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A Novel Way to Monitor Urine Concentration: Fluorescent Concentration Matrices  

PubMed Central

Background: The amount of water found in urine is important diagnostic information; nevertheless it is not yet directly determined. Indirectly, the water content in urine is expressed by its density (specific gravity). However, without the diuresis value it is not possible to determine whether the increase in density of urine is due to a decrease in water secretion or an increase in the concentration of secreted substances. This problem can be solved by the use of fluorescent concentration 3D-matrices which characterise urine concentration through the p? (or -log?) value of the first fluorescence centre. Materials and Methods: The urine fluorescent concentration 3D-matrix was created by the alignment of the synchronous spectra of the dilution series of urine starting from undiluted (p? = 0) to 1000-fold diluted urine (p? = 3). Results: Using the fluorescence concentration 3D-matrix analysis of the urine samples from healthy individuals, a reference range was established for the value p?, determining the normal, concentrated or diluted type of urine. The diagnostic potential of this approach was tested on urine samples from two patients with a chronic glomerulonephritis. Conclusion: The p? value of the urine fluorescence concentration 3D-matrix analysis determines whether the urine sample falls within the normal, concentrated or diluted type of urine. This parameter can be directly utilised in sportsmen’s hydration state monitoring, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of serious diseases. An important advantage of this novel diagnostic approach is that a 12/24 h urine collection is not required, which predetermines it for use especially within paediatrics. PMID:25737974

Luckova, Iveta; Sabo, Jan; Karabinos, Anton



Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.  


Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo



Concentration of urine by the hibernating marmot.  


Studies wer performed with marmots (Marmota flaviventris) of both sexes that had chronic arterial, venous, and bladder catheters. Urine collection was performed during hibernation and urine osmolalities (611.6 not equal to 166.1 SD) were found to be lower than those of aroused animals (1264 not equal to 472.9 SD), but hypertonic to plasma. Peak osmolality of meduallary slices was found to be in the range of osmotic pressures of urine obtained from hibernating or aroused animals. After single injections of a mixture of rho-aminohippurate and inulin, or during constant infusion of inulin, steady-state excretion by hibernators was not achieved for several days. Indirect evidence indicateds that the hibernating marmot is capable of PAH secretion. PMID:1130537

Zatzman, M L; South, F E



The Mammalian Urine Concentrating Mechanism: Hypotheses and Uncertainties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney, which can produce a urine that is substantially more concentrated than blood plasma during periods of water deprivation, is one of the enduring mysteries in traditional physiology. Owing to the complex lateral and axial relationships of tubules and vessels, in both the outer and inner medulla, the urine concentrating mechanism may only be fully understood in terms of the kidneyÂ?s three-dimensional functional architecture and its implications for preferential interactions among tubules and vessels.

Anita Layton (Duke University Mathematics)



Glycogen synthase kinase 3? regulates urine concentrating mechanism in mice.  


In mammals, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 comprises GSK3? and GSK3? isoforms. GSK3? has been shown to play a role in the ability of kidneys to concentrate urine by regulating vasopressin-mediated water permeability of collecting ducts, whereas the role of GSK3? has yet to be discerned. To investigate the role of GSK3? in urine concentration, we compared GSK3? knockout (GSK3?KO) mice with wild-type (WT) littermates. Under normal conditions, GSK3?KO mice had higher water intake and urine output. GSK3?KO mice also showed reduced urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 levels but higher urinary vasopressin. When water deprived, they failed to concentrate their urine to the same level as WT littermates. The addition of 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin to isolated inner medullary collecting ducts increased the cAMP response in WT mice, but this response was reduced in GSK3?KO mice, suggesting reduced responsiveness to vasopressin. Gene silencing of GSK3? in mpkCCD cells also reduced forskolin-induced aquaporin-2 expression. When treated with LiCl, an isoform nonselective inhibitor of GSK3 and known inducer of polyuria, WT mice developed significant polyuria within 6 days. However, in GSK3?KO mice, the polyuric response was markedly reduced. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that GSK3? could play a crucial role in renal urine concentration and suggest that GSK3? might be one of the initial targets of Li(+) in LiCl-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. PMID:25608967

Nørregaard, Rikke; Tao, Shixin; Nilsson, Line; Woodgett, James R; Kakade, Vijayakumar; Yu, Alan S L; Howard, Christiana; Rao, Reena



Biomonitoring of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and mercury in urine and hair of children living near mining and industrial areas.  


Huelva (South West Spain) and its surrounding municipalities represent one of the most polluted estuaries in the world owing to the discharge of mining and industrial related pollutants in their proximity. A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess exposure to arsenic and some trace metals (cadmium, mercury, manganese and lead) in urine and scalp hair from a representative sample of children aged 6-9 years (n=261). This is the only study simultaneously analyzing those five metal elements in children urine and hair. The potential contribution of gender, water consumption, residence area and body mass index on urinary and hair metal concentrations was also studied. Urine levels of cadmium and total mercury in a proportion (25-50%) of our children population living near industrial/mining areas might have an impact on health, likely due to environmental exposure to metal pollution. The only significant correlation between urine and hair levels was found for mercury. Children living near agriculture areas showed increased levels of cadmium and manganese (in urine) and arsenic (in hair). In contrast, decreased urine Hg concentrations were observed in children living near mining areas. Girls exhibited significantly higher trace metal concentrations in hair than boys. The greatest urine arsenic concentrations were found in children drinking well/spring water. Although human hair can be a useful tool for biomonitoring temporal changes in metal concentrations, levels are not correlated with those found in urine except for total mercury, thus providing additional information. PMID:25434277

Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Lacasaña, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Hernández, Antonio F; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Gil, Fernando



Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine  

PubMed Central

Purpose The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 post-partum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women’s breast milk samples and infants’ urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results Total BPA was detected in 93% of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA (interquartile range [IQR]=1.2 – 4.4 ?g/L). Similarly, 75% of the mothers’ breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR=0.4 – 1.4 ?g/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children’s urine and the mothers’ breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions Total BPA was detected in 93% of this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant’s sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers’ breast milk and their infants’ urine. PMID:23212895

Mendonca, K.; Hauser, R.; Calafat, A.M.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Duty, S.M.



Elevated urine zinc concentration reduces the detection of methamphetamine, cocaine, THC and opiates in urine by EMIT.  


Methods for circumventing positive drug tests continue to evolve and are often spread through internet websites reporting on the proposed effectiveness of various adulteration methods. Recent claims of the use of zinc added directly to urine or ingested prior to urine collection have prompted investigation into the vulnerability of ELISA-based testing, providing interesting but inconclusive results. We investigated the potential interference of zinc used as a direct adulterant and after zinc self-administration for enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT)-based drug abuse testing in urine. Negative urine samples and samples collected before and after zinc self-administration were fortified with d-methamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, morphine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol prior to analysis by the EMIT. Our data indicate that zinc added directly to urine in concentrations 5,000 times higher than a typical random urine total zinc concentration is capable of producing false-negative results; however, self-administration of oral zinc was unable to generate random urine total zinc concentrations in the required range. Further, no evidence of a secondary interfering substance was observed as a result of oral zinc self-administration. Our results indicate that the total zinc concentrations required to directly interfere with EMIT-based testing are easily distinguishable from routine random urine total zinc concentrations, and that alleged oral ingestion of zinc does not produce total zinc concentrations capable of direct interference. PMID:23843421

Lin, Chia-Ni; Strathmann, Frederick G



Role of structural organization in the urine concentrating mechanism of an avian kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organization of tubules and blood vessels in the quail medullary cone is highly structured. This structural organization may result in preferential interactions among tubules and vessels, interactions that may enhance urine concentrating capability. In this study, we formulate a model framework for the urine concentrating mechanism of the quail kidney. The model simulates preferential interactions among renal tubules by

Anita T. Layton



The Silicon Concentration in Cat Urine and Its Relationship with Other Elements  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT To understand the effects of silicon (Si) in the urine with respect to the formation of urinary stones, the distribution of Si in urine was observed. Urine samples from cats with urolithiasis (n=10) and healthy cats (n=15) were used. The concentration of Si in the cats with urolithiasis was significantly higher (P<0.001). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between the concentration of Si and those of other elements, such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and iron, only in the urine of the healthy cats. The distribution of elements in the urine differed between the cats with urolithiasis and the healthy cats. The Si concentration and its relationship with other elements were suggested to be useful biomarkers for urolithiasis in cats. PMID:24334829

TAKAHASHI, Fumihito; MOCHIZUKI, Mariko; YOGO, Takuya; ISHIOKA, Katsumi; YUMOTO, Norio; SAKO, Toshinori; UEDA, Fukiko; TAGAWA, Masahiro; TAZAKI, Hiroyuki



Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment

John E Bassett



Individual variability in human tibia lead concentration.  

PubMed Central

Our aims in this study were to determine proximal-distal variability in adult human tibia lead concentration via electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and to determine whether there were any differences between core and surface tibia lead concentrations. We analyzed duplicate core and surface tibia samples for lead at multiple proximal-distal sections on 10 adult human cadaver legs. Dried bone samples were digested in nitric acid using microwave-assisted heating, and lead content was determined by ETAAS with Zeeman background correction. Lead concentrations in nine tibiae (one tibia was excluded because some of the data were compromised) ranged from 3.1 to 27.9 microg lead/g of dry bone. Both core and surface tibia lead concentrations were lower at the proximal and distal ends of the tibia. Surface tibia lead was approximately 5 microg/g greater than core tibia lead in six tibiae with relatively low lead concentration, and 8 microg/g greater in three tibiae with relatively high lead concentration. The difference between core and surface tibia lead was independent of proximal-distal tibia location. We conclude that these nine human tibiae showed a greater surface tibia lead concentration than core tibia lead concentration. This observation has consequences for the noninvasive measurement of tibia lead via K-shell and L-shell X-ray fluorescence. PMID:11712999

Todd, A C; Parsons, P J; Tang, S; Moshier, E L



Uranium and Thorium in Urine of United States Residents: Reference Range Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured uranium and thorium in urine of 500 U. S. residents to establish reference range concentrations using a magnetic-sector inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). We found uranium at detectable concentrations in 96.6% of the urine specimens and thorium in 39.6% of the specimens. The 95th percentile concenetration for uranium was 34.5 ng\\/L (parts per trillion); concentrations ranged

Bill G. Ting; Daniel C. Paschal; Jeffery M. Jarrett; James L. Pirkle; Richard J. Jackson; Eric J. Sampson; Dayton T. Miller; Samuel P. Caudill



Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a sorbent material for the solid phase extraction of lead from urine and subsequent determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of lead in urine is a way of monitoring the chemical exposure to this metal. In the present paper, a new method for the Pb determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) in urine at low levels has been developed. Lead was separated from the undesirable urine matrix by means of a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been used as a sorbent material. Lead from urine was retained at pH 4.0 and was quantitatively eluted using a 0.7 M nitric acid solution and was subsequently measured by ETAAS. The effects of parameters that influence the adsorption-elution process (such as pH, eluent volume and concentration, sampling and elution flow rates) and the atomic spectrometry conditions have been studied by means of different factorial design strategies. Under the optimized conditions, the detection and quantification limits obtained were 0.08 and 0.26 ?g Pb L- 1, respectively. The results demonstrate the absence of a urine matrix effect and this is the consequence of the SPE process carried out. Therefore, the developed method is useful for the analysis of Pb at low levels in real samples without the influence of other urine components. The proposed method was applied to the determination of lead in urine samples of unexposed healthy people and satisfactory results were obtained (in the range 3.64-22.9 ?g Pb L- 1).

Peña Crecente, Rosa M.; Lovera, Carlha Gutiérrez; García, Julia Barciela; Méndez, Jennifer Álvarez; Martín, Sagrario García; Latorre, Carlos Herrero



Changes in sodium, calcium and magnesium ion concentrations in sturgeon ( Huso huso ) urine and in kidney morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

During adaptation to brackish water the young great sturgeon Huso huso is able to regulate its serum osmolarity and ion concentrations. After transfer from fresh water to brackish water the ion concentrations in the urine increase and the urine becomes isoosmotic to the blood serum after 24h. The Na+ and K+ concentrations in the urine increase during the first 12

L. S. Krayushkina; A. A. Panov; A. A. Gerasimov; W. T. W. Potts



Silver nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of human urine-derived stem cells at noncytotoxic concentrations  

PubMed Central

In tissue engineering, urine-derived stem cells are ideal seed cells and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are perfect antimicrobial agents. Due to a distinct lack of information on the effects of AgNPs on urine-derived stem cells, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of silver ions and AgNPs upon the cytotoxicity and osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells. Initially, AgNPs or AgNO3 were exposed to urine-derived stem cells for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity was measured using the Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) test. The effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 at the maximum safety concentration determined by the CCK-8 test on osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells were assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin Red S staining, and the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Lastly, the effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 on “urine-derived stem cell actin cytoskeleton organization” and RhoA activity were assessed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining and Western blotting. Concentration-dependent toxicity was observed starting at an AgNO3 concentration of 2 ?g/mL and at an AgNP concentration of 4 ?g/mL. At these concentrations, AgNPs were observed to promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells, induce actin polymerization and increase cytoskeletal tension, and activate RhoA; AgNO3 had no such effects. In conclusion, AgNPs can promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells at a suitable concentration, independently of silver ions, and are suitable for incorporation into tissue-engineered scaffolds that utilize urine-derived stem cells as seed cells. PMID:24899804

Qin, Hui; Zhu, Chen; An, Zhiquan; Jiang, Yao; Zhao, Yaochao; Wang, Jiaxin; Liu, Xin; Hui, Bing; Zhang, Xianlong; Wang, Yang



Adjustment to concentration-dilution of spot urine samples: correlation between specific gravity and creatinine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Spot urine samples were investigated to determine correlations between urinary creatinine and specific gravity, and intra-\\u000a and inter-day variations other than gender- and age-dependence of urinary concentrations. Methods: Urinary creatinine concentrations and specific gravity were determined in 534 spot samples (385 from men and 149 from women).\\u000a Subjects' ages ranged between 18 and 68?years. Spot urine samples were also

Mariella Carrieri; Andrea Trevisan; Giovanni Battista Bartolucci



PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population.  


As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk. PMID:24998972

Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie



IgM Monoclonal Gammopathy Accompanied by Nodular Glomerulosclerosis, Urine-Concentrating Defect, and Hyporeninemic Hypoaldosteronism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 54-year-old male had monoclonal IgM-kappa light chains in the serum and free monoclonal kappa light chains in the urine. Renal biopsy revealed nodular glomerulosclerosis associated with the accumulation of kappa light chains. Isolated microscopic hematuria was present for over 1 year. He also showed a defect in urine concentration for which the light chains deposited along the basement membrane

Yasushi Nakamoto; Hirokazu Imai; Sumiko Hamanaka; Kohsaku Yoshida; Tetsuo Akihama; Akira B. Miura



Measurement of Sterigmatocystin Concentrations in Urine for Monitoring the Contamination of Cattle Feed  

PubMed Central

This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15–0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01–0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna



Measurement of sterigmatocystin concentrations in urine for monitoring the contamination of cattle feed.  


This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15-0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01-0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna



Chemical concentration measurement in blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber Raman  

E-print Network

Chemical concentration measurement in blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber Raman spectroscopy Dahu Qi and Andrew J. Berger We report measurements of chemical concentrations to increase the collected signal strength. Both Raman and absorption spectra were acquired in the near

Berger, Andrew J.


Tissue lead concentrations in Japanese quail ingesting lead Pellets or shot with lead pellets  

SciTech Connect

Data obtained from birds shot by hunters warrant the consideration that shooting with lead pellets may contrbute to the quantity of lead detected in tissues. Information on the effects of shooting avian species with lead shot on tissue concentrations of lead is, therefore, of considerable importance in assessing the value of birds shot by hunters as a source of samples for studying lead contamination. Kendall found that liver and bone lead concentrations of mourning doves were substantially increased after ingestion of a lead shot. Waterfowl shot by hunters and with direct evidence of ingested lead shot had significantly higher liver lead concentrations than did waterfowl without ingested lead shot. As little information on the effects of shooting with lead projectiles on tissue lead concentrations exists, the present study was designed to measure the effects of shooting Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with lead pellets on lead concentrations in livers and in bones).

Kendall, R.J.; Scanlon, P.F.



Plasma and urine aluminium concentrations in healthy subjects after administration of sucralfate.  


1. Sucralfate (basic sucrose aluminium sulphate), a topical intestinal agent, was administered in suspension or granule form to 25 healthy subjects at a total dose of 4 g day-1 for 21 days. Aluminium in plasma and 24 h urine samples was assayed before, during and after administration of sucralfate by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. 2. Sucralfate produced significant increases in plasma and urine aluminium concentrations. On average, plasma aluminium increased from about 2 micrograms 1-1 to more than 5 micrograms 1-1 and 24 h urine aluminium increased from less than 5 micrograms to more than 30 micrograms. Both plasma and urine aluminium concentrations decreased rapidly after sucralfate was stopped. However, urinary aluminium concentrations remained higher than normal 5 and 10 days after discontinuation of sucralfate administration. Moreover subjects receiving sucralfate granules had significantly higher average urinary excretion of aluminium than subjects receiving the suspension. 3. The small but significant increase in plasma and urine aluminium following sucralfate administration in therapeutic doses may reflect intestinal absorption of aluminium. Although such absorption would appear to be moderate in healthy subjects, it is suggested that aluminium-based treatments should be used only intermittently, especially in patients with renal disorders. PMID:2328192

Allain, P; Mauras, Y; Krari, N; Duchier, J; Cournot, A; Larcheveque, J



Triazolothienopyrimidine Inhibitors of Urea Transporter UT-B Reduce Urine Concentration  

PubMed Central

Urea transport (UT) proteins facilitate the concentration of urine by the kidney, suggesting that inhibition of these proteins could have therapeutic use as a diuretic strategy. We screened 100,000 compounds for UT-B inhibition using an optical assay based on the hypotonic lysis of acetamide-loaded mouse erythrocytes. We identified a class of triazolothienopyrimidine UT-B inhibitors; the most potent compound, UTBinh-14, fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport with IC50 values of 10 nM and 25 nM for human and mouse UT-B, respectively. UTBinh-14 competed with urea binding at an intracellular site on the UT-B protein. UTBinh-14 exhibited low toxicity and high selectivity for UT-B over UT-A isoforms. After intraperitoneal administration of UTBinh-14 in mice to achieve predicted therapeutic concentrations in the kidney, urine osmolality after administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin was approximately 700 mosm/kg H2O lower in UTBinh-14–treated mice than vehicle-treated mice. UTBinh-14 also increased urine output and reduced urine osmolality in mice given free access to water. UTBinh-14 did not reduce urine osmolality in UT-B knockout mice. In summary, these data provide proof of concept for the potential utility of UT inhibitors to reduce urinary concentration in high-vasopressin, fluid-retaining conditions. The diuretic mechanism of UT inhibitors may complement the action of conventional diuretics, which target sodium transport. PMID:22491419

Yao, Chenjuan; Anderson, Marc O.; Zhang, Jicheng; Yang, Baoxue; Phuan, Puay-Wah



A sensitive radioreceptor assay for determining scopolamine concentrations in plasma and urine.  


A sensitive and reliable procedure for the quantitation of low picogram levels of scopolamine in plasma and urine is described. The method consists of two steps, a preparative extraction step using C18 columns (Sep-Pak), followed by an analytical quantitation step involving a muscarinic radioreceptor assay. The extraction efficiency of the C18 columns was 85-95% for both plasma and urine over a wide concentration range. When [3H]methyl scopolamine is used as a tracer, the assay can detect picogram concentrations (greater than 25 pg) of scopolamine (base) in plasma and urine. The applicability of the procedure for therapeutic drug monitoring of scopolamine was demonstrated by using the method to determine plasma levels in humans after transdermal administration. PMID:3598893

Cintrón, N M; Chen, Y M



Impedimetric method for measuring ultra-low E. coli concentrations in human urine.  


In this study, we developed an interdigitated gold microelectrode-based impedance sensor to detect Escherichia coli (E. coli) in human urine samples for urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis. E. coli growth in human urine samples was successfully monitored during a 12-h culture, and the results showed that the maximum relative changes could be measured at 10Hz. An equivalent electrical circuit model was used for evaluating the variations in impedance characteristics of bacterial growth. The equivalent circuit analysis indicated that the change in impedance values at low frequencies was caused by double layer capacitance due to bacterial attachment and formation of biofilm on electrode surface in urine. A linear relationship between the impedance change and initial E. coli concentration was obtained with the coefficient of determination R(2)>0.90 at various growth times of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12h in urine. Thus our sensor is capable of detecting a wide range of E. coli concentration, 7×10(0) to 7×10(8) cells/ml, in urine samples with high sensitivity. PMID:25437359

Settu, Kalpana; Chen, Ching-Jung; Liu, Jen-Tsai; Chen, Chien-Lung; Tsai, Jang-Zern



Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.  


Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful. PMID:15123201

Bassett, John E



A Magnetic Bead-Based Method for Concentrating DNA from Human Urine for Downstream Detection  

PubMed Central

Due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, PCR cannot be used directly on most clinical samples, including human urine, without pre-treatment. A magnetic bead-based strategy is one potential method to collect biomarkers from urine samples and separate the biomarkers from PCR inhibitors. In this report, a 1 mL urine sample was mixed within the bulb of a transfer pipette containing lyophilized nucleic acid-silica adsorption buffer and silica-coated magnetic beads. After mixing, the sample was transferred from the pipette bulb to a small diameter tube, and captured biomarkers were concentrated using magnetic entrainment of beads through pre-arrayed wash solutions separated by small air gaps. Feasibility was tested using synthetic segments of the 140 bp tuberculosis IS6110 DNA sequence spiked into pooled human urine samples. DNA recovery was evaluated by qPCR. Despite the presence of spiked DNA, no DNA was detectable in unextracted urine samples, presumably due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. However, following extraction with the magnetic bead-based method, we found that ?50% of spiked TB DNA was recovered from human urine containing roughly 5×103 to 5×108 copies of IS6110 DNA. In addition, the DNA was concentrated approximately ten-fold into water. The final concentration of DNA in the eluate was 5×106, 14×106, and 8×106 copies/µL for 1, 3, and 5 mL urine samples, respectively. Lyophilized and freshly prepared reagents within the transfer pipette produced similar results, suggesting that long-term storage without refrigeration is possible. DNA recovery increased with the length of the spiked DNA segments from 10±0.9% for a 75 bp DNA sequence to 42±4% for a 100 bp segment and 58±9% for a 140 bp segment. The estimated LOD was 77 copies of DNA/µL of urine. The strategy presented here provides a simple means to achieve high nucleic acid recovery from easily obtained urine samples, which does not contain inhibitors of PCR. PMID:23861895

Bordelon, Hali; Russ, Patricia K.; Wright, David W.; Haselton, Frederick R.



Concentrations and chemical species of arsenic in human urine and hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because marine products are rich in arsenic, the concentration of arsenic in the human urine varies greatly with the state of ingestion of marine products. It has been reported that the analysis of foods for chemica! species of arsenic detects 4 chemical species: inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid (MAA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) and trimethylarsenic compound (TMA) (Yamauchi and Yamamura 1980). It

Naohisa Yamato; Naohisa



An optimization study of a mathematical model of the urine concentrating mechanism of the rat kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rat kidney’s morphological and transepithelial transport properties may change in response to different physiologic conditions. To better understand those processes, we used a non-linear optimization technique to estimate parameter sets that maximize key measures that assess the effectiveness and efficiency of a mathematical model of the rat urine concentrating mechanism (UCM). We considered two related measures of UCM effectiveness:

Milagros Loreto; Anita T. Layton



Dietary exposure biomarker-lead discovery based on metabolomics analysis of urine samples.  


Although robust associations between dietary intake and population health are evident from conventional observational epidemiology, the outcomes of large-scale intervention studies testing the causality of those links have often proved inconclusive or have failed to demonstrate causality. This apparent conflict may be due to the well-recognised difficulty in measuring habitual food intake which may lead to confounding in observational epidemiology. Urine biomarkers indicative of exposure to specific foods offer information supplementary to the reliance on dietary intake self-assessment tools, such as FFQ, which are subject to individual bias. Biomarker discovery strategies using non-targeted metabolomics have been used recently to analyse urine from either short-term food intervention studies or from cohort studies in which participants consumed a freely-chosen diet. In the latter, the analysis of diet diary or FFQ information allowed classification of individuals in terms of the frequency of consumption of specific diet constituents. We review these approaches for biomarker discovery and illustrate both with particular reference to two studies carried out by the authors using approaches combining metabolite fingerprinting by MS with supervised multivariate data analysis. In both approaches, urine signals responsible for distinguishing between specific foods were identified and could be related to the chemical composition of the original foods. When using dietary data, both food distinctiveness and consumption frequency influenced whether differential dietary exposure could be discriminated adequately. We conclude that metabolomics methods for fingerprinting or profiling of overnight void urine, in particular, provide a robust strategy for dietary exposure biomarker-lead discovery. PMID:23632011

Beckmann, Manfred; Lloyd, Amanda J; Haldar, Sumanto; Favé, Gaëlle; Seal, Chris J; Brandt, Kirsten; Mathers, John C; Draper, John



Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood  


Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood. The present invention includes the use of resonant laser ablation to analyze .ltoreq.1 .mu.L (or equivalent mass) samples of blood for lead content. A typical finger prick, for example, yields about 10 .mu.L. Solid samples may also readily be analyzed by resonant laser ablation. The sample is placed on a lead-free, electrically conducting substrate and irradiated with a single, focused laser beam which simultaneously vaporizes, atomizes, and resonantly ionizes an analyte of interest in a sample. The ions are then sorted, collected and detected using a mass spectrometer.

Nogar, Nicholas S. (Los Alamos, NM)



An inverse algorithm for a mathematical model of an avian urine concentrating mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear optimization technique, in conjunction with a single-nephron, single-solute mathematical model of the quail urine\\u000a concentrating mechanism, was used to estimate parameter sets that optimize a measure of concentrating mechanism efficiency,\\u000a viz., the ratio of the free-water absorption rate to the total NaCl active transport rate. The optimization algorithm, which is\\u000a independent of the numerical method used to solve

M. Marcano-Velázquez; Harold E. Layton



Blood and urine concentrations of aluminium among workers exposed to aluminium flake powders.  

PubMed Central

In a group of workers exposed to aluminium flake powders, blood and urine concentrations of aluminium were assessed before and after vacation. Another group was investigated after retirement. Workers currently exposed to aluminium flake powders had urinary concentrations of the metal 80-90 times higher than those in occupationally non-exposed referents. The calculated half life for concentrations of aluminium in urine was five to six weeks based on four to five weeks of non-exposure. Among the retired workers the half lives varied from less than one up to eight years and were related to the number of years since retirement. These results indicate that aluminium is retained and stored in several compartments of the body and eliminated from these compartments at different rates. PMID:1998604

Ljunggren, K G; Lidums, V; Sjögren, B



Glucose detection and concentration estimation in feline urine samples with the Bayer Multistix and Purina Glucotest.  


The Bayer Multistix are commonly used for detection and estimation of feline glucosuria by veterinarians and cat owners. A newer product, the Purina Glucotest, utilizes the same enzymatic technology for detection of glucose, but has been designed for home use as a litter additive that allows interpretation of glucosuria over an 8-h period. The objectives of this study were to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the Glucotest and Multistix, and to assess the 8-h color stability of the Glucotest. Overall, the Glucotest had greater sensitivity and specificity than the Multistix, and more accurately estimated urine glucose concentration if evaluated at least 30 min after exposure to urine. A significant lack of agreement between the results obtained immediately after exposure to urine vs after 30 min and 8 h contradicts the 8-h color stability claim, but the change in urine glucose concentration estimation over time resulted in improved test accuracy at the 30 and 480 min time points. PMID:21795087

Fletcher, Jon M; Behrend, Ellen N; Welles, Elizabeth G; Lee, Hollie P; Hosgood, Giselle L



Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.  


Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 ?g/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 ?g/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 ?g/L with a median peak concentration of 5239 ?g/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000 ?g/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6 h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18 h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 ?g/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 ?g/L, with peak concentrations of 658 ?g/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A



Vitreous fluid and/or urine glucose concentrations in 1335 civil aviation accident pilot fatalities.  


During aviation accident investigations, vitreous fluid and urine samples from pilot fatalities are analyzed for glucose and blood for hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) to monitor diabetic pilots and to discover other pilots with undiagnosed/unreported diabetes. The prevalence of elevated glucose concentrations in fatally injured pilots was evaluated by searching the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's Toxicology Database for the period 1998-2005. Out of 1335 pilots involving 363 vitreous fluid, 365 urine, and 607 vitreous fluid and urine analyses, 43 pilots had elevated glucose in vitreous fluid (>125 mg/dL) and/or in urine (>100 mg/dL). Of the 20 pilots whose blood samples were analyzed, nine had >6% HbA(1c)--four were known diabetics, and five were unknown diabetics. Urinary glucose levels were elevated in all 13 known hyperglycemic pilots. A considerable number of pilots (30 of 43) had elevated glucose and HbA(1c) (5 of 20), suggesting undiagnosed/unreported diabetic conditions. PMID:19302385

Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Botch, Sabra R; Canfield, Dennis V; Forster, Estrella M



The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers  

SciTech Connect

The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur [PTNBR BATAN, Jl. Tamansari no. 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)



Role of UTB Urea Transporters in the Urine Concentrating Mechanism of the Rat Kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney was used to investigate urine concentrating mechanism function\\u000a in animals lacking the UTB urea transporter. The UTB transporter is believed to mediate countercurrent urea exchange between\\u000a descending vasa recta (DVR) and ascending vasa recta (AVR) by facilitating urea transport across DVR endothelia. The model\\u000a represents the outer medulla (OM)

Anita T. Layton



The determination of metals (antimony, bismuth, lead, cadmium, mercury, palladium, platinum, tellurium, thallium, tin and tungsten) in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:?An analytical method has been established to determine the concentration of antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb), cadmium\\u000a (Cd), mercury (Hg), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), tellurium (Te), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl) and tungsten (W) in urine. The\\u000a aim was to develop a method which is equally suitable for the determination of environmentally as well as occupationally caused\\u000a metal excretion. Methods:?Inductively

P. Schramel; I. Wendler; J. Angerer



Plasma prolactin concentrations in lead exposed workers.  


Plasma Prolactin (Prl) Zinc protoporphyrin (Zpp) and blood lead concentrations (PbB) were measured in 76 exposed male workers. All of them were employed in small (not more than 30 persons) pewter factories and were randomly selected from those regularly controlled by the National Health Service, Occupational Health Unit of Brescia (USSL 41). Although all plasma Prl values were within the normal range, the mean value of the subgroup having Zpp and PbB higher than 40 micrograms/dl was significantly higher (+47%) than that observed in the group of workers having Zpp and PbB less than 40 micrograms/dl. The data indicate the possibility of a lead-induced Prl secretion dysfunction, probably mediated by a decrease in dopaminergic inhibitory control. PMID:3598878

Govoni, S; Battaini, F; Fernicola, C; Castelletti, L; Trabucchi, M



Specific gravity and creatinine as corrections for variation in urine concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys.  


Hormones excreted in the urine are widely used to assess the physiological and psychological condition of unrestrained animals. In order to control for variation in the water concentration of urine samples, the hormone concentration is often indexed to the concentration of creatinine. Because there are several problems with using creatinine, we have investigated the efficacy of specific gravity as an alternative basis for adjusting the hormone concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys. In an experimental manipulation of human urine hydration, ten volunteers drank a water load proportional to body weight, and provided complete urine collection and saliva samples for four consecutive 20 min intervals. From the urine, we measured cortisol (radioimmunoassay), creatinine (colorimetric assay), and specific gravity (refractometer). Only cortisol was assayed from saliva. During 80 min following water ingestion, cortisol, creatinine, and specific gravity declined as urine became diluted; however, total cortisol excretion remained constant. Only cortisol concentration indexed to specific gravity accurately reflected the consistent cortisol excretion. Specific gravity and creatinine-corrected cortisol values were highly correlated but were significantly different. Salivary cortisol provided evidence for the relative stability of serum cortisol. To determine the utility of these corrections in other primates, we compared specific gravity- and creatinine-corrected cortisol in urine samples from captive gorillas (N=16) and woolly monkeys (N=8). As with the human study, the two corrections were strongly correlated in each species, but the means were different. Specific gravity correction was superior in revealing the circadian variation in cortisol. PMID:20648576

White, Brent C; Jamison, Keri M; Grieb, Cassie; Lally, Drew; Luckett, Cloe; Kramer, Katie S; Phillips, Justin



Electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of lead in urine: results of an interlaboratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of an interlaboratory study are reported for the determination of lead in urine. Two levels of a lyophilized material containing biologically-bound lead were prepared using pooled urine obtained from lead-poisoned children undergoing the CaNa 2EDTA mobilization test. The materials were circulated to a group of reference laboratories that participate in the `New York State Proficiency Testing Program for Blood Lead'. Results of the initial round-robin gave all-method consensus target values of 145±22 ?g/l (S.D.) for lot 17 and 449±43 ?g/l (S.D.) for lot 20. The interlaboratory exercise was repeated some 5 years later and consensus target values were re-calculated using the grand mean (excluding outliers) of results reported by laboratories using electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The re-calculated target values were 139±10 ?g/l (S.D.) and 433±12 ?g/l (S.D.). The urine reference materials were also analyzed for lead by several laboratories using other instrumental techniques including isotope dilution (ID), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS), flame atomic absorption with extraction, ICP-atomic emission spectrometry, ID-gas chromatography MS and flow injection-hydride generation AAS, thus providing a rich source of analytical data with which to characterize them. The materials were also used in a long-term validation study of an ETAAS method developed originally for blood lead determinations that has since been used unmodified for the determination of lead in urine also. Recently, urine lead method performance has been tracked in a proficiency testing program specifically for this analysis. In addition, a number of commercial control materials have been analyzed and evaluated.

Parsons, Patrick J.; Slavin, Walter



Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in two successive urinary voids from drinking drivers: relationship to creatinine content and blood and urine ethanol concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of alcohol in blood (BAC) and two successive urine voids (UAC) from 100 drunk drivers were compared with the concentration of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol in urine, and the urinary creatinine content as an indicator of dilution. The subjects consisted of 87 men with mean age 42.2±14.2 years (±standard deviation, S.D.) and 13 women

J Bergström; A Helander; A. W Jones



Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.  


The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. PMID:23867847

Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L



Urine specific gravity test  


Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that measures the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...


Lead concentrations in livers of Maryland waterfowl with and without ingested lead shot present in gizzards  

SciTech Connect

The significance of lead poisoning in waterfowl caused by ingestion of spent lead shot has long been recognized, as has the adverse impact on waterfowl populations. The present report is concerned with comparison of liver lead concentrations in 14 species of waterfowl with and without ingested lead shot present in their gizzards. The data presented indicate that higher concentrations of lead are found in those waterfowl with ingested lead shot and that analysis of liver lead concentrations reveals that substantial numbers of waterfowl have high concentrations, indicative of recent acute dosing, without presence of ingested lead shot in gizzards.

Scanlon, P.F. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg); Stotts, V.D.; Oderwald, R.G.; Dietrick, T.J.; Kendall, R.J.



Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS).  


We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan



Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS)  

PubMed Central

We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function.

Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan



A comparison of concentrations of lead in human tissues.  

PubMed Central

This postmortem study of lead concentrations in the tissues of 129 subjects is an extension to a report by Barry and Mossman (1970). Lead concentrations in bone greatly exceeded the concentrations in soft tissues and were highest in the dense bones. Bone lead concentrations increased with age in both sexes, more especially in male subjects and in dense bone, varying between mean values of 2-16 ppm in the ribs of children to over 50 ppm in the dense petrous temporal bones of elderly male adults. Male adults contained over 30% more lead in their bones than females. Mean concentrations of lead in the soft tissues varied from less than 0-1 ppm in organs such as muscle and heart to over 2 ppm in the aorta. In most tissues with lead values in excess of 0-2 ppm the male concentrations exceeded female values by about 30%. With the exception of the aorta, spleen, lung, and prostate, lead concentrations did not increase with age in the soft tissues of either sex after about the second decade of life. Children showed concentrations of lead in their soft tissues comparable to female adults, but the concentrations in bone were much lower. It is suggested that children do not possess the same capacity as adults to retain lead in bone. In male adults occupationally exposed to lead the concentrations of lead in bone exceeded the concentrations in unexposed male adults within the same age group by two-to three-fold. Soft tissue lead concentrations between the two groups were less divergent. An assessment of the total body burden of lead revealed higher levels in adult male subjects than in females at mean values of 164-8 mg compared to 103-6 mg, respectively. Over 90% of the total body burden of lead in adults was in bone, of which over 70% was in dense bone. Male adults occupationally exposed to lead had mean total body burdens of 566-4 mg Pb, of which 97% was in bone. The release of lead from bone in conjunction with calcium was not considered to be of physiological significance. Lead concentrations of hair and nails were higher than soft tissue lead concentrations and varied widely. Hair lead measurements were not considered to provide a reliable assessment of lead absorption. The concentrations of lead in tissues of a mixed group of subjects with no known occupational exposure to lead have been shown to be comparable to the findings in earlier studies. Present levels of lead in the environment are not considered to be a hazard to the health of the population in general. PMID:1131339

Barry, P S




EPA Science Inventory

Background Environmental lead exposure has been linked to alterations in growth and endocrine function. It is not known whether such exposure affects pubertal development. Methods We analyzed the relations between blood lead concentration and pubertal...


An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.  


In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead concentrations in hot sauces. PMID:23581685

Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L



An efficient numerical method for distributed-loop models of the urine concentrating mechanism.  


In this study we describe an efficient numerical method, based on the semi-Lagrangian (SL) semi-implicit (SI) method and Newton's method, for obtaining steady-state (SS) solutions of equations arising in distributed-loop models of the urine concentrating mechanism. Dynamic formulations of these models contain large systems of coupled hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). The SL method advances the solutions of these PDEs in time by integrating backward along flow trajectories, thus allowing large time steps while maintaining stability. The SI approach controls stiffness arising from transtubular transport terms by averaging these terms in time along flow trajectories. An approximate SS solution of a dynamic formulation obtained via the SLSI method can be used as an initial guess for a Newton-type solver, which rapidly converges to a highly accurate numerical approximation to the solution of the ordinary differential equations that arise in the corresponding SS model formulation. In general, it is difficult to specify a priori for a Newton-type solver an initial guess that falls within the radius of convergence; however, the initial guess generated by solving the dynamic formulation via the SLSI method can be made sufficiently close to the SS solution to avoid numerical instability. The combination of the SLSI method and the Newton-type solver generates stable and accurate solutions with substantially reduced computation times, when compared to previously applied dynamic methods. PMID:12445757

Layton, Anita T; Layton, Harold E



Effects and interactions of gentamicin, polyaspartic acid and diuretics on urine calcium concentration.  


Gentamicin causes isolated, reversible calciuria in rats by an unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that gentamicin calciuria is related to nonantibacterial properties that may interfere with transtubular calcium transport (calcium channel blockade, Na,K-ATPase inhibition or competition with calcium for binding to the brush-border membrane). The calciuric effect of gentamicin was compared to the calcium channel blockers lanthanum and cobalt, the Na,K-ATPase inhibitor ouabain and the polycation aprotinin (which competes with gentamicin for brush-border membrane binding). Although gentamicin 0.02 mmol/kg caused a 6-8-fold increase in urine calcium concentration, none of the other agents was calciuric. We also found that the calciuric effects of gentamicin and furosemide were additive, whereas the noncalciuric diuretic chlorothiazide had no effect on gentamicin calciuria. We also determined the effect of poly-L-aspartic acid (PAA), which binds gentamicin and prevents nephrotoxicity. PAA caused isolated calciuria similar in magnitude and character to gentamicin. However, PAA pretreatment decreased the magnitude of gentamicin calciuria to insignificance. PAA pretreatment did not prevent furosemide calciuresis. These results indicate that: 1) gentamicin and furosemide calciuria are caused by different mechanisms; 2) gentamicin calciuria is probably not mediated by calcium channel blockade, Na,K-ATPase inhibition or displacement of brush-border membrane-bound calcium; 3) gentamicin and PAA calciuria may reflect interference with intracellular events related to transtubular calcium transport. PMID:7714777

Elliott, W C; Patchin, D S



Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.  


Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20°C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido



Urine Arsenic Concentrations and Species Excretion Patterns in American Indian Communities Over a 10-year Period: The Strong Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Arsenic exposure in drinking water disproportionately affects small communities in some U.S. regions, including American Indian communities. In U.S. adults with no seafood intake, median total urine arsenic is 3.4 ?g/L. Objective We evaluated arsenic exposure and excretion patterns using urine samples collected over 10 years in a random sample of American Indians from Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota who participated in a cohort study from 1989 to 1999. Methods We measured total urine arsenic and arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate), methylarsonate (MA), dimethylarsinate (DMA), and arsenobetaine] concentrations in 60 participants (three urine samples each, for a total of 180 urine samples) using inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography/ICPMS, respectively. Results Median (10th, 90th percentiles) urine concentration for the sum of inorganic arsenic, MA, and DMA at baseline was 7.2 (3.1, 16.9) ?g/g creatinine; the median was higher in Arizona (12.5 ?g/g), intermediate in the Dakotas (9.1 ?g/g), and lower in Oklahoma (4.4 ?g/g). The mean percentage distribution of arsenic species over the sum of inorganic and methylated species was 10.6% for inorganic arsenic, 18.4% for MA, and 70.9% for DMA. The intraclass correlation coefficient for three repeated arsenic measurements over a 10-year period was 0.80 for the sum of inorganic and methylated species and 0.64, 0.80, and 0.77 for percent inorganic arsenic, percent MA, and percent DMA, respectively. Conclusions This study found low to moderate inorganic arsenic exposure and confirmed long-term constancy in arsenic exposure and urine excretion patterns in American Indians from three U.S. regions over a 10-year period. Our findings support the feasibility of analyzing arsenic species in large population-based studies with stored urine samples. PMID:19750109

Navas-Acien, Ana; Umans, Jason G.; Howard, Barbara V.; Goessler, Walter; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Guallar, Eliseo



The concentration of bisphenol A in urine is affected by specimen collection, a preservative, and handling  

PubMed Central

In urine specimens that were collected from pregnant women in a large cohort, 24% contained more than 10 ng/ml of total bisphenol A (BPA), suggesting external contamination. Therefore, we conducted an investigation of the source(s) of extraneous BPA in the specimens. We found that under the conditions used to collect urine specimens in the epidemiologic study, contamination with BPA occurred, and by two separate mechanisms. PMID:23899777

Longnecker, M.P.; Harbak, K.; Kissling, G.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Eggesbo, M.; Jusko, T.A.; Eide, J.; Koch, H.M.



