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Investigation of lead concentrations in whole blood, plasma and urine as biomarkers for biological monitoring of lead exposure.  


Lead in blood is a major concept in biomonitoring of exposure but investigations of its alternatives are scarce. The aim of the study was to describe different lead biomarkers' variances, day-to-day and between individuals, estimating their fraction of the total variance. Repeated sampling of whole blood, plasma and urine were conducted for 48 lead-exposed men and 20 individuals under normal environmental lead exposure, in total 603 measurements. For lead workers, the fraction of the total variance attributed to differences between individuals was 91% for whole-blood lead (geometric mean 227??g/l; geometric standard deviation (GSD): 1.55??g/l); plasma 78% (0.57??g/l; GSD: 1.84??g/l); density-adjusted urine 82%; and unadjusted urine 75% (23.7??g/l; GSD: 2.48??g/l). For the individuals under normal lead exposure, the corresponding fractions were 95% of the total variance for whole blood (20.7??g/l; GSD: 8.6??g/l), 15% for plasma (0.09??g/l; GSD: 0.04??g/l), 87% for creatinine-adjusted urine and 34% for unadjusted (10.8??g/l; GSD: 6.7??g/l). Lead concentration in whole blood is the biomarker with the best ability to discriminate between individuals with different mean concentration. Urinary and plasma lead also performed acceptably in lead workers, but at low exposures plasma lead was too imprecise. Urinary adjustments appear not to increase the between-individual fraction of the total variance among lead workers but among those with normal lead exposure. PMID:23443239

Sommar, Johan Nilsson; Hedmer, Maria; Lundh, Thomas; Nilsson, Leif; Skerfving, Staffan; Bergdahl, Ingvar A



Pelvic urine composition as a determinant of inner medullary solute concentration and urine osmolarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the question whether solute and water fluxes between pelvic urine and the renal papilla contribute to the medullary accumulation of osmotically active substances and thus to final urine concentration, we measured the osmolarity of urine samples from the papillary tip of rat kidneys during superfusion of the exposed papillae with solutions of widely varying osmotic concentrations. When the

W. Schütz; J. Schnermann



Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.  


Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo



Concentration of urine by the hibernating marmot.  


Studies wer performed with marmots (Marmota flaviventris) of both sexes that had chronic arterial, venous, and bladder catheters. Urine collection was performed during hibernation and urine osmolalities (611.6 not equal to 166.1 SD) were found to be lower than those of aroused animals (1264 not equal to 472.9 SD), but hypertonic to plasma. Peak osmolality of meduallary slices was found to be in the range of osmotic pressures of urine obtained from hibernating or aroused animals. After single injections of a mixture of rho-aminohippurate and inulin, or during constant infusion of inulin, steady-state excretion by hibernators was not achieved for several days. Indirect evidence indicateds that the hibernating marmot is capable of PAH secretion. PMID:1130537

Zatzman, M L; South, F E



The Mammalian Urine Concentrating Mechanism: Hypotheses and Uncertainties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney, which can produce a urine that is substantially more concentrated than blood plasma during periods of water deprivation, is one of the enduring mysteries in traditional physiology. Owing to the complex lateral and axial relationships of tubules and vessels, in both the outer and inner medulla, the urine concentrating mechanism may only be fully understood in terms of the kidneyĂÂs three-dimensional functional architecture and its implications for preferential interactions among tubules and vessels.

Anita Layton (Duke University Mathematics); PhD William H. Dantzler (University of Arizona College of Medicine Department of Physiology)



What constitutes a normal ante-mortem urine GHB concentration?  


Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is endogenously produced within the central nervous system, however it is also used as a medication for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions, sold under the name Zyrem in the United States and Alcover in Europe. It is a very dangerous drug with a very limited safety margin, and is classified as a controlled substance in many countries. The interpretation of post-mortem studies of GHB concentrations is problematic; GHB can be detected in urine and blood from non-GHB users, both before and after death, and concentrations in both matrices may rise with prolonged storage. Because it is produced as a post-mortem artifact, forensically defensible cut-offs for post-mortem blood concentrations have yet to be established. Given the enormous degree of inter and intra-individual variation in GHB production that has been documented, it is unlikely they ever will. The important issue for forensic scientists is whether the detection of GHB in urine, in concentrations above some yet to be determined value, can be used as evidence for drug facilitated assault. In an attempt to see if a cut-off level could be determined we analyzed urine from 39 alcoholics who were being treated with known oral doses of Alcover (group 1), and compared the results with concentrations found in the urine of 30 volunteers who had no exogenous GHB intake (group 2), and 30 urine specimens taken from the alcoholics before they initiated GHB therapy (Alcover treatment group 3). More than one third (36.6%) of subjects being treated with GHB were found to have urinary GHB concentration that fell between 2.75 and 10 microg/mL. The data suggests that caution must be used when applying the currently used cut-off of 10 microg/mL. PMID:19239966

Mari, Francesco; Politi, Lucia; Trignano, Claudia; Di Milia, Maria Grazia; Di Padua, Marianna; Bertol, Elisabetta



Biomonitoring of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and mercury in urine and hair of children living near mining and industrial areas.  


Huelva (South West Spain) and its surrounding municipalities represent one of the most polluted estuaries in the world owing to the discharge of mining and industrial related pollutants in their proximity. A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess exposure to arsenic and some trace metals (cadmium, mercury, manganese and lead) in urine and scalp hair from a representative sample of children aged 6-9years (n=261). This is the only study simultaneously analyzing those five metal elements in children urine and hair. The potential contribution of gender, water consumption, residence area and body mass index on urinary and hair metal concentrations was also studied. Urine levels of cadmium and total mercury in a proportion (25-50%) of our children population living near industrial/mining areas might have an impact on health, likely due to environmental exposure to metal pollution. The only significant correlation between urine and hair levels was found for mercury. Children living near agriculture areas showed increased levels of cadmium and manganese (in urine) and arsenic (in hair). In contrast, decreased urine Hg concentrations were observed in children living near mining areas. Girls exhibited significantly higher trace metal concentrations in hair than boys. The greatest urine arsenic concentrations were found in children drinking well/spring water. Although human hair can be a useful tool for biomonitoring temporal changes in metal concentrations, levels are not correlated with those found in urine except for total mercury, thus providing additional information. PMID:25434277

Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Lacasańa, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Hernández, Antonio F; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduńo, Clemente; Gil, Fernando



Spot Urine Concentrations Should Not be Used for Hydration Assessment: A Methodology Review.  


A common practice in sports science is to assess hydration status using the concentration of a single spot urine collection taken at any time of day for comparison against concentration (specific gravity, osmolality, color) thresholds established from first morning voids. There is strong evidence that this practice can be confounded by fluid intake, diet, and exercise, among other factors, leading to false positive/negative assessments. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide a simple explanation as to why this practice leads to erroneous conclusions and should be curtailed in favor of consensus hydration assessment recommendations. PMID:25386829

Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Zambraski, Edward J



Outer medullary anatomy and the urine concentrating mechanism.  


In earlier work, mathematical models of the urine concentration mechanism were developed incorporating the features of renal anatomy. However, several anatomic observations showed inconsistencies in the modeling representation of the outer stripe (OS) anatomy. In this study, based on observations from comparative anatomy and morphometric studies, we propose a new structural model of outer medullary anatomy, different from that previously presented [A. S. Wexler, R. E. Kalaba, and D. J. Marsh. Am. J. Physiol. 260 (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol. 29): F368-F383, 1991]. The modifications include the following features of rat outer medullary anatomy, for example, 1) in the OS, the limbs of long loops of Henle surround the descending and ascending vasa recta that develop into the vascular bundles in the inner stripe (IS), whereas the limbs of short loops are close to the collecting ducts; and 2) the descending limbs of short loops shift from the tubular region in the OS to near the vascular bundle in the IS, whereas the limbs of long loops are situated away from the vascular bundles in the tubular region. The sensitivity of the concentrating process to the relative position of loops and vessels was investigated in the different medullary regions. With these modifications, the model predicts a more physiological, axial osmolarity gradient in both outer and inner medulla with membrane parameters that are all in the range of measured physiological values, including the urea permeabilities of descending vasa recta reported by Pallone and co-workers (T. L. Pallone, J. Work, R. L. Myers, and R. L. Jamison. J. Clin.Invest. 93: 212-222, 1994). PMID:9486237

Wang, X; Thomas, S R; Wexler, A S



Uranium and Thorium in Urine of United States Residents: Reference Range Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured uranium and thorium in urine of 500 U. S. residents to establish reference range concentrations using a magnetic-sector inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). We found uranium at detectable concentrations in 96.6% of the urine specimens and thorium in 39.6% of the specimens. The 95th percentile concenetration for uranium was 34.5 ng\\/L (parts per trillion); concentrations ranged

Bill G. Ting; Daniel C. Paschal; Jeffery M. Jarrett; James L. Pirkle; Richard J. Jackson; Eric J. Sampson; Dayton T. Miller; Samuel P. Caudill



Silver nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of human urine-derived stem cells at noncytotoxic concentrations  

PubMed Central

In tissue engineering, urine-derived stem cells are ideal seed cells and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are perfect antimicrobial agents. Due to a distinct lack of information on the effects of AgNPs on urine-derived stem cells, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of silver ions and AgNPs upon the cytotoxicity and osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells. Initially, AgNPs or AgNO3 were exposed to urine-derived stem cells for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity was measured using the Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) test. The effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 at the maximum safety concentration determined by the CCK-8 test on osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells were assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin Red S staining, and the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Lastly, the effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 on “urine-derived stem cell actin cytoskeleton organization” and RhoA activity were assessed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining and Western blotting. Concentration-dependent toxicity was observed starting at an AgNO3 concentration of 2 ?g/mL and at an AgNP concentration of 4 ?g/mL. At these concentrations, AgNPs were observed to promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells, induce actin polymerization and increase cytoskeletal tension, and activate RhoA; AgNO3 had no such effects. In conclusion, AgNPs can promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells at a suitable concentration, independently of silver ions, and are suitable for incorporation into tissue-engineered scaffolds that utilize urine-derived stem cells as seed cells. PMID:24899804

Qin, Hui; Zhu, Chen; An, Zhiquan; Jiang, Yao; Zhao, Yaochao; Wang, Jiaxin; Liu, Xin; Hui, Bing; Zhang, Xianlong; Wang, Yang



PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population.  


As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk. PMID:24998972

Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie



Automated determination of lead in urine by means of computerized flow potentiometric stripping analysis with a carbon-fibre electrode.  


Five different digestion procedures have been investigated. In the recommended procedure 5 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid-nitric acid mixture (1:1) were added to a 5-ml urine sample. After 1 min the sample was diluted to 100 ml with distilled water. The sample was divided into two 50-ml samples and to one of them a standard addition of 10 microg/l. lead(II) was made. The two samples were analysed fully automatically by means of computerized flow potentiometric stripping analysis, the main features of the procedure being mercury-film precoating, electrolysis of the sample for 90 sec and subsequent stripping in 1M calcium chloride/0.1M hydrochloric acid. Tin and copper were found not to interfere if present at concentrations below 50 mg/l. but high concentrations of tin had to be masked by the addition of copper in order to form a copper-tin intermetallic compound. Complexing agents used in lead poisoning therapy did not interfere with the determination. The lead concentration in a Seronorm reference urine sample was found to be 93 microg/l. with a standard deviation of 8 microg/l. (n = 5), the certified value being 88 microg/l. PMID:18964354

Huiliang, H; Jagner, D; Renman, L



Blood lead concentrations in children: new ranges  

PubMed Central

Background Lead exposure in young children may have adverse neurodevelopmental effects. Currently, an increased blood lead concentration is defined as ?10 ?g/dl for males and females of all ages, including children younger than 6 years. Using a large hospital population (n = 11,145), we define more specific ranges for pediatric blood lead concentrations. Methods Pediatric blood lead concentrations were determined (atomic absorption spectrophotometry) on patient samples accrued from January 2001 to June 2002, and the data was analyzed employing the Hoffman approach. Results For lead, the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles for subjects aged 0 to 12 months were 2.3 to 4.7 ?g/dl for females and 1.8 to 4.9 ?g/dl for males. The 97.5th percentiles increased for the 1–2 years age group both for females (5.2 ?g/dl) and males (5.6 ?g/dl). There was a significant decrease in blood lead concentrations after age 10 years, the 97.5th percentile being 4.4 ?g/dl in both female and male subjects. The values in all corresponding age groups were similar for females and for males. The medians of all age groups were similar for females and for male subjects. Conclusion The blood lead concentrations are much lower compared to previously published data. PMID:12482625

Soldin, Offie Porat; Hanak, Brian; Soldin, Steven J.



Nicotine concentrations in urine and saliva of smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed Central

Nicotine concentrations were measured in saliva and urine samples collected from 82 smokers and 56 non-smokers after a morning at work. Each subject answered a series of questions related to their recent intentional or passive exposure to tobacco smoke. All non-smokers had measurable amounts of nicotine in both saliva and urine. Those non-smokers who reported recent exposure to tobacco smoke had significantly higher nicotine concentrations (p less than 0.001) than those who had not been exposed; their concentrations overlapped those of smokers who had smoked up to three cigarettes before sampling had the greatest influence on nicotine concentrations (r=0.62 for saliva and r=0.51 for urine). Neither the nicotine for yield of cigarettes nor the self-reported degree of inhalation had any significant effect on nicotine concentrations. PMID:6802384

Feyerabend, C; Higenbottam, T; Russell, M A



Concentrations of Environmental Phenols and Parabens in Milk, Urine and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women.  


Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; vonEhrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E



Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood  


Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood. The present invention includes the use of resonant laser ablation to analyze .ltoreq.1 .mu.L (or equivalent mass) samples of blood for lead content. A typical finger prick, for example, yields about 10 .mu.L. Solid samples may also readily be analyzed by resonant laser ablation. The sample is placed on a lead-free, electrically conducting substrate and irradiated with a single, focused laser beam which simultaneously vaporizes, atomizes, and resonantly ionizes an analyte of interest in a sample. The ions are then sorted, collected and detected using a mass spectrometer.

Nogar, Nicholas S. (Los Alamos, NM)



Expression of transporters involved in urine concentration recovers differently after cessation of lithium treatment  

PubMed Central

Patients receiving lithium therapy, an effective treatment for bipolar disorder, often present with acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The nephrotoxic effects of lithium can be detected 3 wk after the start of treatment and many of these symptoms may disappear in a few weeks after lithium use is stopped. Most patients, however, still have a urine-concentrating defect years after ending treatment. This prompted an investigation of the transporters involved in the urine concentration mechanism, UT-A1, UT-A3, aquaporin-2 (AQP2), and NKCC2, after discontinuing lithium therapy. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a Li2CO3-supplemented diet produced large volumes of dilute urine after 14 days. After lithium treatment was discontinued, urine osmolality returned to normal within 14 days but urine volume and urine urea failed to reach basal levels. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that both urea transporters UT-A1 and UT-A3 were reduced at 7 and 14 days of lithium treatment and both transporters recovered to basal levels 14 days after discontinuing lithium administration. Similar analyses demonstrated a decrease in AQP2 expression after 7 and 14 days of lithium therapy. AQP2 expression increased over the 7 and 14 days following the cessation of lithium but failed to recover to normal levels. NKCC2 expression was unaltered during the 14-day lithium regimen but did increase 14 days after the treatment was stopped. In summary, the rapid restoration of UT-A1 and UT-A3 as well as the increased expression of NKCC2 are critical components to the reestablishment of urine concentration after lithium treatment. PMID:20032119

Sim, Jae H.; Zhou, Rong; Martin, Christopher F.; Lu, Wei; Sands, Jeff M.; Klein, Janet D.



