicator of estimating exposure level to REEs, a simple, accurate and specific ICP-MS method for simultaneous direct quantification of 15 REEs ((89)Y, (139)La, (140)Ce, (141)Pr, (146)Nd, (147)Sm, (153)Eu, (157)Gd, (159)Tb, (163)Dy, (165)Ho, (166)Er, (169)Tm, (172)Yb and (175)Lu) in human urine has been developed and validated. The method showed good linearity for all REEs in human urine in the concentrations ranging from 0.001-1.000 μg∙L(-1) with r² > 0.997. The limits of detection and quantification for this method were in the range of 0.009-0.010 μg∙L(-1) and 0.029-0.037 μg∙L(-1), the recoveries on spiked samples of the 15 REEs ranged from 93.3% to 103.0% and the relative percentage differences were less than 6.2% in duplicate samples, and the intra- and inter-day variations of the analysis were less than 1.28% and less than 0.85% for all REEs, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of 15 REEs in 31 urine samples obtained from the control subjects and the workers engaged in work with manufacturing of ultrafine and nanoparticles containing cerium and lanthanum oxide. The results suggested that only the urinary levels of La (1.234 ± 0.626 μg∙L(-1)), Ce (1.492 ± 0.995 μg∙L(-1)), Nd (0.014 ± 0.009 μg∙L(-1)) and Gd (0.023 ± 0.010 μg∙L(-1)) among the exposed workers were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the levels measured in the control subjects. From these, La and Ce were the primary components, and accounted for 88% of the total REEs. Lanthanum comprised 27% of the total REEs while Ce made up the majority of REE content at 61%. The remaining elements only made up 1% each, with the exception of Dy which was not detected. Comparison with the previously published data, the levels of urinary La and Ce in workers and the control subjects show a higher trend than previous reports. PMID:27011194

  13. Direct Quantification of Rare Earth Elements Concentrations in Urine of Workers Manufacturing Cerium, Lanthanum Oxide Ultrafine and Nanoparticles by a Developed and Validated ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Yu, Hua; Zheng, Siqian; Miao, Yang; Yin, Shi; Li, Peng; Bian, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial, agriculture and medical applications. With the aim of exploring a sensitive and reliable indicator of estimating exposure level to REEs, a simple, accurate and specific ICP-MS method for simultaneous direct quantification of 15 REEs (89Y, 139La, 140Ce, 141Pr, 146Nd, 147Sm, 153Eu, 157Gd, 159Tb, 163Dy, 165Ho, 166Er, 169Tm, 172Yb and 175Lu) in human urine has been developed and validated. The method showed good linearity for all REEs in human urine in the concentrations ranging from 0.001–1.000 μg∙L−1 with r2 > 0.997. The limits of detection and quantification for this method were in the range of 0.009–0.010 μg∙L−1 and 0.029–0.037 μg∙L−1, the recoveries on spiked samples of the 15 REEs ranged from 93.3% to 103.0% and the relative percentage differences were less than 6.2% in duplicate samples, and the intra- and inter-day variations of the analysis were less than 1.28% and less than 0.85% for all REEs, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of 15 REEs in 31 urine samples obtained from the control subjects and the workers engaged in work with manufacturing of ultrafine and nanoparticles containing cerium and lanthanum oxide. The results suggested that only the urinary levels of La (1.234 ± 0.626 μg∙L−1), Ce (1.492 ± 0.995 μg∙L−1), Nd (0.014 ± 0.009 μg∙L−1) and Gd (0.023 ± 0.010 μg∙L−1) among the exposed workers were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the levels measured in the control subjects. From these, La and Ce were the primary components, and accounted for 88% of the total REEs. Lanthanum comprised 27% of the total REEs while Ce made up the majority of REE content at 61%. The remaining elements only made up 1% each, with the exception of Dy which was not detected. Comparison with the previously published data, the levels of urinary La and Ce in workers and the control subjects show a higher trend than previous reports. PMID:27011194

  14. Zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead concentrations in water, sediment, and Anadara senilis in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Bakary, Inza; Yao, Koffi Marcellin; Etchian, Olivier Assoi; Soro, Metongo Bernard; Trokourey, Albert; Bokra, Yobou

    2015-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal contaminations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead were assessed simultaneously in water, sediment, and in the bivalve Arca senilis from the Milliardaires Bay (Cote d'Ivoire) between February and October 2008. The metal load in sediments doubled from the dry season to the rainy season. On the contrary, metal concentrations in waters decreased significantly from the dry season to the rainy season. Zn and Pb concentrations in A. senilis showed similar seasonal variation with sediments. On the other hand, A. senilis regulated Cu concentrations by eliminating about twelve times the concentration accumulated during the dry season. Apparent Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb concentration gradients were observed, but no significant differences between stations for sediment, water, and A. senilis. Concentrations in sediment increased from stations close to Abidjan Harbor towards farther stations, while concentrations in A. senilis showed a reverse gradient. The distribution gradient of A. senilis indicates pollution from local sources, but a transplant experiment is needed to better understand the observed spatial trend. Zn and Cu concentrations may pose little risk to human health and the environment, but they are the highest on the regional scale. On the contrary, Cd and Pb concentrations in A. senilis exceeded the maximum allowable limits set by the European Commission. Complementary studies including chemical speciation should be considered to provide a more accurate assessment of the risk of heavy metals to the environment. PMID:26581608

  15. Lead concentrations and reproductive success in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within highway roadside verges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beyer, W.N.; Franson, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981, the authors studied lead concentrations and reproductive success in free-living European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within the verges of two Maryland highways with different traffic volumes, Route 197(average daily traffic volume[ADT] = 10,800 vehicles) and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (ADT=52,500 vehicles) and a nearby control area. Concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight) of lead in the ingesta (84-94 mg kg-1), carcasses (4.0-9.6 mg kg-1)and feathers (6.8-52 mg kg-1) of Parkway nestlings and adults were 3 to 13 times those found in starlings from the control area, whereas lead concentrations in the ingesta and tissues of starlings from the verge of Route 197 were similar to those of controls. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells (RBCs) of adult and nestling starlings from the Parkway was depressed from 43 to 60% compared to controls. RBC ALAD activity in adults from nests along Route 197 was similar to that of adult starlings from the control area, but that of their young was depressed 17%. Haemoglobin concentrations (-16%) and haematocrits (-10%) in Parkway nestlings were depressed compared with those of nestlings from the other two study areas, whereas those of adults were not affected. Clutch size, number of young hatched and the number of young in nests 1 to 3 days before fledging were similar among sites, as were body weights of adults and prefledging weights of their young. However, brain weights of Parkway nestlings were lower (P < 0.05) than those of nestlings from the other study areas. Results suggests that lead within verges of major highways probably does not pose a serious hazard to adult ground-foraging songbirds. However, the effects of lead-induced reductions in haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, RBC ALAD activity and brain weight on the postfledging survival of their young are not known.

  16. [Cadmium and lead concentrations in the amniotic fluid of pregnant smokers and non-smokers].

    PubMed

    Klink, F; Jungblut, J R; Oberheuser, F; Siegers, C P

    1983-11-01

    Many studies showed the unhealthy effect of smoking on the fetus. Several mechanisms for the unfavorable effect are discussed. In the last few years interest has been shown in the occurrence of heavy metals such as cadmium and lead in smoke. In animal experiments high doses of cadmium showed mutations, teratogenicity and low doses showed retardation of fetal growth. Amniotic fluid examinations of smoking and non-smoking pregnant women showed that there is no barrier to cadmium from the placenta. A direct correlation between cigarette smoking and cadmium concentration in the amniotic fluid was found. Cadmium was discussed as a reason for hypertension. But this was not verified in our study. There were no correlations between the cadmium and lead content of amniotic fluid and the gestational age, and disturbances of the pregnancy nor a correlation to the incidence of abortions. The lead concentration in the amniotic fluid of smokers and non-smokers showed no significant difference. This is attributed to the ubiquitous exposition to lead with increasing pollution of the environment. The relatively small additional amounts of lead in cigarettes do not increase the amount of lead in the amniotic fluid. PMID:6557981

  17. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  18. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    Difficulty starting or maintaining a urine stream is called urinary hesitancy. ... men have some trouble with dribbling, weak urine stream, and starting urination. Another common cause is infection ...

  19. Lead concentration in the blood of the general population living near a lead-zinc mine site, Nigeria: Exposure pathways.

    PubMed

    Bello, Olanrewaju; Naidu, Ravi; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Liu, Yanju; Dong, Zhaomin

    2016-01-15

    Lead (Pb) poisoning in children is a major public health catastrophe worldwide. This report summarises both exposure pathways and blood Pb levels in children below 7 years of age and adults (above 18 years) from the Adudu community living near a lead-zinc mine in Nasawara, Nigeria. The average and median blood Pb levels in children and adults were 2.1 and 1.3 μg/dL, 3.1 and 1.8 μg/dL, respectively. However, Pb in 14% of adults' blood exceeded 5 μg/dL, which is the recommended threshold blood Pb concentration in adults as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore 68% of adults' blood exceeded blood Pb action level of 2 μg/dL. For children, 11.4% and 31% of the blood samples exceeded 5 μg/dL and 2 μg/dL, respectively, while no safe blood Pb level in children has been recommended. In Nasawara, a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the various age groups in children with 2-4 years old having the highest levels and 6 year old children having the lowest Pb levels. Although this study did not detect elevated levels of Pb in children's blood in regions such as Zamfara, Nigeria and Kabwe, Zambia, a high percentage of samples exceeded 2 μg/dL. Soils, floor dusts, water and crops also reveal that Pb contamination in the study area could potentially be the major cause of blood Pb in the community exposed to mining. This study also observed a significant correlation between water Pb levels of adults and blood Pb levels, suggesting that water is the major exposure pathway. This analysis highlights the need to properly manage mining activities so that the health of communities living in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine is not compromised. PMID:26556755

  20. Blood lead concentrations in free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jonathan K; Combrink, Xander; Myburgh, Jan G; Downs, Colleen T

    2016-07-01

    Generally crocodilians have received little attention with regard to the effects of lead toxicity despite their trophic status as apex, generalist predators that utilize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, thereby exposing them to a potentially wide range of environmental contaminants. During July-October 2010 we collected whole blood from 34 sub-adult and adult free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from three separate populations in northeastern South Africa in order to analyze their blood lead concentrations (BPb). Concentrations ranged from below detectability (<3 μg/dL, n = 8) to 960 μg/dL for an adult male at the Lake St Lucia Estuary. Blood lead concentrations averaged 8.15 μg/dL (SD = 7.47) for females and 98.10 μg/dL (SD = 217.42) for males. Eighteen individuals (53 %) had elevated BPbs (≥10 μg/dL). We assessed 12 general linear models using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and found no significant statistical effects among the parameters of sex, crocodile size and population sampled. On average, crocodiles had higher BPbs at Lake St Lucia than at Ndumo Game Reserve or Kosi Bay, which we attribute to lead sinker ingestion during normal gastrolith acquisition. No clinical effects of lead toxicosis were observed in these crocodiles, even though the highest concentration (960 μg/dL) we report represents the most elevated BPb recorded to date for a free-ranging vertebrate. Although we suggest adult Nile crocodiles are likely tolerant of elevated Pb body burdens, experimental studies on other crocodilian species suggest the BPb levels reported here may have harmful or fatal effects to egg development and hatchling health. In light of recent Nile crocodile nesting declines in South Africa we urge further BPb monitoring and ecotoxicology research on reproductive females and embryos. PMID:27038476

  1. Urination - painful

    MedlinePlus

    ... gonorrhea or chlamydia? Has there been a recent change in your brand of soap, detergent, or fabric softener? Have you had surgery or radiation to your urinary or sexual organs? A urinalysis will be done. A urine culture may be ordered. If you have had a ...

  2. Active concentration of vorticity along the leading edge of a semi-circular wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David; Collins, Jesse; Colonius, Tim

    2007-11-01

    Leading-edge vorticity concentration plays a key role in lift enhancement for insect flight, swept wings on aircraft, and in unsteady flows through the formation of the dynamic stall vortex. Using 16 spatially localized pulsed-blowing actuators, we are able to concentrate the vorticity at the leading edge of a wing with a semi-circular planform. The experiments are done in a wind tunnel with a model chord Reynolds number of 68,000. Peak vorticity values double those of the unforced case result in an 80 percent increase in lift on the wing relative to the unforced post-stall lift. The semi-circular wing obtains lift coefficients approximately 35 percent larger than a rectangular planform wing with a comparable aspect ratio. The sweep of the wing's leading edge is believed to establish a spanwise transport of vorticity, contributing to the stabilization of the leading edge vortex. Closed-loop control of the wing plunging motion in an unsteady flow stream is demonstrated by modulating the strength of the leading-edge vorticity via a proportional-derivative controller.

  3. Lead and cadmium concentrations in seawater and algae of the Tunisian coast.

    PubMed

    El Ati-Hellal, M; Hedhili, A; Hellal, F; Boujlel, K; Dachraoui, M; Bousnina, M; Ghorbel, H; Ndhif, M

    2005-01-01

    Both lead and cadmium are toxic trace metals, even in very weak concentrations. The aim of this study was to estimate lead and cadmium pollution in various sites of the Tunisian coast and to verify the possibility of modification of the algae bioconcentration power according to water physico-chemical conditions. Our study concerned 99 samples of algae and 99 samples of seawater, taken in different sites of the Tunisian littoral. The analysis was realized by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (oven graphite). In algae, Sfax site presented the highest concentrations of lead when Sousse site showed the lowest ones. In seawater, the most amounts of lead were observed in Bizerte, Mahdia and Sfax sites, and those of cadmium in Bizerte and Medenine coasts. Bizerte's coast seems to be the most exposed zone to pollution. Indeed, the intensification of sea traffic may take place on this pollution because hydrocarbons derived from petroleum contain some tetraethylic lead characterised by its great toxicity. Sousse's region is the least polluted zone; it might be due to the development of tourism and a strict regulation of pollution in this district. PMID:16929758

  4. Lead Concentration Levels In Public Water Sources in the Fruitvale District of Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A.; Edel, M.; Tril, E.; Crockett, R.; Moreno, K.; Telles, C.; Rodriguez, F.; Folgar, E.; Ramirez-Tril, J.; Torres, J.; Navarro, J.; Nguyen, R.; Moqadam, S.

    2010-12-01

    To assess the possible risk of lead contamination in drinking water in the Fruitvale neighborhood in Oakland, California we collected samples from different fresh water sources and used an EPA approved method to analyze these samples for lead using a spectrophotometer. Our sample locations included drinking fountains at a school, library and train station, as well as an ornamental fountain in a plaza area. Our preliminary results revealed that 8 out of 11, or about 73% of water samples collected contained lead concentrations that exceed the EPA action level of 15μg/l. Given these preliminary results, there is an urgent need for us to continue further testing to confirm these concentrations, so that we can quickly notify the public and city officials of the risks associated with these drinking water sources within this community. Future sampling will follow a more rigorous collection strategy, which will help determine whether or not initial high lead values detected result from waters having had long residence times in local plumbing systems. If this is in fact the case, we intend to produce information that instructs the public on procedures that can be used to reduce the risk of lead exposure, such as only using water after it has been issuing from sources for specified amounts of time, or using filtration devices.

  5. Investigation of Higher Than Standard Lead Concentrations in Drinking Water From Washington, D.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adarkwah, N. E.; Ararso, I.; Garcia, N.; Goldman, A.; Lieu, C.; Mondragon, J.; Swamy, V.; Unigarro, M.; Cuff, K.

    2005-12-01

    For over two years, the Washington, D.C. area has been plagued by the incidence of alarming concentrations of lead found in local drinking water. During this period, water with lead concentration levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) action limit of 15 ppb has been found in approximately 66% of the homes tested. Because of the problems with lead in drinking water in the D.C. area, the EPA has begun the process of trying to determine whether or not this problem occurs nationwide by obtaining as much lead data as possible. However, it recently reported that no current information exists on lead levels from 78 percent of the nation's public drinking water systems, and that it has no data from as many as 20 states. In an effort to generate information that contributes to a greater understanding of the scope and nature of this real-world environmental health problem, we have begun collecting and performing lead analysis of drinking water samples from different parts of the country. As San Francisco Bay Area - based participants in the NSF-sponsored Environmental Science Information Technology Activities (ESITA) project, we began by establishing E-mail correspondence with children who attend elementary schools in the Washington, D.C. area two years ago, during the first year of the lead crisis. Since that time the elementary school children have sent over 150 water samples from their homes and schools, along with information on the locations from which the water samples were collected to the Bay Area. Upon receipt, we prepare and analyze these samples at UC Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science. Following analysis results are compiled, statistically analyzed, and used to create maps that aid in the interpretation of our data. The majority of samples collected from the D.C. area were obtained from schools and homes located in the central north-northeast section of the District. Of these samples, 72% contained lead in excess of the EPA action limit. Despite reports that lead levels have fallen significantly over the past year, 63% of all homes tested during the second year of our study still contained lead levels that exceed the EPA limit. In addition, drinking water collected from a well-used fountain at an elementary school site that a local government reported as lead free contained lead concentrations greater than 5 times the EPA action limit two years in a row. During the first year of our study, waters collected from this same fountain yielded values as high as 20 times the action limit! Our work over the past two years clearly shows that by working with students who attend schools in different parts of the country, we can contribute in a major way to the EPA's monitoring of lead levels in the country's drinking water. As a result, we intend to continue this work in the future, as well as continuing an investigation that includes the use of water delivery system models that enable us to assess how much water mains, service mains, and home piping systems contribute to the total lead concentrations measured in drinking water samples.

  6. Blood lead concentrations and associated factors in residents of Monterrey, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Junco-Muñoz, P; Ottman, R; Lee, J H; Barton, S A; Rivas, F; Cerda-Flores, R M

    1996-01-01

    Data from interviews of 469 random subjects living in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México were analyzed to investigate factors associated with blood lead (PbB). The following criteria were considered: age, sex, residence zone, occupation, smoking, alcohol consumption, and the use of glazed pottery. Multiple linear regression analysis disclosed that PbB concentration was significantly higher in males, in residents of northeastern (NE) Monterrey, and in blue-collar workers. The highest atmospheric lead (PbA) concentrations of all Monterrey were also found in the NE, the zone that contains the greatest density of factories within the city. PbB and PbA means were significantly correlated (r = 0.964) with regard to the four urban zones considered. It is concluded that increased PbB level in specific categories is probably explained by exposure to PbA originating from industrial emissions. PMID:8987193

  7. Observations on the effect of parathyroid hormone on environmental blood lead concentrations in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Osterloh, J.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on blood lead (Pb) concentrations was observed preliminarily in three different situations. Of 342 healthy bus drivers with no unusual exposure to Pb, 25 drivers with the highest and 25 with the lowest blood Pb were compared for serum PTH concentrations. There was no association between blood Pb and serum PTH concentrations. Eight women with postmenopausal osteoporosis enrolled in an experimental protocol to increase bone mass received daily PTH (1-34 fragment) for 1 week, calcitonin for the next 2 weeks, and oral calcium for the subsequent 10 weeks. This cycle was repeated four times during the year. Initial blood Pb concentrations averaged 6.0 micrograms/dl (range 2.1-8.9). Mean blood Pb concentrations decreased by 1.7 micrograms/dl over 1 year of therapy. The confidence interval for this change excluded zero, the mean change was significantly different from the mean change for comparative population (P less than 0.050), and paired changes were statistically significant (P = 0.045). Lastly, a single subject with hyperparathyroid disease and no unusual exposures to lead demonstrated stabilized blood Pb concentrations that were 50% lower after removal of his hyperplastic parathyroid glands. These observations suggest that the effect of PTH on increasing bone turnover and releasing Pb into blood is not easily detected at low physiologic amounts of PTH, but that with pathologic increases of PTH in hyperparathyroid disease, elevation of blood Pb from bone or increased gastrointestinal absorption may be possible. Likewise, either bone building therapies (PTH + calcitonin + calcium) may move Pb from blood into bone or supplemental calcium may decrease Pb gastrointestinal absorption, thereby explaining the observed lower blood Pb concentrations.

  8. First-Trimester Urine Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites and Phenols and Placenta miRNA Expression in a Cohort of U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Jessica; Binder, Alexandra M.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Michels, Karin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing concern that early-life exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can influence the risk of disease development. Phthalates and phenols are two classes of suspected EDCs that are used in a variety of everyday consumer products, including plastics, epoxy resins, and cosmetics. In utero exposure to EDCs may affect disease propensity through epigenetic mechanisms. Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether prenatal exposure to multiple EDCs is associated with changes in miRNA expression of human placenta, and whether miRNA alterations are associated with birth outcomes. Methods Our study was restricted to a total of 179 women co-enrolled in the Harvard Epigenetic Birth Cohort and the Predictors of Preeclampsia Study. We analyzed associations between first-trimester urine concentrations of 8 phenols and 11 phthalate metabolites and expression of 29 candidate miRNAs in placenta by qRT-PCR. Results For three miRNAs—miR-142-3p, miR15a-5p, and miR-185—we detected associations between Σphthalates or Σphenols on expression levels (p < 0.05). By assessing gene ontology enrichment, we determined the potential mRNA targets of these microRNAs predicted in silico were associated with several biological pathways, including the regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity. Four gene ontology biological processes were enriched among genes significantly correlated with the expression of miRNAs associated with EDC burden. Conclusions Overall, these results suggest that prenatal phenol and phthalate exposure is associated with altered miRNA expression in placenta, suggesting a potential mechanism of EDC toxicity in humans. Citation LaRocca J, Binder AM, McElrath TF, Michels KB. 2016. First-trimester urine concentrations of phthalate metabolites and phenols and placenta miRNA expression in a cohort of U.S. women. Environ Health Perspect 124:380–387; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408409 PMID:26090578

  9. Validation of a method to quantify chromium, cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in human whole blood, urine, saliva and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; López-Guarnido, O; Rodrigo, L; Gil, F

    2010-02-01

    For biological monitoring of heavy metal exposure in occupational toxicology, usually whole blood and urine samples are the most widely used and accepted matrix to assess internal xenobiotic exposure. Hair samples and saliva are also of interest in occupational and environmental health surveys but procedures for the determination of metals in saliva and hair are very scarce and to our knowledge there is no validation of a method to quantify Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in four different human biological materials (whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair) by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In the present study, quantification methods for the determination of Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair were validated according to the EU common standards. Pyrolisis and atomization temperatures have been determined. The main parameters evaluated were: detection and quantification limits, linearity range, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and uncertainty. Accuracy of the methods was tested with the whole blood, urine and hair certified reference materials and recoveries of the spiked samples were acceptable ranged from 96.3 to 107.8%. PMID:20103106

  10. Blood concentration of essential trace elements and heavy metals in workers exposed to lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wasowicz, W; Gromadzińska, J; Rydzyński, K

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine blood concentration of essential trace elements (Se, Zn, Cu) and toxic metals (Pb, Cd), markers of antioxidant (activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxidase dismutase and ceruloplasmin) and prooxidant processes (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in workers exposed to Pb and Cd. Forty three male workers of the lead-acid batteries department, aged 25-52 years, and twenty two workers, including 15 women, aged 36-51 years, exposed to Cd in the alkaline batteries department were examined. The reference group consisted of 52 healthy inhabitants of the same region. It was found that Se concentration and GPx activity in both erythrocytes and plasma of Cd exposed workers were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in the reference group. We found an inverse linear correlation between blood Se and Cd concentrations in the workers exposed to Cd (r = -0.449; p < 0.01). Moreover, the activity of erythrocyte and plasma GPx was shown to be significantly lower in the study group of workers (p < 0.001). It was observed that TBARS concentration in plasma was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the lead exposed workers than in the group without contact with Pb. Our results indicate that exposure to Pb and Cd affects the antioxidant potential of blood in workers exposed to heavy metals. PMID:11764849

  11. [Limits in the applicability of urine delta aminolevulinic acid determination as a screening test in the evaluation of occupational lead poisoning].

    PubMed

    Caldeira, C; Mattos, R d; Meyer, A; Moreira, J C

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between concentrations of ALA-U and Pb-S for two groups of workers is reported. The first group consisted of workers from a telephone company, and the second, of workers from battery factories with average Pb-S equivalent to 17.3 (g/dl (6.2-39.4) and 61.5 (g/dl (41.1-91.0), respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of ALA-U levels as a screening test for different levels of lead in blood by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and of spectrophotometry. A significant correlation was found between measured ALA and levels of blood lead (R = 0.739 - first group; R = 0.902 - second group; p < 0.001). The validity of ALA-U test to evaluate different levels of lead in blood was also studied. By using ALA levels of 3mg/g creatinine as a threshold to detect levels of lead in blood equal to or higher than 20 (g/dl, the test results, for the workers in the first group, showed sensibility of 92% and specificity of 90%. In both groups, the false positives as well the false negatives were lower than 10% which was enough to validate the test. PMID:10738167

  12. Concentrations of Morphine and Codeine in Paired Oral Fluid and Urine Specimens Following Ingestion of a Poppy Seed Roll and Raw Poppy Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Samano, Kimberly L.; Clouette, Randal E.; Rowland, Barbara J.; Sample, R.H. Barry

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of opiate drug test results can be challenging due to casual dietary consumption of poppy seeds, which may contain variable opiate content. Opiate concentrations in paired oral fluid (OF), collected with the Oral-Eze® Oral Fluid Collection System, and urine were analyzed after ingestion of poppy seeds from the same source, consumed raw or contained in a roll. In Part 1, 12 individuals consumed equal portions of a poppy seed roll. For Part 2, the same individuals consumed an equivalent quantity of raw poppy seeds, containing ∼3.2 mg of morphine and 0.6 mg of codeine. Specimens were analyzed both by enzyme immunoassay (opiates) and by GC–MS (morphine/codeine). Urinary morphine was between 155–1,408 (roll) and 294–4,213 ng/mL (raw), measured at 2, 4, 6 and 20 h post-ingestion. Urinary codeine concentrations between 140–194 (roll) and 121–664 ng/mL (raw) were observed up to 6 h post-ingestion. Following consumption of raw poppy seeds, OF specimens were positive, above LOQ, from 0.25 to 3.0 h with morphine ranging from 7 to 600 ng/mL and codeine from 8 to 112 ng/mL. After poppy seed roll consumption, morphine concentrations of 7–143 ng/mL were observed up to 1.5 h with codeine detected in only 5.5% of OF specimens and ranging from 8 to 28 ng/mL. Combined with the existing poppy seed literature, these results support previous findings and provide guidance for interpretation of OF opiate testing. PMID:26378141

  13. Concentrations of Morphine and Codeine in Paired Oral Fluid and Urine Specimens Following Ingestion of a Poppy Seed Roll and Raw Poppy Seeds.

    PubMed

    Samano, Kimberly L; Clouette, Randal E; Rowland, Barbara J; Sample, R H Barry

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation of opiate drug test results can be challenging due to casual dietary consumption of poppy seeds, which may contain variable opiate content. Opiate concentrations in paired oral fluid (OF), collected with the Oral-Eze(®) Oral Fluid Collection System, and urine were analyzed after ingestion of poppy seeds from the same source, consumed raw or contained in a roll. In Part 1, 12 individuals consumed equal portions of a poppy seed roll. For Part 2, the same individuals consumed an equivalent quantity of raw poppy seeds, containing ∼3.2 mg of morphine and 0.6 mg of codeine. Specimens were analyzed both by enzyme immunoassay (opiates) and by GC-MS (morphine/codeine). Urinary morphine was between 155-1,408 (roll) and 294-4,213 ng/mL (raw), measured at 2, 4, 6 and 20 h post-ingestion. Urinary codeine concentrations between 140-194 (roll) and 121-664 ng/mL (raw) were observed up to 6 h post-ingestion. Following consumption of raw poppy seeds, OF specimens were positive, above LOQ, from 0.25 to 3.0 h with morphine ranging from 7 to 600 ng/mL and codeine from 8 to 112 ng/mL. After poppy seed roll consumption, morphine concentrations of 7-143 ng/mL were observed up to 1.5 h with codeine detected in only 5.5% of OF specimens and ranging from 8 to 28 ng/mL. Combined with the existing poppy seed literature, these results support previous findings and provide guidance for interpretation of OF opiate testing. PMID:26378141

  14. Lead fluxes, isotopic and concentration profiles in a peat deposit near a lead smelter (Príbram, Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Mihaljevic, M; Zuna, M; Ettler, V; Sebek, O; Strnad, L; Goliás, V

    2006-12-15

    The content and the isotopic composition of lead (Pb) were studied in a peat deposit on the ridge of the Brdy Hills, in the vicinity of the Príbram metallurgical works, in the Czech Republic. Quadrupole ICP MS was employed to determine the elemental composition and (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb isotope ratios. The individual layers were dated using alpha spectrometric measurement of the (210)Pb activity. The historical time period covered by the studied cores reached back to the 18th century. The Pb concentration in the studied profiles varied from 10 to 550 mg kg(-1). The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio varied in the range from 1.154 to 1.194 in the individual parts of the profile. The metallurgy of the Pb ores ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.16), lithogenic Pb ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.2), metallurgical processing of automobile batteries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.17) and the combustion of coal ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.17-1.19) yield isotopic signatures that determine the isotope compositions of the individual profiles. Deposition rates between 15 mg m(-2) year(-1) at the beginning of the 19th century and 320 mg m(-2) year(-1) in the 1980s were determined in the dated profiles. The increased deposition rates determined on the dated profiles correspond to the increasing production of Pb ores in the Príbram mining area at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The maximum for metallurgical production corresponds to the highest deposition rates recorded in 1960s and 1970s. The current deposition rate of 5-89 mg m(-2) year(-1) Pb is related to erosion of contaminated soils and waste dumps. PMID:17081595

  15. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Epidemiology Surveillance Program (ABLES) Lead in the environment Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Healthy Homes ...