Measurement of sodium ion concentration in undiluted urine with cation-selective polymeric membrane electrodes after the removal of interfering compounds.  


The measurement of sodium ion concentration in urine can provide diagnostic information and guide therapy. Unfortunately, neutral-carrier-based ion-selective electrodes show a large positive drift and loss in selectivity in undiluted urine. The extraction of electrically neutral lipids from the urine into the sensing membrane was suggested as the main source of the drift, loss of selectivity and the consequent incorrect concentration readings. In this work, (i) solvent-solvent extraction, (ii) membrane-immobilized solvent extraction and (iii) solid phase extraction were used to remove interfering compounds from urine samples. The "cleaned" urine samples were subsequently analyzed using a calixarene (sodium ionophore X)-based, solid-contact, sodium-selective electrode in a flow-through manifold. The solid-contact sodium sensors had excellent stability in cleaned urine and an acceptable bias compared to commercial clinical analyzers. PMID:18371638

Phillips, Feyisayo; Kaczor, Kim; Gandhi, Neel; Pendley, Bradford D; Danish, Robert K; Neuman, Michael R; Tóth, Blanka; Horváth, Viola; Lindner, Ernö



Effects of iron therapy on blood lead concentrations in infants.  


To determine whether blood lead concentration is elevated in iron-deficient infants, blood lead and serum ferritin concentrations, serum iron/transferring iron-binding capacity (Fe/TIBC) and complete blood counts were measured in 30 iron deficient and 35 control infants, aged 6-24 months. All 30 iron-deficient infants received iron supplementation (ferric hydroxide-polymaltose complex, 6mg/kg Fe(3+)/day) for 1-6 months. Blood lead concentrations were measured in 18 of the iron deficient infants after their ferritin levels returned to the normal range. The geometric mean blood lead concentration was higher in iron deficient than in control infants (1.846 vs. 1.416?g/dL). After iron therapy, the blood lead levels of iron-deficient infants decreased significantly compared with pre-treatment levels (1.785 vs. 2.386?g/dL), and the hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations increased significantly. These findings indicate that iron deficiency increases blood lead concentrations in infants with very low blood lead concentrations. PMID:24315962

Park, Sangkyu; Sim, Chang Sun; Lee, Heun; Kim, Yangho



A statistical analysis of lead concentrations in human lung samples  

E-print Network

A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LEAD CONCENTRATIONS IN HUMAN LUNG SAMPLES A Thesis by CLAUDE ALLEN STRINGER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Chemistry A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LEAD CONCENTRATIONS IN HUMAN LUNG SAMPLES A Thesis CLAUDE ALLEN STRINGER, JR. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commi e) (Head of Department) C Member (Memb...

Stringer, Claude Allen



Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in bus drivers  

SciTech Connect

San Francisco bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in 342 drivers. The analysis reported in this study was limited to subjects not on treatment for hypertension (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic pressure varied from 102 to 173 mm Hg and from 61 to 105 mm Hg, respectively. The blood lead concentration varied from 2 to 15 The relationship between blood pressure and the logarithm of blood lead concentration was examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The largest regression coefficient relating systolic blood pressure and blood lead concentration was 1.8 mm Hg/ln ( The coefficient for diastolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg/ln ( These findings suggest effects of lead exposure at lower blood lead concentrations than those concentrations that have previously been linked with increases in blood pressure.

Sharp, D.S.; Osterloh, J.; Becker, C.E.; Bernard, B.; Smith, A.H.; Fisher, J.M.; Syme, S.L.; Holman, B.L.; Johnston, T.



Chronic use of chloroquine disrupts the urine concentration mechanism by lowering cAMP levels in the inner medulla.  


Chloroquine, a widely used anti-malaria drug, has gained popularity for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Unfortunately, chloroquine may also negatively impact renal function for patients whose fluid and electrolyte homeostasis is already compromised by diseases. Chronic administration of chloroquine also results in polyuria, which may be explained by suppression of the antidiuretic response of vasopressin. Several of the transporters responsible for concentrating urine are vasopressin-sensitive including the urea transporters UT-A1 and UT-A3, the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2), and the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2). To examine the effect of chloroquine on these transporters, Sprague-Dawley rats received daily subcutaneous injections of 80 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) of chloroquine for 4 days. Twenty-four hour urine output was twofold higher, and urine osmolality was decreased by twofold in chloroquine-treated rats compared with controls. Urine analysis of treated rats detected the presence chloroquine as well as decreased urine urea and cAMP levels compared with control rats. Western blot analysis showed a downregulation of AQP2 and NKCC2 transporters; however, UT-A1 and UT-A3 abundances were unaffected by chloroquine treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed a marked reduction of UT-A1 and AQP2 in the apical membrane in inner medullary collecting ducts of chloroquine-treated rats. In conclusion, chloroquine-induced polyuria likely occurs as a result of lowered cAMP production. These findings suggest that chronic chloroquine treatment would exacerbate the already compromised fluid homeostasis observed in diseases like chronic kidney disease. PMID:22791344

von Bergen, Tobias N; Blount, Mitsi A



Drying methods effects on nitrogen and energy concentrations in pig feces and urine, and poultry excreta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate estimation of digestibility coefficients are critical in nutrient balance and feed evaluation studies as errors that occur are often additive. However, there is no standard universal method for drying feces, urine, or excreta prior to laboratory analysis. The objective of this study was to ...


Concentration of Wear Products in Hair, Blood, and Urine after Total Hip Replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raised levels of cobalt and chromium are found in the blood and urine of patients with metallic total hip replacements. When one of the hip components is made of polyethylene much less metal seems to be released from the joint. The long-term effects of the accumulation of chromium in the body need to be studied further.

R. F. Coleman; J. Herrington; John T. Scales



Stable lead isotopes reveal a natural source of high lead concentrations to gasoline-contaminated groundwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of total lead as high as 1,600 ??g/L were detected in gasoline-contaminated and uncontaminated groundwater at three gasoline-release sites in South Carolina. Total lead concentrations were highest in turbid groundwater samples from gasoline-contaminated and uncontaminated wells, whereas lower turbidity groundwater samples (collected using low-flow methods) had lower total lead concentrations. Dissolved lead concentrations in all wells sampled, however, were less than 15 ??g total lead/L, the current United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL). Because many total lead concentrations exceeded the MCL, the source of lead to the groundwater system at two of the three sites was investigated using a stable lead isotope ratio approach. Plots of the stable isotope ratios of lead (Pb) in groundwater as 207Pb/206Pb versus 208Pb/206Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb versus 206Pb/204Pb were similar to ratios characteristic of lead-based minerals in local rocks of the southeastern US, and were not similar to the stable lead isotopes ratios characteristic of distant lead ore deposits such as Broken Hill, Australia, used to produce tetraethyl lead in gasoline products prior to its phase-out and ban in the United States. Moreover, the isotopic composition of dissolved lead was equivalent to the isotopic composition of total lead in turbid samples collected from the same well, suggesting that the majority of the lead detected in the groundwater samples was associated with sediment particulates of indigenous aquifer material, rather than lead associated with spilled leaded gasoline. The results of this investigation indicate that (1) lead detected at some gasoline-release sites may be derived from the local aquifer material, rather than the gasoline release, and consequently may affect site-specific remediation goals; (2) non-low flow groundwater sampling methods, such as a disposable bailer, may result in turbid groundwater samples and high total lead concentrations, and; (3) stable lead isotopes can be used to clarify the source of lead detected above permissible levels in gasoline-contaminated groundwater systems.

Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.; Bullen, T.D.



Urine-concentrating mechanism in the inner medulla: function of the thin limbs of the loops of Henle.  


The ability of mammals to produce urine hyperosmotic to plasma requires the generation of a gradient of increasing osmolality along the medulla from the corticomedullary junction to the papilla tip. Countercurrent multiplication apparently establishes this gradient in the outer medulla, where there is substantial transepithelial reabsorption of NaCl from the water-impermeable thick ascending limbs of the loops of Henle. However, this process does not establish the much steeper osmotic gradient in the inner medulla, where there are no thick ascending limbs of the loops of Henle and the water-impermeable ascending thin limbs lack active transepithelial transport of NaCl or any other solute. The mechanism generating the osmotic gradient in the inner medulla remains an unsolved mystery, although it is generally considered to involve countercurrent flows in the tubules and vessels. A possible role for the three-dimensional interactions between these inner medullary tubules and vessels in the concentrating process is suggested by creation of physiologic models that depict the three-dimensional relationships of tubules and vessels and their solute and water permeabilities in rat kidneys and by creation of mathematical models based on biologic phenomena. The current mathematical model, which incorporates experimentally determined or estimated solute and water flows through clearly defined tubular and interstitial compartments, predicts a urine osmolality in good agreement with that observed in moderately antidiuretic rats. The current model provides substantially better predictions than previous models; however, the current model still fails to predict urine osmolalities of maximally concentrating rats. PMID:23908457

Dantzler, William H; Layton, Anita T; Layton, Harold E; Pannabecker, Thomas L



Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. [to combat orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To compensate for the reduced blood and fluid volumes that develop during weightlessness, the Space Shuttle crewmembers consume salt tablets and water equivalent to 1 l of normal saline, about 2 hrs before landing. This paper compares the effects on blood, urine, and cardiovascular variables of the ingestion of 1 l of normal (0.9 percent) saline with the effects of distilled water, 1 percent glucose, 0.74 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, 0.9 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, and 1.07 percent saline. It was found that the expansion of plasma volume and the concentration of urine were greater 4 hrs after ingestion of 1.07 percent saline solution than after ingestion of normal saline and that the solutions containig glucose did not enhance any variables as compared with normal saline.

Frey, Mary A.; Riddle, Jeanne; Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.



Immunoelectrophoresis - urine  


Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - urine; Gamma globulin electrophoresis - urine; Urine immunoglobulin electrophoresis; IEP - urine ... is used to measure the amounts of various immunoglobulins in urine. Most often, it is done after ...


Antioxidant-rich spice added to hamburger meat during cooking results in reduced meat, plasma, and urine malondialdehyde concentrations1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Emerging science has shown the effect of oxidation products and inflammation on atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. Cooking hamburger meat can promote the formation of malondialdehyde that can be absorbed after ingestion. Objective:We studied the effect of an antioxidant spice mixture on malondialdehyde formation while cooking hamburger meat and its effects on plasma and urinary malondialdehyde concentrations. Design: Eleven healthy volunteers consumed 2 kinds of burgers in a randomized order: one burger was seasoned with a spice blend, and one burger was not seasoned with the spice blend. The production of malondialdehyde in burgers and malondialdehyde concentrations in plasma and urine after ingestion were measured by HPLC. Results:Rosmarinic acid from oregano was monitored to assess the effect of cooking on spice antioxidant content. Forty percent (19 mg) of the added rosmarinic acid remained in the spiced burger (SB) after cooking. There was a 71% reduction in the malondialdehyde concentration (mean ± SD: 0.52 ± 0.02 ?mol/250 g) in the meat of the SBs compared with the malondialdehyde concentration (1.79 ± 0.17 ?mol/250 g) in the meat of the control burgers (CBs). The plasma malondialdehyde concentration increased significantly in the CB group as a change from baseline (P = 0.026). There was a significant time-trend difference (P = 0.013) between the 2 groups. Urinary malondialdehyde concentrations (?mol/g creatinine) decreased by 49% (P = 0.021) in subjects consuming the SBs compared with subjects consuming the CBs. Conclusions: The overall effect of adding the spice mixture to hamburger meat before cooking was a reduction in malondialdehyde concentrations in the meat, plasma, and urine after ingestion. Therefore, cooking hamburgers with a polyphenol-rich spice mixture can significantly decrease the concentration of malondialdehyde, which suggests potential health benefits for atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. This trial was registered at clinical as NCT01027052. PMID:20335545

Li, Zhaoping; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Luyi; Gao, Kun; Lee, Ru-Po; Karp, Hannah; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan



Factors associated with blood lead concentrations of children in Jamaica.  


Lead is a heavy metal known to be detrimental to neurologic, physiologic, and behavioral health of children. Previous studies from Jamaica reported that mean lead levels in soil are four times that of lead levels in some other parts of the world. Other studies detected lead levels in fruits and root vegetables, which were grown in areas with lead contaminated soil. In this study, we investigate environmental factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The participants in this study comprised 125 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2-8 years) who served as controls in an age- and sex-matched case-control study that enrolled children from 2009-2012 in Jamaica. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as potential exposures to lead through food. Using General Linear Models (GLMs), we identified factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The geometric mean blood lead concentration (GMBLC) in the sample of children in this study was 2.80 ?g dL(-1). In univariable GLM analyses, GMBLC was higher for children whose parents did not have education beyond high school compared to those whose parents had attained this level (3.00 ?g dL(-1) vs. 2.31 ?g dL(-1); P = 0.05), children living near a high traffic road compared to those who did not (3.43 ?g dL(-1) vs. 2.52 ?g dL(-1); P < 0.01), and children who reported eating ackee compared to those who did not eat this fruit (2.89 ?g dL(-1) vs. 1.65 ?g dL(-1); P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, living near a high traffic road was identified as an independent risk factor for higher adjusted GMBLC (3.05 ?g dL(-1) vs. 2.19 ?g dL(-1); P = 0.01). While our findings indicate that GMBLC in Jamaican children has dropped by at least 62% during the past two decades, children living in Jamaica still have GMBLC that is twice that of children in more developed countries. In addition, we have identified significant risk factors for higher blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. We believe increasing awareness among parents regarding these risk factors could potentially lead to a lower level of lead exposure in Jamaican children. PMID:25837555

Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Loveland, Katherine A; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric



Analysis of nutrient concentrations in the diet, serum, and urine of giraffe from surveyed North American zoological institutions.  


The objectives of the present research were to conduct a survey to investigate the health history and feeding practices of giraffe in captivity in North America and to obtain samples of hay, concentrate, browse, urine, and serum to compare across zoos, possible factors relating to the development of urolithiasis. Forty-one out of 98 institutions contacted responded, representing 218 giraffe. All responding zoos fed concentrate and alfalfa hay was the primary forage. Sixty-five percent of zoos fed browse and 43 different species of browse were listed. Six zoos reported a history of urolithiasis, seven reported wasting syndrome, and 10 reported sudden death. The median daily amount (as fed) of concentrate and hay offered were 5.45 kg (range of 2.73-9.55 kg) and 6.82 kg (range of 2.53-12.50 kg), respectively. The concentrate:hay ratio of the offered diet ranged from 0.22 to 3.47 with a median value of 0.79. Forty-three percent of the institutions offered a ratio greater than 1:1. Samples of concentrate and hay (six zoos), serum (five zoos), and urine (seven zoos) were obtained for chemical analyses. Analyzed nutrient content of the consumed diet, measured by weighing feed and orts for three consecutive days, met recommendations for giraffe, but was excessive for crude protein and P. Concentrate:hay and serum P were positively correlated (r=0.72; P<0.05). High dietary P content and a high level of concentrate relative to hay may be contributing factors to urolith formation and warrant further investigation. PMID:19816905

Sullivan, Kathleen; van Heugten, Eric; Ange-van Heugten, Kimberly; Poore, Matthew H; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Wolfe, Barbara



Correlation between lead and cadmium concentration and semen quality.  


There are contrary reports of association of lead and cadmium with the decline in semen quality. This study evaluates whether seminal lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) at environmental concentration are associated with altered semen quality. We conducted a study of healthy fertile and infertile men 20-43 years of age attending the Andrology Laboratory of Reproductive Biology Department for semen analysis. The semen analysis was carried out according to the WHO 2010 guidelines. Seminal lead and cadmium were estimated by ICP-AES. The lead and cadmium values were significantly higher in infertile subjects. A negative association between seminal lead or cadmium concentration and sperm concentration, sperm motility and per cent abnormal spermatozoa was found. This study shows that exposure to Pb (5.29-7.25 ?g dl(-1) ) and cadmium (4.07-5.92 ?g dl(-1) ) might affect semen profile in men. Age, diet, smoking and tobacco chewing habits may have an influence on the increase in exposure to Pb and Cd in the individual subjects. PMID:25228328

Pant, N; Kumar, G; Upadhyay, A D; Gupta, Y K; Chaturvedi, P K



Impacts of converting from leaded to unleaded gasoline on ambient lead concentrations in Jakarta metropolitan area.  


Total suspended particulate mater (TSP) concentrations were monitored for one year from July 2000 and for one year from April 2003 in Jakarta City. Thirteen elemental TSP components, aluminum (Al), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), titanium (Ti), manganese (Mn), bromine (Br), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and vanadium (V) were analyzed by a sequential X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Al, Na, Fe, K, and Pb were major components at most of the sampling locations in 2000. However, only Pb in 2003 dramatically decreased to one tenth. The phase-out of leaded gasoline began on July 1, 2001 in Jakarta City and lead content in gasoline decreased to one tenth, too. The decrease in Pb concentration was a result of the phase-out of leaded gasoline, as lead emissions mainly are exhaust gas from vehicles. PMID:17969644

Kondo, Akira; Hamonangan, Esrom; Soda, Satoshi; Kaga, Akikazu; Inoue, Yoshio; Eguchi, Masaharu; Yasaka, Yuta



Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.  


The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species. PMID:19416182

Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W



Bilirubin - urine  


Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...


Interaction between vasopressin and angiotensin II in vivo and in vitro: effect on aquaporins and urine concentration  

PubMed Central

The study was undertaken to examine the potential cross talk between vasopressin and angiotensin II (ANG II) intracellular signaling pathways. We investigated in vivo and in vitro whether vasopressin-induced water reabsorption could be attenuated by ANG II AT1 receptor blockade (losartan). On a low-sodium diet (0.5 meq/day) dDAVP-treated animals with or without losartan exhibited comparable renal function [creatinine clearance 1.2 ± 0.1 in dDAVP+losartan (LSDL) vs. 1.1 ± 0.1 ml·100 g?1·day?1 in dDAVP alone (LSD), P > 0.05] and renal blood flow (6.3 ± 0.5 in LSDL vs. 6.8 ± 0.5 ml/min in LSD, P > 0.05). The urine output, however, was significantly increased in LSDL (2.5 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 ml·100 g?1·day?1, P < 0.05) in association with decreased urine osmolality (2,600 ± 83 vs. 3,256 ± 110 mosmol/kgH2O, P < 0.001) compared with rats in LSD. Immunoblotting revealed significantly decreased expression of medullary AQP2 (146 ± 6 vs. 176 ± 10% in LSD, P < 0.01), p-AQP2 (177 ± 13 vs. 214 ± 12% in LSD, P < 0.05), and AQP3 (134 ± 14 vs. 177 ± 11% in LSD, P < 0.05) in LSDL compared with LSD. The expressions of AQP1, the ?1- and ?-subunits of Na-K-ATPase, and the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter were not different among groups. In vitro studies showed that ANG II or dDAVP treatment was associated with increased AQP2 expression and cAMP levels, which were potentiated by cotreatment with ANG II and dDAVP and were inhibited by AT1 blockade. In conclusion, ANG II AT1 receptor blockade in dDAVP-treated rats on a low-salt diet was associated with decreased urine concentration and decreased inner medullary AQP2, p-AQP2, and AQP3 expression, suggesting that AT1 receptor activation plays a significant role in regulating aquaporin expression and modulating urine concentration in vivo. Studies in collecting duct cells were confirmatory. PMID:20576679

Wang, Weidong; Li, Chunling; Summer, Sandra; Falk, Sandor



Lead pellet ingestion and liver-lead concentrations in upland game birds from southern Ontario, Canada.  


One-hundred twenty-three gizzards from upland game birds (chukar, Alectoris chukar; and common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) harvested by hunters in southern Ontario, Canada, were examined for lead pellet ingestion by manual examination of gizzard contents and by radiography. Lead pellets were found to be ingested by chukars (6/76; 8%) and the common pheasant (16/47; 34%). Further, 13% (17/129) of the bird (wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo; Hungarian partridge, Perdix perdix; chukar; and common pheasant) livers analyzed had elevated lead concentrations (> or =6 microg/g wet weight [ww]). Liver-lead concentrations above Health Canada's guideline for human consumption of fish protein (<0.5 microg/g ww) were found in 40% (51/129) of livers analyzed. Data indicate that the ingestion of lead pellets in upland game birds and the potential consumption of lead-contaminated meat by humans are concerns related to the continued use of lead shotshell for hunting. PMID:17763885

Kreager, N; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; Tsuji, L J S



Methods for measuring lead concentrations in paint films  

SciTech Connect

Recent legislation required the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to establish procedures to abate lead-based paint in existing HUD-assisted housing. The legislation also required HUD to assess the accuracy, precision, reliability, and safety of methods for measuring lead content of paint films and to investigate the availability of testers and samplers. The National Institute of Standards and Technology was requested to carry out the assessment. With regard to accuracy and precision of field measurements, it was concluded that: chemical spot tests when carried out by an experienced analytical chemistry technician can detect the presence of lead in paint films having concentrations in excess of 1 mg/sq cm about 90% of the time; the estimate of the precision of a field measurement procedure using lead-specific portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers for lead concentrations near 1 mg/sq cm is + or - 0.6 mg/sq cm and the estimate of the bias is 0.2 mg/sq cm; this results in a 95% confidence interval of + or - 1.4 mg/sq cm; and based upon very preliminary measurements using the latest version of the spectrum analyzer portable XRF, the 95% confidence interval for field measurements is estimated to be + or - 0.5 mg/sq cm. In addition to field methods, standard laboratory procedures can be used to measure the lead content of paint samples to within a few percent of the quantity present over a wide range extending from less than 0.1 to over 10 mg/sq cm. Sample collection and sample dissolution procedures were also investigated.

McKnight, M.E.; Byrd, W.E.; Roberts, W.E.; Lagergren, E.S.



An analysis of workers' tritium concentration in urine samples as a function of time after intake at Korean pressurised heavy water reactors.  


In general, internal exposure from tritium at pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) accounts for ?20-40 % of the total radiation dose. Tritium usually reaches the equilibrium concentration after a few hours inside the body and is then excreted from the body with an effective half-life in the order of 10 d. In this study, tritium metabolism was reviewed using its excretion rate in urine samples of workers at Korean PHWRs. The tritium concentration in workers' urine samples was also measured as a function of time after intake. On the basis of the monitoring results, changes in the tritium concentration inside the body were then analysed. PMID:22511731

Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young



Urine concentrating mechanism in the inner medulla of the mammalian kidney: role of three-dimensional architecture  

PubMed Central

The urine concentrating mechanism in the mammalian renal inner medulla (IM) is not understood, although it is generally considered to involve countercurrent flows in tubules and blood vessels. A possible role for the three-dimensional relationships of these tubules and vessels in the concentrating process is suggested by recent reconstructions from serial sections labelled with antibodies to tubular and vascular proteins and mathematical models based on these studies. The reconstructions revealed that the lower 60% of each descending thin limb (DTL) of Henle’s loops lacks water channels (aquaporin-1) and osmotic water permeability and ascending thin limbs (ATLs) begin with a prebend segment of constant length. In the outer zone of the IM (i) clusters of coalescing collecting ducts (CDs) form organizing motif for loops of Henle and vasa recta; (ii) DTLs and descending vasa recta (DVR) are arrayed outside CD clusters, whereas ATLs and ascending vasa recta (AVR) are uniformly distributed inside and outside clusters; (iii) within CD clusters, interstitial nodal spaces are formed by a CD on one side, AVR on two sides, and an ATL on the fourth side. These spaces may function as mixing chambers for urea from CDs and NaCl from ATLs. In the inner zone of the IM, cluster organization disappears and half of Henle’s loops have broad lateral bends wrapped around terminal CDs. Mathematical models based on these findings and involving solute mixing in the interstitial spaces can produce urine slightly more concentrated than that of a moderately antidiuretic rat but no higher. PMID:21054810

Dantzler, W. H.; Pannabecker, T. L.; Layton, A. T.; Layton, H. E.



Quantitative analysis of total ?-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin concentration in urine by immunomagnetic reduction to assist in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background The initial diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy depends on physical examination, ultrasound, and serial measurements of total ?-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG?) concentrations in serum. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using quantitative analysis of total hCG? in urine rather than in serum by immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assay as an alternative method to diagnose an ectopic pregnancy. Methods We established a standard calibration curve of IMR intensity against total hCG? concentration based on standard hCG? samples, and used an IMR assay to detect total hCG? concentrations in the urine of pregnant women with lower abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding. The final diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was based on ultrasound scans, operative findings, and pathology reports. In this prospective study, ten clinical samples were used to analyze the relationship of total hCG? IMR signals between urine and serum. Furthermore, 20 clinical samples were used to analyze the relationship between urine IMR signals and serum levels of total hCG?. Results The calibration curve extended from 0.01 ng/mL to 10,000 ng/mL with an excellent correlation (R2=0.999). In addition, an excellent correlation of total hCG? IMR signals between urine and serum was noted (R2=0.994). Furthermore, a high correlation between urine IMR signals and serum levels of total hCG? was noted (R2=0.862). Conclusion An IMR assay can quantitatively analyze total hCG? concentrations in urine, and is a potential candidate for point-of-care testing to assist in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

Chen, Chen-Yu; Hwu, Yuh-Ming; Chen, Chie-Pein; Chang, Chia-Chen



Oxygen concentration measurement in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic  

SciTech Connect

Liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) eutectic (LBE) may see extensive use as a coolant fluid, and perhaps also as a spallation target, in next generation nuclear energy systems. While it is not as reactive as alkali metal liquids, it does present a long term corrosion problem with some materials, notably stainless steels. Mitigation of the corrosion problem may be achieved by producing and maintaining a protective oxide on exposed surfaces, through control of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the LBE. We have developed an oxygen sensor based on available zirconia-based solid electrolytes used in the automotive industry, which represents a relatively inexpensive source of reproducible and reliable components. We will present the design considerations and characteristics of our sensor unit, and describe its use in the LBE test loop at Los Alamos for measurement and control of dissolved oxygen concentration.

Darling, T. W. (Timothy W.); Li, N. (Ning)



Urine odor  


Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may affect your ...


Concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury and copper in mushrooms in the vicinity of a lead smelter.  


The concentrations of four heavy metals in 149 samples of mushroom fruiting bodies, representing 11 species, mainly all edible, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mushrooms were collected up to a distance of 6 km from a lead smelter in central Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) in operation since 1786. Lead was accumulated extensively by Lepiota rhacodes and Lepista nuda. Among other species, significant accumulation was found up to a distance of 1 km from the source. Concentrations of greater than 100 mg kg-1 dry matter were often determined. The safe limit of 5 mg kg-1 dry matter was exceeded in most samples collected at distances of up to 6 km from the source. Concentrations of cadmium in the polluted area were generally significantly higher than in other parts of Bohemia. Cadmium was extensively accumulated by the toxic Amanita muscaria, but also by the edible Boletus edulis and Amanita rubescens, with mean values 28.6, 15.2 and 12.3 mg Cd kg-1 dry matter, respectively. The Czechoslovakian statutory limit is 0.5 mg Cd kg-1 dry matter. Statistically significant linear correlations between lead and cadmium concentrations were found only for Boletus edulis and Paxillus involutus. Mercury was accumulated by Lepista nuda and Lepiota rhacodes; mean values of 11.9 and 6.5 mg Hg kg-1 dry matter, respectively, were found. Concentrations of mercury in most species from the study area were higher than in those from other parts of Bohemia. Lepiota rhacodes and Lepista nuda also accumulated copper extensively with mean values of 280 and 193 mg Cu kg-1 dry matter, respectively. PMID:1925517

Kalac, P; Burda, J; Stasková, I



Since the phase-out of leaded gasoline, lead concentrations in the well-monitored North Atlantic Ocean have fallen  

E-print Network

Since the phase-out of leaded gasoline, lead concentrations in the well-monitored North Atlantic to the North Pacific Ocean is believed to be impacting lead concentrations in this region considerably. Lead of Asian anthropogenic aerosols, as opposed to Asian crustal or North American sources. A portion


Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden.  


In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (>6 microg/gd.w.) lead concentrations, indicating exposure to leaded ammunition, and 14% of the individuals had either liver or kidney lead concentrations diagnostic of lethal lead poisoning (>20 microg/gd.w.). Lead concentrations in liver and kidney were significantly correlated. In individuals with lead levels <6 microg/g, concentrations were significantly higher in kidney than in liver; in individuals with lead levels >20 microg/g, concentrations were significantly higher in liver. The lead isotope ratios indicate that the source of lead in individuals with lethal concentrations is different from that of individuals exhibiting background concentrations of lead (<6 microg/gd.w.) There were no significant sex or age differences in lead concentrations. A study from the Baltic reported in principle no biomagnification of lead, but background lead concentrations in WSE liver in this study were still four to >10 times higher than concentrations reported for Baltic fish from the same time period. In contrast to other biota there was no decrease in lead concentrations in WSE over the study period. The proportion of lead poisoned WSE remained unchanged over the study period, including two years after a partial ban of lead shot was enforced in 2002 for shallow wetlands. The use of lead in ammunition poses a threat to all raptors potentially feeding on shot game or offal. The removal of offal from shot game and alternatives to leaded ammunition needs to be implemented in order to prevent mortality from lead in raptors and scavengers. PMID:19683793

Helander, B; Axelsson, J; Borg, H; Holm, K; Bignert, A



Effective radium concentration of lead-contaminated topsoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the global amount of topsoil is decreasing and its importance for agricultural purposes is increasing, the detection and quantification of metallic pollutions in topsoils has become a topical concern of the utmost importance. Radium, which is generally concentrated in metal oxides and hydroxides and relatively easily leached from rock and soil, could potentially give precious information about the extent of the pollution at large spatial scales. In this study, the radon source term (effective radium concentration, ECRa) of more than 300 topsoils from a lead-contaminated site in the North of France has been measured using the accumulation technique. After placing the sample in a container, sampling of the air is done using a scintillation flask after some accumulation time. Radon concentration in the flask is inferred from counting in a photomultiplier 3.5 h after sampling, from which the effective radium concentration (ECRa) of the soil sample is calculated, expressed in Bq kg-1. This technique allows the measurement of large numbers of samples. The ECRa results of the topsoils, obtained over ca. 800 km2, show remarkable spatial organization and the values are compared with the results of their chemical analyses performed at ISA (Lille, France) and BRGM (Orléans, France). The highly lead-contaminated zone (with Pb concentrations larger than 250 ppm) is also relatively well circumscribed using ECRa apart. Indeed, ECRa values of topsoils are larger in the contaminated area than outside, compared with the average regional ECRa value. The mapping of ECRa of topsoils at large spatial scale appears therefore as an important asset to characterize this polluted area. Our ECRa data are also compared with the low-field specific magnetic susceptibility (?m) and other magnetic parameters to infer some insights from the magnetic fabrics in the soil and the ECRa-?m relations. Relations between ECRa and others metallic elements (Cr, Co, Hg, Ag) or others intrinsic characteristics (amount of sand, silt, organic matter) of the topsoils are also provided. ECRa appears as a powerful parameter to characterize the spatial structure of soils, and in addition provides clues on the susceptibility to heavy metal contamination. This study opens some interesting perspectives for the understanding of the relation between radium and heavy metals in the environment.

Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Douay, Francis; Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie; Bollinger, Laurent



Urine culture  


Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You may also have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This most often means that you have a ...


Simultaneous Determination of Urinary Cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, and Nickel Concentrations in Steel Production Workers by Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening for metals in urine is important because toxic levels of these elements are linked to disease. In the current study, the authors used differential pulse stripping voltammetry on a hanging mercury drop electrode for the simultaneous determination of cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel in the urine of 63 production and 63 quality control workers in a steel production plant,

Ching-Jyi Horng; Ping-Hua Horng; John W. Hsu; Jin-Lian Tsai



Environmental and physiological factors contributing to tissue lead concentrations in freshwater molluscs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental and physiological factors contibuting to lead concentrations in selected freshwater molluscs were examined. Field investigation demonstrated that lead concentrations in Physa integra, Pseudosuccinea columella and Campeloma decisum reflected the lead levels at the two study sites. However, molluscs sharing a common habitat displayed widely differing lead levels. Lead concentrations in P. integra, P. columella and Helisoma trivolvis were correlated



Consumption of lead-shot cervid meat and blood lead concentrations in a group of adult Norwegians.  


Several recent investigations have reported high concentrations of lead in samples of minced cervid meat. This paper describes findings from a Norwegian study performed in 2012 among 147 adults with a wide range of cervid game consumption. The main aim was to assess whether high consumption of lead-shot cervid meat is associated with increased concentration of lead in blood. A second aim was to investigate to what extent factors apart from game consumption explain observed variability in blood lead levels. Median (5 and 95 percentile) blood concentration of lead was 16.6 µg/L (7.5 and 39 µg/L). An optimal multivariate linear regression model for log-transformed blood lead indicated that cervid game meat consumption once a month or more was associated with approximately 31% increase in blood lead concentrations. The increase seemed to be mostly associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. However, many participants with high and long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. Cervid meat together with number of bullet shots per year, years with game consumption, self-assembly of bullets, wine consumption and smoking jointly accounted for approximately 25% of the variation in blood lead concentrations, while age and sex accounted for 27% of the variance. Blood lead concentrations increased approximately 18% per decade of age, and men had on average 30% higher blood lead concentrations than women. Hunters who assembled their own ammunition had 52% higher blood lead concentrations than persons not making ammunition. In conjunction with minced cervid meat, wine intake was significantly associated with increased blood lead. Our results indicate that hunting practices such as use of lead-based ammunition, self-assembling of lead containing bullets and inclusion of lead-contaminated meat for mincing to a large extent determine the exposure to lead from cervid game consumption. PMID:24119336

Meltzer, H M; Dahl, H; Brantsæter, A L; Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Bernhoft, A; Oftedal, B; Lande, U S; Alexander, J; Haugen, M; Ydersbond, T A



Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered species: correlations with physiologic events and use as a marker of pregnancy.  


Many mammalian species are facing extinction due to problems created by human encroachment, agriculture, pollution, and willful slaughter. Among those at risk are the Asian and African elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros, and giant panda. Conservation groups try to save species in the wild by preserving habitat and limiting animal-human conflicts, often with limited success. Another alternative is to preserve the extant gene pool through captive breeding as a hedge against extinction. Measurement of circulating reproductive hormones is impractical for most wildlife species; determination of urinary or fecal hormone metabolites provides a more viable approach. To aid breeding management, one important tool is the ability to diagnose and monitor pregnancy, especially in species with long gestations (e.g., rhinos over 15 mo and elephants over 20 mo). Unfortunately, measuring progestins often is not useful diagnostically, because concentrations are similar during at least part of the pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase in some species (e.g., elephants, rhinoceroses, and giant pandas). As serum relaxin reliably distinguishes between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in bitches, relaxin measurement might also provide a method for detecting a successful pregnancy in endangered species. Appropriate immunoassay reagents have enabled the estimation of relaxin concentrations in the serum of elephants and rhinos and the determination of pregnancy establishment and the outcome. Relaxin was also detected in panda serum and urine. However, the extreme variability of the time between observed mating and parturition and the confounding factors of delayed implantation, pseudopregnancy, and frequent fetal resorptions made it impossible to use the panda relaxin data as a specific marker of pregnancy. PMID:15956734

Steinetz, Bernard G; Brown, Janine L; Roth, Terri L; Czekala, Nancy



Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.



Concentrations of lead in liver, kidney, and bone of bald and golden eagles.  


The diagnosis of lead poisoning in eagles relies on autopsy information and residue analysis of lead in certain tissues, usually liver or blood. Similarly, the assessment of elevated lead exposure in eagles depends on the determination of lead concentrations in these tissues. Renal and bone lead concentrations have rarely been examined in eagles. We examined relationships among hepatic, renal, and bone lead concentrations in bald and golden eagles from the Canadian prairie provinces. Hepatic and renal lead concentrations were strongly related (R2 = 0.87) while those in liver and bone were significantly but poorly related (R2 = 0.22). Renal lead concentrations of 5 and 18 microg x g-1 (dry weight) corresponded to hepatic lead concentrations of 6 and 30 microg x g-1, the hepatic concentrations that we used as criterion levels associated with elevated lead exposure and death from lead poisoning, respectively. Lead was elevated in 19 of 119 and 21 of 109 liver and kidney samples, respectively. Of these 19 and 21 liver and kidney samples, 14 and 11, respectively, had lead concentrations compatible with death from lead poisoning. Taken together, lead concentrations were elevated in liver or kidney samples from 25 eagles and were compatible with death from lead poisoning in 15. Mean bone lead was higher in eagles with elevated hepatic lead than in those exhibiting background hepatic lead concentrations. However, even in the former group, bone lead concentrations were lower than those in lead-exposed individuals of other species of birds. Bone is probably not a useful tissue for identifying elevated lead exposure in eagles. Three of eleven birds that had been shot had anomalous renal lead concentrations, suggestive of contamination by residue from lead ammunition. It is important to exclude such birds when assessing lead exposure.http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n2p267.html PMID:10398778

Wayland, M; Neugebauer, E; Bollinger, T



A preliminary study of residential paint lead concentrations in Johannesburg  

Microsoft Academic Search

While efforts are underway to phase out the use of leaded petrol in South Africa, relatively little attention has been devoted to the potential for childhood exposure to lead used in paint. This is one of the first studies undertaken on the African continent to report on the presence of lead-based paint. In South Africa, there is a dearth of

M. Montgomery; A. Mathee



Urine concentration test  


... is most often done if your doctor suspects central diabetes insipidus . The test can help tell it ... eds. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...


The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years  

SciTech Connect

Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)



Concentrations of lead in cosmetics commonly used in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present evidence of lead in lip liner, oil absorbent powder, mascara, concealer, lipsticks, lip gloss, and foundation. The samples were analyzed for lead by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The levels of lead in concealer, mascara, lip liner, and oil absorbent powder were found to be 7.4?±?1.3?µg?g, 15.8?±?0.2?µg?g, 29.0?±?9.2?µg?g, and 17.3?±?2.9?µg?g, respectively. The levels of lead in

J. D. O. Brandão; O. J. Okonkwo; M. Sehkula; R. M. Raseleka



Concentrations of lead in cosmetics commonly used in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present evidence of lead in lip liner, oil absorbent powder, mascara, concealer, lipsticks, lip gloss, and foundation. The samples were analyzed for lead by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The levels of lead in concealer, mascara, lip liner, and oil absorbent powder were found to be 7.4?±?1.3?µg?g, 15.8?±?0.2?µg?g, 29.0?±?9.2?µg?g, and 17.3?±?2.9?µg?g, respectively. The levels of lead in

J. D. O. Brandão; O. J. Okonkwo; M. Sehkula; R. M. Raseleka



Placental and stillbirth tissue lead concentrations in occupationally exposed women.  

PubMed Central

The lead values in maternal and infant blood, in placental tissue, and in stillbirth liver, kidney, and rib- and skull-bones have been determined in samples from the Stoke-on-Trent area. The lead values in antenatal blood and placenta increase with occupational exposure; liver and kidney stillbirth lead values are lower than those of much older children and rib-bone lead values from stillbirths were on average three times as high as those from a control group comprised of cot deaths and early infant deaths from accidental causes. PMID:7448135

Khera, A K; Wibberley, D G; Dathan, J G



Maple syrup urine disease  


... Persons with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... Plasma amino acid test Urine amino acid test There will be signs of ketosis and excess acid in blood (acidosis).


Urine - bloody  


... sickle cell, bleeding problems, and other blood disorders Urinalysis Urinary cytology Urine culture 24-hour urine collection ... the urologic patient: History, physical examination, and the urinalysis In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ...


A surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method for the determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine and variation of endogenous urinary concentrations of GHB.  


?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a strong anesthetic effect; however, proving its ingestion through the quantification of GHB in biological specimens is not straightforward due to the endogenous presence of GHB in human blood, urine, saliva, etc. In the present study, a surrogate analyte approach was applied to accurate quantitative determination of GHB in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to overcome this issue. For this, (2)H6-GHB and (13)C2-dl-3-hydroxybutyrate were used as a surrogate standard and as an internal standard, respectively, and parallelism between the surrogate analyte approach and standard addition was investigated at the initial step. The validation results proved the method to be selective, accurate, and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges (0.1-1?g/ml). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of (2)H6-GHB were 0.05 and 0.1?g/ml, respectively. No significant variations were observed among urine matrices from different sources. The stability of (2)H6-GHB was satisfactory under sample storage and in-process conditions. However, in vitro production of endogenous GHB was observed when the urine sample was kept under the in-process condition for 4h and under the storage conditions of 4 and -20°C. In order to facilitate the practical interpretation of urinary GHB, endogenous GHB was accurately measured in urine samples from 79 healthy volunteers using the surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method developed in the present study. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations in 74 urine samples with quantitative results ranged from 0.09 to 1.8?g/ml and from 4.5 to 530?g/mmol creatinine, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between the unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations. The urinary endogenous GHB concentrations were affected by gender and age while they were not significantly influenced by habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, or caffeine-containing beverage drinking. PMID:24929871

Kang, Soyoung; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun



Indices of potential lead hazard.  