Triazolothienopyrimidine Inhibitors of Urea Transporter UT-B Reduce Urine Concentration  

PubMed Central

Urea transport (UT) proteins facilitate the concentration of urine by the kidney, suggesting that inhibition of these proteins could have therapeutic use as a diuretic strategy. We screened 100,000 compounds for UT-B inhibition using an optical assay based on the hypotonic lysis of acetamide-loaded mouse erythrocytes. We identified a class of triazolothienopyrimidine UT-B inhibitors; the most potent compound, UTBinh-14, fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport with IC50 values of 10 nM and 25 nM for human and mouse UT-B, respectively. UTBinh-14 competed with urea binding at an intracellular site on the UT-B protein. UTBinh-14 exhibited low toxicity and high selectivity for UT-B over UT-A isoforms. After intraperitoneal administration of UTBinh-14 in mice to achieve predicted therapeutic concentrations in the kidney, urine osmolality after administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin was approximately 700 mosm/kg H2O lower in UTBinh-14–treated mice than vehicle-treated mice. UTBinh-14 also increased urine output and reduced urine osmolality in mice given free access to water. UTBinh-14 did not reduce urine osmolality in UT-B knockout mice. In summary, these data provide proof of concept for the potential utility of UT inhibitors to reduce urinary concentration in high-vasopressin, fluid-retaining conditions. The diuretic mechanism of UT inhibitors may complement the action of conventional diuretics, which target sodium transport. PMID:22491419

Yao, Chenjuan; Anderson, Marc O.; Zhang, Jicheng; Yang, Baoxue; Phuan, Puay-Wah



Impedimetric method for measuring ultra-low E. coli concentrations in human urine.  


In this study, we developed an interdigitated gold microelectrode-based impedance sensor to detect Escherichia coli (E. coli) in human urine samples for urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis. E. coli growth in human urine samples was successfully monitored during a 12-h culture, and the results showed that the maximum relative changes could be measured at 10Hz. An equivalent electrical circuit model was used for evaluating the variations in impedance characteristics of bacterial growth. The equivalent circuit analysis indicated that the change in impedance values at low frequencies was caused by double layer capacitance due to bacterial attachment and formation of biofilm on electrode surface in urine. A linear relationship between the impedance change and initial E. coli concentration was obtained with the coefficient of determination R(2)>0.90 at various growth times of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12h in urine. Thus our sensor is capable of detecting a wide range of E. coli concentration, 7×10(0) to 7×10(8) cells/ml, in urine samples with high sensitivity. PMID:25437359

Settu, Kalpana; Chen, Ching-Jung; Liu, Jen-Tsai; Chen, Chien-Lung; Tsai, Jang-Zern



A Magnetic Bead-Based Method for Concentrating DNA from Human Urine for Downstream Detection  

PubMed Central

Due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, PCR cannot be used directly on most clinical samples, including human urine, without pre-treatment. A magnetic bead-based strategy is one potential method to collect biomarkers from urine samples and separate the biomarkers from PCR inhibitors. In this report, a 1 mL urine sample was mixed within the bulb of a transfer pipette containing lyophilized nucleic acid-silica adsorption buffer and silica-coated magnetic beads. After mixing, the sample was transferred from the pipette bulb to a small diameter tube, and captured biomarkers were concentrated using magnetic entrainment of beads through pre-arrayed wash solutions separated by small air gaps. Feasibility was tested using synthetic segments of the 140 bp tuberculosis IS6110 DNA sequence spiked into pooled human urine samples. DNA recovery was evaluated by qPCR. Despite the presence of spiked DNA, no DNA was detectable in unextracted urine samples, presumably due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. However, following extraction with the magnetic bead-based method, we found that ?50% of spiked TB DNA was recovered from human urine containing roughly 5×103 to 5×108 copies of IS6110 DNA. In addition, the DNA was concentrated approximately ten-fold into water. The final concentration of DNA in the eluate was 5×106, 14×106, and 8×106 copies/µL for 1, 3, and 5 mL urine samples, respectively. Lyophilized and freshly prepared reagents within the transfer pipette produced similar results, suggesting that long-term storage without refrigeration is possible. DNA recovery increased with the length of the spiked DNA segments from 10±0.9% for a 75 bp DNA sequence to 42±4% for a 100 bp segment and 58±9% for a 140 bp segment. The estimated LOD was 77 copies of DNA/µL of urine. The strategy presented here provides a simple means to achieve high nucleic acid recovery from easily obtained urine samples, which does not contain inhibitors of PCR. PMID:23861895

Bordelon, Hali; Russ, Patricia K.; Wright, David W.; Haselton, Frederick R.



Quantitative concentration measurements of creatinine dissolved in water and urine using Raman  

E-print Network

that Raman spectroscopy with these Teflon®-AF LCOFs is stable enough for quantitative concentration Instrumentation Engineers. [DOI: 10.1117/1.1917842] Keywords: Raman; spectroscopy; LCOF; waveguide; urine; PLS for publication Oct. 29, 2004; published online May 11, 2005. 1 Introduction Raman spectroscopy is a useful method

Berger, Andrew J.


Chemical concentration measurement in blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber Raman  

E-print Network

Raman spectroscopy Dahu Qi and Andrew J. Berger We report measurements of chemical concentrations in clinical blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber (LCOF) Raman spectroscopy) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy are all intrinsically reagentless and have been explored for chemical

Berger, Andrew J.


Biomonitorization of cadmium, chromium, manganese, nickel and lead in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva in an occupationally exposed population.  


Heavy metal contamination from occupational origin is a cause for concern because of its potential accumulation in the environment and in living organisms leading to long term toxic effects. This study was aimed to assess Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Pb levels in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva from 178 individuals with occupational exposure to heavy metals. Levels of metal compounds were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. We collected information on occupation, lifestyle habits and food intake by questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses for metal ion concentration in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva were adjusted for age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption, lifetime workplace exposure, residence area and food habits. Overall, blood and urine median concentrations found for the five metals analyzed do not exceed biological exposure indexes, so that they are very similar to a non-occupationally exposed population. Toxicokinetic differences may account for the lack of correlations found for metal levels in hair and saliva with those in blood or urine. For those heavy metals showing higher median levels in blood with respect to hair (Cd, Mn and Pb) indicating lesser hair incorporation from blood, the lifetime working experience was inversely correlated with their hair levels. The longer the lifetime working experience in industrial environments, the higher the Mn and Ni concentration in saliva. Axillary hair and saliva may be used as additional and/or alternative samples to blood or urine for biomonitoring hair Mn, and saliva Ni in subjects with occupational exposure. PMID:21211822

Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Márquez, Claudia; Femia, Pedro; Olmedo, Pablo; López-Guarnido, Olga; Pla, Antonio



Seafood Intake and Urine Concentrations of Total Arsenic, Dimethylarsinate and Arsenobetaine in the US Population  

PubMed Central

Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ?6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ?2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake. PMID:21093857

Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo



Pesticide Residues in Urine of Adults Living in the United States: Reference Range Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured 12 analytes in urine of 1000 adults living in the United States to establish reference range concentrations for pesticide residues. We frequently found six of these analytes: 2,5-dichlorophenol (in 98% of adults); 2,4-dichlorophenol (in 64%); 1-naphthol (in 86%); 2-naphthol (in 81%); 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (in 82%); and pentachlorophenol (in 64%). The 95th percentile concentration (95thPC) for 2,5-dichlorophenol (indicative of p-dichlorobenzene

R. H. Hill; S. L. Head; S. Baker; M. Gregg; D. B. Shealy; S. L. Bailey; C. C. Williams; E. J. Sampson; L. L. Needham



Blood and urine concentrations of aluminium among workers exposed to aluminium flake powders.  

PubMed Central

In a group of workers exposed to aluminium flake powders, blood and urine concentrations of aluminium were assessed before and after vacation. Another group was investigated after retirement. Workers currently exposed to aluminium flake powders had urinary concentrations of the metal 80-90 times higher than those in occupationally non-exposed referents. The calculated half life for concentrations of aluminium in urine was five to six weeks based on four to five weeks of non-exposure. Among the retired workers the half lives varied from less than one up to eight years and were related to the number of years since retirement. These results indicate that aluminium is retained and stored in several compartments of the body and eliminated from these compartments at different rates. PMID:1998604

Ljunggren, K G; Lidums, V; Sjögren, B



Blood and urine concentrations of aluminium among workers exposed to aluminium flake powders.  


In a group of workers exposed to aluminium flake powders, blood and urine concentrations of aluminium were assessed before and after vacation. Another group was investigated after retirement. Workers currently exposed to aluminium flake powders had urinary concentrations of the metal 80-90 times higher than those in occupationally non-exposed referents. The calculated half life for concentrations of aluminium in urine was five to six weeks based on four to five weeks of non-exposure. Among the retired workers the half lives varied from less than one up to eight years and were related to the number of years since retirement. These results indicate that aluminium is retained and stored in several compartments of the body and eliminated from these compartments at different rates. PMID:1998604

Ljunggren, K G; Lidums, V; Sjögren, B



Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.  


Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 ?g/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 ?g/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 ?g/L with a median peak concentration of 5239 ?g/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000 ?g/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6 h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18 h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 ?g/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 ?g/L, with peak concentrations of 658 ?g/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A



Urine concentration in the diabetic mouse requires both urea and water transporters  

PubMed Central

The regulation of the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) urea transporters (UT-A1, UT-A3) and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and their interactions in diabetic animals is unknown. We investigated whether the urine concentrating defect in diabetic animals was a function of AQP2, the UT-As, or both transporters. UT-A1/UT-A3 knockout (UT-A1/A3 KO) mice produce dilute urine. We gave wild-type (WT) and UT-A1/A3 KO mice vasopressin via minipump for 7 days. In WT mice, vasopressin increased urine osmolality from 3,000 to 4,550 mosmol/kgH2O. In contrast, urine osmolality was low (800 mosmol/kgH2O) in the UT-A1/A3 KOs and remained low following vasopressin. Surprisingly, AQP2 protein abundance increased in UT-A1/A3 KO (114%) and WT (92%) mice. To define the role of UT-A1 and UT-A3 in the diabetic responses, WT and UT-A1/A3 KO mice were injected with streptozotocin (STZ). UT-A1/A3 KO mice showed only 40% survival at 7 days post-STZ injection compared with 70% in WT. AQP2 did not increase in the diabetic UT-A1/A3 KO mice compared with a 133% increase in WT diabetic mice. Biotinylation studies in rat IMCDs showed that membrane accumulation of UT-A1 increased by 68% in response to vasopressin in control rats but was unchanged by vasopressin in diabetic rat IMCDs. We conclude that, even with increased AQP2, UT-A1/UT-A3 is essential to optimal urine concentration. Furthermore, UT-A1 may be maximally membrane associated in diabetic rat inner medulla, making additional stimulation by vasopressin ineffective. PMID:23136000

Blount, Mitsi A.; Martin, Christopher F.; Sands, Jeff M.; Klein, Janet D.



The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers  

SciTech Connect

The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur [PTNBR BATAN, Jl. Tamansari no. 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)



Reference concentrations of trace elements in urine of the budapestian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference values in biological specimens are crucial to estimate the type and magnitude of environmental and occupational\\u000a exposure: Because of its importance in the excretion of noxious substances and to the noninvasive mode of its collection,\\u000a urine is a useful specimen for monitoring studies. Thus, the concentrations of six trace elements (Al, Co, Mo, Nb, Ni, and\\u000a Ti) were determined

M. Zeiner; M. Ovari; Gy. Zaray; I. Steffan



The determination of metals (antimony, bismuth, lead, cadmium, mercury, palladium, platinum, tellurium, thallium, tin and tungsten) in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:?An analytical method has been established to determine the concentration of antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb), cadmium\\u000a (Cd), mercury (Hg), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), tellurium (Te), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl) and tungsten (W) in urine. The\\u000a aim was to develop a method which is equally suitable for the determination of environmentally as well as occupationally caused\\u000a metal excretion. Methods:?Inductively

P. Schramel; I. Wendler; J. Angerer



Methamphetamine and amphetamine isomer concentrations in human urine following controlled vicks vapoinhaler administration.  


Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2. Every urine specimen was collected as an individual void for 32 h after the first dose and assayed for d- and l-amphetamines specific isomers with a GC-MS method with >99% purity of R-(-)-?-methoxy-?-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl derivatives and 10 µg/L lower limits of quantification. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any urine specimen by GC-MS. The median l-methamphetamine maximum concentration was 62.8 µg/L (range: 11.0-1,440). Only two subjects had detectable l-amphetamine, with maximum concentrations coinciding with l-methamphetamine peak levels, and always ? 4% of the parent's maximum. Three commercial immunoassays for amphetamines EMIT(®) II Plus, KIMS(®) II and DRI(®) had sensitivities, specificities and efficiencies of 100, 97.8, 97.8; 100, 99.6, 99.6 and 100, 100, 100%, respectively. The immunoassays had high efficiencies, but our first hypothesis was not affirmed. The EMIT(®) II Plus assay produced 2.2% false-positive results, requiring an enantiomer-specific confirmation. PMID:25217541

Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A



Multielement determination of cadmium and lead in urine by simultaneous electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with an end-capped graphite tube.  


A method for the multielement determination of cadmium and lead in urine is proposed by simultaneous electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (SIMAAS) with an end-capped transversely heated graphite atomizer (EC-THGA). The best conditions for cadmium and lead determination were obtained in the presence of NH4H2PO4 as a chemical modifier, using 500 degrees C and 1800 degrees C as the pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, respectively. Urine samples were diluted 1 + 4 directly in autosampler cups with a mixture of 0.125% (w/v) Triton X-100 + 2.5% (v/v) HNO3 + 0.31% (w/v) NH4H2PO4. The optimized heating program was carried out in 57 s, and the instrument calibration was done with aqueous reference solutions. The use of EC-THGA increased the sensitivity of cadmium and lead by 14% and 25%, respectively. The detection limits (n = 20, 3delta) were 0.03 microg L(-1) (0.36 pg) for cadmium and 0.57 microg L(-1) (6.8 pg) for lead. The performance of EC-THGA was acceptable up to 500 heating cycles. The reliability of the entire procedure was checked with the analysis of a lyophilized urine certified reference material. The found concentrations were in agreement with the recommended values (95% confidence level). PMID:14640451

Correia, Paulo R M; Nomura, Cassiana S; Oliveira, Pedro V



Dietary and sociodemographic determinants of bisphenol A urine concentrations in pregnant women and children.  


Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure during early life may have endocrine-disrupting effects, but the dietary and sociodemographic predictors of BPA exposure during pregnancy and childhood remain unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations between, and sociodemographic and dietary predictors of, serial urinary BPA concentrations measured during pregnancy and childhood in a Spanish birth cohort study. BPA was measured in two spot urine samples collected from 479 women during the first and third trimester of pregnancy and in one urine sample from their 4-year old children (n=130). Average dietary intakes were reported in food frequency questionnaires during the first and third pregnancy trimester and at age 4years. Multivariate mixed models and linear regression models were used to estimate associations between sociodemographic and dietary factors and BPA concentrations. A small, but statistically significant correlation was found between serial maternal BPA concentrations measured during pregnancy (r=0.17). Pregnant women who were younger, less-educated, smoked, and who were exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) had higher BPA concentrations than others. BPA concentrations were also higher in children exposed to SHS. High consumption of canned fish during pregnancy was associated with 21% [GM ratio=1.21; 95%CI 1.02, 1.44] and 25% [GM ratio=1.25; 95%CI 1.05, 1.49] higher urinary BPA concentrations in the first and third pregnancy trimester, respectively, compared to the lowest consumption group. This study suggests that canned fish may be a major source of BPA during pregnancy in Spain, a country of high canned fish consumption. Further evaluation of specific BPA exposure sources in the sociodemographic group of younger women who smoke, are exposed to SHS, and have a low educational level is needed. Studies identifying sources of exposure would benefit from repeat BPA measurements and questionnaires specifically focused on dietary and packaging sources. PMID:23542682

Casas, Maribel; Valvi, Damaskini; Luque, Noelia; Ballesteros-Gomez, Ana; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Fernandez, Marieta F; Koch, Holger M; Mendez, Michelle A; Sunyer, Jordi; Rubio, Soledad; Vrijheid, Martine



Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex—a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units ?-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x2 weighting with linear ranges (r2>0.990) of 2.5–100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5–500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7–105.3 %, imprecision 1.4–6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5–92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3–47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H. C.; Hurd, Yasmin L.



Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine.  


A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex-a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units ?-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x (2) weighting with linear ranges (r(2) > 0.990) of 2.5-100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5-500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7-105.3 %, imprecision 1.4-6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5-92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3-47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H C; Hurd, Yasmin L; Huestis, Marilyn A



The Effect of Interior Lead Hazard Controls on Children's Blood Lead Concentrations: A Systematic Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust control is often recommended to prevent children's exposure to residential lead hazards, but the effect of these controls on children's blood lead concentrations is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials of low-cost, lead hazard control interventions to determine the effect of lead hazard control on children's blood lead concentration. Four trials met the inclusion criteria.

Erin Haynes; Bruce P. Lanphear; Ellen Tohn; Nick Farr; George G. Rhoads



The Use of Hydrogel Microparticles to Sequester and Concentrate Bacterial Antigens in a Urine Test for Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

Hydrogel biomarker capturing microparticles were evaluated as a biomaterial to amplify the sensitivity of urine testing for infectious disease proteins. Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by ticks. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of Lyme disease reduces complications including arthritis and cardiac involvement. While a urine test is highly desirable for Lyme disease screening, this has been difficult to accomplish because the antigen is present at extremely low concentrations, below the detection limit of clinical immunoassays. N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) – acrylic acid (AAc) microparticles were covalently functionalized with amine containing dyes via amidation of carboxylic groups present in the microparticles. The dyes act as affinity baits towards protein analytes in solution. NIPAm/AAc microparticles functionalized with acid black 48 (AB48) mixed with human urine, achieved close to one hundred percent capture and 100 percent extraction yield of the target antigen. In urine, microparticles sequestered and concentrated Lyme disease antigens 100 fold, compared to the absence of microparticles, achieving an immunoassay detection sensitivity of 700 pg/mL in 10mL urine. Antigen present in a single infected tick could be readily detected following microparticle sequestration. Hydrogel microparticles functionalized with high affinity baits can dramatically increase the sensitivity of urinary antigen tests for infectious diseases such as Lyme disease. These findings justify controlled clinical studies evaluating the sensitivity and precision of Lyme antigen testing in urine. PMID:21035184

Douglas, Temple; Tamburro, Davide; Fredolini, Claudia; Espina, Benjamin; Lepene, Benjamin S.; Ilag, Leopold; Espina, Virginia; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Luchini, Alessandra



An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.  


In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead concentrations in hot sauces. PMID:23581685

Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L



Architecture of vasa recta in the renal inner medulla of the desert rodent Dipodomys merriami: potential impact on the urine concentrating mechanism  

PubMed Central

We hypothesize that the inner medulla of the kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami, a desert rodent that concentrates its urine to over 6,000 mosmol/kg H2O, provides unique examples of architectural features necessary for production of highly concentrated urine. To investigate this architecture, inner medullary vascular segments in the outer inner medulla were assessed with immunofluorescence and digital reconstructions from tissue sections. Descending vasa recta (DVR) expressing the urea transporter UT-B and the water channel aquaporin 1 lie at the periphery of groups of collecting ducts (CDs) that coalesce in their descent through the inner medulla. Ascending vasa recta (AVR) lie inside and outside groups of CDs. DVR peel away from vascular bundles at a uniform rate as they descend the inner medulla, and feed into networks of AVR that are associated with organized clusters of CDs. These AVR form interstitial nodal spaces, with each space composed of a single CD, two AVR, and one or more ascending thin limbs or prebend segments, an architecture that may lead to solute compartmentation and fluid fluxes essential to the urine concentrating mechanism. Although we have identified several apparent differences, the tubulovascular architecture of the kangaroo rat inner medulla is remarkably similar to that of the Munich Wistar rat at the level of our analyses. More detailed studies are required for identifying interspecies functional differences. PMID:22914749

Issaian, Tadeh; Urity, Vinoo B.; Dantzler, William H.



Preferential deportment of low-iron sphalerite to lead concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEM-EDS analysis was conducted on lead flotation circuit products from three Cominco concentrators: Red Dog, Sullivan and Polaris, to clarify the influence of lattice-iron on sphalerite deportment. The iron content in sphalerite reporting to the lead concentrates was compared with the ore averages. There was a consistent and statistically significant difference in the iron content of the sphalerite in the

P. A. Zieli?ski; K. A. Larson; A. W. Stradling



Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and its pathogenesis: Purine concentrations in plasma and urine with metabolite profiles in CSF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Purine metabolism in the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome has been re-examined in 10 patients. Hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations in plasma and CSF and urinary excretion have been studied, on and off allopurinol treatment, using high performance liquid chromatographic methods. Accumulation of the substrate, hypoxanthine, of the missing hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) enzyme, is more marked in urine and in CSF than

R. A. Harkness; G. M. McCreanor; R. W. E. Watts



Effects of iron therapy on blood lead concentrations in infants.  


To determine whether blood lead concentration is elevated in iron-deficient infants, blood lead and serum ferritin concentrations, serum iron/transferring iron-binding capacity (Fe/TIBC) and complete blood counts were measured in 30 iron deficient and 35 control infants, aged 6-24 months. All 30 iron-deficient infants received iron supplementation (ferric hydroxide-polymaltose complex, 6mg/kg Fe(3+)/day) for 1-6 months. Blood lead concentrations were measured in 18 of the iron deficient infants after their ferritin levels returned to the normal range. The geometric mean blood lead concentration was higher in iron deficient than in control infants (1.846 vs. 1.416?g/dL). After iron therapy, the blood lead levels of iron-deficient infants decreased significantly compared with pre-treatment levels (1.785 vs. 2.386?g/dL), and the hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations increased significantly. These findings indicate that iron deficiency increases blood lead concentrations in infants with very low blood lead concentrations. PMID:24315962

Park, Sangkyu; Sim, Chang Sun; Lee, Heun; Kim, Yangho



Cathepsin D serum and urine concentration in superficial and invasive transitional bladder cancer as determined by surface plasmon resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Determination of cathepsin D (Cat D) concentration in serum and urine may be useful in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The present study included 54 healthy patients and 68 patients with bladder cancer, confirmed by transurethral resection or cystectomy. Cat D concentration was determined using a surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensor. Cat D concentration in the serum of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.3–5.59 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.28–0.52 ng/ml. In urine, the Cat D concentration of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.35–7.14 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.32–0.68 ng/ml. Cat D concentration may represent an efficient tumor marker, as its concentration in the serum and urine of transitional cell carcinoma patients is extremely high when compared with healthy subjects. PMID:25120717




Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.  


Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20°C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

Busardň, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido



Lead concentrations of herbs used in Van Herby cheese.  


Van Herby Cheese is a traditional milk product including local herb species in eastern Turkey. This special milk product was previously produced only for the local market, but industrial scale production and marketing have recently started in the region. However, some quality characteristics such as microbial flora and heavy metal concentrations of this novel product need to be investigated. In this study, lead concentrations of 28 different herbs mostly used in Van Herby Cheese were analyzed by AAS. The highest lead concentration of 1.69 mg kg(-1) of the analyzed herbs was found in Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia. PMID:22164786

Tuncturk, Murat; Tuncturk, Ruveyde; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Ertus, Mehmet M; Ozgokce, Fevzi



Blood and urine fluoride concentrations associated with topical fluoride applications on dog gingiva  

SciTech Connect

The circulatory uptake and urinary excretion of topical fluoride were investigated by applying a sodium fluoride solution containing /sub 18/F for six min to healthy gingiva of four adult dogs. Blood and urine samples were taken a regular intervals. Maximal fluoride in blood represented 0.02-0.05% of the applied dose and occurred four min after completion of the application. By 6.0 h, 0.02-0.06% of the applied dose had been excreted in urine. Preliminary data showed that this represented about 8.8% of the fluoride absorbed through the gingiva.

Hock, J.; Gerber, C.; Rheaume, M.; Hellden, L.



Association between essential tremor and blood lead concentration.  

PubMed Central

Lead is a ubiquitous toxicant that causes tremor and cerebellar damage. Essential tremor (ET) is a highly prevalent neurologic disease associated with cerebellar involvement. Although environmental toxicants may play a role in ET etiology and their identification is a critical step in disease prevention, these toxicants have received little attention. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that ET is associated with lead exposure. Therefore, blood lead (BPb) concentrations were measured and a lifetime occupational history was assessed in ET patients and in controls. We frequency matched 100 ET patients and 143 controls on age, sex, and ethnicity. BPb concentrations were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A lifetime occupational history was reviewed by an industrial hygienist. BPb concentrations were higher in ET patients than in controls (mean +/- SD, 3.3 +/- 2.4 and 2.6 +/- 1.6 microg/dL, respectively; median, 2.7 and 2.3 microg/dL; p = 0.038). In a logistic regression model, BPb concentration was associated with diagnosis [control vs. ET patient, odds ratio (OR) per unit increase = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.39; p = 0.007]. BPb concentration was associated with diagnosis (OR per unit increase = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37; p = 0.02) after adjusting for potential confounders. Prevalence of lifetime occupational lead exposure was similar in ET patients and controls. We report an association between BPb concentration and ET. Determining whether this association is due to increased exposure to lead or a difference in lead kinetics in ET patients requires further investigation. PMID:14594619

Louis, Elan D; Jurewicz, Eva C; Applegate, LaKeisha; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Parides, Michael; Andrews, Leslie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H; Carroll, Spencer; Todd, Andrew



Concentration of Wear Products in Hair, Blood, and Urine after Total Hip Replacement  

PubMed Central

Raised levels of cobalt and chromium are found in the blood and urine of patients with metallic total hip replacements. When one of the hip components is made of polyethylene much less metal seems to be released from the joint. The long-term effects of the accumulation of chromium in the body need to be studied further. PMID:4692678

Coleman, R. F.; Herrington, J.; Scales, John T.



Identifying sources of lead exposure for children, with lead concentrations and isotope ratios.  


Despite a dramatic decrease in children's blood lead levels (BLL), lead exposure remains a public health concern because increasing evidence shows effects at very low doses. Lowering BLL still further requires the identification of lead sources and, therefore, new tools to investigate and thus prevent exposure. We describe a procedure that uses both lead concentrations and isotope ratios (IRs) to identify sources of overexposure in homes. Water, dust, and paint chips were sampled from the homes of 21 children with elevated BLL from Aubervilliers (Paris metropolitan area). Lead concentrations of concern were calculated from reverse physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling for water and dust. Isotope ratio matching of blood and environmental samples (with a lead content above the concentration of concern) was performed by computation of the distance between their IRs. When the IR of the source did not match that of the blood, the source was eliminated as a source of lead intoxication. The number of sources eliminated (per child) due to lead concentration ranged from 14% to 86% (mean 66%) for dust, and 100% for water samples. The number of remaining potential sources eliminated by IR interpretation varied from 0% to 100% for both dust and paint chips (mean 63% and 58%, respectively). IRs made it possible to eliminate at least one source in 20 of 21 cases and identified a single source in 11 of 21. The number of dust and paint sources not eliminated by concentration or IR varied from 8% to 45% (median 18%). The pilot study supports the usefulness of these procedures and the added value of IRs for identifying sources of lead poisoning. However, systematic use should be supported by cost-effectiveness analysis on a larger and more representative population of elevated BLL. PMID:20182944

Glorennec, P; Peyr, C; Poupon, J; Oulhote, Y; Le Bot, B



Urine specific gravity test  


This test helps evaluate your body's water balance and urine concentration. ... This test helps check your body's water balance and urine ... and is usually part of a routine urinalysis . As such, the ...


Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected within the right-of-way of a major Maryland highway were greater than those found in Barn Swallows nesting within a rural area. Lead concentrations in the feathers of adults from the highway colony were also greater than Lead concentrations in the carcasses and stomach contents of adult and nestling Barn those of rural adults, but concentrations in the feathers of nestlings from the two locations were similar. Activity of u-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in red blood cells was lower in highway-nesting adults and their young than in their rural counterparts, although hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits did not differ. The number of eggs, nestlings, and body weights of the latter at 16-18 days of age were similar in the two colonies, as were body weights of adults from the two areas. These results suggest that contamination of roadside habitats by lead from automotive emissions does not pose a serious hazard to birds that are aerial feeders.

Grue, C.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Hoffman, D.J.



Hydrometallurgical processing of lead-bearing materials for the recovery of lead and silver as lead concentrate and lead metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrometallurgical processing of lead-bearing materials generated at zinc plants is described. Two types of lead sulphate generated at the smelters of Hindustan Zinc (HZL) have been used, in addition to other types of lead–silver-bearing residues. Two approaches have been selected in view of the complexities of the material. In the first approach, a simple double-decomposition technique was selected for treatment

R Raghavan; P. K Mohanan; S. R Swarnkar



Concentration cascade of leading electrolyte using bidirectional isotachophoresis.  