  16. Spatial analysis of bioavailable soil lead concentrations in Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Edwards, Rufus; He, Xueqin Elaine; Liu, Zhen; Kleinman, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Lead (Pb) poisoning causes permanent neurologic and developmental disorders and remains an important environmental health problem for US children, despite removal of Pb from gasoline and household paints. To better understand the contribution of Pb from historical traffic and residential Pb based paint to soil Pb concentrations in Los Angeles, we analyzed 550 soil Pb samples from south central Los Angeles County, CA, in relation to land-use patterns (commercial, industrial, residential, and parks and open areas) and proximity to freeways, highways, and major arterials. House age variables (surrogates of historical Pb-based paint) and traffic index variables (surrogates of historical traffic) were created at different buffer distances (10-5000m). Total and bioavailable Pb concentrations near freeways and major arterials were significantly higher than those collected elsewhere. Total and bioavailable Pb concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.96) after the removal of one outlier. Both parcel-age related variables and traffic variables were important predictors of current soil bioavailable Pb concentrations. Average age of parcels within 30m and length of small streets within 3000m explained 57% and 38% of the variance, respectively, in soil bioavailable Pb concentrations in residential areas away from freeways and major arterials (N=44). Road length of freeways within 750m explained 28% of bioavailable Pb concentrations in parks and open areas (N=26). Multi-variable regression models predicted 16-61% of the variances in bioavailable Pb concentrations, depending on land-use type and spatial relationship to roadways. Based on these models a map of spatial distributions of soil Pb concentrations was created for the Los Angeles area that shows promise as a screening tool to evaluate continued Pb poisoning in children. PMID:20219189

  17. High Sensitivity of an Ha-RAS Transgenic Model of Superficial Bladder Cancer to Metformin Is Associated with ∼240-Fold Higher Drug Concentration in Urine than Serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongbo; Yokoyama, Noriko N; Blair, Christopher A; Li, Xuesen; Avizonis, Daina; Wu, Xue-Ru; Uchio, Edward; Youssef, Ramy; McClelland, Michael; Pollak, Michael; Zi, Xiaolin

    2016-03-01

    While pharmacoepidemiologic and laboratory studies have supported the hypothesis that the antidiabetic drug metformin may be useful in treating or preventing cancer, there is limited evidence to suggest which specific cancer sites may be particularly sensitive. Sensitivity likely is determined both by features of tumor pathophysiology and by pharmacokinetic factors. We used UPII-mutant Ha-ras transgenic mice that develop hyperplasia and low-grade, papillary urothelial cell carcinoma to determine whether metformin has activity in a model of superficial bladder cancer. Metformin significantly improved survival, reduced urinary tract obstruction, reduced bladder weight (a surrogate for tumor volume), and led to clear activation of AMP α kinase and inhibition of mTOR signaling in neoplastic tissue. We investigated the basis of the unusual sensitivity of this model to metformin, and observed that following oral dosing, urothelium is exposed to drug concentrations via the urine that are approximately 240-fold higher than those in the circulation. In addition, we observed that bladder cancer cell lines (RT4, UMUC-3, and J82) with homozygous deletion of either TSC1 or PTEN are more sensitive to metformin than those (TEU2, TCCSUP, and HT1376) with wild-type TSC1 and PTEN genes. Our findings provide a strong rationale for clinical trials of oral metformin in treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(3); 430-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26921394

  18. Blood Lead Concentrations in 13 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ? 100 ?g/L) among 13 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 199798. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ? 100 ?g/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 ?g/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 ?g/L (median 60.0; range 10160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ? 100 ?g/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  19. Aflatoxin B1 albumin adducts in plasma and aflatoxin M1 in urine are associated with plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E

    PubMed Central

    Obuseh, Francis A.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Jiang, Yi; Shuaib, Faisal M. B.; Waterbor, John; Ellis, William O.; Piyathilake, Chandrika J.; Desmond, Renee A.; Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although aflatoxin exposure has been shown to be associated with micronutrient deficiency in animals, there are few investigations on the effects of aflatoxin exposure on micronutrient metabolism in humans. Objective To examine the relationship between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in plasma and the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) metabolite in urine and plasma concentrations of retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) in Ghanaians. Methods A cross-sectional study of 147 adult participants was conducted. Blood and urine samples were tested for aflatoxin and vitamins A and E levels. Results Multivariable analysis showed that participants with high AF-ALB (≥ 0.80 pmol/mg albumin) had increased odds of having vitamin A deficiency compared to those with lower AF-ALB [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61; CI = 1.03 – 6.58; p=0.04]. Participants with high AF-ALB also showed increased odds of having vitamin E deficiency but this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.4; CI = 0.96–6.05; p = 0.06). Conversely, those with higher AFM1 values had a statistically nonsignificant reduced odds of having vitamin A deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 1.15–0.09; p=0.05) and statistically significant reduced odds of having vitamin E deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 0.10 – 0.97; p = 0.04). Participants with high AF-ALB or high AFM1 (≥ 437.95 pg/dL creatinine) were almost 6 times more likely to be hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)- positive (OR = 5.88; CI = 1.71–20.14; p = 0.005) and (OR = 5.84; CI = 1.15–29.54; p = 0.03) respectively. Conclusions These data indicate that aflatoxin may modify plasma micronutrient status. Thus, preventing aflatoxin exposure may greatly reduce vitamins A and E deficiencies. PMID:21792816

  20. Erythrocyte deformability in workers exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, S; Matsumura, S; Fukumoto, K; Karai, I; Endo, G; Teramoto, K; Shinagawa, K; Kiyota, I; Wakitani, F; Takise, S

    1991-11-01

    Erythrocyte deformability and other hematological indicators were determined in 17 male workers exposed to lead at a secondary lead refinery and 13 controls. Blood lead, urine lead, urine coproporphyrin, delta-aminolevulinic acid and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin were determined to evaluate the degree of lead exposure in the lead workers above. For the measurement of erythrocyte deformability, the microfilter method was used. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The mean values of blood lead, urine lead, urine coproporphyrin, urine delta-aminolevulinic acid and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers were 53.5 micrograms/100g, 141.4 micrograms/l, 115.9 micrograms/l, 12.0 mg/l and 68.9 micrograms/dl respectively, suggesting a moderate influence of lead exposure. 2. The mean values of erythrocyte count, hematocrit and hemoglobin were significantly lower in lead workers than those in controls. No significant differences were found in the mean values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and corpuscular natrium and potassium between lead workers and controls. 3. Erythrocyte deformability was significantly reduced in lead workers compared with controls. PMID:1792066

  1. Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

    2014-07-01

    Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH?-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 2.02 + 0.069 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g/L. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by K addition, but allantoin excretion increased linearly by 27% from LO to HI, suggesting increased rumen microbial growth. Rumen pH, acetate proportion of total volatile fatty acids, and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with increasing potassium intake. We concluded that increased ration K concentration lowers milk urea concentration with a magnitude significant for the interpretation of milk urea values, but other sources of variation, such as sampling time relative to feeding, may be even more important. PMID:24835966

  2. Correlation Between Surface Area and Dissolving Properties of Lead - A Step in the Investigation of Higher than Standard Lead Concentration in Drinking Water in Washington, D.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, M.; Garduno, L.; Mondragon, J. D.; Cuff, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    Several recently published articles by the Washington Post exposing the alarming concentration of lead in drinking water from schools and homes in the Washington D.C. area sparked our interest in the correlation between lead-containing materials used in plumbing and rate of lead solubility. Elementary children who attend schools in various regions of the District were contacted by San Francisco Bay Area- based high school students who are participants in the NSF-sponsored Environmental Science Information Technology Activities (ESITA) project. After receiving a thorough explanation of required sampling procedures, the elementary school children sent 500 ml water samples from their homes and schools to Berkeley along with information on the locations from which the water samples were collected. These water samples were analyzed for lead content at the Environmental Science Research Program laboratory at Lawrence Hall of Science. The majority of the samples contained more than 15 ppb of lead, which is the EPA action level. We hypothesize that there are three possible sources of lead in the drinking water: 1) lead pipes in the water main; 2) lead pipes in the service main; and 3) lead soldering that was often previously used to connect piping. We chose to investigate the effect of lead-based solder on the overall lead concentration in water. Using a soldering iron, we melted lead solder to create discs ranging from one to five centimeter diameter and one to thirty-six grams of mass. These discs were then placed into a beaker with 500 ml of 7.1pH distilled water and allowed to stand for 48 hours. At the end of 48 hours, the water samples were prepared for analysis using the EPA approved lead-dithizone procedure. Results showed an exponential relationship between disc surface area and the concentration of dissolved lead measured in the sample. Therefore, lead-based solder can represent a possible major source of lead contamination.

  3. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

  4. The human urine metabolome.

    PubMed

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a "favored" biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

  5. DDE, PCBs, cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in rhinoceros auklets from Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Fitzner, R.E.; Leschner, L.L.; Wilson, U.W.

    1999-01-01

    In July 1981, 5 adult rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) were captured on the ground near nesting areas on each of Protection and Destruction Islands, Washington. The birds were euthanized, and their livers and kidneys removed and analyzed. Levels (I?g / g wet weight) of DDE (0.11 to 0.95), polychlorinated biphenyls (no residue detected [ND] to 1.1), mercury (0.60 to 1.8), and lead (ND to 0.85) in livers and cadmium (9.1 to 21.9) in kidneys were similar in each colony. All concentrations were less than known effect levels.

  6. On the seasonal variability of urban air particulate lead concentration under tropical monsoon atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hien, P.D.; Binh, N.T.; Truong, Y.; Ngo, N.T.

    1996-12-31

    Hochiminh city has two distinct - dry and rainy - seasons with the seasonal transitions taking place during 1-2 weeks in May and November when the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) passes over the area during its annual north-south migration around the equator. The prevailing wind direction and rainfall change sharply following the seasonal transitions. Air particulate lead concentrations measured during 1993-1994 exhibit a temporal variability reflecting the seasonal changes of relevant atmospheric factors typical of Southeast Asia tropical monsoon conditions.

  7. Correlations between lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in frozen tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, L.; Hardisson, A.; Montelongo, F.G.

    1986-04-01

    The presence of metallic pollutants in marine ecosystems has promoted wide research plans in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine organisms. However, little is known concerning environmental and physiological processes that regulate the concentration of trace metals in marine organisms. Even though the toxicity of lead and cadmium is well established, copper, zinc and iron are considered as essential elements for mammals. Little is known about heavy metals, other than mercury, concentrations in fresh and frozen tuna fish. Fifty samples obtained at the entrance of a canning factory in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were treated by applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences compiled and linked in the software of a Digital VAX/VMS 11/780 computer.

  8. Histopathological biomarkers in juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to a sublethal lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Lautaro; Weber, Paula; Dressler, Valderi; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Vigliano, Fabricio Andrés

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the 96-h lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of lead (Pb) in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, and to determine histopathological biomarkers in fish exposed for 96-h to a sublethal concentration at 25% of the LC50. The 96-h LC50 was 108 mgl(-1). In gills, the length and thickness of lamella and thickness of the filament epithelium were significantly higher in fish exposed to Pb for 48-h than in control fish whereas the interlamellar distance decreased. In the liver, the area occupied by lipid droplets and size of hepatocytes showed significantly higher values after 24-h of exposure. The percentage of abnormal renal tubules was higher in fish exposed to Pb, exhibiting a time-dependent increase. These variations in histopathological biomarkers permit the definition of the overall response of R. quelen to Pb and the potential usefulness in the monitoring of Pb contamination. PMID:25521338

  9. Lead concentrations of white-winged doves, Zenaida asiatica L., collected in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Fedynich, Alan M; Fredricks, Timothy B; Benn, Steve

    2010-09-01

    White-winged dove (Zenaida asiatica L.) exposure to environmentally accessible lead is a management concern. Detectable concentrations of lead were found in 142 (66%) of 214 white-winged doves collected in 2002 and 2003 at two wildlife management units in South Texas. Mean +/- SD lead concentration was 0.70 +/- 1.10 microg/g dry weight and ranged from ND to 11.01 microg/g dw. Lead concentrations were significantly lower in the 2002 samples, but similar between management units, age, and gender. White-winged doves in South Texas are being exposed to lead in the environment with some reaching subclinical to toxic levels. PMID:20686750

  10. Concentrations and bioavailability of cadmium and lead in cocoa powder and related products.

    PubMed

    Mounicou, S; Szpunar, J; Andrey, D; Blake, C; Lobinski, R

    2003-04-01

    Concentrations and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined in cocoa powders and related products (beans, liquor, butter) of different geographical origins. Particular attention was paid to the fractionation of these metals, which was investigated by determining the metal fraction soluble in extractant solutions acting selectively with regard to the different classes of ligands. The targeted classes of Cd and Pb species included: water-soluble compounds, polypeptide and polysaccharide complexes, and compounds soluble in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The bioavailability of Cd and Pb from cocoa powder, liquor and butter was evaluated using a sequential enzymolysis approach. The data obtained as a function of the geographical origin of the samples indicated strong differences not only in terms of the total Cd and Pb concentrations, but also with regard to the bioavailability of these metals. The Cd concentrations in the cocoa powders varied from 94 to 1833 microg kg(-1), of which 10-50% was potentially bioavailable. The bioavailability of Pb was generally below 10% and the concentrations measured in the cocoa powders were in the 11-769 microg kg(-1) range. Virtually all the Cd and most of Pb were found in the cocoa powder after the pressing of the liquor. PMID:12775476

  11. Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations <10 microg/dL in US children and adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, B P; Dietrich, K; Auinger, P; Cox, C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lead is a confirmed neurotoxicant, but the lowest blood lead concentration associated with deficits in cognitive functioning and academic achievement is poorly defined. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of relatively low blood lead concentrations-especially concentrations <10 micrograms per deciliter (microg/dL)--with performance on tests of cognitive functioning in a representative sample of US children and adolescents. METHODS: The authors used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted from 1988 to 1994, to assess the relationship between blood lead concentration and performance on tests of arithmetic skills, reading skills, nonverbal reasoning, and short-term memory among 4,853 children ages 6-16 years. RESULTS: The geometric mean blood lead concentration for children n the study sample was 1.9 microg/dL; 172 (2.1%) had blood lead concentrations > or =10 microg/dL. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, poverty, region of the country, parent or caregiver's educational level, parent or caregiver's marital status parent, serum ferritin level, and serum cotinine level, the data showed an inverse relationship between blood lead concentration and scores on four measures of cognitive functioning. For every 1 microg/dL increase in blood lead concentration, there was a 0.7-point decrement in mean arithmetic scores, an approximately 1-point decrement in mean reading scores, a 0.1-point decrement in mean scores on a measure of nonverbal reasoning, and a 0.5-point decrement in mean scores on a measure of short-term memory. An inverse relationship between blood lead concentration and arithmetic and reading scores was observed for children with blood lead concentrations lower than 5.0 microg/dL. CONCLUSION: Deficits in cognitive and academic skills associated with lead exposure occur at blood lead concentrations lower than 5 microg/dL. PMID:11354334

  12. Lead concentrations and isotopes in corals and water near Bermuda, 1780-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Amy E.; Reuer, Matthew K.; Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Boyle, Edward A.

    2009-06-01

    The history of the oceanic anthropogenic lead (Pb) transient in the North Atlantic Ocean for the past 220 yr is documented here from measurements of Pb concentration and isotope ratios from annually-banded corals that grew in coastal seawaters near Bermuda and from seawater samples collected during the last 20 yr of the 20th century. Anthropogenic Pb emissions in this area have been dominated by the industrialization of North America beginning in the 1840s, the introduction of leaded gasoline beginning in the 1920s and its phase-out that began in the mid-1970s. The phase-out of leaded gasoline was largely completed by the late 1990s. Coral Pb concentrations occur at a constant low level of about 5 nmol Pb/mol Ca (~ 15 pmol/kg in seawater) from the late 1700s to ~ 1850. From ~ 1850 to ~ 1900 there is a small increase rising to a plateau at ~ 25 nmol Pb/mol Ca (~ 80 pmol/kg in seawater) in the 1930s until the late 1940s, at which point Pb concentrations rapidly increase to ~ 60 nmol Pb/mol Ca (~ 200 pmol/kg in seawater). In the mid 1970s, Pb began to decline to ~ 25 nmol Pb/Ca (40 pmol/kg in seawater) by the end of the 20th century, comparable to levels occurring in the early 20th century. Pb isotope ratios (Pb I.R.) show maximum 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.21 and 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.49 in the middle of the 19th century. We conclude that this signal is a reflection of the early dominance of Upper Mississippi Valley Pb ore in the United States, as previously seen in the estuarine sediments of Rhode Island. After 1900, Pb I.R. decrease only slightly until the 1960s when there is a significant local maximum in the 1970s to 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.19 and 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.45 as low-Pb I.R. sources were phased out in the United States. Then, as US leaded gasoline utilization decreased more rapidly than European Pb gas utilization (which has lower Pb I.R.), western North Atlantic Pb I.R. decreased to 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.17 and 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.44, their lowest values in the past two centuries.

  13. Biosynthesis of lead nanoparticles by the aquatic water fern, Salvinia minima Baker, when exposed to high lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Castro-Longoria, E; Trejo-Guillén, K; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Avalos-Borja, M; Andrade-Canto, S B; Leal-Alvarado, D A; Santamaría, J M

    2014-02-01

    Salvinia minima Baker is a small floating aquatic fern that is efficient for the removal and storage of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, we report that lead removal by S. minima causes large accumulation of lead inside the cells in the form of nanoparticles (PbNPs). The accumulation pattern of lead was analyzed in both, submerged root-like modified fronds (here named "roots"), and in its aerial leaf-like fronds ("leaves"). Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the biosynthesis of PbNPs by the plant. In both, roots and leaves, PbNPs were found to accumulate almost exclusively at the cell wall and closely associated to the cell membrane. Two types of PbNPs shapes were found in cells of both tissues, those associated to the cell wall were quasi-spherical with 17.2±4.2 nm of diameter, while those associated to the cell membrane/cytoplasm were elongated. Elongated particles were 53.7±29.6 nm in length and 11.1±2.4 nm wide. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) results indicate that cellulose, lignin and pectin are the major components that may be acting as the reducing agents for lead ions; these findings strongly suggest the potential use of this fern to further explore the bio-assisted synthesis of heavy metal nanostructures. PMID:24211828

  14. VAPORIZATION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY FROM POOLS OF MOLTEN LEAD AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

    2000-10-01

    Should coolant accidentally be lost to the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) blanket and target, and the decay heat in the target be deposited in the surrounding blanket by thermal radiation, temperatures in the blanket modules could exceed structural limits and cause a physical collapse of the blanket modules into a non-coolable geometry. Such a sequence of unmitigated events could result in some melting of the APT blanket and create the potential for the release of mercury into the target-blanket cavity air space. Experiments were conducted which simulate such hypothetical accident conditions in order to measure the rate of vaporization of elemental mercury from pools of molten lead to quantify the possible severe accident source term for the APT blanket region. Molten pools of from 0.01% to 0.10% mercury in lead were prepared under inert conditions. Experiments were conducted, which varied in duration from several hours to as long as a month, to measure the mercury vaporization from the lead pools. The melt pools and gas atmospheres were held fixed at 340 C during the tests. Parameters which were varied in the tests included the mercury concentration, gas flow rate over the melt and agitation of the melt, gas atmosphere composition and the addition of aluminum to the melt. The vaporization of mercury was found to scale roughly linearly with the concentration of mercury in the pool. Variations in the gas flow rates were not found to have any effect on the mass transfer, however agitation of the melt by a submerged stirrer did enhance the mercury vaporization rate. The rate of mercury vaporization with an argon (inert) atmosphere was found to exceed that for an air (oxidizing) atmosphere by as much as a factor of from ten to 20; the causal factor in this variation was the formation of an oxide layer over the melt pool with the air atmosphere which served to retard mass transfer across the melt-atmosphere interface. Aluminum was introduced into the melt to investigate its effect upon the mercury vaporization rate in simulation of the aluminum structure in the APT blanket. No effect at all was observed for a case with an argon atmosphere. This suggests that there are no chemical effects of the aluminum on the vaporization kinetics. With an air atmosphere, the presence of aluminum in the melt reduced the mercury vaporization by a factor of six in comparison to the identical test but without aluminum present. This suggests that aluminum in the lead/mercury .melt retards the vaporization of mercury by creating a surface oxide layer in addition to the lead-oxide layer which increases the mass transfer resistance.

  15. Lead and cadmium concentrations in marine organisms from the Tarragona coastal waters, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Schuhmacher, M.; Bosque, M.A.; Domingo, J.L.; Corbella, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Lead and cadmium are now recognized to be two of most important heavy metal contaminants of the marine environment. The Tarragona coastal area (Catalonia, NE Spain) is a biologically productive and physically diverse marine ecosystem, with a very important commercial fishing industry. Two rivers, the Ebro (South) and the Francoli (North) flow into the Mediterranean Sea at the Tarragona coastal waters, which are subjected to large loads of toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals). Although considerable data have been accumulated on the distribution and levels of heavy metals in marine species from different areas of the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Taragona coastal area are not available in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the distribution and concentrations of lead and cadmium in the marine species commonly consumed by the population of Tarragona, as well as to learn whether these levels may constitute a health hazard for the consumers. Lead and cadmium were measured in 23 commercially significant marine species from the Tarragona coastal waters.

  16. Apparatus and methods for monitoring the concentrations of hazardous airborne substances, especially lead

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2004-07-13

    Air is sampled at a rate in excess of 100 L/min, preferably at 200-300 L/min, so as to collect therefrom a substantial fraction, i.e., at least 20%, preferably 60-100%, of airborne particulates. A substance of interest (analyte), such as lead, is rapidly solubilized from the the collected particulates into a sample of liquid extractant, and the concentration of the analyte in the extractant sample is determined. The high-rate air sampling and particulate collection may be effected with a high-throughput filter cartridge or with a recently developed portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler. Rapid solubilization of lead is achieved by a liquid extractant comprising 0.1-1 M of acetic acid or acetate, preferably at a pH of 5 or less and preferably with inclusion of 1-10% of hydrogen peroxide. Rapid determination of the lead content in the liquid extractant may be effected with a colorimetric or an electroanalytical analyzer.

  17. Cadmium concentrations in blood of children living near a lead smelter in Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima, M.E.; Alt, F.

    1986-08-01

    A prevalence study of cadmium absorption was carried out among 396 children aged 1 to 9 years living at less than 900 m from a primary lead smelter in Santo Amaro City, northeast Brazil. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of cadmium concentrations in blood (CdB) were 0.087 and 2.5 mumole/liter, respectively, ranging from 0.004 to 0.511 units. Ninety-six per cent of these children presented CdB higher than 0.0089 mumole/liter (or 1.0 microgram/liter) which is usually taken as a reference level. Higher CdB levels were significantly associated with shorter distance from child's home to smelter chimney, residence time in the area greater than 7 months, racial groups Light and Medium, and heavy infection by hookworm. The variation in CdB levels was not associated with child's age, nutritional status, iron status, family per capita income, blood lead level, being a child of a lead worker, the habit of pica, and contamination of child's peridomiciliar environment by smelter dross.

  18. Stereoselective method development and validation for determination of concentrations of amphetamine-type stimulants and metabolites in human urine using a simultaneous extraction-chiral derivatization approach.

    PubMed

    Wan Raihana, W A; Gan, S H; Tan, S C

    2011-01-01

    Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are a group of chiral amine drugs which are commonly abused for their sympathomimetic and stimulant properties. ATS are extensively metabolised by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. As metabolism of ATS has been shown to be highly stereospecific, stereoselective analytical methods are essential for the quantitative determination of ATS concentrations for both in vivo and in vitro studies of ATS metabolism. This paper describes a new stereoselective method for the simultaneous determination of amphetamine (AM), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA), 3,4-hydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) and 3,4-hydroxyamphetamine (HHA) in human urine samples validated according to the United States Food and Drug Administration guidelines. In this method, analytes are simultaneously extracted and derivatized with R-(-)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride (R-MTPCl) as the chiral derivatization reagent. Following this, the analytes were subjected to a second derivatization with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) which targets the hydroxyl groups present in HMMA, HMA, HHMA and HHA. The derivatized analytes were separated and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method was evaluated according to the established guidelines for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery and stability using a five-day protocol. Intra-day precision ranged from 0.89 to 11.23% RSD whereas inter-day precision was between 1.03 and 12.95% RSD. Accuracy values for the analytes ranged from -5.29% to 13.75%. Limits of quantitation were 10 μg/L for AM, MA, MDMA, HMA and HMMA and 2μg/L for MDA, HMA and HHA. Recoveries and stability values were also within accepted values. The method was applied to authentic ATS-positive samples. PMID:21147046

  19. Determination of cadmium and lead in urine samples after dispersive solid-liquid extraction on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez Méndez, J.; Barciela García, J.; García Martín, S.; Peña Crecente, R. M.; Herrero Latorre, C.

    2015-04-01

    A new method for the determination of Cd and Pb in urine samples has been developed. The method involves dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE), slurry sampling (SS), and subsequent electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as the sorbent material. The isolated MWCNT/analyte aggregates were treated with nitric acid to form a slurry and both metals were determined directly by injecting the slurry into the ETAAS-atomizer. The parameters that influence the adsorption of the metals on MWCNTs in the DSPE process, the formation and extraction of the slurry, and the ETAAS conditions were studied by different factorial design strategies. The detection and quantification limits obtained for Cd under optimized conditions were 9.7 and 32.3 ng L- 1, respectively, and for Pb these limits were 0.13 and 0.43 μg L- 1. The preconcentration factors achieved were 3.9 and 5.4. The RSD values (n = 10) were less than 4.1% and 5.9% for Cd and Pb, respectively. The accuracy of the method was assessed in recovery studies, with values in the range 96-102% obtained for Cd and 97-101% for Pb. In addition, the analysis of certified reference materials gave consistent results. The DSPE-SS-ETAAS method is a novel and useful strategy for the determination of Pb and Cd at low levels in human urine samples. The method is sensitive, fast, and free of matrix interferences, and it avoids the tedious and time-consuming on-column adsorption and elution steps associated with commonly used SPE procedures. The proposed method was used to determine Cd and Pb in urine samples of unexposed healthy people and satisfactory results were obtained.

  20. Blood Lead Concentrations < 10 μg/dL and Child Intelligence at 6 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Jusko, Todd A.; Henderson, Charles R.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Canfield, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Few studies provide data directly relevant to the question of whether blood lead concentrations < 10 μg/dL adversely affect children’s cognitive function. Objective We examined the association between blood lead concentrations assessed throughout early childhood and children’s IQ at 6 years of age. Methods Children were followed from 6 months to 6 years of age, with determination of blood lead concentrations at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. At 6 years of age, intelligence was assessed in 194 children using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence–Revised. We used general linear and semiparametic models to estimate and test the association between blood lead concentration and IQ. Results After adjustment for maternal IQ, HOME scale scores, and other potential confounding factors, lifetime average blood lead concentration (mean = 7.2 μg/dL; median = 6.2 μg/dL) was inversely associated with Full-Scale IQ (p = 0.006) and Performance IQ scores (p = 0.002). Compared with children who had lifetime average blood lead concentrations < 5 μg/dL, children with lifetime average concentrations between 5 and 9.9 μg/dL scored 4.9 points lower on Full-Scale IQ (91.3 vs. 86.4, p = 0.03). Nonlinear modeling of the peak blood lead concentration revealed an inverse association (p = 0.003) between peak blood lead levels and Full-Scale IQ down to 2.1 μg/dL, the lowest observed peak blood lead concentration in our study. Conclusions Evidence from this cohort indicates that children’s intellectual functioning at 6 years of age is impaired by blood lead concentrations well below 10 μg/dL, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of an elevated blood lead level. PMID:18288325

  1. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 μg/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  2. Examination of lead concentrations in new decorative enamel paints in four countries with different histories of activity in lead paint regulation.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Scott; Kumar, Abhay; Mohapatra, Piyush; Rajankar, Prashant; Nycz, Zuleica; Hambartsumyan, Amalia; Astanina, Lydia; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline; Menrath, William; Peng, Hongying

    2014-07-01

    Paints with high lead concentrations (ppm) continue to be sold around the world in many developing countries and those with economies in transition representing a major preventable environmental health hazard that is being increased as the economies expand and paint consumption is increasing. Prior lead paint testing had been performed in Brazil and India and these countries were selected to examine the impact of a new regulatory limit in Brazil and the impact of efforts of non-governmental organizations and others to stop the use of lead compounds in manufacturing paints. Armenia and Kazakhstan, in Central Asia, were selected because no information on lead concentration in those regions was available, no regulatory activities were evident and non-governmental organizations in the IPEN network were available to participate. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the lead loading (µg/cm(2)) limit determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for areas on toys that are too small to obtain a sample of sufficient size for laboratory analysis. The lead concentrations in more than three-fourths of the paints from Armenia and Kazakhstan exceeded 90 ppm, the limit in the United States, and 600 ppm, the limit in Brazil. The percentages were about one-half as high in Brazil and India. The average concentration in paints purchased in Armenia, 25,000 ppm, is among the highest that has been previously reported, that in Kazakhstan, 15,700 ppm, and India, 16,600, about median. The average concentration in Brazil, 5600 ppm, is among the lowest observed. Paints in Brazil that contained an average of 36,000 ppm before the regulatory limit became effective were below detection (< 9 ppm) in samples collected in the current study. The lack of any apparent public monitoring of paint lead content as part of regulatory enforcement makes it difficult to determine whether the regulation was a major factor contributing to the decline in lead use in these paints. Using data from the current study and those available from other studies 24 of 28 paints from major brands in India decreased from high concentrations to 90 ppm or lower. Since lead concentrations in golden yellow paints from these brands were found to decrease to ≤ 90 ppm, it is possible that all 28 of these paints now contain ≤ 90 ppm since yellow paints usually have the highest lead concentrations. Other brands in Brazil and India that have been analyzed only one time had lead concentrations up to 59,000 ppm and 134,000 ppm, respectively. Less than one-third of the paints had notations on their labels with information about lead content and these were sometimes inaccurate. The label from one brand indicating "no added lead" contained paint with 134,000 ppm lead, the highest found in this study. Three percent (3 of 98) of the paints with surface lead loading that did not exceed 2 µg/cm(2), the limit established by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for small areas on toys, contained greater than 90 ppm lead and thus were false negatives. Of the new paint samples that contained ≤ 600 ppm, 88% contained ≤ 90 ppm. Of the samples that contained ≤ 90 ppm, 97% contained ≤ 45 ppm and 92% contained ≤ 15 ppm. Based on these data it appears to be technically feasible to manufacture paints containing ≤ 90 ppm and in many cases to produce paints that have lead concentrations that do not exceed 15 ppm. PMID:24819125

  3. Factors controlling elevated lead concentrations in water samples from aquifer systems in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Bullen, M.P.; Bullen, T.D.; Hansard, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of total lead (Pb) and dissolved Pb exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level of 15 micrograms per liter (mg/L) in approximately 19 percent and 1.3 percent, respectively, of ground-water samples collected during 1991-96 from a statewide network of monitoring wells designed to delineate background water quality of Florida's major aquifer systems. Differences in total Pb concentrations among aquifer systems reflect the combined influence of anthropogenic sources and chemical conditions in each system. A highly significant (p<0.001) difference in median total Pb concentrations was found for water samples from wells with water-level recording devices that contain Pb-counterweights (14 mg/L) compared to non-recorder wells (2 mg/L). Differences between total Pb concentrations for recorder and non-recorder wells are even more pronounced when compared for each aquifer system. The largest differences for recorder status are found for the surficial aquifer system, where median total Pb concentrations are 44 and 2.4 mg/L for recorder wells and non-recorder wells, respectively. Leaching of Pb from metal casing materials is another potential source of Pb in ground water samples. Median total Pb concentrations in water samples from the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems are higher from recorder wells cased with black iron than for recorder wells with steel and PVC casing material. Stable isotopes of Pb were used in this study to distinguish between anthropogenic and natural sources of Pb in ground water, as Pb retains the isotopic signature of the source from which it is derived. Based on similarities between slopes and intercepts of trend lines for various sample types (plots of 206Pb/204Pb versus 208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb versus 208Pb/204Pb) the predominant source of total Pb in water samples from the surficial aquifer system is corrosion of Pb counterweights. It is likely that only ground-water samples, not the aquifer, were contaminated with elevated Pb concentations. Pb-isotopic ratios of water from the Floridan aquifer system plot between trend lines connecting the isotopic composition of Pb counterweights and the composition of acid leachates of material from the Floridan aquifer system, indicating that Pb in these waters most likely is a mixture of Pb derived from aquifer material and corrosion of Pb counterweights.

  4. Urinal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Hacking, Kip; Haymore, Benjamin; Truscott, Tadd; Splash Lab Team

    2013-11-01

    In response to harsh and repeated criticisms from our mothers and several failed relationships with women, we present the splash dynamics of a simulated human male urine stream impacting rigid and free surfaces. Our study aims to reduce undesired splashing that may result from lavatory usage. Experiments are performed at a pressure and flow rate that would be expected from healthy male subjects. For a rigid surface, the effects of stream breakup and surface impact angle on lateral and vertical droplet ejection distances are measured using high-speed photography and image processing. For free surface impact, the effects of velocity and fluid depth on droplet ejection distances are measured. Guided by our results, techniques for splash reduction are proposed.

  5. Dietary quinic acid supplied as the nutritional supplement AIO + AC-11® leads to induction of micromolar levels of nicotinamide and tryptophan in the urine.