PubMed Central

This review is concerned with the concentrations of lead in human whole blood, erythrocytes, plasma, serum, soft tissues, bone, and urine. The extent to which redistribution of some of the bound lead occurs is outlines. The effects of lead on enzyme activities and on the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in the blood and urine are described. A brief section deals with the range of signs and symptoms that can occur and differences seen between symptomatic children and adults. PMID:332498

Posner, H S



Environmental and physiological factors contributing to tissue lead concentrations in freshwater molluscs  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and physiological factors contibuting to lead concentrations in selected freshwater molluscs were examined. Field investigation demonstrated that lead concentrations in Physa integra, Pseudosuccinea columella and Campeloma decisum reflected the lead levels at the two study sites. However, molluscs sharing a common habitat displayed widely differing lead levels. Lead concentrations in P. integra, P. columella and Helisoma trivolvis were correlated with dissolved lead in the water. Lead concentrations in P. integra were also correlated with those in the dominant macrophyte at the study sites. The lead levels in these gastropods were not correlated with concentrations of Aufwuchs-associated lead. Lead levels in C. decisum were not correlated with the lead concentrations in any of the measured potential sources. Lead contributions in P. integra were independent of size. Lead levels in C. decisum were greatest in small snails. In laboratory experiments, P. integra accumulated lead rapidly from plant tissue and more slowly from the Aufwuchs. This species also eliminated lead rapidly. C. decisum neither accumulated lead rapidly from sediments nor eliminated lead rapidly from its body when exposed to a lead-free environment.

Newman, M.C.



Increased urinary cobalt and whole blood concentrations of cadmium and lead in women with uterine leiomyomata: Findings from the ENDO Study.  


Multiple trace elements have estrogen receptor activity, but the association of these elements with uterine leiomyoma has not been defined. A cohort of 473 women aged 18-44 undergoing surgery for benign gynecologic indications provided whole blood and urine specimens for trace element analysis, which was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Twenty elements were analyzed in blood and 3 in urine. The surgeon documented whether fibroids were present. Geometric mean concentrations were compared between women with and without fibroids, and logistic regression models were generated to assess the impact of the concentration of each trace element on the odds of fibroids. In multivariate regressions, odds of a fibroid diagnosis were higher with increased whole blood cadmium (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.04) and lead (AOR 1.31 95% CI 1.02, 1.69), and urine cobalt (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02, 1.70). Urinary cadmium and lead were not related to fibroid diagnosis. Increased exposure to trace elements may contribute to fibroid growth, and fibroids may serve as a reservoir for these elements. Differences between urinary and whole blood findings merit further investigation, as urinary cadmium has been considered a superior marker of exposure. PMID:24994689

Johnstone, Erica B; Louis, Germaine M Buck; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Palmer, Christopher D; Chen, Zhen; Sun, Liping; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Dorais, Jessie; Peterson, C Matthew



Lead concentrations in livers of Maryland waterfowl with and without ingested lead shot present in gizzards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of lead poisoning in waterfowl caused by ingestion of spent lead shot has long been recognized (WETMORE, 1919) as has the adverse impact on waterfowl populations (BELLROSE, 1959). The majority of observations on lead shot ingestion by waterfowl have been with dabbling duck species. Much less work has been done on diving ducks and geese although the problem

Patrick F. Scanlon; Vernon D. Stotts; Richard G. Oderwald; Timothy J. Dietrick; Ronald J. Kendall



Reduction of lead concentrations in vegetables grown in Tarragona Province, Spain, as a consequence of reduction of lead in gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Lead concentrations were determined in 350 samples belonging to 13 different species of vegetables from Tarragona Province, Spain. The samples were subjected to lead analyses by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. During the period 1989-1994, an average decrease for lead concentrations of 69% was estimated. Spinach showed the lowest reduction2 in lead content (6%), while the highest decreases were observed for onion (87%) and leek (90%). Taking into account the average consumption of vegetable foodstuffs by the population of Tarragona Province, the daily lead intake through edible vegetables was reduced from 41.5 {mu}g/d in 1989 to 10.6 {mu}g/d in 1994. The results of the current study demonstrate a substantial decline in the lead levels of vegetables from Tarragona Province. The major cause of this decline is most likely the reduced leaded gasoline consumption.

Belles, M.; Rico, A.; Schuhmacher, M. [Rovira i Virgili Univ., Reus (Spain)] [and others] [Rovira i Virgili Univ., Reus (Spain); and others



Breast milk lead concentrations of mothers living near tin smelters.  


We compared Pb concentration in human milk from 37 mothers living in a neighborhood of tin-ore smelters to that from 45 mothers living in a fishing community. The median breast-milk-Pb (BM-Pb) concentration was significantly (p = 0.0000001) higher (11.3 ?g L(-1); ?0.96-29.4 ?g L(-1)) in mothers living in the vicinity of smelters than that of rural mothers (1.9 ?g L(-1); ?0.96-20.0 ?g L(-1)). These mothers also showed a statistically significant correlation between length of residence and BM-Pb concentration (Spearman r = 0.6864; p < 0.0001). The estimated median exposure (for infants <6 months) was 3.0 ?g kg(-1) b.w. for rural infants compared to 7.5 ?g kg(-1) b.w. for infants in the vicinity of metal smelters. Overall, most BM-Pb concentrations (79 %) in the metal smelter area were above the critical limit of 5.0 ?g L(-1) set by the WHO. PMID:24068462

Marques, Rejane C; Moreira, Maria de Fátima R; Bernardi, José Vicente E; Dórea, José G



[A simple photometric test for the routine determination of delta-aminolaevulinic acid in urine for the control of lead exposure].  


A simple and accurate method for determining urinary concentration of delta-aminolaevulinic acid (delta-ALA) is described. It is based on an improved application of the principle, first introduced by Tomokuni and Ogata, that a colourless pyrrole derivative is produced by the action of acetic acid ethyl ester on delta-ALA, which develops a violet colour on addition of Ehrlich's reagent. The influence of interfering substances was found to account for 20 plus or minus 3% in all examined urines samples. It is, therefore, recommended that an aqueous delta-ALA standard be prepared which contains only 80% of the concentration used in the calculation. Exact values are obtained in this way and the need for setting up a calibration curve by adding delta-ALA is avoided. PMID:1053992

Hoeflmayr, J; Fried, R; Wildgruber, R



Concentrations of Lead in Liver, Kidney, and Bone of Bald and Golden Eagles  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The diagnosis of lead poisoning in eagles relies on autopsy information and residue analysis of lead in certain tissues,\\u000a usually liver or blood. Similarly, the assessment of elevated lead exposure in eagles depends on the determination of lead\\u000a concentrations in these tissues. Renal and bone lead concentrations have rarely been examined in eagles. We examined relationships\\u000a among hepatic, renal,

M. Wayland; E. Neugebauer; T. Bollinger



On-Demand Urine Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan



Isotopic evidence of the persistent dominance of blood lead concentrations by previous gasoline lead emissions in Yerevan, Armenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent (1999) blood lead (PbB) isotopic compositions (n=17) of males and females in Yerevan, Armenia, indicate that previous emissions of leaded gasoline still dominate the populace's PbB concentrations 2 years after the country's apparent de facto elimination of leaded gasoline in Armenia. The range of PbB isotopic compositions overlaps those of air and near-road surface soils in Yerevan, and the

Robert Kurkjian; A. Russell Flegal



Investigation of Higher Than Standard Lead Concentrations in Drinking Water From Washington, D.C  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over two years, the Washington, D.C. area has been plagued by the incidence of alarming concentrations of lead found in local drinking water. During this period, water with lead concentration levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) action limit of 15 ppb has been found in approximately 66% of the homes tested. Because of the problems with lead

N. E. Adarkwah; I. Ararso; N. Garcia; A. Goldman; C. Lieu; J. Mondragon; V. Swamy; M. Unigarro; K. Cuff



Influence of multiple injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on urine and serum endogenous steroids concentrations.  


Since it is established that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) affects testosterone production and release in the human body, the use of this hormone as a performance enhancing drug has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Nowadays, the only validated biomarker of a hCG doping is its direct quantification in urine. However, this specific parameter is subjected to large inter-individual variability and its determination is directly dependent on the reliability of hCG immunoassays used. In order to counteract these weaknesses, new biomarkers need to be evidenced. To address this issue, a pilot clinical study was performed on 10 volunteers submitted to 3 subsequent hCG injections. Blood and urine samples were collected during two weeks in order to follow the physiological effects on related compounds such as the steroid profile or hormones involved in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The hCG pharmacokinetic observed in all subjects was, as expected, prone to important inter-individual variations. Using ROC plots, level of testosterone and testosterone on luteinizing hormone ratio in both blood and urine were found to be the most relevant biomarker of a hCG abuse, regardless of inter-individual variations. In conclusion, this study showed the crucial importance of reliable quantification methods to assess low differences in hormonal patterns. In regard to these results and to anti-doping requirements and constraints, blood together with urine matrix should be included in the anti-doping testing program. Together with a longitudinal follow-up approach it could constitute a new strategy to detect a hCG abuse, applicable to further forms of steroid or other forbidden drug manipulation. PMID:21798680

Strahm, Emmanuel; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Pralong, François; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert



Lead Pellet Ingestion and Liver-Lead Concentrations in Upland Game Birds from Southern Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred twenty-three gizzards from upland game birds (chukar, Alectoris chukar; and common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) harvested by hunters in southern Ontario, Canada, were examined for lead pellet ingestion by manual examination of gizzard\\u000a contents and by radiography. Lead pellets were found to be ingested by chukars (6\\/76; 8%) and the common pheasant (16\\/47;\\u000a 34%). Further, 13% (17\\/129) of the bird

N. Kreager; B. C. Wainman; R. K. Jayasinghe; L. J. S. Tsuji



Lead concentrations in bullfrog Rana catesbeiana and green frog R. clamitans tadpoles inhabiting highway drainages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead concentrations were determined in sediment and tadpoles of bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana and green frogs R. clamitans from drainages along highways with different daily average traffic volumes (range, 4272 to I08,800 vehicles day-I) and from ponds >0.4 km from the nearest highway. Lead concentrations (mg kg--I dry weight) in sediment (7-8 to 940) were usually greater (4-5 times) than those in the tadpoles (bullfrog, 0,07 to 270; green frog, 0,90 to 240 mg kg-I). Lead concentrations in sediment (r =0.63) and in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = 0.69; green frog, r = 0.57) were positively correlated with average daily traffic volume. Lead concentrations in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = (). 76: green frog, r = 0.75) were also positively correlated with lead concentrations in sediment. At sites where both bullfrog and green frog tadpoles were collected. lead concentrations in the two species were closely related (r = 0.84). Lead concentrations in tadpoles living near highways may contribute to the elevated lead levels reported in wildlife that are potential tadpole predators. Dietary lead concentrations similar to those in our tadpoles have been associated with physiological and reproductive effects in some species of birds and mammals. However, additional data are needed to determine the hazards to predators of lead concentrations in tadpoles.

Birdsall, C.W.; Grue, C.E.; Anderson, A.



Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel carboxylesterase-like protein that is physiologically present at high concentrations in the urine of domestic cats (Felis catus).  

PubMed Central

Normal mammals generally excrete only small amounts of protein in the urine, thus avoiding major leakage of proteins from the body. Proteinuria is the most commonly recognized abnormality in renal disease. However, healthy domestic cats ( Felis catus ) excrete proteins at high concentrations (about 0.5 mg/ml) in their urine. We investigated the possible cause of proteinuria in healthy cats, and discovered a 70 kDa glycoprotein, which was excreted as a major urinary protein in cat urine, irrespective of gender. To elucidate the biochemical functions and the excretion mechanism of this protein, we cloned the cDNA for this protein from a cat kidney cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 47% identity with the rat liver carboxylesterase (EC, and both the serine hydrolase active site and the carboxylesterase-specific sequence were conserved. Therefore we named this protein cauxin (carboxylesterase-like urinary excreted protein). In contrast to the mammalian carboxylesterases, most of which are localized within the cells of various organs, cauxin was expressed specifically in the epithelial cells of the distal tubules, and was secreted efficiently into the urine, probably because it lacked the endoplasmic reticulum retention sequence (HDEL). Based on our finding that cauxin is not expressed in the immature cat kidney, we conclude that cauxin is involved in physiological functions that are specific for mature cats. Recently, cauxin-like cDNAs were found from human brain and teratocarcinoma cells. These data suggest that cauxin and cauxin-like human proteins are categorized as a novel group of carboxylesterase multigene family. PMID:12401131

Miyazaki, Masao; Kamiie, Katsuyoshi; Soeta, Satoshi; Taira, Hideharu; Yamashita, Tetsuro



Elevated lead concentrations in edible portions of game birds harvested with lead shot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report the results of a study to determine the frequency of elevated Pb concentrations in pectoral muscle tissue of hunter-killed game birds (mostly waterfowl), and to address the cause of occasionally observed high Pb values. Of 827 right pectoral muscle pools (1–12 individuals per pool), 92 had Pb concentrations greater than 0.5 ?g\\/g wet weight, (?2 ?g\\/g dry

A. M Scheuhammer; J. A Perrault; E Routhier; B. M Braune; G. D Campbell



Concentrations of isoflavones in plasma and urine of post-menopausal women chronically ingesting high quantities of soy isoflavones.  


Soy food or food supplements based on soy containing isoflavones (Isos) are increasingly available in Western countries. However, the variability of Isos levels in urine and plasma in humans during chronic ingestion is poorly documented. Nevertheless, this is the way these compounds will most probably be used in the future, especially if the soy-based supplements market goes on increasing. Here, glycosilated Isos in an enriched extract of Prevastein equal to 100 mg of equivalent Isos aglycone was given daily to 27 post-menopausal women for 30 days and to 12 post-menopausal women for 60 days. Volunteers were given Prevastein in a cereal bar (25 mg Isos) and in a yoghurt (25 mg Isos) both at breakfast and dinner. Plasma samples were collected after overnight fasting. Urine samples were aliquots of a 24 h collection checked on volume and creatinin excretion levels. Genistein, daidzein and equol were measured at day 0 and every 15 days afterwards, using original specific ELISAs. Constant levels were reached from the 15th day. About 59.2% of the volunteers were significant equol producers in the first experiment and 58.3% in the second. A large variability in plasma and urine levels was observed among post-menopausal women consuming 100 mg Isos per day, although remaining relatively stable in each individual subject. This could partly account for the controversial effects of Isos recorded so far in clinical studies. So Isos plasma levels would have to be assayed during chronic exposures, and could help to better understand the large variability of the effects classically observed in clinical studies. ELISA techniques could be easily exported to analytical laboratories to help physicians and nutritionists with their prescriptions. PMID:16513315

Mathey, J; Lamothe, V; Coxam, V; Potier, M; Sauvant, P; Bennetau-Pelissero, C



Lead concentrations in liver and kidneys of snow geese during an avian cholera epizootic in California.  


During an avian cholera epornitic, between December 1982 and January 1983, 58 dead, 23 sick, and 106 hunter-killed lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) were collected at Delevan National Wildlife Refuge, Colusa County, California, USA. Fifty-one of the dead and sick geese were infected with Pasteurella multocida. Lead concentrations in the livers ranged from < 1 to 253 parts per million (ppm) (dry weight). Lead concentrations in the kidneys ranged from < 1 ppm to 547 ppm (dry weight). Snow geese with > 30 ppm lead, considered diagnostic of acute lead poisoning, had significantly (P < 0.05) lower heart weights and a smaller band of heart fat, compared to geese with tissue lead concentrations of < 30 ppm. Tissue lead concentrations in geese dying from avian cholera generally were lower than concentrations in hunter-killed geese, but the differences were not significant for either kidney (P = 0.08) or liver (P = 0.30) tissue. PMID:8258858

Gordus, A G



Ingestion of lead from ammunition and lead concentrations in white-tailed sea eagles ( Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we show for the first time that lead poisoning from ammunition is a significant mortality factor for white-tailed sea eagle (WSE) (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden. We analyzed 118 WSEs collected between 1981 and 2004 from which both liver and kidney samples could be taken. A total of 22% of all eagles examined had elevated (>6µg\\/gd.w.) lead concentrations,

B. Helander; J. Axelsson; H. Borg; K. Holm; A. Bignert



The Effects of Different Concentrations of Lead Salts on a Variety of Crop Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation is described that would be suitable for A-level or first year degree Biology or Environmental Science students. Crop plants were grown in different concentrations of lead chloride and lead nitrate. French beans, carrots and Brussels sprouts were all inhibited at concentrations over 0.01 mol dm[superscript -3] showing stunted root…

Whiteley, Liz; Gibbon, Jamie; Hofgartner, Jon; Mason, Craig; Willmetts, Helen



Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices  

SciTech Connect

Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Lead and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.

Umoren, J.; Kies, C.



Feather lead concentrations and207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ???10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

Finkelstein, M.E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gwiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, A. P.; Clark, M.; Wynne, J.; Grantham, And J.; Smith, D.R.



Association of Prenatal and Childhood Blood Lead Concentrations with Criminal Arrests in Early Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChildhood lead exposure is a purported risk factor for antisocial behavior, but prior studies either relied on indirect measures of exposure or did not follow participants into adulthood to examine the relationship between lead exposure and criminal activity in young adults. The objective of this study was to determine if prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations are associated with arrests

John Paul Wright; Kim N. Dietrich; M. Douglas Ris; Richard W. Hornung; Stephanie D. Wessel; Bruce P. Lanphear; Mona Ho; Mary N. Rae



High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of metoprolol and alpha-hydroxymetoprolol concentrations in human serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid.  


A sensitive and simplified high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure was developed for the simultaneous quantification of metoprolol and alpha-hydroxymetoprolol in human serum, as well as cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Following protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid, the sample was alkalinized with 1 M NaOH and extracted with dichloromethane. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water (50:50) containing 0.005 M 1-heptanesulfonic acid in 0.001% acetic acid. Using pronetalol as an internal standard, compounds were quantitated using fluorescence detection at 230 nm with a 300-nm emission filter and 0.02 AUFS. Extraction recovery is approximately 80% for both compounds. The lower limits of detection are 5 ng/mL and 4 ng/mL for metoprolol and alpha-hydroxymetoprolol, respectively. PMID:6470961

Gengo, F M; Ziemniak, M A; Kinkel, W R; McHugh, W B



HCG in urine  


... blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - quantitative Pregnancy test ... To collect a urine sample, you urinate into a special (sterile) ... urine sample or passed through the urine stream while urinating. ...


Calcium - urine  


... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...


Supplementary data to `Noisy cell growth rate leads to fluctuating protein concentration in bacteria'  

E-print Network

in bacteria' Saburo Tsuru et al Table of contents Supplementary text 1. Stochastic model of protein and RFP concentrations Figure S3. Incoherent component isolated from fluctuating protein concentration1 Supplementary data to `Noisy cell growth rate leads to fluctuating protein concentration

Kaneko, Kunihiko


Tissue lead concentrations and shot ingestion in nine species of waterbirds from the Camargue (France).  


This study investigates the relationship among lead exposure (shot ingestion), current lead impregnation (liver lead values), current and previous lead impregnation (bone lead values), and lead excretion (feather lead) in nine species of waterbird from the Camargue (Rhone river delta), France. Results indicate that for individuals there is no readily predictable relationship between ingested shot and liver or bone lead concentrations. However, at the "population" level, and interspecifically, significant positive relationships exist between the susceptibility to shot ingestion and the degree of lead impregnation. Shoveler (Anas clypeata) proved to be an exception, with a high level of shot ingestion and no elevated tissue lead values. This is probably related to dietary factors. Species with a high degree of current lead contamination tended to be those that had also previously absorbed elevated levels of lead. Feather lead concentrations were not clearly related to the vulnerability of a species to shot ingestion or lead poisoning. There was no significant absorption of arsenic and antimony from gunshot associated with lead absorption. PMID:1280587

Pain, D J; Amiard-Triquet, C; Sylvestre, C



Blood lead concentrations of spectacled eiders near the Kashunuk River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected, 342 blood samples from spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) on their breeding grounds in western Alaska from late May through to early August 1993a??1995. Lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. wet weight were found in the blood of 20% of the adult female eiders, 2% of the adult males and 6% of the ducklings. Lead was detected (a?Y0.02 p.p.m.) more frequently in the blood of adult females than in adult males or ducklings and the maximum concentrations were 14.37, 0.50 and 4.28 p.p.m. wet weight, respectively. In adult females, there was a significant difference in the proportion of detectable blood lead concentrations between three collection times (arrival/nesting, hatch and brood rearing), with the highest proportion (92%) occurring at hatch. Nine hens with blood lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. were captured a second time several weeks to 1 year later. In the hens sampled twice at intervals of several weeks, the blood lead concentrations increased and declined at mean daily rates of 1.10 and 0.94, respectively. The lead concentrations in the blood of adults were not correlated with body weights. Radiographs were taken of 119 eiders and corresponding blood samples from 98 of these birds were analysed for lead. Ingested shot was seen in X-rays of 12 adults and three ducklings and, of the 13 blood samples tested, all had detectable lead concentrations. Of the birds without radiographic evidence of ingested shot, 84% of the adult females, 19% of the adult males and 17% of the ducklings had detectable lead concentrations in their blood. Breeding ground exposure of waterfowl to lead shot is unusual and is of particular concern in spectacled eiders because of their threatened status and declining numbers in western Alaska.

Franson, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Creekmore, L.H.; Flint, P.; Smith, M.R.



Lead and cadmium concentrations in the hair of fishermen from the Subae River basin, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown heavy pollution by lead and cadmium in the Subae River basin, State of Bahia, Brazil, caused by a lead smelter. Concentrations of these metals were determined in scalp hair of fishermen from three riverside towns and from a reference town. Increased levels for both metals were associated with increasing proximity to the smelter. Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were higher among fishermen with straight hair than among those with curly hair. The effects of hair washing, hair type, and color and age on metal concentrations in fishermen's hair were studied.

Carvalho, F.; Tavares, T.M.; Souza, S.P.; Linhares, P.S.



Elevation of urinary adipsin in preeclampsia: correlation with urine protein concentration and the potential use for a rapid diagnostic test.  


Early diagnosis and treatment of preeclampsia are essential for prevention of seizure development and fetus maturation. Although various methods have been developed for predicting or monitoring the onset of preeclampsia, a simple assay that can be used as a home or point of care test remains unavailable. We attempted to find a urinary protein that could be used as a biomarker for developing such a test. Urinary samples were collected from 124 preeclampsia and 135 healthy pregnant women for screening using a protein array technology and quantification by ELISA. A urinary protein, adipsin, was found significantly increased, and the adipsin creatinine ratio was closely correlated with the urinary 24-hour protein in patients with preeclampsia. When combined with the increased diastolic blood pressure (?90 mm Hg), the sensitivity was 90.3% and the specificity reached 100.0% for preeclampsia diagnosis. We then developed a laminar flow immunoassay for rapid diagnosis, and the sensitivity and specificity were 89.04% and 100%, respectively, when combined with increased diastolic blood pressure. Because of the easiness of sample collection, assay conduction, and result interpretation, this urine test can be potentially used as a home test for monitoring preeclampsia onset for high-risk pregnant women and as a rapid test for a preliminary diagnosis for emergency patients at hospitals. PMID:24958499

Wang, Tao; Zhou, Rong; Gao, Linbo; Wang, Yanyun; Song, Changping; Gong, Yunhui; Jia, Jin; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Li; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Huaizhong



Lead concentrations in ruffed grouse, rock ptarmigan, and willow ptarmigan in Québec.  


Between 1996 and 1998, ruffed grouse, spruce grouse, willow ptarmigan, and rock ptarmigan harvested by hunters in Québec were examined for lead contamination. On examination of the gizzards of these birds, lead shot was found only in ruffed grouse (1.2%). The probability of ingestion of lead shot by grouse and ptarmigans is low. Analyses of the lead concentrations in the wing bones of grouse and ptarmigans and in the muscle tissue of ptarmigans were conducted. Although differences were observed between individuals based on age and sex, the mean concentrations measured were in the range of those that occur naturally at background levels (<6 microg/g dw). Lead concentrations in muscle tissue were low, often at the limit of detection. However, the few high concentrations detected were probably related to a lead pellet or bullet fragment. Based on an analysis of the health risk associated with consumption of ptarmigan muscle, we conclude that the use of lead ammunition for hunting gallinaceous birds may pose an unnecessary risk of lead poisoning because of the possible ingestion of lead shot, bullets, fragments or embedded shot. PMID:15959706

Rodrigue, J; McNicoll, R; Leclair, D; Duchesne, J-F



Lead Concentrations and Isotopes in Corals and Water near Bermuda, 1780-2000 A.D.  

E-print Network

The history of the oceanic anthropogenic lead (Pb) transient in the North Atlantic Ocean for the past 220 yr is documented here from measurements of Pb concentration and isotope ratios from annually-banded corals that grew ...

Kelly, Amy E.


The lead accumulation and hematological findings in juvenile rock fish Sebastes schlegelii exposed to the dietary lead (II) concentrations.  


Juvenile rockfish (mean length 14.2±1.9cm, and mean weight 57.3±5.2g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary lead (Pb(2+)) at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240mg/L. The exposure concentration and period of Pb have induced significant amount of it the specific tissues of rockfish. The highest Pb accumulation was observed in the kidney tissue by the dietary lead exposure. The growth rate and hepatosomatic index were considerably inhibited over 120mg/kg. The hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) counts, hematocrit (Ht) value, and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were significantly decreased over 60mg/kg Pb concentration. In the inorganic components, the values of calcium and magnesium in plasma were significantly decreased. The glucose and cholesterol values were notably increased, whereas total protein was decreased. The enzyme components, glutamic oxalate transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT), were significantly elevated by the dietary lead exposure, but no change was observed in alkaline phosphatase (ALP). PMID:25679484

Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan



Blood lead concentrations in pre-school children in Birmingham1  

PubMed Central

A survey has been undertaken of the distribution of blood lead concentrations in pre-school children attending nursery schools or day centres in Birmingham. The majority of levels in excess of 1.65 ?mol/1 were found in children of Asian origin. It is thought likely that the high blood lead concentration seen in these children is related to nutritional rather than environmental factors. PMID:7241457

Archer, A; Giltrow, J P; Waldron, H A



Liver Lead Concentrations in Raptors in New Jersey, USA, 2008—2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead exposure in New Jersey raptors was assessed by analyzing liver samples from carcasses obtained from wildlife rehabilitators.\\u000a Samples were collected from 221 individuals representing 13 species. Concentrations were within the range of normal background\\u000a exposure in 12 species. One red-tailed hawk had a liver lead concentration consistent with clinical poisoning (7.4 ?g\\/g wet\\u000a weight), which represents an incidence of 1%

William StansleyLisa; Lisa A. Murphy



Pink urine.  


A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P



Urine culture - catheterized specimen  


Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...


Tissue lead concentrations and blood characteristics of mourning doves from Southwestern Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted on the feasibility of sampling the blood from live mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) as a technique for evaluating lead exposure in this species. Measurements of the blood enzyme, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), were essentially the same in blood from the brachial vein or trunk blood. The ALAD activity decreased as liver lead concentration increased in mourning doves.

Ronald J. Kendall; Patrick F. Scanlon



A study of lead concentrations in drinking water from water coolers at Tusculum College  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead concentrations in drinking water were studied in a random sample of sixteen water coolers at Tusculum College to determine if the Environmental Protection Agency limit of fifty parts per billion lead was exceeded. The random sample of coolers was selected and classified based on brand, location, and frequency of use. One liter water samples were drawn from the coolers



Relation of Waterfowl Poisoning to Sediment Lead Concentrations in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, waterfowl have been poisoned by lead after ingesting contaminated sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, in Idaho. Results of studies on waterfowl experimentally fed this sediment were combined with results from field studies conducted in the Basin to relate sediment lead concentration to injury to waterfowl. The first step in the model estimated exposure as the

W. Nelson Beyer; Daniel J. Audet; Gary H. Heinz; David J. Hoffman; Daniel Day



Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element. PMID:12471396

Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen



Extremely high urine arsenic level after remote seafood ingestion.  


Urine testing for heavy metal concentrations is increasingly performed in the outpatient setting as a part of laboratory evaluation for neuropathy. Abnormal urine arsenic levels due to dietary intake of organic arsenic can lead to unnecessary chelation therapy. A 54-year-old man underwent a 24-hour urine collection for heavy metal concentrations in evaluation of paresthesia of the right foot. The total arsenic level was 8880 ?g/d with concentrations of 4749 ?g/L and 3769 ?g/g creatinine. He was urgently referred to the toxicology clinic for consideration of chelation therapy. History revealed consumption of 2 lobster tails 5 days before the testing. Speciation was then performed on the original urine specimen and revealed an organic arsenic concentration of 4332 ?g/L. No inorganic or methylated arsenic was detected. Repeat testing after abstaining from seafood demonstrated a total arsenic level of 50 ?g/d with concentrations of 30 ?g/L and 21 ?g/g creatinine. Our patient demonstrates the highest level of arsenobetaine reported in the literature, and this level is higher than expected for a person who had not consumed seafood for 5 days before testing. The high levels may be due to consumption of food that he did not recognize as containing arsenobetaine or that his clearance of arsenobetaine from the ingested lobster is slower than published ranges. This case demonstrates the importance of speciation when measuring urine arsenic levels to avoid unnecessary chelation therapy. PMID:22407195

Nañagas, Kristine A; Tormoehlen, Laura M



Myoglobin - urine  


... clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. As you start to urinate, allow a small amount to fall into the toilet bowl (this ...


Correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in Iranian children  

PubMed Central

Background: Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional anaemia among children. Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in children of Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on children between 1 year and 10 years, in Imam Reza teaching hospital of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. Indeed during complete blood count (CBC), we measured iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) by colorimetric methods, ferritin by radioimmune assay and blood lead concentration by atomic absorption method. Results were analysed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 11.5), using statistical tests including independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient. P value ? 0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: We studied 223 cases including 98 control children and 125 patients. All children had lead intoxication. Mean (±SD) blood lead concentration in the control group was 57.1 ± 25.3 (ranged 20-212) ?g/dl and in the patient group was 57 ± 20.4 (ranged 10.9-159) ?g/dl with no significant difference (P value = 0.713). We also did not find any correlation between blood lead concentration and haemoglobin, ferritin, iron, TIBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cells (WBC) and platelets. Conclusion: Based on these results, no correlation was found between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in the children. Because all children had lead intoxication, further studies in highly polluted and a comparison with a low polluted area are necessary to make a general conclusion. PMID:24403711

Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Manavifar, Lida; Badiee, Zahra; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Farhangi, Hamid; Mood, Mahdi Balali



Speciation analysis of triethyl-lead and tributyl-tin compounds in human urine by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography microwave-induced plasma atomic emission detection.  


This work describes the development of a fast method for speciation analysis of triethyl-lead and tributyl-tin species in urine samples after in situ derivatization by tetraethyl- or tetrapropyl-borate reagents. The alkylation reaction is done in the aqueous and urine medium and the less-polar derivatives are extracted in hexane by liquid-liquid extraction. The species were extracted and the extract was efficiently collected from the aqueous phase after centrifugation. Finally, the organometallic species are separated by gas chromatography and determined from the emission signals of elemental lead and tin. Atomic lead and tin are formed from the organolead and organotin compounds during atomization of the column eluate in a microwave-induced helium plasma source. The simultaneous measurement of lead (Pb) at 405.780 nm and tin (Sn) at 303.419 nm was achieved by an atomic emission detector. Finally, the analytes were determined with satisfactory precision (<5%) and detection limits of 0.05 ?g Pb/L and 0.48 ?g Sn/L, respectively, when 10 mL of urine is extracted with 1 mL of hexane and 1 ?L of extract is injected. PMID:22689489

Zachariadis, George A; Rosenberg, Erwin



Concentrations of benzene in blood and S -phenylmercapturic and t,t -muconic acid in urine in car mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Different parameters of biological monitoring were applied to 26 benzene-exposed car mechanics. Twenty car mechanics worked in a work environment with probably high benzene exposures (exposed workers); six car mechanics primarily involved in work organization were classified as non-exposed. The maximum air benzene concentration at the work places of exposed mechanics was 13 mg\\/m3 (mean 2.6 mg\\/m3). Elevated benzene

W. Popp; D. Rauscher; G. Miiller; J. Angerer; K. Norpoth



Vertical concentration profiles of lead in the Central Pacific at 15°N and 20°S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of lead were measured in a surface transect and at two vertical profile stations (15°N and 20°S) in the Central Pacific. These measurements complement similar measurements made earlier in the North Pacific at 33°N and in the Northwest Atlantic at 34°N [1,2], as well as recent measurements of eolian lead input fluxes near each of these locations [3]. The new transect of surface water concentrations of lead corroborates previous measurements, which decrease from 13 ng/kg at 30°N to 4 ng/kg at 17°S in the Central Pacific [4]. This transect gradient is shown to overlie a similar geographic gradient of subsurface maximum concentrations of lead in the three Pacific vertical profile stations, decreasing from 14 ng/kg at 33°N to 11 ng/kg at 14°N to 2.5 ng/kg at 20°S. Lead concentrations at each of those locations exhibit maxima at 400 m, decreasing concentrations to 2500 m and approximately concentrations of 0.8-1.1 ng/kg below that depth. The subsurface maximum at the northwest Atlantic profile station (36 ng/kg at 34°N) is also congruent with surface water lead concentrations which decrease from 806 ng/kg to 32 ng/kg in an offshore transect from Rhode Island to 34°N, 66°W [5], and the shape of the Atlantic profile is congruent with those in the Pacific. There is a positive correlation between the magnitudes of eolian lead input fluxes and the magnitudes of the upper water maxima in lead concentration profiles at corresponding locations as follows: South Pacific easterlies 3 ng/cm 2 yr vs. 2.5 ng/kg; North Pacific easterlies 6 ng/cm 2 yr vs. 11 ng/kg; North Pacific westerlies 50 ng/cm 2 yr vs. 14 ng/kg; and North Atlantic westerlies 170 ng/cm 2 yr vs. 36 ng/kg. This relationship enables one to view the anthropogenic perturbations of the marine lead cycle on a global scale, since the industrial origin of eolian and seawater lead has been established by correlations between geographic patterns of industrial lead emissions to the atmosphere and isotopic ratios of industrial leads [3] and by geographic patterns of Pb/silicate-dust ratios and lead isotopic ratios in ocean surface waters [3-5]. These new data coupled with earlier biogeochemical data indicate that surface water concentrations of lead in the North Pacific and North Atlantic are now conservatively estimated to be 8 to 20-fold greater and those in the South Pacific are 2-fold greater than natural concentrations because of industrial emissions of lead to the atmosphere.

Flegal, A. R.; Patterson, C. C.



Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 ?g/dL cases vs. 2.73 ?g/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 ?g/dL vs. 2.72 ?g/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric



Trends in lead concentrations in major U.S. rivers and their relation to historical changes in gasoline-lead consumption  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Declines in concentrations of dissolved lead occurred at nearly two-thirds of 306 locations on major U.S. rivers from 1974 to 1985. Declines in dissolved lead concentrations are statistically significant (p < 0.10) at approximately one-third of the sampling locations. Statistically significant increases in dissolved lead concentrations occurred at only 6 percent of the sites, but are clustered in the Texas-Gulf and Lower Mississippi region. Possible explanations for the observed trends in lead concentrations are tested through comparisons with (1) records of lead discharges from major sources including leaded-gasoline consumption and municipal- and industrial-point source discharges, (2) trends in various water-quality constituents such as pH and total alkalinity, and (3) basin characteristics such as drainage area. Statistically significant declines in lead concentrations in streams and gasoline lead (i.e., the largest source of lead at these sites) are highly coincident for the 1979 to 1980 period at most sampling locations. The greatest amount of decline in gasoline lead occurred at sites showing statistically significant downtrends in stream concentrations of lead from 1974 to 1985. No more than 5 percent of the trends in stream lead are influenced by municipal- and industrial-point sources of lead. Factors that affect the transport of dissolved lead, including lead solubility, suspended sediment, and basin characteristics such as drainage basin size, are not significantly related to trends in dissolved lead. Trends in streamflow explain no more than 7 percent of the downtrends in concentrations of lead and may partly explain the frequent increases in lead concentrations in the Texas-Gulf and Lower Mississippi regions.Declines in concentrations of dissolved lead occurred at nearly two-thirds of 306 locations on major US rivers from 1974 to 1985. Declines in dissolved lead concentrations are statistically significant at approximately one-third of the sampling locations. Statistically significant increases in dissolved lead concentrations occurred at only 6 percent of the sites, but are clustered in the Texas-Gulf and Lower Mississippi regions. Possible explanations for the observed trends in lead concentrations are tested through comparisons with records of lead discharges from major sources including leaded-gasoline consumption and municipal- and industrial-point source discharges, trends in various water-quality constituents such as pH and total alkalinity, and basin characteristics such as drainage area. Study results are discussed.

Alexander, R.B.; Smith, R.A.



[Influencing factors of high-concentration lead removal using the phosphorus-accumulating sludge].  


Phosphorus-accumulating activated sludge was used to remove lead [rho(Cu2+) = 150.0 mg x L(-1)] in wastewater in this experiment. The efficiency ratio and stability of Pb removal were studied at different dissolved oxygen concentration and different initial pH. The result showed that under anaerobic condition and pH 6, the Ph removal efficiency ratio increased with time elapsing, the value reached 99.8% after 32 days. Lead in form of organic and sulfide-bound lead and residual lead in residual sludge accounted for 41.8% and 52.6%, respectively, and the lead in the sludge showed a good stability. While under aerobic condition, the lead removal efficiency ratio increased with the increase of pH within the first 2 hours, the values reached 99.9%, 96.9% and 30.3% at pH 6, pH 4 and pH 2, respectively. In contrast, the residual lead was 3 072.3, 4 726.8 and 2 359.1 mg x kg(-1) under aerobic condition after 32 days, accounting for 41.8%, 65.8% and 88.8% of total lead in the sludge. Taking the lead removal efficiency ratio and lead stability into account, aerobic condition at pH 4 is the best for removing lead with phosphorus-accumulating sludge in theory. PMID:23947049

Yang, Min; Lu, Long; Feng, Yong; Fang, Chao; Li, Xiong-Qing



Polymorphisms in Genes Encoding Potential Mercury Transporters and Urine Mercury Concentrations in Populations Exposed to Mercury Vapor from Gold Mining  

PubMed Central

Background: Elemental mercury (Hg0) is widely used in small-scale gold mining. Persons working or living in mining areas have high urinary concentrations of Hg (U-Hg). Differences in genes encoding potential Hg-transporters may affect uptake and elimination of Hg. Objective: We aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Hg-transporter genes that modify U-Hg. Methods: Men and women (1,017) from Indonesia, the Philippines, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe were classified either as controls (no Hg exposure from gold mining) or as having low (living in a gold-mining area) or high exposure (working as gold miners). U-Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Eighteen SNPs in eight Hg-transporter genes were analyzed. Results: U-Hg concentrations were higher among ABCC2/MRP2 rs1885301 A–allele carriers than among GG homozygotes in all populations, though differences were not statistically significant in most cases. MRP2 SNPs showed particularly strong associations with U-Hg in the subgroup with highest exposure (miners in Zimbabwe), whereas rs1885301 A–allele carriers had higher U-Hg than GG homozygotes [geometric mean (GM): 36.4 µg/g creatinine vs. 21.9; p = 0.027], rs2273697 GG homozygotes had higher U-Hg than A–allele carriers (GM: 37.4 vs. 16.7; p = 0.001), and rs717620 A–allele carriers had higher U-Hg than GG homozygotes (GM: 83 vs. 28; p = 0.084). The SLC7A5/LAT1 rs33916661 GG genotype was associated with higher U-Hg in all populations (statistically significant for all Tanzanians combined). SNPs in SLC22A6/OAT1 (rs4149170) and SLC22A8/OAT3 (rs4149182) were associated with U-Hg mainly in the Tanzanian study groups. Conclusions: SNPs in putative Hg-transporter genes may influence U-Hg concentrations. PMID:23052037

Ameer, Shegufta; Bernaudat, Ludovic; Drasch, Gustav; Baeuml, Jennifer; Skerfving, Staffan; Bose-O’Reilly, Stephan; Broberg, Karin



Blood lead concentrations in mallards from Delevan and Colusa National Wildlife Refuges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blood samples were taken from 181 (108 adult drakes and 73 individuals of mixed age and sex) mallards, Anas platyrhynchos , from Colusa and Delevan National Wildlife Refuges during late winter and summer of 1987. The percentage of birds with elevated lead concentration was 28.7 for late winter and 16.4 for late summer. For summer trapped birds, a significantly greater proportion of males than females contained elevated lead levels. These findings indicate that lead poisoning may be a year-round event in certain areas of the Sacramento Valley.

Mauser, D.M.; Rocke, T.E.; Mensik, J.G.; Brand, C.J.



The Human Urine Metabolome  

PubMed Central

Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at PMID:24023812

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.



Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukona??Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid-June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.



Significance of concentrations of lead, cadmium, and iron in the plumage of the feral pigeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead, cadmium, and iron contamination was examined in the plumage of feral pigeons. Metal contamination in pigeons from different regions in Bratislava or in different seasons did not differ significantly; seasonal type of food did not significantly influence the concentrations. The blood of birds was examined for the presence of complement fixing antibodies toChlamydia psittaci. Birds with antibodies did not

Marifin Janiga; Blanka Mafikovskfi; Monika Bobal'ová; Gabriela ?ur?ová



Effects of Eutrophication on Concentrations and Speciation of Copper, Zinc, and Lead in West Falmouth Harbor  

E-print Network

Effects of Eutrophication on Concentrations and Speciation of Copper, Zinc, and Lead in West anoxic conditions and high carbon content favor relatively stable forms of heavy metals, eutrophication suggest that conditions associated with eutrophication do increase heavy metal retention in West Falmouth

Vallino, Joseph J.