We present a novel method of creating concentration cascade of leading electrolyte (LE) in isotachophoresis (ITP) by using bidirectional ITP. ITP establishes ion-concentration shock waves between high-mobility LE and low-mobility trailing electrolyte (TE) ions. In bidirectional ITP, we set up simultaneous shock waves between anions and cations such that these waves approach each other and interact. The shock interaction causes a sudden decrease in LE concentration ahead of the focused anions and a corresponding decrease in analyte zone concentrations. This readjustment of analyte zone concentrations is accompanied by a corresponding increase in their zone lengths, in accordance to conservation laws. The method generates in situ gradient in the LE concentration, and therefore can be achieved in a single, straight channel simply by establishing the initial electrolyte chemistry. We have developed an analytical model useful in designing the process for maximum sensitivity and estimating increase in sample zone length due to shock interaction. We also illustrate the technique and evaluate its effectiveness in increasing detection sensitivity using transient simulations of species transport equations. We validated the theoretical predictions using experimental visualizations of bidirectional ITP zones for various electrolyte chemistries. Lastly, we use our technique to demonstrate a factor of 20 increase in the sensitivity of ITP-based detection of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. PMID:22528425

Bahga, Supreet S; Santiago, Juan G



A mathematical model of the urine concentrating mechanism in the rat renal medulla. I. Formulation and base-case results  

PubMed Central

A new, region-based mathematical model of the urine concentrating mechanism of the rat renal medulla was used to investigate the significance of transport and structural properties revealed in anatomic studies. The model simulates preferential interactions among tubules and vessels by representing concentric regions that are centered on a vascular bundle in the outer medulla (OM) and on a collecting duct cluster in the inner medulla (IM). Particularly noteworthy features of this model include highly urea-permeable and water-impermeable segments of the long descending limbs and highly urea-permeable ascending thin limbs. Indeed, this is the first detailed mathematical model of the rat urine concentrating mechanism that represents high long-loop urea permeabilities and that produces a substantial axial osmolality gradient in the IM. That axial osmolality gradient is attributable to the increasing urea concentration gradient. The model equations, which are based on conservation of solutes and water and on standard expressions for transmural transport, were solved to steady state. Model simulations predict that the interstitial NaCl and urea concentrations in adjoining regions differ substantially in the OM but not in the IM. In the OM, active NaCl transport from thick ascending limbs, at rates inferred from the physiological literature, resulted in a concentrating effect such that the intratubular fluid osmolality of the collecting duct increases ?2.5 times along the OM. As a result of the separation of urea from NaCl and the subsequent mixing of that urea and NaCl in the interstitium and vasculature of the IM, collecting duct fluid osmolality further increases by a factor of ?1.55 along the IM. PMID:21068086



Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.  


The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species. PMID:19416182

Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W



An analysis of workers' tritium concentration in urine samples as a function of time after intake at Korean pressurised heavy water reactors.  


In general, internal exposure from tritium at pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) accounts for ?20-40 % of the total radiation dose. Tritium usually reaches the equilibrium concentration after a few hours inside the body and is then excreted from the body with an effective half-life in the order of 10 d. In this study, tritium metabolism was reviewed using its excretion rate in urine samples of workers at Korean PHWRs. The tritium concentration in workers' urine samples was also measured as a function of time after intake. On the basis of the monitoring results, changes in the tritium concentration inside the body were then analysed. PMID:22511731

Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young



Effective radium concentration of lead-contaminated topsoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the global amount of topsoil is decreasing and its importance for agricultural purposes is increasing, the detection and quantification of metallic pollutions in topsoils has become a topical concern of the utmost importance. Radium, which is generally concentrated in metal oxides and hydroxides and relatively easily leached from rock and soil, could potentially give precious information about the extent of the pollution at large spatial scales. In this study, the radon source term (effective radium concentration, ECRa) of more than 300 topsoils from a lead-contaminated site in the North of France has been measured using the accumulation technique. After placing the sample in a container, sampling of the air is done using a scintillation flask after some accumulation time. Radon concentration in the flask is inferred from counting in a photomultiplier 3.5 h after sampling, from which the effective radium concentration (ECRa) of the soil sample is calculated, expressed in Bq kg-1. This technique allows the measurement of large numbers of samples. The ECRa results of the topsoils, obtained over ca. 800 km2, show remarkable spatial organization and the values are compared with the results of their chemical analyses performed at ISA (Lille, France) and BRGM (Orléans, France). The highly lead-contaminated zone (with Pb concentrations larger than 250 ppm) is also relatively well circumscribed using ECRa apart. Indeed, ECRa values of topsoils are larger in the contaminated area than outside, compared with the average regional ECRa value. The mapping of ECRa of topsoils at large spatial scale appears therefore as an important asset to characterize this polluted area. Our ECRa data are also compared with the low-field specific magnetic susceptibility (?m) and other magnetic parameters to infer some insights from the magnetic fabrics in the soil and the ECRa-?m relations. Relations between ECRa and others metallic elements (Cr, Co, Hg, Ag) or others intrinsic characteristics (amount of sand, silt, organic matter) of the topsoils are also provided. ECRa appears as a powerful parameter to characterize the spatial structure of soils, and in addition provides clues on the susceptibility to heavy metal contamination. This study opens some interesting perspectives for the understanding of the relation between radium and heavy metals in the environment.

Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Douay, Francis; Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie; Bollinger, Laurent



Cloud point extraction for the determination of lead and cadmium in urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with multivariate optimization using Box Behnken design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Pb and Cd in undigested urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). Aliquots of 0.5 mL urine were acidified with HCl and the chelating agent ammonium O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (DDTP) was added along with the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 at the optimized concentrations. Phase separation was achieved by heating the mixture to 50 °C for 15 min. The surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by GF AAS, employing the optimized pyrolysis temperatures of 900 °C for Pb and 800 °C for Cd, using a graphite tube with a platform treated with 500 ?g Ru as permanent modifier. The reagent concentrations for CPE (HCl, DDTP and Triton X-114) were optimized using a Box Behnken design. The response surfaces and the optimum values were very similar for aqueous solutions and for the urine samples, demonstrating that aqueous standards submitted to CPE could be used for calibration. Detection limits of 40 and 2 ng L- 1 for Pb and Cd, respectively, were obtained along with an enhancement factor of 16 for both analytes. Three control urine samples were analyzed using this approach, and good agreement was obtained at a 95% statistical confidence level between the certified and determined values. Five real samples have also been analyzed before and after spiking with Pb and Cd, resulting in recoveries ranging from 97 to 118%.

Maranhăo, Tatiane De A.; Martendal, Edmar; Borges, Daniel L. G.; Carasek, Eduardo; Welz, Bernhard; Curtius, Adilson J.



Consumption of lead-shot cervid meat and blood lead concentrations in a group of adult Norwegians.  


Several recent investigations have reported high concentrations of lead in samples of minced cervid meat. This paper describes findings from a Norwegian study performed in 2012 among 147 adults with a wide range of cervid game consumption. The main aim was to assess whether high consumption of lead-shot cervid meat is associated with increased concentration of lead in blood. A second aim was to investigate to what extent factors apart from game consumption explain observed variability in blood lead levels. Median (5 and 95 percentile) blood concentration of lead was 16.6 µg/L (7.5 and 39 µg/L). An optimal multivariate linear regression model for log-transformed blood lead indicated that cervid game meat consumption once a month or more was associated with approximately 31% increase in blood lead concentrations. The increase seemed to be mostly associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. However, many participants with high and long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. Cervid meat together with number of bullet shots per year, years with game consumption, self-assembly of bullets, wine consumption and smoking jointly accounted for approximately 25% of the variation in blood lead concentrations, while age and sex accounted for 27% of the variance. Blood lead concentrations increased approximately 18% per decade of age, and men had on average 30% higher blood lead concentrations than women. Hunters who assembled their own ammunition had 52% higher blood lead concentrations than persons not making ammunition. In conjunction with minced cervid meat, wine intake was significantly associated with increased blood lead. Our results indicate that hunting practices such as use of lead-based ammunition, self-assembling of lead containing bullets and inclusion of lead-contaminated meat for mincing to a large extent determine the exposure to lead from cervid game consumption. PMID:24119336

Meltzer, H M; Dahl, H; Brantsćter, A L; Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Bernhoft, A; Oftedal, B; Lande, U S; Alexander, J; Haugen, M; Ydersbond, T A



Green and black tea consumption by humans: Impact on polyphenol concentrations in feces, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of green tea, black tea and decaffeinated black tea consumption on urinary and fecal excretions and whole blood and blood serum concentrations of polyphenols. The 56 day study was divided into four randomly arranged experimental periods of 14 days each during which the 10 healthy adult subjects consumed a laboratory

Y. H. He; C. Kies



Urine odor  


Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may affect your ...


Determination of 238u/235u, 236u/238u and uranium concentration in urine using sf-icp-ms and mc-icp-ms: an interlaboratory comparison.  


Accidental exposure to depleted or enriched uranium may occur in a variety of circumstances. There is a need to quantify such exposure, with the possibility that the testing may post-date exposure by months or years. Therefore, it is important to develop a very sensitive test to measure precisely the isotopic composition of uranium in urine at low levels of concentration. The results of an interlaboratory comparison using sector field (SF)-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and multiple collector (MC)-ICP-MS for the measurement of uranium concentration and U/U and U/U isotopic ratios of human urine samples are presented. Three urine samples were verified to contain uranium at 1-5 ng L and shown to have natural uranium isotopic composition. Portions of these urine batches were doped with depleted uranium (DU) containing small quantities of U, and the solutions were split into 100 mL and 400 mL aliquots that were subsequently measured blind by three laboratories. All methods investigated were able to measure accurately U/U with precisions of approximately 0.5% to approximately 4%, but only selected MC-ICP-MS methods were capable of consistently analyzing U/U to reasonable precision at the approximately 20 fg L level of U abundance. Isotope dilution using a U tracer demonstrates the ability to measure concentrations to better than +/-4% with the MC-ICP-MS method, though sample heterogeneity in urine samples was shown to be problematic in some cases. MC-ICP-MS outperformed SF-ICP-MS methods, as was expected. The MC-ICP-MS methodology described is capable of measuring to approximately 1% precision the U/U of any sample of human urine over the entire range of uranium abundance down to <1 ng L, and detecting very small amounts of DU contained therein. PMID:16404170

Parrish, Randall R; Thirlwall, Matthew F; Pickford, Chris; Horstwood, Matthew; Gerdes, Axel; Anderson, James; Coggon, David



Concentrations of lead in cosmetics commonly used in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present evidence of lead in lip liner, oil absorbent powder, mascara, concealer, lipsticks, lip gloss, and foundation. The samples were analyzed for lead by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The levels of lead in concealer, mascara, lip liner, and oil absorbent powder were found to be 7.4?±?1.3?µg?g, 15.8?±?0.2?µg?g, 29.0?±?9.2?µg?g, and 17.3?±?2.9?µg?g, respectively. The levels of lead in

J. D. O. Brandăo; O. J. Okonkwo; M. Sehkula; R. M. Raseleka



Concentrations of lead in cosmetics commonly used in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present evidence of lead in lip liner, oil absorbent powder, mascara, concealer, lipsticks, lip gloss, and foundation. The samples were analyzed for lead by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The levels of lead in concealer, mascara, lip liner, and oil absorbent powder were found to be 7.4?±?1.3?µg?g, 15.8?±?0.2?µg?g, 29.0?±?9.2?µg?g, and 17.3?±?2.9?µg?g, respectively. The levels of lead in

J. D. O. Brandăo; O. J. Okonkwo; M. Sehkula; R. M. Raseleka



Natural variation in 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in the urine of Finnish population groups.  


A study to determine activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the urine of certain Finnish population groups was conducted, to investigate the variation in natural background level of urinary excretion. The study participants were divided into three groups mainly based on their diet. The first group comprised recreational fishermen and the second group represented people consuming more reindeer meat than an average Finn, while people using drinking water with very high activity concentrations of (210)Po were selected for the third group. The fourth group was a control group. The mean urinary excretion of (210)Po in groups 1 and 2 was 73 and 100 mBq d(-1), respectively. These values were higher than the value of the control group (20 mBq d(-1)) and the mean values reported in the literature. The mean daily urinary excretion of (210)Pb in groups 1 and 2, 70 and 52 mBq d(-1), was also slightly higher than that in the control group (32 mBq d(-1)). In contrast, the excretion rates of both (210)Po and (210)Pb for the members of group 3 were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. This was clearly due to the elevated levels of natural radionuclides in their drinking water. The present study demonstrates the importance of possessing good knowledge of the background levels, in order to allow the determination of the additional exposure due, for example, to the malevolent use of radiation. PMID:21922285

Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja; Solatie, Dina; Vesterbacka, Pia



The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years  

SciTech Connect

Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)



Reduction of lead concentrations in vegetables grown in Tarragona Province, Spain, as a consequence of reduction of lead in gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Lead concentrations were determined in 350 samples belonging to 13 different species of vegetables from Tarragona Province, Spain. The samples were subjected to lead analyses by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. During the period 1989-1994, an average decrease for lead concentrations of 69% was estimated. Spinach showed the lowest reduction2 in lead content (6%), while the highest decreases were observed for onion (87%) and leek (90%). Taking into account the average consumption of vegetable foodstuffs by the population of Tarragona Province, the daily lead intake through edible vegetables was reduced from 41.5 {mu}g/d in 1989 to 10.6 {mu}g/d in 1994. The results of the current study demonstrate a substantial decline in the lead levels of vegetables from Tarragona Province. The major cause of this decline is most likely the reduced leaded gasoline consumption.

Belles, M.; Rico, A.; Schuhmacher, M. [Rovira i Virgili Univ., Reus (Spain)] [and others] [Rovira i Virgili Univ., Reus (Spain); and others



Concentrations of Gatifloxacin in Plasma and Urine and Penetration into Prostatic and Seminal Fluid, Ejaculate, and Sperm Cells after Single Oral Administrations of 400 Milligrams to Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Gatifloxacin (GTX), a new fluoroquinolone with extended antibacterial activity, is an interesting candidate for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). Besides the antibacterial spectrum, the concentrations in the target tissues and fluids are crucial for the treatment of CBP. Thus, it was of interest to investigate its penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid. GTX concentrations in plasma, urine, ejaculate, prostatic and seminal fluid, and sperm cells were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method after oral intake of a single 400-mg dose in 10 male Caucasian volunteers in the fasting state. Simultaneous application of the renal contrast agent iohexol was used to estimate the maximal possible contamination of ejaculate and prostatic and seminal fluid by urine. GTX was well tolerated. The means (standard deviations) for the following parameters were as indicated: time to maximum concentration of drug in serum, 1.66 (0.91) h; maximum concentration of drug in serum, 2.90 (0.39) ?g/ml; area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h, 25.65 ?g · h/ml; and half life, 7.2 (0.90) h. Within 12 h about 50% of the drug was excreted unchanged into the urine. The mean renal clearance was 169 ml/min. The gatifloxacin concentrations in ejaculate, seminal fluid, and prostatic fluid were in the range of the corresponding plasma concentrations which were 1.92 (0.27) ?g/ml at approximately the same time point (4 h after drug intake). The concentrations in sperm cells (0.195, 0.076, and 0.011 ?g/ml) could be determined in three subjects. The good penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid, the good tolerance, and the previously reported broad antibacterial spectrum suggest that GTX may be a good alternative for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Clinical studies should be performed to confirm this assumption. PMID:11120980

Naber, Christoph K.; Steghafner, Michaela; Kinzig-Schippers, Martina; Sauber, Christian; Sörgel, Fritz; Stahlberg, Hans-Jürgen; Naber, Kurt G.



Indices of potential lead hazard.  