    PubMed

    Pero, Ronald W; Lund, Harald

    2011-06-01

    Hippuric acid is synthesized and produced primarily by the gastrointestinal (GI) microflora. However, there is no known health benefit for hippuric acid except its catabolic conjugation of benzene-type compounds via glycine and subsequent excretion in the urine. For years the GI tract microflora were known to metabolize quinic acid to hippuric acid. Recently it was also proposed that DNA repair was strongly enhanced by quinic acid. In order to explain these quinic acid effects, Pero and colleagues have examined whether tryptophan and nicotinamide were also enhanced by quinic acid levels in urine. They were indeed, and so another study was designed using a natural supplement source of quinic acid called AIO + AC-11®, and then the effects of intervention were measured after only 21 days. It was possible to show profound increases in quinic acid that were again paralleled by increases in tryptophan and nicotinamide urinary levels. Because the high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods differed greatly between the two studies, differences in chemical analyses probably did not contribute to the data base. PMID:21104945

  6. Photometric and spectrochemical determination of gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates.

    PubMed

    Jordanov, N; Mareva, S; Krasnobaeva, N; Nedyalkova, N

    1968-09-01

    A photometric and a spectrochemical method have been developed for determining gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates. In both, the sample is dissolved and gold is extracted from 1M hydrochloric add solution with a mixture of ethyl methyl ketone and chloroform (1:1). Gold was determined photometrically with N,N'-tetramethyl-o-tolidine. Conditions have been found for satisfactorily sensitive and reproducible spectral determination of gold. For this purpose the effect of various collectors and buffers on the evaporation curves of gold has been studied, as well as excitation conditions, form of the electrodes, optimum slit-width, and photographic variables. The sensitivity and precision of both methods have been evaluated. PMID:18960389

  7. An integrated temperature-compensated flexible shear-stress sensor microarray with concentrated leading-wire.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Liu, Wu; Zhang, Weiping; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Honghai

    2016-02-01

    Flexible shear stress sensor is quite important for characterizing curved surface flows. In this work, a novel integrated shear stress sensor microarray is designed with twenty parallel channels, which share the concentrated leading-wire to transmit the ground signal. Electrical pads in rows are easily connected to the circuits with two separate Wheatstone bridges and constant-temperature-difference mode operation is provided for the hot-wires. Temperature crosstalk between adjacent hot-wires is prevented well and the effectiveness of the temperature compensated circuits is verified. Relatively large output response is obtained as the shear stress varies and the sensitivity of the sensors is measured about 0.086 V(2)/Pa(1/3) with nonlinearity lower than 1%, revealing high performance characteristic of the sensors. PMID:26931882

  8. An integrated temperature-compensated flexible shear-stress sensor microarray with concentrated leading-wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jian; Liu, Wu; Zhang, Weiping; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Honghai

    2016-02-01

    Flexible shear stress sensor is quite important for characterizing curved surface flows. In this work, a novel integrated shear stress sensor microarray is designed with twenty parallel channels, which share the concentrated leading-wire to transmit the ground signal. Electrical pads in rows are easily connected to the circuits with two separate Wheatstone bridges and constant-temperature-difference mode operation is provided for the hot-wires. Temperature crosstalk between adjacent hot-wires is prevented well and the effectiveness of the temperature compensated circuits is verified. Relatively large output response is obtained as the shear stress varies and the sensitivity of the sensors is measured about 0.086 V2/Pa1/3 with nonlinearity lower than 1%, revealing high performance characteristic of the sensors.

  9. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean ... urethra of contaminants). Then, in a clean container, catch about 1 to 2 ounces of urine and ...

  10. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePlus

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  11. Lead concentration and isotope chronology in two coastal environments in Western and South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, G. G.; Chen, M.; Boyle, E. A.; Zhao, N.; Nurhati, I. S.; Gevao, B.; al Ghadban, A.; Switzer, A.; Lee, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Lead is a trace metal that is closely related to anthropogenic activity, mainly via leaded gasoline and coal combustion. The study of lead concentrations and isotopes in seawater, sediments, corals and aerosols allows for a systematic look at its sources and their time evolution in a natural environment. We will discuss results from two projects in Western and South East Asia, regions that have seen dramatic socio-economical changes over the past half-century that may have left environmental signals. These results highlight the usefulness of the method, indicate the degree of complexity of these systems, and point to the need for a continuous monitoring of anthropogenic trace metals in the small-medium coastal scale to be able to asses the larger scale effects of human activity. On the one hand, coastal Kuwait is heavily influenced by the Shat al-Arab river and shows a clear anthropogenic signature from Kuwait city. A mix of two sources can be tracked through the coral and sediment chronological records, with Pb206/Pb207 ratios (1.202 and 1.151) that approach the suspected source values (1.21 and 1.12) and eliminate the possibility of other sources. Through a wide sediment geographic distribution, the strength of the anthropogenic signature is modulated. On the other hand, Singapore offers a more complex system, where an apparent mix of two sources (extreme isotope ratios 1.215 and ~1.14) occurs also, but where either an unresolved potentially important third source (isotope ratio ~1.18), or an isotope exchange process should be invoked. The sediment and coral records allows us to track the changes through time; however, there seems to be incongruence with the aerosol isotope record. Further potential sources are being explored currently and will be discussed.

  12. Effect of Alginate Concentration on Alginate-TiO2 Hydrogel for Lead Ion Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, W. T.; Saito, N.; Sato, K.

    2011-03-01

    Alginate-TiO2 hydrogel was investigated for lead ion (Pb(II)) removal. By immobilizing TiO2 powder onto an alginate biopolymer, it is possible to utilize the ion exchange properties of the alginate and the photoreducibility of TiO2 to recover Pb(II). However, these photocatalytic activities degrade the alginate biopolymer in addition to removing Pb(II). This study examines photolytic degradation of alginate-TiO2 hydrogels prepared with alginate concentrations of 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5%w/v; the same amount (0.4%w/v) of TiO2 was added to each alginate solution. The alginate-TiO2 hydrogels were formed by dripping the alginate-TiO2 suspension into a 0.2 M calcium chloride solution. The samples were washed and dried and then photoirradiated. The samples with alginate concentrations of 1 and 1.5%w/v were depolymerized, whereas the surface morphology of the sample that prepared from the 2%w/v alginate solution remained unchanged. The samples prepared from 1.5, 2, and 2.5%w/v alginate solutions had Pb(II) uptakes of 24.0, 39.8, and 39.7 mg/g, respectively.

  13. Evaluating a Mineralogical Control on Arsenic and Lead Concentrations in California Gold Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neptune, C. K.; De Graff, J.

    2012-12-01

    Abandoned gold mining operations in California often host tailings piles, which are a source of various heavy metal contaminants including arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Based on internal USDA Forest Service studies, it has been determined that some tailings are a concern due to high As and Pb while others are only a concern for high As. The research hypothesis is that this difference reflects a mineralogical control on the presence and concentration of As and Pb. This information would be valuable in the prioritization of mining sites for mitigation, as identifying whether both As and Pb are a concern or only As is key in determining the level of risk posed by the tailings. Ore from two mines (Bright Star and May-Lundy) in the Sierra Nevada provided a preliminary test of this hypothesis. Samples were collected from presumed ore found in proximity to mine adits or milling sites. A biased sampling method, based on the presence of clearly visible concentrations of metal sulfide minerals, served as a selection approach. Prior to lab processing, the samples were evaluated for their proportion of metal sulfide minerals to non-metallic minerals, to establish the range of variability at each mine site. A Gyral grinder was used to reduce samples to particles of less than 149 microns in size. The samples were then analyzed with a Niton XL3t model X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device for a one-minute interval. Based on this initial sampling, it is suggestive that the ratio of Pb/As, in the ore material reflects the concentration ratios within the tailings at the respective mine sites. This method assumes that a whole rock analysis is indicative of the proportion of As to Pb bearing minerals present.

  14. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  15. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... volumes of urine), such as is seen in diabetes insipidus . ... the conditions that cause increased urine volume include: Diabetes insipidus - renal Diabetes insipidus - central Diabetes High fluid intake ...

  16. Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a >/= 6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative meth...

  17. Contamination of houses by workers occupationally exposed in a lead-zinc-copper mine and impact on blood lead concentrations in the families.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaradia, M; Gulson, B L; MacDonald, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathway of leaded dust from a lead-zinc-copper mine to houses of employees, and the impact on blood lead concentrations (PbB) of children. METHODS: High precision lead isotope and lead concentration data were obtained on venous blood and environmental samples (vacuum cleaner dust, interior dustfall accumulation, water, paint) for eight children of six employees (and the employees) from a lead-zinc-copper mine. These data were compared with results for 11 children from occupationally unexposed control families living in the same city. RESULTS: The median (range) concentrations of lead in vacuum cleaner dust was 470 (21-1300) ppm. In the houses of the mine employees, vacuum cleaner dust contained varying higher proportions of mine lead than did airborne particulate matter measured as dustfall accumulated over a three month period. The median (range) concentrations of lead in soil were 30 (5-407) ppm and these showed no evidence of any mine lead. Lead in blood of the mine employees varied from 7 to 25 micrograms/dl and was generally dominated by mine lead (> 60%). The mean (SD) PbB in the children of the mine employees was 5.7 (1.7) micrograms/dl compared with 4.1 (1.4) micrograms/dl for the control children (P = 0.02). The PbB of all children was always < 10 micrograms/dl, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal for all Australians. Some of the control children had higher PbB than the children of mine employees, probably from exposure to leaded paint as six of the eight houses of the control children were > 50 years old. In five of the eight children of mine employees > 20% of PbB was from the lead mine. However, in the other three cases of children of mine employees, their PbB was from sources other than mine lead (paint, petrol, background sources). CONCLUSIONS: Houses of employees from a lead mine can be contaminated by mine lead even if they are not situated in the same place as the mine. Delineation of the mine to house pathway indicates that lead is probably transported into the houses on the clothes, shoes, hair, skin, and in some cases, motor vehicles of the workers. In one case, dust shaken from clothes of a mine employee contained 3000 ppm lead which was 100% mine lead. The variable contamination of the houses was not expected given the precautions taken by mine employees to minimise transportation of lead into their houses. Although five out of the eight children of mine employees had > 20% mine lead in their blood, in no case did the PbB of a child exceed the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal of 10 micrograms/dl. In fact, some children in the control families had higher PbB than children of mine employees. In two cases, this was attributed to a pica habit for paint. The PbB in the children of mine employees and controls was independent of the source of lead. The low PbB in the children of mine employees may reflect the relatively low solubility (bioavailability) of the mine dust in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (< 40 %), behaviour--for example, limited mouthing activity--or diet. PMID:9072019

  18. Concentrations of lead in the soft tissues of male rats during a long-term dietary exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Mykkanen, H.M.; Lancaster, M.C.; Dickerson, J.W.T.

    1982-06-01

    Newborn rats of albino Wister strain were exposed to lead from birth, first indirectly through maternal milk and then directly through a diet containing 0.5% lead acetate. At 3, 6, and 12 months of age some of the male rats were killed for the determination of the concentrations of lead in the blood, brain, kidneys, and liver. This long-term exposure resulted in a slight retardation of growth, yet no change in the food consumption was seen. Concentrations of lead in the blood and brain were similar at 3 to 6 months of age, but significantly higher at 12 months, while the concentrations of lead in the kidneys increased significantly with age. Of the brain parts examined the forebrain had the highest concentration of lead, with increased significantly with age. The present study, together with already published data, demonstrated clearly that lead accumulated in rat brain during the suckling period remains relatively unchanged throughout adult life, while the concentrations in the blood and other soft tissues fall rapidly after weaning. Thus the blood lead level cannot be used as a measure of the amount of lead in the brain, particularly in the case of long-term or intermittent exposure of the young.

  19. Intra-individual variation in urinary iodine concentration: effect of statistical correction on population distribution using seasonal three-consecutive-day spot urine in children

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaohong; Liu, Peng; Sun, Zhenqi; Su, Xiaohui; Wang, Wei; Gao, Yanhui; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of statistical correction for intra-individual variation on estimated urinary iodine concentration (UIC) by sampling on 3 consecutive days in four seasons in children. Setting School-aged children from urban and rural primary schools in Harbin, Heilongjiang, China. Participants 748 and 640 children aged 8–11 years were recruited from urban and rural schools, respectively, in Harbin. Primary and secondary outcome measures The spot urine samples were collected once a day for 3 consecutive days in each season over 1 year. The UIC of the first day was corrected by two statistical correction methods: the average correction method (average of days 1, 2; average of days 1, 2 and 3) and the variance correction method (UIC of day 1 corrected by two replicates and by three replicates). The variance correction method determined the SD between subjects (Sb) and within subjects (Sw), and calculated the correction coefficient (Fi), Fi=Sb/(Sb+Sw/di), where di was the number of observations. The UIC of day 1 was then corrected using the following equation: Results The variance correction methods showed the overall Fi was 0.742 for 2 days’ correction and 0.829 for 3 days’ correction; the values for the seasons spring, summer, autumn and winter were 0.730, 0.684, 0.706 and 0.703 for 2 days’ correction and 0.809, 0.742, 0.796 and 0.804 for 3 days’ correction, respectively. After removal of the individual effect, the correlation coefficient between consecutive days was 0.224, and between non-consecutive days 0.050. Conclusions The variance correction method is effective for correcting intra-individual variation in estimated UIC following sampling on 3 consecutive days in four seasons in children. The method varies little between ages, sexes and urban or rural setting, but does vary between seasons. PMID:26920442

  20. Enhancing Potentially Plant-Available Lead Concentrations in Contaminated Residential Soils Using a Biodegradable Chelating Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andra, S.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S.

    2007-12-01

    Chelation of heavy metals is an important factor in enhancing metal solubility and, hence, metal availability to plants to promote phytoremediation. In the present study, we compared the effects of application of a biodegradable chelating agent, namely, ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) on enhancing plant available form of lead (Pb) in Pb-based paint contaminated residential soils compared to that of a more commonly used, but non-biodegradable chelate, i.e., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Development of a successful phytoremediation model for metals such as Pb depends on a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the soil, along with the optimization of a chelate treatment to mobilize Pb from `unavailable' pools to potentially plant available fraction. In this context, we set out to perform batch incubation experiments to investigate the effectiveness of the two aforementioned chelates in enhancing plant available Pb at four different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 mM/kg soil) and three treatment durations (0, 10 and 30 days). We selected 12 contaminated residential soils from two major metropolitan areas (San Antonio, TX and Baltimore, MD) with varying soil physico-chemical properties - the soils from San Antonio were primarily alkaline and those from Baltimore were typically acidic. Total soil Pb concentrations ranged between 256 mg/kg and 4,182 mg/kg. Our results show that both chelates increased the solubility of Pb, otherwise occluded in the complex soil matrix. For both EDTA and EDDS, the exchangeable concentrations of soil Pb also increased with increase in chelate concentration and incubation time. The most effective treatment was 15 mM chelate kg-1 soil incubated for 30 days, which caused many fold increase in potentially plant available Pb (a combination of the soluble and exchangeable fractions) relative to the unamended controls. Step wise multiple linear regression analysis using chelate-extractable Pb and soil properties showed that plant available Pb fraction could be assessed from the two inter-related soil parameters: soil organic matter and soil pH. Although EDTA was more effective in Pb solubilization than EDDS, the rapid kinetics of the Pb-EDTA complexation process and the prolonged persistence of EDTA in soils pose a potential groundwater contamination problem via metal leaching. In contrast to EDTA, EDDS addition caused relatively slow release of Pb from the soil matrix. The biodegradable nature (and short half life) of EDDS in soils makes it a promising chelating agent for use as soil amendment to enhance Pb solubilization and hence, potential plant uptake.

  1. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  2. Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis. 1. Differences in urine crystalloids, urine saturation with brushite and urine inhibitors of calcification between persons with and persons without recurrent kidney stone formation.

    PubMed Central

    Pylypchuk, G.; Ehrig, U.; Wilson, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The propensity of urine to promote calcium stone formation was compared in 64 patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and 30 healthy individuals without such a history. The rates of excretion of urine crystalloids, the urine saturation with brushite (CaHPO4-2H2O), the ability of the urine to calcify collagen in vitro, and the concentration of urine inhibitors of collagen calcification were measured. The patients had a reduced urine citrate excretion rate in addition to an increased urine calcium excretion rate, while the rates for urine magnesium, phosphate, uric acid and oxalate were not significantly different in the two groups of subjects. The urine concentration of magnesium, phosphate and uric acid was decreased in the patients because of the higher urine volume. The urine creatinine excretion rate correlated with the rates of excretion of urine calcium, magnesium, phosphate, uric acid and oxalate in both groups, which suggested that increased lean body mass, possibly associated with greater food intake, may be an important determinant of crystalloid excretion. The urine of the patients was significantly more saturated with brushite than the urine of the control subjects and resulted in greater collagen calcification when incubated in vitro. The urine concentration of inhibitors of collagen calcification, however, was not significantly different in the two groups. Thus, the urine of patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is more highly saturated with brushite, largely as a result of an increased urine calcium excretion rate, and contains a lower concentration of magnesium and citrate, substances that tend to prevent the precipitation and growth of crystals in urine. PMID:436047

  3. The association between spatial distribution of common malignancies and soil lead concentration in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Masoumeh; Rameshat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharib, Hadi; Rouzbahani, Reza; Ghias, Majid; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Malignancies are primarily environmental diseases mostly attributed to environmental factors. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences can be observed in detail. This study aimed to determine the association between map distribution of malignancies and the geological phenomena of lead (Pb) accumulation in soil in the province of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Spatial distribution maps of malignant diseases were plotted by using data recorded during 2007 to 2009 in the Isfahan Cancer Registry Program. Data on Pb accumulation in soil was obtained from the National Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration. Pb concentrations were documented in three parts of agricultural, non-agricultural, urban, and industrial land. The geographical mapping of cancers and soil Pb were then incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to create a spatial distribution model. Results: The spatial distributions of ten common malignant diseases in the province, i.e. skin cancers, hematological malignancies, and breast cancers, followed by other malignancies were scattered based on Pb distribution. In fact, common cancers were more prevalent in the parts of the province where soil Pb was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study underscore the importance of preventing Pb exposure and controlling industrial production of Pb. The data is also important to establish further effects modeling for cancers. Moreover, physicians and health professionals should consider the impact of environmental factors on their patients’ health. PMID:23267396

  4. Impairment of renal function with increasing blood lead concentrations in the general population. The Cadmibel Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Staessen, J.A.; Lauwerys, R.R.; Buchet, J.P.; Bulpitt, C.J.; Rondia, D.; Vanrenterghem, Y.; Amery, A. )

    1992-07-16

    Nephropathy is known to occur in persons with heavy exposure to lead. Whether exposure to lead in the general population leads to impaired renal function is not known. We studied renal function and indexes of lead exposure in a random population sample of 965 men and 1016 women (age range, 20 to 88 years). In all the subjects we measured creatinine clearance and blood concentrations of lead and zinc protoporphyrin (an indirect measure of blood lead level). The mean (+/- SD) creatinine clearance rate was 99 +/- 30 ml per minute in the men and 80 +/- 25 ml per minute in the women. In the men the geometric mean blood lead concentration was 114 micrograms per liter (0.55 mumol per liter) (range, 23 to 725 micrograms per liter (0.11 to 3.5 mumol per liter)), and in the women 75 micrograms per liter (0.36 mumol per liter) (range, 17 to 603 micrograms per liter (0.08 to 2.9 mumol per liter)); the zinc protoporphyrin values in blood averaged 1.0 and 1.1 micrograms per gram of hemoglobin, respectively. The creatinine clearance rate was inversely correlated with blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin values in the men and the women both before and after adjustments for age, bodymass index, and diuretic treatment. A 10-fold increase in blood lead concentration was associated with a reduction of 10 to 13 ml per minute in creatinine clearance. We also found a positive correlation between serum beta 2-microglobulin (which is inversely related to the glomerular filtration rate) and blood lead in men, between serum beta 2-microglobulin and zinc protoporphyrin in both sexes, and between serum creatinine and zinc protoporphyrin in men. Exposure to lead may impair renal function in the general population. The alternative hypothesis that renal impairment may lead to an increase in the blood lead concentration cannot be excluded, however.

  5. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  6. Analysis of lead concentration in forager stingless bees Trigona sp. (hymenoptera: Apidae) and propolis at Cilutung and Maribaya, West Java

    SciTech Connect

    Safira, Nabila Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-30

    Several studies had shown that lead (Pb) in the environment could accumulate in bees, which in turn could affect the quality of the resulting product. In this study, forager stingless bees (Trigona sp.) and its product (propolis) collected from a stingless bees apiculture. This apiculture had two apiary sites which were distinguished by its environmental setting. Apiary site in Cilutung had a forest region environmental setting, while apiary site in Maribaya was located beside the main road. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead concentration in propolis originated from both apiary sites and establish the correlation between lead concentration in propolis and lead level in forager stingless bees. Forager bees and propolis samples were originated from 50 bees colonies (Cilutung) and 44 bees colonies (Maribaya). They were analyzed using AAS-GF (Atomic Absorption Spectrometre–Graphite Furnace) to determine the level of lead concentration. The results showed that the average level of lead in propolis originated from Cilutung (298.08±73.71 ppb) was lower than the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Maribaya (330.64±156.34 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Cilutung (118.08±30.46 ppb) and Maribaya (128.82±39.66 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the average level of lead concentration in propolis in both sites had passed the maximum permission standard of lead for food in Indonesia. There was no correlation between lead concentration in propolis and forager stingless bees.

  7. Analysis of lead concentration in forager stingless bees Trigona sp. (hymenoptera: Apidae) and propolis at Cilutung and Maribaya, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safira, Nabila; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Several studies had shown that lead (Pb) in the environment could accumulate in bees, which in turn could affect the quality of the resulting product. In this study, forager stingless bees (Trigona sp.) and its product (propolis) collected from a stingless bees apiculture. This apiculture had two apiary sites which were distinguished by its environmental setting. Apiary site in Cilutung had a forest region environmental setting, while apiary site in Maribaya was located beside the main road. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead concentration in propolis originated from both apiary sites and establish the correlation between lead concentration in propolis and lead level in forager stingless bees. Forager bees and propolis samples were originated from 50 bees colonies (Cilutung) and 44 bees colonies (Maribaya). They were analyzed using AAS-GF (Atomic Absorption Spectrometre-Graphite Furnace) to determine the level of lead concentration. The results showed that the average level of lead in propolis originated from Cilutung (298.08±73.71 ppb) was lower than the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Maribaya (330.64±156.34 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Cilutung (118.08±30.46 ppb) and Maribaya (128.82±39.66 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the average level of lead concentration in propolis in both sites had passed the maximum permission standard of lead for food in Indonesia. There was no correlation between lead concentration in propolis and forager stingless bees.

  8. Aging-related impairment of urine-concentrating mechanisms correlates with dysregulation of adrenocortical angiotensin type 1 receptors in male Fischer rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Xie; Speth, Robert C; Verbalis, Joseph G; Stein, Lauren M; Yosten, Gina L C; Samson, Willis K; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2016-03-15

    To investigate age-associated impairments in fluid homeostasis, 4-mo (young) and 32-mo (old) Fischer 344/BN male rats were studied before and after a dietary sodium load. Transferring young rats from a low-sodium (LS) to a high-sodium (HS) diet increased water intake and urine volume by 1.9- and 3.0-fold, respectively, while urine osmolality and plasma aldosterone decreased by 33 and 98%. Concomitantly, adrenocortical angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) density decreased by 35%, and AT1bR mRNA decreased by 39%; no changes were observed in AT1aR mRNA. In contrast, the increase in water intake (1.4-fold) was lower in the old rats, and there was no effect of the HS diet on urine volume or urine osmolality. AT1R densities were 29% less in the old rats before transferring to the HS diet, and AT1R densities were not reduced as rapidly in response to a HS diet compared with the young animals. After 6 days on the HS diet, plasma potassium was lowered by 26% in the old rats, whereas no change was detected in the young rats. Furthermore, while plasma aldosterone was substantially decreased after 2 days on the HS diet in both young and old rats, plasma aldosterone was significantly lower in the old compared with the young animals after 2 wk on the LS diet. These findings suggest that aging attenuates the responsiveness of the adrenocortical AT1R to a sodium load through impaired regulation of AT1bR mRNA, and that this dysregulation contributes to the defects in water and electrolyte homeostasis observed in aging. PMID:26702152

  9. A Greenhouse Study on Lead Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) as a Function of Lead Concentration and Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S. K.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic non-essential metal that can cause permanent learning disabilities, retardation, mental and behavioral problems in children. Lead accumulation in soils result from weathering, chipping, scraping, sanding and sand blasting of housing structures constructed prior to 1978, bearing lead-based paint. The primary objective of this study is to develop a cost-effective, chelate-assisted phytoremediation for cleaning up lead contaminated soils. Soils are a unique environment of diverse physical and chemical characteristics that influence the extent of phytoavailable (labile) Pb forms. The success of phytoremediation strategy depends on the physiological/ biochemical tolerance of the plants to lipid peroxidation induced by Pb at sub-lethal levels. Oxidative challenge is alleviated by antioxidant compounds, but more importantly by the induction of antioxidant enzymes, which are crucial for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and terminating lipid peroxidation chain reaction. A column study was conducted in a temperature and humidity-controlled greenhouse setting to assess the extent of Pb phytoextraction and antioxidant response in a lead accumulator, vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Treatments consisted of a randomized block arrangement of 4 soil types (Immokalee, Pahokee Muck, Tobosa, and Millhopper) and 3 soil Pb concentrations [normal - 400 mg/kg lead (following federal soil standards for lead), moderate - 800 mg/kg lead, and excessive - 1200 mg/kg lead] in 4 replicates. At the end of 6 months, selected columns were amended with a biodegradable chelating agent, ethylenediamene disuccinate (10 mmol/ kg EDDS), to mobilize Pb and enhance Pb uptake by vetiver. Total and exchangeable (labile) Pb were correlated with phytoextracted Pb, and levels of antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. Results indicate that Pb uptake and antioxidant enzymes activity in vetiver grass is dependent on soil physico-chemical properties and phytoavailable Pb concentrations.

  10. 75 FR 76336 - Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 58 Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations..., 2009) that revised the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for lead and associated monitoring requirements. On December 30, 2009, EPA proposed revisions to the...

  11. Examination of lead concentrations in new decorative enamel paints in four countries with different histories of activity in lead paint regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C. Scott; Kumar, Abhay; Mohapatra, Piyush; Rajankar, Prashant; Nycz, Zuleica; Hambartsumyan, Amalia; Astanina, Lydia; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline; Menrath, William; Peng, Hongying

    2014-07-15

    Paints with high lead concentrations (ppm) continue to be sold around the world in many developing countries and those with economies in transition representing a major preventable environmental health hazard that is being increased as the economies expand and paint consumption is increasing. Prior lead paint testing had been performed in Brazil and India and these countries were selected to examine the impact of a new regulatory limit in Brazil and the impact of efforts of non-governmental organizations and others to stop the use of lead compounds in manufacturing paints. Armenia and Kazakhstan, in Central Asia, were selected because no information on lead concentration in those regions was available, no regulatory activities were evident and non-governmental organizations in the IPEN network were available to participate. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the lead loading (µg/cm{sup 2}) limit determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for areas on toys that are too small to obtain a sample of sufficient size for laboratory analysis. The lead concentrations in more than three-fourths of the paints from Armenia and Kazakhstan exceeded 90 ppm, the limit in the United States, and 600 ppm, the limit in Brazil. The percentages were about one-half as high in Brazil and India. The average concentration in paints purchased in Armenia, 25,000 ppm, is among the highest that has been previously reported, that in Kazakhstan, 15,700 ppm, and India, 16,600, about median. The average concentration in Brazil, 5600 ppm, is among the lowest observed. Paints in Brazil that contained an average of 36,000 ppm before the regulatory limit became effective were below detection (<9 ppm) in samples collected in the current study. The lack of any apparent public monitoring of paint lead content as part of regulatory enforcement makes it difficult to determine whether the regulation was a major factor contributing to the decline in lead use in these paints. Using data from the current study and those available from other studies 24 of 28 paints from major brands in India decreased from high concentrations to 90 ppm or lower. Since lead concentrations in golden yellow paints from these brands were found to decrease to ≤90 ppm, it is possible that all 28 of these paints now contain ≤90 ppm since yellow paints usually have the highest lead concentrations. Other brands in Brazil and India that have been analyzed only one time had lead concentrations up to 59,000 ppm and 134,000 ppm, respectively. Less than one-third of the paints had notations on their labels with information about lead content and these were sometimes inaccurate. The label from one brand indicating “no added lead” contained paint with 134,000 ppm lead, the highest found in this study. Three percent (3 of 98) of the paints with surface lead loading that did not exceed 2 µg/cm{sup 2}, the limit established by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for small areas on toys, contained greater than 90 ppm lead and thus were false negatives. Of the new paint samples that contained ≤600 ppm, 88% contained ≤90 ppm. Of the samples that contained ≤90 ppm, 97% contained ≤45 ppm and 92% contained ≤15 ppm. Based on these data it appears to be technically feasible to manufacture paints containing ≤90 ppm and in many cases to produce paints that have lead concentrations that do not exceed 15 ppm. - Highlights: • Brazilian paints with high lead (avg. 36,000 ppm) contained <9 ppm after regulation. • Lead in major Indian paint brands decreased to low levels by efforts of NGOs/others. • Most paints with lead ≤600 ppm also are ≤90 ppm and many also ≤15 ppm. • At the CPSIA limit of 2 µg Pb/cm{sup 2} for small areas on toys, 3% exceeded 90 ppm lead. • Most paint brands in Armenia and Kazakhstan based/manufactured outside the country.

  12. Determination of t,t-muconic acid in urine samples using a molecular imprinted polymer combined with simultaneous ethyl chloroformate derivatization and pre-concentration by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Chauhan, Abhishek; Singh, Krishna P; Gupta, Shailendra K; Jain, Rajeev; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Murthy, R C

    2013-01-01

    The present communication describes the preparation and evaluation of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent and simultaneous ethyl chloroformate (ECF) derivatization and pre-concentration by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the analysis of t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The imprinting polymer was prepared using methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator and t,t-MA as a template molecule. The imprinted polymer was evaluated for its use as a SPE sorbent by comparing both imprinted and non-imprinted polymers in terms of the recovery of t,t-MA from urine samples. Molecular modelling studies were performed in order to estimate the binding energy and efficiency of the MIP complex formed between the monomer and the t,t-MA. Various factors that can affect the extraction efficiency of MIP, such as the loading, washing and eluting conditions, were optimized; other factors that can affect the derivatization and DLLME pre-concentration were also optimized. MIP in combination with ECF derivatization and DLLME pre-concentration for t,t-MA exhibits good linearity, ranging from 0.125 to 2 μg mL(-1) (R(2) = 0.9971), with limit of detection of 0.037 μg mL(-1) and limit of quantification of 0.109 μg mL(-1). Intra- and inter-day precision was found to be <6%. The proposed method has been proven to be effective and sensitive for the selective pre-concentration and determination of t,t-MA in urine samples of cigarette smokers. PMID:23079953

  13. Placental transfer and concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium in mothers, newborns, and young children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Myers, Robert; Wei, Taiyin; Bind, Eric; Kassim, Prince; Wang, Guoying; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Bartell, Tami; Gong, Yiwei; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    There is an emerging hypothesis that exposure to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in utero and early childhood could have long-term health consequences. However, there are sparse data on early life exposures to these elements in US populations, particularly in urban minority samples. This study measured levels of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se in 50 paired maternal, umbilical cord, and postnatal blood samples from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). Maternal exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se was 100% detectable in red blood cells (RBCs), and there was a high degree of maternal-fetal transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se. In particular, we found that Hg levels in cord RBCs were 1.5 times higher than those found in the mothers. This study also investigated changes in concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se during the first few years of life. We found decreased levels of Hg and Se but elevated Pb levels in early childhood. Finally, this study investigated the association between metal burden and preterm birth and low birthweight. We found significantly higher levels of Hg in maternal and cord plasma and RBCs in preterm or low birthweight births, compared with term or normal birthweight births. In conclusion, this study showed that maternal exposure to these elements was widespread in the BBC, and maternal-fetal transfer was a major source of early life exposure to Hg, Pb, and Se. Our results also suggest that RBCs are better than plasma at reflecting the trans-placental transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se from the mother to the fetus. Our study findings remain to be confirmed in larger studies, and the implications for early screening and interventions of preconception and pregnant mothers and newborns warrant further investigation. PMID:24756102

  14. Placental transfer and concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium in mothers, newborns, and young children

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Myers, Robert; Wei, Taiyin; Bind, Eric; Kassim, Prince; Wang, Guoying; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Bartell, Tami; Gong, Yiwei; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Wang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging hypothesis that exposure to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in utero and early childhood could have long-term health consequences. However, there are sparse data on early life exposures to these elements in US populations, particularly in urban minority samples. This study measured levels of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se in 50 paired maternal, umbilical cord, and postnatal blood samples from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). Maternal exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se was 100% detectable in red blood cells (RBCs), and there was a high degree of maternal–fetal transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se. In particular, we found that Hg levels in cord RBCs were 1.5 times higher than those found in the mothers. This study also investigated changes in concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se during the first few years of life. We found decreased levels of Hg and Se but elevated Pb levels in early childhood. Finally, this study investigated the association between metal burden and preterm birth and low birthweight. We found significantly higher levels of Hg in maternal and cord plasma and RBCs in preterm or low birthweight births, compared with term or normal birthweight births. In conclusion, this study showed that maternal exposure to these elements was widespread in the BBC, and maternal–fetal transfer was a major source of early life exposure to Hg, Pb, and Se. Our results also suggest that RBCs are better than plasma at reflecting the trans-placental transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se from the mother to the fetus. Our study findings remain to be confirmed in larger studies, and the implications for early screening and interventions of preconception and pregnant mothers and newborns warrant further investigation. PMID:24756102

  15. Concentrations of lead in blood, hair and saliva of German children living in three different areas of traffic density.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, M; Pesch, A; Rostek, U; Begerow, J; Schmitz, N; Idel, H; Ranft, U

    2002-10-01

    Lead contents in hair, whole blood and saliva were determined for 245 healthy children (121 male, 124 female, age: 8-10 years) from three residential areas of Düsseldorf (North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) with different traffic densities. The geometric mean for the lead content in hair was found to be 0.87 microg/g (range: 0.2-9.9 microg/g) for the entire test group. While the levels of lead in hair in the suburban population were significantly lower than in the two city centre populations, no significant difference concerning the lead content in hair could be detected in the latter. The geometric mean for lead concentration in whole blood amounted to 25.0 microg/l (range: 8.0-154 microg/l). There was no significant difference between the sub-groups. The lead concentrations found in saliva were rather low (range: < 1.5-47.0 microg/l). Of the values, 89% were below the detection limit of 1.5 microg/l. Due to reduced levels of lead in fuel, the present study exposes that the amount of lead in the children examined has further decreased compared to preceding surveys. The correlation between the lead content in hair and the road traffic density was not corroborated by the findings with regard to amounts of lead found in blood, indicating that residual lead from fuel does not result in a substantial burden of lead found in the whole body. In contrast to levels of lead found in blood, levels of lead found in hair may be influenced more by environmental conditions. Saliva is not a suitable material for biological monitoring with respect to lead exposure in children. PMID:12389783

  16. Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.