Microsoft Academic Search

During an avian cholera epornitic, between December 1982 and January 1983, 58 dead, 23 sick, and 106 hunter-killed lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) were collected at Delevan National Wildlife Refuge, Colusa County, California, USA. Fifty-one of the dead and sick geese were infected with Pasteurella multocida. Lead concentrations in the livers ranged from

Andrew G. Gordus



Use of urine specific gravity to improve screening for albuminuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of urine specific gravity to improve screening for albuminuria. The albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) can be used to measure urine albumin excretion rates, but is inconvenient and expensive. More rapid and less expensive screening methods estimate only albumin concentration and are subject to errors caused by variation in urine volume. We examined whether urine specific gravity could be

Richard R Moore; Cheryl A Hirata-Dulas; Bertram L Kasiske



Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead  

SciTech Connect

Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.



Lead concentrations and reproductive success in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within highway roadside verges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1981, the authors studied lead concentrations and reproductive success in free-living European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within the verges of two Maryland highways with different traffic volumes, Route 197(average daily traffic volume[ADT] = 10,800 vehicles) and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (ADT=52,500 vehicles) and a nearby control area. Concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight) of lead in the ingesta (84-94 mg kg-1), carcasses (4.0-9.6 mg kg-1)and feathers (6.8-52 mg kg-1) of Parkway nestlings and adults were 3 to 13 times those found in starlings from the control area, whereas lead concentrations in the ingesta and tissues of starlings from the verge of Route 197 were similar to those of controls. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells (RBCs) of adult and nestling starlings from the Parkway was depressed from 43 to 60% compared to controls. RBC ALAD activity in adults from nests along Route 197 was similar to that of adult starlings from the control area, but that of their young was depressed 17%. Haemoglobin concentrations (-16%) and haematocrits (-10%) in Parkway nestlings were depressed compared with those of nestlings from the other two study areas, whereas those of adults were not affected. Clutch size, number of young hatched and the number of young in nests 1 to 3 days before fledging were similar among sites, as were body weights of adults and prefledging weights of their young. However, brain weights of Parkway nestlings were lower (P < 0.05) than those of nestlings from the other study areas. Results suggests that lead within verges of major highways probably does not pose a serious hazard to adult ground-foraging songbirds. However, the effects of lead-induced reductions in haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, RBC ALAD activity and brain weight on the postfledging survival of their young are not known.

Grue, C.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beyer, W.N.; Franson, L.P.



Multiple Sclerosis Incidence Associated with the Soil Lead and Arsenic Concentrations in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies in the world have assessed the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) with soil heavy metal concentrations. We explored the association of soil heavy metal factors and the MS incidence in Taiwan. Methods There were 1240 new MS cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database and were verified with serious disabling disease certificates, 1997–2008. Soil heavy metal factors records included arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in Taiwan from 1986 to 2002. Spatial regression was used to reveal the association of soil heavy metals and age- and gender-standardized incidence ratios for townships by controlling sunlight exposure hours, smoking prevalence and spatial autocorrelation. Results The lead (Pb) concentration in the soil positively correlated with the township incidence; on the other hand, the arsenic (As) concentration in soil negatively correlated with the township incidence and when found together controlled each other. The positive correlation of lead (Pb) predominated in males, whereas the negative correlation of arsenic (As) in soil predominated in females. Conclusions We conclude that exposure to lead (Pb) in soil positive associated with incidence of MS in Taiwan, especially in males. Exposure to arsenic (As) in soil negative associated with MS in Taiwan, especially in females. PMID:23799061



Lead and cadmium concentrations in seawater and algae of the Tunisian coast.  


Both lead and cadmium are toxic trace metals, even in very weak concentrations. The aim of this study was to estimate lead and cadmium pollution in various sites of the Tunisian coast and to verify the possibility of modification of the algae bioconcentration power according to water physico-chemical conditions. Our study concerned 99 samples of algae and 99 samples of seawater, taken in different sites of the Tunisian littoral. The analysis was realized by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (oven graphite). In algae, Sfax site presented the highest concentrations of lead when Sousse site showed the lowest ones. In seawater, the most amounts of lead were observed in Bizerte, Mahdia and Sfax sites, and those of cadmium in Bizerte and Medenine coasts. Bizerte's coast seems to be the most exposed zone to pollution. Indeed, the intensification of sea traffic may take place on this pollution because hydrocarbons derived from petroleum contain some tetraethylic lead characterised by its great toxicity. Sousse's region is the least polluted zone; it might be due to the development of tourism and a strict regulation of pollution in this district. PMID:16929758

El Ati-Hellal, M; Hedhili, A; Hellal, F; Boujlel, K; Dachraoui, M; Bousnina, M; Ghorbel, H; Ndhif, M





... lead-based paint chips or playing in contaminated soil. Lead can damage the nervous system, kidneys, and ... settling to the ground. • Once lead falls onto soil, it usually sticks to soil particles. • Movement of ...


Observations on the effect of parathyroid hormone on environmental blood lead concentrations in humans  

SciTech Connect

The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on blood lead (Pb) concentrations was observed preliminarily in three different situations. Of 342 healthy bus drivers with no unusual exposure to Pb, 25 drivers with the highest and 25 with the lowest blood Pb were compared for serum PTH concentrations. There was no association between blood Pb and serum PTH concentrations. Eight women with postmenopausal osteoporosis enrolled in an experimental protocol to increase bone mass received daily PTH (1-34 fragment) for 1 week, calcitonin for the next 2 weeks, and oral calcium for the subsequent 10 weeks. This cycle was repeated four times during the year. Initial blood Pb concentrations averaged 6.0 micrograms/dl (range 2.1-8.9). Mean blood Pb concentrations decreased by 1.7 micrograms/dl over 1 year of therapy. The confidence interval for this change excluded zero, the mean change was significantly different from the mean change for comparative population (P less than 0.050), and paired changes were statistically significant (P = 0.045). Lastly, a single subject with hyperparathyroid disease and no unusual exposures to lead demonstrated stabilized blood Pb concentrations that were 50% lower after removal of his hyperplastic parathyroid glands. These observations suggest that the effect of PTH on increasing bone turnover and releasing Pb into blood is not easily detected at low physiologic amounts of PTH, but that with pathologic increases of PTH in hyperparathyroid disease, elevation of blood Pb from bone or increased gastrointestinal absorption may be possible. Likewise, either bone building therapies (PTH + calcitonin + calcium) may move Pb from blood into bone or supplemental calcium may decrease Pb gastrointestinal absorption, thereby explaining the observed lower blood Pb concentrations.

Osterloh, J.D. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))



Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula  

PubMed Central

Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

Viswanathan, Stalin



The detection of urine in the equine ejaculate and its effects on spermatozoa  

E-print Network

spermatozoa that were contaminated with urine (23). In this study, freshly collected rabbit semen was diluted with fresh urine to establish 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, and 75% urine concentrations, by volume. The separate samples were then assessed for gross sperm... concentration of the urine samples were measured prior to mixing. Separate semen samples were diluted with urine to establish a 400% urine concentration, by volume. These samples were then assessed for sperm motility, velocity, pH, osmolality, and urea con...

Althouse, Gary Carl



Blood lead concentrations of waterfowl from unhunted and heavily hunted marshes of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Canada.  


Blood lead concentrations of juvenile American black ducks (Anas rubripes) sampled in unhunted sanctuaries of Nova Scotia (NS) and Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, usually were < 30 parts per billion (ppb). Based on gizzard content analyses of juvenile American black ducks from hunted areas, eight (24%) of 33 flightless birds contained ingested lead shot. Blood lead concentrations were > or = 100 ppb in seven of eight juveniles with ingested shot; thus we adopted blood lead concentrations 100 ppb as our threshold indicating exposure to non-background lead. The proportion of both American black ducks and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) with elevated blood lead concentrations (> 100 ppb) exceeded 5% in hunted areas sampled in NS and PEI combined. The Canadian Wildlife Service draft policy is to consider replacing lead shot with non-toxic shot for waterfowl and snipe hunting if 5% of American black ducks exceed a blood lead concentration of 200 ppb. American black ducks significantly (P < 0.05) exceeded this threshold but ring-necked ducks did not. The source of lead in hunted areas may have been lead shot; we recommend that it be eliminated and replaced by an acceptable non-toxic shot for waterfowl hunting. Twenty four (96%) of 25 of American black ducks overwintering in Sullivans Pond, Dartmouth, NS, contained elevated (> 100 ppb) blood lead concentrations and 19 (76%) had detrimental concentrations (> 200 ppb). We believe that the source of lead at Sullivans Pond was automobile emissions. PMID:8258857

Daury, R W; Schwab, F E; Bateman, M C



Study of the effect of lactational bone loss on blood lead concentrations in humans.  

PubMed Central

Lactation and other clinical states of high bone turnover have been suggested to release lead (Pb) stored in bone into blood and tissues. Previous observations on the influences of lactation have been anecdotal, or at high blood Pb concentrations with varying past exposures, or complicated by postpartum fluid changes. A prospective observational study was performed to investigate possible changes in blood lead concentrations at multiple intervals during lactation for 6 months postpartum and to relate changes in blood lead concentrations to changes in bone density and other variables. Volunteer pregnant subjects (n = 58) were enrolled from a midwifery service at an academic public health hospital. Subjects were mostly Hispanic, recently immigrated, of low economic status, not receiving supplemental calcium, and had low blood Pb concentrations (2.35 +/- 2.05 microg/dl at enrollment). Bone density losses over 6 months for the group averaged -2.46 +/- 6.33% at the vertebral spine and -0.67 +/- 5.21% at the femoral neck. In predicting final bone density, apart from initial bone density only the total number of breast-feedings was a significant independent variable of the variables tested, accounting for an additional 12% of the variability. No changes in blood Pb concentrations were seen over the interval beyond 2 weeks postpartum (minimum detectable change was 0.4 microg/dl). There was no relation between the changes in bone density and changes in blood Pb or the integrated blood Pb over the 2-week to 6-month period. Normal (nonlactating) bone resorption rates contribute a large fraction of the Pb in blood during low-exposure circumstances. However, during lactation the increase in bone resorptive processes is probably relatively small with a larger decrease in deposition accounting for net bone loss, as suggested by other investigations. Thus, concomitant release of Pb from bones of lactating subjects with low blood lead concentrations on this background of high normal resorption was not large enough for detection. Images Figure 1 PMID:10064547

Osterloh, J D; Kelly, T J



Factors influencing lead sorption-desorption at variable added metal concentrations in Rhodoxeralfs.  


The response of ten soils of the lithic Rhodoxeralf type to the supply of lead at concentrations of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000 mg kg-1 was examined in batch sorption-desorption tests. Lead availability in the soils was found to depend on its partitioning between the soil solution and the solid phase as reflected in adsorption isotherms. The isotherms, of the H type, were consistent with a high affinity of the sorbent for the metal, with which it forms stable inner-sphere complexes on the soil surface. Sorption-desorption tests revealed that some properties of the soils such as their pH (mean=8) and high contents in clays (particularly in kaolinite) and crystalline iron oxides significantly influence Pb sorption, the effect being especially marked at high added metal concentrations. Added lead is largely retained by crystalline iron oxides and the soil clay fraction; the pH of the soil favours the release of variably-charged sites from both. The extent of Pb desorption was small, particularly at the lowest added levels (500 and 1000 mg kg-1). Desorption increased with increasing added Pb concentration and exceeded 50% at 5000 and 6000 mg kg-1; this suggests that Pb is present not only as inner-sphere complexes, but also as outer-sphere complexes and, partly, as precipitates. The desorption isotherms consist of three segments that exhibit significant differences depending on the added Pb concentration, namely: 500-1000, 2000-4000 and 5000-6000 mg kg-1. PMID:16352330

Moreno, Ana Maria; Quintana, Jose Ramón; Pérez, Lourdes; Parra, Juana G





... Lead Epidemiology Surveillance Program (ABLES) Lead in the environment Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Healthy Homes ...


Venerupis decussata under environmentally relevant lead concentrations: Bioconcentration, tolerance, and biochemical alterations.  


The edible clam Venerupis decussata is widely distributed in European aquatic systems, some of which are under strong anthropogenic pressure, which can contribute to trophic transfer of xenobiotics to humans. Accordingly, the present study focused on the tolerance, bioconcentration, and biochemical responses of V. decussata after exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of lead. Health risks to humans after consumption of clams was also explored. An acute toxicity assay (96 h) was conducted with wild clams, using Pb exposure concentrations ranging from 0 mg L(-1) to 1.80 mg L(-1). Lethality, bioconcentration factor (BCF), intracellular partitioning, and a relevant set of biomarkers were used as endpoints. Clams, interstitial water, water column, and sediment samples were collected to analyze Pb concentration. The Pb concentration in wild clams was below international consumption guidelines. Under laboratory conditions, clams revealed high sensitivity to Pb (median lethal concentration of 0.65 mg L(-1)), with a high bioconcentration ability (bioconcentration factor > 1) during exposure. The intracellular partitioning data showed that most of the Pb had accumulated in the insoluble fraction (>80%). Several significant biochemical changes were observed, namely on catalase and glutathione-S-tranferase activities and metalothionein content. Overall, it was demonstrated that the European clam has a reduced tolerance to Pb, compared with other bivalves. However, consumption of clams from the Ria de Aveiro lagoon (Portugal) does not raise public health concerns in terms of Pb. PMID:25196236

Freitas, Rosa; Martins, Roberto; Antunes, Sara; Velez, Cátia; Moreira, Anthony; Cardoso, Paulo; Pires, Adília; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina



Blood Lead Levels and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Concentrations in Peripubertal Boys  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood lead exposure has been associated with growth delay. However, the association between blood lead levels (BLLs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has not been characterized in a large cohort with low-level lead exposure. Methods: We recruited 394 boys 8–9 years of age from an industrial Russian town in 2003–2005 and followed them annually thereafter. We used linear regression models to estimate the association of baseline BLLs with serum IGF-1 concentration at two follow-up visits (ages 10–11 and 12–13 years), adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic covariates. Results: At study entry, median BLL was 3 ?g/dL (range, < 0.5–31 ?g/dL), most boys (86%) were prepubertal, and mean ± SD height and BMI z-scores were 0.14 ± 1.0 and –0.2 ± 1.3, respectively. After adjustment for covariates, the mean follow-up IGF-1 concentration was 29.2 ng/mL lower (95% CI: –43.8, –14.5) for boys with high versus low BLL (? 5 ?g/dL or < 5 ?g/dL); this difference persisted after further adjustment for pubertal status. The association of BLL with IGF-1 was stronger for mid-pubertal than prepubertal boys (p = 0.04). Relative to boys with BLLs < 2 ?g/dL, adjusted mean IGF-1 concentrations decreased by 12.8 ng/mL (95% CI: –29.9, 4.4) for boys with BLLs of 3–4 ?g/dL; 34.5 ng/mL (95% CI: –53.1, –16.0) for BLLs 5–9 ?g/dL; and 60.4 ng/mL (95% CI: –90.9, –29.9) for BLLs ? 10 ?g/dL. Conclusions: In peripubertal boys with low-level lead exposure, higher BLLs were associated with lower serum IGF-1. Inhibition of the hypothalamic–pituitary–growth axis may be one possible pathway by which lead exposure leads to growth delay. PMID:23632160

Fleisch, Abby F.; Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan A.



Detection and quantification of low concentrations of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid from minimal amounts of urine.  


A simple liquid-liquid extraction and GC/MS-method for detection and quantification of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) from merely 1 ml urine is described. The derivatisation to the methyl ester was carried out using methyl iodide and mefenamic acid was used as internal standard. Experiments with urine spiked with 15 ng THC-COOH/ml resulted in a recovery of 91%. Excellent linearity was obtained over the range 5-100 ng/ml. PMID:1664232

Musshoff, F; Daldrup, T



Temporal variability of atmospheric lead concentrations and fluxes over the northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1985, daily 24-hour aerosol samples were collected on 0.4-{mu}m pore size filters at a coastal location in northwestern Corsica. Total atmospheric deposition (wet + dry) were sampled between February 1985 and October 1987 with a collection period of about 15 days. As indicated by three-dimensional air mass trajectories, lead aerosol particles collected at this site are primarily derived from European continental source regions. The variability of lead aerosol concentrations on both daily and seasonal time scales is primarily due to the scavenging of lead aerosol particles by rain rather than to changes in source regions. The results suggest that the ratio between the total atmospheric deposition of Pb and the corresponding mean daily precipitation (mdp) rate is not constant. This ratio reaches a maximum during the Mediterranean summer. The authors attribute this difference to wet scavenging processes which wash a more loaded atmosphere during the dry season than during the wet season. The precipitation frequency (F{sub p}) is a major factor influencing seasonal variability of the total atmospheric deposition of lead over the western Mediterranean. An intermediate value of F{sub p} allows sufficient reloading of the atmosphere with long-range transported Pb aerosol particles as well as efficient scavenging by precipitation events.

Remoudaki, E.; Bergametti, G. (Universite Paris (France)); Buat-Menard, P. (Centre des Faibles Radioactivites, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))



Correlations between lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in frozen tuna fish  

SciTech Connect

The presence of metallic pollutants in marine ecosystems has promoted wide research plans in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine organisms. However, little is known concerning environmental and physiological processes that regulate the concentration of trace metals in marine organisms. Even though the toxicity of lead and cadmium is well established, copper, zinc and iron are considered as essential elements for mammals. Little is known about heavy metals, other than mercury, concentrations in fresh and frozen tuna fish. Fifty samples obtained at the entrance of a canning factory in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were treated by applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences compiled and linked in the software of a Digital VAX/VMS 11/780 computer.

Galindo, L.; Hardisson, A.; Montelongo, F.G.



DDE, PCBs, cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in rhinoceros auklets from Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In July 1981, 5 adult rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) were captured on the ground near nesting areas on each of Protection and Destruction Islands, Washington. The birds were euthanized, and their livers and kidneys removed and analyzed. Levels (I?g / g wet weight) of DDE (0.11 to 0.95), polychlorinated biphenyls (no residue detected [ND] to 1.1), mercury (0.60 to 1.8), and lead (ND to 0.85) in livers and cadmium (9.1 to 21.9) in kidneys were similar in each colony. All concentrations were less than known effect levels.

Blus, L.J.; Fitzner, R.E.; Leschner, L.L.; Wilson, U.W.



On the seasonal variability of urban air particulate lead concentration under tropical monsoon atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

Hochiminh city has two distinct - dry and rainy - seasons with the seasonal transitions taking place during 1-2 weeks in May and November when the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) passes over the area during its annual north-south migration around the equator. The prevailing wind direction and rainfall change sharply following the seasonal transitions. Air particulate lead concentrations measured during 1993-1994 exhibit a temporal variability reflecting the seasonal changes of relevant atmospheric factors typical of Southeast Asia tropical monsoon conditions.

Hien, P.D.; Binh, N.T.; Truong, Y.; Ngo, N.T. [Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (Viet Nam)



Sodium urine test  


Urinary 24 hours sodium; Urine Na+ ... your kidneys are able to maintain or remove sodium from the urine. It may be used to ... For adults, normal urine sodium values are generally 20 mEq/L in a random urine sample and 40 to 220 mEq/L per day (mEq/ ...


Urine - abnormal color  


The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...


Curcumin mediates time and concentration dependent regulation of redox homeostasis leading to cytotoxicity in macrophage cells.  


The present study was designed to test a hypothesis that curcumin may be modulating oxidative stress parameters including reactive oxygen species, non-protein thiols and expression of antioxidant genes in a concentration and time dependent manner in exhibiting cytotoxic effects in macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The results have shown that curcumin elevated the reactive oxygen species levels accompanied by a decrease in levels of intracellular non-protein thiols at 2 h after its addition to cells. However, the levels of reactive oxygen species decreased and non-protein thiols content increased at 18 h after its addition. Whereas the expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) increased with curcumin concentration and also with increase in time of incubation, the expression of Mn- superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) showed concentration dependant repression upon treatment with curcumin. The cell viability was significantly reduced at high concentration (25 microM) of curcumin treatment but not at low concentration (5 microM). Curcumin at 5 microM scavenged gamma-radiation induced reactive oxygen species and inhibited cell death. On the contrary, at 25 microM, curcumin increased radiation induced reactive oxygen species production and augmented cell death. Interestingly pretreatment with reducing agents glutathione (GSH) or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), modified the curcumin mediated redox changes and cell death differentially, due to the inhibition of cellular uptake of curcumin by GSH but not by NAC. The important finding of the study is that the concentration and time dependent dual effect of curcumin may be attributed to changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant gene expression levels leading to inhibition or promotion of cell death. PMID:19344704

Kunwar, Amit; Sandur, Santosh K; Krishna, Malini; Priyadarsini, Kavirayani I



Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a >/= 6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative meth...


Differences in trace metal concentrations (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, And Ni) in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children.  


High-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods have been applied to estimate the content of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Ni in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children. The study was conducted on a group of 81 Polish children of age 6-17 years (37 males, 44 females). Obese children were defined as those with body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile in each age-gender-specific group. Statistical testing was done by the use of nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis's and Mann-Whitney's U) and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Significant correlations appeared for control group in plasma (Mn-Cd, Ni-Co), urine (Cu-Co), and blood (Fe-Cu), while for obese patients in plasma (Cd-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Zn) and urine (Fe-Cd, Co-Mn). Sex criteria did not influence correlations between metals' content in plasma and urine of obese patients. Metals' abundance was correlated in non-corresponding combinations of body fluids. Rare significant differences between content of metals according to sex and the type of body fluids were discovered: Zn in plasma from obese patients of both sexes, and Zn, Co, and Mn in blood, Mn in plasma from healthy subjects. Negative correlations between BMI and Zn in blood, Cu in plasma, and Fe in urine were discovered for girls (control group). Positive correlation between Co content in plasma and BMI was discovered for obese boys. The changes in metals' content in body fluids may be indicators of obesity. Content of zinc, copper, and cobalt should be monitored in children with elevated BMI to avoid deficiency problems. PMID:23975578

B?a?ewicz, Anna; Klatka, Maria; Astel, Aleksander; Partyka, Ma?gorzata; Kocjan, Ryszard



Lead concentrations and isotopes in corals and water near Bermuda, 1780-2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the oceanic anthropogenic lead (Pb) transient in the North Atlantic Ocean for the past 220 yr is documented here from measurements of Pb concentration and isotope ratios from annually-banded corals that grew in coastal seawaters near Bermuda and from seawater samples collected during the last 20 yr of the 20th century. Anthropogenic Pb emissions in this area have been dominated by the industrialization of North America beginning in the 1840s, the introduction of leaded gasoline beginning in the 1920s and its phase-out that began in the mid-1970s. The phase-out of leaded gasoline was largely completed by the late 1990s. Coral Pb concentrations occur at a constant low level of about 5 nmol Pb/mol Ca (~ 15 pmol/kg in seawater) from the late 1700s to ~ 1850. From ~ 1850 to ~ 1900 there is a small increase rising to a plateau at ~ 25 nmol Pb/mol Ca (~ 80 pmol/kg in seawater) in the 1930s until the late 1940s, at which point Pb concentrations rapidly increase to ~ 60 nmol Pb/mol Ca (~ 200 pmol/kg in seawater). In the mid 1970s, Pb began to decline to ~ 25 nmol Pb/Ca (40 pmol/kg in seawater) by the end of the 20th century, comparable to levels occurring in the early 20th century. Pb isotope ratios (Pb I.R.) show maximum 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.21 and 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.49 in the middle of the 19th century. We conclude that this signal is a reflection of the early dominance of Upper Mississippi Valley Pb ore in the United States, as previously seen in the estuarine sediments of Rhode Island. After 1900, Pb I.R. decrease only slightly until the 1960s when there is a significant local maximum in the 1970s to 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.19 and 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.45 as low-Pb I.R. sources were phased out in the United States. Then, as US leaded gasoline utilization decreased more rapidly than European Pb gas utilization (which has lower Pb I.R.), western North Atlantic Pb I.R. decreased to 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.17 and 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.44, their lowest values in the past two centuries.

Kelly, Amy E.; Reuer, Matthew K.; Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Boyle, Edward A.



Lead and cadmium concentrations in marine organisms from the Tarragona coastal waters, Spain  

SciTech Connect

Lead and cadmium are now recognized to be two of most important heavy metal contaminants of the marine environment. The Tarragona coastal area (Catalonia, NE Spain) is a biologically productive and physically diverse marine ecosystem, with a very important commercial fishing industry. Two rivers, the Ebro (South) and the Francoli (North) flow into the Mediterranean Sea at the Tarragona coastal waters, which are subjected to large loads of toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals). Although considerable data have been accumulated on the distribution and levels of heavy metals in marine species from different areas of the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Taragona coastal area are not available in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the distribution and concentrations of lead and cadmium in the marine species commonly consumed by the population of Tarragona, as well as to learn whether these levels may constitute a health hazard for the consumers. Lead and cadmium were measured in 23 commercially significant marine species from the Tarragona coastal waters.

Schuhmacher, M.; Bosque, M.A.; Domingo, J.L.; Corbella, J. (Univ. of Barcelona (Spain))



Apparatus and methods for monitoring the concentrations of hazardous airborne substances, especially lead  


Air is sampled at a rate in excess of 100 L/min, preferably at 200-300 L/min, so as to collect therefrom a substantial fraction, i.e., at least 20%, preferably 60-100%, of airborne particulates. A substance of interest (analyte), such as lead, is rapidly solubilized from the the collected particulates into a sample of liquid extractant, and the concentration of the analyte in the extractant sample is determined. The high-rate air sampling and particulate collection may be effected with a high-throughput filter cartridge or with a recently developed portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler. Rapid solubilization of lead is achieved by a liquid extractant comprising 0.1-1 M of acetic acid or acetate, preferably at a pH of 5 or less and preferably with inclusion of 1-10% of hydrogen peroxide. Rapid determination of the lead content in the liquid extractant may be effected with a colorimetric or an electroanalytical analyzer.

Zaromb, Solomon



Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

PubMed Central

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation. PMID:5768462

Porter, I. A.; Brodie, J.



Concentration dependence of surface properties and molar volume of multicomponent system indium-tin-lead-bismuth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of an experimental research of surface properties of the four-component system indium-tin-lead-bismuth are presented. The researches under discussion were carried out in a combined device in which the surface tension (?) is measured by the method of maximum pressure in a drop, and density (?) is measured by advanced aerometry. Measurement errors are 0.7 % for surface tension measurement, and 0.2 % for density measurement. The study of the concentration dependence of ? in this system has revealed the influence of the third and fourth components upon the characteristics of surface tension isotherms of the binary system indium-tin. It was found out that with an increase in the content of the third and fourth components the depth of the minimum on the surface tension isotherms of the indium-tin system ? decreases. On the basis of the concentration dependence of the phenomenon of concentration bufferity is revealed. It is shown that despite the complex character, isotherms of ? on beam sections of a multicomponent system do not contain qualitatively new features in comparison with the isotherms of these properties in lateral binary systems.

R, Dadashev; R, Kutuev; D, Elimkhanov



Chemical concentrations of pollutant lead aerosols, terrestrial dusts and sea salts in Greenland and Antarctic snow strata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we report analyses of lead in annual ice layers from the interior of northern Greenland and in annual layers of ice from the interior of the Antarctic continent. We show that lead concentrations increase from 0.200 Pb\\/kg ice today in north pole ice sheets, the sharpest rise occurring after 1940, and that the levels of lead in

M. Murozumi; Tsaihwa J. Chow; C. Patterson



Lead concentrations in zooplankton, water, and particulate matter of a southwestern Atlantic temperate estuary (Argentina).  


This study presents for the first time valuable results of lead (Pb) accumulation in zooplankton from a southwestern Atlantic temperate estuary, the Bahía Blanca estuary, one of the most important and industrialized coastal environments of Argentina. It considers Pb concentrations in zooplankton organisms as well as in the dissolved and particulate phases. These fractions were analyzed on account of their important role in the biogeochemical cycles of trace elements in estuarine environments. In addition, the major physicochemical variables, i.e., nutrients, and pigment concentrations, and zooplankton composition and abundance, were also considered to understand Pb levels in the above-mentioned fractions. Samplings were performed from March to December 2005 with a bimonthly frequency and comprised a study area with stations located near industrial settlements and other stations a few kilometers far from these points. The results of the physicochemical variables and nutrients and pigments agreed with historic values for the estuary and did not present any evidence of abnormalities. Dissolved Pb presented a mean concentration of 2.15 ± 0.46 ?g L(-1), whereas particulate Pb presented a mean concentration of 13.52 ± 3.07 ?g g(-1) dry weight (dw). In the mesozooplankton, represented by copepods, the mean concentration was similar to the particulate fraction (13.38 ± 4.41 ?g g(-1) dw), whereas in the macrozooplankton, represented by mysids, it was lower (9.81 ± 1.89 ?g g(-1) dw). Thus, Pb concentrations were relatively high in the dissolved and particulate phases. Moreover, zooplankton accumulated important concentrations of this metal, which was mainly incorporated through suspended particulate matter (SPM). The source of Pb in all of these fractions is related to the industry discharges as well domestic sewage located near the sampling stations. Finally, through these results, it was possible to show the importance of zooplankton and SPM in the biogeochemical cycle of Pb as well as the interaction between these fractions in an estuarine and anthropogenic environment, such as the Bahía Blanca estuary. PMID:20978885

Fernández Severini, Melisa Daiana; Botté, Sandra Elizabeth; Hoffmeyer, Mónica Susana; Marcovecchio, Jorge Eduardo



Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.  


This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7 ?g/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (p<0.001). Males were higher than in females (p<0.001). Current smokers and drinkers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers (p<0.001) and nondrinkers (p<0.001), respectively. People who took herbal medication and drug consumption were higher than those who did not (p<0.001). Education level was negatively associated with blood lead concentration (p<0.001). People living in or around industrial areas had elevated blood lead concentration (p<0.001). Family income was also negatively associated with lead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (p<0.034): the highest was in laborer and Agricultural-Fishery-Forestry and the lowest in office workers. In women, blood lead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the general adult population in Korea has decreased over time from 45.8 ?g/l (1999) to 19.7 ?g/l (2008). Although it is still higher than in other countries such as the United States and Canada, it is rapidly decreasing. Gender, age, smoking and alcohol drinking status, herbal medication and drug consumption, education level, living area and occupation were significantly related to the blood lead concentrations in Korea. PMID:25043456

Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon



Examination of lead concentrations in new decorative enamel paints in four countries with different histories of activity in lead paint regulation.  


Paints with high lead concentrations (ppm) continue to be sold around the world in many developing countries and those with economies in transition representing a major preventable environmental health hazard that is being increased as the economies expand and paint consumption is increasing. Prior lead paint testing had been performed in Brazil and India and these countries were selected to examine the impact of a new regulatory limit in Brazil and the impact of efforts of non-governmental organizations and others to stop the use of lead compounds in manufacturing paints. Armenia and Kazakhstan, in Central Asia, were selected because no information on lead concentration in those regions was available, no regulatory activities were evident and non-governmental organizations in the IPEN network were available to participate. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the lead loading (µg/cm(2)) limit determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for areas on toys that are too small to obtain a sample of sufficient size for laboratory analysis. The lead concentrations in more than three-fourths of the paints from Armenia and Kazakhstan exceeded 90 ppm, the limit in the United States, and 600 ppm, the limit in Brazil. The percentages were about one-half as high in Brazil and India. The average concentration in paints purchased in Armenia, 25,000 ppm, is among the highest that has been previously reported, that in Kazakhstan, 15,700 ppm, and India, 16,600, about median. The average concentration in Brazil, 5600 ppm, is among the lowest observed. Paints in Brazil that contained an average of 36,000 ppm before the regulatory limit became effective were below detection (< 9 ppm) in samples collected in the current study. The lack of any apparent public monitoring of paint lead content as part of regulatory enforcement makes it difficult to determine whether the regulation was a major factor contributing to the decline in lead use in these paints. Using data from the current study and those available from other studies 24 of 28 paints from major brands in India decreased from high concentrations to 90 ppm or lower. Since lead concentrations in golden yellow paints from these brands were found to decrease to ? 90 ppm, it is possible that all 28 of these paints now contain ? 90 ppm since yellow paints usually have the highest lead concentrations. Other brands in Brazil and India that have been analyzed only one time had lead concentrations up to 59,000 ppm and 134,000 ppm, respectively. Less than one-third of the paints had notations on their labels with information about lead content and these were sometimes inaccurate. The label from one brand indicating "no added lead" contained paint with 134,000 ppm lead, the highest found in this study. Three percent (3 of 98) of the paints with surface lead loading that did not exceed 2 µg/cm(2), the limit established by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for small areas on toys, contained greater than 90 ppm lead and thus were false negatives. Of the new paint samples that contained ? 600 ppm, 88% contained ? 90 ppm. Of the samples that contained ? 90 ppm, 97% contained ? 45 ppm and 92% contained ? 15 ppm. Based on these data it appears to be technically feasible to manufacture paints containing ? 90 ppm and in many cases to produce paints that have lead concentrations that do not exceed 15 ppm. PMID:24819125

Clark, C Scott; Kumar, Abhay; Mohapatra, Piyush; Rajankar, Prashant; Nycz, Zuleica; Hambartsumyan, Amalia; Astanina, Lydia; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline; Menrath, William; Peng, Hongying



Biosynthesis of lead nanoparticles by the aquatic water fern, Salvinia minima Baker, when exposed to high lead concentration.  


Salvinia minima Baker is a small floating aquatic fern that is efficient for the removal and storage of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, we report that lead removal by S. minima causes large accumulation of lead inside the cells in the form of nanoparticles (PbNPs). The accumulation pattern of lead was analyzed in both, submerged root-like modified fronds (here named "roots"), and in its aerial leaf-like fronds ("leaves"). Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the biosynthesis of PbNPs by the plant. In both, roots and leaves, PbNPs were found to accumulate almost exclusively at the cell wall and closely associated to the cell membrane. Two types of PbNPs shapes were found in cells of both tissues, those associated to the cell wall were quasi-spherical with 17.2±4.2 nm of diameter, while those associated to the cell membrane/cytoplasm were elongated. Elongated particles were 53.7±29.6 nm in length and 11.1±2.4 nm wide. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) results indicate that cellulose, lignin and pectin are the major components that may be acting as the reducing agents for lead ions; these findings strongly suggest the potential use of this fern to further explore the bio-assisted synthesis of heavy metal nanostructures. PMID:24211828

Castro-Longoria, E; Trejo-Guillén, K; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Avalos-Borja, M; Andrade-Canto, S B; Leal-Alvarado, D A; Santamaría, J M



Lefetamine, a controlled drug and pharmaceutical lead of new designer drugs: synthesis, metabolism, and detectability in urine and human liver preparations using GC-MS, LC-MS(n), and LC-high resolution-MS/MS.  


Lefetamine (N,N-dimethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine, L-SPA) was marketed as an opioid analgesic in Japan and Italy. After being widely abused, it became a controlled substance. It seems to be a pharmaceutical lead for designer drugs because N-ethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NEDPA) and N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA) were confiscated by the German police. In contrast to these derivatives, metabolism and detectability of lefetamine were not studied yet. Therefore, phase I and II metabolism should be elucidated and correlated to the derivatives. Also the detectability using the authors' standard urine screening approaches (SUSA) needed to be checked. As lefetamine was commercially unavailable, it had to be synthesized first. For metabolism studies, a high dose of lefetamine was administered to rats and the urine samples worked up in different ways. Separation and analysis were achieved by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS). In accordance with NEPDA and NPDPA, the following metabolic steps could be proposed: N-oxidation, N-dealkylation, mono- and bis-hydroxylation of the benzene ring, and hydroxylation of the phenyl ring only after N-dealkylation. The di-hydroxy metabolites were conjugated by methylation of one hydroxy group, and hydroxy metabolites by glucuronidation or sulfation. All initial metabolites could also be detected in human liver preparations. After a therapeutic lefetamine dose, the bis-nor, bis-nor-hydroxy, nor-hydroxy, nor-di-hydroxy metabolites could be detected using the authors' GC-MS SUSA and the nor-hydroxy-glucuronide by the LC-MS(n) SUSA. Thus, an intake of lefetamine should be detectable in human urine assuming similar pharmacokinetics. PMID:25577353

Wink, Carina S D; Meyer, Golo M J; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H



Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry.  


Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 ?g/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter. PMID:24468922

Ely, Craig R; Franson, J Christian



Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 ?g/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian



On-site testing of saliva and sweat with Drugwipe and determination of concentrations of drugs of abuse in saliva, plasma and urine of suspected users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential drug users participated voluntarily in a Belgian study on the usefulness of the non-instrumental immunoassay Drugwipe\\u000a (Securetec, Germany) for the screening of cocaine, opiates, amphetamine and cannabinoids in saliva and sweat. If one of the\\u000a screening assays (urine, oral fluid, sweat) showed a positive result, blood and saliva were collected. The on-site Drugwipe\\u000a results were correlated with the Drugwipe

N. Samyn; C. van Haeren



Factors controlling elevated lead concentrations in water samples from aquifer systems in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of total lead (Pb) and dissolved Pb exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level of 15 micrograms per liter (mg/L) in approximately 19 percent and 1.3 percent, respectively, of ground-water samples collected during 1991-96 from a statewide network of monitoring wells designed to delineate background water quality of Florida's major aquifer systems. Differences in total Pb concentrations among aquifer systems reflect the combined influence of anthropogenic sources and chemical conditions in each system. A highly significant (p<0.001) difference in median total Pb concentrations was found for water samples from wells with water-level recording devices that contain Pb-counterweights (14 mg/L) compared to non-recorder wells (2 mg/L). Differences between total Pb concentrations for recorder and non-recorder wells are even more pronounced when compared for each aquifer system. The largest differences for recorder status are found for the surficial aquifer system, where median total Pb concentrations are 44 and 2.4 mg/L for recorder wells and non-recorder wells, respectively. Leaching of Pb from metal casing materials is another potential source of Pb in ground water samples. Median total Pb concentrations in water samples from the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems are higher from recorder wells cased with black iron than for recorder wells with steel and PVC casing material. Stable isotopes of Pb were used in this study to distinguish between anthropogenic and natural sources of Pb in ground water, as Pb retains the isotopic signature of the source from which it is derived. Based on similarities between slopes and intercepts of trend lines for various sample types (plots of 206Pb/204Pb versus 208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb versus 208Pb/204Pb) the predominant source of total Pb in water samples from the surficial aquifer system is corrosion of Pb counterweights. It is likely that only ground-water samples, not the aquifer, were contaminated with elevated Pb concentations. Pb-isotopic ratios of water from the Floridan aquifer system plot between trend lines connecting the isotopic composition of Pb counterweights and the composition of acid leachates of material from the Floridan aquifer system, indicating that Pb in these waters most likely is a mixture of Pb derived from aquifer material and corrosion of Pb counterweights.

Katz, B.G.; Bullen, M.P.; Bullen, T.D.; Hansard, Paul



Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations in female and embryonic Pacific sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon longurio) tissues.  


In this work we compared the cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contents of muscle, liver and placenta of gestating females of the viviparous shark Rhizoprionodon longurio and of muscle, liver and umbilical cord of their respective embryos. The higher values of the essential Cu and Zn were in embryonic or embryo-related tissues (placenta and umbilical cord). Maternal muscle and liver had the highest values of Pb and Cd, respectively. There were significant direct correlations between the Zn and Cd concentrations of placenta and umbilical cord, as well as between maternal muscle and embryonic livers for Pb and Cd, but the relation between these tissues was inverse in the case of Zn. All correlations between the metal content of embryonic tissues and size of the embryos were negative, suggesting an inverse relation between the rate of mother-to-embryo metal transfer and embryonic growth. PMID:25151279

Frías-Espericueta, M G; Cardenas-Nava, N G; Márquez-Farías, J F; Osuna-López, J I; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Carrasco, W; Voltolina, D



Photometric and spectrochemical determination of gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates.  


A photometric and a spectrochemical method have been developed for determining gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates. In both, the sample is dissolved and gold is extracted from 1M hydrochloric add solution with a mixture of ethyl methyl ketone and chloroform (1:1). Gold was determined photometrically with N,N'-tetramethyl-o-tolidine. Conditions have been found for satisfactorily sensitive and reproducible spectral determination of gold. For this purpose the effect of various collectors and buffers on the evaporation curves of gold has been studied, as well as excitation conditions, form of the electrodes, optimum slit-width, and photographic variables. The sensitivity and precision of both methods have been evaluated. PMID:18960389

Jordanov, N; Mareva, S; Krasnobaeva, N; Nedyalkova, N



Concentrations of lead in the soft tissues of male rats during a long-term dietary exposure  

SciTech Connect

Newborn rats of albino Wister strain were exposed to lead from birth, first indirectly through maternal milk and then directly through a diet containing 0.5% lead acetate. At 3, 6, and 12 months of age some of the male rats were killed for the determination of the concentrations of lead in the blood, brain, kidneys, and liver. This long-term exposure resulted in a slight retardation of growth, yet no change in the food consumption was seen. Concentrations of lead in the blood and brain were similar at 3 to 6 months of age, but significantly higher at 12 months, while the concentrations of lead in the kidneys increased significantly with age. Of the brain parts examined the forebrain had the highest concentration of lead, with increased significantly with age. The present study, together with already published data, demonstrated clearly that lead accumulated in rat brain during the suckling period remains relatively unchanged throughout adult life, while the concentrations in the blood and other soft tissues fall rapidly after weaning. Thus the blood lead level cannot be used as a measure of the amount of lead in the brain, particularly in the case of long-term or intermittent exposure of the young.

Mykkanen, H.M.; Lancaster, M.C.; Dickerson, J.W.T.



Surface air concentration and deposition of lead-210 in French Guiana: two years of continuous monitoring.  