PubMed Central

This review is concerned with the concentrations of lead in human whole blood, erythrocytes, plasma, serum, soft tissues, bone, and urine. The extent to which redistribution of some of the bound lead occurs is outlines. The effects of lead on enzyme activities and on the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in the blood and urine are described. A brief section deals with the range of signs and symptoms that can occur and differences seen between symptomatic children and adults. PMID:332498

Posner, H S



Concentration and Preservation of Very Low Abundance Biomarkers in Urine, such as Human Growth Hormone (hGH), by Cibacron Blue F3G-A Loaded Hydrogel Particles.  


Urine is a potential source of diagnostic biomarkers for detection of diseases, and is a very attractive means of non-invasive biospecimen collection. Nonetheless, proteomic measurement in urine is very challenging because diagnostic biomarkers exist in very low concentration (usually below the sensitivity of common immunoassays) and may be subject to rapid degradation. Hydrogel nanoparticles functionalized with Cibacron Blue F3G-A (CB) have been applied to address these challenges for urine biomarker measurement. We chose one of the most difficult low abundance, but medically relevant, hormones in the urine: human growth hormone (hGH). The normal range of hGH in serum is 1 to 10 ng/mL but the urine concentration is suspected to be a thousand times less, well below the detection limit (50 pg/mL) of sensitive clinical hGH immunoassays. We demonstrate that CB particles can capture, preserve and concentrate hGH in urine at physiological salt and urea concentrations, so that hGH can be measured in the linear range of a clinical immunometric assay. Recombinant and cadaveric hGH were captured from synthetic and human urine, concentrated and measured with an Immulite chemiluminescent immunoassay. Values of hGH less than 0.05 ng/mL (the Immulite detection limit) were concentrated to 2 ng/mL, with a urine volume of 1 mL. Dose response studies using 10 mL of urine demonstrated that the concentration of hGH in the particle eluate was linearly dependent on the concentration of hGH in the starting solution, and that all hGH was removed from solution. Thus if the starting urine volume is 100 mL, the detection limit will be 0.1 pg/mL. Urine from a healthy donor whose serum hGH concentration was 1.34 ng/mL was studied in order detect endogenous hGH. Starting from a volume of 33 mL, the particle eluate had an hGH concentration of 58 pg/mL, giving an estimated initial concentration of hGH in urine of 0.175 pg/mL. The nanotechnology described here appears to have the desired precision, accuracy and sensitivity to support large scale clinical studies of urine hGH levels. PMID:20467576

Fredolini, Claudia; Meani, Francesco; Reeder, K Alex; Rucker, Sally; Patanarut, Alexis; Botterell, Palma J; Bishop, Barney; Longo, Caterina; Espina, Virginia; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra



Maple syrup urine disease  


... Persons with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... Plasma amino acid test Urine amino acid test There will be signs of ketosis and excess acid in blood (acidosis).


Myoglobin - urine  


... urine exits the body. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end), and ... For boys, place the entire penis in the bag and attach the adhesive to the skin. For ...


Urine - bloody  


... if you have a bleeding disorder. Causes from blood disorders include: Bleeding disorders (such as hemophilia ) Blood clot ... Tests for sickle cell, bleeding problems, and other blood disorders Urinalysis Urinary cytology Urine culture 24-hour urine ...


A surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method for the determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine and variation of endogenous urinary concentrations of GHB.  


?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a strong anesthetic effect; however, proving its ingestion through the quantification of GHB in biological specimens is not straightforward due to the endogenous presence of GHB in human blood, urine, saliva, etc. In the present study, a surrogate analyte approach was applied to accurate quantitative determination of GHB in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to overcome this issue. For this, (2)H6-GHB and (13)C2-dl-3-hydroxybutyrate were used as a surrogate standard and as an internal standard, respectively, and parallelism between the surrogate analyte approach and standard addition was investigated at the initial step. The validation results proved the method to be selective, accurate, and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges (0.1-1?g/ml). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of (2)H6-GHB were 0.05 and 0.1?g/ml, respectively. No significant variations were observed among urine matrices from different sources. The stability of (2)H6-GHB was satisfactory under sample storage and in-process conditions. However, in vitro production of endogenous GHB was observed when the urine sample was kept under the in-process condition for 4h and under the storage conditions of 4 and -20°C. In order to facilitate the practical interpretation of urinary GHB, endogenous GHB was accurately measured in urine samples from 79 healthy volunteers using the surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method developed in the present study. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations in 74 urine samples with quantitative results ranged from 0.09 to 1.8?g/ml and from 4.5 to 530?g/mmol creatinine, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between the unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations. The urinary endogenous GHB concentrations were affected by gender and age while they were not significantly influenced by habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, or caffeine-containing beverage drinking. PMID:24929871

Kang, Soyoung; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun



Three-dimensional simulation of urine concentrating mechanism in a functional unit of rat outer medulla. I. Model structure and base case results.  


The urine formation and excretion system have long been of interest for mathematicians and physiologists to elucidate the obscurities within the process happens in renal tissue. In this study, a novel three-dimensional approach is utilized for modeling the urine concentrating mechanism in rat renal outer medulla which is essentially focused on demonstrating the significance of tubule's architecture revealed in anatomic studies and physiological literature. Since nephrons and vasculatures work interdependently through a highly structured arrangement in outer medulla which is dominated by vascular bundles, a detailed functional unit is proposed based on this specific configuration. Furthermore, due to relatively lesser influence of vasa recta on interstitial medullary osmolality and osmotic gradients as well as model structure simplicity, central core assumption is employed. The model equations are based on three spatial dimensional mass, momentum and species transport equations as well as standard expressions for solutes and water transmural transport. Our model can simulate preferential interactions between different tubules and it is shown that such interactions promote solute cycling and subsequently, enhance urine-concentrating capability. The numerical results are well consistent with tissue slice experiments and moreover, our model predicts more corticomedullary osmolality gradient in outer medulla than previous influential 1-D simulations. PMID:25223232

Sohrabi, Salman; Saidi, Mohammad Said; Saadatmand, Maryam; Banazadeh, Mohamad Hossein; Firoozabadi, Bahar



Concentrations of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and its metabolites in plasma and urine following oral administration of NMP to rats.  


The primary aims were to study the metabolism in rats and to determine the biological levels after one oral developmentally toxic dose of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), a widely used industrial chemical. Non-pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were given an oral single dose of either a non-toxic dose of 125 mg NMP/kg (group 1) by gavage or a developmentally toxic dose of 500 mg/kg (group 2). Blood plasma (7 rats per time point) and urine (10 rats per time point) were sampled up to 72 h after administration and analyzed using mass spectrometry. In both plasma and urine NMP, 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP), N-methylsuccinimide and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide (2-HMSI) and 2-pyrrolidone (2-P) were identified. In urine 48% of the administered dose was recovered as 5-HNMP and 2-5% as 2-HMSI. The total recovery in urine was 53-59%. The peak concentrations for NMP in plasma were 1.2 and 6.9 mmol/l, 0.42 and 0.76 mmol/l for 5-HNMP, 0.07 and 0.31 mmol/l for MSI and for 2-HMSI the concentrations were 0.02 and 0.05 mmol/l for groups 1 and 2, respectively. In summary, the same metabolites were found in rats as in humans and the biological levels were reported for NMP and its metabolites after oral exposure to a developmentally toxic dose and one non-toxic dose of NMP. PMID:15951091

Carnerup, Martin A; Saillenfait, Anne Marie; Jönsson, Bo A G



Urine Pretreat Injection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.



Intellectual Impairment in Children with Blood Lead Concentrations below 10 µg per Deciliter  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Despite dramatic declines in children’s blood lead concentrations and a lowering of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s level of concern to 10 µg per deciliter (0.483 µmol per liter), little is known about children’s neurobehavioral functioning at lead concentrations below this level. METHODS We measured blood lead concentrations in 172 children at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months of age and administered the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale at the ages of 3 and 5 years. The relation between IQ and blood lead concentration was estimated with the use of linear and nonlinear mixed models, with adjustment for maternal IQ, quality of the home environment, and other potential confounders. RESULTS The blood lead concentration was inversely and significantly associated with IQ. In the linear model, each increase of 10 µg per deciliter in the lifetime average blood lead concentration was associated with a 4.6-point decrease in IQ (P=0.004), whereas for the subsample of 101 children whose maximal lead concentrations remained below 10 µg per deciliter, the change in IQ associated with a given change in lead concentration was greater. When estimated in a nonlinear model with the full sample, IQ declined by 7.4 points as lifetime average blood lead concentrations increased from 1 to 10 µg per deciliter. CONCLUSIONS Blood lead concentrations, even those below 10 µg per deciliter, are inversely associated with children’s IQ scores at three and five years of age, and associated declines in IQ are greater at these concentrations than at higher concentrations. These findings suggest that more U.S. children may be adversely affected by environmental lead than previously estimated. PMID:12700371

Canfield, Richard L.; Henderson, Charles R.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Cox, Christopher; Jusko, Todd A.; Lanphear, Bruce P.



Feather lead concentrations and (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus).  


Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only approximately 10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant of population health, our findings should increase the understanding of population-level effects from lead poisoning in condors; this information may also be helpful for other avian species potentially impacted by lead poisoning. PMID:20199067

Finkelstein, M E; George, D; Scherbinski, S; Gwiazda, R; Johnson, M; Burnett, J; Brandt, J; Lawrey, S; Pessier, A P; Clark, M; Wynne, J; Grantham, J; Smith, D R



Characterization of the airborne concentrations of lead in U. S. industry  

SciTech Connect

Occupational exposure to lead represents a continuing problem of significant magnitude in the United States. To characterize the problem for surveillance purposes, an analysis of the airborne concentrations of lead identified in OSHA compliance inspections was conducted for the years 1979 to 1985. The five specific objectives of the study were: (1) to examine the distribution of air lead concentration in industrial environments; (2) to determine the secular trends in air lead concentrations for high lead industries; (3) to assess which job titles had excessive airborne lead concentrations; (4) to evaluate whether there was a relationship between lead overexposure and company size, unionization, or type of inspection; and (5) to investigate the prevalence of respirator violations for lead. Fifty-two industries were identified which had more than 1/3 of their inspection medians greater than the permissible exposure limit. These included primary and secondary lead smelting, battery manufacture, pigment manufacture, brass/bronze foundries, as well as 46 other industries. There has been little if any improvement in the prevalence and severity of airborne lead concentrations for the high lead industries, battery manufacture, secondary smelting, pigment manufacture, and brass/bronze foundries. Specific high exposure job titles are identified for certain high lead industries. The job title of painting stands out as an especially problematical job title across a number of industries. The prevalence of respirator violations is approximately 20% of all lead inspections.

Froines, J.R.; Baron, S.; Wegman, D.H.; O'Rourke, S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))



Lead concentrations in liver and kidneys of snow geese during an avian cholera epizootic in California.  


During an avian cholera epornitic, between December 1982 and January 1983, 58 dead, 23 sick, and 106 hunter-killed lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) were collected at Delevan National Wildlife Refuge, Colusa County, California, USA. Fifty-one of the dead and sick geese were infected with Pasteurella multocida. Lead concentrations in the livers ranged from < 1 to 253 parts per million (ppm) (dry weight). Lead concentrations in the kidneys ranged from < 1 ppm to 547 ppm (dry weight). Snow geese with > 30 ppm lead, considered diagnostic of acute lead poisoning, had significantly (P < 0.05) lower heart weights and a smaller band of heart fat, compared to geese with tissue lead concentrations of < 30 ppm. Tissue lead concentrations in geese dying from avian cholera generally were lower than concentrations in hunter-killed geese, but the differences were not significant for either kidney (P = 0.08) or liver (P = 0.30) tissue. PMID:8258858

Gordus, A G



On-Demand Urine Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan



Antibacterial activity of human urine  

PubMed Central

The fate of bacteria in human urine was studied after inoculation of small numbers of Escherichia coli and other bacterial strains commonly implicated in urinary tract infection. Urine from normal individuals was often inhibitory and sometimes bactericidal for growth of these organisms. Antibacterial activity of urine was not related to lack of nutrient material as addition of broth did not decrease inhibitory activity. Antibacterial activity was correlated with osmolality, urea concentration and ammonium concentration, but not with organic acid, sodium, or potassium concentration. Between a pH range of 5.0-6.5 antibacterial activity of urine was greater at lower pH. Ultrafiltration and column chromatography to remove protein did not decrease antibacterial activity. Urea concentration was a more important determinant of antibacterial activity than osmolality or ammonium concentration. Increasing the urea of a noninhibitory urine to equal that of an inhibitory urine made the urine inhibitory. However, increasing osmolality (with sodium chloride) or increasing ammonium to equal the osmolality or ammonium of an inhibitory urine did not increase antibacterial activity. Similarly, dialysis to decrease osmolality or ammonium but preserve urea did not decrease inhibitory activity. Decreasing urea with preservation of ammonium and osmolality decreased antibacterial activity. Removal of ammonium with an ion exchanger did not decrease antibacterial activity, whereas conversion of urea to ammonium with urease and subsequent removal of the ammonium decreased antibacterial activity. Urine collected from volunteers after ingestion of urea demonstrated a marked increase in antibacterial activity, as compared with urine collected before ingestion of urea. PMID:4877682

Kaye, Donald



Feather lead concentrations and207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ???10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

Finkelstein, M.E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gwiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, A. P.; Clark, M.; Wynne, J.; Grantham, And J.; Smith, D.R.



Tissue Lead Concentration During Chronic Exposure of Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow) to Lead Nitrate in Aquarium Water  

PubMed Central

The fathead minnow is a useful species for evaluating the toxicity of wastewater effluents. While this fish is widely used for “survival” studies of metal toxicity, little or no work has been done on the tissue distribution of metals in fathead minnows. To determine the distribution of tissue lead, aquarium studies were conducted for several weeks with fish maintained in soft synthetic freshwater. Lead II nitrate was added to 3 aquaria attaining concentrations of 20 - 30 ppb (aquarium B); 100 - 140 ppb (aquarium C); and roughly 200 ppb (aquarium D). Results were compared to controls (aquarium A). During the initial week, the majority of aquarium D fish died, whereas few deaths occurred in the other groups. Lead accumulation was dose- and tissue-dependent, with highest uptake by the gills. Gill concentrations of aquarium D fish averaged about four-fold higher than in skeleton or skin and muscle. In vitro, lead (2.5 to 25 ppm) caused dose-dependent reductions in the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in gills incubated in physiological buffer. These findings demonstrate that fathead minnow gills bind and accumulate waterborne lead rapidly and preferentially, and raise the possibility that gill lipid peroxidation contributes to lead toxicity at low water hardness. PMID:17144321

Spokas, Eric G.; Spur, Bernd W.; Smith, Holly; Kemp, Francis W.; Bogden, John D.



Urine Eggs  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: In spring, a young man's fancy turns to thoughts of urine-soaked eggs. You heard that right. Here in Dongyang, China, eggs boiled in the urine of 10-year-old boys are a considered a delicacy of spring. ...