    1981-01-01

    Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

  17. Trace metal levels in serum and urine of a population in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, G H O; Steinbach, C; Munhoz, J R; Madia, M A O; Faria, J K; Hoeltgebaum, D; Barbosa, F; Batista, B L; Souza, V C O; Nerilo, S B; Bando, E; Mossini, S A G; Nishiyama, P

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate serum and urine concentrations of several trace metals of a non-directly exposed population in southern Brazil and establish reference values. Serum and urine samples were obtained from 240 volunteers (175 males and 65 females, age ranging from 18 to 74 years old). Levels of arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, manganese and zinc were determined by means of dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS). Comparison between genders resulted in no significant difference for all metals but serum copper, as concentrations are higher in females than males. For most metals assessed, a negative correlation between serum concentrations and age was found, but no significant correlation was found between urine concentrations and age. PMID:27049127

  18. New sorbent materials for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Bujak, Renata; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowaczyk, Alicja; Raczak-Gutknecht, Joanna; Kordalewska, Marta; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Waszczuk-Jankowska, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Ewa; Kaliszan, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław; Markuszewski, Michał J

    2016-02-20

    An increase in cocaine consumption has been observed in Europe during the last decade. Benzoylecgonine, as a main urinary metabolite of cocaine in human, is so far the most reliable marker of cocaine consumption. Determination of cocaine and its metabolite in complex biological samples as urine or blood, requires efficient and selective sample pretreatment. In this preliminary study, the newly synthesized sorbent materials were proposed for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from urine samples. Application of these sorbent media allowed to determine cocaine and benzoylecgonine in urine samples at the concentration level of 100ng/ml with good recovery values as 81.7%±6.6 and 73.8%±4.2, respectively. The newly synthesized materials provided efficient, inexpensive and selective extraction of both cocaine and benzoylecgonine from urine samples, which can consequently lead to an increase of the sensitivity of the current available screening diagnostic tests. PMID:26689741

  19. Urine bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli isolates exhibiting different resistance phenotypes/genotypes in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model simulating urine concentrations obtained after oral administration of a 400-milligram single dose of cefditoren-pivoxil.

    PubMed

    Sevillano, David; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Alou, Luis; Gimnez, Mara-Jos; Torrico, Martha; Gonzlez, Natalia; Cafini, Fabio; Relao, Mara-Teresa; Coronel, Pilar; Prieto, Jos

    2008-03-01

    Activity of simulated cefditoren urinary concentrations was determined against seven Escherichia coli isolates. Bactericidal activity was obtained from 4 to 24 h against TEM-1 (penicillinase production/hyperproduction), TEM-34 (IRT-6), and TEM-116 (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL]) and from 6 to 8 h against SHV/TEM-116 (ESBL) but never against SHV/TEM-1 (ESBL). Extension of bactericidal activity depended on the resistance genotype/phenotype tested. PMID:18160517

  20. Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

  1. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePlus

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  2. Cytology exam of urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... The urine sample can also be collected during cystoscopy . During this procedure, your provider uses a thin, ... discomfort with a clean catch urine specimen. During cystoscopy, there may be slight discomfort when the scope ...

  3. Urea nitrogen urine test

    MedlinePlus

    A 24-hour urine sample is often needed. You will need to collect your urine over 24 hours . Your health care provider will tell you how to do this. Follow instructions exactly to ensure accurate results.

  4. RBC urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 red blood cells per high power field (RBC/HPF) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above ...

  5. Joint Toxicity of Lead, Chromium, Cobalt and Nickel to Photobacterium phosphoreum at No Observed Effect Concentration.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yaling; Wang, Lan; Jiang, Long; Cai, Xiaoyu; Li, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Joint toxicity of Pb2+, Cr3+, Co2+ and Ni2+ toward Photobacterium phosphoreum (Ph. phosphoreum) at the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was determined through a factorial experiment. A neural network model was designed according to experimental results and employed for toxicity prediction of unary, binary, ternary and quaternary combinations. The mechanism and trends of joint toxicity were interpreted by quantitative structure-activity relationship, Michaelis-Menten kinetic model, and concentration addition (CA) theory. Toxicity was directly related to the covalent index (Xm2r), covalent binding reaction presented a first and zero order reaction at low and high concentration, respectively, and CA accurately predicted toxicity. Additionally, the results showed that low concentrations of heavy metals should be considered when conducting environment risk assessment. PMID:26032300

  6. Arsenic, Iron, Lead, Manganese and Uranium Concentrations in Private Bedrock Wells in Southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the t...

  7. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  8. ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY AT A MERCURY FILM ELECTRODE: BASELINE CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM, LEAD, AND COPPER IN SELECTED NATURAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive anodic stripping voltammetric method with a mercury thin film electrode is reported for the establishment of baseline concentrations of cadmium, lead, and copper in natural waters. The procedure for routine surface preparation of wax-impregnated g...

  9. Organic and inorganic amendments affect soil concentration and accumulation of cadmium and lead in wheat in calcareous alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation with untreated effluent in periurban agriculture could result in accumulation and bioconcentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Different amendments were used to investigate their effect on availability, concentration, and uptake of metals by wheat in texturally different soils. Crop w...

  10. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Murray B.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Ferenz, Gretchen S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. PMID:25163429

  11. Hydrometallurgical process for producing lead and elemental sulfur from galena concentrates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.Y.; Wethington, A.M.; Cole, E.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines has developed an effective hydrometallurgical method to recover high-purity Pb metal and elemental S from galena concentrates. This low-temperature process eliminates S gases and Pb emissions, in contrast to the current high-temperature smelting technology. Spent electrolyte was recycled repeatedly, with impurity buildup controlled by controlling the leach parameters.

  12. Deer exposed to exceptionally high concentrations of lead near the continental mine in Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Gaston, G.; Brazzle, R.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Audet, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat surrounding the inactive Continental Mine in northern Idaho, USA, supports bear (Ursus arctos, Ursus americanus), moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus elaphus), woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), and abundant mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Tailings on the mining site were capped and remediated in 2003 to reduce environmental exposure of surrounding soil and sediments of Blue Joe Creek, downslope of the mine. Before capping, the mean Pb concentration in deer pellets collected on-site was 920 mg/kg of Pb (dry wt). This exposure, if chronic, would be comparable to an exposure that could be lethal to cattle or horses. Surprisingly, the mean pellet Pb concentration of 950 mg/kg in 2004 was as high as it was before remediation, and it was related to a high rate of soil ingestion. Mean soil content of the pellets collected from the capped site in 2004 was 22% dry weight, estimated from the acid-insoluble ash, a marker of soil ingestion. Clumps of sand and bits of rock were observed inside some of the pellets, and Pb concentrations in the pellets were correlated (p < 0.05) with soil content. Although terrestrial risk assessments generally estimate exposure from diets and from incidentally ingested soil, the deer at this site were directly ingesting contaminated soil or mining waste. The mean Pb concentration of this ingested soil was estimated as 6,700 mg/kg and the maximum as 25,000 mg/kg, well above the Pb concentrations measured in the remediated cap. The deer seemed to be ingesting soil or mining waste from one or more small but highly contaminated sources located beyond the remediated cap.

  13. Deer exposed to exceptionally high concentrations of lead near the Continental Mine in Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W Nelson; Gaston, Greg; Brazzle, Roy; O'Connell, Allan F; Audet, Dan J

    2007-05-01

    Habitat surrounding the inactive Continental Mine in northern Idaho, USA, supports bear (Ursus arctos, Ursus americanus), moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus elaphus), woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), and abundant mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Tailings on the mining site were capped and remediated in 2003 to reduce environmental exposure of surrounding soil and sediments of Blue Joe Creek, downslope of the mine. Before capping, the mean Pb concentration in deer pellets collected on-site was 920 mg/kg of Pb (dry wt). This exposure, if chronic, would be comparable to an exposure that could be lethal to cattle or horses. Surprisingly, the mean pellet Pb concentration of 950 mg/kg in 2004 was as high as it was before remediation, and it was related to a high rate of soil ingestion. Mean soil content of the pellets collected from the capped site in 2004 was 22% dry weight, estimated from the acid-insoluble ash, a marker of soil ingestion. Clumps of sand and bits of rock were observed inside some of the pellets, and Pb concentrations in the pellets were correlated (p < 0.05) with soil content. Although terrestrial risk assessments generally estimate exposure from diets and from incidentally ingested soil. the deer at this site were directly ingesting contaminated soil or mining waste. The mean Pb concentration of this ingested soil was estimated as 6,700 mg/kg and the maximum as 25,000 mg/kg, well above the Pb concentrations measured in the remediated cap. The deer seemed to be ingesting soil or mining waste from one or more small but highly contaminated sources located beyond the remediated cap. PMID:17521153

  14. Modeling the Lead(Pb) concentrations in corals in the Singapore Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Lee, J.; Nurhati, I. S.; Switzer, A. D.; Boyle, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    The leaded gasoline has dominated the global Pb emission and has imposed serious health problems in the past 50 years. While countries in North America and Western Europe phased out leaded gasoline in 1970s and early 1980s, many fast developing Asian countries have been using it until recently. In order to monitor anthropogenic Pb variations in marine environments, the history of seawater Pb in the Singapore Strait -- one of the world's busiest shipping lanes has been reconstructed from a 50 year-long coral core (Lee et al., unpublished record). A 50-year-long coral Pb/Ca record from the Singapore Strait was measured using isotope dilution ICPMS (for Pb) and FAAS (for Ca). Here, we propose a statistical model to correlate lead measured in the Singapore coral (Pb/Ca) and the possible Pb sources in the region. The measurement reveals that the Pb in coral is only weakly correlated with Pb the gasoline emission from the neighboring countries (i.e. Singapore, Malaysia, and Batam Indonesia). Such weak correlation implies that either the gasoline may not be a dominating source to Singapore Strait or the transport process of the Pb (either atmospheric or oceanographic) in this region complicates the interpretation. In this case, we tested a number of statistical correlations to understand the possible roles of leaded gasoline emission, rainfall, sediment flux and the residence time of the Pb inferred by the Pb210 data. From our current tests, a relatively high correlation appeared between the Pb in coral and the local annual precipitation, with a lag time of 2 years. The 2 year lag is somewhat surprising and we expect to elaborate further by correlating the Pb in coral with the Pb isotope signatures in an attempt to identify possible sources.;

  15. Lead concentration and isotopic composition in five peridotite inclusions of probable mantle origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Tera, F.

    1973-01-01

    The lead content of five whole-rock peridotite inclusions (four lherzolites and one harzburgite) in alkali basalt ranges from 82 to 570 ppb (parts per billion). Approximately 30-60 ppb of this amount can be accounted for by analyzed major silicate minerals (olivine ??? 10 ppb; enstatite 5-28 ppb; chrome diopside ???400 ppb). Through a series of acid leaching experiments, the remainder of the lead is shown to be quite labile and to reside in either glassy or microcrystalline veinlets or accessory mineral phases, such as apatite and mica. The lead isotopic composition of the peridotites (206Pb/204Pb = 18.01-18.90; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.52-15.61; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.80-38.86) lies within the range of values defined by many modern volcanic rocks and, in particular, is essentially coextensive with the abyssal tholeiite field. In all but one instance, isotopic differences were found between the peridotite and its host alkali basalt. Two of the peridotites clearly demonstrated internal isotopic heterogeneity between leachable and residual fractions that could not simply be due to contamination by the host basalt. However, there is no evidence that these ultramafic rocks form some layer in the mantle with isotopic characteristics fundamentally different from those of the magma sources of volcanic rocks. ?? 1973.

  16. Relationship between blood lead concentration and nutritional status among Malay primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Elias, S M; Hashim, Z; Marjan, Z M; Abdullah, A S; Hashim, J H

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the relationship between blood lead concentration and nutritional status among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 225 Malay students, 113 male and 112 female, aged 6.3 to 9.8 were selected through a stratified random sampling method. The random blood samples were collected and blood lead concentration was measured by a Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The nutrient intake was determined by the 24-hour Dietary Recall method and Food Frequency Questionnaire. An anthropometric assessment was reported according to growth indices (z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height). The mean blood lead concentration was low (3.4 +/- 1.91 ug/dL) and was significantly different between gender. Only 14.7% of the respondents fulfilled the daily energy requirement. The protein and iron intakes were adequate for a majority of the children. However, 34.7% of the total children showed inadequate intake of calcium. The energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate intakes were significantly different by gender, that is, males had better intake than females. Majority of respondents had normal mean z-score of growth indices. Ten percent of the respondents were underweight, 2.8% wasted and 5.4% stunted. Multiple linear regression showed inverse significant relationships between blood lead concentration with children's age (beta = -0.647, p < 0.001) and per capita income (beta = -0.001, p = 0.018). There were inverse significant relationships between blood lead concentration with children's age (beta = -0.877, p = 0.001) and calcium intake (beta = -0.011, p = 0.014) and positive significant relationship with weight-for-height (beta = 0.326, p = 0.041) among those with inadequate calcium intake. Among children with inadequate energy intake, children's age (beta = -0.621, p < 0.001), per capita income (beta = -0.001, p = 0.025) and protein intake (beta = -0.019, p = 0.027) were inversely and significantly related with blood lead concentration. In conclusion, nutritional status might affect the children's absorption of lead and further investigation is required for confirmation. PMID:18330402

  17. Effects of pH and carbonate concentration on dissolution rates of the lead corrosion product PbO(2).

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjiao; Wang, Yin; Singhal, Vidhi; Giammar, Daniel E

    2010-02-01

    Lead(IV) oxide is a corrosion product that can develop on lead pipes and affect lead concentrations in drinking water. Continuously stirred flow-though reactors were used to quantify the dissolution rates of plattnerite (beta-PbO(2)) at different pH values and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations. Organic pH buffers were not used, because several were found to be reductants for PbO(2) that accelerated its dissolution. Most plattnerite dissolution rates were on the order of 10(-10) mol/min-m(2). The rate of dissolution increased with decreasing pH and with increasing DIC. The effect of DIC is consistent with a reductive dissolution mechanism that involves the reduction of Pb(IV) to Pb(II) at the plattnerite surface followed by the formation of soluble Pb(II)-carbonate complexes that accelerate Pb(II) release from the surface. Under the experimental conditions, dissolved lead concentrations were controlled by the dissolution rate of plattnerite and not by its equilibrium solubility. A dissolution rate model was developed and can be used to predict dissolution rates of plattnerite as a function of pH and DIC. PMID:20063875

  18. Measurement of Fuel Concentration Profile at Leading Edge of Lifted Flame with Acetone Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Mitsutomo; Sekine, Kazushi; Hashimoto, Kouta; Saiki, Atsushi; Takahashi, Hidemi; Masuya, Goro

    This is a study of the leading-edge characteristics of a methane-air triple flame. Few experiment results are available for physical examination of such characteristics, so further experimental investigations are strongly needed to understand the stability mechanism in a mixture with a steep concentration gradient. To this end, we measured concentration profiles at the leading edge of a flame using acetone laser-induced fluorescence (acetone LIF). The results demonstrated that the lifted height of the flame changed when acetone was added to the mixture and correlated well with increased C2 radical behind the flame edge. However, the OH radical luminous intensity, measured with a spectroscope, did not change with addition of acetone. Moreover, the burning velocity obtained by the Bunsen-burner method remained constant when acetone was added to the mixture. Therefore, acetone had little influence on burning intensity. Acetone LIF can thus be employed to measure the local concentration gradient at the leading edge of a flame. The acetone LIF signals could be corrected to consider the thermal effect by using silicone oil vanishing-plane data. From the corrected acetone LIF data, the width between the lean and rich flammability limits (flammability limit width) in the flow upstream of the flame with a steep concentration gradient was clearly observed and could be quantitatively compared with the recent numerical results.

  19. Effect of lead ion concentration on the structural and optical properties of nano-crystalline PbS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, S.; Mehmood, S. K.; Mansoor, M.; Asim, M. M.

    2014-06-01

    PbS thin films have received considerable attention because of their potential applications in opto-electronics applications. Spontaneous reaction of lead acetate and thiourea in aqueous hydrazine hydrate has been used for depositing PbS thin films on glass substrates. Structural and optical properties of PbS thin films are greatly influenced by the morality of the reactants and crystal defects in the lattice. Our work focuses on the variation in lead ion concentration and its effect on the structural and optical properties of PbS thin films. The deposited films were analyzed using XRD, SEM, spectrophotometer and dark resistance measurement. XRD patterns indicated the formation of major phase of nano crystalline PbS with minor presence of lead oxide phase. We also noticed that peak intensity ratio of I111/I200 varied by changing the Pb ion concentration. The film thickness and dark resistance increased whereas optical band gap decreased with the decreasing Pb ion concentration. SEM scans showed that the grain size is less than 100 nm and is not affected by varying Pb ion concentration.

  20. The derivation of effects threshold concentrations of lead for European freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Van Sprang, Patrick A; Nys, Charlotte; Blust, Ronny J P; Chowdhury, Jasim; Gustafsson, Jon P; Janssen, Colin J; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the present study was to derive ecologically relevant effect threshold concentrations of (dissolved) Pb for selected European Union (EU) freshwater rivers, using the 2008 EU Voluntary Risk Assessment Report as a starting point and more advanced methodologies than those used in the Voluntary Risk Assessment Report. This included 1) implementing more robust quality criteria for selecting chronic toxicity data; 2) the conversion of total to dissolved Pb concentrations using a combination of an empirical equation relating inorganic Pb solubility and geochemical speciation modeling to account for effects of dissolved organic matter; 3) the use of bioavailability models for chronic toxicity for species belonging to 3 different trophic levels; and 4) the use of robust methods for large data set handling (such as species sensitivity distribution [SSD] analysis). The authors used published bioavailability models for an algal species (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and a daphnid (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and developed a new model for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). The research has shown that these models are also useful for, and reasonably accurate in, predicting chronic toxicity to other species, including a snail, a rotifer, midge larvae, and an aquatic plant (read-across). A comprehensive chronic toxicity data set for Pb was compiled, comprising 159 individual high-quality toxicity data for 25 different species. By applying the total dissolved conversion and the bioavailability models, normalized toxicity values were obtained, which were then entered into a SSD analysis. Based on the parametric best-fitting SSDs, the authors calculated that ecological threshold concentrations of Pb protecting 95% of freshwater species for 7 selected European freshwater scenarios were between 6.3 μg dissolved Pb/L and 31.1 μg dissolved Pb/L. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1310-1320. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26590360

  1. Effects of lead on Na+, K+-ATPase and hemolymph ion concentrations in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W. Gregory; Weber, Frank X.; Shea, Damian; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants such as lead (Pb) and studies are urgently needed to assess their health and condition to guide conservation efforts. A 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern elliptio mussels (Elliptio complanata) was conducted to determine uptake kinetics and to assess the toxicological effects of Pb exposure. Test mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a water-only control and five concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 245 mu g/L in a static renewal test with a water hardness of 42 mg/L. Endpoints included tissue Pb concentrations, hemolymph Pb and ion (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) concentrations, and Na+, K+-ATPase enzyme activity in gill tissue. Mussels accumulated Pb rapidly, with tissue concentrations increasing at an exposure-dependent rate for the first 2 weeks, but with no significant increase from 2 to 4 weeks. Mussel tissue Pb concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 898 mu g/g dry weight, were strongly related to Pb in test water at every time interval (7, 14, 21, and 28 days), and did not significantly increase after day 14. Hemolymph Pb concentration was variable, dependent on exposure concentration, and showed no appreciable change with time beyond day 7, except for mussels in the greatest exposure concentration (245 mu g/L), which showed a significant reduction in Pb by 28 days, suggesting a threshold for Pb binding or elimination in hemolymph at concentrations near 1000 mu g/g. The Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the gill tissue of mussels was significantly reduced by Pb on day 28 and was highly correlated with tissue Pb concentration (R2 = 0.92; P = 0.013). The Na+, K+-ATPase activity was correlated with reduced hemolymph Na+ concentration at the greatest Pb exposure when enzyme activity was at 30% of controls. Hemolymph Ca2+ concentration increased significantly in mussels from the greatest Pb exposure and may be due to remobilization from the shell in an attempt to buffer the hemolymph against Pb uptake and toxicity. We conclude that Na+, K+-ATPase activity in mussels was adversely affected by Pb exposure, however, because the effects on activity were variable at the lower test concentrations, additional research is warranted over this range of exposures. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.

  2. Assessment of Elemental Concentrations in Streams of the New Lead Belt in Southeastern Missouri, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; May, Thomas W.; Besser, John M.; Allert, Ann L.; Schmitt, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about possible effects of lead-mining activities on the water quality of federally protected streams located in southeastern Missouri prompted a suite of multidisciplinary studies to be conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. As part of this investigation, a series of biological studies were initiated in 2001 for streams in the current mining region and the prospecting area. In this report, results are examined for trace elements and other selected chemical measurements in sediment, surface water, and sediment interstitial (pore) water sampled between 2002 and 2005 in association with these biological studies. Compared to reference sites, fine sediments collected downstream from mining areas were enriched in metals by factors as large as 75 for cadmium, 62 for cobalt, 171 for nickel, 95 for lead, and 150 for zinc. Greatest metal concentrations in sediments collected in 2002 were from sites downstream from mines on Strother Creek, Courtois Creek, and the West Fork Black River. Sediments from sites on Bee Fork, Logan Creek, and Sweetwater Creek also were noticeably enriched in lead. Sediments in Clearwater Lake, at least 75 kilometers downstream from mining activity, had metal concentrations that were 1.5 to 2.1 times greater than sediments in an area of the lake with no upstream mining activity. Longitudinal sampling along three streams in 2004 indicated that sediment metal concentrations decreased considerably a few kilometers downstream from mining activities; however, in Strother Creek some metals were still enriched by a factor of five or more as far as 13 kilometers downstream from the Buick tailings impoundment. Compared with 2002 samples, metals concentrations were dramatically lower in sediments collected in 2004 at an upper West Fork Black River site, presumably because beneficiation operations at the West Fork mill ceased in 2000. Concentrations of metals and sulfate in sediment interstitial (pore) waters generally tracked closely with metal concentrations in sediments. Metals, including cobalt, nickel, lead, and zinc, were elevated substantially in laboratory-produced pore waters of fine sediments collected near mining operations in 2002 and 2004. Passive diffusion samplers (peepers) buried 4 to 6 centimeters deep in riffle-run stream sediments during 2003 and 2005 had much lower pore-water metal concentrations than the laboratory-produced pore waters of fine sediments collected in 2002 and 2004, but each sampling method produced similar patterns among sites. The combined mean concentration of lead in peeper samples from selected sites located downstream from mining activities for six streams was about 10-fold greater than the mean of the reference sites. In most instances, metals concentrations in surface water and peeper water were not greatly different, indicating considerable exchange between the surface water and pore water at the depths and locations where peepers were situated. Passive sampling probes used to assess metal lability in pore waters of selected samples during 2004 sediment toxicity tests indicated that most of the filterable lead in the laboratory-prepared pore water was relatively non-labile, presumably because lead was complexed by organic matter, or was present as colloidal species. In contrast, large percentages of cobalt and nickel in pore water appeared to be labile. Passive integrative samplers deployed in surface water for up to 3 weeks at three sites in July 2005 confirmed the presence of elevated concentrations of labile metals downstream from mining operations on Strother Creek and, to a lesser extent, Bee Fork. These samplers also indicated a considerable increase in metal loadings occurred for a few days at the Strother Creek site, which coincided with moderate increases in stream discharges in the area.

  3. Toxic effects of lead on biochemical and histological alterations in green mussel (Perna viridis) induced by environmentally relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, G; Purvaja, R; Ramesh, R

    2014-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted on green mussel (Perna viridis) to determine the adverse effects of lead (Pb). Exposure of organisms to acute toxicity test for 96 h and lethal concentration (LC(50)) was the endpoint of the test. Acute toxicity for 96-h LC(50) and 95% confidence intervals of P. viridis was 2.62 ± 0.12 (2.62-3.24) mg/L Pb. Chronic toxicity tests revealed that survival of exposed organisms decreased with elevated exposure concentrations. No-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) were calculated based on survival of test organisms. Results of this study demonstrated an increase in toxicity in test organisms with rise in exposure time and concentration. In this study, histology and biochemical enzymes, namely, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, and lipid peroxides, were correlated with chronic value and survival endpoints of P. viridis after chronic exposure to Pb. Biochemical and histological responses to different concentrations of Pb were assessed and significant differences were observed between control and increasing exposure concentrations. Biomarker studies in internal organs confirmed that the observed changes are due to adverse effects of Pb. This assessment of toxicity was the first step to determining the seawater quality criteria for marine organisms. PMID:24588225

  4. Meteorological and Topographic Conditions in the Wintertime Uintah Basin Leading to High Ozone Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Martin, R. S.; Schnell, R. C.; Johnson, B.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Helmig, D.; Stephens, C. R.; Evans, J.; Senff, C. J.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Roberts, J. M.; Conley, S. A.; Zamora, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    High concentrations of O3 in the Uintah Basin, Utah, during winter have been observed during periods of snow cover in the basin. Low sun angles and the high albedo of snow contribute to very cold surface temperatures and strong static stability, which inhibit vertical mixing and trap pollutants within a very shallow layer near the ground. The pollutants are emitted from a variety of sources related to petroleum extraction in the western part of the basin and natural gas ';fracking' and extraction in the eastern half. These unevenly distributed sources also include several point and area NOX sources distributed around the basin as well. Despite the weakness of the daytime shortwave radiative heating of the snow surface and the daytime heat fluxes, a shallow unstable mixed layer is observed to form, in which pollutants and potential temperature are often observed to be nearly constant with height. Also often observed is an upslope or upvalley daytime flow by NOAA's High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which was located in the eastern portion of the basin. At this location, the weak (1-3 m/s) upslope flow was from a westerly direction during daytime. At night, a shallow, weak (1-3 m/s) easterly drainage flow was routinely observed by the lidar. The sloshing of air by the alternating daytime and nighttime flows, along with other weak oscillatory flows in the basin cold pool, had the effect of mingling the pollutants from the various sources, which may have contributed to the highest O3 concentrations.

  5. Surveillance of workers exposed to mercury vapor:validation of a previously proposed biological threshold limit value for mercury concentration in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Roels, H.; Gennart, J.P.; Lauwerys, R.; Buchet, J.P.; Malchaire, J.; Bernard, A.

    1985-01-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out among subjects exposed to mercury (Hg) vapor, ie, a group of 131 male workers (mean age: 30.9 yr; average duration of exposure, 4.8 yr) and a group of 54 female workers (mean age, 29.9 yr; average duration of exposure 7 yr). The results were compared with those obtained in well-matched control groups comprising 114 and 48 male and female workers, respectively. The intensity of current Hg vapor exposure was rather moderate as reflected by the levels of mercury in urine (HgU) (mean and 95th percentile: males 52 and 147 micrograms/g creatinine; females 37 and 63 micrograms/g creatinine) and of mercury in blood (mean and 95th percentile: males 1.4 and 3.7 micrograms/dl; females 0.9 and 1.4 microgram/dl). Several symptoms mainly related to the central nervous system (memory disturbances, depressive feelings, fatigue, irritability) were more prevalent in the Hg-exposed subjects. They were, however, not related to exposure parameters. In both male and female Hg-exposed workers no significant disturbances were found in short-term memory (audioverbal), simple reaction time (visual), critical flicker fusion, and color discrimination ability. Only slight renal tubular effects were detected in Hg-exposed males and females, ie, an increased urinary beta-galactosidase activity and an increased urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein. The prevalence of these preclinical renal effects was more related to the current exposure intensity (HgU) than to the duration of exposure and was detected mainly when HgU exceeds 50 micrograms/g creatinine. Changes in hand tremor spectrum recorded with an accelerometer were found in the Hg-exposed males only.

  6. Cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc concentrations in human infant tissues: their relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of an excess of the toxic elements, cadmium and lead, or a deficiency of any of the essential elements, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, in the tissues of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as compared to those of infants who died of other causes. The literature was reviewed for SIDS, mineral metabolism, and mineral interactions. Lung, liver, kidney, and rib specimens were obtained at autopsy from 130 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. There were 85 SIDS cases ranging in age from 2 to 64 weeks and 45, aged 1 to 92 weeks, who died of other causes. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc in each tissue were determined by electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis of the data showed that liver and rib lead concentrations and liver magnesium concentrations were significantly higher in SIDS tissues in the 4 to 26 week age group than in non-SIDS tissues in the same age group. There was no evidence of a deficiency of the essential minerals measured.