To make up for the lack of data on (210)Pb aerosol deposition in tropical regions and to use this radionuclide as an aerosol tracer, a monitoring station was run for two years at Petit-Saut, French Guiana. Lead-210 concentration in air at ground level was monitored continuously together with atmospheric total deposition. The air concentration has a mean value of 0.23+/-0.02 mBq m(-3) during both wet and dry seasons, and it is only weakly affected by the precipitation mechanism. This result was unexpected in a wet tropical region, with a high precipitation rate. In contrast, deposition clearly correlates with precipitation for low/moderate rainfall (<15 cm per 15-day), while this correlation is masked by strong fluctuations at high rainfall. The estimated mean annual deposition over the last ten years is 163+/-75 Bq m(-2) y(-1). This provides a procedure for estimating this mean flux at other sites in French Guiana. PMID:12600758

Mélières, Marie-Antoinette; Pourchet, Michel; Richard, Sandrine



Contamination of houses by workers occupationally exposed in a lead-zinc-copper mine and impact on blood lead concentrations in the families.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathway of leaded dust from a lead-zinc-copper mine to houses of employees, and the impact on blood lead concentrations (PbB) of children. METHODS: High precision lead isotope and lead concentration data were obtained on venous blood and environmental samples (vacuum cleaner dust, interior dustfall accumulation, water, paint) for eight children of six employees (and the employees) from a lead-zinc-copper mine. These data were compared with results for 11 children from occupationally unexposed control families living in the same city. RESULTS: The median (range) concentrations of lead in vacuum cleaner dust was 470 (21-1300) ppm. In the houses of the mine employees, vacuum cleaner dust contained varying higher proportions of mine lead than did airborne particulate matter measured as dustfall accumulated over a three month period. The median (range) concentrations of lead in soil were 30 (5-407) ppm and these showed no evidence of any mine lead. Lead in blood of the mine employees varied from 7 to 25 micrograms/dl and was generally dominated by mine lead (> 60%). The mean (SD) PbB in the children of the mine employees was 5.7 (1.7) micrograms/dl compared with 4.1 (1.4) micrograms/dl for the control children (P = 0.02). The PbB of all children was always < 10 micrograms/dl, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal for all Australians. Some of the control children had higher PbB than the children of mine employees, probably from exposure to leaded paint as six of the eight houses of the control children were > 50 years old. In five of the eight children of mine employees > 20% of PbB was from the lead mine. However, in the other three cases of children of mine employees, their PbB was from sources other than mine lead (paint, petrol, background sources). CONCLUSIONS: Houses of employees from a lead mine can be contaminated by mine lead even if they are not situated in the same place as the mine. Delineation of the mine to house pathway indicates that lead is probably transported into the houses on the clothes, shoes, hair, skin, and in some cases, motor vehicles of the workers. In one case, dust shaken from clothes of a mine employee contained 3000 ppm lead which was 100% mine lead. The variable contamination of the houses was not expected given the precautions taken by mine employees to minimise transportation of lead into their houses. Although five out of the eight children of mine employees had > 20% mine lead in their blood, in no case did the PbB of a child exceed the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal of 10 micrograms/dl. In fact, some children in the control families had higher PbB than children of mine employees. In two cases, this was attributed to a pica habit for paint. The PbB in the children of mine employees and controls was independent of the source of lead. The low PbB in the children of mine employees may reflect the relatively low solubility (bioavailability) of the mine dust in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (< 40 %), behaviour--for example, limited mouthing activity--or diet. PMID:9072019

Chiaradia, M; Gulson, B L; MacDonald, K



Evaluating a Mineralogical Control on Arsenic and Lead Concentrations in California Gold Mine Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abandoned gold mining operations in California often host tailings piles, which are a source of various heavy metal contaminants including arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Based on internal USDA Forest Service studies, it has been determined that some tailings are a concern due to high As and Pb while others are only a concern for high As. The research hypothesis is that this difference reflects a mineralogical control on the presence and concentration of As and Pb. This information would be valuable in the prioritization of mining sites for mitigation, as identifying whether both As and Pb are a concern or only As is key in determining the level of risk posed by the tailings. Ore from two mines (Bright Star and May-Lundy) in the Sierra Nevada provided a preliminary test of this hypothesis. Samples were collected from presumed ore found in proximity to mine adits or milling sites. A biased sampling method, based on the presence of clearly visible concentrations of metal sulfide minerals, served as a selection approach. Prior to lab processing, the samples were evaluated for their proportion of metal sulfide minerals to non-metallic minerals, to establish the range of variability at each mine site. A Gyral grinder was used to reduce samples to particles of less than 149 microns in size. The samples were then analyzed with a Niton XL3t model X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device for a one-minute interval. Based on this initial sampling, it is suggestive that the ratio of Pb/As, in the ore material reflects the concentration ratios within the tailings at the respective mine sites. This method assumes that a whole rock analysis is indicative of the proportion of As to Pb bearing minerals present.

Neptune, C. K.; De Graff, J.



Urine Tests (For Parents)  


... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Urine Tests KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Urine Tests Print A ...


Uric acid - urine  


The urine uric acid test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... to choose the best medicine to lower uric acid level in the blood. Uric acid is a ...


Blood metal concentrations of manganese, lead, and cadmium in relation to serum ferritin levels in ohio residents.  


The objectives of this study were to assess ferritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents. Recruited participants included residents from Marietta, East Liverpool, and Mt. Vernon, OH, USA, who were aged 30-75 years and lived at least 10 years in their respective town. The levels of the neurotoxic metals such as manganese, cadmium, and lead were assayed in whole blood. Serum was analyzed for ferritin level [as a biomarker of iron (Fe) status]. An association between blood metal concentrations and independent variables (age, serum ferritin, manganese exposure status, and sex) by multiple regression analysis was assessed, controlling for various covariates such as BMI, educational level, smoking, and alcohol drinking status. Overall, the geometric means of blood manganese, cadmium, and lead levels of all participants (n?=?276) were 9.307 ?g/L, 0.393 ?g/L, and 1.276 ?g/dL, respectively. Log serum ferritin concentrations were inversely associated with log blood manganese concentration (??=?-0.061 log ferritin and ??=?0.146 categorical ferritin) and log blood cadmium concentrations (??=?-0.090 log ferritin and ??=?0.256 categorical ferritin). Log serum ferritin concentrations were not associated with log blood lead concentrations. Variables of age, sex, and exposure status were not associated with log manganese concentrations; however, log blood cadmium concentrations were higher in older population, women, and smokers. Log blood lead concentrations were higher in older population, men, and postmenopausal women. Our study showed that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood manganese and cadmium, but not blood lead, in Ohio residents. These metals showed different toxicokinetics in relation to age, sex, and menopausal status despite similar relationships between ferritin and metal concentrations. PMID:25578336

Kim, Yangho; Lobdell, Danelle T; Wright, Chris W; Gocheva, Vihra V; Hudgens, Edward; Bowler, Rosemarie M



Spot Urine Osmolality\\/Creatinine Ratio in Healthy Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Spot urine albumin\\/creatinine ratio is a reliable estimate of 24-hour urine albumin excretion. In a pilot study, we observed that the spot urine osmolality\\/creatinine ratio (Uosm\\/Ucr) in healthy adults is reproducible. Therefore, we postulated that Uosm\\/Ucr of a spot urine sample may give an overall estimate of urinary excretion of solutes, renal concentrating ability and body hydration status. Method:

Srini Godevithanage; Piyumi P. Kanankearachchi; Mahanama P. Dissanayake; Thilak A. Jayalath; Nimal Chandrasiri; Rangani P. Jinasena; Ranjith P. V. Kumarasiri; Chulananda D. A. Goonasekera



Impairment of renal function with increasing blood lead concentrations in the general population. The Cadmibel Study Group  

SciTech Connect

Nephropathy is known to occur in persons with heavy exposure to lead. Whether exposure to lead in the general population leads to impaired renal function is not known. We studied renal function and indexes of lead exposure in a random population sample of 965 men and 1016 women (age range, 20 to 88 years). In all the subjects we measured creatinine clearance and blood concentrations of lead and zinc protoporphyrin (an indirect measure of blood lead level). The mean (+/- SD) creatinine clearance rate was 99 +/- 30 ml per minute in the men and 80 +/- 25 ml per minute in the women. In the men the geometric mean blood lead concentration was 114 micrograms per liter (0.55 mumol per liter) (range, 23 to 725 micrograms per liter (0.11 to 3.5 mumol per liter)), and in the women 75 micrograms per liter (0.36 mumol per liter) (range, 17 to 603 micrograms per liter (0.08 to 2.9 mumol per liter)); the zinc protoporphyrin values in blood averaged 1.0 and 1.1 micrograms per gram of hemoglobin, respectively. The creatinine clearance rate was inversely correlated with blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin values in the men and the women both before and after adjustments for age, bodymass index, and diuretic treatment. A 10-fold increase in blood lead concentration was associated with a reduction of 10 to 13 ml per minute in creatinine clearance. We also found a positive correlation between serum beta 2-microglobulin (which is inversely related to the glomerular filtration rate) and blood lead in men, between serum beta 2-microglobulin and zinc protoporphyrin in both sexes, and between serum creatinine and zinc protoporphyrin in men. Exposure to lead may impair renal function in the general population. The alternative hypothesis that renal impairment may lead to an increase in the blood lead concentration cannot be excluded, however.

Staessen, J.A.; Lauwerys, R.R.; Buchet, J.P.; Bulpitt, C.J.; Rondia, D.; Vanrenterghem, Y.; Amery, A. (Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Unit, University of Leuven (Belgium))



Characteristics of lead isotope ratios and elemental concentrations in PM 10 fraction of airborne particulate matter in Shanghai after the phase-out of leaded gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable lead (Pb) isotope ratios and the concentrations of 23 elements, including heavy metals and toxic elements, were measured in the PM10 airborne particle samples collected at seven monitoring sites in Shanghai, China, to evaluate the current elemental compositions and local airborne Pb isotope ratio characteristics. Some source-related samples, such as cement, coal and oil combustion dust, metallurgic dust,

Jian Zheng; Mingguang Tan; Yasuyuki Shibata; Atsushi Tanaka; Yan Li; Guilin Zhang; Yuanmao Zhang; Zuci Shan



Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in San Francisco MUNI bus drivers  

SciTech Connect

San Francisco MUNI bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration (Pb-B) and blood pressure (BP) in 342 drivers. Two groups of subjects were identified. These subjects treated for hypertension (n = 54) and untreated subjects (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic BPs varied from 102-173 mmHg and from 61-105 mm Hg respectively in untreated subjects. They varied from 110-206 mmHg and from 73-127 mmHg respectively in treated subjects. The Pb-B varied from 2-15 {mu}g/dl in untreated subjects, and 2-25 {mu}g/dl in treated drivers. The relationship between BP and the logarithm of Pb-B was examined in each group separately using multiple regression techniques. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The regression coefficient relating systolic BP and In(Pb-B) was 1-2 mmHg/ln({mu}g/Dl) (90% C.I.: {minus}2,5) in untreated subjects. The relationship in treated subjects was too unstable to be accurately determined. The coefficients for diastolic BP were 2.0-2.5 mmHg/ln({mu}g/dl) (90% C.I.: 0.1,4.5) and 6 mmHg/ln({mu}g/dl) (90% C.I.: 2,11) in untreated and treated subjects respectively.

Sharp, D.S.



The association between spatial distribution of common malignancies and soil lead concentration in Isfahan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Malignancies are primarily environmental diseases mostly attributed to environmental factors. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences can be observed in detail. This study aimed to determine the association between map distribution of malignancies and the geological phenomena of lead (Pb) accumulation in soil in the province of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Spatial distribution maps of malignant diseases were plotted by using data recorded during 2007 to 2009 in the Isfahan Cancer Registry Program. Data on Pb accumulation in soil was obtained from the National Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration. Pb concentrations were documented in three parts of agricultural, non-agricultural, urban, and industrial land. The geographical mapping of cancers and soil Pb were then incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to create a spatial distribution model. Results: The spatial distributions of ten common malignant diseases in the province, i.e. skin cancers, hematological malignancies, and breast cancers, followed by other malignancies were scattered based on Pb distribution. In fact, common cancers were more prevalent in the parts of the province where soil Pb was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study underscore the importance of preventing Pb exposure and controlling industrial production of Pb. The data is also important to establish further effects modeling for cancers. Moreover, physicians and health professionals should consider the impact of environmental factors on their patients’ health. PMID:23267396

Rashidi, Masoumeh; Rameshat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharib, Hadi; Rouzbahani, Reza; Ghias, Majid; Poursafa, Parinaz



A Greenhouse Study on Lead Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) as a Function of Lead Concentration and Soil Physico-Chemical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead (Pb) is a toxic non-essential metal that can cause permanent learning disabilities, retardation, mental and behavioral problems in children. Lead accumulation in soils result from weathering, chipping, scraping, sanding and sand blasting of housing structures constructed prior to 1978, bearing lead-based paint. The primary objective of this study is to develop a cost-effective, chelate-assisted phytoremediation for cleaning up lead contaminated soils. Soils are a unique environment of diverse physical and chemical characteristics that influence the extent of phytoavailable (labile) Pb forms. The success of phytoremediation strategy depends on the physiological/ biochemical tolerance of the plants to lipid peroxidation induced by Pb at sub-lethal levels. Oxidative challenge is alleviated by antioxidant compounds, but more importantly by the induction of antioxidant enzymes, which are crucial for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and terminating lipid peroxidation chain reaction. A column study was conducted in a temperature and humidity-controlled greenhouse setting to assess the extent of Pb phytoextraction and antioxidant response in a lead accumulator, vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Treatments consisted of a randomized block arrangement of 4 soil types (Immokalee, Pahokee Muck, Tobosa, and Millhopper) and 3 soil Pb concentrations [normal - 400 mg/kg lead (following federal soil standards for lead), moderate - 800 mg/kg lead, and excessive - 1200 mg/kg lead] in 4 replicates. At the end of 6 months, selected columns were amended with a biodegradable chelating agent, ethylenediamene disuccinate (10 mmol/ kg EDDS), to mobilize Pb and enhance Pb uptake by vetiver. Total and exchangeable (labile) Pb were correlated with phytoextracted Pb, and levels of antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. Results indicate that Pb uptake and antioxidant enzymes activity in vetiver grass is dependent on soil physico-chemical properties and phytoavailable Pb concentrations.

Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S. K.



Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, S.N.; Mulhern, B.



Sweeping under controlled electroosmotic flow and micellar electrokinetic chromatography for on-line concentration and determination of trace phlorizin and quercitrin in urine samples.  


A novel sweeping under controlled electroosmotic flow scheme was developed for preconcentration and determination of neutral compounds by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). An anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was added into the buffer for sweeping and separation. By controlled electroosmotic flow (EOF) equal to the counter electrophoretic flow, the surfactants were at an immobile state in capillary. The neutral analytes with sample solution was injected electroosmotically into capillary and swept by SDS micelle for essentially an unlimited volume. The injected sample plug lengths for phlorizin and quercitrin under 18 kV for 70 min were experimentally estimated as 1532 cm, corresponding to 51-fold the effective capillary length. The sweeping under controlled EOF scheme resulted in increased detection factors for phlorizin and quercitrin of 2.3 × 10? and 2.1 × 10? using 70 min injection relative to a traditional pressure injection. The proposed method has been adopted to analyze trace phlorizin and quercitrin in urine samples successfully. PMID:21664088

Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhaoxiang



Abrupt decrease of lead concentration in the Mediterranean sea: A response to antipollution policy  

SciTech Connect

The authors present data from water samples from the northwestern Mediterranean which show a marked decline in the density of lead in surface waters over the past 10 years. This decrease follows the establishments of limits on leaded gasoline usage in western European countries beginning in 1976. This study indicates that the major lead pollutant source was lead based fuels, and that antipollution efforts clearly are successful.

Nicolas, E.; Ruiz-Pino, D. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Villefranche (France)] [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Villefranche (France); Buat-Menard, P. [Universite de Bordeaux I (France)] [Universite de Bordeaux I (France)



Hair as a noninvasive tool for risk assessment: do the concentrations of cadmium and lead in the hair of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) reflect internal concentrations?  


There is an increasing need for developing noninvasive markers of accumulation when studying the transfer of pollutants in wildlife, in response to problems caused by sacrifice of animals (disturbed population dynamics, respect of ethical protocols). Thus, the aim of this work was to determine whether trace metal (TM) concentrations in hair could be used as an accurate noninvasive estimator of internal and environmental concentrations. For that purpose, on a 40km² site surrounding an ancient smelter, 321 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were sampled on seven squares (500×500m) and 4 squares in fall 2010 and spring 2011, respectively. The relationships between the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations in hair and those in the liver, kidneys, and soils were described. The results indicated that hair concentration was a relatively good predictor of Pb concentrations in organs (p<0.001, 0.46concentrations in organs were only weakly predicted by hair concentrations in session 2010 (p<0.001, R²=0.10 for both organs), and no significant relationship was found in session 2011 (p=0.252 for liver and p=0.971 for kidneys). The Cd and Pb concentrations in the soil and in hair were not linearly related, but concentrations in hair increased with soil concentrations (Spearman's rank correlations). Linear relationships between internal and hair concentrations differed significantly between the sampling sessions, especially for Cd. When they were included in models analyzing the relationships between TM concentrations in organs and in hair, individual characteristics (gender and body mass as a non-lethal estimation of relative age) increased the explained variability of Cd in organs but not of Pb. In conclusion, hair should be used cautiously to predict internal Cd concentrations but can be considered as an accurate noninvasive estimator of internal Pb concentrations. Further studies should be performed to develop, generalize, and apply this useful possible tool for risk assessment in ecotoxicology. PMID:25090089

Tête, Nicolas; Afonso, Eve; Crini, Nadia; Drouhot, Séverine; Prudent, Anne-Sophie; Scheifler, Renaud



Placental transfer and concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium in mothers, newborns, and young children  

PubMed Central

There is an emerging hypothesis that exposure to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in utero and early childhood could have long-term health consequences. However, there are sparse data on early life exposures to these elements in US populations, particularly in urban minority samples. This study measured levels of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se in 50 paired maternal, umbilical cord, and postnatal blood samples from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). Maternal exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se was 100% detectable in red blood cells (RBCs), and there was a high degree of maternal–fetal transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se. In particular, we found that Hg levels in cord RBCs were 1.5 times higher than those found in the mothers. This study also investigated changes in concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se during the first few years of life. We found decreased levels of Hg and Se but elevated Pb levels in early childhood. Finally, this study investigated the association between metal burden and preterm birth and low birthweight. We found significantly higher levels of Hg in maternal and cord plasma and RBCs in preterm or low birthweight births, compared with term or normal birthweight births. In conclusion, this study showed that maternal exposure to these elements was widespread in the BBC, and maternal–fetal transfer was a major source of early life exposure to Hg, Pb, and Se. Our results also suggest that RBCs are better than plasma at reflecting the trans-placental transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se from the mother to the fetus. Our study findings remain to be confirmed in larger studies, and the implications for early screening and interventions of preconception and pregnant mothers and newborns warrant further investigation. PMID:24756102

Chen, Zhu; Myers, Robert; Wei, Taiyin; Bind, Eric; Kassim, Prince; Wang, Guoying; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Bartell, Tami; Gong, Yiwei; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Wang, Xiaobin



Placental transfer and concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium in mothers, newborns, and young children.  


There is an emerging hypothesis that exposure to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in utero and early childhood could have long-term health consequences. However, there are sparse data on early life exposures to these elements in US populations, particularly in urban minority samples. This study measured levels of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se in 50 paired maternal, umbilical cord, and postnatal blood samples from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). Maternal exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se was 100% detectable in red blood cells (RBCs), and there was a high degree of maternal-fetal transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se. In particular, we found that Hg levels in cord RBCs were 1.5 times higher than those found in the mothers. This study also investigated changes in concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se during the first few years of life. We found decreased levels of Hg and Se but elevated Pb levels in early childhood. Finally, this study investigated the association between metal burden and preterm birth and low birthweight. We found significantly higher levels of Hg in maternal and cord plasma and RBCs in preterm or low birthweight births, compared with term or normal birthweight births. In conclusion, this study showed that maternal exposure to these elements was widespread in the BBC, and maternal-fetal transfer was a major source of early life exposure to Hg, Pb, and Se. Our results also suggest that RBCs are better than plasma at reflecting the trans-placental transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se from the mother to the fetus. Our study findings remain to be confirmed in larger studies, and the implications for early screening and interventions of preconception and pregnant mothers and newborns warrant further investigation. PMID:24756102

Chen, Zhu; Myers, Robert; Wei, Taiyin; Bind, Eric; Kassim, Prince; Wang, Guoying; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Bartell, Tami; Gong, Yiwei; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Wang, Xiaobin



Lead concentrations in some organs of the rat Meriones libycus and its parasite Hymenolepis diminuta from Riyadh City, KSA.  


In the present study, the tape worm Hymenolepis diminuta was chosen to estimate lead bioaccumulation in an urban area highly polluted with lead (the industrial area) and another less polluted one (Al-Karj road) at Riyadh City, K.S.A. Lead concentrations were found 38 to be 32 and 15 times in the parasite (H. diminuta) than in the intestine, liver and kidney of the host (Meriones libycus). Thus, the proposed model of cestode parasite-rat as bio-indicator of lead pollution seems to be promising in the terrestrial habitat. PMID:18853610

Al-Qureishy, Saleh



Total body burdens and tissue concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and ash in 55 human cadavers  

SciTech Connect

Trace metal contents of human tissues and total body burdens are useful for studies of nutrition and certain diseases. Data are summarized and analyzed for individuals exposed to the normal Cincinnati environment, for 29 tissues from 55 cadavers for lead and ash concentrations, and from 26 cadavers for cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations. Total body burdens also were calculated and correlated against each other and age. The distributions for ash, copper, and zinc were close to normal, but those for lead and cadmium were closer to lognormal. Bone lead increased with age, whereas soft tissue lead did not. The calculated mean percentage of total body lead in the bones ranged from 78% at age 20 to 96% at age 80. Correlations of blood concentrations with total body burdens were negligible for cadmium and zinc. For copper the correlation coefficient was a poor 0.54. For lead in blood vs soft tissue burden it was a very poor 0.37, and vs total body lead it was negligible. Thus the use of blood samples as a convenient clinical measure of body burdens for these metals may be of limited value. These and other findings provide a useful bank of information for health studies.

Saltzman, B.E.; Gross, S.B.; Yeager, D.W.; Meiners, B.G.; Gartside, P.S. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA))



Effect of ash circulation in gasification melting system on concentration and leachability of lead in melting furnace fly ash.  


In some gasification-melting plants, generated melting furnace fly ash is returned back to the melting furnace for converting the ash to slag. This study investigated the effect of such ash circulation in the gasification-melting system on the concentration and leachability of lead in the melting furnace fly ash. The ash circulation in the melting process was simulated by a thermodynamic calculation, and an elemental analysis and leaching tests were performed on a melting furnace fly ash sample collected from the gasification-melting plant with the ash circulation. It was found that by the ash circulation in the gasification-melting, lead was highly concentrated in the melting furnace fly ash to the level equal to the fly ash from the ash-melting process. The thermodynamic calculation predicted that the lead volatilization by the chlorination is promoted by the ash circulation resulting in the high lead concentration. In addition, the lead extraction from the melting furnace fly ash into a NaOH solution was also enhanced by the ash circulation, and over 90% of lead in the fly ash was extracted in 5 min when using 0.5 mol l(-1) NaOH solution with L/S ratio of 10 at 100 °C. Based on the results, a combination of the gasification-melting with the ash circulation and the NaOH leaching method is proposed for the high efficient lead recovery. PMID:24121545

Okada, Takashi; Suzuki, Masaru



Urine the Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners compare water with artificial urine to see how urinalysis works. Learners use urinalysis test strips to test for glucose and protein in the fake urine. Use this activity to demonstrate why doctors examine urine samples to determine a person's health. Safety notes: Follow the safety notes described in the activity as well as Milli's safety tips on page 2.

American Chemical Society



Genotypic and environmental variation in cadmium, chromium, arsenic, nickel, and lead concentrations in rice grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotypic and environmental variation in Cd, Cr, As, Ni and Pb concentrations of grains, and the relationships between these\\u000a heavy metals and Fe, Zn were investigated using 9 rice genotypes grown in 6 locations for two successive years. Significant\\u000a genotypic variation was detected in the five heavy metal concentrations in grains, indicating the possibility to reduce the\\u000a concentration of these

Wang-da Cheng; Guo-ping Zhang; Hai-gen Yao; Wei Wu; Min Xu



Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.




Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was carried out on the effect of molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) using concentrations of 1×10, 1×10, and 1×10 mol dm, on the metabolism of nitrogen and proteins in young pea plants (Pisum sativum L. ‘NS Lim’). The highest concentrations of the investigated metals were noted to suppress the development of the aboveground

Slavko Kevresan; Novica Petrovic; Milan Popovic; Julijan Kandrac



Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis



Urine pH test  


A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your body's acid levels.It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).


Influence of H 2SO 4 concentration on lead-acid battery performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

With commercialization of the VRLA battery design the H2SO4 concentration of the electrolyte filled in the battery has increased to over 1.30gcm?3. On the other hand, it has been established that the electrochemical activity of PbO2 depends on the concentration of H2SO4, the highest activity being achieved in solutions with concentrations from 1.10 to 1.28s.g. H2SO4. At CH2SO4>1.29?g?cm?3, the PbO2\\/PbSO4

D. Pavlov; V. Naidenov; S. Ruevski



Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils.  


Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd>Hg>Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. PMID:18400348

Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan; Christie, Peter; Frey, Beat



Surveillance of workers exposed to mercury vapor:validation of a previously proposed biological threshold limit value for mercury concentration in urine  

SciTech Connect

A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out among subjects exposed to mercury (Hg) vapor, ie, a group of 131 male workers (mean age: 30.9 yr; average duration of exposure, 4.8 yr) and a group of 54 female workers (mean age, 29.9 yr; average duration of exposure 7 yr). The results were compared with those obtained in well-matched control groups comprising 114 and 48 male and female workers, respectively. The intensity of current Hg vapor exposure was rather moderate as reflected by the levels of mercury in urine (HgU) (mean and 95th percentile: males 52 and 147 micrograms/g creatinine; females 37 and 63 micrograms/g creatinine) and of mercury in blood (mean and 95th percentile: males 1.4 and 3.7 micrograms/dl; females 0.9 and 1.4 microgram/dl). Several symptoms mainly related to the central nervous system (memory disturbances, depressive feelings, fatigue, irritability) were more prevalent in the Hg-exposed subjects. They were, however, not related to exposure parameters. In both male and female Hg-exposed workers no significant disturbances were found in short-term memory (audioverbal), simple reaction time (visual), critical flicker fusion, and color discrimination ability. Only slight renal tubular effects were detected in Hg-exposed males and females, ie, an increased urinary beta-galactosidase activity and an increased urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein. The prevalence of these preclinical renal effects was more related to the current exposure intensity (HgU) than to the duration of exposure and was detected mainly when HgU exceeds 50 micrograms/g creatinine. Changes in hand tremor spectrum recorded with an accelerometer were found in the Hg-exposed males only.

Roels, H.; Gennart, J.P.; Lauwerys, R.; Buchet, J.P.; Malchaire, J.; Bernard, A.



Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables.  


Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. PMID:25163429

McBride, Murray B; Shayler, Hannah A; Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon



Arsenic, Iron, Lead, Manganese and Uranium Concentrations in Private Bedrock Wells in Southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013  

EPA Science Inventory

Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the t...


Concentration, pH, and Surface Charge Effects on Cadmium and Lead Sorption in Three Tropical Soils  

E-print Network

Concentration, pH, and Surface Charge Effects on Cadmium and Lead Sorption in Three Tropical Soils situations death (Hrudey et al., 1995; USEPA,metal fates in the environment. Sorption characteristics of two relatively few experiments have been conducted on or equal to the amount of negative surface charge except

Ma, Lena



EPA Science Inventory

A simple, rapid, and inexpensive anodic stripping voltammetric method with a mercury thin film electrode is reported for the establishment of baseline concentrations of cadmium, lead, and copper in natural waters. The procedure for routine surface preparation of wax-impregnated g...


RBC urine test  


Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...


Urine collection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)



Papain: a novel urine adulterant.  


The estimated number of employees in the United Stated screened annually for illicit drugs is approximately 20 million, with marijuana being the most frequently abused drug. Urine adulterants provide an opportunity for illicit drug users to obtain a false-negative result on commonly used primary drug screening methods such as the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique and the fluorescence polarized immunoassay technique (FPIA). Typical chemical adulterants such as nitrites are easily detected or render the urine specimen invalid as defined in the proposed SAMHSA guidelines for specimen validity testing based on creatinine, specific gravity, and pH. Papain is a cysteine protease with intrinsic ester hydrolysis capability. The primary metabolite of the psychoactive chemical in marijuana, 11-norcarboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC-COOH), was assayed by FPIA in concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 ng/mL, at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 8, over the course of 3 days with papain concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 mg/mL. FPIA analysis of other frequently abused drugs: amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine, along with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of THC-COOH and high-pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) of nordiazepam was performed in order to determine if the mechanism of urine adulteration by papain was analyte specific. Control and adulterated urine specimens (n = 30) were assayed for creatinine, specific gravity, and pH to determine if papain rendered the specimens invalid based on the proposed SAMHSA guidelines. There was a direct pH, temperature, and time-dependent correlate between the increase in papain concentration and the decrease in THC-COOH concentration from the untreated control groups (p < 0.01). The average 72-h THC-COOH concentration decrease at pH 6.2 with a papain concentration of 10 mg/mL was 50%. Papain did not significantly decrease the concentration of the other drugs analyzed with the exception of nordiazepam. GC-MS of THC-COOH and HPLC-UV of nordiazepam revealed a 66% and 24% decrease in concentration of the respective analyte with 10 mg/mL papain after 24 h at room temperature (approximately 23 degrees C). No adulterated specimens were rendered invalid based on the SAMHSA guidelines. Immediate FPIA analysis is suggested to minimize the interfering effects of papain with regards to primary drug screening. PMID:16105251

Burrows, David L; Nicolaides, Andrea; Rice, Peter J; Dufforc, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Ferslew, Kenneth E



Concentration of iron, zinc, copper and lead in the brain of wild and domestic geese.  


Concentration of Fe, Zn, Cu and Pb were determined in the brain tissue of wild (bean goose, Anser fabalis, n = 14, and white-fronted goose, A. albifrons, n = 3) and domestic (A. anser f. domestica, n = 13) geese. The results are referred to 1 g fresh weight (micrograms/g). Out of 17 wild geese, 4 individuals showed a very high Pb level. Statistically significant differences in concentrations of the metals studied were found between the white-fronted and domestic geese; for 3 metals (Fe, Zn, Cu), differences between the bean and white-fronted geese were statistically significant as well. The two bean goose types, tundra and taiga, were found to differ in terms of their brain Zn and Cu concentrations: the tundra type geese showed higher content of the metals than those in the taiga type. PMID:8590898

Kalisi?ska, E



Relationship between blood lead concentration and nutritional status among Malay primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.  


A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the relationship between blood lead concentration and nutritional status among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 225 Malay students, 113 male and 112 female, aged 6.3 to 9.8 were selected through a stratified random sampling method. The random blood samples were collected and blood lead concentration was measured by a Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The nutrient intake was determined by the 24-hour Dietary Recall method and Food Frequency Questionnaire. An anthropometric assessment was reported according to growth indices (z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height). The mean blood lead concentration was low (3.4 +/- 1.91 ug/dL) and was significantly different between gender. Only 14.7% of the respondents fulfilled the daily energy requirement. The protein and iron intakes were adequate for a majority of the children. However, 34.7% of the total children showed inadequate intake of calcium. The energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate intakes were significantly different by gender, that is, males had better intake than females. Majority of respondents had normal mean z-score of growth indices. Ten percent of the respondents were underweight, 2.8% wasted and 5.4% stunted. Multiple linear regression showed inverse significant relationships between blood lead concentration with children's age (beta = -0.647, p < 0.001) and per capita income (beta = -0.001, p = 0.018). There were inverse significant relationships between blood lead concentration with children's age (beta = -0.877, p = 0.001) and calcium intake (beta = -0.011, p = 0.014) and positive significant relationship with weight-for-height (beta = 0.326, p = 0.041) among those with inadequate calcium intake. Among children with inadequate energy intake, children's age (beta = -0.621, p < 0.001), per capita income (beta = -0.001, p = 0.025) and protein intake (beta = -0.019, p = 0.027) were inversely and significantly related with blood lead concentration. In conclusion, nutritional status might affect the children's absorption of lead and further investigation is required for confirmation. PMID:18330402

Elias, S M; Hashim, Z; Marjan, Z M; Abdullah, A S; Hashim, J H



Blood lead concentrations in children and method of water fluoridation in the United States, 1988-1994.  


Some have hypothesized that community water containing sodium silicofluoride and hydrofluosilicic acid may increase blood lead (PbB) concentrations in children by leaching of lead from water conduits and by increasing absorption of lead from water. Our analysis aimed to evaluate the relation between water fluoridation method and PbB concentrations in children. We used PbB concentration data (n=9,477) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) for children 1-16 years of age, merged with water fluoridation data from the 1992 Fluoridation Census. The main outcome measure was geometric mean PbB concentration, and covariates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty status, urbanicity, and length of time living in residence. Geometric mean PbB concentrations for each water fluoridation method were 2.40 microg/dL (sodium silicofluoride), 2.34 microg/dL (hydrofluosilicic acid), 1.78 microg/dL (sodium fluoride), 2.24 microg/dL (natural fluoride and no fluoride), and 2.14 microg/dL (unknown/mixed status). In multiple linear and logistic regression, there was a statistical interaction between water fluoridation method and year in which dwelling was built. Controlling for covariates, water fluoridation method was significant only in the models that included dwellings built before 1946 and dwellings of unknown age. Across stratum-specific models for dwellings of known age, neither hydrofluosilicic acid nor sodium silicofluoride were associated with higher geometric mean PbB concentrations or prevalence values. Given these findings, our analyses, though not definitive, do not support concerns that silicofluorides in community water systems cause higher PbB concentrations in children. Current evidence does not provide a basis for changing water fluoridation practices, which have a clear public health benefit. PMID:16393670

Macek, Mark D; Matte, Thomas D; Sinks, Thomas; Malvitz, Dolores M



Determination of lead, cations, and anions concentration in indoor and outdoor air at the primary schools in Kuala Lumpur.  


This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08??g/g-7.01 ± 0.08??g/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca(2+) (39.51 ± 5.01?mg/g-65.13 ± 9.42?mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-) were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3 (-) (29.72 ± 0.31??g/g-32.00 ± 0.75??g/g) was slightly higher than SO4 (2-). The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and Pb(2+), were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations. PMID:25136371

Awang, Normah; Jamaluddin, Farhana



Determination of Lead, Cations, and Anions Concentration in Indoor and Outdoor Air at the Primary Schools in Kuala Lumpur  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08??g/g–7.01 ± 0.08??g/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca2+ (39.51 ± 5.01?mg/g–65.13 ± 9.42?mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3? and SO42? were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3? (29.72 ± 0.31??g/g–32.00 ± 0.75??g/g) was slightly higher than SO42?. The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3?, SO42?, and Pb2+, were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations. PMID:25136371

Awang, Normah; Jamaluddin, Farhana



Copper and lead concentrations in salt marsh plants on the Suir Estuary, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of Cu and Pb were determined in the roots and shoots of six salt marsh plant species, and in sediment taken from between the roots of the plants, sampled from the lower salt marsh zone at four sites along the Suir Estuary in autumn 1997. Cu was mainly accumulated in the roots of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. Pb was

E. J Fitzgerald; J. M Caffrey; S. T Nesaratnam; P McLoughlin



Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil–earthworm) followed

Gregor Ernst; Stefan Zimmermann; Peter Christie; Beat Frey



Deer exposed to exceptionally high concentrations of lead near the Continental Mine in Idaho, USA.  


Habitat surrounding the inactive Continental Mine in northern Idaho, USA, supports bear (Ursus arctos, Ursus americanus), moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus elaphus), woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), and abundant mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Tailings on the mining site were capped and remediated in 2003 to reduce environmental exposure of surrounding soil and sediments of Blue Joe Creek, downslope of the mine. Before capping, the mean Pb concentration in deer pellets collected on-site was 920 mg/kg of Pb (dry wt). This exposure, if chronic, would be comparable to an exposure that could be lethal to cattle or horses. Surprisingly, the mean pellet Pb concentration of 950 mg/kg in 2004 was as high as it was before remediation, and it was related to a high rate of soil ingestion. Mean soil content of the pellets collected from the capped site in 2004 was 22% dry weight, estimated from the acid-insoluble ash, a marker of soil ingestion. Clumps of sand and bits of rock were observed inside some of the pellets, and Pb concentrations in the pellets were correlated (p < 0.05) with soil content. Although terrestrial risk assessments generally estimate exposure from diets and from incidentally ingested soil. the deer at this site were directly ingesting contaminated soil or mining waste. The mean Pb concentration of this ingested soil was estimated as 6,700 mg/kg and the maximum as 25,000 mg/kg, well above the Pb concentrations measured in the remediated cap. The deer seemed to be ingesting soil or mining waste from one or more small but highly contaminated sources located beyond the remediated cap. PMID:17521153

Beyer, W Nelson; Gaston, Greg; Brazzle, Roy; O'Connell, Allan F; Audet, Dan J



Lead concentration and isotopic composition in five peridotite inclusions of probable mantle origin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lead content of five whole-rock peridotite inclusions (four lherzolites and one harzburgite) in alkali basalt ranges from 82 to 570 ppb (parts per billion). Approximately 30-60 ppb of this amount can be accounted for by analyzed major silicate minerals (olivine ??? 10 ppb; enstatite 5-28 ppb; chrome diopside ???400 ppb). Through a series of acid leaching experiments, the remainder of the lead is shown to be quite labile and to reside in either glassy or microcrystalline veinlets or accessory mineral phases, such as apatite and mica. The lead isotopic composition of the peridotites (206Pb/204Pb = 18.01-18.90; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.52-15.61; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.80-38.86) lies within the range of values defined by many modern volcanic rocks and, in particular, is essentially coextensive with the abyssal tholeiite field. In all but one instance, isotopic differences were found between the peridotite and its host alkali basalt. Two of the peridotites clearly demonstrated internal isotopic heterogeneity between leachable and residual fractions that could not simply be due to contamination by the host basalt. However, there is no evidence that these ultramafic rocks form some layer in the mantle with isotopic characteristics fundamentally different from those of the magma sources of volcanic rocks. ?? 1973.

Zartman, R.E.; Tera, F.



Regularities of sulfatization of lead sulfide in the composition of the Cu-Zn-Pb concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and phase compositions of the Cu-Zn-Pb concentrates of the Rubtsovsk dressing works and products of their sulfuric\\u000a acid treatment in the presence of oxidant Fe2(SO4)3 are investigated. It is shown that the sulfatization of natural galenite in acidified Fe(III) solutions in the initial period\\u000a proceeds in the kinetic region and is further limited by diffusion. The revealed regularities

V. A. Kochin; A. A. Khrennikov; A. B. Lebed’; S. S. Naboichenko



Determination of Rh, Pd and Pt in urine samples using a pre-concentration sequential injection analysis system coupled to a quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer.  


The proposed flow system was developed in order to minimize the drawbacks related to the PGEs determination by quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS). It was intended not only to lower the limits of detection (LODs) but also to eliminate the interferences originating from some atomic and molecular ions produced in the argon plasma. This was accomplished by means of an on-line sample clean-up/pre-concentration step, using a chelating resin (Metalfixtrade mark Chelaminetrade mark) in which Rh, Pd and Pt were preferably retained when compared with the interfering species. The results obtained by using the developed flow system in the analysis of urine samples are presented. With a sampling rate of 9 samples h(-1) (i.e., 27 determinations) and a sample consumption of ca. 10 mL, the developed flow system allowed linear calibration plots up to 100 ngL(-1) with detection limits of 1.2 ngL(-1) (Rh), 0.4 ngL(-1) (Pd) and 0.9 ngL(-1) (Pt). Repeatability studies showed good precision (R.S.D.%, n=5): 3.7% (Rh); 2.6% (Pd) and 2.4% (Pt), for 10 ngL(-1); 2.4% (Rh); 1.4% (Pd) and 1.9% (Pt), for 50 ngL(-1); and 1.3% (Rh); 0.58% (Pd) and 0.62% (Pt), for 100 ngL(-1). By spiking human urine samples, recovery tests were performed, and the values obtained ranged between 89% and 105% (Rh); 90% and 104% (Pd); and 93% and 105% (Pt). PMID:17903489

Lopes, Cristina M P V; Almeida, Agostinho A; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S; Lima, José L F C



Assessment of Elemental Concentrations in Streams of the New Lead Belt in Southeastern Missouri, 2002-05  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concerns about possible effects of lead-mining activities on the water quality of federally protected streams located in southeastern Missouri prompted a suite of multidisciplinary studies to be conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. As part of this investigation, a series of biological studies were initiated in 2001 for streams in the current mining region and the prospecting area. In this report, results are examined for trace elements and other selected chemical measurements in sediment, surface water, and sediment interstitial (pore) water sampled between 2002 and 2005 in association with these biological studies. Compared to reference sites, fine sediments collected downstream from mining areas were enriched in metals by factors as large as 75 for cadmium, 62 for cobalt, 171 for nickel, 95 for lead, and 150 for zinc. Greatest metal concentrations in sediments collected in 2002 were from sites downstream from mines on Strother Creek, Courtois Creek, and the West Fork Black River. Sediments from sites on Bee Fork, Logan Creek, and Sweetwater Creek also were noticeably enriched in lead. Sediments in Clearwater Lake, at least 75 kilometers downstream from mining activity, had metal concentrations that were 1.5 to 2.1 times greater than sediments in an area of the lake with no upstream mining activity. Longitudinal sampling along three streams in 2004 indicated that sediment metal concentrations decreased considerably a few kilometers downstream from mining activities; however, in Strother Creek some metals were still enriched by a factor of five or more as far as 13 kilometers downstream from the Buick tailings impoundment. Compared with 2002 samples, metals concentrations were dramatically lower in sediments collected in 2004 at an upper West Fork Black River site, presumably because beneficiation operations at the West Fork mill ceased in 2000. Concentrations of metals and sulfate in sediment interstitial (pore) waters generally tracked closely with metal concentrations in sediments. Metals, including cobalt, nickel, lead, and zinc, were elevated substantially in laboratory-produced pore waters of fine sediments collected near mining operations in 2002 and 2004. Passive diffusion samplers (peepers) buried 4 to 6 centimeters deep in riffle-run stream sediments during 2003 and 2005 had much lower pore-water metal concentrations than the laboratory-produced pore waters of fine sediments collected in 2002 and 2004, but each sampling method produced similar patterns among sites. The combined mean concentration of lead in peeper samples from selected sites located downstream from mining activities for six streams was about 10-fold greater than the mean of the reference sites. In most instances, metals concentrations in surface water and peeper water were not greatly different, indicating considerable exchange between the surface water and pore water at the depths and locations where peepers were situated. Passive sampling probes used to assess metal lability in pore waters of selected samples during 2004 sediment toxicity tests indicated that most of the filterable lead in the laboratory-prepared pore water was relatively non-labile, presumably because lead was complexed by organic matter, or was present as colloidal species. In contrast, large percentages of cobalt and nickel in pore water appeared to be labile. Passive integrative samplers deployed in surface water for up to 3 weeks at three sites in July 2005 confirmed the presence of elevated concentrations of labile metals downstream from mining operations on Strother Creek and, to a lesser extent, Bee Fork. These samplers also indicated a considerable increase in metal loadings occurred for a few days at the Strother Creek site, which coincided with moderate increases in stream discharges in the area.