Hacker, Randi



Blood lead concentrations of spectacled eiders near the Kashunuk River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected, 342 blood samples from spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) on their breeding grounds in western Alaska from late May through to early August 1993a??1995. Lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. wet weight were found in the blood of 20% of the adult female eiders, 2% of the adult males and 6% of the ducklings. Lead was detected (a?Y0.02 p.p.m.) more frequently in the blood of adult females than in adult males or ducklings and the maximum concentrations were 14.37, 0.50 and 4.28 p.p.m. wet weight, respectively. In adult females, there was a significant difference in the proportion of detectable blood lead concentrations between three collection times (arrival/nesting, hatch and brood rearing), with the highest proportion (92%) occurring at hatch. Nine hens with blood lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. were captured a second time several weeks to 1 year later. In the hens sampled twice at intervals of several weeks, the blood lead concentrations increased and declined at mean daily rates of 1.10 and 0.94, respectively. The lead concentrations in the blood of adults were not correlated with body weights. Radiographs were taken of 119 eiders and corresponding blood samples from 98 of these birds were analysed for lead. Ingested shot was seen in X-rays of 12 adults and three ducklings and, of the 13 blood samples tested, all had detectable lead concentrations. Of the birds without radiographic evidence of ingested shot, 84% of the adult females, 19% of the adult males and 17% of the ducklings had detectable lead concentrations in their blood. Breeding ground exposure of waterfowl to lead shot is unusual and is of particular concern in spectacled eiders because of their threatened status and declining numbers in western Alaska.

Franson, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Creekmore, L.H.; Flint, P.; Smith, M.R.



Lead concentration in meat from lead-killed moose and predicted human exposure using Monte Carlo simulation.  


Lead-based hunting ammunitions are still common in most countries. On impact such ammunition releases fragments which are widely distributed within the carcass. In Norway, wild game is an important meat source for segments of the population and 95% of hunters use lead-based bullets. In this paper, we have investigated the lead content of ground meat from moose (Alces alces) intended for human consumption in Norway, and have predicted human exposure through this source. Fifty-two samples from different batches of ground meat from moose killed with lead-based bullets were randomly collected. The lead content was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The lead intake from exposure to moose meat over time, depending on the frequency of intake and portion size, was predicted using Monte Carlo simulation. In 81% of the batches, lead levels were above the limit of quantification of 0.03 mg kg(-1), ranging up to 110 mg kg(-1). The mean lead concentration was 5.6 mg kg(-1), i.e. 56 times the European Commission limit for lead in meat. For consumers eating a moderate meat serving (2 g kg(-1) bw), a single serving would give a lead intake of 11 µg kg(-1) bw on average, with maximum of 220 µg kg(-1) bw. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the median (and 97.5th percentile) predicted weekly intake of lead from moose meat was 12 µg kg(-1) bw (27 µg kg(-1) bw) for one serving per week and 25 µg kg(-1) bw (45 µg kg(-1) bw) for two servings per week. The results indicate that the intake of meat from big game shot with lead-based bullets imposes a significant contribution to the total human lead exposure. The provisional tolerable weekly intake set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 25 µg kg(-1) bw is likely to be exceeded in people eating moose meat on a regular basis. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has recently concluded that adverse effects may be present at even lower exposure doses. Hence, even occasional consumption of big game meat with lead levels as those found in the present study may imply an increased risk for adverse health effects. Children and women of child-bearing age are of special concern due to the neurodevelopmental effects of lead. PMID:22651819

Lindboe, M; Henrichsen, E N; Hřgĺsen, H R; Bernhoft, A



Elevated soil lead concentrations in residential yards in Appleton, WI, a small Midwestern city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated soil lead concentrations are well documented in large urban areas, having been attributed to a combination of leaded-paint, leaded-gasoline, and industrial emissions. Fewer studies, however, have been conducted in smaller communities. We analyzed 200 surface soils in the neighborhood near Lawrence University’s campus in Appleton, WI (population ~70,000). Like many larger cities Appleton has a historic city-center. However, it is has no high-density housing or commercial districts and has not seen heavy traffic. The socioeconomic pressures that lead to disrepair of inner city neighborhoods have been less prevalent here as well. At each property 3 integrated samples were taken, one adjacent to the front of the house, one in the front lawn, and one between the road and sidewalk. We correlated building and property traits (e.g. structure age, distance from road, exterior type, exterior condition, direction of exposure, and assessed home value) with soil lead concentrations determined by XRF and subsequently, mapped these data for geospatial patterns. Soil lead concentrations in the city park and campus greens were typically less than 100 ppm. The highest lead concentrations are close to campus, which has a number of civil war era buildings and homes. High lead concentrations (averaging over 1,000 ppm near the home, with concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm) were associated with aging, poorly maintained structures as expected. However, a number of well-maintained structures also show substantially elevated concentrations. These soil lead concentrations are not dissimilar to those found in much larger cities such as New Orleans, Milwaukee, and Chicago. Lead levels dropped quickly as distance from the house increased suggesting that the contamination is from lead paint and not from gasoline exhaust. Furthermore, samples taken adjacent to the main arterial through town exhibited relatively low, but slightly elevated lead levels (~250 ppm). Not surprisingly, these concentrations are in line with those typically found in suburban settings, rather than urban settings. Studying the nature and distribution of soil lead contamination in a smaller city such as Appleton will allow for a better understanding of the public health risks in this and similar cities. Additionally, with fewer likely contributors to soil lead contamination, this study allows a clearer connection to be drawn between one primary factor, paint, and the distribution of soil lead.

Clark, J. J.; Knudsen, A. C.



Seasonal variations of lead concentration and loading rates in residential house dust in northern Idaho.  


Although lead hazards to humans have been known since ancient times and many regulatory actions and lead risk reductions have been achieved over the past century, lead contamination and exposure remain significant problems worldwide. The focus of this study was to investigate whether residential house dust lead concentrations and lead and dust loading rates in non-contaminated or "background" communities in northern Idaho are significantly affected by seasonal variations. House dust samples were obtained from 34 houses in five towns of northern Idaho from March to November 1999. There was evidence of significant seasonality of lead concentration in house dust in some towns, but no evidence in other towns. Because of the high variability between the towns and small sample sizes, it was difficult to make firm conclusions about seasonal patterns observed in house dust lead levels. A linear relationship between precipitation rates and dust loading rates was detected. PMID:16442226

Petrosyan, Varduhi; von Braun, Margrit C; Spalinger, Susan M; von Lindern, Ian H



Lead concentrations in ruffed grouse, rock ptarmigan, and willow ptarmigan in Québec.  


Between 1996 and 1998, ruffed grouse, spruce grouse, willow ptarmigan, and rock ptarmigan harvested by hunters in Québec were examined for lead contamination. On examination of the gizzards of these birds, lead shot was found only in ruffed grouse (1.2%). The probability of ingestion of lead shot by grouse and ptarmigans is low. Analyses of the lead concentrations in the wing bones of grouse and ptarmigans and in the muscle tissue of ptarmigans were conducted. Although differences were observed between individuals based on age and sex, the mean concentrations measured were in the range of those that occur naturally at background levels (<6 microg/g dw). Lead concentrations in muscle tissue were low, often at the limit of detection. However, the few high concentrations detected were probably related to a lead pellet or bullet fragment. Based on an analysis of the health risk associated with consumption of ptarmigan muscle, we conclude that the use of lead ammunition for hunting gallinaceous birds may pose an unnecessary risk of lead poisoning because of the possible ingestion of lead shot, bullets, fragments or embedded shot. PMID:15959706

Rodrigue, J; McNicoll, R; Leclair, D; Duchesne, J-F



Experimental lead encephalopathy in the suckling rat: concentration of lead in cellular fractions enriched in brain capillaries.  


Five-day old rats subjected to short-term (2-day) lead exposure by gastric gavage of aqueous lead acetate at the highest non-lethal dosage (1mgPb/g body weight/day) developed a hemorrhagic encephalopathy. Capillaries and microvessels isolated from brains of these rats showed abnormal morphology consisting of an increased number of irregularly dispersed endothelial nuclei and swollen, vacuolated endothelial cells. Lead was concentrated in isolated brain capillary-microvessel fractions, as demonstrated by both atomic absorption and 210Pb tracer methods. When lead exposure was continued for 20 days (at the maximal dosage regime compatible with a 60% survival rate), the rats recovered from the initial encephalopathy and capillaries and microvessels isolated from brains of these rats appeared morphologically normal. This recovery occurred despite continued high levels of lead in the blood and in the isolated capillary-microvessel fractions, suggesting that, as capillary endothelial cells mature, they are able to adapt to the presence of large amounts of lead. PMID:656908

Toews, A D; Kolber, A; Hayward, J; Krigman, M R; Morell, P



Lead Concentrations and Isotopes in Corals and Water near Bermuda, 1780-2000 A.D.  

E-print Network

The history of the oceanic anthropogenic lead (Pb) transient in the North Atlantic Ocean for the past 220 yr is documented here from measurements of Pb concentration and isotope ratios from annually-banded corals that grew ...

Kelly, Amy E.


Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element. PMID:12471396

Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen



Monitoring of lead acid batteries Continuous measurement of the acid concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new sensor will be presented, detecting concentration and temperature inside of lead acid batteries. Inserted into battery-management-systems like for example badicheq, the unit is able to indicate the state of charge under almost any circumstances. It is important to know the state of charge of a lead acid battery and it is easy to detect by measuring the acid

Martina Morbel; Hans-Joachim Kohnke; Joachim Helmke



Novel DFO-functionalized mesoporous silica for iron sensing. Part 2. Experimental detection of free iron concentration (pFe) in urine samples.  


Successful in vivo chelation treatment of iron(iii) overload pathologies requires that a significant fraction of the administered drug actually chelates the toxic metal. Increased mobilization of the iron(iii) in experiments on animals or humans, most often evaluated from urinary output, is usually used as an assessment tool for chelation therapy. Alternatively, the efficiency of a drug is estimated by calculating the complexing ability of a chelating agent towards Fe(iii). The latter is calculated by the pFe value, defined as the negative logarithm of the concentration of the free metal ion in a solution containing 10 ?M total ligand and 1 ?M total metal at a physiological pH of 7.4. In theory, pFe has to be calculated taking into account all the complexation equilibria involving the metal and the possible ligands. Nevertheless, complexation reactions in complex systems such as serum and urine may hardly be accurately modelled by computer software. The experimental determination of the bioavailable fraction of iron(iii) in biological fluids would therefore be of the utmost relevance in the clinical practice. The efficiency of the therapy could be more easily estimated as well as the course of overload pathologies. In this context, the aim of the present work was the development of a sensor to assess the free iron directly in biological fluids (urine) of patients under treatment with chelating agents. In the proposed device (DFO-MS), the strong iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) is immobilized on the MCM-41 mesoporous silica. The characterization of the iron(iii) sorption on DFO-MS was undertaken, firstly in 0.1 M KNO3, then directly in urine samples, in order to identify the sorption mechanism. The stoichiometry of the reaction in the solid phase was found to be: with an exchange constant (average value) of log??ex = 40(1). The application of DFO-MS to assess pFe in SPU (Simulating Pathology Urine) samples was also considered. The results obtained were very promising for a future validation and subsequent application of the sensor in samples of patients undergoing chelation therapy. PMID:24883429

Alberti, Giancarla; Emma, Giovanni; Colleoni, Roberta; Pesavento, Maria; Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Biesuz, Raffaela



Catecholamines - urine  


... test results. Some foods can increase catacholamines in your urine. You may need to avoid the follow foods for several days before the test: Coffee Tea Bananas Chocolate Cocoa Citrus fruits Vanilla Many ...


Porphyrins - urine  


Anderson K. The porphyrias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 217. McPherson R, Threatte GA, Pincus MR. Basic examination of urine. ...


Amylase - urine  


... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .


Urine Preservative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)



Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers  

SciTech Connect

Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples were taken from 15 workers exposed to lead (blood lead concentration 74.4 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/dl) and 15 non-exposed workers (9.9 {+-} 2 {mu}g/dl). In erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers, the intracellular free calcium was 79 {+-} 13 nM, a significantly higher concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.01) than the one detected in control (30 {+-} 9 nM). The enhanced intracellular free calcium was associated with a higher osmotic fragility and with important modifications in erythrocytes shape. The high intracellular free calcium in lead-exposed workers was also related to a 100% increase in calcium incorporation and to 50% reduction of (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity. Lipid peroxidation was 1.7-fold higher in erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers as compared with control. The alteration on calcium equilibrium in erythrocytes is discussed in light of the toxicological effects in lead-exposed workers.

Quintanar-Escorza, M.A. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Martinez, M.T. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Navarro, L. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Maldonado, M. [CIATEC, A.C. (Mexico); Arevalo, B. [Medical Center Medic Unit 1 Bajio, IMSS, Leon Gto. (Mexico); Calderon-Salinas, J.V. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico)]. E-mail:



Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder.  


Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2-8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 ?g/dL cases vs. 2.73 ?g/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 ?g/dL vs. 2.72 ?g/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Loveland, Katherine A; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Pearson, Deborah A; Boerwinkle, Eric



Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 ?g/dL cases vs. 2.73 ?g/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 ?g/dL vs. 2.72 ?g/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric



Lead Concentration Levels in Drinking Water from Schools in Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead was often used in plumbing during the past century because of its malleability and ability to ensure water tight pipe connections. However, when this element was discovered to be poisonous, the use of lead pipes was outlawed. In spite of this, lead solder continued to be used until the late 1980's. In 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) passed an act that established a lead concentration limit of 15 ppb (parts per billion) in drinking water. Still, any trace of this heavy metal has been determined to be a health risk. Several schools in the Oakland Unified School District have been built close to one century ago. Many schools were built during the time in which lead pipes or lead solder were allowed. As a result, drinking water at these schools is a cause for concern. In an effort to begin assessing the drinking water quality in Oakland schools, five water samples were collected from each of thirteen schools between mid March and early May 2006. Schools were specifically chosen because of their age and location. The samples were taken to the Lawrence Hall of Science for analysis, and the results were tabulated and analyzed. Preliminary analysis of our data suggests that drinking water in schools built after the 1950's contain average lead concentrations above 15 ppb. Furthermore, out of the thirteen schools from which samples were collected, all but two issued water with lead concentrations that exceed the EPA action limit of 15 ppb. Overall, our work thus far indicates that greater attention should be devoted to investigating lead concentrations in Oakland schools' drinking water, and that in some cases immediate intervention strategies must be devised. To aid in such efforts, we plan to continue our study and further investigate water quality in Oakland Schools by collecting additional samples from a wider range of school sites.

Araraso, I.; Huang, J.; Lau, S.; Le, A.



[Influencing factors of high-concentration lead removal using the phosphorus-accumulating sludge].  