  7. Blood concentration of copper, cadmium, zinc and lead in horses and its relation to hematological and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Halo, Marko; Formicki, Grzegorz; Lukac, Norbert; Cupka, Peter; Schwarcz, Pavol; Kovacik, Anton; Tusimova, Eva; Kovacik, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution results in serious health hazards to animals and blood analysis serves as a good alternative for health status assessment. The target of this study was to analyze the concentration of selected metals in equine blood, to analyze the blood parameters and to find possible correlations. Blood samples were collected from the vena jugularis of healthy adult horses. The highest concentration of all elements was found in whole blood (Cu 3.84 ± 0.90 mg L(-1); Cd = 0.81 ± 0.90 mg L(-1); Zn 26.67 ± 14.12 mg L(-1); Pb 9.33 ± 5.76 mg L(-1)). Higher concentrations of copper, cadmium, zinc and lead were detected in blood clots compared to blood sera (44.04%). A similar tendency was found for cadmium (50%), zinc (13.08%) and lead (46.02%), which showed generally higher concentrations in blood clots (cells). Correlation analysis proved some relations between analyzed elements. In blood clots there is a strong positive correlation between Cd - Pb (r = 0.93) and Zn - Pb (r = 0.71) was detected. For biochemical and hematological parameters mainly medium correlations were detected. Obtained results prove different correlations of analyzed elements in blood components as well as the effect on parameters of blood biochemical and hematological profiles. PMID:24766599

  8. Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscles of three species of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Gasparik, Jozef; Vladarova, Denisa; Capcarova, Marcela; Smehyl, Peter; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Garaj, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Massanyi, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor accumulation of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscle of some wild birds from selected areas of Slovakia and the correlations among the heavy metals. A total of 160 wild birds representing 3 species-Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) (n = 24), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (n = 68) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) (n = 68) were involved for analyses. Concentrations of heavy metals from samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Metal concentrations are expressed as mg/kg wet weight. The order of lead and arsenic concentrations in muscles of wild birds were as follows: mallard > pheasant > Eurasian coot; in the case of arsenic the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Muscle of Eurasian coot accumulated the highest concentration of cadmium and mercury followed by pheasant and the lowest in mallard, but differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Moderately negative correlations were noted in pheasant between cadmium and mercury (r = -0.39), and between mercury and arsenic (r = -0.45). Moderately negative correlation between cadmium and arsenic (r = -0.31) was found for Eurasian coot. PMID:20397088

  9. Trends and variability in blood lead concentrations among US children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-04-01

    Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2003-2012, the objective of this study was to evaluate trends in blood lead levels (BLL) among children aged 1-5 and 6-11 years and smoker and nonsmoker adolescents aged 12-19 years. Regression models with log10 transformed values of BLLs as dependent variable were fitted to evaluate how gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, and exposure to secondhand smoke at home affect BLLs. Irrespective of age, gender, and race/ethnicity, BLLs declined over the study period (p ≤ 0.01). Overall, adjusted BLLs declined by 0.00114 μg/dL for every 2 years. Children aged 1-5 years had about 50 % higher BLLs than smoker adolescents, about 75 % higher BLLs than nonsmoker adolescents, and about 45 % higher BLLs than children aged 6-11 years. While overall, children aged 1-5 years with BLL ≥ 5 μg/dL made up 3.24 %, 7.8 % non-Hispanic Black children aged 1-5 years had BLL ≥ 5 μg/dL. Males were found to have higher adjusted BLLs than females, and non-Hispanic Blacks were found to have higher adjusted BLLs than non-Hispanic Whites. Higher poverty income ratio was associated with lower adjusted BLLs (β = -0.02916, p < 0.01). Children living in owner-occupied homes had lower adjusted BLLs than children living in renter-occupied homes. BLLs increased with increase in number of smokers smoking inside the home (β = 0.02496, p = 0.02). In conclusion, while BLLs have declined for all age groups, genders, and races/ethnicities, certain races/ethnicities like non-Hispanic Blacks continue to have substantially higher BLLs than non-Hispanic Whites. PMID:26758308

  10. Determination of Lead, Cations, and Anions Concentration in Indoor and Outdoor Air at the Primary Schools in Kuala Lumpur

    PubMed Central

    Awang, Normah; Jamaluddin, Farhana

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08 μg/g–7.01 ± 0.08 μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca2+ (39.51 ± 5.01 mg/g–65.13 ± 9.42 mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3− and SO42− were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3− (29.72 ± 0.31 μg/g–32.00 ± 0.75 μg/g) was slightly higher than SO42−. The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3−, SO42−, and Pb2+, were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations. PMID:25136371

  11. Determination of lead, cations, and anions concentration in indoor and outdoor air at the primary schools in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Awang, Normah; Jamaluddin, Farhana

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08 μg/g-7.01 ± 0.08 μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca(2+) (39.51 ± 5.01 mg/g-65.13 ± 9.42 mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-) were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3 (-) (29.72 ± 0.31 μg/g-32.00 ± 0.75 μg/g) was slightly higher than SO4 (2-). The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and Pb(2+), were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations. PMID:25136371

  12. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  13. Liver and kidney concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in cats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to provide new knowledge on the storage of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the feline organism, we measured the concentrations of these elements in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla, evaluating also the impact of age, sex or the occurrence of a chronic kidney disease (CKD). The element concentrations in the tissues of 47 cats (22 male; 25 female; aged between 2 months and 18 years) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Cu, Zn and Mn were the highest in the liver, followed by the renal cortex and the renal medulla. The Cd concentrations were lower in the renal medulla compared to the renal cortex and the liver, and Sr was higher in the renal medulla compared to the liver. The Se concentrations in the cortex of the kidneys were higher than in the medulla of the kidneys and in the liver. Higher Cd concentrations were measured in the renal cortex of female cats, while no further gender-related differences were observed. Except for Cr, Sb and Se, age-dependencies were detected for the storage of all elements. The occurrence of a CKD also affected the storage of the elements, with lower concentrations of Ba (renal medulla), Zn (renal cortex; renal medulla) and Mn (liver; renal medulla), but higher Cd concentrations (liver; renal cortex) in diseased cats. Conclusions In conclusion, the present results provide new information on the accumulation of specific elements in the feline liver and kidneys, demonstrating a dependency on age and an impaired kidney function, but not on the sex of the animals. PMID:25030305

  14. Measurement control program 092: Mercury in urine: Artificial urine versus natural urine external control solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Volesky, A.F.

    1990-10-22

    An investigation was conducted to determine if any significant differences exist between the use of artificial urine vs. natural urine in the preparation of external control samples for Measurement Control Program Number 092, Mercury in Urine. Artificial urine is routinely prepared for use in Measurement Control Program Number 091, Uranium in Artificial Urine. A suggestion has been made that this same solution can be used for the mercury in urine program. Through the use of artificial urine, the need for the collection of a mercury-free natural urine is eliminated. Special handling requirements associated with natural urine are also avoided.

  15. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  16. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  17. Lead pollution in subtropical ecosystems on the SE Gulf of California Coast: a study of concentrations and isotopic composition.

    PubMed

    Soto-Jiménez, Martin F; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Scelfo, Genine; Hibdon, Sharon; Franks, Rob; Aggarawl, Jugdeep; Flegal, A Russell

    2008-10-01

    Lead pollution was investigated in environmental matrices and biological indicators collected from two typical subtropical coastal ecosystems in the southeast Gulf of California, Mexico. Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb) were measured using high resolution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), respectively. Lead in surface estuary sediments (10.0-34.2microgg(-1)) and particulate Pb (25.0-128.7microgg(-1), >98% of total Pb) in the water column were significantly higher than levels in natural bedrock soils (15.1+/-8.3microgg(-1)) and river runoff (1.9+/-1.4microgg(-1)). Aquatic plants had Pb concentrations between 2.5 and 7.2microgg(-1), while those in macroalgae ranged from 3 to 5microgg(-1). The ranges of mean Pb concentrations in the aquatic animals studied (ranges in microgg(-1)) were as follows: zooplankton 32+/-3, mussels 2.3-3.9, oysters 1.9-7.9, snail 2.0-7.7, barnacles 0.1-18.5, fish 1.4-8.9, crab 6.3-40.2 and polychaetae 8.5-16.7. Pb values in 20-40% of oyster and fish samples and in all samples of crab exceeded acceptable levels for a food source for human consumption. Pb isotope ratios (206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(207)Pb in biota ranged from 1.188 to 1.206 and 2.448 to 2.470, respectively. A plot of (206)Pb/(207)Pb versus (208)Pb/(207)Pb for the environmental and biological samples collected from two study areas indicates that they contain lead from ores mined in Mexico and used in the past to produce leaded gasoline in use until 1997, natural Pb weathered from the Sierra Madre Occidental mother rock, and the later influence of inputs from a more radiogenic source related to industrial activity in the United States. Statistical software IsoSource results revealed that the Pb contained in environmental matrices and biomonitors is mostly derived from gasoline (20-90%) and US emissions (10-40%). PMID:18789522

  18. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... provider may order this test to check for changes in your body's ... stones can form, depending on the acidity level of your urine.

  19. Evidence of the particle concentration effect for lead and other metals in fresh waters based on ultraclean technique analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Gaboury

    1995-07-01

    Ultraclean methods were used to produce reliable concentration data for the trace metals Pb, Ag, and Cd in fresh waters and for Ph, Ag, Cu, and Zn in estuarine waters. Partitioning of metals between filter-retained and filtrate fractions exhibited a dependence on total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. This phenomenon, the particle concentration effect (PCE), has been previously documented almost exclusively in marine and estuarine systems and lab simulations, and mainly for radionuclides. The partition coefficient, Kd, was independent of major ion chemistry and pH, supporting the hypothesis that the PCE is caused by metals associated with colloidal particles but counted with the filtrate ("dissolved") fraction. Partition coefficients of the measured metals in fresh waters are predictable across the full range of TSS measured, spanning more than two orders of magnitude. The inferred true partition coefficient for Pb (between solution and particles of all size classes) is greater than 107.4, suggesting that truly dissolved Pb concentrations are extraordinarily low. Previously published data are reinterpreted to show that naturally occurring 210Pb also exhibits the PCE. Freshly precipitated Fe oxyhydroxides partition metals exactly like organic detritus and clays in spite of the great difference in their surface chemistry. The same data rule out the possibility that the PCE could be caused by a decrease in surface area (and surface complexation sites) due to resuspension of larger particles under high TSS conditions. A surprising result is that, while the slope of a log (Kd) - log (TSS) plot for 210Pb is the same as for stable lead, absolute Kd values for 210Pb are uniformly lower by a factor of 4. This suggests that 210Pb and stable lead behave differently from each other in the surface waters studied. One possible explanation is that this dissimilarity may be attributable to differences in speciation that are persistent on a time scale of months, corresponding to the water residence time or Pb removal rate.

  20. Lead Concentration Levels in Waters from Public Drinking Fountains in the East San Francisco Bay Area, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, B.; Lawrence, D.; Lawrence, T.; Lewis-Velasco, W.; Lockett, N.; Swamy, S.; Tyner, N.; Quach, C.

    2008-12-01

    Many East San Francisco Bay Area public parks are heavily populated by parents and their children and generally experience high levels of pedestrian traffic during the day, particularly during summer months. Consequently, if ever any of these visitors become thirsty they are likely to drink from the many public water fountains that exist. As most of the parks were established long before lead-related legislation was put in place, and their associated plumbing systems are very old, we decided to collect samples from a variety of locations to determine their lead concentration levels. Our rationale was that the public is generally not well informed about possible lead contamination related to a seemingly innocent source, namely drinking water fountains at parks, or about and the potential hazards related to lead consumption, and that our research could serve as a means of helping to increase public understanding of this important issue. This is especially important given that many young children populate parks during summer months and, according to the EPA, lead consumption in infants and young children is known to cause physical and mental development problems. With this situation in mind, our team collected multiple samples from water fountains in five different East Bay parks: Piedmont, San Antonio, Dracena, Mosswood, and Lake Merritt. Later these samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. Preliminary results indicate that lead concentration levels in waters issuing from fountains in all of the parks we collected samples from exceed the 15 ppb action limit set by the EPA for in-home tap water. Samples collected from the park in Piedmont yielded values as high as 35 ppb, greater than twice the EPA limit. Given these results, it is with most pressing urgency that we continue this study, and that we publicize our results as soon as possible so that the communities using these parks can decide for themselves whether or not to take the risks associated with drinking water from these fountains, and what steps they can take to improve current conditions.

  1. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  2. Historical changes in lead concentrations in tree-rings of sycamore, oak and Scots pine in north-west England.

    PubMed

    Watmough, Shaun A; Hutchinson, Thomas C

    2002-07-01

    Lead concentrations in tree rings of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), oak (Quercus robur L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sampled at a parkland in north-west England were measured in wood formed since the mid-1800s. Concentrations of Pb in Scots pine and oak peaked in wood formed between 1900 and 1940, most likely because of Pb accumulation in heartwood, indicating that oak and Scots pine are unsuitable for monitoring temporal changes in Pb deposition at the study site. In contrast, Pb concentrations in sycamore, a species that has similar heartwood and sapwood chemistry, were relatively constant in wood formed between the mid-1800s and 1950. Lead concentrations decreased steadily in sycamore tree rings formed after the 1950s, and decreased more abruptly in wood formed after 1985. This sharp decrease in wood Pb cannot be due to decreases in soil Pb concentration. Stable Pb isotope analysis was used to further investigate Pb patterns in sycamore wood. Excess 206Pb/207Pb ratios in tree-rings of sycamore were relatively constant, approximately 1.17, in wood formed prior to the 1930s, but decreased steadily thereafter reaching a minimum value of approximately 1.16 in wood formed between 1975 and 1985 after which time 206Pb/207Pb ratios increased. This pattern is consistent with changes in Pb isotope ratios measured in peat, sediment and aerosol samples in the UK. However, the magnitude of the decrease in 206Pb/207Pb (largely due to gasoline Pb) is considerably lower than in other studies and our estimates indicate that less than 20% of the total Pb in sycamore wood measured since the mid-1800s is derived from gasoline emissions. A more likely explanation for the pattern of Pb observed in sycamore tree rings is that soil Pb accumulates within rings of the diffuse porous wood over a number of years. Such uptake patterns would result in lower Pb concentrations in the outer (more recently formed) tree rings, which coincide with recent reductions in Pb deposition in the UK. Overall, this study indicates that tree ring chemistry is unsuitable for monitoring historical changes in Pb deposition at the study site. PMID:12109483

  3. A comparison of portable XRF and ICP-OES analysis for lead on air filter samples from a lead ore concentrator mill and a lead-acid battery recycler.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    Personal and area samples for airborne lead were taken at a lead mine concentrator mill, and at a lead-acid battery recycler. Lead is mined as its sulfidic ore, galena, which is often associated with zinc and silver. The ore typically is concentrated, and partially separated, on site by crushing and differential froth flotation of the ore minerals before being sent to a primary smelter. Besides lead, zinc and iron are also present in the airborne dusts, together with insignificant levels of copper and silver, and, in one area, manganese. The disposal of used lead-acid batteries presents environmental issues, and is also a waste of recoverable materials. Recycling operations allow for the recovery of lead, which can then be sold back to battery manufacturers to form a closed loop. At the recycling facility lead is the chief airborne metal, together with minor antimony and tin, but several other metals are generally present in much smaller quantities, including copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Samplers used in these studies included the closed-face 37 mm filter cassette (the current US standard method for lead sampling), the 37 mm GSP or "cone" sampler, the 25 mm Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable sampler, the 25 mm Button sampler, and the open-face 25 mm cassette. Mixed cellulose-ester filters were used in all samplers. The filters were analyzed after sampling for their content of the various metals, particularly lead, that could be analyzed by the specific portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer under study, and then were extracted with acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The 25 mm filters were analyzed using a single XRF reading, while three readings on different parts of the filter were taken from the 37 mm filters. For lead at the mine concentrate mill, all five samplers gave good correlations (r2 > 0.96) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass, which encompassed the permissible exposure limit of 150 mg m(-3) enforced in the USA by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Linear regression on the results from most samplers gave almost 1 ratio 1 correlations without additional correction, indicating an absence of matrix effects from the presence of iron and zinc in the samples. An approximately 10% negative bias was found for the slope of the Button sampler regression, in line with other studies, but it did not significantly affect the accuracy as all XRF results from this sampler were within 20% of the corresponding ICP values. As in previous studies, the best results were obtained with the GSP sampler using the average of three readings, with all XRF results within 20% of the corresponding ICP values and a slope close to 1 (0.99). Greater than 95% of XRF results were within 20% of the corresponding ICP values for the closed-face 37 mm cassette using the OSHA algorithm, and the IOM sampler using a sample area of 3.46 cm2. As in previous studies, considerable material was found on the interior walls of all samplers that possess an internal surface for deposition, at approximately the same proportion for all samplers. At the lead-acid battery recycler all five samplers in their optimal configurations gave good correlations (r2 > 0.92) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass, which included the permissible exposure limit enforced in the USA by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Linear regression on the results from most samplers gave almost 1 ratio 1 correlations (except for the Button sampler), indicating an absence of matrix effects from the presence of the smaller quantities of the other metals in the samples. A negative bias was found for the slope of the button sampler regression, in line with other studies. Even though very high concentrations of lead were encountered (up to almost 6 mg m(-3)) no saturation of the detector was observed. Most samplers performed well, with >90% of XRF results within +/- 25% of the corresponding ICP results for the optimum configurations. The OSHA algorithm for the CFC worked best without including the back-up pad with the filter. PMID:16528423

  4. Association of Geography and Ambient Air Pollution with Urine Metal Concentrations in Six US Cities: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yuanjie; Jones, Miranda R; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Post, Wendy S; Kaufman, Joel D; Delaney, Joseph A; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the associations of urinary concentrations of antimony, cadmium, tungsten and uranium with geographic locations and with ambient air pollution in 304 adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis from six US cities. After adjustment for sociodemographics, body mass index, and smoking status, urinary cadmium was the highest in Winston-Salem among all study sites (the geometric mean [GM] in Winston-Salem was 0.84 µg/L [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-1.22]). The adjusted GMs of urinary tungsten and uranium were highest in Los Angeles (0.11 µg/L [95% CI 0.08-0.16] and 0.019 µg/L [95% CI 0.016-0.023], respectively). The adjusted GM ratio comparing fine particulate matter (PM2.5) tertiles 2 and 3 with the lowest tertile were 1.64 (95% CI 1.05-2.56) and 3.55 (95% CI 2.24-5.63) for tungsten, and 1.18 (95% CI 0.94-1.48) and 1.70 (95% CI 1.34-2.14) for uranium. The results for tungsten remained similar after adjustment for study site. Urinary cadmium, tungsten and uranium concentrations differed by geographic locations in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) communities. PM2.5 levels could contribute to geographic differences in tungsten exposure. These findings highlight the need to implement preventive strategies to decrease toxic metal exposure and to evaluate the health effects of chronic exposure to those metals. PMID:26999173

  5. Association of Geography and Ambient Air Pollution with Urine Metal Concentrations in Six US Cities: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yuanjie; Jones, Miranda R.; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Post, Wendy S.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Delaney, Joseph A.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the associations of urinary concentrations of antimony, cadmium, tungsten and uranium with geographic locations and with ambient air pollution in 304 adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis from six US cities. After adjustment for sociodemographics, body mass index, and smoking status, urinary cadmium was the highest in Winston-Salem among all study sites (the geometric mean [GM] in Winston-Salem was 0.84 µg/L [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57–1.22]). The adjusted GMs of urinary tungsten and uranium were highest in Los Angeles (0.11 µg/L [95% CI 0.08–0.16] and 0.019 µg/L [95% CI 0.016–0.023], respectively). The adjusted GM ratio comparing fine particulate matter (PM2.5) tertiles 2 and 3 with the lowest tertile were 1.64 (95% CI 1.05–2.56) and 3.55 (95% CI 2.24–5.63) for tungsten, and 1.18 (95% CI 0.94–1.48) and 1.70 (95% CI 1.34–2.14) for uranium. The results for tungsten remained similar after adjustment for study site. Urinary cadmium, tungsten and uranium concentrations differed by geographic locations in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) communities. PM2.5 levels could contribute to geographic differences in tungsten exposure. These findings highlight the need to implement preventive strategies to decrease toxic metal exposure and to evaluate the health effects of chronic exposure to those metals. PMID:26999173

  6. Effect of pH on the concentrations of lead and trace contaminants in drinking water: a combined batch, pipe loop and sentinel home study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jung; Herrera, Jose E; Huggins, Dan; Braam, John; Koshowski, Scott

    2011-04-01

    High lead levels in drinking water are still a concern for households serviced by lead pipes in many parts of North America and Europe. This contribution focuses on the effect of pH on lead concentrations in drinking water delivered through lead pipes. Though this has been addressed in the past, we have conducted a combined batch, pipe loop and sentinel study aiming at filling some of the gaps present in the literature. Exhumed lead pipes and water quality data from the City of London's water distribution system were used in this study. As expected, the lead solubility of corrosion scale generally decreased as pH increased; whereas dissolution of other accumulated metals present in the corrosion scale followed a variety of trends. Moreover, dissolved arsenic and aluminum concentrations showed a strong correlation, indicating that the aluminosilicate phase present in the scale accumulates arsenic. A significant fraction of the total lead concentration in water was traced to particulate lead. Our results indicate that particulate lead is the primary contributor to total lead concentration in flowing systems, whereas particulate lead contribution to total lead concentrations for stagnated systems becomes significant only at high water pH values. PMID:21458838

  7. Whole blood lead concentration and erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in selected canine populations in Greece.

    PubMed

    Polizopoulou, Z S; Kontos, V S; Koutinas, A F; Papasteriades, A

    1994-12-01

    In a total number of 275 dogs of various ages, sex and breed, blood lead concentrations (BLC) and erythrocyte ALAD activity were measured. Sixty-six of the dogs were living in lead mining areas (Group A), 157 in urban areas (Group B) and 52 in rural areas (Group C) of Greece. Mean BLC differed significantly (P < 0.05) between locations and were 326,97 and 68 micrograms/L, respectively. Mean ALAD activity was significantly different (P < 0.05) only between Groups A and B as between groups A and C. A significant (P < 0.05) negative correlation existed between BLC and ALAD activity. A normal range of erythrocyte ALAD activity of 807-992 mumol/PBG/LRBC/h was established for dogs. None of the 33 Group A dogs and 2 of the Group B dogs that had a BLC of 350 micrograms/L presented clinical signs indicating acute or chronic lead intoxication. No erythrocyte basophilic stippling or large number of nucleated red blood cells were seen in the 30 dogs of Group A with BLC > 350 micrograms/L. PMID:7599513

  8. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering capacity of urine, and to lower the pH to levels that fix ammoniacal nitrogen in the non-volatile and highly water soluble NH4 + form. Citric acid, a highly soluble, solid tricarboxylic acid essential to cellular metabolism, and typically used as a food preservative, has also been shown to efficiently acidify urine in conjunction with non-oxidizing biocides to provide effective stabilization with respect to both microbial growth and ammonia volatilization.

  9. Lead Concentrations in Raw Cow and Goat Milk Collected in Rural Areas of Croatia from 2010 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Čalopek, Bruno; Luburić, Đurđica Božić; Solomun Kolanović, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Đokić, Maja; Kmetič, Ivana; Murati, Teuta

    2016-05-01

    A total of 249 cow and 33 goat milk samples were collected in rural areas of Croatia during the period 2010-2014. Lead concentrations in milk samples were analyzed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mean Pb concentrations in milk ranged from (μg/kg): cow 10.8-12.2; goat 9.33-60.0. The highest Pb level of 131 μg/kg in cow milk was measured during 2014. There were no significant differences in Pb levels between cow and goat milk and also in goat milk among the analysed years. However, significant differences were found in cow milk among years. The highest Pb was determined in 2011 (157 μg/kg in goat milk). The calculated estimated weekly intakes of Pb concentrations for cow and goat milk contribute only 1.37 % and 1.84 % to the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Therefore, the consumption of milk from both species should not pose a consumer health risk. PMID:26858083

  10. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  11. Effect of complexans (EDTA, NTA and DTPA) on the exposure to high concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead

    SciTech Connect

    Muramoto, S.

    1980-12-01

    The effects of complexans on the toxicity of short exposures to high chemical concentrations of heavy meals were examined. The heavy metals used were cadmium, zinc, lead and copper. Mortality every 24-h and the content of metal in each of three areas of fish - viscera, gills and other parts - were detemined both in the groups kept in water containing metal alone and in those whose aqueous environments contained complexan in mole concentrations three time that of the heavy metal. The carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) 8.0 + 0.5 cm were kept in groups of 8 to 10. There were altogether 49 such groups: 12 kept in three relatively high concentrations of each of the metals, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, alone; 36 groups in environments each containing only one of the three complexans, the tetrasodium salt of ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the trisodium salt of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and the pentasodium salt of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) were used. Results indicate that the addition of the complexans resulted in the decrease of the tissue concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. It is considered that the heavy metals were not present merely as metal ions but formed complexes with the complexans, since the complexans were added at three times mole of the metal and therefore complex formation occurred in preference to the binding of the metals with the tissue proteins of the fish. It is furthermore assumed that the heavy metals can pass through the fish as metal-complexes, and so are not retained.

  12. Effects of soil type and genotype on lead concentration in rootstalk vegetables and the selection of cultivars for food safety.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changfeng; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Fen; Yang, Yiru; Yin, Yunlong

    2013-06-15

    Lead (Pb) contamination of soil poses severe health risks to humans through vegetable consumption. The variations of Pb concentration in different parts of rootstalk vegetables (radish, carrot and potato) were investigated by using twelve cultivars grown in acidic Ferralsols and neutral Cambisols under two Pb treatments (125 mg kg(-1) and 250 mg kg(-1) for Ferralsols; 150 mg kg(-1) and 300 mg kg(-1) for Cambisols) in a pot experiment. The Pb concentration in edible parts was higher in Ferralsols under two Pb treatments, with range from 0.28 to 4.14, 0.42-10.66 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) respectively, and all of them exceeded the food safety standard (0.1 mg kg(-1)) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO and WHO. The Pb concentration in edible parts was significantly affected by genotype, soil type and the interaction between these two factors. The variation of Pb concentration in different cultivars was partially governed by Pb absorption and the transfer of Pb from aerial to edible part. The results revealed that caution should be paid to the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables in Pb-contaminated Ferralsols without any agronomic management to reduce Pb availability and plant uptake. For Cambisols with slight to moderate Pb contamination, growing potato cultivar Shandong No.1 and Chongqing No.1 was effective in reducing the risk of Pb entering human food chain. The results suggest the possibility of developing cultivar- and soil-specific planting and monitoring guidelines for the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables on slight to moderate Pb-contaminated soils. PMID:23542226

  13. Creatinine urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine creatinine test ... Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply ... done to see how well your kidneys work. Creatinine is removed by the body entirely by the ...

  14. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a doctor suspects that a child has a urinary tract infection (UTI) or a health problem that can cause an ... to-Creatinine Ratio Kidney Diseases in Childhood Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions Urinary Tract Infections Urine Test: ...

  15. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  16. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs of infection. ... Leukocyte esterase is a screening test used to detect a substance that suggests there are white blood ...

  17. PBG urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  18. Potassium urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal urine potassium level may be due to: Diabetic acidosis and other forms of metabolic acidosis Eating ... of the urologic patient: history, physical examination, and urinalysis. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ...

  19. Evidence that cognitive deficit in children is associated not only with iron deficiency, but also with blood lead concentration: a preliminary study.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Jeong KS; Park H; Ha E; Hong YC; Ha M; Park H; Kim BN; Lee SJ; Lee KY; Kim JH; Kim Y

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether blood lead concentrations are elevated in iron-deficient children, and to examine the association between iron deficiency and/or elevated blood lead concentration and cognitive deficits in children.METHOD: The present study is a component of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 194 children who underwent testing of blood lead and serum C-reactive proteins (CRPs) and ferritin concentrations, and the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R), at 60 months of age. In addition, the mothers' blood lead concentrations during pregnancy were included in the analyses. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between high blood lead and low serum ferritin concentrations, after adjustment for covariates, in children, as well as to analyze the association of verbal IQ with serum ferritin and blood lead concentrations.RESULTS: Lead and ferritin concentrations were inversely and significantly associated in children after adjustment for covariates. Moreover, both concentrations were associated with verbal IQ, after adjustment for covariates, and each was associated with cognitive deficits after adjustment for the other. Sobel test statistics showed that blood lead concentration was a significant partial mediator for the relationship between iron deficiency and verbal IQ.CONCLUSION: Due to the results discussed in the present study, cognitive deficit in children seems to be associated not only with iron deficiency, but also with blood lead concentration.

  20. An Efficient Technology for Smelting Low Grade Bismuth-Lead Concentrate: Oxygen-Rich Side Blow Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Hao, Zhandong; Yang, Tianzu; Xiao, Hui; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Bin, Shu; Bin, Wanda

    2015-09-01

    An efficient technology for low-grade bismuth-lead concentrate smelting is reported. In the process, two oxygen-rich side blow furnaces (OSBF) are used for oxidative smelting of the concentrate and reductive smelting of the oxidized slag from the upstream furnace, respectively. Slags are collected from the OSBFs by certain intervals during an operation period and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrum, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Analysis for the oxidized slag revealed that spherical or oval metallic inclusions with sizes range from submicron to 40 μm in diameter are randomly embedded in the glassy matrix. On the one hand, the metal content of the inclusions is close to that of the bottom metal alloy, indicating metal inclusions are physically entrained in the oxidized slag. On the other hand, metal inclusions are not identified in the reduced slag, disclosing the strong metal-slag separation ability of the OSBF. The bismuth content of the reduced slag is about 0.05 wt.%, which is 6-10 times lower than that of the traditional pyrometallurgical processes.

  1. Elevated Concentrations of Lead in Particulate Matter on the Neighborhood-Scale in Delhi, India As Determined by Single Particle Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongru; Peters, Thomas M; Casuccio, Gary S; Lersch, Traci L; West, Roger R; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Naresh; Ault, Andrew P

    2016-05-17

    High mass concentrations of atmospheric lead particles are frequently observed in the Delhi, India metropolitan area, although the sources of lead particles are poorly understood. In this study, particles sampled across Delhi (August - December 2008) were analyzed by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX) to improve our understanding of the spatial and physicochemical variability of lead-rich particles (>90% lead). The mean mass concentration of lead-rich particles smaller than 10 μm (PM10) was 0.7 μg/m(3) (1.5 μg/m(3) std. dev.) with high variability (range: 0-6.2 μg/m(3)). Four samples (16% of 25 samples) with PM10 lead-rich particle concentrations >1.4 μg/m(3) were defined as lead events and studied further. The temporal characteristics, heterogeneous spatial distribution, and wind patterns of events, excluded regional monsoon conditions or common anthropogenic sources from being the major causes of the lead events. Individual particle composition, size, and morphology analysis indicate informal recycling operations of used lead-acid batteries as the likely source of the lead events. This source is not typically included in emission inventories, and the observed isolated hotspots with high lead concentrations could represent an elevated exposure risk in certain neighborhoods of Delhi. PMID:27077697

  2. The effects of hypocalcaemia due to a 4-hour infusion of Na2EDTA solution on various blood and urine analytes in dairy cows and a comparison of these effects between cows with high and low erythrocyte potassium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, D C; Daniel, R C

    1992-01-01

    Six HK (high erythrocyte potassium) and 7 LK (low erythrocyte potassium) dairy cows were subjected to a 4-h intravenous infusion of 4.7% Na2EDTA solution to induce and maintain hypocalcaemia. Blood samples taken immediately before infusion, hourly for 7 h, and at 24 h after commencement of infusion were subjected to determination of concentration (or count) of 16 analytes. The mean changes in concentrations (or counts) of the various blood analytes were calculated for the periods 0-4, 4-7, 7-24, and 0-24 h after commencement of the infusion for all cows combined, and then separately for the HK and LK groups of cows. Plasma Ca(PCa), plasma inorganic phosphorus (PiP) and plasma potassium (PK) showed significant decreases during the 4-h infusion period and were still below pretreatment levels 24 h later. AST, CPK, PCVs and white cell-counts (WCCs) showed significant early increases which were still significantly elevated 24 h later. Plasma magnesium (PMg) and erythrocyte Na(ENa) and K(EK) all showed delayed changes which still persisted 24 h later. Significant between-group differences were present for PCVs which increased significantly more in the LK than the HK group during the infusion period, for PCa which showed a greater increase in the HK cows than the LK cows during the 4-7 h early clinical recovery period, and for plasma bilirubin (PBil) which showed a greater increase from 0 to 24 h in the HK group than in the LK group. Urine samples, collected before infusion, 4-7 h and 24 h after commencement of the infusion, were subjected to analysis for glucose, protein, pH, 'blood' and ketones. Most cows showed increases in urinary glucose, protein and 'blood'. PMID:1498642

  3. Stimulation of TRPC5 cationic channels by low micromolar concentrations of lead ions (Pb{sup 2+})

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Piruthivi; Beech, David J.

    2010-02-26

    Lead toxicity is long-recognised but continues to be a major public health problem. Its effects are wide-ranging and include induction of hyper-anxiety states. In general it is thought to act by interfering with Ca{sup 2+} signalling but specific targets are not clearly identified. Transient receptor potential canonical 5 (TRPC5) is a Ca{sup 2+}-permeable ion channel that is linked positively to innate fear responses and unusual amongst ion channels in being stimulated by trivalent lanthanides, which include gadolinium. Here we show investigation of the effect of lead, which is a divalent ion (Pb{sup 2+}). Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on HEK 293 cells conditionally over-expressing TRPC5 or other TRP channels. Extracellular application of Pb{sup 2+} stimulated TRPC5 at concentrations greater than 1 {mu}M. Control cells without TRPC5 showed little or no response to Pb{sup 2+} and expression of other TRP channels (TRPM2 or TRPM3) revealed partial inhibition by 10 {mu}M Pb{sup 2+}. The stimulatory effect on TRPC5 depended on an extracellular residue (E543) near the ion pore: similar to gadolinium action, E543Q TRPC5 was resistant to Pb{sup 2+} but showed normal stimulation by the receptor agonist sphingosine-1-phosphate. The study shows that Pb{sup 2+} is a relatively potent stimulator of the TRPC5 channel, generating the hypothesis that a function of the channel is to sense metal ion poisoning.