Brumbaugh, William G.; May, Thomas W.; Besser, John M.; Allert, Ann L.; Schmitt, Christopher J.



Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering capacity of urine, and to lower the pH to levels that fix ammoniacal nitrogen in the non-volatile and highly water soluble NH4 + form. Citric acid, a highly soluble, solid tricarboxylic acid essential to cellular metabolism, and typically used as a food preservative, has also been shown to efficiently acidify urine in conjunction with non-oxidizing biocides to provide effective stabilization with respect to both microbial growth and ammonia volatilization.

Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.



Production of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer from urine.  


Human excreta, especially urine is rich in nitrogen that can be utilized for agricultural purposes, while the slow-release fertilizer allows effective utilization of nutrients in agricultural production. The direct formation of slow-release fertilizer--methylene urea--from urine was being proposed in this study. The experiments were tried to prove formation of methylene urea from human urine, and to investigate the effect of pH and salt concentration on the reaction rate. The synthetic urine and real urine were used for the urea source of the reaction. As a result, the precipitates were prepared from synthetic urine, while the small molecule fractions generated then they grew into precipitate. The nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, element analyses showed the precipitates in synthetic urine were the same compound found in the urea solution, which was methylene urea. The reaction rate was high at low pH value. The reaction rate in the buffer solution was lower than the synthetic urine at the same pH, because some salts may work as a catalyst. The urea concentration reduction rate in real urine showed the same trend with synthetic urine at the same pH, while the precipitation was quite similar to methylene urea. PMID:24527645

Ito, Ryusei; Takahashi, Eri; Funamizu, Naoyuki



Sorption concentration of copper, lead, and iron on carriers modified by 8-hydroxyquinoline and its derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption of copper, lead, and iron ions on carriers (silochrome S-120, anion exchanger AB-17, enterosgel, polysorb) noncovalently\\u000a modified by 8-hydroxynoline, 5,7-dibrom-8-hydroxyquinoline, and 8-hydroxynoline-5-sulfo-acid has been studied. Optimal sorption\\u000a conditions have been found. The determination is not impeded by a 103-fold excess of potassium, natrium, calcium and magnesium. The methods have been tested on water and soil samples from Saransk\\u000a city.

V. M. Ivanov; E. V. Antonova; E. N. Uskova



Cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations in selected red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) tissues from north-eastern Croatia.  


Concentrations of cadmium, lead and mercury were determined in muscle, liver and kidney tissue from three different age groups of red deer (young animals aged 6 or 7 months, middle-aged animals aged 3 to 5 years, old animals aged over 8 years) from the Baranja region of Croatia. Median cadmium concentrations were low in the muscles of all investigated age groups (0.0002; 0.0009 and 0.0020 ?g/g), higher in the liver (0.0279; 0.0656 and 0.1463 ?g/g) and highest in the kidneys (0.4792; 2.8531 and 6.1657 ?g/g). A positive correlation was established between cadmium concentration and age. In all analyzed tissues the median lead concentration was higher in young (muscle 0.0024; liver 0.0364 and kidney 0.0618 ?g/g), compared to middle-aged animals (muscle 0.0001; liver 0.0184 and kidney 0.0160 ?g/g). In contrast to cadmium, mercury had a negative correlation to age but median concentrations were very low (in muscle: 0.0011; 0.0001 and 0.0006 ?g/g; in liver: 0.0051; 0.0037 and 0.0022 ?g/g and in kidney: 0.0145; 0.0183 and 0.0106 ?g/g) especially compared to cadmium. From the hygienic point of view all the examined tissues are edible since concentrations of the analyzed metals do not exceed values proposed by the official regulations, with the exception of a few kidney samples, which contained cadmium above the recommended value. Furthermore, mercury concentrations are no longer (since 2008) a matter of legislation. PMID:22871008

Srebo?an, Emil; Janicki, Zdravko; Crni?, Andreja Prevendar; Tomljanovi?, Kristijan; Sebe?i?, Marinko; Konjevi?, Dean



Manganese and lead concentrations in ambient air and emission rates from unleaded and leaded gasoline between 1981 and 1992 in Canada: A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic derivative of manganese (Mn) used as an additive in unleaded gasoline. Its use in Canada has increased since 1976 until it completely replaced lead (Pb) in gasoline in 1990. Canada is the only country in the world to have authorized the replacement of Pb in gasoline by MMT. The aim of this study is to compare the concentrations of Mn, Pb and suspended particulates (TSP) in Montreal air from 1981 to 1992, as well as the emission rates of Mn and Pb from mobile sources from the same period. The atmospheric concentrations of Mn, Pb and TSP were measured by the Montreal Urban Community at three sampling stations located in areas of low and high traffic density. The data on emission rates were obtained from Environment Canada and from the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute. Multiple regression and non-parametric correlation analysis were used to predict and to compare the evolution of the chosen variables. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the variables which best distinguish low and high traffic density areas. The results indicate stable Mn concentrations between 1981 and 1990 followed by a substantial decrease, in spite of annual increases of about 10% in Mn emissions from the combustion of MMT since 1981. The decrease observed since 1991 is attributed to the closing of a ferromanganese plant near Montreal. The decrease in atmospheric Pb concentrations observed since 1981 corresponds to the decrease of about 30% per year of emissions from mobile sources over the same period. A definitive evaluation of the environmental contamination and exposure due to Mn from MMT will require an improved estimation of the dispersion of particulates near motorways using dispersion models, as well as receptor modeling based on the physicochemical analysis of particulates using electron microscopy.

Loranger, Sylvain; Zayed, Joseph


Cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc concentrations in human infant tissues: their relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of an excess of the toxic elements, cadmium and lead, or a deficiency of any of the essential elements, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, in the tissues of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as compared to those of infants who died of other causes. The literature was reviewed for SIDS, mineral metabolism, and mineral interactions. Lung, liver, kidney, and rib specimens were obtained at autopsy from 130 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. There were 85 SIDS cases ranging in age from 2 to 64 weeks and 45, aged 1 to 92 weeks, who died of other causes. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc in each tissue were determined by electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis of the data showed that liver and rib lead concentrations and liver magnesium concentrations were significantly higher in SIDS tissues in the 4 to 26 week age group than in non-SIDS tissues in the same age group. There was no evidence of a deficiency of the essential minerals measured.

Erickson, M.M.



Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in the equine liver and kidneys.  


The concentrations of specific elements in the equine liver and kidneys are of practical relevance since horses are not only food-producing animals, but also partially serve as an indicator for the environmental pollution, as the basic feed includes plants like grass, grain and fruits. In this study, the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) were measured in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla of 21 horses (8 male; 13 female; aged between 5 months-28 years), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Comparable Cu and Zn concentrations were detected in the liver and renal cortex, while approximately 50% lower concentrations were measured in the renal medulla. The lowest Sr, Cd and Se, but the highest Mn, Sb and Pb concentrations were measured in the liver. The Ba concentrations were comparable in the renal cortex and medulla, but lower in the liver of the horses. Gender-related differences were observed for Cd, Mn and Cr, with higher Cd concentrations in the liver, but lower Mn concentrations in the renal cortex and lower Cr concentrations in the renal medulla of female horses. Age-related differences were detected for most measured elements, however, the animal number per age-group was only low. In conclusion, the present study provides important reference data for the storage of Sr, Ba, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Sb, Se and Pb in the liver and kidneys of horses, which are of practical relevance for an evaluation of the exposure of horses to these elements, either via feed or the environment. PMID:25061551

Paßlack, Nadine; Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen



Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscles of three species of wild birds.  


The aim of this study was to monitor accumulation of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscle of some wild birds from selected areas of Slovakia and the correlations among the heavy metals. A total of 160 wild birds representing 3 species-Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) (n = 24), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (n = 68) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) (n = 68) were involved for analyses. Concentrations of heavy metals from samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Metal concentrations are expressed as mg/kg wet weight. The order of lead and arsenic concentrations in muscles of wild birds were as follows: mallard > pheasant > Eurasian coot; in the case of arsenic the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Muscle of Eurasian coot accumulated the highest concentration of cadmium and mercury followed by pheasant and the lowest in mallard, but differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Moderately negative correlations were noted in pheasant between cadmium and mercury (r = -0.39), and between mercury and arsenic (r = -0.45). Moderately negative correlation between cadmium and arsenic (r = -0.31) was found for Eurasian coot. PMID:20397088

Gasparik, Jozef; Vladarova, Denisa; Capcarova, Marcela; Smehyl, Peter; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Garaj, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Massanyi, Peter



Meteorological and Topographic Conditions in the Wintertime Uintah Basin Leading to High Ozone Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High concentrations of O3 in the Uintah Basin, Utah, during winter have been observed during periods of snow cover in the basin. Low sun angles and the high albedo of snow contribute to very cold surface temperatures and strong static stability, which inhibit vertical mixing and trap pollutants within a very shallow layer near the ground. The pollutants are emitted from a variety of sources related to petroleum extraction in the western part of the basin and natural gas ';fracking' and extraction in the eastern half. These unevenly distributed sources also include several point and area NOX sources distributed around the basin as well. Despite the weakness of the daytime shortwave radiative heating of the snow surface and the daytime heat fluxes, a shallow unstable mixed layer is observed to form, in which pollutants and potential temperature are often observed to be nearly constant with height. Also often observed is an upslope or upvalley daytime flow by NOAA's High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which was located in the eastern portion of the basin. At this location, the weak (1-3 m/s) upslope flow was from a westerly direction during daytime. At night, a shallow, weak (1-3 m/s) easterly drainage flow was routinely observed by the lidar. The sloshing of air by the alternating daytime and nighttime flows, along with other weak oscillatory flows in the basin cold pool, had the effect of mingling the pollutants from the various sources, which may have contributed to the highest O3 concentrations.

Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Martin, R. S.; Schnell, R. C.; Johnson, B.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Helmig, D.; Stephens, C. R.; Evans, J.; Senff, C. J.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Roberts, J. M.; Conley, S. A.; Zamora, R. J.



24-hour urine copper test  


A 24-hour urine sample is needed. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in the morning. Afterwards, collect all urine in a special container for the next 24 hours. On day 2, urinate into the container when you get up in the morning. Cap ...


When are fetuses and young children most susceptible to soil metal concentrations of arsenic, lead and mercury?  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to analyze when, during pregnancy and early childhood, the association between soil metal concentrations of arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) and the outcome of intellectual disability (ID) is statistically significant. Using cluster analysis, we identified ten areas of land that contained a cluster of ID and areas of average risk for ID. We analyzed soil for As, Pb, and Hg and estimated the soil metal concentration at the residential sites where the woman and children lived during pregnancy and early childhood using a Bayesian Kriging model. Arsenic concentrations were associated with ID during the first trimester of pregnancy and Hg was associated with ID early in pregnancy and the first two years of childhood. The covariates that remained in the final models were also temporally associated with ID. PMID:22749212

McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Weichao; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew



Mutagens in urine of carbon electrode workers.  


Following previous work carried out in an Italian factory producing carbon electrodes and evaluating the occupational mutagenic-carcinogenic hazards, the authors studied the presence of mutagen metabolites in the urine of workers in the same factory who were exposed to petroleum coke and pitch and in the urine of a control group of unexposed workers. The urine samples were concentrated by absorption on XAD-2 columns and were tested using the Salmonella/microsome assay (strain TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1538) with and without the addition of beta-glucuronidase and metabolizing system. The collection of urine samples was carried out twice, with an interval of 2 months; "before working time", "after working time", and also during Sunday. The results showed that (1) urine samples collected "before" occupational exposure (upon waking) or on Sunday revealed no mutagenic activity in either worker groups and (2) that the urine samples collected after or during occupational exposure revealed high mutagenic activity in the exposed workers, with a statistically significant difference (P less than 0.05) between the mean of the revertants/plate values for exposed and unexposed workers. On the basis of the previous and the present research, the authors suggest that application of the Salmonella/microsome test to work environments could offer useful and suitable tool for evaluating the health hazards due to mutagenic/carcinogenic substances from occupational exposure. PMID:6757140

Pasquini, R; Monarca, S; Sforzolini, G S; Conti, R; Fagioli, F



Release of lead from bone in pregnancy and lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations and isotope ratios of lead in blood, urine, 24-h duplicate diets, and hand wipes were measured for 12 women from the second trimester of pregnancy until at least 8 months after delivery. Six bottle fed and six breast fed their infants. One bottle feeder fell pregnant for a second time, as did a breast feeder, and each was followed

W. I. Manton; C. R. Angle; K. L. Stanek; D. Kuntzelman; Y. R. Reese; T. J. Kuehnemann



What is the meaning of non-linear dose-response relationships between blood lead concentrations and IQ?  


Recent literature [e.g. Canfield RL, Henderson CR, Cory-Slechta DA, Cox C, Jusko TA, Lanphear BP. Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10mg per deciliter. New Engl J Med 2003;348(16):1517-1526; Lanphear BP, Hornung R, Khoury J, Yolton K, Baghurst P, Bellinger DC, Canfield RL, Dietrich KN, Bornschein R, Greene T, Rothenberg SJ, Needleman HL, Schnaas L, Wasserman G, Graziano J, Roberts R. Low-level environmental lead exposure and children's intellectual function: an international pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect 2005;113(7):894-899] has suggested the existence of a supra-linear dose-response relationship between environmental measures such as blood lead concentrations and IQ. This communication explores the mathematical requirements placed on such dose-response relationships when the environmental measure, or independent variable, is lognormally distributed and the effect, or dependent variable, is normally distributed. Results of the analyses show that a supra-linear slope is a required outcome of correlations between data distributions where one is lognormally distributed and the other is normally distributed. The analysis shows that caution should be taken in assigning biological significance to supra-linear dose-response relationships in these instances. Detailed analyses of such data sets should be conducted to determine if the magnitude of supra-linear slopes are more or less than mathematically required, and from there to consider biological significance. PMID:16551479

Bowers, Teresa S; Beck, Barbara D



Liver and kidney concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in cats  

PubMed Central

Background In order to provide new knowledge on the storage of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the feline organism, we measured the concentrations of these elements in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla, evaluating also the impact of age, sex or the occurrence of a chronic kidney disease (CKD). The element concentrations in the tissues of 47 cats (22 male; 25 female; aged between 2 months and 18 years) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Cu, Zn and Mn were the highest in the liver, followed by the renal cortex and the renal medulla. The Cd concentrations were lower in the renal medulla compared to the renal cortex and the liver, and Sr was higher in the renal medulla compared to the liver. The Se concentrations in the cortex of the kidneys were higher than in the medulla of the kidneys and in the liver. Higher Cd concentrations were measured in the renal cortex of female cats, while no further gender-related differences were observed. Except for Cr, Sb and Se, age-dependencies were detected for the storage of all elements. The occurrence of a CKD also affected the storage of the elements, with lower concentrations of Ba (renal medulla), Zn (renal cortex; renal medulla) and Mn (liver; renal medulla), but higher Cd concentrations (liver; renal cortex) in diseased cats. Conclusions In conclusion, the present results provide new information on the accumulation of specific elements in the feline liver and kidneys, demonstrating a dependency on age and an impaired kidney function, but not on the sex of the animals. PMID:25030305



Preliminary data on changes of lead concentrations in Antarctic ice from 155,000 to 26,000 years BP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of lead (Pb) have been measured by ultraclean Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry in six sections of the 2083 m Vostok deep Antarctic ice core which integrates some 155,000 years. Lead contamination of 15,000-32,000 pg Pb g -1 existed on the outside of the cores, but measured concentrations decreased abruptly along a radius from the outside to the center of the cores, establishing interior values in the 2-40 pg Pb g -1 range. These interior data show that natural concentrations of Pb have varied strongly in Antarctic ice during the last 155,000 years: Pb values were high during the end of the ice age (Illinois) which proceeded the last interglacial and during the Last Glacial Maximum; they were low during the last interglacial and most of the last ice age (Wisconsin). Soil dust appears to be the major source of natural Pb, but the volcanic contribution is found to be significant during low Pb time periods.

Boutron, Claude F.; Patterson, Clair C.; Petrov, V. N.; Barkov, N. I.


Thermal lens study of thermo-optical properties and concentration quenching of Er3+-doped lead pyrophosphate based glasses  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we have used the thermal lens technique combined with conventional spectroscopy to characterize the thermo-optical properties of Er3+-doped lead pyrophosphate-based glasses. More precisely, we have investigated and quantified experimentally the fluorescence quantum efficiencies of the Er3+ levels, and we describe the role of concentration quenching effects. The fluorescence quantum efficiency of the 4I13/2 level is very high when compared to other phosphate glasses, while that of the green-coupled levels is very small. Other important photonic materials parameters, such as the thermal diffusivity and temperature coefficient of the optical path length change, were obtained and compared with those of other glass systems. The cumulative results obtained here for the Er-doped lead pyrophosphate glass show that this material is a good candidate for photonic applications with a characteristic Er3+ infrared emission around 1550 nm.

Santos, C. C. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Rocha, U. [Grupo de Fotônica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Brazil; Guedes, Ilde [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Vermelho, M. V. D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Jacinto, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil



Nanomolar concentrations of inorganic lead increase Ca2+ efflux and decrease intracellular free Ca2+ ion concentrations in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by a calmodulin-dependent mechanism.  


Inorganic lead (Pb2+) activates calmodulin, which in turn may stimulate many other cellular processes. The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase is a calmodulin-stimulated enzyme that plays the major role in regulating the "resting" intracellular free Ca2+ ion concentration, [Ca2+]i. We hypothesized that exposing neurons to low levels of Pb2+ would cause Pb2+ to enter the cytoplasm, and that intracellular Pb2+, by activating calmodulin, would stimulate plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase activity, thereby increasing Ca2+ extrusion and reducing [Ca2+]i. We used the ratiometric Ca2+ indicator fura-2 to estimate changes in [Ca2+]i. In vitro calibrations of fura-2 with solutions of defined free Ca2+ and free Pb2+ concentrations showed that, at free Ca2+ concentrations from 10 nM to 1000 nM, adding Pb2+ caused either no significant change in the F340/F380 ratio (free Pb2+ concentrations from 100 fM to 1 pM) or increased the F340/F380 ratio (free Pb2+ concentrations from 5 to 50 pM). Therefore, fura-2 should be suitable for estimating Pb2+-induced decreases in [Ca2+]i, but not increases in [Ca2+]i. We exposed cultured embryonic rat hippocampal neurons to 100 nM Pb2+ for periods from 1 hour to 2 days and measured the F340/F380 ratio; the ratio decreased significantly by 9 to 16% at all time points, indicating that Pb2+ exposure decreased [Ca2+]i. In neurons loaded with 45Ca, Pb2+ exposure increased Ca2+ efflux for at least two hours; by 24 hours, Ca2+ efflux returned to control levels. Influx of 45Ca was not altered by Pb2+ exposure. Low concentrations (250 nM) of the calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium had no effect on either 45Ca efflux or on the F340/F380 ratio in fura-loaded control neurons, but completely eliminated the increase in 45Ca efflux and decrease in F340/F380 ratio in Pb2+-exposed neurons. Zaldoride, another calmodulin inhibitor, also eliminated the decrease in F340/F380 ratio in Pb2+-exposed neurons. We conclude that Pb2+ exposure decreases [Ca2+]i and increases Ca2+ efflux in cultured hippocampal neurons by a calmodulin-dependent mechanism, probably by stimulating Ca2+ extrusion by the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase. PMID:10894126

Ferguson, C; Kern, M; Audesirk, G



"Pink urine" in morbidly obese patients following gastric partitioning.  


A pink coating on the inner surface of plastic urinary tubing, which gave the impression that the urine was pink, had frequently been noted 4 to 24 hours following gastric partitioning by means of a stapler in morbidly obese patients. A study was therefore done in 187 such patients as well as in 14 patients of normal weight who had undergone abdominal surgery of comparable magnitude. Postoperatively "pink urine" was observed in 32% of the obese patients but in none of the nonobese patients; however, a pink sediment remained following centrifugation of urine collected postoperatively from all the obese patients. Microscopy of this sediment showed crystals of uric acid dihydrate; these were infrequent in the preoperative specimens but present in high concentration in the postoperative specimens, particularly those of "pink urine". X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the nature of the crystals. Preoperatively the obese patients had high-normal serum levels of uric acid. Postoperatively in all the groups of patients the serum levels of uric acid decreased while the urine levels and the urinary clearance of uric acid increased; the last two values, however, were significantly greater, both preoperatively and postoperatively, in those who were morbidly obese. Compared with the patients who did not have "pink urine" the patients with "pink urine" were significantly more obese and had a significantly lower postoperative urine pH. The latter also had a marked postoperative increase in urine osmolality and were the only patients to have a significant postoperative decrease in urine output. Thus, the pink colour of this group's urine was attributed to precipitation of uric acid crystals, fostered by a decrease in pH and an increase in concentration of the urine. PMID:6704846

Deitel, M; Thompson, D A; Saldanha, C F; Ramshaw, P J; Patterson, M C; Pritzker, K P



Concentrations of lead and mercury in multimedia samples from homes near the former Clark Air Base, Philippines.  


We measured lead and mercury in samples collected from 31 homes in communities near the former Clark Air Base, Philippines during May and October 2002. Sample media included water used for drinking and cooking, house dust and entryway soil. Composite samples of 15 food items purchased at local markets were also collected. Samples were analyzed for total lead (Pb) and total mercury (Hg) to evaluate the relative importance of each media to residential exposure concentrations in the community adjacent to Clark (Community A) versus a control community 5 km away (Community B). In general, we measured low (e.g. background) to undetectable levels of the target analytes in all media sampled with two important exceptions. First, the Hg concentrations we measured in canned mackerel composites, which were within the range reported for mackerel from other locations worldwide, may pose a risk to pregnant women who are frequent consumers (e.g. one or more cans per day). Second, we measured Pb above the USEPA residential screening concentration (400 mug/g) in dust and soil from two homes, illustrating the need for periodic residential lead monitoring in these and other communities in the Philippines. We found no significant difference between Communities A and B with respect to Pb and Hg concentrations in water or food, although we were not able to detect very low levels of Pb in most of the foods we sampled because of trace Pb contamination added during sample homogenization. Although the Pb levels we measured in dust and soil from Community A homes were higher on average than Community B homes, the levels in both communities were low (e.g. background) thus we did not investigate the difference further. To our knowledge, these are the first reported measurements of Pb in house dust in the Philippines. The concentrations of Pb we measured in house dust were significantly higher than those in entryway soil from both communities, adding empirical support to the assertion that yard soil should not be considered a proxy for house dust in exposure studies in the Philippines or elsewhere. PMID:15833241

Riederer, Anne M; Shine, James P; Danan, Lieza M; Ford, Timothy E



Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine  

SciTech Connect

Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.



Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): the potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration.  


Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5 min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30 min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55 ?g/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30 ?g/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55 ?g/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36 ?g/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ?5 ?g/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from <5% (in winter) to about 20% (in summer) in children aged 0.5-2 years. The likelihood of having BLLs ?5 ?g/dL in young children during warm months was reduced by at least 40% by flushing tap-water. PMID:25087106

Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P




Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of mercury, copper, nickel, silver, cadmium, and lead were determined in various tissues of the northern Adriatic anchovy, Engraulis encrasicholus, and sardine, Sardina pilchardus. throughout a 7-month fishing season. The highest concentrations of nickel, silver, cadmium, and lead occurred in the skin ar.d gills, with little interspecific differences and no unusually high values. The highest concentrations of mercury and



Quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine by metalized nanostructured parylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly accurate, real-time multisensor agent monitor for biomarker detection is required for early detection of kidney diseases. Urine creatinine level can provide useful information on the status of the kidney. We prepare nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates without template or lithography, which provides controllable, well-organized nanostructures on the surface, for the quantitative analysis of creatinine concentration in urine. We present our work on sensitivity of the SERS substrate to urine samples collected from diabetic patients and healthy persons. We report the preparation of a new type of SERS substrate, which provides fast (<10 s), highly sensitive (creatinine concentration <0.5 ?g/mL) and reproducible (<5% variation) detection of urine. Our method to analyze the creatinine level in urine is in good agreement with the enzymatic method.

Wang, Hui; Malvadkar, Niranjan; Koytek, S.; Bylander, J.; Reeves, W. Brian; Demirel, Melik C.



Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over\\u000a centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach\\u000a sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for

Johan J. Mattelaer



Lead concentrations in sediments and blue-winged teals (Anas discors) from El Palmar State Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico.  


Reserve regulations at El Palmar State Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico, prohibit the use of lead (Pb) shot, but hunters continue to use it, and no enforcement is implemented. Pb was quantified in sediments and in blue-winged teal Anas discors. No shot pellets were found in the sediment samples, nor were differences in sediment Pb concentrations observed within the reserve between popular hunting sites and those no longer used for hunting. However, there were differences between the hunting sites and sediments from an adjacent area where hunting is prohibited. Average Pb concentrations were highest at hunting entrances (15.69 ± 18.69 mg/kg) and lowest at decoy locations (5.24 ± 4.84 mg/kg). These averages are lower than the lowest effects level (31 mg/kg), although 10 samples exceeded this level. Pb-shot prevalence in gizzards was 4.88% (n = 41). Pb levels exceeded 5.0 mg/kg dry weight in one or more of the tested tissues (liver, gizzard, and bone) in 14 (34.14%; 7 female, 7 male; 11 adult, 3 juvenile) of the total birds. Bird weight, sex, and age had no effect on Pb concentration. Hunting using Pb shot in the reserve clearly affects Pb levels in sediments and in A. discors that winter there. PMID:23775175

Adán, Echeverría-García; Gerardo, Gold-Bouchot



[A review of multi-scale studies on spatial variation of the lead (Pb) concentration in urban soils].  


The accumulation of Pb in urban soils is still apparent in China, and scientific assessment and management of risks from Pb-contaminated soils is necessarily based on contamination levels and extent evaluated accurately. Lead concentration in urban soils has a strong spatial variation and complex spatial structures. Carried out in a single spatial scale, most current investigations cannot comprehensively reveal characteristics of spatial structures, and did not promote more scientific assessment and management of risk. Exploring a new method which can help identify the overall spatial structures is needed. To achieve this aim, this paper firstly investigated the factors linked to the spatial variability of Pb concentration in urban soils, and three major factors were identified: various pollution sources, hierarchical pollution processes and heterogeneous urban landscape. These factors were form a nested hierarchical spatial structure with three spatial levels. Based on the conceptual spatial structure, we proposed a method framework guided by geostatistical theory and focused on linear mixed model (LMM). This proposed framework can divide the nested hierarchical spatial structures of Pb concentration in urban soils into three levels: global trend, random variation with spatial autocorrelation, and outliers. Two recommendations were given to promote the multiple-scale investigation in spatial variation of soil Pb contamination in urban area including: finding more efficient sampling strategy and determining the characteristic scale. PMID:24946621

Yang, Meng; Li, Feng-Ying; Diao, Yi-Wei; Wu, Dan



Inhibitory effects of urine on the polymerase chain reaction for cytomegalovirus DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effects of urine samples taken from neonates and older children, some of which were known to be infected with cytomegalovirus, on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were investigated. Urea was the major inhibitory component of urine and inhibited the PCR at a concentration of more than 50 mM. Urine samples from older children were more inhibitory than those

G Khan; H O Kangro; P J Coates; R B Heath



Spatial Distribution of Lead Isotope Ratios and Inorganic Element Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled studies of inorganic element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios have been conducted on Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada in 2002, 2008, and 2011. To investigate the spatial extent of air emissions, the lichens were collected from sites as far as 160 km from the mining and processing operations. 30 milligram sub-samples of the lichens were microwave digested, and the extracts were analyzed using DRC-ICPMS to determine elemental concentrations, and sector field ICPMS to measure Pb isotope ratios. Concentrations of elements in the lichens were found to reflect proximity to mining and oil processing sites as well as topography, ecosystem differences, and the metabolic biogeochemistry of the lichens. An exponential decrease in concentration of metals associated with fugitive dust (aluminum and others) versus distance from the mining sites, suggests elevated coarse particle emissions associated with mining operations. Near source concentrations of metals with an oil signature (vanadium and others) are less enhanced and more homogeneous than the metals in the fugitive dust, reflecting emission and deposition of smaller diameter particles at greater distances from oil processing sources. The mining and oil processing signatures are superimposed over elemental concentrations that reflect the nutrient needs of the lichens. These findings are being confirmed through ongoing studies using dichot samplers to collect coarse and fine particulate aerosol samples. The lichen samples collected beyond 50 km from the mining and processing sites cluster into a Pb isotope grouping with a 207Pb / 206Pb ratio of 0.8650 and a 208Pb / 206Pb ratio near 2.095. This grouping likely reflects the regional background Pb isotope ratio signature. 207Pb / 206Pb and 208Pb / 206Pb ratios decrease as one nears the mining and processing operations. This indicates that other Pb source(s), (e.g. Pb in the bitumen from the oil sands), are contributing to the Pb accumulated by the lichens. The Pb isotope ratios are a better indicator of the spatial distribution resulting from atmospheric deposition than the Pb concentrations because the Pb isotope ratios are not affected by the potential for canopy interactions or preferential metabolic processing of elements by the lichens.

Graney, J. R.; Landis, M. S.; Puckett, K.; Edgerton, E.; Krupa, S.; Percy, K.



A Greenhouse Study on Lead Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) as a Function of Lead Concentration and Soil PhysicoChemical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead (Pb) is a toxic non-essential metal that can cause permanent learning disabilities, retardation, mental and behavioral problems in children. Lead accumulation in soils result from weathering, chipping, scraping, sanding and sand blasting of housing structures constructed prior to 1978, bearing lead-based paint. The primary objective of this study is to develop a cost-effective, chelate-assisted phytoremediation for cleaning up lead

S. P. Andra; R. Datta; D. Sarkar; S. K. Saminathan



Urine collection - infants  


... gave you. You will be given a special bag to collect the urine. It will be a plastic bag with a sticky strip on one end, made ... fit over your baby's genital area. Open this bag and place it on the infant. For males, ...


Getting a Urine Test  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if you know what to expect, it doesn't have to be embarrassing ... & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...


Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)  


... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Checkups: What to Expect Urine Test: Dipstick KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Urine Test: Dipstick ...


Magnesium, aluminum and lead in various brain areas  

SciTech Connect

Whereas the lead concentrations were increased in brain tissue of patients with chronic alcoholism, the aluminum concentrations remained within the normal range. The magnesium concentrations were found decreased in patients with chronic alcoholism compared to normal controls. The sources for the elevated lead levels seem to be the increased intake of alcohol. The decreased magnesium levels are probably caused by an increased loss of magnesium with the urine, malnutrition, malabsorption, hormonal factors and drugs. Various neurological disorders which often accompanied chronic alcoholism may be caused or aggravated by lead encephalopathy and hypomagnesemia. Therapeutical implications may be the early substitution of magnesium deficiency in chronic alcoholism. 10 references, 5 figures.

Zumkley, H.; Bertram, H.P.; Brandt, M.; Roedig, M.; Spieker, C.



Effect of complexans (EDTA, NTA and DTPA) on the exposure to high concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead  

SciTech Connect

The effects of complexans on the toxicity of short exposures to high chemical concentrations of heavy meals were examined. The heavy metals used were cadmium, zinc, lead and copper. Mortality every 24-h and the content of metal in each of three areas of fish - viscera, gills and other parts - were detemined both in the groups kept in water containing metal alone and in those whose aqueous environments contained complexan in mole concentrations three time that of the heavy metal. The carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) 8.0 + 0.5 cm were kept in groups of 8 to 10. There were altogether 49 such groups: 12 kept in three relatively high concentrations of each of the metals, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, alone; 36 groups in environments each containing only one of the three complexans, the tetrasodium salt of ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the trisodium salt of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and the pentasodium salt of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) were used. Results indicate that the addition of the complexans resulted in the decrease of the tissue concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. It is considered that the heavy metals were not present merely as metal ions but formed complexes with the complexans, since the complexans were added at three times mole of the metal and therefore complex formation occurred in preference to the binding of the metals with the tissue proteins of the fish. It is furthermore assumed that the heavy metals can pass through the fish as metal-complexes, and so are not retained.

Muramoto, S.



Lead distribution in rats repeatedly treated with low doses of lead acetate  

SciTech Connect

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ip injections of lead acetate (10 and 20 mg/kg) at intervals 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks. Eight rats from each specified injection group were sacrificed 48 hr after the end of each treatment. Lead was determined in whole blood, plasma, plasma filtrate, saliva, urine, feces, brain, salivary glands, liver, kidney, testes, femur, and fur. In the liver, the concentrations of lead fluctuated; in the salivary glands and testes, lead levels were low. In the bone, the kidney, and the brain, lead accumulated steadily and reached high levels in bone and renal tissues, but remained low in the brain. Correlation analysis showed a reciprocal relationship between blood-lead and kidney-lead in the rats treated with 10 mg lead acetate/kg. In the rats treated with 20 mg lead acetate/kg, urine-lead was correlated to kidney-lead. In both groups of treated rats, fur-lead was correlated to kidney-lead.

P'an, A.Y.S.; Kennedy, C. (Univ. de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))



Salsolinol and norsalsolinol in human urine samples.  


The tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids salsolinol and norsalsolinol were found in human urine samples in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 29.5 ng/ml. Great interindividual variation was found in urine levels of these alkaloids in a collection of chronic alcoholics and in a group of nonalcoholics. Thus, levels of the individual alkaloids are insufficient markers for distinguishing between alcoholics and nonalcoholics. However, by using the concentration ratio of norsalsolinol and salsolinol, the so-called dopamine-aldehyde adduct ratio (DAAR), significant differences between alcoholics (median 1.3) and nonalcoholics (median 0.6) were detected. This concentration ratio could serve as a marker for the processor state of the dopaminergic system. PMID:9300617

Musshoff, F; Daldrup, T; Bonte, W; Leitner, A; Lesch, O M




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the NCTM Android app of their familiar on line Illuminations game, "Concentration" ( cataloged separately ) which challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NCTM iOS app of the familiar online Illuminations game, "Concentration" (cataloged separately) challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.




Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development in our under- standing of the regulation of enzyme activity makes it a high priority to ascertain whether the behavior of purified enzymes reflects their functional characteristics in vivo. Enzyme concentration is usually the most significant difference between routine in vitro assays and in vivo conditions, as it is well known that many intracel- lular enzymes are



Selected pesticide residues and metabolites in urine from a survey of the U.S. general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophos?phorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or their metabolites. Urine concentration was also measured. The most frequently occurring residue in urine was penta?chlorophenol (PCP), found in quantifiable concentrations in

Frederick W. Kutz; Brion T. Cook; Debra Brody; Robert S. Murphy



Automatic on-line pre-concentration system using a knotted reactor for the FAAS determination of lead in drinking water.  


An automatic on-line pre-concentration system is proposed for lead determination in drinking water using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Lead(II) ions are retained as the 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) complex in the walls of a knotted reactor, followed by an elution step using 0.50molL(-1) hydrochloric acid solution. Optimisation involving the sampling flow rate, pH and buffer concentration factors was performed using a Box-Behnken design. Other factors were established considering results of previous experiments. The procedure allows the determination of lead with a 0.43microgL(-1) detection limit (3sigma/S) and precisions (expressed as relative standard deviation) of 4.84% (N=7) and 2.9% (N=7) for lead concentrations of 5 and 25microgL(-1), respectively. The accuracy was confirmed by the determination of lead in the NIST SRM 1643d trace elements in natural water standard reference material. The pre-concentration factor obtained is 26.5 and the sampling frequency is 48h(-1). The recovery achieved for lead determination in the presence of several ions demonstrated that this procedure could be applied to the analysis of drinking water samples. The method was applied for lead determination in drinking water samples collected in Jequié City, Brazil. The lead concentration found in 25 samples were always lower than the permissible maximum levels stipulated by World Health Organization. PMID:16956723

Souza, Anderson S; Brandão, Geovani C; dos Santos, Walter N L; Lemos, Valfredo A; Ganzarolli, Edgard M; Bruns, Roy E; Ferreira, Sérgio L C



Electrolytic pretreatment of urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.



Profiles of phytoestrogens in human urine from several Asian countries.  


Intake of a diet rich in phytoestrogens has been associated with a decreased risk for hormone-dependent cancers in humans. Biomonitoring of phytoestrogens in human urine has been used to assess the intake of phytoestrogens. Although studies have reported phytoestrogen levels in urine specimens from the United States and Japan, little is known of human intake of phytoestrogens in other Asian countries. In this study we determined the concentrations of seven phytoestrogens, namely, enterolactone, enterodiol, daidzein, equol, O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), genistein, and coumestrol, in 199 human urine samples from three Asian countries, Vietnam (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh), Cambodia (Phnom Penh), and India (Chennai and Kolkata), using a simple, sensitive, and reliable liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method. The residue levels of phytoestrogens in urine samples from the three Asian countries were compared with the concentrations in 26 urine samples from Japan (Ehime) and 16 urine samples from the United States (Albany), analyzed in this study. Among the phytoestrogens analyzed, isoflavones such as daidzein and genistein were predominant in urine samples from Vietnam; samples from Cambodia and India contained higher concentrations of enterolactone than isoflavones. Urinary concentrations of isoflavones in samples from Hanoi, Vietnam, were notably higher than the concentrations in samples from Cambodia, India, and the United States and similar to the concentrations in samples from Japan. The lowest concentrations of daidzein and the highest concentrations of enterolactone were found in urine samples from India. Concentrations of equol and O-DMA, which are microbial transformation products of daidzein (produced by gut microflora), were notably high in urine samples from Hanoi, Vietnam. The ratios of the concentration of equol or O-DMA to that of daidzein were significantly higher in samples from Hanoi than from Japan, indicating high biotransformation efficiency of daidzein by the population in Hanoi. High concentrations of equol, in addition to isoflavones, in urine have been linked to reduced breast cancer risk in previous studies, and, thus, the Vietnamese population may have potential protective effect against breast cancer. This study suggests that the dietary intake and profiles of phytoestrogens vary considerably, even among Asian countries. PMID:20707345

Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Isobe, Tomohiko; Aldous, Kenneth M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam




SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B



Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka.  


Chronic kidney disease of unknown ("u") cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples - from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) - contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. PMID:25782025

Rango, Tewodros; Jeuland, Marc; Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter



Temperature-controlled ionic liquid–liquid-phase microextraction for the pre-concentration of lead from environmental samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrophobic ionic liquid could be dispersed into infinite droplets under driving of high temperature, and then they can aggregate as big droplets at low temperature. Based on this phenomenon a new liquid-phase microextraction for the pre-concentration of lead was developed. In this experiment, lead was transferred into its complex using dithizone as chelating agent, and then entered into the infinite

Huahua Bai; Qingxiang Zhou; Guohong Xie; Junping Xiao



Environmental lead exposure to toll booth workers in Hong Kong  

SciTech Connect

A survey of workers in the Lion Rock Tunnel toll booths was conducted, as they were regarded as a high risk group in lead exposure due to high density of vehicular traffic. The exposure of the workers to lead was determined by continuous sapling of air around the breathing zone of workers inside the booths. Blood lead concentration of 50 workers showed a mean of 0.65 {mu}mol/L and the mean urine lead concentration was 0.14 {mu}mol/L. Other tests, such as urinary amino-levulinic acid (ALA), erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb), were also preformed. The blood lead concentrations and other biological parameters of the toll-booth workers were acceptable and may be attributed to the recent legislation to lower the lead content in petrol and to the good preventive measures taken by the management.

Tan, T.C.; Wong, L.T.L.; Lam, C.W.K. (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin)



Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: Time for Awareness  

PubMed Central

Purple urine bag syndrome occurs commonly in long-term catheterized patients causing significant stress for patients, care takers, and health care providers. This may lead to unwarranted investigation as well as treatment when not identified early. Demographic changes in Indian population with increasing geriatric care make it a case to increase awareness of this condition among health care providers in primary and secondary care settings.

Alex, Reginald; Manjunath, Krishna; Srinivasan, Rajan; Basu, Gopal



Correlation of gross urine color with diagnostic findings in male cats with naturally occurring urethral obstruction.  