Phosphorus-accumulating activated sludge was used to remove lead [rho(Cu2+) = 150.0 mg x L(-1)] in wastewater in this experiment. The efficiency ratio and stability of Pb removal were studied at different dissolved oxygen concentration and different initial pH. The result showed that under anaerobic condition and pH 6, the Ph removal efficiency ratio increased with time elapsing, the value reached 99.8% after 32 days. Lead in form of organic and sulfide-bound lead and residual lead in residual sludge accounted for 41.8% and 52.6%, respectively, and the lead in the sludge showed a good stability. While under aerobic condition, the lead removal efficiency ratio increased with the increase of pH within the first 2 hours, the values reached 99.9%, 96.9% and 30.3% at pH 6, pH 4 and pH 2, respectively. In contrast, the residual lead was 3 072.3, 4 726.8 and 2 359.1 mg x kg(-1) under aerobic condition after 32 days, accounting for 41.8%, 65.8% and 88.8% of total lead in the sludge. Taking the lead removal efficiency ratio and lead stability into account, aerobic condition at pH 4 is the best for removing lead with phosphorus-accumulating sludge in theory. PMID:23947049

Yang, Min; Lu, Long; Feng, Yong; Fang, Chao; Li, Xiong-Qing



The factors influencing direct spectral fluorimetry of some urine metabolites.  


Urine contains a variety of organic and inorganic chemicals including a number of natural fluorophores. Most of them are formed by tryptophan metabolites. But there are also metabolites of riboflavin, catecholamines and porphyrins. The alternation in the autofluorescence of urine and the alternation in the concentration of these substances are developed by both physiological and pathological changes such as disorder of body metabolism, dietary intake, age and etc. In this work we present fluorescent properties of chosen urine fluorophores - i.e. 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), indoxyl sulphate (urine indican), serotonin (5-HT), vanillylmandelic (VMA) and homovanillic (HVA) acids typical for various diseases. Differences of fluorescent parameters of individual fluorophores measured in vitro in the water solutions and in natural environment of urine are significant and can lead to false results and conclusions. Therefore, we present the most common influence that can occur in urine (e.g. pH, ionic strength, proteins, and other fluorophores). The aim is to elaborate the exact "know-how" for direct complex fluorescent measurement in urine related to particular diagnoses. PMID:21189166

Lichardusová, L; Kušnír, J; Valko-Rokytovská, M; Mareková, M



Extremely high urine arsenic level after remote seafood ingestion.  


Urine testing for heavy metal concentrations is increasingly performed in the outpatient setting as a part of laboratory evaluation for neuropathy. Abnormal urine arsenic levels due to dietary intake of organic arsenic can lead to unnecessary chelation therapy. A 54-year-old man underwent a 24-hour urine collection for heavy metal concentrations in evaluation of paresthesia of the right foot. The total arsenic level was 8880 ?g/d with concentrations of 4749 ?g/L and 3769 ?g/g creatinine. He was urgently referred to the toxicology clinic for consideration of chelation therapy. History revealed consumption of 2 lobster tails 5 days before the testing. Speciation was then performed on the original urine specimen and revealed an organic arsenic concentration of 4332 ?g/L. No inorganic or methylated arsenic was detected. Repeat testing after abstaining from seafood demonstrated a total arsenic level of 50 ?g/d with concentrations of 30 ?g/L and 21 ?g/g creatinine. Our patient demonstrates the highest level of arsenobetaine reported in the literature, and this level is higher than expected for a person who had not consumed seafood for 5 days before testing. The high levels may be due to consumption of food that he did not recognize as containing arsenobetaine or that his clearance of arsenobetaine from the ingested lobster is slower than published ranges. This case demonstrates the importance of speciation when measuring urine arsenic levels to avoid unnecessary chelation therapy. PMID:22407195

Nańagas, Kristine A; Tormoehlen, Laura M



Application of lead and strontium isotope ratio measurements for the origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates.  


Lead and strontium isotope ratios were used for the origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates (yellow cakes) for nuclear forensic purposes. A simple and low-background sample preparation method was developed for the simultaneous separation of the analytes followed by the measurement of the isotope ratios by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The lead isotopic composition of the ore concentrates suggests applicability for the verification of the source of the nuclear material and by the use of the radiogenic (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratio the age of the raw ore material can be calculated. However, during data interpretation, the relatively high variation of the lead isotopic composition within the mine site and the generally high contribution of natural lead as technological contamination have to be carefully taken into account. The (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratio is less prone to the variation within one mine site and less affected by the production process, thus it was found to be a more purposeful indicator for the origin assessment and source verification than the lead. The lead and strontium isotope ratios measured and the methodology developed provide information on the initial raw uranium ore used, and thus they can be used for source attribution of the uranium ore concentrates. PMID:19824713

Varga, Zsolt; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus; Keegan, Elizabeth; Millet, Sylvain



Urine culture - catheterized specimen  


Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...


Blood lead concentrations in mallards from Delevan and Colusa National Wildlife Refuges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blood samples were taken from 181 (108 adult drakes and 73 individuals of mixed age and sex) mallards, Anas platyrhynchos , from Colusa and Delevan National Wildlife Refuges during late winter and summer of 1987. The percentage of birds with elevated lead concentration was 28.7 for late winter and 16.4 for late summer. For summer trapped birds, a significantly greater proportion of males than females contained elevated lead levels. These findings indicate that lead poisoning may be a year-round event in certain areas of the Sacramento Valley.

Mauser, D.M.; Rocke, T.E.; Mensik, J.G.; Brand, C.J.



Aflatoxin B1 albumin adducts in plasma and aflatoxin M1 in urine are associated with plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E  

PubMed Central

Background Although aflatoxin exposure has been shown to be associated with micronutrient deficiency in animals, there are few investigations on the effects of aflatoxin exposure on micronutrient metabolism in humans. Objective To examine the relationship between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in plasma and the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) metabolite in urine and plasma concentrations of retinol (vitamin A) and ?-tocopherol (vitamin E) in Ghanaians. Methods A cross-sectional study of 147 adult participants was conducted. Blood and urine samples were tested for aflatoxin and vitamins A and E levels. Results Multivariable analysis showed that participants with high AF-ALB (? 0.80 pmol/mg albumin) had increased odds of having vitamin A deficiency compared to those with lower AF-ALB [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61; CI = 1.03 – 6.58; p=0.04]. Participants with high AF-ALB also showed increased odds of having vitamin E deficiency but this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.4; CI = 0.96–6.05; p = 0.06). Conversely, those with higher AFM1 values had a statistically nonsignificant reduced odds of having vitamin A deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 1.15–0.09; p=0.05) and statistically significant reduced odds of having vitamin E deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 0.10 – 0.97; p = 0.04). Participants with high AF-ALB or high AFM1 (? 437.95 pg/dL creatinine) were almost 6 times more likely to be hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)- positive (OR = 5.88; CI = 1.71–20.14; p = 0.005) and (OR = 5.84; CI = 1.15–29.54; p = 0.03) respectively. Conclusions These data indicate that aflatoxin may modify plasma micronutrient status. Thus, preventing aflatoxin exposure may greatly reduce vitamins A and E deficiencies. PMID:21792816

Obuseh, Francis A.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Jiang, Yi; Shuaib, Faisal M. B.; Waterbor, John; Ellis, William O.; Piyathilake, Chandrika J.; Desmond, Renee A.; Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans; Phillips, Timothy D.



Skeletal concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver in ancient North American Pecos Indians.  

PubMed Central

Bone samples of 14 prehistoric North American Pecos Indians from circa 1400 A.D. were analyzed for lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to establish the baseline levels of these elements in an ancient North American population. Measurements of outer and inner bone fractions indicate the former were contaminated postmortem for lead, zinc, and cadmium. The contamination-adjusted average (mean +/- SD) level of lead (expressed as the ratio of atomic lead to atomic calcium) in bones of the Indians was 8.4 +/- 4.4 x 10(-7)), which was similar to ratios in bones of ancient Peruvians (0.9 to 7.7 x 10(-7)) and significantly lower than ratios in bones of modern adults in England and the United States (210 to 350 x 10(-7]. The adjusted average concentrations (microgram per gram dry weight) of biologic cadmium, silver, and zinc in the Pecos Indian bones were 0.032 +/- 0.013, 0.094 +/- 0.044, and 130 +/- 66, as compared to concentrations of 1.8, 0.01 to 0.44, and 75 to 170 in the bones of modern people, respectively. Therefore, cadmium concentrations in Pecos Indian bones are also approximately 50-fold lower than those of contemporary humans. These data support earlier findings that most previously reported natural concentrations of lead in human tissues are erroneously high and indicate that natural concentrations of cadmium are also between one and two orders of magnitude lower than contemporary concentrations. PMID:1773793

Ericson, J E; Smith, D R; Flegal, A R



Speciation analysis of triethyl-lead and tributyl-tin compounds in human urine by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography microwave-induced plasma atomic emission detection.  


This work describes the development of a fast method for speciation analysis of triethyl-lead and tributyl-tin species in urine samples after in situ derivatization by tetraethyl- or tetrapropyl-borate reagents. The alkylation reaction is done in the aqueous and urine medium and the less-polar derivatives are extracted in hexane by liquid-liquid extraction. The species were extracted and the extract was efficiently collected from the aqueous phase after centrifugation. Finally, the organometallic species are separated by gas chromatography and determined from the emission signals of elemental lead and tin. Atomic lead and tin are formed from the organolead and organotin compounds during atomization of the column eluate in a microwave-induced helium plasma source. The simultaneous measurement of lead (Pb) at 405.780 nm and tin (Sn) at 303.419 nm was achieved by an atomic emission detector. Finally, the analytes were determined with satisfactory precision (<5%) and detection limits of 0.05 ?g Pb/L and 0.48 ?g Sn/L, respectively, when 10 mL of urine is extracted with 1 mL of hexane and 1 ?L of extract is injected. PMID:22689489

Zachariadis, George A; Rosenberg, Erwin



Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukona??Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid-June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.



Blood Lead Concentrations < 10 ?g\\/dL and Child Intelligence at 6 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS: Children were followed from 6 months to 6 years of age, with determination of blood lead concentrations at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. At 6 years of age, intelligence was assessed in 194 children using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. We used general linear and semiparametic

Todd A. Jusko; Charles R. Henderson Jr.; Bruce P. Lanphear; Deborah A. Cory-Slechta; Patrick J. Parsons; Richard L. Canfield




Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t . The experiment was conducted to measure the impact of pollution with lead and cadmium on early growth of maize. During 14 days of the laboratory experiment the daily increases of plant height, leaf area, plant mass, root length and thickness were measured. Maize was growing in water solutions of various concentrations

Artur Nosalewicz; Olga Kosynets; Magdalena Nosalewicz




Microsoft Academic Search

During an avian cholera epornitic, between December 1982 and January 1983, 58 dead, 23 sick, and 106 hunter-killed lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) were collected at Delevan National Wildlife Refuge, Colusa County, California, USA. Fifty-one of the dead and sick geese were infected with Pasteurella multocida. Lead concentrations in the livers ranged from

Andrew G. Gordus



Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead  

SciTech Connect

Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.



Lead concentrations and reproductive success in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within highway roadside verges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1981, the authors studied lead concentrations and reproductive success in free-living European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within the verges of two Maryland highways with different traffic volumes, Route 197(average daily traffic volume[ADT] = 10,800 vehicles) and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (ADT=52,500 vehicles) and a nearby control area. Concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight) of lead in the ingesta (84-94 mg kg-1), carcasses (4.0-9.6 mg kg-1)and feathers (6.8-52 mg kg-1) of Parkway nestlings and adults were 3 to 13 times those found in starlings from the control area, whereas lead concentrations in the ingesta and tissues of starlings from the verge of Route 197 were similar to those of controls. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells (RBCs) of adult and nestling starlings from the Parkway was depressed from 43 to 60% compared to controls. RBC ALAD activity in adults from nests along Route 197 was similar to that of adult starlings from the control area, but that of their young was depressed 17%. Haemoglobin concentrations (-16%) and haematocrits (-10%) in Parkway nestlings were depressed compared with those of nestlings from the other two study areas, whereas those of adults were not affected. Clutch size, number of young hatched and the number of young in nests 1 to 3 days before fledging were similar among sites, as were body weights of adults and prefledging weights of their young. However, brain weights of Parkway nestlings were lower (P < 0.05) than those of nestlings from the other study areas. Results suggests that lead within verges of major highways probably does not pose a serious hazard to adult ground-foraging songbirds. However, the effects of lead-induced reductions in haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, RBC ALAD activity and brain weight on the postfledging survival of their young are not known.

Grue, C.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beyer, W.N.; Franson, L.P.



Ketones urine test  


Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ... ketone bodies. A dipstick is dipped in the urine sample. A color change indicates the presence of ...


Associations among maternal soy intake, isoflavone levels in urine and blood samples, and maternal and umbilical hormone concentrations (Japan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absract\\u000a Objectives  In utero exposure to high levels of endogenous estrogens has been hypothesized to increase breast cancer risk in later life.\\u000a A high intake of soy has been suggested to protect against breast cancer. We examined the hypothesis that maternal soy intake\\u000a may be inversely associated with pregnancy hormone levels.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The concentrations of hormones (estradiol, estriol, and testosterone) and isoflavones

Chisato Nagata; Shinichi Iwasa; Makoto Shiraki; Tomomi Ueno; Shigeto Uchiyama; Koji Urata; Yukari Sahashi; Hiroyuki Shimizu



Lead Concentration Levels In Public Water Sources in the Fruitvale District of Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the possible risk of lead contamination in drinking water in the Fruitvale neighborhood in Oakland, California we collected samples from different fresh water sources and used an EPA approved method to analyze these samples for lead using a spectrophotometer. Our sample locations included drinking fountains at a school, library and train station, as well as an ornamental fountain in a plaza area. Our preliminary results revealed that 8 out of 11, or about 73% of water samples collected contained lead concentrations that exceed the EPA action level of 15?g/l. Given these preliminary results, there is an urgent need for us to continue further testing to confirm these concentrations, so that we can quickly notify the public and city officials of the risks associated with these drinking water sources within this community. Future sampling will follow a more rigorous collection strategy, which will help determine whether or not initial high lead values detected result from waters having had long residence times in local plumbing systems. If this is in fact the case, we intend to produce information that instructs the public on procedures that can be used to reduce the risk of lead exposure, such as only using water after it has been issuing from sources for specified amounts of time, or using filtration devices.

Ahumada, A.; Edel, M.; Tril, E.; Crockett, R.; Moreno, K.; Telles, C.; Rodriguez, F.; Folgar, E.; Ramirez-Tril, J.; Torres, J.; Navarro, J.; Nguyen, R.; Moqadam, S.



Fluoroquinolone levels in healthy dog urine following a 20-mg/kg oral dose of enrofloxacin exceed mutant prevention concentration targets against Escherichia coli isolated from canine urinary tract infections.  


A 3-day course of oral enrofloxacin is effective for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs when administered 20 mg/kg Q24H. However, emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of uropathogens is a concern. Urine concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were measured in six healthy dogs following dose of enrofloxacin 20 mg/kg. Mutant prevention concentrations of Escherichia coli isolated from canine UTI were also determined against ciprofloxacin. Urine AUC(24)/MPC ratios considering ciprofloxacin concentrations ranged 3819-7767, indicating that selection of resistant E. coli mutants in dogs with uncomplicated UTIs is unlikely in the bladder given that an AUC(24)/MPC = 39 is considered to be protective against mutant selection for ciprofloxacin. However, additional studies are required to evaluate the effects of this enrofloxacin treatment protocol on bacteria that colonize anatomic sites where fluoroquinolones achieve lower concentrations compared to the urinary bladder. PMID:23859001

Daniels, J B; Tracy, G; Irom, S J; Lakritz, J



The Human Urine Metabolome  

PubMed Central

Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at PMID:24023812

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.