  4. [Urine levels of fenethylline and amphetamine after administration of Captagon].

    PubMed

    Iffland, R

    1982-01-01

    The limit for detecting fenethylline and its metabolite amphetamine in GLC with N-FID is in the range of nanograms. The elimination of these substances in urine was measured after giving different quantities of Captagon to six volunteers. The concentrations of fenethylline and amphetamine in urine allow to estimate with some limitations time and amount of consuming Captagon for forensic purposes. PMID:7082126

  5. Purple urine bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pillai, B P; Chong, V H; Yong, A M

    2009-05-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare disorder where the plastic urinary catheter bag and tubing turn purple. The discolouration is due to the presence of indigo and indirubin pigments which are metabolites of tryptophan. It is associated with urinary tract infection. Bacteria that produce sulphatase and phosphatase are involved in the formation of these pigments. Purple urine bag syndrome is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, compared to urinary tract infection without this phenomenon. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in a 68-year-old woman. PMID:19495508

  6. Arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium concentrations in private bedrock wells in southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, Sarah M.; Belaval, Marcel; Ayotte, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the trace metal arsenic have been identified in drinking water from groundwater sources in southeastern New Hampshire, a rapidly growing region of the State (Montgomery and others, 2003). During the past decade (2000–10), southeastern New Hampshire, which is composed of Hillsborough, Rockingham, and Strafford Counties, has grown in population by nearly 48,700 (or 6.4 percent) to 819,100. These three counties contain 62 percent of the State’s population but encompass only about 22 percent of the land area (New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning, 2011). According to a 2005 water-use study (Hayes and Horn, 2009), about 39 percent of the population in these three counties in southeastern New Hampshire uses private wells as sources of drinking water, and these wells are not required by the State to be routinely tested for trace metals or other contaminants. Some trace metals have associated human-health benchmarks or nonhealth guidelines that have been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate public water supplies. The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (μg/L) for arsenic (As) and a MCL of 30 μg/L for uranium (U) because of associated health risks (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are essential for human health, but Mn at high doses may have adverse cognitive effects in children (Bouchard and others, 2011; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2012); therefore, the EPA has issued a lifetime health advisory (LHA) of 300 μg/L for Mn. Recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for Fe (300 μg/L) and Mn (50 μg/L) were established primarily as nonhealth guidelines—based on aesthetic considerations, such as taste or the staining of laundry and plumbing fixtures—because these contaminants, at the SMCLs, are not considered to present risks to human health. Because lead (Pb) contamination of drinking water typically results from corrosion of plumbing materials belonging to water-system customers but still poses a risk to human health, the EPA established an action level (AL) of 15 μg/L for Pb instead of an MCL or SMCL (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). The 15-μg/L AL for Pb has been adopted by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services for public water systems, and if exceeded, the public water system must inform their customers and undertake additional actions to control corrosion in the pipes of the distribution system (New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, 2013). Unlike the quality of drinking water provided by public water suppliers, the quality of drinking water obtained from private wells in New Hampshire is not regulated; consequently, private wells are sampled only when individual well owners voluntarily choose to sample them. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA New England, conducted an assessment in 2012–13 to provide private well owners and State and Federal health officials with information on the distribution of trace-metal (As, Fe, Pb, Mn, and U) concentrations in groundwater from bedrock aquifers in the three counties of southeastern New Hampshire. This fact sheet analyzes data from water samples collected by a randomly selected group of private well owners from the three-county study area and describes the major findings for trace-metal concentrations.

  7. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  8. Magnesium, aluminum and lead in various brain areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zumkley, H.; Bertram, H.P.; Brandt, M.; Roedig, M.; Spieker, C.

    1986-01-01

    Whereas the lead concentrations were increased in brain tissue of patients with chronic alcoholism, the aluminum concentrations remained within the normal range. The magnesium concentrations were found decreased in patients with chronic alcoholism compared to normal controls. The sources for the elevated lead levels seem to be the increased intake of alcohol. The decreased magnesium levels are probably caused by an increased loss of magnesium with the urine, malnutrition, malabsorption, hormonal factors and drugs. Various neurological disorders which often accompanied chronic alcoholism may be caused or aggravated by lead encephalopathy and hypomagnesemia. Therapeutical implications may be the early substitution of magnesium deficiency in chronic alcoholism. 10 references, 5 figures.

  9. Kidney effects in long term exposed lead smelter workers.

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardsson, L; Chettle, D R; Englyst, V; Nordberg, G F; Nyhlin, H; Scott, M C; Todd, A C; Vesterberg, O

    1992-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead may cause kidney damage. This study was carried out on a cohort of 70 active and 30 retired long term exposed lead smelter workers. Their kidney function was compared with 31 active and 10 retired truck assembly workers who had no occupational exposure to lead. The lead workers had been regularly followed up with measurements of lead concentration in blood since 1950. Previous exposure to lead was calculated as a time integrated blood lead index for each worker. Blood and urine samples were obtained from all subjects. The concentration of lead in blood (B-Pb) and urine (U-Pb) was analysed. The urinary concentrations of several sensitive indicators of early tubular (U-beta 2-microglobulin (U-beta 2-m); U-N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (U-NAG)) and glomerular kidney damage (U-albumin) were determined. The B-Pb and U-Pb values were significantly higher among active and retired lead workers compared with their corresponding control groups. The highest concentrations were found among the active lead workers. The concentrations of the parameters of kidney function investigated were of the same magnitude for exposed workers and controls. No clinical signs of renal impairment were found among the workers. No correlations of clinical importance existed between concentrations of U-albumin, U-beta 2-m, and U-NAG activity on the one hand and the concentrations of B-Pb, cumulative blood lead index, U-Pb, and lead concentrations in the calcaneus and tibia on the other, among lead workers and controls. Despite many years of moderate to heavy exposure to lead, particularly for the retired lead workers, no signs of adverse effects on the kidney such as early tubular or glomerular malfunction were found. Reversible changes in kidney function during the 1950s and 1960s could not be excluded, however, due to a greater exposure to lead during that time. PMID:1554615

  10. Myoglobin urine test

    MedlinePlus

    A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina ... care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile ...

  11. Protein electrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina ... care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile ...

  12. Sulfur control of lead concentration during MORB genesis: clues to the origin of HIMU and FOZO sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, G.; Kogiso, T.

    2008-12-01

    It has been widely accepted that recycling of oceanic and continental crusts produced chemically distinct regions in the mantle, so called mantle reservoirs (FOZO, HIMU, EMI and EMII; e.g., Stracke et al. 2005). Thus the investigation of the process that produced these reservoirs would be essential to understand the material recycling in the Earth. In particular, FOZO and HIMU could be important because these reservoirs are inferred to be produced by recycling of oceanic crust that is major constituent of the subducting slab. As the recycled oceanic crust suffered subduction process to produce continental crust, the origin of the FOZO and HIMU, and continental crust could potentially be connected. Although the growth rate of the continental crust is still in debated, much of the crust seems to be formed during Archean and early Proterozoic times. In such ancient time, the subducting oceanic crust would be much more likely to be melted due to high geothermal gradient and low average age of the crust. It could follow that the recycled material observed in OIB should have experienced melting rather than dehydration because the age of recycled material is inferred to be ca 1.0-2.0 Ga (Chauvel, et al., 1992; Hofmann 1997). Nevertheless, melt-extraction process can not produce the suitable isotopic composition of OIBs. Dehydration of oceanic crust is another major process in subduction zone especially at present. In addition, the process is widely accepted as the origin of HIMU source (e.g., Kogiso et al., 1997). It might follow that HIMU magmas could be a common type of OIB as the dehydrated oceanic crust should be a major constituent of subducting slab. In spite of this expectation, occurrence of HIMU magmas is quite rare: only observed in St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean and the Cook-Austral islands in the South Pacific Ocean. These lines of evidence could suggest that simple dehydration reaction or melting event was not suitable to produce the OIB source. For the comprehensive understanding of the relationship between FOZO, HIMU and continental crust, geochemical modeling has been conducted using trace element composition and Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic ratios. The model focuses on the chemical evolution of the magma in mod-ocean ridges that can change U, Th, Pb and S concentration in magma. In particular, the model pays special attention to the behavior of S. The result suggests that dehydration melting of oceanic crust at shallow level (amphibole stability field) can produce melt of which trace element composition is similar to bulk continental crust. In addition, the residual oceanic crust can produce Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic composition that is consistent with FOZO component at the age of 10-20 billon years. HIMU component can only be produced by the dehydration melting of oceanic crust that suffered strong crystal fractionation during the production of the oceanic crust. The fractional crystallization at mid-ocean ridges can increase U and Th concentration in oceanic crust. Sulfur solubility is also enhanced during the crystal fractionation due to iron enrichment. High sulfur content in the evolved magma leads to distribute much more lead into sulfide compared to less evolved oceanic crust. This geochemical feature could be suitable to produce HIMU source via dehydration melting. We will present a geochemical model that is focused on origin of HIMU source and the relationship between continental crust and OIB sources.

  13. Quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine by metalized nanostructured parylene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Malvadkar, Niranjan; Koytek, S; Bylander, J; Reeves, W Brian; Demirel, Melik C

    2010-01-01

    A highly accurate, real-time multisensor agent monitor for biomarker detection is required for early detection of kidney diseases. Urine creatinine level can provide useful information on the status of the kidney. We prepare nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates without template or lithography, which provides controllable, well-organized nanostructures on the surface, for the quantitative analysis of creatinine concentration in urine. We present our work on sensitivity of the SERS substrate to urine samples collected from diabetic patients and healthy persons. We report the preparation of a new type of SERS substrate, which provides fast (<10 s), highly sensitive (creatinine concentration <0.5 microg/mL) and reproducible (<5% variation) detection of urine. Our method to analyze the creatinine level in urine is in good agreement with the enzymatic method. PMID:20459278

  14. Postmortem blood cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations: comparisons with regard to sampling location and reference ranges for living persons.

    PubMed

    Schier, Joshua G; Heninger, Michael; Wolkin, Amy; Kieszak, Stephanie; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Fajardo, Geroncio C; Jones, Robert; Rubin, Carol; Hanzlick, Randy; Osterloh, John D; McGeehin, Michael A

    2010-04-01

    This study's goal was to determine cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), total mercury (THg), and inorganic mercury (IHg) levels in human cadavers to compare measured levels with established reference ranges for living persons and to determine whether blood levels varied with time from death to sample collection or by body collection site. Subjects (n = 66) recruited from the Fulton County Medical Examiner's Office in Atlanta, GA, were 20 years of age or older, had no penetrating trauma, no obvious source of environmental contamination of the vasculature, and had whole blood accessible from the femoral (F) site, the cardiac (C) site, or both. Geometric mean results were as follows: 2.59 microg/L F-Cd; 11.81 microg/L C-Cd; 1.03 microg/L F-THg; 2.01 microg/L C-THg; 0.29 microg/L F-IHg; 0.49 microg/L C-IHg; 1.78 microg/dL F-Pb; and 1.87 microg/dL C-Pb. Both F- and C-Cd levels as well as C-THg levels were significantly higher than reference values among living persons (C- and F-Cd, p < 0.0001 and C-THg, p = 0.0001, respectively). Based on regression modeling, as the postmortem interval increased, blood Cd levels increased (p < 0.006). Postmortem blood Cd concentrations were elevated compared to population values and varied with respect to sampling location and postmortem interval. PMID:20406536

  15. Quantitative urine confirmatory testing for synthetic cannabinoids in randomly collected urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Gandhi, Adarsh; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid intake is an ongoing health issue worldwide, with new compounds continually emerging, making drug testing complex. Parent synthetic cannabinoids are rarely detected in urine, the most common matrix employed in workplace drug testing. Optimal identification of synthetic cannabinoid markers in authentic urine specimens and correlation of metabolite concentrations and toxicities would improve synthetic cannabinoid result interpretation. We screened 20 017 randomly collected US military urine specimens between July 2011 and June 2012 with a synthetic cannabinoid immunoassay yielding 1432 presumptive positive specimens. We analyzed all presumptive positive and 1069 negative specimens with our qualitative synthetic cannabinoid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which confirmed 290 positive specimens. All 290 positive and 487 randomly selected negative specimens were quantified with the most comprehensive urine quantitative LC-MS/MS method published to date; 290 specimens confirmed positive for 22 metabolites from 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids. The five most predominant metabolites were JWH-018 pentanoic acid (93%), JWH-N-hydroxypentyl (84%), AM2201 N-hydroxypentyl (69%), JWH-073 butanoic acid (69%), and JWH-122 N-hydroxypentyl (45%) with 11.1 (0.1-2,434), 5.1 (0.1-1,239), 2.0 (0.1-321), 1.1 (0.1-48.6), and 1.1 (0.1-250) µg/L median (range) concentrations, respectively. Alkyl hydroxy and carboxy metabolites provided suitable biomarkers for 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids; although hydroxyindoles were also observed. This is by far the largest data set of synthetic cannabinoid metabolites urine concentrations from randomly collected workplace drug testing specimens rather than acute intoxications or driving under the influence of drugs. These data improve the interpretation of synthetic cannabinoid urine test results and suggest suitable urine markers of synthetic cannabinoid intake. PMID:25231213

  16. Microdetermination of urea in urine using p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde /PDAB/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Adaptation of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde method for determining urea concentration in urine is an improved micromechanical method. Accuracy and precision are satisfactory. This method avoids extra steps of deproteinizing or removing normal urinary chromogens.

  17. Characterization of Perchlorate in a New Frozen Human Urine Standard Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lee L.; Jarrett, Jeffery M.; Davis, W. Clay; Kilpatrick, Eric L.; Oflaz, Rabia; Turk, Gregory C.; Leber, Dennis D.; Valentin, Liza; Morel-Espinosa, Maria; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate, an inorganic anion, has recently been recognized as an environmental contaminant by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Urine is the preferred matrix for assessment of human exposure to perchlorate. Although the measurement technique for perchlorate in urine was developed in 2005, the calibration and quality assurance aspects of the metrology infrastructure for perchlorate are still lacking in that there is no certified reference material (CRM) traceable to the International System of Units (SI). To meet the quality assurance needs in biomonitoring measurements of perchlorate and the related anions that affect thyroid health, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3668 Mercury, Perchlorate, and Iodide in Frozen Human Urine. SRM 3668 consists of perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate, iodine, and mercury in urine at two levels that represent the 50th and 95th percentiles, respectively, of the concentrations (with some adjustments) in the U.S. population. It is the first CRM being certified for perchlorate. Measurements leading to the certification of perchlorate were made collaboratively at NIST and CDC using three methods based on liquid or ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS or IC-MS/MS). Potential sources of bias were analyzed and results were compared for the three methods. Perchlorate in SRM 3668 Level I urine was certified to be 2.70 μg L−1 ± 0.21 μg L−1, and for SRM 3668 Level II urine, the certified value is 13.47 μg L−1 ± 0.96 μg L−1. PMID:22850897

  18. [Interannual variation patterns of heavy metals concentrations in tree rings of Larix gmelinii near Xilin Lead-zinc Mine, Yichun of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Hu, Shen; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Jin-Yan

    2013-06-01

    By using dendro-environmental methods, this paper measured and analyzed the variations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Mn) concentrations in the tree rings of Larix gmelinii near Xilin Lead-zinc Mine, Yichun of Northeast China. Among the test heavy metals, the Mn concentration in the tree rings was the highest, while the Cd concentration was the lowest. The Cd, Zn, and Cu concentrations in the tree rings near the ground (0.3 m high from the ground, D0.3) were significantly higher than those at breast height (1.3 m high from the ground, D1.3), while the Pb and Mn concentrations at the two heights had less difference. In 1987-2010, the Pb concentration in the tree rings had a slight increase, but the Cd, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations presented a decreasing trend. The Cd concentration decreased most obviously, while the Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations decreased after an initial increase. With the increase of tree ring width, the Pb concentration decreased, while the Cd, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations were in adverse. The relationships between the Pb and other four heavy metals concentrations in the tree rings near the ground and at breast height had definite differences. Near the ground, the Pb concentration showed a significant positive correlation with the other four heavy metals concentrations, but at breast height, less correlation was observed, and even, the Cd concentration decreased significantly with increasing Pb concentration. The variations of the heavy metals concentrations in the L. gmelinii tree rings could be affected by the production and mining activities of Xilin Lead-zinc Mine, an thus, it would be possible to use the Pb concentration in the tree rings to reconstruct the mining his tory of the study area. At present, the Pb concentration in the tailing wastes has polluted the surrounding environments near Xilin Lead-zinc Mine. Therefore, countermeasures should be adopted to manage the heavy metals in tailing wastes if the Mine would be continued to be mined. PMID:24066537

  19. Concentration, isotopic composition, and sources of lead in Southern Ocean air during 1999/2000, measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollhöfer, A. F.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Dick, A. L.; Chisholm, W.; Burton, G. R.; Loss, R. D.; Zahorowski, W.

    2005-10-01

    Southern Ocean aerosols were collected at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station from onshore air under baseline conditions between February 1999 and April 2000. Thermal ionization techniques (TIMS) and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) were used to measure the isotopic composition and concentration of lead in the air giving concentrations as low as 0.6 ± 0.1 pg · m -3. Air collected under baseline conditions for 12 months (May 1999-April 2000) yielded an overall lead concentration of 11.0 ± 0.2 pg · m -3 and isotopic composition of 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.154, 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.387 and 206Pb/ 204Pb = 17.93. The range in isotopic ratios was consistent with the mixing of lead from major population centers in the Southern Hemisphere in the mid to high latitudes, except for the presence of highly radiogenic lead in some samples. Contributions from radiogenic lead of up to ˜0.8% were observed. Three periods with the highest percentage contribution of radiogenic lead (>0.5%) were investigated in more detail, and 4-d back-trajectories and radon concentrations were used to help identify the sources. The sources are probably associated with the mining and processing of uranium rich ores in southern Africa and possibly South Australia.

  20. Concentrations and loads of cadmium, zinc, and lead in the main stem Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho—March, June, September, and October 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woods, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    of the effects of different river discharges and lake levels of Coeur d'Alene Lake on the transport of cadmium, zinc, and lead within the main stem Coeur d'Alene River. In particular, water-quality data and loads during a broad range of hydrologic conditions were examined to determine if the river channel, flood plain, and associated ground water along the main stem Coeur d'Alene River acted as sources or sinks of trace elements. Water-quality samples were collected at six riverine stations and one lake station along a 35-mile reach during March, June, September, and October of 1999. Samples were analyzed for whole-water recoverable, filtered (0.45 micrometer), and dissolved (0.01 micrometer) concentrations of cadmium, zinc, and lead. Concentrations and loads of cadmium and zinc measured during the four sampling trips were predominately in the filtered and dissolved fraction ,rather than particulate. The smallest concentrations were measured during the June sampling trip when flows were high and snowmelt runoff diluted riverine concentrations. Conversely, the largest concentrations were measured during the latter two sampling trips when flows were low because a larger proportion of the river's discharge was contributed by ground-water inflow. During each sampling trip, cadmium and zinc concentrations generally decreased in a downstream directioeven as discharge increased in a downstream direction. Spatial and temporal trends exhibited by lead concentrations and loads during the four sampling trips were different from those of cadmium and zinc because of the propensity for lead to adsorb to sediment particles. Whole-water recoverable lead concentrations and loads during the four sampling trips were predominantly in the particulate fraction, with filtered and dissolved concentrations and loads composing a much smaller proportion of the recoverable fraction compared to cadmium and zinc. Filtered lead concentrations generally increased at a faster rate in the downstream direction than dissolved lead concentrations; thus, colloidallead either was being formed by complexation reactions or being added by sediment erosion in the downstream direction.

  1. Lead concentration in the blood of children and its association with lead in soil and ambient air--trends between 1983 and 2000 in Duisburg.

    PubMed

    Ranft, Ulrich; Delschen, Thomas; Machtolf, Monika; Sugiri, Dorothee; Wilhelm, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Children are known to be at greater risk of exposure to lead (Pb). As Pb levels in ambient air have decreased during the last decades, the relative contribution of soil ingestion to ambient Pb exposure has increased. Using data from five cross-sectional studies conducted during 1983 to 2000 in the industrial city of Duisburg and comprising 843 children, 6-11 yr old, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of Pb in soil to Pb blood levels of children in comparison to the contribution of Pb in air. Based on measurements of soil samples, the spatial distribution of Pb in soil (0-10 cm depth) was estimated for the study area. Pb exposure in ambient air was calculated using routinely monitored air quality data and Lagrange dispersion modeling. Individual exposure data were assigned using geo-coded home addresses. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to estimate adjusted association measures. Median (95th percentile) level of Pb in soil was 206 (877) mg/kg. A simultaneous decrease in air Pb and blood Pb was observed (air: from 0.47 (0.47) to 0.03 (0.16) microg/m(3); blood: from 86 (163) to 31 (68) microg/L). Significant associations between Pb in blood and Pb in the two exposure media were found. An increase of 0.44 microg/m(3) Pb in air led to an rise in blood Pb by 155%, whereas blood Pb changed by about 63% if Pb in soil increased by 800 mg/kg. The results of the study were used for a local risk assessment and the definition of action values for Pb in soil. PMID:18569568

  2. Presence of endogenous prednisolone in human urine.

    PubMed

    Fidani, Marco; Gamberini, Maria C; Pompa, Giuseppe; Mungiguerra, Francesca; Casati, Alessio; Arioli, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The possibility of an endogenous presence of the glucocorticoid prednisolone has already been demonstrated in bovine and horse urine, with the aim of clarifying its origin in this matrix, which is used by official agencies for the control of illicit treatments. From this point of view, the endogenous nature of prednisolone could be a major topic in doping control of both amateur and professional human athletes. A study was therefore made on 34 human volunteers (13 males and 21 females; aged 22-62) to detect the presence of prednisolone in their urine by HPLC-MS(3). One of the volunteers underwent vernal allergy treatment with betamethasone for two subsequent years. An investigation was carried out with the aim of verifying if the suppression, and the circadian rhythm, of cortisol urinary levels could also apply to prednisolone. The results of the study show that prednisolone was present in the urine of all 34 volunteers, with a concentration very close to 100-times lower that of cortisol, with no dependence on gender. The same ratio (1/100) was observed in the prednisolone and cortisol levels detected during the 24h together with the suppression of prednisolone by betamethasone treatment. These data demonstrate the endogenous nature of low concentrations of prednisolone in human urine, and motivate further studies about the biosynthetic pathways of this corticosteroid and its relationship with stress in humans, as already described in cows. PMID:23182764

  3. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  4. [Lead in drinking water, determination of its concentration and effects of new recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) on public and private networks management].

    PubMed

    Vilagines, R; Leroy, P

    1995-10-01

    In 1993, the World Health Organization (WHO) has given a guideline value of 10 microgram/l for lead in drinking water, a phased approach should lead to a temporary parametric value of 25 micrograms/l within 5 years the final concentration value of 10 micrograms/l being achieved after 15 years. So far the current European Community Directive 80/778 and the French decree 89/3 stipulate a Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC) for lead of 50 micrograms/l. In a first step we studied the mechanisms of plumbosolvency in corrosive and scaling water. In the first case we have shown that simple oxidative corrosion of lead pipes forms a coating of lead carbonate and hydroxicarbonate on the inside wall of the pipe but "plumbosolvent" waters can dissolve those products, although at a lower level, resulting in a rather high lead concentration. In the case of scaling waters there is a co-precipitation of insoluble calcium carbonate but only on the microcathodics zones of the lead pipe. As this precipitate is poorly cohesive and does not cover the entire surface of the pipe its oxidative corrosion can proceed. In a second step we have shown the major importance of sampling for the determination of lead concentration in drinking water. We therefore compared random day time sampling, first draw and flushed samplings and composite proportional sampling. Only this last method gave a reasonably accurate idea of lead's amounts ingested by drinking water's consumers. The control of corrosion in lead-containing materials involves two successive steps: the reduction of lead concentration to 25 micrograms/l within five years and the compliance with the final 10 micrograms/l concentration 15 years later. The first step consists in water treatments such as pH increase, adjustment of alkalinity and addition of orthophospates. But available data suggest that it is unlikely that lead concentration could be reduced consistently to below 10 micrograms/l by avalable water treatment methods alone but it would enable to match the parametric 25 micrograms/l value in the great majority of cases. Therefore, to unable compliance with the 10 micrograms/l parametric value, it will be necessary to replace all the internal plumbing and supply lead pipes (70,000 buildings for Paris only). Data for materials able to replace lead such as plastic pipes are not yet complete and an currently under investigations. Although the United States Environmental Protection Agency have suggested in its 1988 report on air quality criteria for lead report (EPA 600/8-33-028 aF-dF) that each 1 microgram/l of lead in water can lead to an increase of blood lead levels of approximately 0.2 micrograms/l for a child, the data are still uncertain. The considerable cost of these works (143 billion of french francs for France and 347 billions of french francs for Europe), unrelated to any important Public Health problems, arises an ethical problem which has to be considered in view of many others letal illnesses such as heart and circulatory diseases, cancer and AIDS. PMID:8556413

  5. Concentrations and origins of atmospheric lead and other trace species at a rural site in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Wen, Tianxue; Li, Zhanqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; Yang, Yongjie; Zhao, Yanan; Wang, Yuesi; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2010-04-01

    In this study we analyze the ambient levels of lead and other trace species in the bulk aerosol samples from a rural site 70 km ESE of Beijing in spring 2005. Lead (0.28 0.24 ?g/m3, average standard deviation), along with several pollution-related trace elements, was enriched by over 100 fold relative to the Earth's crust. The ambient lead levels showing large synoptic variations were well-correlated with other anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., CO and SO2). The Unmix receptor model resolved four factors in the aerosol composition data: a biomass burning source, an industrial and coal combustion source, a secondary aerosol source, and a dust source. The first three sources were strongest in weak southerly winds ahead of cold fronts, while the dust source peaked in strong northerly winds behind cold fronts. The second source, primarily representing emissions from industrial processes and relatively small-scale coal burning such as in home and institutional heating, was identified as the main source of ambient lead in this study. Mobile sources might also contribute to this factor, but there was no distinct evidence of emissions due to combustion of leaded gasoline, despite a correlation between lead and CO. Potential source contribution function, calculated from backward trajectories and aerosol composition, further reveals that lead observed in this study was predominantly from the populated and industrialized areas to the south and SW of Xianghe, rather than Beijing to the west. Our results and several recent studies show that the lead levels in suburban areas near big cities in China, although generally lower than those in industrial districts and urban areas, are substantial (near or above 0.15 ?g/m3). More extensive studies on airborne lead and its emission sources in China are called for.

  6. Concentrations and Origins of Atmospheric Lead and Other Trace Species at a Rural Site in Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Wen, Tianxue; Li, Zhanqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; Yang, Yongjie; Zhao, Yanan; Wang, Yuesi; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2010-01-01

    In this study we analyze the ambient levels of lead and other trace species in the bulk aerosol samples from a rural site approx.70 km ESE of Beijing in spring 2005. Lead (0.28+/-0.24 micro-g/cu m, average +/- standard deviation), along with several pollution \\related trace elements, was enriched by over 100 fold relative to the Earth's crust. The ambient lead levels showing large synoptic variations were well-correlated with other anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., CO and SO2). The Unmix receptor model resolved four factors in the aerosol composition data: a biomass burning source, an industrial and coal combustion source, a secondary aerosol source, and a dust source. The first three sources were strongest in weak southerly winds ahead of cold fronts, while the dust source peaked in strong northerly winds behind cold fronts. The second source, primarily representing emissions from industrial processes and relatively small \\scale coal burning such as in home and institutional heating, was identified as the main source of ambient lead in this study. Mobile sources might also contribute to this factor, but there was no distinct evidence of emissions due to combustion of leaded gasoline, despite a correlation between lead and CO. Potential source contribution function, calculated from backward trajectories and aerosol composition, further reveals that lead observed in this study was predominantly from the populated and industrialized areas to the south and SW of Xianghe, rather than Beijing to the west. Our results and several recent studies show that the lead levels in suburban areas near big cities in China, although generally lower than those in industrial districts and urban areas, are substantial (near or above 0.15 micro-g/cu m). More extensive studies on airborne lead and its emission sources in China are called for.

  7. Forest floor lead, copper and zinc concentrations across the northeastern United States: synthesizing spatial and temporal responses.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J B; Donaldson, E C; Kaste, J M; Friedland, A J

    2015-02-01

    Understanding how metal concentrations in soil have responded to reductions of anthropogenic emissions is essential for predicting potential ecosystem impacts and evaluating the effectiveness of pollution control legislation. The objectives of this study were to present new data and synthesize existing literature to document decreases in Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations in forest soils across the northeastern US. From measurements at 16 sites, we observed that forest floor Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations have decreased between 1980 and 2011 at an overall mean rate of 1.3 ± 0.5% yr(-1). E-folding times, a concentration exponential decay rate (1/k), for Pb, Cu and Zn at the 16 sites were estimated to be 46 ± 7, 76 ± 20 and 81 ± 19 yr, respectively. Mineral soil concentrations were correlated with forest floor concentrations for Pb, but not for Cu and Zn, suggesting an accumulation in one pool does not strongly influence accumulation in the other. Forest floor Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations from our sites and 17 other studies conducted from 1970-2014 in remote forests across the northeastern US were compiled into pooled data sets. Significant decreasing trends existed for pooled forest floor Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations. The pooled forest floor Pb e-folding time was determined to be 33 ± 9 yrs, but the explanatory power of pooled Cu and Zn regressions were inadequate for calculating e-folding times (r(2)<0.25). Pooled Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations in forest floor were multiple-regressed with latitude, longitude, elevation, and year of sampling, cumulatively explaining 55, 38, and 28% of the variation across compiled studies. Our study suggests anthropogenic Pb in the forest floor will continue to decrease, but decreases in forest floor Cu and Zn concentrations may be masked by spatial heterogeneity or are at a new steady state. PMID:25461088

  8. Environmental lead exposure to toll booth workers in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, T.C.; Wong, L.T.L.; Lam, C.W.K.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of workers in the Lion Rock Tunnel toll booths was conducted, as they were regarded as a high risk group in lead exposure due to high density of vehicular traffic. The exposure of the workers to lead was determined by continuous sapling of air around the breathing zone of workers inside the booths. Blood lead concentration of 50 workers showed a mean of 0.65 {mu}mol/L and the mean urine lead concentration was 0.14 {mu}mol/L. Other tests, such as urinary amino-levulinic acid (ALA), erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb), were also preformed. The blood lead concentrations and other biological parameters of the toll-booth workers were acceptable and may be attributed to the recent legislation to lower the lead content in petrol and to the good preventive measures taken by the management.