Seventy-five male cats with urethral obstruction were prospectively enrolled to evaluate gross urine color at urinary catheter placement for correlation with diagnostic findings. Cats with darker red urine were more likely to be azotemic (serum creatinine concentration >2.0 mg/dl [177 µmol/l]), and urine color correlated well with serum creatinine and serum potassium concentrations. Darker urine color was negatively correlated with urine specific gravity. Urine color was not associated with the presence or absence of lower urinary tract stones on radiographs or ultrasound. Cats with darker red urine at the time of urinary catheter placement are likely to have more significant metabolic derangements and may require more aggressive supportive care. PMID:25117491

Brabson, Tamera L; Bloch, Christopher P; Johnson, Justine A



Arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium concentrations in private bedrock wells in southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the trace metal arsenic have been identified in drinking water from groundwater sources in southeastern New Hampshire, a rapidly growing region of the State (Montgomery and others, 2003). During the past decade (2000–10), southeastern New Hampshire, which is composed of Hillsborough, Rockingham, and Strafford Counties, has grown in population by nearly 48,700 (or 6.4 percent) to 819,100. These three counties contain 62 percent of the State’s population but encompass only about 22 percent of the land area (New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning, 2011). According to a 2005 water-use study (Hayes and Horn, 2009), about 39 percent of the population in these three counties in southeastern New Hampshire uses private wells as sources of drinking water, and these wells are not required by the State to be routinely tested for trace metals or other contaminants. Some trace metals have associated human-health benchmarks or nonhealth guidelines that have been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate public water supplies. The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for arsenic (As) and a MCL of 30 ?g/L for uranium (U) because of associated health risks (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are essential for human health, but Mn at high doses may have adverse cognitive effects in children (Bouchard and others, 2011; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2012); therefore, the EPA has issued a lifetime health advisory (LHA) of 300 ?g/L for Mn. Recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for Fe (300 ?g/L) and Mn (50 ?g/L) were established primarily as nonhealth guidelines—based on aesthetic considerations, such as taste or the staining of laundry and plumbing fixtures—because these contaminants, at the SMCLs, are not considered to present risks to human health. Because lead (Pb) contamination of drinking water typically results from corrosion of plumbing materials belonging to water-system customers but still poses a risk to human health, the EPA established an action level (AL) of 15 ?g/L for Pb instead of an MCL or SMCL (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). The 15-?g/L AL for Pb has been adopted by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services for public water systems, and if exceeded, the public water system must inform their customers and undertake additional actions to control corrosion in the pipes of the distribution system (New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, 2013). Unlike the quality of drinking water provided by public water suppliers, the quality of drinking water obtained from private wells in New Hampshire is not regulated; consequently, private wells are sampled only when individual well owners voluntarily choose to sample them. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA New England, conducted an assessment in 2012–13 to provide private well owners and State and Federal health officials with information on the distribution of trace-metal (As, Fe, Pb, Mn, and U) concentrations in groundwater from bedrock aquifers in the three counties of southeastern New Hampshire. This fact sheet analyzes data from water samples collected by a randomly selected group of private well owners from the three-county study area and describes the major findings for trace-metal concentrations.

Flanagan, Sarah M.; Belaval, Marcel; Ayotte, Joseph D.



Chemical composition of rainbow trout urine following acute hypoxic stress  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) were anesthetized with MS-222, catheterized, and introduced into urine collecting chambers. Twenty-four hours after introduction, a 4-hour accumulation of urine was collected to serve as the control. Water flow to the chambers was then discontinued for 30 minutes during which the oxygen content of the water exiting in the chamber dropped from 4.9 to 2.8 mg/l. Following this hypoxic stress fresh water was restored and accumulated urine samples were taken for analysis at 1, 4, and 20 hours post-hypoxic stress. Rainbow trout excrete abnormally high concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Cl, and inorganic PO4 following hypoxia.

Hunn, Joseph B.



Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: Could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?  


As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. PMID:25617855

Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin



Excretion of arsenic in urine as a function of exposure to arsenic in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Urinary arsenic (As) concentrations were evaluated as a biomarker of exposure in a U.S. population chronically exposed to inorganic As (InAs) in their drinking water. Ninety-six individuals who consumed drinking water with As concentrations of 8-620 microg/L provided first morning urine voids for up to 5 consecutive days. The study population was 56% male, and 44% was younger than 18 years of age. On one day of the study period, all voided urines were collected over a 24-hr period. Arsenic intake from drinking water was estimated from daily food diaries. Comparison between the concentration of As in individual urine voids with that in the 24-hr urine collection indicated that the concentration of As in urine was stable throughout the day. Comparison of the concentration of As in each first morning urine void over the 5-day study period indicated that there was little day-to-day variation in the concentration of As in urine. The concentration of As in drinking water was a better predictor of the concentration of As in urine than was the estimated intake of As from drinking water. The concentration of As in urine did not vary by gender. An age-dependent difference in the concentration of As in urine may be attributed to the higher As dosage rate per unit body weight in children than in adults. These findings suggest that the analysis of a small number of urine samples may be adequate to estimate an individual's exposure to InAs from drinking water and that the determination of the concentration of InAs in a drinking water supply may be a useful surrogate for estimating exposure to this metalloid. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10417365

Calderon, R L; Hudgens, E; Le, X C; Schreinemachers, D; Thomas, D J



Sulfur control of lead concentration during MORB genesis: clues to the origin of HIMU and FOZO sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been widely accepted that recycling of oceanic and continental crusts produced chemically distinct regions in the mantle, so called mantle reservoirs (FOZO, HIMU, EMI and EMII; e.g., Stracke et al. 2005). Thus the investigation of the process that produced these reservoirs would be essential to understand the material recycling in the Earth. In particular, FOZO and HIMU could be important because these reservoirs are inferred to be produced by recycling of oceanic crust that is major constituent of the subducting slab. As the recycled oceanic crust suffered subduction process to produce continental crust, the origin of the FOZO and HIMU, and continental crust could potentially be connected. Although the growth rate of the continental crust is still in debated, much of the crust seems to be formed during Archean and early Proterozoic times. In such ancient time, the subducting oceanic crust would be much more likely to be melted due to high geothermal gradient and low average age of the crust. It could follow that the recycled material observed in OIB should have experienced melting rather than dehydration because the age of recycled material is inferred to be ca 1.0-2.0 Ga (Chauvel, et al., 1992; Hofmann 1997). Nevertheless, melt-extraction process can not produce the suitable isotopic composition of OIBs. Dehydration of oceanic crust is another major process in subduction zone especially at present. In addition, the process is widely accepted as the origin of HIMU source (e.g., Kogiso et al., 1997). It might follow that HIMU magmas could be a common type of OIB as the dehydrated oceanic crust should be a major constituent of subducting slab. In spite of this expectation, occurrence of HIMU magmas is quite rare: only observed in St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean and the Cook-Austral islands in the South Pacific Ocean. These lines of evidence could suggest that simple dehydration reaction or melting event was not suitable to produce the OIB source. For the comprehensive understanding of the relationship between FOZO, HIMU and continental crust, geochemical modeling has been conducted using trace element composition and Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic ratios. The model focuses on the chemical evolution of the magma in mod-ocean ridges that can change U, Th, Pb and S concentration in magma. In particular, the model pays special attention to the behavior of S. The result suggests that dehydration melting of oceanic crust at shallow level (amphibole stability field) can produce melt of which trace element composition is similar to bulk continental crust. In addition, the residual oceanic crust can produce Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic composition that is consistent with FOZO component at the age of 10-20 billon years. HIMU component can only be produced by the dehydration melting of oceanic crust that suffered strong crystal fractionation during the production of the oceanic crust. The fractional crystallization at mid-ocean ridges can increase U and Th concentration in oceanic crust. Sulfur solubility is also enhanced during the crystal fractionation due to iron enrichment. High sulfur content in the evolved magma leads to distribute much more lead into sulfide compared to less evolved oceanic crust. This geochemical feature could be suitable to produce HIMU source via dehydration melting. We will present a geochemical model that is focused on origin of HIMU source and the relationship between continental crust and OIB sources.

Shimoda, G.; Kogiso, T.



Biological Fractionation of Lead Isotopes in Sprague-Dawley Rats Lead Poisoned via the Respiratory Tract  

PubMed Central

Objectives It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems. Methods 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces) were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance) and the low-lead animal feed (diet) administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results There are significant differences (p<0.05) in lead isotope ratios between blood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of 204Pb/206Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when 204Pb/206Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group. Conclusions The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for 204Pb/206Pb ratio under high-dose exposure. PMID:23300678

Wu, Jing; Liu, Duojian; Xie, Qing; Wang, Jingyu



Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.  


In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects. PMID:10418087

Mattelaer, J J



Pychotropic Medications in the Treatment of Feline Urine Spraying.  


Urine spraying (urine marking) is one of the most prevalent feline behavior disorders and a common reason for veterinarian consultation. Although urine spraying is a normal feline communication signal, it is unacceptable behavior for house cats, and, if untreated can lead to relinquishment, relegation outside, or even euthanasia. Urine spraying is associated with a medical disorder in up to 25% of cats that present for treatment; hence all cats that spray should undego clinical examination by a veterinarian to rule out physical causes before a psychogenic cause can be presumed. Behavioral treatment involves litter box management and medication. A variety of psychotropic medications have proven safe and effective for the long-term treatment of psychogenic feline urine spraying, but only if they are prescribed appropriately, monitored judiciously, and coupled therapeutically with environmental management. The goal of such therapy is to reduce the incidence of urine marking to a level acceptable to the owner. Compounding pharmacists perform an essential function in modifying doses of manufactured anxiolytic and antidepressant medications for use in cats whose spraying is psychogenic in origin. In this article, the case is reported of a cat successfully treated with psychotropic medication to reduce the incidence of urine marking, and medications compounded for that purpose are briefly reviewed. The role of the compounding pharmacist in ensuring the success of treatment is also discussed. PMID:23974483

Simpson, Barabara Sherman



Real-life efficiency of urine source separation.  


Urine source separation (NoMix technology) is a promising innovation in wastewater management. To improve and further develop NoMix technology, it has been implemented in four Swiss households and at our research institute (Eawag). We conducted measurements during one year on frequency of toilet usage (in households 5.2/person/day for weekdays, and 6.3/person/day for weekends), flushing behavior (30-85% small flushes), and recovered urine. We calculate the amount of urine effectively recovered per voiding in NoMix toilets (138 ml/flush in households; 309 ml/flush in women's toilets at Eawag), and waterfree urinals (225 ml/usage). We estimate urine recovery in the households to be maximally 70-75% of the expected quantity, leaving room for technical and behavioral improvements. Based on sampling of N and P concentrations, we suspect nitrogen losses in the extended urine piping system. For households and workplaces, the daily and weekly flushing pattern is recorded. Our results are in accordance with literature data from a shorter period but with more people. These results represent a good dimensioning basis for future urine source separation applications. An example of extrapolation to an entire watershed is presented. The flushing pattern corresponds well with the typical nitrogen loading of a treatment plant. PMID:19195767

Rossi, L; Lienert, J; Larsen, T A



Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)  


... change - Use this tool to play your goals. Hot Topics Studying for Tests Dealing With Sports Injuries Measles Healthy Weight: Your Personal Plan Dealing With Anger Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) KidsHealth > Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Kidneys & Urinary System > Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Print ...


Using human urine as food for cyanobacteria in LSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In biological LSS: human, higher plants, algae, united by common cycle of matter, native human urine is the most problematic substance for using in inter-link exchange. It contains urea, ammonium compounds and up to 10 g/l of NaCl. Each of the mentioned components is toxic for growing higher plants. As for inferior plants, experiments showed that cyanobacteria of genus Spirulina platensis and similar genus Oscillatoria deflexa can grow at NaCl concentrations up to 20 g/l and NH4Cl concentrations up to 800 mg/l. These cyanobacteria can be used in LSS as a photosynthesizing link. Besides, S. platensis is edible for humans and fish. To use urine as food for algae, it is necessary to remove urea and organics. All previously used methods for urine treatment aimed at urea destruction: heating to 300oC, ultraviolet exposure, freezing, oxidation on reactor with hydrogen peroxide, had no effect. We used the following method of urine treatment: urine evaporation till dry residue, subsequent combustion in muffle furnace at 450-500oC and creation of ash water extract of the same volume as the initial urine. Comparison of standard Zarrouk's solution for S. platensis and O. deflexa with the water extract of urine ash showed that the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, S were similar. Successful experiments were made with O. deflexa that were grown on nutrient solution made of the water extract of urine ash with 10 g/l of NaHCO3 and 2 g/l of NaNO3. The sources of intersystem production of HCO3 and NO3 were shown, and the biochemical composition of the investigated algae species, including mineral composition, protein, carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid and vitamin content were studied.

Kalacheva, Galina; Gribovskaya, Iliada; Kolmakova, Angela


Concentrations and origins of atmospheric lead and other trace species at a rural site in northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we analyze the ambient levels of lead and other trace species in the bulk aerosol samples from a rural site ?70 km ESE of Beijing in spring 2005. Lead (0.28 ± 0.24 ?g\\/m3, average ± standard deviation), along with several pollution-related trace elements, was enriched by over 100 fold relative to the Earth’s crust. The ambient lead

Tianxue Wen; Zhanqing Li; Russell R. Dickerson; Yongjie Yang; Yanan Zhao; Yuesi Wang; Si-Chee Tsay



The effects of the size and the doping concentration on the power factor of n-type lead telluride nanocrystals for thermoelectric energy conversion.  


For the first time, we demonstrate a successful synthesis of colloidal n-type lead telluride nanocrystals doped with iodine. By tuning the reaction time and iodine concentration in the precursor solution, nanocrystals with different sizes and doping concentrations are synthesized. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the nanocrystals are measured on nanocrystal thin films fabricated by dip-coating glass substrates in the nanocrystals solution. Investigations on the influence of size and doping concentration on the electrical properties have been performed. The results show that the size of the nanocrystals significantly influences the electrical conductivity but not the Seebeck coefficient of nanocrystal films, while higher doping concentration leads to lower Seebeck coefficient but higher electrical conductivity in the nanocrystal films. Proof-of-concept thin-film thermoelectric modules are also fabricated using both p-type and n-type PbTe nanocrystals for the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. PMID:24527850

Fang, Haiyu; Luo, Zhiqiang; Yang, Haoran; Wu, Yue




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lead arsenate was used as an insecticide in the U.S. from 1900 to 1950 to control Codling moth in apple orchards. As a result, these soils are contaminated with lead (Pb) and arsenic (As). Concerns have been raised about conversion of land use of such Pb and As rich soils, either for vegetable crops...


Electroreduction of nitrate ions in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at lead, zinc, nickel and phthalocyanine-modified electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical reduction of nitrate in strongly alkaline solution has been studied using nickel, lead, zinc and iron cathodes. Intermediate formation of nitrite ion and ammonia product was observed for all electrode materials. Coating a nickel sponge electrode with phthalocyanine renders it less active toward nitrate reduction, while iron electrodes appear to be activated. Electrolysis between a lead cathode and

H.-L. Li; J. Q. Chambers; D. T. Hobbs



Multivariate optimization and validation studies in on-line pre-concentration system for lead determination in drinking water and saline waste from oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper proposes an on-line pre-concentration procedure for lead determination in drinking water and saline waste from oil refinery by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). It is based on the sorption of lead (II) ions in a minicolumn of polyurethane foam loaded with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) reagent. The optimization step was performed using Doehlert matrix involving the variables: sampling flow

Walter L dos Santos; Carla M. M dos Santos; Jorge L. O Costa; Heloysa M. C Andrade; Sérgio L. C Ferreira



Lead in blood and eggs of the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, from the Eastern Pacific: Concentration, isotopic composition and maternal transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of lead were assessed in the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, from a nesting colony of the Eastern Pacific. Twenty-five female turtles were sampled and a total of 250 eggs were collected during the “arribada” event of the 2005–2006 season. Considering the nesting season, the maternal transfer of lead (Pb) via egg-laying, in terms of metal burden in whole body,

F. Páez-Osuna; M. F. Calderón-Campuzano; M. F. Soto-Jiménez; J. R. Ruelas-Inzunza



Body burdens of lead in hypertensive nephropathy  

SciTech Connect

Chronic lead exposure resulting in blood lead concentrations that exceed 1.93 mumol/l (40 micrograms/dl) or chelatable urinary lead excretion greater than 3.14 mumol (650 micrograms) per 72 h has been associated with renal disease. A previous study had found greater chelatable urine lead excretion in subjects with hypertension and renal failure than in controls with renal failure due to other causes, although mean blood lead concentrations averaged 0.92 mumol/l (19 micrograms/dl). To determine if chelatable urinary lead, blood lead, or the hematologic effect of lead (zinc protoporphyrin) were greater in hypertensive nephropathy (when hypertension precedes elevation of serum creatinine) than in other forms of mild renal failure, we compared 40 study subjects with hypertensive nephropathy to 24 controls having a similar degree of renal dysfunction due to causes other than hypertension. Lead burdens were similar in both the study and control groups as assessed by 72-h chelatable urinary lead excretion after intramuscular injection of calcium disodium EDTA (0.74 +/- 0.63 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.40 mumol per 72 h, respectively), and by blood lead (0.35 +/- 0.23 vs. 0.35 +/- 0.20 mumol/l). We conclude that subjects from a general population with hypertensive nephropathy do not have greater body burdens of lead than renal failure controls.

Osterloh, J.D.; Selby, J.V.; Bernard, B.P.; Becker, C.E.; Menke, D.J.; Tepper, E.; Ordonez, J.D.; Behrens, B. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))



Toenail, Blood and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers. Methods Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a workshift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n=49), as well as blood and urine before (n=27) and after (urine, n=26; blood, n=24) a workshift were collected. Results Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in months 7-9, 10-12, and 7-12 before toenail clipping date, but not months 1-6. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese. Conclusions Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical workshift. PMID:21494156

Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.



Determination of lead in sea-water with a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer and an improved automatic on-line pre-concentration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved automatic on-line pre-concentration system for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for the determination of trace metals in sea-water was developed. This system was modified from a Perkin-Elmer AS-40 autosampler by mounting a silica gel C 18 microcolumn near the tip of the autosampler capillary. The pre-concentration procedure was performed by using a four-way distribution valve and controlled by a programmable controller. The pre-concentration system developed previously was improved by using a peristaltic pump to replace the reciprocating pumps, a newly designed tube bed adjuster to release the back-pressure in the pre-concentration system, and a better control program, such that on-line pre-concentration became more reliable and fully automatic. The chelating agent ammonium pyrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and a miniature column packed with 5 mg of C 18 silica gel were used for pre-concentration. This system was tested by analyzing the lead content in reference standard sea-water samples. A sample volume of only 2 ml was required to determine lead in sea-water. The relative limit of detection of lead was 3.5 pg/ml.

Liu, Zhen-Shan; Huang, Shang-Da



Forest floor lead, copper and zinc concentrations across the northeastern United States: synthesizing spatial and temporal responses.  


Understanding how metal concentrations in soil have responded to reductions of anthropogenic emissions is essential for predicting potential ecosystem impacts and evaluating the effectiveness of pollution control legislation. The objectives of this study were to present new data and synthesize existing literature to document decreases in Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations in forest soils across the northeastern US. From measurements at 16 sites, we observed that forest floor Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations have decreased between 1980 and 2011 at an overall mean rate of 1.3 ± 0.5% yr(-1). E-folding times, a concentration exponential decay rate (1/k), for Pb, Cu and Zn at the 16 sites were estimated to be 46 ± 7, 76 ± 20 and 81 ± 19 yr, respectively. Mineral soil concentrations were correlated with forest floor concentrations for Pb, but not for Cu and Zn, suggesting an accumulation in one pool does not strongly influence accumulation in the other. Forest floor Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations from our sites and 17 other studies conducted from 1970-2014 in remote forests across the northeastern US were compiled into pooled data sets. Significant decreasing trends existed for pooled forest floor Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations. The pooled forest floor Pb e-folding time was determined to be 33 ± 9 yrs, but the explanatory power of pooled Cu and Zn regressions were inadequate for calculating e-folding times (r(2)<0.25). Pooled Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations in forest floor were multiple-regressed with latitude, longitude, elevation, and year of sampling, cumulatively explaining 55, 38, and 28% of the variation across compiled studies. Our study suggests anthropogenic Pb in the forest floor will continue to decrease, but decreases in forest floor Cu and Zn concentrations may be masked by spatial heterogeneity or are at a new steady state. PMID:25461088

Richardson, J B; Donaldson, E C; Kaste, J M; Friedland, A J



Concentrations and Origins of Atmospheric Lead and Other Trace Species at a Rural Site in Northern China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study we analyze the ambient levels of lead and other trace species in the bulk aerosol samples from a rural site approx.70 km ESE of Beijing in spring 2005. Lead (0.28+/-0.24 micro-g/cu m, average +/- standard deviation), along with several pollution \\related trace elements, was enriched by over 100 fold relative to the Earth's crust. The ambient lead levels showing large synoptic variations were well-correlated with other anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., CO and SO2). The Unmix receptor model resolved four factors in the aerosol composition data: a biomass burning source, an industrial and coal combustion source, a secondary aerosol source, and a dust source. The first three sources were strongest in weak southerly winds ahead of cold fronts, while the dust source peaked in strong northerly winds behind cold fronts. The second source, primarily representing emissions from industrial processes and relatively small \\scale coal burning such as in home and institutional heating, was identified as the main source of ambient lead in this study. Mobile sources might also contribute to this factor, but there was no distinct evidence of emissions due to combustion of leaded gasoline, despite a correlation between lead and CO. Potential source contribution function, calculated from backward trajectories and aerosol composition, further reveals that lead observed in this study was predominantly from the populated and industrialized areas to the south and SW of Xianghe, rather than Beijing to the west. Our results and several recent studies show that the lead levels in suburban areas near big cities in China, although generally lower than those in industrial districts and urban areas, are substantial (near or above 0.15 micro-g/cu m). More extensive studies on airborne lead and its emission sources in China are called for.

Li, Can; Wen, Tianxue; Li, Zhanqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; Yang, Yongjie; Zhao, Yanan; Wang, Yuesi; Tsay, Si-Chee



Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.



75 FR 76336 - Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Protection Agency Regulatory Model or AERMOD. Inputs to the model included a comprehensive lead...for piston engine aircraft. Model inputs also included considerations of aircraft-induced wake turbulence, plume rise of the...



Innovative processing technique to produce zinc concentrate from zinc leach residue with simultaneous recovery of lead and silver  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the conventional zinc hydrometallurgical roast-leach-electrowin process lead and silver report in the neutral leach residue along with zinc ferrite. Lead and silver from the zinc plant leach residue are recovered by a froth flotation process followed by roast-leach-precipitation-reduction to obtain a highly pure silver. Inherent process constraints of water balance and build-up of problem impurities from the silver recovery

R Raghavan; P. K Mohanan; S. C Patnaik



Analyzing lead concentration in the sycamore tree species in high- and low-traffic areas of Rasht, Iran.  


Important heavy metals such as lead and cadmium are part of the pollutants produced by cars and are spread in the urban environment by traffic flow. In order to study the amount of contamination in the trees along the streets and to determine the traffic parameters that affect the lead content in sycamore leaves in Rasht, four stations on the margins of the city streets were selected for this case study in terms of traffic volume (low or high). Traffic parameters including three high-traffic stations considering daily and monthly traffic volumes and one low-traffic station were selected. First, 32 sycamore bases were randomly chosen at the intervals of 10-15 m from the whole range of tree canopy in order to determine the absorption of lead; and then, 20 g of each sample were tested to determine the amount of lead absorption. The results of this study, on the amount of lead absorption by the sycamore tree species at three high-traffic and one control station, showed that Takhti station had the highest amount of lead absorption (37.19 ppm) compared with other three stations. Therefore, the sycamore tree species can be an appropriate one for the margins of urban streets. PMID:23406961

Hashemi, Seyed Armin; Alinejad, Farzaneh; Fallahchay, Mozaffar



Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...


Water-quality data collected to determine the presence, source, and concentration of lead in the drinking water supply at Pipe Spring National Monument, northern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pipe Spring National Monument in northern Arizona contains historically significant springs. The groundwater source of these springs is the same aquifer that presently is an important source of drinking water for the Pipe Spring National Monument facilities, the Kaibab Paiute Tribe, and the community of Moccasin. The Kaibab Paiute Tribe monitored lead concentrations from 2004 to 2009; some of the analytical results exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique for lead of 15 parts per billion. The National Park Service and the Kaibab Paiute Tribe were concerned that the local groundwater system that provides the domestic water supply might be contaminated with lead. Lead concentrations in water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from three springs, five wells, two water storage tanks, and one faucet were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique. Lead concentrations of rock samples representative of the rock units in which the local groundwater resides were less than 22 parts per million.

Macy, Jamie P.; Sharrow, David; Unema, Joel



Lead concentrations in tissues of marsh birds: relationship of feeding habits and grit preference to spent shot ingestion  

SciTech Connect

The toxic effects of lead shot ingestion on waterfowl are well documented. During the summer of 1982, a random sample of marsh birds from the upper Texas coast indicated a relatively high incidence of shot ingestion in several species. In addition, lead and arsenic levels in bones of these species were correlated with the presence of ingested shot. This paper addresses possible reasons why some species are affected and others are not, in particular the relationship between feeding habits and size of grit which is found in the gizzards of each species.

Hall, S.L.; Fisher, F.M. Jr.



Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)



Treating urine by Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich


Urine biomarkers in prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deficiencies of serum PSA as a prostate-cancer-specific diagnostic test are well recognized. Thus, the development of novel biomarkers for prostate cancer detection remains an important and exciting challenge. Noninvasive urine-based tests are particularly attractive candidates for large-scale screening protocols, and biomarker discovery programs using urine samples have emerged for detecting and predicting aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Some new biomarkers

Guillaume Ploussard; Alexandre de la Taille



A urine volume measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.



Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria  


... please enable JavaScript. Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria New study links bacteria found in urine in bladder to urinary incontinence (* ... News) -- Though it's commonly believed that urine is bacteria-free, normal urine is not sterile, a new ...


Chloride secretion drives urine formation in leech nephridia.  


The transport mechanisms underlying urine formation in leech nephridia were investigated in situ and in isolated preparations using pharmacological, electrophysiological and micropuncture techniques. Canalicular cells, which secrete the primary urine, function as a Cl(-)-secreting epithelium. An apical Cl- conductance contributes to the lumen-negative potential which drives transcellular K+ transport and paracellular Na+ transport. On the basolateral side, a ouabain-sensitive Na+/K(+)-ATPase contributes substantially to the cellular and transcellular potential and provides the Na+ gradient necessary for a bumetanide-sensitive Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransport. Final urine is formed by subsequent reabsorption of ions along the central canal, where KCl and NaCl are reabsorbed in different portions. The postprandial diuresis is not a consequence of the changes in blood osmolality or ion concentrations. Similar changes in the ionic environment do not promote diuresis in isolated nephridia. Apparently, the composition and volume of the primary urine cannot be separately controlled. Any increase in fluid secretion by leech canalicular cells involves upregulation of the paracellular pathway and stimulation of Cl- entry, which thereby changes the normally K(+)-enriched primary urine to the Na(+)-enriched primary urine characteristic of leeches in diuresis. PMID:9286101

Zerbst-Boroffka, I; Bazin, B; Wenning, A



Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the impact of elevated concentrations of metals in terrestrial ecosystems, a major distinction should be made in risks\\/effects of heavy metals related to (i) the soil ecosystem (soil organisms\\/processes and plants) and (ii) human health or animal health resulting from bioaccumulation. The latter effect is related to the phenomenon that a chemical accumulates in species through different trophic

Vries de W; P. F. A. M. Romkens; G. Schutze



Development and validation of a capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of phenothiazines in human urine in the low nanogram per milliliter concentration range using field-amplified sample injection.  


A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with ultraviolet-visible detection has been established and validated for the determination of five phenothiazines: thiazinamium methylsulfate, promazine hydrochloride, chlorpromazine hydrochloride, thioridazine hydrochloride, and promethazine hydrochloride in human urine. Optimum separation was obtained on a 64.5 cm x 75 microm bubble cell capillary using a buffer containing 150 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and 25% acetonitrile at pH 8.2, with temperature and voltage of 25 degrees C and 20 kV, respectively. Naphazoline hydrochloride was used as an internal standard. Field-amplified sample injection (FASI) has been applied to improve the sensitivity of the detection. Considering the influence of parameters affecting the on-line preconcentration (nature of preinjection plug, sample solvent composition, injection times, and injection voltage) and due to the significant interactions among them, in this paper we propose for the first time the application of a multivariate approach to carry out the study. The optimized conditions were as follows: preinjection plug of water for 7 s at 50 mbar, electrokinetic injection for 40 s at 6.2 kV, and 32 microm of H3PO4 in the sample solvent. Also, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure is developed to obtain low detection limits and an adequate selectivity for urine samples. The combination of SPE and FASI-CZE-UV allows adequate linearities and recoveries, low detection limits (from 2 to 5 ng/mL), and satisfactory precisions (3.0-7.2% for an intermediate RSD %). PMID:15924366

Lara, Francisco J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Alés-Barrero, Fermín; Bosque-Sendra, Juan M



Negative urine pregnancy test in a molar pregnancy: is it possible?  


A urine pregnancy test is commonly used to detect pregnancy and is based on finding intact ?-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) molecules in the urine by an immunoassay system. However, the significantly large amount of ?-hCG in molar pregnancy may paradoxically lead to a false-negative result due to a phenomenon known as the 'high dose hook effect'. A case of molar pregnancy with negative urine pregnancy test but very high serum ?-hCG is reported. Every obstetrician should be aware of this limitation in the presence of a high index of suspicion of gestational trophoblastic disease but negative urine pregnancy test. PMID:25378114

Nigam, Aruna; Kumari, Archana; Gupta, Nidhi



Comparison of the concentrations of metal elements and isotopes of lead found in rice and rice bran.  


Very few studies have investigated the difference in the distribution of metal elements between rice and rice bran samples. In this study, the concentrations of 27 metal elements (Li, Be, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Tl, Pb, and U) in 56 polished rice and their corresponding bran samples were determined. A significant difference in concentrations of all elements except Ag and Cd was found between rice and bran (P < 0.05), with bran/rice ratios of 1.21 to 36.3. High concentrations of metal elements, especially that of the heavy metal Cr, in bran samples present a potential safety issue for bran products, such as food and feed containing bran. Pb isotope ((204)Pb, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb) ratios also were determined. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in bran were generally higher than those in rice (P < 0.0001), and rice and bran samples were distinctly different from each other, indicating that Pb isotope composition is an effective for discriminating between bran and rice samples. PMID:25198608

Dai, Shouhui; Yang, Hui; Yang, Lan; Wang, Fuhua; Du, Ruiying; Wen, Dian



Cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations and their influence on morphological parameters in blood donors from different age groups from southern Poland.  


Due to industrial development, environmental contamination with metals increases which leads to higher human exposure via air, water and food. In order to evaluate the level of the present exposition, the concentrations of metals can be measured in such biological materials as human blood. In this study, we assessed the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in blood samples from male blood donors from southern Poland (Europe) born in 1994 (n=30) and between 1947 and 1955 (n=30). Higher levels of Pb were seen in the group of older men (4.48 vs 2.48?g/L), whereas the Hg levels were lower (1.78 vs 4.28?g/L). Cd concentrations did not differ between age groups (0.56?g/L). The levels of Cd and Pb in older donors were significantly correlated (Spearman R 0.5135). We also observed a positive correlation between the number of red blood cells (RBC) and Hg concentrations in the older group (Spearman R 0.4271). Additionally, we noted numerous correlations among morphological parameters. Based on our results, we can state that metals influence the blood morphology and their concentrations in blood vary among age groups. PMID:25457282

Janicka, Monika; Binkowski, ?ukasz J; B?aszczyk, Martyna; Paluch, Joanna; Wojta?, W?odzimierz; Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert



Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard of ingesting dangerous levels of copper, lead and arsenic if dishes are prepared with poorly washed foliage.

K?íbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevi?, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.



Higher urine desmosine levels are associated with mortality in patients with acute lung injury  

PubMed Central

Desmosine is a stable breakdown product of elastin that can be reliably measured in urine samples. We tested the hypothesis that higher baseline urine desmosine would be associated with higher mortality in 579 of 861 patients included in the recent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network trial of lower tidal volume ventilation (1). We also correlated urine desmosine levels with indexes of disease severity. Finally, we assessed whether urine desmosine was lower in patients who received lower tidal volumes. Desmosine was measured by radioimmunoassay in urine samples from days 0, 1, and 3 of the study. The data were expressed as a ratio of urine desmosine to urine creatinine to control for renal dilution. The results show that higher baseline (day 0) urine desmosine-to-creatinine concentration was associated with a higher risk of death on adjusted analysis (odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.82, P = 0.03). Urine desmosine increased in both ventilator groups from day 0 to day 3, but the average rise was higher in the 12-ml/kg predicted body weight group compared with the 6-ml/kg predicted body weight group (P = 0.053, repeated-measures model). In conclusion, patients with acute lung injury ventilated with lower tidal volumes have lower urine desmosine levels, a finding that may reflect reduced extracellular matrix breakdown. These results illustrate the value of evaluating urinary biological markers that may have prognostic and pathogenetic significance in acute lung injury. PMID:16698854

McClintock, Dana E.; Starcher, Barry; Eisner, Mark D.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Hayden, Doug L.; Church, Gwynne D.; Matthay, Michael A.



Urine analysis in diluted situation using low-resolution Raman spectroscope.  


We could get valuable information about various diseases by analyzing urine of patients. For the diabetics, it has been very important to know the glucose concentration in their urine. Until now, there have been many methods to estimate the concentration but they were invasive and annoyed patients. The Low-Resolution Raman Spectroscopy (LRRS) could be an alternative method to be non-invasive and unconscious for patients who want to check the amount of their urine components. LRRS is not expensive and smaller than laboratory Raman spectroscope. And we want to attach it to the common toilet bowl. For the reason, we got the spectrum of diluted urine and predicted the glucose concentration. In addition, we tried to find very small amount of glucose. LRRS was adequate for measuring Raman signal of diluted urine and could find very small amount of glucose. This system will realize the observation of one's health condition every day without awareness. PMID:17282614

Soo Park, Cheol; Min Choi, Jong; Suk Park, Kwang



Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays. PMID:23424703

Fenderson, Joshua L.; Stratton, Amy N.; Domingo, Jennifer S.; Matthews, Gerald O.; Tan, Christopher D.



Anomalous concentrations of several metals in iron-formation of the Blue Lead Mountain area, Pennington County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical sampling of bedrock has revealed anomalous copper, silver, molybdenum, gold, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and cobalt in meta-iron-formation in the Blue Lead Mountain area 5 miles (8 kilometres) north-northwest of Keystone, S. Dak. The anomalies are in complexly folded and faulted iron-formation. Metal content decreases sharply in the surrounding rocks. The extent and intensity of the anomalous areas, despite evidence that previous mining had little success, are sufficient to make this area an interesting target for exploration.

Raymond, William H.; King, Robert Ugstad; Norton, James Jennings



Clinical, Toxicological, Biochemical, and Hematologic Parameters in Lead Exposed Workers of a Car Battery Industry  

PubMed Central

Background: Lead is a toxic element which causes acute, subacute or chronic poisoning through environmental and occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and laboratory abnormalities of chronic lead poisoning among workers of a car battery industry. Methods: Questionnaires and forms were designed and used to record demographic data, past medical histories and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. Blood samples were taken to determine biochemical (using Auto Analyzer; Model BT3000) and hematologic (using Cell Counter Sysmex; Model KX21N) parameters. An atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer, Model 3030, USA) was used to determine lead concentration in blood and urine by heated graphite atomization technique. Results: A total of 112 men mean age 28.78±5.17 years, who worked in a car battery industry were recruited in the present study. The most common signs/symptoms of lead poisoning included increased excitability 41.9%, arthralgia 41.0%, fatigue 40.1%, dental grey discoloration 44.6%, lead line 24.1%, increased deep tendon reflexes (DTR) 22.3%, and decreased DTR (18.7%). Blood lead concentration (BLC) was 398.95 µg/L±177.40, which was significantly correlated with duration of work (P=0.044) but not with the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. However, BLC was significantly correlated with urine lead concentration (83.67 µg/L±49.78; r2=0.711; P<0.001), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r=-0.280; P=0.011), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (r=-0.304; P=0.006) and fasting blood sugar or FBS (r=-0.258; P=0.010). Conclusion: Neuropsychiatric and skeletal findings were common manifestations of chronic occupational lead poisoning. BLC was significantly correlated with duration of work, urine lead concentration, two hemoglobin indices and FBS. PMID:23645955

Kianoush, Sina; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Dadpour, Bita; Moradi, Valiollah; Sadeghi, Mahmoud




EPA Science Inventory

Blood, hair, urine and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-water selenium levels. Bloo...


Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.



Influence of the Niobium or Fluorine Dopant Concentration on the Properties of Mn-Doped Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report on the effect of donor addition (Nb5+ or F-) on the electrical and piezoelectric properties and crystallographic characteristics of Mn-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Samples were prepared chemically by coprecipitation of oxalates and hydroxides. The niobium ion was incorporated in the B site whereas the fluorine ion was introduced in the anionic site. Structural analysis (XRD) and measurement of electrical properties were carried out. Electron spin resonance was used to determined the valency states of manganese in PZT ceramics. From the experimental results, the F-O substitution decreases the amount of oxygen vacancies in the Mn-doped PZT, and the valency states remain unchanged. However, a small number of oxygen vacancies may exist in PZT doped with 1 at.% manganese and 2 at.% fluorine. In the (Mn,Nb) co-doping case, the valency states vary from 4+ to 2+ and the number of oxygen vacancies is lower or even almost equal to zero. Thus the electroneutrality is achieved by lead vacancies.

Boucher, Eric; Guiffard, Benoit; Lebrun, Laurent; Guyomar, Daniel



Relationships between thiamine content of eggs and concentrations of lead and other heavy metals in water and survival of Atlantic salmon fry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were extirpated in much of New York state by the late 1800s. Currently, Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond (Saranac Lake, NY) are stocked in Cayuga Lake (Ithaca, NY) and Lake Ontario to support a fishery, but reproduction is severely impaired by thiamine deficiency in Cayuga Lake and probably in Lake Ontario--apparently caused by adults feeding on prey fish high in thiaminase. One study suggested that survival of these fry may be reduced by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, copper, or lead in water. Thiamine deficiency is known to increase lead toxicity. Bringing gravid Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond and Cayuga Inlet into the laboratory, we examined the effect of exposing their fertilized eggs during water-hardening to water with and without added lead (0.1 to 100 mg lead·liter-1) and to other contaminated waters (from New York State) on the survival of their eggs and fry. Our results showed no significant influence of our water-hardening treatments on survival of eggs or fry; therefore, it appears that exposure of eggs (during water-hardening) to lead in water (concentrations up to 100 mg lead·liter-1) or to several contaminated waters was not detrimental to the survival of eggs or fry of Atlantic salmon. We also determined the mineral and heavy metal content of dried eggs and found that eggs from Cayuga Lake salmon had significantly higher concentrations of copper (1.9 vs. 0.5 mg·g-1) than did eggs from salmon from Little Clear Pond. All concentrations of copper appeared to be within the range observed in other normal salmon. There were no other significant differences in concentrations of other minerals tested. Concentrations of copper in Cayuga Lake water (mean, 1.16 mg·liter-1) were significantly higher than in Little Clear Pond water (mean, 0.17 mg·liter-1). The effect of copper in eggs of thiamine-deficient salmon is not known.

Ketola, H. George; Wedge, Leslie R.; Lary, Sandra J.; Grant, Edward C.; Rutzke, Michael A.



SERS quantitative urine creatinine measurement of human subject  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SERS method for biomolecular analysis has several potentials and advantages over traditional biochemical approaches, including less specimen contact, non-destructive to specimen, and multiple components analysis. Urine is an easily available body fluid for monitoring the metabolites and renal function of human body. We developed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique using 50nm size gold colloidal particles for quantitative human urine creatinine measurements. This paper shows that SERS shifts of creatinine (104mg/dl) in artificial urine is from 1400cm-1 to 1500cm-1 which was analyzed for quantitative creatinine measurement. Ten human urine samples were obtained from ten healthy persons and analyzed by the SERS technique. Partial least square cross-validation (PLSCV) method was utilized to obtain the estimated creatinine concentration in clinically relevant (55.9mg/dl to 208mg/dl) concentration range. The root-mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) is 26.1mg/dl. This research demonstrates the feasibility of using SERS for human subject urine creatinine detection, and establishes the SERS platform technique for bodily fluids measurement.

Wang, Tsuei Lian; Chiang, Hui-hua K.; Lu, Hui-hsin; Hung, Yung-da



Influence of pre-, post-, and simultaneous perfusion of elevated calcium on the effect of ascending concentrations of lead on digoxin-induced cardiac arrest in isolated frog heart  

SciTech Connect

Cardiotoxicity of lead, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has already been documented as a potentially lethal, although rarely recognized, complication of lead intoxication. Further, it has already been reported from this laboratory that lead acetate (LA) preperfusion potentiated cardiotoxicity of digoxin (DGN) in isolated frog heart preparation and that exposure to elevated calcium (elev. Ca{sup 2+}) prior to, and simultaneously with LA at 10{sup {minus}7} M concentration, attenuated this potentiation. As an extension of this work, it was considered of interest to study the effect of perfusion of elev. Ca{sup 2+} (6.5 mM) prior to, after and simultaneously with ascending concentrations of lead (10{sup {minus}9}, 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}5}M) on DGN induced cardiac arrest (CA) in isolated frog heart, since Pb{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions are known to compete with each other for the same target sites at the cellular level, an instance of competitive mass action effect. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Krishnamoorthy, M.S.; Muthu, P.; Parthiban, N. [Univ. of Madras (Indonesia)



A novel in situ method for sampling urban soil dust: particle size distribution, trace metal concentrations, and stable lead isotopes.  


In this study, a novel in situ sampling method was utilized to investigate the concentrations of trace metals and Pb isotope compositions among different particle size fractions in soil dust, bulk surface soil, and corresponding road dust samples collected within an urban environment. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of using soil dust samples to determine trace metal contamination and potential risks in urban areas in comparison with related bulk surface soil and road dust. The results of total metal loadings and Pb isotope ratios revealed that soil dust is more sensitive than bulk surface soil to anthropogenic contamination in urban areas. The new in situ method is effective at collecting different particle size fractions of soil dust from the surface of urban soils, and that soil dust is a critical indicator of anthropogenic contamination and potential human exposure in urban settings. PMID:23466731

Bi, Xiangyang; Liang, Siyuan; Li, Xiangdong



Buccal mucosal delivery of a potent peptide leads to therapeutically-relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.  


Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) is an immunomodulatory peptide currently under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis by parenteral administration. To overcome the low patient compliance of conventional self-injections, we have investigated the potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative delivery route for ShK both in vitro and in vivo. After application of fluorescent 5-Fam-ShK to untreated porcine buccal mucosa, there was no detectable peptide in the receptor chamber using an in vitro Ussing chamber model. However, the addition of the surfactants sodium taurodeoxycholate hydrate or cetrimide, and formulation of ShK in a chitosan mucoadhesive gel, led to 0.05-0.13% and 1.1% of the applied dose, respectively, appearing in the receptor chamber over 5h. Moreover, confocal microscopic studies demonstrated significantly enhanced buccal mucosal retention of the peptide (measured by mucosal fluorescence associated with 5-Fam-ShK) when enhancement strategies were employed. Administration of 5-Fam-ShK to mice (10mg/kg in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w)) resulted in average plasma concentrations of 2.6-16.2nM between 2 and 6h, which were substantially higher than the pM concentrations required for therapeutic activity. This study demonstrated that the buccal mucosa is a promising administration route for the systemic delivery of ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25482338

Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; White, Paul J; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A



Hemoglobinuria misidentified as hematuria: review of discolored urine and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.  


Discolored urine is a common reason for office visits to a primary care physician and urology referral. Early differentiation of the type or cause of discolored urine is necessary for accurate diagnosis and prompt management. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a clonal disorder caused by acquired somatic mutations in the PIG-A gene on the X- chromosome of hemopoietic stem cells and leads to deficiency of surface membrane anchor proteins. The deficiency of these proteins leads to an increased risk of hemolysis of erythrocytes and structural damage of platelets, resulting in a clinical syndrome characterized by complement-mediated intravascular hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure, and venous thrombosis. Patients with this clinical syndrome present with paroxysms of hemolysis, causing hemoglobinuria manifesting as discolored urine. This can be easily confused with other common causes of discolored urine and result in extensive urologic work-up. Three commonly confused entities of discolored urine include hematuria, hemoglobinuria, and myoglobinuria. Specific characteristics in a dipstick test or urinalysis can guide differentiation of these three causes of discolored urine. This article begins with a case summary of a woman presenting with cranberry-colored urine and a final delayed diagnosis of paryxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Her hemoglobinuria was misdiagnosed as hematuria, leading to extensive urologic work-up. The article also gives an overview of the approach to diagnosing and treating discolored urine. PMID:25512715

Veerreddy, Prashant



Hemoglobinuria Misidentified as Hematuria: Review of Discolored Urine and Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria  

PubMed Central

Discolored urine is a common reason for office visits to a primary care physician and urology referral. Early differentiation of the type or cause of discolored urine is necessary for accurate diagnosis and prompt management. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a clonal disorder caused by acquired somatic mutations in the PIG-A gene on the X- chromosome of hemopoietic stem cells and leads to deficiency of surface membrane anchor proteins. The deficiency of these proteins leads to an increased risk of hemolysis of erythrocytes and structural damage of platelets, resulting in a clinical syndrome characterized by complement-mediated intravascular hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure, and venous thrombosis. Patients with this clinical syndrome present with paroxysms of hemolysis, causing hemoglobinuria manifesting as discolored urine. This can be easily confused with other common causes of discolored urine and result in extensive urologic work-up. Three commonly confused entities of discolored urine include hematuria, hemoglobinuria, and myoglobinuria. Specific characteristics in a dipstick test or urinalysis can guide differentiation of these three causes of discolored urine. This article begins with a case summary of a woman presenting with cranberry-colored urine and a final delayed diagnosis of paryxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Her hemoglobinuria was misdiagnosed as hematuria, leading to extensive urologic work-up. The article also gives an overview of the approach to diagnosing and treating discolored urine. PMID:25512715

Veerreddy, Prashant



The Automated Measurement of Ascorbic Acid in Serum and Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated colorimetric method for determination of ascorbic acid has been de- veloped. This method utilizes diazotized 4-methoxy-2-nitroanaline and produces a stable color. It is suitable for direct measurementof ascorbicacid in serum and urine. NIl ANY CLINICIANS have reported that ascorbic acid, when administered in large concentration, has some therapeutic value in the treatment of schizophrenia (1). Other authors have

Sherman S. Wilson; Ramon A. Guillan


Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, eastern Kentucky coal field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation (Westphalian B) Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds are the 2 largest producing coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Single channel samples from 22 localities in the Pond Creek coal bed were obtained from active coal mines in Pike and Martin Countries, Kentucky, and a total of 18 Fire Clay coal bed channel samples were collected from localities in the central portion of the coal field. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution of potentially hazardous elements in the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal beds, with particular emphasis on As and Pb, 2 elements that are included in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as potential air toxics. The 2 coals are discussed individually as the depositional histories are distinct, the Fire Clay coal bed having more sites where relatively high-S lithologies are encountered. In an effort to characterize these coals, 40 whole channel samples, excluding 1-cm partings, were analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Previously analyzed samples were added to provide additional geographic coverage and lithotype samples from one site were analyzed in order to provide detail of vertical elemental trends. The As and Pb levels in the Fire Clay coal bed tend to be higher than in the Pond Creek coal bed. One whole channel sample of the Fire Clay coal bed contains 1156 ppm As (ash basis), with a single lithotype containing 4000 ppm As (ash basis). Most of the As and Pb appears to be associated with pyrite, which potentially can be removed in beneficiation (particularly coarser pyrite). Disseminated finer pyrite may not be completely removable by cleaning. In the examination of pyrite conducted in this study, it does not appear that significant concentration of As or Pb occurs in the finer pyrite forms. The biggest potential problem of As- or Pb-enriched pyrite is, therefore, one of refuse disposal.

Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Ruppert, L.F.



Capillary ion electrophoresis of endogenous anions and anionic adulterants in human urine.  


Normal human urine contains many anions and cations. Ionic concentrations in urine have classically been determined by spectrophotometry of color reactions, flame emission spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, or potentiometry with ion-specific electrodes. Capillary ion electrophoresis (CIE) is a form of capillary electrophoresis which uses the differential electrophoretic mobility of ions to perform a separation of an ionic mixture. Various salts can be added to urine specimens to abnormally elevate ionic concentrations and interfere with either immunoassay urine drug screening procedures or gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric confirmation techniques. Application of CIE for the direct detection of endogenous anions and anionic adulterants in human urine specimens was the purpose of this investigation. CIE was performed using a Waters Quanta 4000 Capillary Electrophoresis System with either direct or indirect ultraviolet absorption detection at 254 nm. CIE of 30 random normal urine specimens and 21 urine specimens suspected of adulteration was performed. Duplicate aliquots were assayed by CIE and by colorimetric technique for nitrite. Sixteen specimens had elevated concentrations of nitrite and/or nitrate. The correlation coefficient between nitrite CIE and colorimetric results was 0.9895. Three specimens had detectable concentrations of chromate and were suspected of being adulterated with "Urine Luck," an adulterant found to contain chromate. Two specimens suspected of being adulterated with bleach were found to only contain chloride, sulfate, and phosphate. CIE is applicable to forensic analysis of urine anion concentrations. CIE can easily quantitate numerous endogenous anions and offers a method to detect and/or confirm anion adulteration of urine specimens. PMID:11372999

Ferslew, K E; Hagardorn, A N; Robert, T A



A flow system for the spectrophotometric determination of lead in different types of waters using ion-exchange for pre-concentration and elimination of interferences.  


A flow system for the spectrophotometric determination of lead in natural and waste waters is proposed. The determination is based on the colorimetric reaction between malachite green and iodide, followed by the formation of a ternary complex between those reagents and lead cations. The developed flow system includes a lead pre-concentration step in a column packed with a cationic resin (Chelex 100) operating in a sequential injection mode. To improve the mixture of sample and reagents, a flow injection approach was adopted for the colorimetric determination. This way a hybrid flow system, involving both sequential and flow injection concepts was designed. Another feature of the proposed system is the efficient elimination of major interferent species, such as cadmium and copper. The elimination of cadmium interference is obtained by complexing Cd(2+) with chloride and retaining the formed negatively charged complexes in an anionic resin, AG1 X-8. As for copper, with the presence of both ionic resins as well as the conditions for cadmium elimination, it no longer acts as an interferent. Different ranges of lead concentration (50-300 and 300-1000mugl(-1)) can be determined with minor changes in the controlling software, useful for application to both natural and waste waters. Therefore, a detection limit of 25mugl(-1) was achieved. Repeatability was evaluated from 10 consecutive determinations being the results better than 4%. The recoveries of lead spikes added to the samples ranged from 93 to 102%. The sampling frequency was 17 and 24 determinations per hour, for 50-300 and 300-1000mugl(-1) ranges, respectively. PMID:18969308

Mesquita, Raquel B R; Fernandes, Sílvia M V; Rangel, António O S S



Katkor cat litter, a non-invasive method of collecting cat urine for phosphate determination.  


This study was done to compare the collection of cat urine, for phosphate concentration determination, by catheterisation with that via a proprietary cat litter (Katkor). The passage of urine through the litter or its retention in the litter for a period of 2 hours did not affect the concentration of phosphates compared with that of the original sample. Apart from a small volume of urine trapped in the litter by capillary action, and some urine adhering to the funnel in which the litter was placed, the litter proved to be an excellent medium for routine urine collection from cats, and more especially as an alternative to catheterisation when regular collection from a particular cat is required. PMID:16642722

Delport, P C; Fourie, L J



A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.



Effect of injected rotenone on the production and composition of urine from the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Renal function was evaluated in adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) dosed i.a. with rotenone at 225 and 275 ?g/kg. The chemical composition of urine samples and urine flow rates collected over a 5-h pretreatment period were compared with hourly urine samples collected over a 5-h posttreatment period. Significant increases in osmolality and in concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and total protein were observed in the urine of treated fish. Urine solute concentrations reached maximum values within 1 to 3 h after treatment and decreased thereafter, indicating that the effects were reversible. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were highly correlated in 2-h posttreatment urine samples at the low (r = 0.922) and high (r = 0.981) rotenone treatments. Urine flow rates were reduced in trout at each dose of rotenone but the decrease in volume of urine voided was not dose-dependent. In a separate study, [14C]polyethylene glycol was used as a filtration marker to determine the effect of rotenone treatment (225 &mu:g/kg) on urine flow rate, glomerular filtration rate, and renal water reabsorption. We showed that posttreatment urine flow rates were reduced partly by reduced glomerular filtration and partly by increased water reabsorption. Transient increases in plasma osmolality and hematocrit also were observed 0.5 h after rotenone treatment.

Erickson, D.A.; Gingerich, W.H.



Chemical measurement of urine volume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

Sauer, R. L.



Luminol Chemiluminescence in Urine Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present review is to sketch out the scope of luminol chemiluminescence in human urine analysis. Practical considerations and experimental requirements are indicated. The literature revised covers the papers of analytical interest that have appeared in approximately the last six years.

Ana María Jiménez Moreno; María José Navas Sánchez



Thermal lens study of thermo-optical properties and concentration quenching of Er{sup 3+}-doped lead pyrophosphate-based glasses  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we have used the thermal lens technique combined with conventional spectroscopy to characterize the thermo-optical properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped lead pyrophosphate-based glasses. More precisely, we have investigated and quantified experimentally the fluorescence quantum efficiencies of the Er{sup 3+} levels, and we describe the role of concentration quenching effects. The fluorescence quantum efficiency of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} level is very high when compared to other phosphate glasses, while that of the green-coupled levels is very small. Other important photonic materials parameters, such as the thermal diffusivity and temperature coefficient of the optical path length change, were obtained and compared with those of other glass systems. The cumulative results obtained here for the Er-doped lead pyrophosphate glass show that this material is a good candidate for photonic applications with a characteristic Er{sup 3+} infrared emission around 1550 nm.

Santos, C. C. [Departamento de Fisica, CCET, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, 65085-580 Sao Luis-MA (Brazil); Rocha, U.; Vermelho, M. V. D.; Jacinto, C. [Grupo de Fotonica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceio, AL (Brazil); Guedes, I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do PICI, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Boatner, L. A. [ORNL Center for Radiation Detection Materials and Systems and ORNL Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6044 (United States)




EPA Science Inventory

Urine from cigarette smokers was prepared for mutagenicity testing by extracting mutagens with solid phase extraction columns. ommercially available prepacked bonded silicas (cotadecyl, cyclohexyl, cyanopropyl) were compared for their efficiency and specificity in concentration o...


National contaminant biomonitoring program: Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in U.S. Freshwater Fish, 1976–1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

From late 1984 to early 1985, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected a total of 315 composite samples of whole fish\\u000a from 109 stations nationwide, which were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Geometric\\u000a mean, maximum, and 85th percentile concentrations (?g\\/g wet weight) for 1984 samples were as follows: arsenic-0.14, 1.5, 0.27;\\u000a cadmium-0.03, 0.22, 0.05;

Christopher J. Schmitt; William G. Brumbaugh



Urine specimen detection of concurrent nonprescribed medicinal and illicit drug use in patients prescribed buprenorphine.  


Patients being treated with buprenorphine usually have a history of opioid dependence and may be predisposed to misuse of drugs. Concurrent drug misuse increases the risk of life-threatening drug interactions. This retrospective data analysis observed which nonprescribed and illicit drugs were most commonly detected in the urine of patients from pain management clinics taking buprenorphine with or without a prescription. GC, LC/MS and LC-MS-MS were used to quantify 20,929 urine specimens. The most prevalent illicit drug used in both the groups (prescribed and nonprescribed buprenorphine) was marijuana, followed by cocaine. The most prevalent nonprescribed medications abused by both the groups were benzodiazepines, followed by oxycodone and hydrocodone. The overall prevalence of illicit and nonprescribed drug use was significantly higher in subjects who used buprenorphine without a prescription versus prescribed use. Of the concurrent use of marijuana and cocaine with buprenorphine, cocaine is most concerning since it decreases exposure to buprenorphine (lower area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration). The concurrent use of nonprescribed benzodiazepines with buprenorphine can cause excess sedation leading to respiratory depression and even death. These findings highlight the importance of educating patients about these potential toxicities. Furthermore, pain providers should consider expanding the spectrum of drugs that they monitor in patients under treatment. PMID:24080973

Guo, Alexander Y; Ma, Joseph D; Best, Brookie M; Atayee, Rabia S



Combining urine separation with waste design: an analysis using a stochastic model for urine production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the stochastic properties of human urine production in order to assess the potential of combining urine separation with waste design. The aim is to provide specific information about the dynamics of urine production at a microscopic level for the design and the control of the urine waste stream. Based on measured data a stochastic model is developed

Wolfgang Rauch; Doris Brockmann; Irene Peters; Tove A Larsen; Willi Gujer



Detection of Zika Virus in Urine  

PubMed Central

We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections. PMID:25530324

Gourinat, Ann-Claire; O’Connor, Olivia; Calvez, Elodie; Goarant, Cyrille



Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women  

SciTech Connect

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia)] [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)] [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia)] [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)] [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)



Blood and urine cadmium and bioelements profile in nickel-cadmium battery workers in Serbia.  


Although cadmium (Cd) is extensively used for nickel-cadmium battery production, few recent reports are available on the effect of this toxic metal on the imbalance of biometals in occupational exposure. The current study was carried out to determine the Cd level and its effect on the content of bioelements: zinc, cooper, magnesium, and iron in blood and urine of workers exposed to Cd during nickel-cadmium battery production. beta(2)-microglobulins (beta(2)-MG), as indicators of kidney damage, were determined in urine.The study group comprised 32 male nickel-cadmium battery workers, and the control group had 15 male construction workers with no history of Cd exposure. Levels of Cd and bioelements were determined in blood and urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Cd concentration in blood of exposed workers was around 10 microg/L and in urine ranged from 1.93 to 8.76 microg/g creatinine (cr). Urine Cd concentration was significantly higher in exposed workers than in the controls, although no statistical difference in beta(2)-MG content was observed in urine between the two groups. Blood Zn and Mg level were significantly reduced and urine Zn level was increased in Cd-exposed group when compared with controls.The mean Cd concentrations in blood and urine did not exceed the recommended reference values of 10 microg/L in blood and 10 microg/g cr in urine. Cd exposure resulted in disturbances of Zn in blood and urine and Mg in blood but had no effect on Cu and Fe content in biological fluids. PMID:19458135

Bulat, Z Plamenac; Dukic-Cosic, D; Dokic, M; Bulat, P; Matovic, V



A preliminary Raman spectroscopic study of urine: diagnosis of breast cancer in animal models.  


Prognosis of breast cancer, the most common cancer in females worldwide, has been shown to improve with early detection. Owing to disadvantages like low sensitivity, specificity, tedious sample preparation, long output times and inter-observer variance of currently available screening/diagnostic tools, rapid and objective alternatives such as Raman spectroscopy (RS) are being extensively explored. Body fluid (serum and saliva) based RS assays have shown promising results in diagnosis of oral, lung and nasopharyngeal cancers. The current study aims to explore the feasibility of breast cancer diagnosis using urine based RS. In this study, spectra were acquired from unprocessed as well as concentrated urine of controls (C) and breast tumor bearing (T) rats and analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Principal Component-Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA). Classification efficiencies of 80% and 72% using unprocessed urine and 78% and 91% using concentrated urine for C and T rats were achieved. Thus, results suggest the possibility of breast cancer diagnosis using urine based RS. Further, spectra were also acquired from concentrated urine samples collected prior to breast tumor development (TT) in rats and from rats that did not develop tumors despite carcinogen treatment (NTT). Concentrated urine of NTT rats could be classified as 'normal' (C or NTT) with ?83% efficiency whereas concentrated urine from visibly and palpably normal rats that eventually developed tumor (TT rats) could be classified as 'abnormal' (TT or T) with ?72.5% efficiency using PC-LDA. These results suggest the possibility of detecting biochemical changes occurring prior to tumor development using urine based RS. PMID:25429666

Bhattacharjee, T; Khan, A; Maru, G; Ingle, A; Krishna, C Murali



Predictors of DMSA chelatable lead, tibial lead, and blood lead in 802 Korean lead workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo examine the interrelations among chelatable lead (by dimercaptosuccinic acid, DMSA), tibial lead, and blood lead concentrations in 802 Korean workers with occupational exposure to lead and 135 employed controls with only environmental exposure to lead.METHODSThis was a cross sectional study wherein tibial lead, DMSA chelatable lead, and blood lead were measured. Linear regression was used to identify predictors of

A C Todd; B-K Lee; G-S Lee; K-D Ahn; E L Moshier; B S Schwartz



Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow differences in the two regression models, 1999-2001 and 1999-2004. Flow-weighted concentrations (FWCs) calculated from the estimated loads for 1999-2004 were examined to aid interpretation of metal load estimates, which were influenced by large spatial and temporal variations in streamflow. FWCs of total cadmium ranged from 0.04 micrograms per liter (?g/L) at Enaville to 14 ?g/L at Ninemile Creek. Total lead FWCs were lowest at Long Lake (1.3 ?g/L) and highest at Ninemile Creek (120 ?g/L). Elevated total lead FWCs at Harrison confirmed that the high total lead loads at this station were not simply due to higher streamflow. Conversely, relatively low total lead loads combined with high total lead FWCs at Ninemile and Canyon Creeks reflected low streamflow but high concentrations of total lead. Very low total lead FWCs (1.3 to 2.7 ?g/L) at the stations downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake are a result both of deposition of lead-laden sediments in the lake and dilution by additional streamflow. Total zinc FWCs also demonstrated the effect of streamflow on load calculations, and highlighted source areas for zinc in the basin. Total zinc FWCs at Canyon and Ninemile Creeks, 1,600 ?g/L and 2,200 ?g/L, respectively, were by far the highest in the basin but contributed among the lowest total zinc loads due to their relatively low streamflow. Total zinc FWCs ranged from 38 to 67 ?g/L at stations downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake, but total zinc load estimates at these stations were relatively high because of high mean streamflow compared to other stations in the basin. Long-term regression models for 1991 to 2003 or 2004 were developed and annual trace-metal loads and FWCs were estimated for Pinehurst, Enaville, Harrison, and Post Falls to better understand the variability of metal loading with time. Long-term load estimates are similar to the results for 1999-2004 in terms of spatial distribution of metal loads throughout the basin. LOADEST results for 1991-2004 indicated that statistically significant downward temporal trends for dissolved and total cadmium, dissolved zinc,

Donato, Mary M.



Evaluation of abalone ?-glucuronidase substitution in current urine hydrolysis procedures.  


This study examined the potential of abalone ?-glucuronidase as a viable and cost effective alternative to current hydrolysis procedures using acid, Helix pomatia ?-glucuronidase and Escherichia coli ?-glucuronidase. Abalone ?-glucuronidase successfully hydrolyzed oxazepam-glucuronide and lorazepam-glucuronide within 5% of the spiked control concentration. Benzodiazepines present in authentic urine specimens were within 20% of the concentrations obtained with the current hydrolysis procedure using H. pomatia ?-glucuronidase. JWH 018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) ?-d-glucuronide was hydrolyzed within 10% of the control concentration. Authentic urine specimens showed improved glucuronide cleavage using abalone ?-glucuronidase with up to an 85% increase of drug concentration, compared with the results obtained using E. coli ?-glucuronidase. The JWH 018 and JWH 073 carboxylic acid metabolites also showed increased drug concentrations of up to 24%. Abalone ?-glucuronidase was able to completely hydrolyze a morphine-3-glucuronide control, but only 82% of total morphine was hydrolyzed in authentic urine specimens compared with acid hydrolysis results. Hydrolysis of codeine and hydromorphone varied between specimens, suggesting that abalone ?-glucuronidase may not be as efficient in hydrolyzing the glucuronide linkages in opioid compounds compared with acid hydrolysis. Abalone ?-glucuronidase demonstrates effectiveness as a low cost option for enzyme hydrolysis of benzodiazepines and synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:24488113

Malik-Wolf, Brittany; Vorce, Shawn; Holler, Justin; Bosy, Thomas



Concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead and copper in fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms in an emission area of a copper smelter and a mercury smelter.  


Four metals were determined by AAS techniques in 56 samples of 23 wild mushroom species collected in a heavily polluted area in eastern Slovakia in 1997 and 1998. The area has been contaminated from historical polymetallic ores mining and smelting and by emissions from a mercury smelter between 1969 and 1993 and from a copper smelter since 1951. No significant differences in metal concentrations (P < 0.05) were found in four species when comparing the periods 1992-1993 and 1997-1998. Considerable contamination of most species was observed mainly for mercury and cadmium. The highest levels of mercury, up to 50 mg kg-1 dry matter, were found in Boletus reticulatus, Lycoperdon perlatum and Marasmius oreades, and of cadmium up to 20 mg kg-1 dry matter in Xerocomus chrysenteron and Lycoperdon perlatum. The latter species also had extremely high lead and copper concentrations in hundreds of milligrams per kilogram dry matter. Concentrations of mercury and copper in caps of four Boletaceae species were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in stipes. PMID:10682377

Svoboda, L; Zimmermannová, K; Kalac, P



Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in fish from mining-influenced waters of northeastern Oklahoma: sampling of blood, carcass, and liver for aquatic biomonitoring.  


The Tri-States Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri (MO), Kansas (KS), and Oklahoma (OK), USA, was mined for lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) for more than a century. Mining ceased more than 30 years ago, but wastes remain widely distributed in the region, and there is evidence of surface- and groundwater contamination in the Spring River-Neosho River (SR-NR) system of northeastern OK. In October 2001, we collected a total of 74 fish from six locations in the SR-NR system that included common carp (Cyprinus carpio), channel- and flathead catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth- and spotted bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus punctulatus), and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). We obtained additional fish from locations in MO that included three reference sites and one site that served as a "positive control" (heavily contaminated by Pb). Blood, carcass (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and liver (carp only) samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn. Our objectives were to assess the degree to which fish from the OK portion of the SR-NR system are contaminated by these elements and to evaluate fish blood sampling for biomonitoring. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in carp and catfish from OK sites were elevated and Pb concentrations of some approached those of the highly contaminated site in MO, but concentrations in bass and crappie were relatively low. For Zn, correlations were weak among concentrations in the three tissues and none of the samples appeared to reflect site contamination. Variability was high for Cd in all three tissues of carp; differences between sites were statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for blood even though mean liver concentrations were at least 100-fold greater than those in blood. Blood concentrations of Cd and Pb were positively correlated (r2 = 0.49 to 0.84) with the concentration of the same element in carp and catfish carcasses or in carp livers, and the corresponding multiple regression models were highly significant (p < or = 0.001). Our data indicate that potentially nonlethal blood sampling can be useful for monitoring of selected metals in carp, catfish, and perhaps other fishes. PMID:15981034

Brumbaugh, William G; Schmitt, Christopher J; May, Thomas W



Estimation of Polish cigarettes contamination with cadmium and lead, and exposure to these metals via smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate exposure to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) through cigarette smoking, the concentrations of both metals in the blood\\u000a or\\/and urine of smokers (20 cigarettes or more per day for 10 years or longer) and their non-smoking counterparts inhabiting\\u000a an environmentally unpolluted area (Bialystok, Poland) were evaluated, as well as Cd and Pb contents in the cigarette brands\\u000a (produced

Malgorzata Gala?yn-Sidorczuk; Malgorzata M. Brzóska; Janina Moniuszko-Jakoniuk



Simultaneous quantification of the organophosphorus pesticides dimethoate and omethoate in porcine plasma and urine by LC-ESI-MS/MS and flow-injection-ESI-MS/MS.  


Dimethoate is an organophosphorus toxicant used in agri- and horticulture as a systemic broad-spectrum insecticide. It also exhibits toxic activity towards mammalian organism provoked by catalytic desulfuration in the liver producing its oxon-derivative omethoate thus inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, initiating cholinergic crisis and ultimately leading to death by respiratory paralysis and cardiovascular collapse. Pharmaco- and toxicokinetic studies in animal models help to broaden basic understanding of medical intervention by antidotes and supportive care. Therefore, we developed and validated a LC-ESI-MS/MS method suitable for the simultaneous, selective, precise (RSD(intra-day) 1-8%; RSD(inter-day) 5-14%), accurate (intra-day: 95-107%; inter-day: 90-115%), and robust quantification of both pesticides from porcine urine and plasma after deproteinization by precipitation and extensive dilution (1:11,250 for plasma and 1:40,000 for urine). Accordingly, lower limits of quantification (0.24-0.49 microg/ml plasma and 0.78-1.56 microg/ml urine) and lower limits of detection (0.12-0.24 microg/ml plasma and 0.39-0.78 microg/ml urine) were equivalent to quite low absolute on-column amounts (1.1-2.1 pg for plasma and 2.0-3.9 pg for urine). The calibration range (0.24-250 microg/ml plasma and 0.78-200 microg/ml urine) was subdivided into two linear ranges (r(2)>or=0.998) each covering nearly two orders of magnitude. The lack of any interfering peak in 6 individual blank specimens from plasma and urine demonstrated the high selectivity of the method. Furthermore, extensive sample dilution causing lowest concentration of potentially interfering matrix ingredients prompted us to develop and validate an additional flow-injection method (FI-ESI-MS/MS). Validation characteristics were as good as for the chromatographic method but sample throughput was enhanced by a factor of 6. Effects on ionization provoked by plasma and urine matrix from 6 individuals as well as in the presence of therapeutics (antidotes) administered in an animal study were investigated systematically underlying in the reliability of the presented methods. Both methods were applied to porcine samples derived from an in vivo animal study. PMID:20106727

John, Harald; Eddleston, Michael; Clutton, R Eddie; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst



The relationship of blood- and urine-boron to boron exposure in borax-workers and usefulness of urine-boron as an exposure marker.  

PubMed Central

Daily dietary-boron intake and on-the-job inspired boron were compared with blood- and urine-boron concentrations in workers engaged in packaging and shipping borax. Fourteen workers handling borax at jobs of low, medium, and high dust exposures were sampled throughout full shifts for 5 consecutive days each. Airborne borax concentrations ranged from means of 3.3 mg/m3 to 18 mg/m3, measured gravimetrically. End-of-shift mean blood-boron concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.26 microgram/g; end-of-shift mean urine concentrations ranged from 3.16 to 10.72 micrograms/mg creatinine. Creatinine measures were used to adjust for differences in urine-specific gravity such that 1 ml of urine contains approximately 1 mg creatinine. There was no progressive increase in end-of-shift blood- or urine-boron concentrations across the days of the week. Urine testing done at the end of the work shift gave a somewhat better estimate of borate exposure than did blood testing, was sampled more easily, and was analytically less difficult to perform. Personal air samplers of two types were used: one, the 37-mm closed-face, two-piece cassette to estimate total dust and the other, the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler to estimate inspirable particulate mass. Under the conditions of this study, the IOM air sampler more nearly estimated human exposure as measured by blood- and urine-boron levels than did the sampler that measured total dust.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889874

Culver, B D; Shen, P T; Taylor, T H; Lee-Feldstein, A; Anton-Culver, H; Strong, P L



Deoxyuridine accumulation in urine in thymidine phosphorylase deficiency (MNGIE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the presence of the unusual nucleoside deoxyuridine in the urine of a patient with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) (MIM 603041) due to thymidine phosphorylase (TP:EC deficiency. Thymidine, uracil and thymine were also elevated. We propose that inhibition of thymidylate synthetase by TMP leads to the accumulation of dUMP which may be degraded to deoxyuridine or metabolised to

L. D. Fairbanks; A. M. Marinaki; E. A. Carrey; S. R. Hammans; J. A. Duley



Determination of trace element concentrations and stable lead, uranium and thorium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS in NORM and NORM-polluted sample leachates.  


This work focuses on the monitoring of the potential pollution in scenarios that involve NORM-related industrial activities (environmental or in-door scenarios). The objective was to develop a method to determine extent and origin of the contamination, suitable for monitoring (i.e. simple, fast and economical) and avoiding the use of too many different instruments. It is presented a radiochemical method that allows the determination of trace element concentrations and 206Pb/207Pb/208Pb, 238U/234U and 232Th/230Th isotope ratios using a single sample aliquot and a single instrument (ICP-QMS). Eichrom UTEVA® extraction chromatography minicolumns were used to separate uranium and thorium in sample leachates. Independent ICP-MS determinations of uranium and thorium isotope ratios were carried out afterwards. Previously a small aliquot of the leachate was used for the determination of trace element concentrations and lead isotope ratios. Several radiochemical arrangements were tested to get maximum performances and simplicity of the method. The performances of the method were studied in terms of chemical yields of uranium and thorium and removal of the potentially interfering elements. The established method was applied to samples from a chemical industry and sediments collected in a NORM-polluted scenario. The results obtained from our method allowed us to infer not only the extent, but also the sources of the contamination in the area. PMID:22230754

Mas, J L; Villa, M; Hurtado, S; García-Tenorio, R



Microchip ELISA coupled with cell phone to detect ovarian cancer HE4 biomarker in urine.  


Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of death from gynecologic cancers in the USA, and early diagnosis can potentially increase 5-year survival rate. Detection of biomarkers derived from hyperplasia of epithelial tissue by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) proves to be a practical way of early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, ELISA is commonly performed in a laboratory setting, and it cannot be used in a clinical setting for on-site consultation. We have shown a microchip ELISA that detects HE4, an ovarian cancer biomarker, from urine using a cell phone integrated with a mobile application for imaging and data analysis. In microchip ELISA, HE4 from urine was first absorbed on the surface; the primary and secondary antibodies were subsequently anchored on the surface via immuno-reaction; and addition of substrate led to color development because of enzymatic labeling. The microchip after color development was imaged using a cell phone, and the color intensity was analyzed by an integrated mobile application. By comparing with an ELISA standard curve, the concentration of HE4 was reported on the cell phone screen. The presented microchip ELISA coupled with a cell phone is portable as opposed to traditional ELISA, and this method can facilitate the detection of ovarian cancer at the point-of-care (POC). PMID:25626535

Wang, ShuQi; Akbas, Ragip; Demirci, Utkan



Continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration in the acute phase of neonatal maple syrup urine disease.  


Maple syrup urine disease results in accumulation of leucine and its metabolites, which may lead in the long term to neurological dysfunction. In acute neonatal crises, large amounts of leucine may be removed by continuous venovenous haemofiltration. This extracorporeal technique has its risks and hazards, which increase with duration of treatment. We report three neonates in life-threatening conditions due to maple syrup urine disease, treated for not more than 12 h with various continuous venovenous techniques: continuous haemofiltration, haemodiafiltration and haemodialysis. The efficiency of and tolerance to these techniques was evaluated. For all three patients, plasma leucine levels decreased dramatically from 2186, 3818 and 2536 mumol/L to 1131, 1275 and 488 mumol/L, respectively. Leucine clearance obtained was 4.28 ml/min in haemodiafiltration. Their patients' neurological status improved rapidly and they have a normal developmental quotient at 22 months, 13 months, and 11 months of age, respectively. Tolerance was good except for hypothermia and drop in haematocrit in all cases. Haemodiafiltration management was more cumbersome and time consuming because it required continual adjustment of the substitution fluid flow rate to precisely balance inflow and outflow rates. We recommend continuous venovenous haemodialysis as the therapy of choice. It might be anticipated that improvement of this technique, by increasing dialysate flow rate and blood flow rate, will allow leucine concentration to be decreased below 1000 mumol/L within 6-8 h, whatever the initial level. PMID:9266382

Jouvet, P; Poggi, F; Rabier, D; Michel, J L; Hubert, P; Sposito, M; Saudubray, J M; Man, N K



Polyamine profiles in tumor, normal tissue of the homologous breast, blood, and urine of breast cancer sufferers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamines are involved in the development of breast cancer. We assayed polyamines in erythrocytes, urines, and breast tissues (tumor tissue and histologically normal breast tissue close to the tumor) of patients with invasive breast cancer (n=174) and benign breast disease (n=71, used as controls). Polyamine levels in red blood cells and urine were similar to the polyamine concentrations found in

Jean Levêque; Fabrice Foucher; Jean-Yves Bansard; Rene Havouis; Jean-Yves Grall; Jacques-Philippe Moulinoux



Persistence of High Lead Concentrations and Associated Effects in Tundra Swans Captured Near a Mining and Smelting Complex in Northern Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning of waterfowl, particularly tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus), has been documented in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho for nearly a century. Over 90% of the lead-poisoned tundra swans in this area that were necropsied have no ingested lead shot. Spent lead shot from hunting activities over the years is therefore a minor source of lead in

Lawrence J. Blus; Charles J. Henny; David J. Hoffman; Lou Sileo; Daniel J. Audet



Dietary factors affecting the urinary mutagenicity assay system. II. The absence of mutagenic activity in human urine following consumption of red wine or grape juice.  


The mutagenic activity of urine samples from nonsmoking individuals before and after the consumption of either red wine or grape juice was determined. Urine samples collected from individuals on liquid or regular diets were concentrated using XAD-2 resin. No mutagenic activity of urine concentrates was detected with Salmonella tester strains TA98 or TA100 with or without microsomal activation. The addition of 1000 units of beta-glucuronidase into the agar overlay did not show any mutagenic activity. The mutagens in red wine and grape juice, however, were extracted using the XAD-2 column. Concentrates of urine samples spiked with either of the two extracts exhibited mutagenic activity. PMID:3889635

Sousa, J; Nath, J; Ong, T



Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of urine by an ingenious near-infrared Raman spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the potential of an elaborately devised near-infrared Raman system in analysis of urine. The broad band in the long-wavelength region of the electronic absorption spectra of the sol with added adsorbent at certain concentrations has been explained in terms of the aggregation of the colloidal silver particles. We have reported the surface-enhanced Raman (SERS) spectra of urine,

Shangyuan Feng; Weiwei Chen; Yongzeng Li; Guannan Chen; Zufang Huang; Xiaohua Liao; Zhiming Xie; Rong Chen



Determination of endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) levels in antemortem urine and blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid’s (GHB’s) natural presence in the body has made the interpretation of its levels a challenging task for the forensic toxicologist. This study was designed to measure endogenous GHB levels in antemortem urine and blood samples. The range detected in urine was from 34 to 575?g\\/dl and in blood from 17 to 151?g\\/dl. The results indicate that the concentration

Albert A. Elian



The effects of prenatal exposure to low-level cadmium, lead and selenium on birth outcomes.  


To evaluate the current maternal and fetal exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and their potential effect on newborn birth outcomes, a cross-sectional study involving an assessment of the levels of these three metals in maternal blood, urine and umbilical cord blood was conducted in 209 pregnant women living in Eastern China. The maternal blood, urine and cord blood samples were collected and measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The maternal blood concentrations of Cd, Pb and Se (the geometric means (GMs) were 0.48, 39.50 and 143.53 ?g L(-1)) were significantly higher than and correlated with those in the cord blood (GM: 0.09, 31.62 and 124.61 ?g L(-1)). In the urine samples, the GMs for Cd, Pb and Se were 0.13, 0.48, and 4.78 ?g L(-1), respectively. Passive smoking was found to positively correlate with urine Cd (r=0.16) and negatively correlate with urine Se (r=-0.29). The maternal blood Se level was negatively associated with the cord Cd levels (r=-0.41). The blood Cd concentration in the mother could significantly affect the newborn birth weight (r=-0.22), but it was not correlated with birth height. We identified cord Se as a new factor which significantly correlated with birth weight. In conclusion, maternal Cd, Pb, Se exposure correlated with their umbilical cord concentration, and maternal Cd exposure might affect the newborn birth weight. Increasing the Se intake might reduce the cord blood Cd concentration and promote the fetal growth. PMID:24875909

Sun, Hong; Chen, Wen; Wang, Dongyue; Jin, Yinlong; Chen, Xiaodong; Xu, Yan



Protopine alkaloids in horse urine.  


Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-10-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-l][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, chelianthifoline, isochelianthifoline and 2-O-desmethylchelianthifoline. The metabolic formation of the tetrahydroprotoberberines by closure of the bridge across N5 and C13 is rate limited and protopine-like metabolites accumulate only when the route is overloaded. Metabolism was qualitatively similar in the horse and human. PMID:15458726

Wynne, Paul M; Vine, John H; Amiet, R Gary



Spot Urine Estimations Are Equivalent to 24-Hour Urine Assessments of Urine Protein Excretion for Predicting Clinical Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background. The use of spot urine protein to creatinine ratios in estimating 24?hr urine protein excretion rates for diagnosing and managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) predated the standardization of creatinine assays. The comparative predictive performance of spot urine ratios and 24?hr urine collections (of albumin or protein) for the clinical outcomes of CKD progression, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality in Asians is unclear. We compared 4 methods of assessing urine protein excretion in a multiethnic population of CKD patients. Methods. Patients with CKD (n = 232) provided 24?hr urine collections followed by spot urine samples the next morning. We created multiple linear regression models to assess the factors associated with GFR decline (median follow-up: 37 months, IQR 26–41) and constructed Cox proportional-hazards models for predicting the combined outcome of ESRD and death. Results. The linear regression models showed that 24?hr urine protein excretion was most predictive of GFR decline but all other methods were similar. For the combined outcomes of ESRD and death, the proportional hazards models had similar predictive performance. Conclusions. We showed that all methods of assessments were comparable for clinical end-points, and any method can be used in clinical practice or research. PMID:25649135

Teo, Boon Wee; Loh, Ping Tyug; Wong, Weng Kin; Ho, Peh Joo; Choi, Kwok Pui; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Saw, Sharon; Lau, Titus; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J. C.



Spot urine estimations are equivalent to 24-hour urine assessments of urine protein excretion for predicting clinical outcomes.  


Background. The use of spot urine protein to creatinine ratios in estimating 24?hr urine protein excretion rates for diagnosing and managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) predated the standardization of creatinine assays. The comparative predictive performance of spot urine ratios and 24?hr urine collections (of albumin or protein) for the clinical outcomes of CKD progression, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality in Asians is unclear. We compared 4 methods of assessing urine protein excretion in a multiethnic population of CKD patients. Methods. Patients with CKD (n = 232) provided 24?hr urine collections followed by spot urine samples the next morning. We created multiple linear regression models to assess the factors associated with GFR decline (median follow-up: 37 months, IQR 26-41) and constructed Cox proportional-hazards models for predicting the combined outcome of ESRD and death. Results. The linear regression models showed that 24?hr urine protein excretion was most predictive of GFR decline but all other methods were similar. For the combined outcomes of ESRD and death, the proportional hazards models had similar predictive performance. Conclusions. We showed that all methods of assessments were comparable for clinical end-points, and any method can be used in clinical practice or research. PMID:25649135

Teo, Boon Wee; Loh, Ping Tyug; Wong, Weng Kin; Ho, Peh Joo; Choi, Kwok Pui; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Saw, Sharon; Lau, Titus; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J C



Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials for an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP. METHODS: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model discrimination was performed, by minimizing the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), maximizing the coefficient of determination (r²) and by comparison of the quality of fit plots. RESULTS: The best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition after INSCOP administration (minimal AIC =907.2) consisted of one compartment for plasma, saliva and urine respectively that were inter-connected with different rate constants. The estimated values of PK parameters were compiled in Table 1. The model fitting exercises revealed a nonlinear PK for scopolamine between plasma and saliva compartments for K21, Vmax and Km. CONCLUSION: PK model for INSCOP was developed and for the first time it satisfactorily predicted the PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after INSCOP administration. Using non-linear PK yielded the best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition between plasma and saliva compartments, and inclusion of non-linear PK resulted in a significant improved model fitting. The model can be utilized to predict scopolamine plasma concentration using saliva and/or urine data that allows non-invasive assessment of pharmacotherapeutics of scopolamine in space and other remote environments without requiring blood sampling.

Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.