  9. Malondialdehyde in exhaled breath condensate and urine as a biomarker of air pollution induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Wang, Guangfa; Hu, Min; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Lu, Shou-En; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Rich, David Q; Diehl, Scott R; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Junfeng Jim

    2013-01-01

    Underlying mechanisms by which air pollutants adversely affect human health remain poorly understood. Oxidative stress has been considered as a potential mechanism that may promote lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) that is excreted in biofluids (e.g., urine and exhaled breath condensate (EBC)). A panel study was conducted to examine whether concentrations of MDA in EBC and urine were associated, respectively, with changes in air pollution levels brought by the Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures. EBC and urine samples from 125 healthy adults were collected twice in each of the pre-, during-, and post-Olympic periods. Period-specific means of MDA and changes in MDA levels associated with increases in 24-h average pollutant concentrations were estimated using linear mixed-effects models. From the pre- to the during-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants decreased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA significantly decreased by 24% (P<0.0001) and 28% (P=0.0002), respectively. From the during-Olympic to the post-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants increased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA increased by 28% (P=0.094) and 55% (P=0.046), respectively. Furthermore, the largest increases in EBC MDA associated with one interquartile range (IQR) increases in all pollutants but ozone ranged from 10% (95% CI: 2%, 18%) to 19% (95% CI: 14%, 25%). The largest increases in urinary MDA associated with IQR increases in pollutant concentration ranged from 9% (95%: 0.3%, 19%) to 15% (95% CI: 3%, 28%). These findings support the utility of EBC MDA as a biomarker of oxidative stress in the respiratory tract and urinary MDA as a biomarker of systemic oxidative stress in relation to air pollution exposure in healthy young adults. Both EBC and urine samples can be collected noninvasively in the general population. PMID:23321859

  10. The accurate determination of bismuth in lead concentrates and other non-ferrous materials by AAS after separation and preconcentration of the bismuth with mercaptoacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Howell, D J; Dohnt, B R

    1982-05-01

    A method for determining 0.0001% and upwards of bismuth in lead, zinc or copper concentrates, metals or alloys and other smelter residues is described. Bismuth is separated from lead, iron and gangue materials with mercaptoacetic acid after reduction of the iron with hydrazine. Large quantities of tin can be removed during the dissolution. An additional separation is made for materials high in copper and/or sulphate. The separated and concentrated bismuth is determined by atomic-absorption spectrometry using the Bi line at 223.1 nm. The proposed method also allows the simultaneous separation and determination of silver. PMID:18963145

  11. Elevated urine formaldehyde in elderly patients with primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ying; Su, Tao; Zhang, Shao-Dan; Huang, Ping; He, Ying-Ge; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Ritch, Robert; He, Rong-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the risk factor of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), which is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. An abnormally high level of endogenous formaldehyde (FA) has recently been found correlated with cell death and neurodegenerative disease, raising the possibility of a putative correlation of abnormal endogenous FA with POAG. METHODS Thirty-four elderly patients with POAG and sixteen healthy controls were enrolled. Glaucomatous visual defects were present at both the functional (visual field) and structural [retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness] levels. Morning urine samples were obtained and were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect the endogenous FA level in a double blind manner. RESULTS Patients with POAG (P<0.05) had significantly higher urine FA levels. The urine FA level of patients with severe visual field defects [mean deviation (MD)≥12 dB] was significantly (P<0.001) greater than that of patients with mild to moderate defects (MD<12 dB). By optical coherence tomography (OCT), the superior and inferior RNFL thickness of POAG group was significantly (P<0.001) thinner than in controls. Furthermore, the superior and inferior thinning of the RNFL was correlated with the elevation of urine FA concentration. CONCLUSION Endogenous FA level is positively correlated with the neuronal defects of POAG. PMID:27158612

  12. Normalization strategies for metabonomic analysis of urine samples.

    PubMed

    Warrack, Bethanne M; Hnatyshyn, Serhiy; Ott, Karl-Heinz; Reily, Michael D; Sanders, Mark; Zhang, Haiying; Drexler, Dieter M

    2009-02-15

    Unlike plasma and most biological fluids which have solute concentrations that are tightly controlled, urine volume can vary widely based upon water consumption and other physiological factors. As a result, the concentrations of endogenous metabolites in urine vary widely and normalizing for these effects is necessary. Normalization approaches that utilized urine volume, osmolality, creatinine concentration, and components that are common to all samples ("total useful MS signal") were compared in order to determine which strategies could be successfully used to differentiate between dose groups based upon the complete endogenous metabolite profile. Variability observed in LC/MS results obtained from targeted and non-targeted metabonomic analyses was highly dependent on the strategy used for normalization. We therefore recommend the use of two different normalization techniques in order to facilitate detection of statistically significant changes in the endogenous metabolite profile when working with urine samples. PMID:19185549

  13. [Cortisol levels in blood and urine of trotting horses].

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, H W; Schulz, R

    1997-12-01

    Statistical analysis of normally occurring cortisol levels in serum and urine of horses served to recommend thresholds for this corticosteroid in these body fluids, as application of exogenous cortisol as well as ACTH may elevate the cortisol concentrations above the proposed threshold. The present study contributes to the general issue of how to establish thresholds for trotting horses upon sportive examination. 100 randomly selected post competition serum and urine samples, respectively, were submitted to cortisol analysis by means of HPLC. Concentrations of the endogenous corticosteroid in serum and urine followed a log-normal distribution with mean values of 61 and 49 ng/ml, respectively. The probability was 1: 100,000 to exceed concentration limits of 230 (serum) and 394 ng/ml (urine). Designation of thresholds for cortisol has proven problematic and is discussed here. PMID:9451847

  14. NEW COLUMN SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B

    2007-08-28

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

  15. Electroreduction of nitrate ions in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at lead, zinc, nickel, and phthalocyanine-modified electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H. |; Chambers, J.Q.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1987-12-31

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrate in strongly alkaline solution has been studied using nickel, lead, zinc, and iron cathodes. Intermediate formation of nitrate ion and ammonia product was observed for all electrode materials. Coating a nickel sponge electrode with phthalocyanine renders it less active toward nitrate reduction, while iron electrodes appear to be activated. Electrolysis between a lead cathode and a nickel anode is an efficient means of removing nitrate from strongly alkaline solutions. Electrode pretreatment and solution conditions were chosen to correspond to those that might be encountered in practical applications, for example, the cleanup of radioactive waste solutions.

  16. Biological Fractionation of Lead Isotopes in Sprague-Dawley Rats Lead Poisoned via the Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Duojian; Xie, Qing; Wang, Jingyu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems. Methods 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces) were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance) and the low-lead animal feed (diet) administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results There are significant differences (p<0.05) in lead isotope ratios between blood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of 204Pb/206Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when 204Pb/206Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group. Conclusions The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for 204Pb/206Pb ratio under high-dose exposure. PMID:23300678

  17. Measurements of Arsenic in the Urine and Nails of Individuals Exposed to Low Concentrations of Arsenic in Drinking Water From Private Wells in a Rural Region of Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Fabien; Lampron-Goulet, Eric; Normandin, Louise; Langlois, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic leads to an increased risk of cancer. A biological measurement was conducted in 153 private well owners and their families consuming water contaminated by inorganic arsenic at concentrations that straddle 10 μg/L. The relationship between the external dose indicators (concentration of inorganic arsenic in wells and daily well water inorganic arsenic intake) and the internal doses (urinary arsenic--sum of As(III), DMA, and MMA, adjusted for creatinine--and total arsenic in toenails) was evaluated using multiple linear regressions, controlling for age, gender, dietary sources of arsenic, and number of cigarettes smoked. It showed that urinary arsenic was associated with concentration of inorganic arsenic in wells (p < .001) and daily well water inorganic arsenic intake (p < .001) in adults, and with daily well water inorganic arsenic intake (p = .017) and rice consumption (p = .022) in children (n = 43). The authors' study reinforces the drinking-water quality guidelines for inorganic arsenic. PMID:26867295

  18. Isotopic evidence to account for changes in the concentration of lead in Greenland snow between 1960 and 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Rosman, K.J.R.; Chisholm, W. ); Candelone, J.P.; Hong, S. ); Boutron, C.F. Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble )

    1994-08-01

    Preserved layers of snow deposited between 1960 and 1988, taken from 10.7 m and 70 m snow cores drilled at Summit in central Greenland in 1989, were analyzed for lead isotopes ([sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb, [sup 208]Pb/[sup 207]Pb, and [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb). The lead has an isotopic composition consistent with a mixture of USA and Eurasian origins. Although the [sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb ratio fluctuates, presumably due to seasonal changes in the weather patterns, there is a clear trend in values from about 1.16 in the early 1960s to 1.18 by 1976, then back to the initial value by the mid 1980s. The initial trend upwards reflects the progressive introduction of relatively radiogenic Mississippi Valley-type lead into USA gasoline during the 1960s, while the return to lower values indicates a decreased contribution from this source due to the switch to unleaded gasoline for motor vehicles. Eurasian lead, assumed to be the second component of the mixture, appears to have a relatively constant [sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb ratio over this period.

  19. Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

  20. High concentration of blood lead levels among young children in Bagega community, Zamfara Nigeria and the potential risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Ajumobi, Olufemi Olamide; Tsofo, Ahmed; Yango, Matthias; Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Anagbogu, Ifeoma Nkiruka; Mohammed, Abdulazeez; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir; Mohammed, Suleiman; Abdullahi, Muhammad; Davis, Lora; Idris, Suleiman; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Gitta, Sheba; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In May 2010, lead poisoning (LP) was confirmed among children <5years (U5) in two communities in Zamfara state, northwest Nigeria. Following reports of increased childhood deaths in Bagega, another community in Zamfara, we conducted a survey to investigate the outbreak and recommend appropriate control measures. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Bagega community from 23rd August to 6th September, 2010. We administered structured questionnaires to parents of U5 to collect information on household participation in ore processing activities. We collected and analysed venous blood samples from 185 U5 with LeadCare II machine. Soil samples were analysed with X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for lead contamination. We defined blood lead levels (BLL) of >10ug/dL as elevated BLL, and BLL ?45ug/dL as the criterion for chelation therapy. We defined soil lead levels (SLL) of ?400 parts per million (ppm) as elevated SLL. Results The median age of U5 was 36 months (Inter-quartile range: 17-48 months). The median BLL was 71g/dL (range: 8-332g/dL). Of the 185 U5, 184 (99.5%) had elevated BLL, 169 (91.4%) met criterion for CT. The median SLL in tested households (n = 37) of U5 was 1,237ppm (range: 53-45,270ppm). Households breaking ore rocks within the compound were associated with convulsion related-children's death (OR: 5.80, 95% CI: 1.08 - 27.85). Conclusion There was an LP outbreak in U5 in Bagega community possibly due to heavy contamination of the environment as a result of increased ore processing activities. Community-driven remediation activities are ongoing. We recommended support for sustained environmental remediation, health education, intensified surveillance, and case management. PMID:25328633

  1. Water-quality data collected to determine the presence, source, and concentration of lead in the drinking water supply at Pipe Spring National Monument, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Sharrow, David; Unema, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Pipe Spring National Monument in northern Arizona contains historically significant springs. The groundwater source of these springs is the same aquifer that presently is an important source of drinking water for the Pipe Spring National Monument facilities, the Kaibab Paiute Tribe, and the community of Moccasin. The Kaibab Paiute Tribe monitored lead concentrations from 2004 to 2009; some of the analytical results exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique for lead of 15 parts per billion. The National Park Service and the Kaibab Paiute Tribe were concerned that the local groundwater system that provides the domestic water supply might be contaminated with lead. Lead concentrations in water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from three springs, five wells, two water storage tanks, and one faucet were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique. Lead concentrations of rock samples representative of the rock units in which the local groundwater resides were less than 22 parts per million.

  2. Re-evaluation of blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Québec): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Julie; Dewailly, Éric; Benedetti, Jean-Louis; Pereg, Daria; Ayotte, Pierre; Déry, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Background Arctic populations are exposed to mercury, lead and cadmium through their traditional diet. Studies have however shown that cadmium exposure is most often attributable to tobacco smoking. The aim of this study is to examine the trends in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure between 1992 and 2004 in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada) using the data obtained from two broad scale health surveys, and to identify sources of exposure in 2004. Methods In 2004, 917 adults aged between 18 and 74 were recruited in the 14 communities of Nunavik to participate to a broad scale health survey. Blood samples were collected and analysed for metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and dietary and life-style characteristics were documented by questionnaires. Results were compared with data obtained in 1992, where 492 people were recruited for a similar survey in the same population. Results Mean blood concentration of mercury was 51.2 nmol/L, which represent a 32% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Mercury blood concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20; p < 0.0001), and the most important source of exposure to mercury was marine mammal meat consumption (partial r2 = 0.04; p < 0.0001). In 2004, mean blood concentration of lead was 0.19 μmol/L and showed a 55% decrease since 1992. No strong associations were observed with any dietary source, and lead concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20.; p < 0.001). Blood cadmium concentrations showed a 22% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Once stratified according to tobacco use, means varied between 5.3 nmol/L in never-smokers and 40.4 nmol/L in smokers. Blood cadmium concentrations were mainly associated with tobacco smoking (partial r2 = 0.56; p < 0.0001), while consumption of caribou liver and kidney remain a minor source of cadmium exposure among never-smokers. Conclusion Important decreases in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure were observed. Mercury decrease could be explained by dietary changes and the ban of lead cartridges use likely contributed to the decrease in lead exposure. Blood cadmium concentrations remain high and, underscoring the need for intensive tobacco smoking prevention campaigns in the Nunavik population. PMID:18518986

  3. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Jeuland, Marc; Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown ("u") cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples - from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) - contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. PMID:25782025

  4. Sheep-urine-induced changes in soil microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Naoise; Singh, Brajesh; Reid, Eileen; Ord, Brian; Papert, Artemis; Squires, Julie; Prosser, Jim I; Wheatley, Ron E; McNicol, Jim; Millard, Peter

    2006-05-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in nutrient cycling and nutrient availability, especially in unimproved soils. In grazed pastures, sheep urine causes local changes in nutrient concentration which may be a source of heterogeneity in microbial community structure. In the present study, we investigated the effects of synthetic urine on soil microbial community structure, using physiological (community level physiological profiling, CLPP), biochemical (phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and molecular (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE) fingerprinting methods. PLFA data suggested that synthetic urine treatment had no significant effect on total microbial (total PLFA), total bacterial or fungal biomass; however, significant changes in microbial community structure were observed with both PLFA and DGGE data. PLFA data suggested that synthetic urine induced a shift towards communities with higher concentrations of branched fatty acids. DGGE banding patterns derived from control and treated soils differed, due to a higher proportion of DNA sequences migrating only to the upper regions of the gel in synthetic urine-treated samples. The shifts in community structure measured by PLFA and DGGE were significantly correlated with one another, suggesting that both datasets reflected the same changes in microbial communities. Synthetic urine treatment preferentially stimulated the use of rhizosphere-C in sole-carbon-source utilisation profiles. The changes caused by synthetic urine addition accounted for only 10-15% of the total variability in community structure, suggesting that overall microbial community structure was reasonably stable and that changes were confined to a small proportion of the communities. PMID:16629760

  5. Determination of 226Ra in urine samples by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kehagia, K; Potiriadis, C; Bratakos, S; Koukouliou, V; Drikos, G

    2007-01-01

    A radiation protection system to assess the internal contamination of workers during decontamination activities in an abounded fertilizer industry in the region of Attika, Greece, has been implemented. This system concerns, among other radionuclides, 226Ra. Because of the low 226Ra activities in urine, alpha spectrometry was used as the determination method after radiochemical separation. Radium was co precipitated with lead sulphate and purified using anion and cation exchange techniques. The source for the alpha spectrometric measurement was prepared by the electrodeposition of radium, from an aqueous/ethanol solution, onto stainless steel. The tracer used was 229Th. The chemical yield and the activity concentration were calculated via its daughter radionuclide 217At. Using the time-evolution formulas to calculate the 217At growth from its parent radionuclide 225Ra, a computer software was developed. This software was incorporated in a database, which automatically calculates and stores the results. PMID:17827131

  6. Voltammetric assay of methadone in urine.

    PubMed

    Barreira Rodrguez, J R; Costa Garca, A; Tun Blanco, P

    1989-08-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive voltammetric method for the determination of methadone in human urine is proposed, which permits the detection of concentrations of methadone as low as 0.3-0.4 microgram ml-1. The proposed method was compared with methods normally used in clinical trials, such as the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique, and was found to be superior with regard to cost and to possess high sensitivity. PMID:2802169

  7. Correlation of gross urine color with diagnostic findings in male cats with naturally occurring urethral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Brabson, Tamera L; Bloch, Christopher P; Johnson, Justine A

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-five male cats with urethral obstruction were prospectively enrolled to evaluate gross urine color at urinary catheter placement for correlation with diagnostic findings. Cats with darker red urine were more likely to be azotemic (serum creatinine concentration >2.0 mg/dl [177 µmol/l]), and urine color correlated well with serum creatinine and serum potassium concentrations. Darker urine color was negatively correlated with urine specific gravity. Urine color was not associated with the presence or absence of lower urinary tract stones on radiographs or ultrasound. Cats with darker red urine at the time of urinary catheter placement are likely to have more significant metabolic derangements and may require more aggressive supportive care. PMID:25117491

  8. Advances in Urine Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Becker, Gavin J; Garigali, Giuseppe; Fogazzi, Giovanni B

    2016-06-01

    Urine microscopy is an important tool for the diagnosis and management of several conditions affecting the kidneys and urinary tract. In this review, we describe the automated instruments, based either on flow cytometry or digitized microscopy, that are currently in use in large clinical laboratories. These tools allow the examination of large numbers of samples in short periods. We also discuss manual urinary microscopy commonly performed by nephrologists, which we encourage. After discussing the advantages of phase contrast microscopy over bright field microscopy, we describe the advancements of urine microscopy in various clinical conditions. These include persistent isolated microscopic hematuria (which can be classified as glomerular or nonglomerular on the basis of urinary erythrocyte morphology), drug- and toxin-related cystalluria (which can be a clue for the diagnosis of acute kidney injury associated with intrarenal crystal precipitation), and some inherited conditions (eg, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, which is associated with 2,8-dihydroxyadenine crystalluria, and Fabry disease, which is characterized by unique urinary lamellated fatty particles). Finally, we describe the utility of identifying "decoy cells" and atypical malignant cells, which can be easily done with phase contrast microscopy in unfixed samples. PMID:26806004

  9. Chemical composition of rainbow trout urine following acute hypoxic stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, Joseph B.

    1969-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) were anesthetized with MS-222, catheterized, and introduced into urine collecting chambers. Twenty-four hours after introduction, a 4-hour accumulation of urine was collected to serve as the control. Water flow to the chambers was then discontinued for 30 minutes during which the oxygen content of the water exiting in the chamber dropped from 4.9 to 2.8 mg/l. Following this hypoxic stress fresh water was restored and accumulated urine samples were taken for analysis at 1, 4, and 20 hours post-hypoxic stress. Rainbow trout excrete abnormally high concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Cl, and inorganic PO4 following hypoxia.

  10. Effect of liming and seasonal variation on lead concentration of tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-Yan; Shi, Yuan-Zhi; Ma, Li-Feng; Ruan, Jiang-Yun; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2007-01-01

    Tea is a widely consumed beverage. However, recent studies revealed that there were an increasing number of cases of tea products exceeding the former maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in China for Pb (2 mg kg(-1)). Tea Pb contamination is an issue affecting trade and consumer confidence. Root uptake of Pb could contribute significantly to Pb accumulation in tea leaves due to the strong acidity of many tea garden soils. We conducted pot and field experiments to evaluate the effect of liming on Pb uptake by tea plants on two highly acidic soils (pH3.6). Additions of CaCO(3) significantly increased soil pH by up to 1 unit and decreased soil extractable Pb by up to 32%. Liming resulted in a decrease in the proportion of Pb in the exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions, with a concurrent increase in the fractions bound to Fe/Mn oxides and residues. Liming significantly decreased Pb concentrations of fine roots, stems and new shoots of tea plants in the pot experiment. In the field experiments, the effect of liming was not significant during the first year following CaCO(3) application, but became significant during the second and third years and Pb concentration in the new shoots was decreased by approximately 20-50%, indicating that liming of acidic tea garden soils is an effective way to reduce Pb contamination of tea. The study also reveals a distinct seasonal variation, with Pb concentration in the new shoots following the order of spring>autumn>summer. PMID:16844190

  11. Nitrification of human urine for its stabilization and nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Daolun; Wu, Zucheng; Xu, Shihong

    2008-09-01

    Nitrification of human urine performed for its stabilization, and culture of Spirulina platensis in the nitrified human urine were investigated for nutrient recovery. With daily adjusting to pH 8 and keeping high dissolved oxygen concentration, mean 95.0% of NH(4)-N in human urine can be finally stabilized and oxidized to NO(3)-N. Furthermore, this nitrified human urine seems to be an ideal culture medium for S. platensis. Without pH adjustment, only about 50.0% NH(4)-N could be converted, i.e. NH(4)NO(3) would be formed. Under low dissolved oxygen concentration, mainly short nitrification (from NH(4)-N to NO(2)-N) occurred. PMID:18194861

  12. Urine and Urination - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Urine and Urination - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali ( ...

  13. Anomalous concentrations of several metals in iron-formation of the Blue Lead Mountain area, Pennington County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, William H.; King, Robert Ugstad; Norton, James Jennings

    1975-01-01

    Geochemical sampling of bedrock has revealed anomalous copper, silver, molybdenum, gold, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and cobalt in meta-iron-formation in the Blue Lead Mountain area 5 miles (8 kilometres) north-northwest of Keystone, S. Dak. The anomalies are in complexly folded and faulted iron-formation. Metal content decreases sharply in the surrounding rocks. The extent and intensity of the anomalous areas, despite evidence that previous mining had little success, are sufficient to make this area an interesting target for exploration.

  14. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.

    PubMed

    Mattelaer, J J

    1999-06-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects. PMID:10418087

  15. Body burdens of lead in hypertensive nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Osterloh, J.D.; Selby, J.V.; Bernard, B.P.; Becker, C.E.; Menke, D.J.; Tepper, E.; Ordonez, J.D.; Behrens, B. )

    1989-09-01

    Chronic lead exposure resulting in blood lead concentrations that exceed 1.93 mumol/l (40 micrograms/dl) or chelatable urinary lead excretion greater than 3.14 mumol (650 micrograms) per 72 h has been associated with renal disease. A previous study had found greater chelatable urine lead excretion in subjects with hypertension and renal failure than in controls with renal failure due to other causes, although mean blood lead concentrations averaged 0.92 mumol/l (19 micrograms/dl). To determine if chelatable urinary lead, blood lead, or the hematologic effect of lead (zinc protoporphyrin) were greater in hypertensive nephropathy (when hypertension precedes elevation of serum creatinine) than in other forms of mild renal failure, we compared 40 study subjects with hypertensive nephropathy to 24 controls having a similar degree of renal dysfunction due to causes other than hypertension. Lead burdens were similar in both the study and control groups as assessed by 72-h chelatable urinary lead excretion after intramuscular injection of calcium disodium EDTA (0.74 +/- 0.63 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.40 mumol per 72 h, respectively), and by blood lead (0.35 +/- 0.23 vs. 0.35 +/- 0.20 mumol/l). We conclude that subjects from a general population with hypertensive nephropathy do not have greater body burdens of lead than renal failure controls.

  16. Excretion of arsenic in urine as a function of exposure to arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, R L; Hudgens, E; Le, X C; Schreinemachers, D; Thomas, D J

    1999-01-01

    Urinary arsenic (As) concentrations were evaluated as a biomarker of exposure in a U.S. population chronically exposed to inorganic As (InAs) in their drinking water. Ninety-six individuals who consumed drinking water with As concentrations of 8-620 microg/L provided first morning urine voids for up to 5 consecutive days. The study population was 56% male, and 44% was younger than 18 years of age. On one day of the study period, all voided urines were collected over a 24-hr period. Arsenic intake from drinking water was estimated from daily food diaries. Comparison between the concentration of As in individual urine voids with that in the 24-hr urine collection indicated that the concentration of As in urine was stable throughout the day. Comparison of the concentration of As in each first morning urine void over the 5-day study period indicated that there was little day-to-day variation in the concentration of As in urine. The concentration of As in drinking water was a better predictor of the concentration of As in urine than was the estimated intake of As from drinking water. The concentration of As in urine did not vary by gender. An age-dependent difference in the concentration of As in urine may be attributed to the higher As dosage rate per unit body weight in children than in adults. These findings suggest that the analysis of a small number of urine samples may be adequate to estimate an individual's exposure to InAs from drinking water and that the determination of the concentration of InAs in a drinking water supply may be a useful surrogate for estimating exposure to this metalloid. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10417365

  17. Influence of the Niobium or Fluorine Dopant Concentration on the Properties of Mn-Doped Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Eric; Guiffard, Benoit; Lebrun, Laurent; Guyomar, Daniel

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the effect of donor addition (Nb5+ or F-) on the electrical and piezoelectric properties and crystallographic characteristics of Mn-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Samples were prepared chemically by coprecipitation of oxalates and hydroxides. The niobium ion was incorporated in the B site whereas the fluorine ion was introduced in the anionic site. Structural analysis (XRD) and measurement of electrical properties were carried out. Electron spin resonance was used to determined the valency states of manganese in PZT ceramics. From the experimental results, the F-O substitution decreases the amount of oxygen vacancies in the Mn-doped PZT, and the valency states remain unchanged. However, a small number of oxygen vacancies may exist in PZT doped with 1 at.% manganese and 2 at.% fluorine. In the (Mn,Nb) co-doping case, the valency states vary from 4+ to 2+ and the number of oxygen vacancies is lower or even almost equal to zero. Thus the electroneutrality is achieved by lead vacancies.

  18. Short-term exposure with high concentrations of pristine microplastic particles leads to immobilisation of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Rehse, Saskia; Kloas, Werner; Zarfl, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies revealed that freshwaters are not only polluted by chemicals, but also by persistent synthetic material like microplastics (plastic particles <1 mm). Microplastics include a diverse range of characteristics, e.g. polymer type, size or shape, but also their tendency to sorb pollutants or release additives. Although there is rising concern about the pollution of freshwaters by microplastics, knowledge about their potential effects on organisms is limited. For a better understanding of their risks, it is crucial to unravel which characteristics influence their effects on organisms. Analysing effects by the mere particles is the first step before including more complex interactions e.g. with associated chemicals. The aim of this study was to analyse potential physical effects of microplastics on one representative organism for limnic zooplankton (Daphnia magna). We investigated whether microplastics can be ingested and whether their presence causes adverse effects after short-term exposure. Daphnids were exposed for up to 96 h to 1-μm and 100-μm polyethylene particles at concentrations between 12.5 and 400 mg L(-1). Ingestion of 1-μm particles led to immobilisation increasing with dose and time with an EC50 of 57.43 mg L(-1) after 96 h. 100-μm particles that could not be ingested by the daphnids had no observable effects. These results underline that, considering high concentrations, microplastic particles can already induce adverse effects in limnic zooplankton. Although it needs to be clarified if these concentrations can be found in the environment these results are a basis for future impact analysis, especially in combination with associated chemicals. PMID:27010171

  19. Effects of lead on Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase and hemolymph ion concentrations in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W Gregory; Weber, Frank X; Shea, Damian; Kwak, Thomas J

    2012-05-01

    Freshwater mussels are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants such as lead (Pb) and studies are urgently needed to assess their health and condition to guide conservation efforts. A 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern elliptio mussels (Elliptio complanata) was conducted to determine uptake kinetics and to assess the toxicological effects of Pb exposure. Test mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a water-only control and five concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 245 μg/L in a static renewal test with a water hardness of 42 mg/L. Endpoints included tissue Pb concentrations, hemolymph Pb and ion (Na⁺, K⁺, Cl⁻, Ca²⁺) concentrations, and Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase enzyme activity in gill tissue. Mussels accumulated Pb rapidly, with tissue concentrations increasing at an exposure-dependent rate for the first 2 weeks, but with no significant increase from 2 to 4 weeks. Mussel tissue Pb concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 898 μg/g dry weight, were strongly related to Pb in test water at every time interval (7, 14, 21, and 28 days), and did not significantly increase after day 14. Hemolymph Pb concentration was variable, dependent on exposure concentration, and showed no appreciable change with time beyond day 7, except for mussels in the greatest exposure concentration (245 μg/L), which showed a significant reduction in Pb by 28 days, suggesting a threshold for Pb binding or elimination in hemolymph at concentrations near 1000 μg/g. The Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase activity in the gill tissue of mussels was significantly reduced by Pb on day 28 and was highly correlated with tissue Pb concentration (R² = 0.92; P = 0.013). The Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase activity was correlated with reduced hemolymph Na⁺ concentration at the greatest Pb exposure when enzyme activity was at 30% of controls. Hemolymph Ca²⁺ concentration increased significantly in mussels from the greatest Pb exposure and may be due to remobilization from the shell in an attempt to buffer the hemolymph against Pb uptake and toxicity. We conclude that Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase activity in mussels was adversely affected by Pb exposure, however, because the effects on activity were variable at the lower test concentrations, additional research is warranted over this range of exposures. PMID:20725939

  20. Alkylresorcinol Metabolite Concentrations in Spot Urine Samples Correlated with Whole Grain and Cereal Fiber Intake but Showed Low to Modest Reproducibility over One to Three Years in U.S. Women123

    PubMed Central

    Landberg, Rikard; Townsend, Mary K.; Neelakantan, Nithya; Sun, Qi; Sampson, Laura; Spiegelman, Donna; van Dam, Rob M.

    2012-01-01

    Two alkylresorcinol (AR) metabolites, 3, 5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA), in urine have been suggested as biomarkers of whole grain (WG) and cereal fiber intake but the long-term reproducibility and correlation with habitual intake has not been determined. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term reproducibility of AR metabolites in spot urine samples and investigated their correlation with habitual WG and cereal fiber intake in U.S. women. AR metabolites were analyzed in 104 women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study II and WG and fiber intakes were assessed using a FFQ. Long-term reproducibility was assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) using samples taken 1–3 y (mean 1.8 y) apart. The observed Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) and rs adjusted for within-participant variation in the biomarker were calculated between WG and fiber intake and biomarkers. The long-term reproducibility was poor for DHBA [ICC = 0.17 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.43)] and modest for DHPPA [ICC = 0.31 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.51)]. The correlation between WG intake in 1995 and DHPPA measured 2 y later was 0.37 (P < 0.0001); the adjusted correlation was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.76). Cereal fiber and WG intake were similarly correlated to the biomarkers. DHPPA in spot urine samples reflected WG intake despite relatively low intake of food sources of AR. The poor to modest reproducibility may limit the use of single measurements of these biomarkers in cohort studies in the US, where WG intake is relatively low and has changed over time. But DHPPA in repeated samples may be useful for validating WG intake and assessing compliance in WG intervention studies. PMID:22437553

  1. Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a definite diagnosis can be made. Preparation No preparation other than cleansing the area around the urinary opening is required for the urine dipstick test. The Procedure Your child will be asked to urinate into a clean sample cup in the doctor's office. If your child ...

  2. Cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations and their influence on morphological parameters in blood donors from different age groups from southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Janicka, Monika; Binkowski, Łukasz J; Błaszczyk, Martyna; Paluch, Joanna; Wojtaś, Włodzimierz; Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Due to industrial development, environmental contamination with metals increases which leads to higher human exposure via air, water and food. In order to evaluate the level of the present exposition, the concentrations of metals can be measured in such biological materials as human blood. In this study, we assessed the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in blood samples from male blood donors from southern Poland (Europe) born in 1994 (n=30) and between 1947 and 1955 (n=30). Higher levels of Pb were seen in the group of older men (4.48 vs 2.48μg/L), whereas the Hg levels were lower (1.78 vs 4.28μg/L). Cd concentrations did not differ between age groups (0.56μg/L). The levels of Cd and Pb in older donors were significantly correlated (Spearman R 0.5135). We also observed a positive correlation between the number of red blood cells (RBC) and Hg concentrations in the older group (Spearman R 0.4271). Additionally, we noted numerous correlations among morphological parameters. Based on our results, we can state that metals influence the blood morphology and their concentrations in blood vary among age groups. PMID:25457282

  3. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard of ingesting dangerous levels of copper, lead and arsenic if dishes are prepared with poorly washed foliage.

  4. Lead concentrations in Hymenolepis diminuta adults and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae compared to their rat hosts (Rattus norvegicus) sampled from the city of Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sures, B; Scheible, T; Bashtar, A R; Taraschewski, H

    2003-11-01

    Concentrations of lead, determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, were compared between the cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and its host rat (Rattus norvegicus). Rats were sampled at 2 sites, which differed in respect to lead pollution as quantified from road dust, adjacent to the city of Cairo, Egypt. Comparing lead levels among host tissues and the parasites the significantly highest accumulation was found in H. diminuta, followed by rat kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Calculation of bioconcentration factors showed that H. diminuta contained 36-, 29-, 6- and 6-fold higher lead levels than intestinal wall, liver, kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis, at the more polluted site. At the less contaminated site lead bioconcentration factors for H. diminuta were found to be 87, 87 and 11 referred to intestine, liver and kidney of the host. Due to a high variability of the lead concentrations in H. diminuta it was not possible to indicate differences in metal pollution between both sampling sites. This variability may be influenced by different age structures of cestode infrapopulations. It is likely that younger worms contain lower metal levels than older worms due to a shorter exposure period. Thus, it is necessary to standardize the sampling of worms which should be used for indication purposes. Due to a lack of adequate sentinel species in terrestrial habitats more studies are required to validate and standardize the use of helminths as accumulation bioindicators in order to obtain mean values with low standard deviations. The host-parasite system rat-H. diminuta appears to be a useful and promising bioindication system at least for lead in urban ecosystems as rats as well as the tapeworm are globally distributed and easily accessible. PMID:14653537

  5. Effects of sub-lethal and chronic lead concentrations on blood and liver ALA-D activity and hematological parameters in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Carlucio Rocha; Cavalcante, Ana Luiza Michel; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lopes, Renato Matos; Da Costa Mattos, Rita De Cássia Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Liver and blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) inhibition by exposure to sub-lethal lead concentrations over time in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated. All three lead concentrations (1mgkg(-1), 10mgkg(-1) and 100mgkg(-1)) significantly inhibited ALA-D activity in blood (319±29.2; 180±14.6 and 172±19µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1) respectively) and liver (302±5.84; 201±41.4 and 93±22.1µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1)) 24h after injection relative to controls (blood: 597±37.0µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1); liver: 376±23.1µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1)). Blood ALA-D was greatly inhibited in all but the highest lead dose. Fish were then exposed to 1mgkg(-1) lead for 9 days, and presented short-term hyperglycemia, decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit values and time-dependent blood ALA-D activity inhibition, corroborating blood ALA-D activity as being more suitable for investigating lead effects, showing dose and time-dependent ALA-D inhibition after lead exposure. The results of the present study also demonstrated that fish size affects blood ALA-D activity, as fish from the 24-h assay, which were slightly smaller (approximately 200g), showed higher ALA-D inhibition in response to lead exposure when compared to the fish from the 9-day assay (approximately 500g). Thus, fish size should always be taken into account both in the field and in laboratory settings, and efforts should be made to obtain uniform fish size samples for biomarker studies. PMID:27054706

  6. Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Hofer, Martin; Rewald, Boris; Zaller, Johann G

    2015-01-01

    Herbicide use is increasing worldwide both in agriculture and private gardens. However, our knowledge of potential side-effects on non-target soil organisms, even on such eminent ones as earthworms, is still very scarce. In a greenhouse experiment, we assessed the impact of the most widely used glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup on two earthworm species with different feeding strategies. We demonstrate, that the surface casting activity of vertically burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) almost ceased three weeks after herbicide application, while the activity of soil dwelling earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) was not affected. Reproduction of the soil dwellers was reduced by 56% within three months after herbicide application. Herbicide application led to increased soil concentrations of nitrate by 1592% and phosphate by 127%, pointing to potential risks for nutrient leaching into streams, lakes, or groundwater aquifers. These sizeable herbicide-induced impacts on agroecosystems are particularly worrisome because these herbicides have been globally used for decades. PMID:26243044

  7. Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Hofer, Martin; Rewald, Boris; Zaller, Johann G.

    2015-01-01

    Herbicide use is increasing worldwide both in agriculture and private gardens. However, our knowledge of potential side-effects on non-target soil organisms, even on such eminent ones as earthworms, is still very scarce. In a greenhouse experiment, we assessed the impact of the most widely used glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup on two earthworm species with different feeding strategies. We demonstrate, that the surface casting activity of vertically burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) almost ceased three weeks after herbicide application, while the activity of soil dwelling earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) was not affected. Reproduction of the soil dwellers was reduced by 56% within three months after herbicide application. Herbicide application led to increased soil concentrations of nitrate by 1592% and phosphate by 127%, pointing to potential risks for nutrient leaching into streams, lakes, or groundwater aquifers. These sizeable herbicide-induced impacts on agroecosystems are particularly worrisome because these herbicides have been globally used for decades. PMID:26243044

  8. Buccal mucosal delivery of a potent peptide leads to therapeutically-relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; White, Paul J; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-02-10

    Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) is an immunomodulatory peptide currently under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis by parenteral administration. To overcome the low patient compliance of conventional self-injections, we have investigated the potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative delivery route for ShK both in vitro and in vivo. After application of fluorescent 5-Fam-ShK to untreated porcine buccal mucosa, there was no detectable peptide in the receptor chamber using an in vitro Ussing chamber model. However, the addition of the surfactants sodium taurodeoxycholate hydrate or cetrimide, and formulation of ShK in a chitosan mucoadhesive gel, led to 0.05-0.13% and 1.1% of the applied dose, respectively, appearing in the receptor chamber over 5h. Moreover, confocal microscopic studies demonstrated significantly enhanced buccal mucosal retention of the peptide (measured by mucosal fluorescence associated with 5-Fam-ShK) when enhancement strategies were employed. Administration of 5-Fam-ShK to mice (10mg/kg in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w)) resulted in average plasma concentrations of 2.6-16.2nM between 2 and 6h, which were substantially higher than the pM concentrations required for therapeutic activity. This study demonstrated that the buccal mucosa is a promising administration route for the systemic delivery of ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25482338

  9. Relationships between thiamine content of eggs and concentrations of lead and other heavy metals in water and survival of Atlantic salmon fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketola, H. George; Wedge, Leslie R.; Lary, Sandra J.; Grant, Edward C.; Rutzke, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were extirpated in much of New York state by the late 1800s. Currently, Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond (Saranac Lake, NY) are stocked in Cayuga Lake (Ithaca, NY) and Lake Ontario to support a fishery, but reproduction is severely impaired by thiamine deficiency in Cayuga Lake and probably in Lake Ontario--apparently caused by adults feeding on prey fish high in thiaminase. One study suggested that survival of these fry may be reduced by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, copper, or lead in water. Thiamine deficiency is known to increase lead toxicity. Bringing gravid Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond and Cayuga Inlet into the laboratory, we examined the effect of exposing their fertilized eggs during water-hardening to water with and without added lead (0.1 to 100 mg lead·liter-1) and to other contaminated waters (from New York State) on the survival of their eggs and fry. Our results showed no significant influence of our water-hardening treatments on survival of eggs or fry; therefore, it appears that exposure of eggs (during water-hardening) to lead in water (concentrations up to 100 mg lead·liter-1) or to several contaminated waters was not detrimental to the survival of eggs or fry of Atlantic salmon. We also determined the mineral and heavy metal content of dried eggs and found that eggs from Cayuga Lake salmon had significantly higher concentrations of copper (1.9 vs. 0.5 mg·g-1) than did eggs from salmon from Little Clear Pond. All concentrations of copper appeared to be within the range observed in other normal salmon. There were no other significant differences in concentrations of other minerals tested. Concentrations of copper in Cayuga Lake water (mean, 1.16 mg·liter-1) were significantly higher than in Little Clear Pond water (mean, 0.17 mg·liter-1). The effect of copper in eggs of thiamine-deficient salmon is not known.

  10. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes

    MedlinePlus

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Urination Changes Tell your doctor or nurse if ... Pain or burning when you urinate Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes Questions to ask your doctor or ...

  11. [The influence of lead on concentration of the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in pregnant women smoking tobacco--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Gajewska, Joanna; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa; Bulska, Ewa Joanna; Leibschang, Jerzy; Szymański, Maciej; Barciszewski, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology studies conduct in Institute of Mother and Child indicated that in Poland 25-30% women smoke during pregnancy. Lead exposure from cigarette smoke may have a negative effect on transplacental transpire of micronutrients and if coexists with low concentration of pregnancy. associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) resulting in adverse influence on growth and fetal development. Literature date points, those clinical symptoms of high blood level of lead and insufficiency of PAPP-A are similar. Therefore the aim of the study was to estimate the effect of lead from cigarettes on plasma PAPP-A levels in smoking pregnant women. Healthy, pregnant women (n = 30), patients of Clinical Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Mother and Child were divided into groups nonsmoking and smoking according to questionnaire declaration. Plasma concentrations of lead were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on spectrometer analyser ICP MS Elan 6100 (Perkin Elmer, Germany). Plasma level of PAPP-A was measured by immunofluorescence method using BRAHMS (Germany) kits on KRYPTOR (BRAHMS, Germany) analyser. We observed that in plasma of smoking pregnant women the concentration of lead was 2.55 microg/l (range: 0.78-14.6 mg/l) and was higher by 30% than in tobacco abstinent (1.78 microg/l; range: 0.0-4.69 microg/l). In group of smoking mothers level of PAPP-A was lower by 20% than in nonsmoking ones (2.80 IU/L; range: 1.3-9.3 IU/L vs 3.2 IU/L. range: 1.7 - 6.8 IU/L). Our results indicate that tobacco smoking during pregnancy affect in maternal blood lead and plasma protein A values. In smoking women lower concentrations of PAPP-A co-exist with higher than in tobacco abstinent level of lead which may suggest correlation between these parameters. Further studies will be continued in larger group of women in all trimesters of pregnancy to confirm of this association. PMID:19189525

  12. Association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in community dwelling women: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20102012)

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Se Young; Kim, Suyeon; Lee, Kiheon; Kim, Ju Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Keehyuck; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in women in South Korea. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V). Participants 1490 non-smoking women who took part in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20102012), in which blood levels of lead and cadmium were measured. Primary outcome measures The primary outcome was blood levels of lead and cadmium in accordance with the duration of secondhand smoke exposure. Results The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium in women who were never exposed to secondhand smoke was 1.21 (0.02) g/L. Among women who were exposed less than 1?h/day, the mean cadmium level was 1.13 (0.03) g/L, and for those exposed for more than 1?h, the mean level was 1.46 (0.06) g/L. In particular, there was a significant association between duration of secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace and blood cadmium concentration. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium concentration in the never exposed women's group was less than that in the 1?h and more exposed group, and the 1?h and more at workplace exposed group: 1.20, 1.24 and 1.50?g/L, respectively. We could not find any association between lead concentration in the blood and secondhand smoke exposure status. Conclusions This study showed that exposure to secondhand smoke and blood cadmium levels are associated. Especially, there was a significant association at the workplace. Therefore, social and political efforts for reducing the exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace are needed in order to promote a healthier working environment for women. PMID:26185180

  13. Using human urine as food for cyanobacteria in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, Galina; Gribovskaya, Iliada; Kolmakova, Angela

    In biological LSS: human, higher plants, algae, united by common cycle of matter, native human urine is the most problematic substance for using in inter-link exchange. It contains urea, ammonium compounds and up to 10 g/l of NaCl. Each of the mentioned components is toxic for growing higher plants. As for inferior plants, experiments showed that cyanobacteria of genus Spirulina platensis and similar genus Oscillatoria deflexa can grow at NaCl concentrations up to 20 g/l and NH4Cl concentrations up to 800 mg/l. These cyanobacteria can be used in LSS as a photosynthesizing link. Besides, S. platensis is edible for humans and fish. To use urine as food for algae, it is necessary to remove urea and organics. All previously used methods for urine treatment aimed at urea destruction: heating to 300oC, ultraviolet exposure, freezing, oxidation on reactor with hydrogen peroxide, had no effect. We used the following method of urine treatment: urine evaporation till dry residue, subsequent combustion in muffle furnace at 450-500oC and creation of ash water extract of the same volume as the initial urine. Comparison of standard Zarrouk's solution for S. platensis and O. deflexa with the water extract of urine ash showed that the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, S were similar. Successful experiments were made with O. deflexa that were grown on nutrient solution made of the water extract of urine ash with 10 g/l of NaHCO3 and 2 g/l of NaNO3. The sources of intersystem production of HCO3 and NO3 were shown, and the biochemical composition of the investigated algae species, including mineral composition, protein, carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid and vitamin content were studied.

  14. Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, eastern Kentucky coal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Ruppert, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation (Westphalian B) Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds are the 2 largest producing coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Single channel samples from 22 localities in the Pond Creek coal bed were obtained from active coal mines in Pike and Martin Countries, Kentucky, and a total of 18 Fire Clay coal bed channel samples were collected from localities in the central portion of the coal field. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution of potentially hazardous elements in the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal beds, with particular emphasis on As and Pb, 2 elements that are included in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as potential air toxics. The 2 coals are discussed individually as the depositional histories are distinct, the Fire Clay coal bed having more sites where relatively high-S lithologies are encountered. In an effort to characterize these coals, 40 whole channel samples, excluding 1-cm partings, were analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Previously analyzed samples were added to provide additional geographic coverage and lithotype samples from one site were analyzed in order to provide detail of vertical elemental trends. The As and Pb levels in the Fire Clay coal bed tend to be higher than in the Pond Creek coal bed. One whole channel sample of the Fire Clay coal bed contains 1156 ppm As (ash basis), with a single lithotype containing 4000 ppm As (ash basis). Most of the As and Pb appears to be associated with pyrite, which potentially can be removed in beneficiation (particularly coarser pyrite). Disseminated finer pyrite may not be completely removable by cleaning. In the examination of pyrite conducted in this study, it does not appear that significant concentration of As or Pb occurs in the finer pyrite forms. The biggest potential problem of As- or Pb-enriched pyrite is, therefore, one of refuse disposal.

  15. Bilateral increase in expression and concentration of tachykinin in a unilateral rabbit muscle overuse model that leads to myositis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tachykinins can have pro-inflammatory as well as healing effects during tissue reorganization and inflammation. Recent studies report an up-regulation in the expression of the substance P (SP)-preferred receptor, the neurokinin-1 receptor, in marked muscle inflammation (myositis). There is, however, only very little information on the expression patterns and levels of tachykinins in this situation. Methods The tachykinin system was analyzed using a rabbit experimental model of muscle overuse, whereby unilateral muscle exercise in combination with electrical stimulation led to muscle derangement and myositis in the triceps surae muscle (experimental length 1–6 weeks). Evaluations were made for both parts of the muscle (soleus and gastrocnemius muscles) in experimental and non-experimental (contralateral) sides. Morphologic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analyses were applied. Results Myositis and muscle derangement occurred focally not only in the experimental side but also in the non-experimental side. In the inflammatory areas (focal myositis areas), there were frequent nerve fibers showing tachykinin-like immunoreactivity and which were parts of nerve fascicles and which were freely dispersed in the tissue. Cells in the inflammatory infiltrates showed tachykinin-like immunoreactivity and tachykinin mRNA expression. Specific immunoreactivity and mRNA expression were noted in blood vessel walls of both sides, especially in focally affected areas. With increasing experimental length, we observed an increase in the degree of immunoreactivity in the vessel walls. The EIA analyses showed that the concentration of tachykinin in the tissue on both sides increased in a time-dependent manner. There was a statistical correlation in the concentration of tachykinin and the level of tachykinin immunoreactivity in the blood vessel walls between experimental and non-experimental sides. Conclusions The observations show an up-regulation of the tachykinin system bilaterally during muscle derangement/myositis in response to pronounced unilateral muscle overuse. This up-regulation occurred in inflammatory areas and was related not only to increased tachykinin innervation but also to tachykinin expression in blood vessel walls and inflammatory cells. Importantly, the tachykinin system appears to be an important factor not only ipsilaterally but also contralaterally in these processes. PMID:23587295

  16. High Concentrations of the Antibiotic Spiramycin in Wastewater Lead to High Abundance of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Nitrifying Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Tian, Zhe; Liu, Miaomiao; Shi, Zhou Jason; Hale, Lauren; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Min

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the potential effects of antibiotics on ammonia-oxidizing microbes, multiple tools including quantitative PCR (qPCR), 454-pyrosequencing, and a high-throughput functional gene array (GeoChip) were used to reveal the distribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and archaeal amoA (Arch-amoA) genes in three wastewater treatment systems receiving spiramycin or oxytetracycline production wastewaters. The qPCR results revealed that the copy number ratios of Arch-amoA to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA genes were the highest in the spiramycin full-scale (5.30) and pilot-scale systems (1.49 × 10(-1)), followed by the oxytetracycline system (4.90 × 10(-4)), with no Arch-amoA genes detected in the control systems treating sewage or inosine production wastewater. The pyrosequencing result showed that the relative abundance of AOA affiliated with Thaumarchaeota accounted for 78.5-99.6% of total archaea in the two spiramycin systems, which was in accordance with the qPCR results. Mantel test based on GeoChip data showed that Arch-amoA gene signal intensity correlated with the presence of spiramycin (P < 0.05). Antibiotics explained 25.8% of variations in amoA functional gene structures by variance partitioning analysis. This study revealed the selection of AOA in the presence of high concentrations of spiramycin in activated sludge systems. PMID:26125322

  17. Heavy metal and metalloid concentrations in components of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Weiqin; Zhang, Hongyi; Scheckel, Kirk G; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Soil contamination and human impacts have been reported in the vicinity of lead (Pb) smelters in Henan, China. However, no information is available on crop uptake of soil contaminants near these smelters. Grains, glume, rachis, and stem/leaf samples of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were collected from a small, smelter-impacted agricultural area of Beishe Village, Henan Province, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), Pb, and zinc (Zn) concentrations. The study aim was to evaluate the level of contaminant uptake in wheat and ostensibly observe if specific varieties of wheat were more susceptible to uptake. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in whole grain flour were 0.0915, 0.192, 3.22, 0.280, and 32.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. Grain concentrations of all 25 varieties for Cd as well as 16 varieties for Pb exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for consumption. Mean pollution indexes (MPI) (element concentration of wheat grain/MPC for As, Cd or Pb) of the grains varied 0.562-2.15. As, Pb, and Cd contributed 5.22, 40.0, and 54.8 % to the MPI for all 25 varieties, respectively. This survey highlights Cd and Pb contamination of wheat grains in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan Province, and likely other farm villages in the area. Further work is needed to examine uptake and contamination of other crops and vegetables impacted from the lead smelters in Henan Province and the absorption of toxic elements from food sources by local inhabitants. PMID:26661959

  18. Combined micro-droplet and thin-film-assisted pre-concentration of lead traces for on-line monitoring using anodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Belostotsky, Inessa; Gridin, Vladimir V; Schechter, Israel; Yarnitzky, Chaim N

    2003-02-01

    An improved analytical method for airborne lead traces is reported. It is based on using a Venturi scrubber sampling device for simultaneous thin-film stripping and droplet entrapment of aerosol influxes. At least threefold enhancement of the lead-trace pre-concentration is achieved. The sampled traces are analyzed by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method was tested by a series of pilot experiments. These were performed using contaminant-controlled air intakes. Reproducible calibration plots were obtained. The data were validated by traditional analysis using filter sampling. LODs are comparable with the conventional techniques. The method was successfully applied to on-line and in situ environmental monitoring of lead. PMID:12610698

  19. Influence of pre-, post-, and simultaneous perfusion of elevated calcium on the effect of ascending concentrations of lead on digoxin-induced cardiac arrest in isolated frog heart

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, M.S.; Muthu, P.; Parthiban, N.

    1995-10-01

    Cardiotoxicity of lead, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has already been documented as a potentially lethal, although rarely recognized, complication of lead intoxication. Further, it has already been reported from this laboratory that lead acetate (LA) preperfusion potentiated cardiotoxicity of digoxin (DGN) in isolated frog heart preparation and that exposure to elevated calcium (elev. Ca{sup 2+}) prior to, and simultaneously with LA at 10{sup {minus}7} M concentration, attenuated this potentiation. As an extension of this work, it was considered of interest to study the effect of perfusion of elev. Ca{sup 2+} (6.5 mM) prior to, after and simultaneously with ascending concentrations of lead (10{sup {minus}9}, 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}5}M) on DGN induced cardiac arrest (CA) in isolated frog heart, since Pb{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions are known to compete with each other for the same target sites at the cellular level, an instance of competitive mass action effect. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Use of a Cumulative Exposure Index to Estimate the Impact of Tap Water Lead Concentration on Blood Lead Levels in 1- to 5-Year-Old Children (Montréal, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Ngueta, Gerard; Abdous, Belkacem; Tardif, Robert; St-Laurent, Julie; Levallois, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Drinking water is recognized as a source of lead (Pb) exposure. However, questions remain about the impact of chronic exposure to lead-contaminated water on internal dose. Objective Our goal was to estimate the relation between a cumulative water Pb exposure index (CWLEI) and blood Pb levels (BPb) in children 1–5 years of ages. Methods Between 10 September 2009 and 27 March 2010, individual characteristics and water consumption data were obtained from 298 children. Venous blood samples were collected (one per child) and a total of five 1-L samples of water per home were drawn from the kitchen tap. A second round of water collection was performed between 22 June 2011 and 6 September 2011 on a subsample of houses. Pb analyses used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between CWLEI and BPb. Results Each 1-unit increase in CWLEI multiplies the expected value of BPb by 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.15) after adjustment for confounders. Mean BPb was significantly higher in children in the upper third and fourth quartiles of CWLEI (0.7–1.9 and ≥ 1.9 μg/kg of body weight) compared with the first (< 0.2 μg/kg) after adjusting for confounders (19%; 95% CI: 0, 42% and 39%; 95% CI: 15, 67%, respectively). The trends analysis yielded a p-value < 0.0001 after adjusting for confounders suggesting a dose–response relationship between percentiles of CWLEI and BPb. Conclusions In children 1–5 years of age, BPb was significantly associated with water lead concentration with an increase starting at a cumulative lead exposure of ≥ 0.7 μg Pb/kg of body weight. In this age group, an increase of 1 μg/L in water lead would result in an increase of 35% of BPb after 150 days of exposure. Citation Ngueta G, Abdous B, Tardif R, St-Laurent J, Levallois P. 2016. Use of a cumulative exposure index to estimate the impact of tap water lead concentration on blood lead levels in 1- to 5-year-old children (Montreal, Canada). Environ Health Perspect 124:388–395; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409144 PMID:26080391

  1. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood relation explained an additional 12% of the total variation in fillet Cd. Collectively, the results indicate that blood sampling could provide reasonably accurate and precise estimates of fillet Pb, Co, and Cd concentrations that would be suitable for identifying contaminated sites and for monitoring, but some fillet sampling might be necessary at contaminated sites for establishing consumption advisories. ?? 2009 US Government.

  2. Screening test battery for pharmaceuticals in urine and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; Bramaz, Nadine; Maurer, Max; Richter, Manuela; Sutter, Daniel; von Känel, Christoph; Zschokke, Mischa

    2005-03-01

    A test battery for identifying ecotoxicological hazards was applied to six pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac, ethinylestradiol, ibuprofen, propranolol, and sulfamethoxazole), to their mixtures, and to urine spiked with pharmaceuticals to test the suitability of biotests for screening urine and wastewater and for monitoring the efficiency of wastewater treatment. The test battery comprised the bioluminescence inhibition test with Vibrio fischeri, the yeast estrogen screen, and a photosynthesis inhibition assay in algae based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Mixture and additional experiments with a cocktail of pharmaceuticals added to urine confirmed the applicability of the test systems as an integrated measure of the overall micropollutant burden. Because the concentration of pharmaceuticals in wastewater is low and the nutrients and salts may have a negative impact on the bioassays, urine and wastewater samples were cleaned and concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The compounds of interest ranged from polar to nonpolar and from positively charged to neutral and negatively charged. Consequently, the SPE method was optimized for universality rather than for specificity. Results of preliminary experiments with raw and treated urine and wastewater indicate the suitability of the proposed test battery for screening urine and wastewater. PMID:15779777

  3. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  4. The detection of group-specific component from urine samples.

    PubMed

    Mills, P R; Chase, M G

    1989-12-01

    The detection of group-specific component (Gc) from serum and bloodstains has been widely used in the forensic laboratory. A recent increase in substituted or adulterated urine samples in various drug screening programs has necessitated methods to determine the donor. This paper discusses the detection of Gc from urine samples. The samples were concentrated and applied to ultrathin polyacrylamide gel and focused for 150 min. This method separates the samples into the three common phenotypes found in all human populations. A nitrocellulose membrane blotting technique was used to detect the Gc bands. Serum and urine samples were collected from each individual and were typed for Gc. Urine samples tested after 6 months of storage (4 degrees C) were still readable. This method provides the forensic laboratory with an additional test from a body fluid which, until recently, provided little information. PMID:2613137

  5. A simple artificial urine for the growth of urinary pathogens.

    PubMed

    Brooks, T; Keevil, C W

    1997-03-01

    A simple artificial urine medium (AUM) has been developed which provides conditions similar to that found in human urine. AUM solidified with agar enabled the recovery of a wide range of urease-positive and -negative urinary pathogens. Liquid AUM supported growth at concentrations of up to 10(8) cfu ml-1, as found in normal urine. Reproducible, steady-state growth also occurred over many generations in continuous culture. AUM was capable of forming crystals and encrustations resembling those found in natural urinary tract infections. The medium is a suitable replacement for normal urine for use in a wide range of experiments modelling the growth and attachment of urinary pathogens in the clinical environment. PMID:9080700

  6. High fat diet leads to changes in metabolite patterns in pig plasma, fecal, and urine samples detected by a ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem with high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-targeted metabolite profiling can identify robust biological markers of dietary exposure that can lead to a better understanding of causal interactions between diet and health. In this study, pigs were used as an animal model to develop an efficient procedure to discover metabolites in biolog...

  7. Evidence for false-positive results for boldenone testing of veal urine due to faecal cross-contamination during sampling.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo Rossi, C A; Arioli, F; Bassini, A; Chiesa, L M; Dell'Orto, V; Montana, M; Pompa, G

    2004-08-01

    European Directive 96/22/EC, which controls veterinary residues in animals, does not permit the presence of synthetic growth promoters in products of animal origin or in livestock. Boldenone is categorized in class A3 (growth promoters -- steroids) and is thus a banned substance. Testing of veal urine for banned substances is part of the European Union statutory programme for animals going into the food chain. In relation to this monitoring, three studies were conducted to investigate the apparent presence of the banned growth promoter boldenone in veal urine, which was suspected as being caused by interference from faecal contamination of the sample. In the first study, urine samples were collected at different times (time 0 and after 30 min) using (1) a conventional zoonotechnical apron and (2) a technique designed specifically to avoid faecal contamination ('kettle'). This resulted in samples that were, respectively, positive and negative for the presence of alpha-boldenone (alpha-BOL). In a second study, urine samples negative to alpha-BOL were collected from eight veal calves, but became positive after deliberate faecal contamination. In a third study, data obtained from the Italian RNP (Residual National Program) indicated that 18.1% of 3295 urine samples collected using the zootechnical apron were positive for alpha-BOL and 2.1% for beta-boldenone (beta-BOL), whilst of 902 samples collected using the kettle, beta-BOL was not detected in any samples and only 0.2% were positive to alpha-BOL, in concentrations lower than 2 ng ml(-1). These results further support the supposition that faecal contamination of the urine during sample collection can lead to false-positive results during boldenone analysis. PMID:15370825

  8. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  9. Associations between soil lead concentrations and populations by race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio in urban and rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Harley T.; Lawson, Andrew B.; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a well-studied environmental contaminant that has many negative health effects, especially for children. Both racial/ethnic and income disparities have been documented with respect to exposure to Pb in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess whether soil Pb concentrations in rural and urban areas of South Carolina USA, previously identified as having clusters of intellectual disabilities (ID) in children, were positively associated with populations of minority and low-income individuals and children (?6 years of age). Surface soils from two rural and two urban areas with identified clusters of ID were analyzed for Pb and concentrations were spatially interpolated using inverse distance weighted analysis. Population race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio (ITPR) from United States Census 2000 block group data were aerially interpolated by block group within each area. Urban areas had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than rural areas. Significant positive associations between black, non-Hispanic Latino, individuals and children ?6 years of age and mean estimated Pb concentrations were observed in both urban (r = 0.38, p = 0.0007) and rural (r = 0.53, p = 0.04) areas. Significant positive associations also were observed between individuals and children with an ITPR < 1.00 and Pb concentrations, though primarily in urban areas. Racial/ethnic minorities and low ITPR individuals, including children, may be at elevated risk for exposure to Pb in soils. PMID:22752852

  10. Implications of urine-to-feces ratio in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion of swine waste.

    PubMed

    Creamer, K S; Williams, C M; Chen, Y; Cheng, J J

    2008-03-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure represents a potential waste treatment technology to address environmental concerns, such as odor emissions and removal of pathogenic microorganisms. However, there are concerns relative to the stability of this process when swine manure is the sole substrate. In this study, the potential of biogas production from swine manure as the sole substrate under thermophilic (50 degrees C) conditions was investigated in the laboratory, to determine whether separation of urine and feces as part of the waste collection process would benefit anaerobic digestion. Effluent from a continuously stirred tank reactor was used as the inoculum for batch tests, in which the substrate contained three different concentrations of urine (urine-free, as-excreted urine-to-feces ratio and double the as-excreted urine-to-feces ratio). Inocula were acclimated to these same urine-to-feces ratios to determine methane production. Results show that both urine-free and as-excreted substrates were not inhibitory to anaerobic inocula. Anaerobic microorganisms can be readily acclimated to substrate with double the as-excreted urine concentration, which contained nitrogen concentrations up to 7.20 g/L. Cumulative methane production reached similar levels in the batch tests, regardless of the substrate urine concentration. PMID:18419015

  11. Catecholamines, Plasma and Urine Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Dopamine; Epinephrine; Norepinephrine; Free Catecholamines, plasma and urine; Fractionated ... physical or emotional stress. The primary catecholamines are dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and norepinephrine. These hormones are broken ...

  12. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... imbalances in the urine, like too much calcium kidney stones kidney diseases Other reasons why teens get hematuria ... Urinary Tract Infections Glomerulonephritis Kidneys and Urinary Tract Kidney Stones Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  13. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  14. Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

  15. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow differences in the two regression models, 1999-2001 and 1999-2004. Flow-weighted concentrations (FWCs) calculated from the estimated loads for 1999-2004 were examined to aid interpretation of metal load estimates, which were influenced by large spatial and temporal variations in streamflow. FWCs of total cadmium ranged from 0.04 micrograms per liter (?g/L) at Enaville to 14 ?g/L at Ninemile Creek. Total lead FWCs were lowest at Long Lake (1.3 ?g/L) and highest at Ninemile Creek (120 ?g/L). Elevated total lead FWCs at Harrison confirmed that the high total lead loads at this station were not simply due to higher streamflow. Conversely, relatively low total lead loads combined with high total lead FWCs at Ninemile and Canyon Creeks reflected low streamflow but high concentrations of total lead. Very low total lead FWCs (1.3 to 2.7 ?g/L) at the stations downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake are a result both of deposition of lead-laden sediments in the lake and dilution by additional streamflow. Total zinc FWCs also demonstrated the effect of streamflow on load calculations, and highlighted source areas for zinc in the basin. Total zinc FWCs at Canyon and Ninemile Creeks, 1,600 ?g/L and 2,200 ?g/L, respectively, were by far the highest in the basin but contributed among the lowest total zinc loads due to their relatively low streamflow. Total zinc FWCs ranged from 38 to 67 ?g/L at stations downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake, but total zinc load estimates at these stations were relatively high because of high mean streamflow compared to other stations in the basin. Long-term regression models for 1991 to 2003 or 2004 were developed and annual trace-metal loads and FWCs were estimated for Pinehurst, Enaville, Harrison, and Post Falls to better understand the variability of metal loading with time. Long-term load estimates are similar to the results for 1999-2004 in terms of spatial distribution of metal loads throughout the basin. LOADEST results for 1991-2004 indicated that statistically significant downward temporal trends for dissolved and total cadmium, dissolved zinc, and total lead were occurring at Pinehurst, Enaville, Harrison, and Post Falls. Additionally, data for Enaville and Post Falls showed significant downward trends for dissolved lead and total zinc loads; Harrison total zinc loads also decreased with time. The Mann-Kendall trend test results agreed with the LOADEST trend results in most cases, but gave contradictory results for total zinc at Pinehurst and at Post Falls. Long- and short-term load and flow-weighted concentration estimates yielded valuable information about metal storage and transport processes, and demonstrated that water quality data are a great aid in understanding these processes.

  16. A urine volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

  17. Uncertainties of Mayak urine data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Guthrie; Vostrotin, Vadim; Vvdensky, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    For internal dose calculations for the Mayak worker epidemiological study, quantitative estimates of uncertain