The human urine metabolome.  


Urine has long been a "favored" biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at PMID:24023812

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S



Penicillin concentrations in serum, milk, and urine following intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of increasing doses of procaine penicillin G in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed Central

Eight healthy, non-pregnant, crossbred Holstein dairy cows (557-682 kg) within their first 3 months of lactation (13-21.5 kg of milk/day) were used. Cows were kept in tie stalls for the whole experiment. The 8 cows were randomly assigned to 2 (IM and SC) 4 x 4 balanced Latin square design experiments. Doses of procaine penicillin G (PPG) (300000 IU/mL) in each square were 7000, 14000, 21000 and 28000 IU/kg and were injected IM or SC once daily for 5 consecutive days. Volumes of PPG per site of injection never exceeded 20 mL. Blood was collected to determine the Cmax, Tmax, and AUC; urine and milk were also taken to measure the persistence of PPG in these fluids. Results show that serum Cmax and Tmax were only slightly affected by increasing the doses or the route of administration, whereas the AUC was linearly increased in relation to the dose injected in both modes of injection. In the urine, Cmax varied from 160 to 388 IU/mL and Tmax from 72-120 h during 5 consecutive days of PPG injection. A dose effect in Cmax was observed only for the IM route of administration and no variation (P > 0.05) was found between the IM and SC routes. Milk Cmax concentrations were only increased by the dose regimen in the IM group. At doses of 21000 and 28000 IU/kg, the IM group had a higher (P > 0.05) Cmax when compared with the SC groups. Milk PPG residues were not detectable over 96 h following the last IM injection, independently of the dose injected. However milk PPG residues were detected for up to 132 h following the last SC injection. These results show that when PPG is injected IM once daily in volumes not exceeding 20 mL/site at doses as high as 28000 IU/kg, the withdrawal period should be at least 96 h. Therefore, in the present model, there was no advantage to inject PPG by SC route to improve PPG kinetic parameters as the AUC, Cmax, or Tmax. PMID:11480523

Dubreuil, P; Daigneault, J; Couture, Y; Guay, P; Landry, D



Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.  


Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH?-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 ± 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 ± 2.02 + 0.069 ± 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g/L. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by K addition, but allantoin excretion increased linearly by 27% from LO to HI, suggesting increased rumen microbial growth. Rumen pH, acetate proportion of total volatile fatty acids, and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with increasing potassium intake. We concluded that increased ration K concentration lowers milk urea concentration with a magnitude significant for the interpretation of milk urea values, but other sources of variation, such as sampling time relative to feeding, may be even more important. PMID:24835966

Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O



Blood concentration of essential trace elements and heavy metals in workers exposed to lead and cadmium.  


The aim of the study was to determine blood concentration of essential trace elements (Se, Zn, Cu) and toxic metals (Pb, Cd), markers of antioxidant (activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxidase dismutase and ceruloplasmin) and prooxidant processes (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in workers exposed to Pb and Cd. Forty three male workers of the lead-acid batteries department, aged 25-52 years, and twenty two workers, including 15 women, aged 36-51 years, exposed to Cd in the alkaline batteries department were examined. The reference group consisted of 52 healthy inhabitants of the same region. It was found that Se concentration and GPx activity in both erythrocytes and plasma of Cd exposed workers were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in the reference group. We found an inverse linear correlation between blood Se and Cd concentrations in the workers exposed to Cd (r = -0.449; p < 0.01). Moreover, the activity of erythrocyte and plasma GPx was shown to be significantly lower in the study group of workers (p < 0.001). It was observed that TBARS concentration in plasma was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the lead exposed workers than in the group without contact with Pb. Our results indicate that exposure to Pb and Cd affects the antioxidant potential of blood in workers exposed to heavy metals. PMID:11764849

Wasowicz, W; Gromadzi?ska, J; Rydzy?ski, K



Factors influencing lead sorption-desorption at variable added metal concentrations in Rhodoxeralfs.  


The response of ten soils of the lithic Rhodoxeralf type to the supply of lead at concentrations of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000 mg kg-1 was examined in batch sorption-desorption tests. Lead availability in the soils was found to depend on its partitioning between the soil solution and the solid phase as reflected in adsorption isotherms. The isotherms, of the H type, were consistent with a high affinity of the sorbent for the metal, with which it forms stable inner-sphere complexes on the soil surface. Sorption-desorption tests revealed that some properties of the soils such as their pH (mean=8) and high contents in clays (particularly in kaolinite) and crystalline iron oxides significantly influence Pb sorption, the effect being especially marked at high added metal concentrations. Added lead is largely retained by crystalline iron oxides and the soil clay fraction; the pH of the soil favours the release of variably-charged sites from both. The extent of Pb desorption was small, particularly at the lowest added levels (500 and 1000 mg kg-1). Desorption increased with increasing added Pb concentration and exceeded 50% at 5000 and 6000 mg kg-1; this suggests that Pb is present not only as inner-sphere complexes, but also as outer-sphere complexes and, partly, as precipitates. The desorption isotherms consist of three segments that exhibit significant differences depending on the added Pb concentration, namely: 500-1000, 2000-4000 and 5000-6000 mg kg-1. PMID:16352330

Moreno, Ana Maria; Quintana, Jose Ramón; Pérez, Lourdes; Parra, Juana G





LEAD CAS # 7439-92-1 Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine ToxFAQs TM August 2007 This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about lead. For more information, ...


Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ? 100 ?g/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ? 100 ?g/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 ?g/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 ?g/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ? 100 ?g/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd



Venerupis decussata under environmentally relevant lead concentrations: Bioconcentration, tolerance, and biochemical alterations.  


The edible clam Venerupis decussata is widely distributed in European aquatic systems, some of which are under strong anthropogenic pressure, which can contribute to trophic transfer of xenobiotics to humans. Accordingly, the present study focused on the tolerance, bioconcentration, and biochemical responses of V. decussata after exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of lead. Health risks to humans after consumption of clams was also explored. An acute toxicity assay (96 h) was conducted with wild clams, using Pb exposure concentrations ranging from 0 mg L(-1) to 1.80 mg L(-1). Lethality, bioconcentration factor (BCF), intracellular partitioning, and a relevant set of biomarkers were used as endpoints. Clams, interstitial water, water column, and sediment samples were collected to analyze Pb concentration. The Pb concentration in wild clams was below international consumption guidelines. Under laboratory conditions, clams revealed high sensitivity to Pb (median lethal concentration of 0.65 mg L(-1)), with a high bioconcentration ability (bioconcentration factor > 1) during exposure. The intracellular partitioning data showed that most of the Pb had accumulated in the insoluble fraction (>80%). Several significant biochemical changes were observed, namely on catalase and glutathione-S-tranferase activities and metalothionein content. Overall, it was demonstrated that the European clam has a reduced tolerance to Pb, compared with other bivalves. However, consumption of clams from the Ria de Aveiro lagoon (Portugal) does not raise public health concerns in terms of Pb. PMID:25196236

Freitas, Rosa; Martins, Roberto; Antunes, Sara; Velez, Cátia; Moreira, Anthony; Cardoso, Paulo; Pires, Adília; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina



Temporal variability of atmospheric lead concentrations and fluxes over the northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1985, daily 24-hour aerosol samples were collected on 0.4-{mu}m pore size filters at a coastal location in northwestern Corsica. Total atmospheric deposition (wet + dry) were sampled between February 1985 and October 1987 with a collection period of about 15 days. As indicated by three-dimensional air mass trajectories, lead aerosol particles collected at this site are primarily derived from European continental source regions. The variability of lead aerosol concentrations on both daily and seasonal time scales is primarily due to the scavenging of lead aerosol particles by rain rather than to changes in source regions. The results suggest that the ratio between the total atmospheric deposition of Pb and the corresponding mean daily precipitation (mdp) rate is not constant. This ratio reaches a maximum during the Mediterranean summer. The authors attribute this difference to wet scavenging processes which wash a more loaded atmosphere during the dry season than during the wet season. The precipitation frequency (F{sub p}) is a major factor influencing seasonal variability of the total atmospheric deposition of lead over the western Mediterranean. An intermediate value of F{sub p} allows sufficient reloading of the atmosphere with long-range transported Pb aerosol particles as well as efficient scavenging by precipitation events.

Remoudaki, E.; Bergametti, G. (Universite Paris (France)); Buat-Menard, P. (Centre des Faibles Radioactivites, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))



Correlations between lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in frozen tuna fish  

SciTech Connect

The presence of metallic pollutants in marine ecosystems has promoted wide research plans in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine organisms. However, little is known concerning environmental and physiological processes that regulate the concentration of trace metals in marine organisms. Even though the toxicity of lead and cadmium is well established, copper, zinc and iron are considered as essential elements for mammals. Little is known about heavy metals, other than mercury, concentrations in fresh and frozen tuna fish. Fifty samples obtained at the entrance of a canning factory in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were treated by applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences compiled and linked in the software of a Digital VAX/VMS 11/780 computer.

Galindo, L.; Hardisson, A.; Montelongo, F.G.



Histopathological biomarkers in juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to a sublethal lead concentration.  


The aim of this study was to determine the 96-h lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of lead (Pb) in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, and to determine histopathological biomarkers in fish exposed for 96-h to a sublethal concentration at 25% of the LC50. The 96-h LC50 was 108mgl(-1). In gills, the length and thickness of lamella and thickness of the filament epithelium were significantly higher in fish exposed to Pb for 48-h than in control fish whereas the interlamellar distance decreased. In the liver, the area occupied by lipid droplets and size of hepatocytes showed significantly higher values after 24-h of exposure. The percentage of abnormal renal tubules was higher in fish exposed to Pb, exhibiting a time-dependent increase. These variations in histopathological biomarkers permit the definition of the overall response of R. quelen to Pb and the potential usefulness in the monitoring of Pb contamination. PMID:25521338

Muńoz, Lautaro; Weber, Paula; Dressler, Valderi; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Vigliano, Fabricio Andrés



DDE, PCBs, cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in rhinoceros auklets from Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In July 1981, 5 adult rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) were captured on the ground near nesting areas on each of Protection and Destruction Islands, Washington. The birds were euthanized, and their livers and kidneys removed and analyzed. Levels (I?g / g wet weight) of DDE (0.11 to 0.95), polychlorinated biphenyls (no residue detected [ND] to 1.1), mercury (0.60 to 1.8), and lead (ND to 0.85) in livers and cadmium (9.1 to 21.9) in kidneys were similar in each colony. All concentrations were less than known effect levels.

Blus, L.J.; Fitzner, R.E.; Leschner, L.L.; Wilson, U.W.



Urine bag as a modern day matula.  


Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

Viswanathan, Stalin



Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula  

PubMed Central

Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

Viswanathan, Stalin



Lead and cadmium concentrations in marine organisms from the Tarragona coastal waters, Spain  

SciTech Connect

Lead and cadmium are now recognized to be two of most important heavy metal contaminants of the marine environment. The Tarragona coastal area (Catalonia, NE Spain) is a biologically productive and physically diverse marine ecosystem, with a very important commercial fishing industry. Two rivers, the Ebro (South) and the Francoli (North) flow into the Mediterranean Sea at the Tarragona coastal waters, which are subjected to large loads of toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals). Although considerable data have been accumulated on the distribution and levels of heavy metals in marine species from different areas of the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Taragona coastal area are not available in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the distribution and concentrations of lead and cadmium in the marine species commonly consumed by the population of Tarragona, as well as to learn whether these levels may constitute a health hazard for the consumers. Lead and cadmium were measured in 23 commercially significant marine species from the Tarragona coastal waters.

Schuhmacher, M.; Bosque, M.A.; Domingo, J.L.; Corbella, J. (Univ. of Barcelona (Spain))



Chemical concentrations of pollutant lead aerosols, terrestrial dusts and sea salts in Greenland and Antarctic snow strata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we report analyses of lead in annual ice layers from the interior of northern Greenland and in annual layers of ice from the interior of the Antarctic continent. We show that lead concentrations increase from 0.200 Pb\\/kg ice today in north pole ice sheets, the sharpest rise occurring after 1940, and that the levels of lead in

M. Murozumi; Tsaihwa J. Chow; C. Patterson



Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.  


This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7 ?g/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (p<0.001). Males were higher than in females (p<0.001). Current smokers and drinkers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers (p<0.001) and nondrinkers (p<0.001), respectively. People who took herbal medication and drug consumption were higher than those who did not (p<0.001). Education level was negatively associated with blood lead concentration (p<0.001). People living in or around industrial areas had elevated blood lead concentration (p<0.001). Family income was also negatively associated with lead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (p<0.034): the highest was in laborer and Agricultural-Fishery-Forestry and the lowest in office workers. In women, blood lead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the general adult population in Korea has decreased over time from 45.8 ?g/l (1999) to 19.7 ?g/l (2008). Although it is still higher than in other countries such as the United States and Canada, it is rapidly decreasing. Gender, age, smoking and alcohol drinking status, herbal medication and drug consumption, education level, living area and occupation were significantly related to the blood lead concentrations in Korea. PMID:25043456

Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon



Maternal blood lead concentration, diet during pregnancy, and anthropometry predict neonatal blood lead in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population.  

PubMed Central

To determine the influences of maternal diet and nutrition during pregnancy on the blood lead level of neonates, we conducted a study of mother-infant pairs from lower socioeconomic circumstances living in Albany County, New York. Maternal blood lead (MBPb), anthropometry, and diet were assessed in each trimester. Neonates' blood lead (NBPb) levels were low (geometric mean = 1.58 micro g/dL), and none had elevated blood lead. More than 50% of the mothers had intakes below the recommended dietary allowances for zinc, calcium, iron, vitamin D, and kilocalories. As expected, MBPb was strongly and positively related to NBPb. Among the anthropometric measures of maternal nutritional status, variables measuring gain in weight and arm circumference were negatively related to NBPb. In multivariable models reflecting different analytic strageties and including MBPb, anthropometry, and sociodemographic characteristics, dietary intakes of iron and vitamin D were negatively related to NBPb. The effect of zinc varied substantially depending on model covariates. Effects of dietary constituents are difficult to distinguish, given the intercorrelated nature of nutrients in the diet. Nevertheless, the influences of maternal anthropometric variables, iron, and vitamin D on neonatal lead levels are clear in our analyses. PMID:12573905

Schell, Lawrence M; Denham, Melinda; Stark, Alice D; Gomez, Marta; Ravenscroft, Julia; Parsons, Patrick J; Aydermir, Aida; Samelson, Renee



Biosynthesis of lead nanoparticles by the aquatic water fern, Salvinia minima Baker, when exposed to high lead concentration.  


Salvinia minima Baker is a small floating aquatic fern that is efficient for the removal and storage of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, we report that lead removal by S. minima causes large accumulation of lead inside the cells in the form of nanoparticles (PbNPs). The accumulation pattern of lead was analyzed in both, submerged root-like modified fronds (here named "roots"), and in its aerial leaf-like fronds ("leaves"). Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the biosynthesis of PbNPs by the plant. In both, roots and leaves, PbNPs were found to accumulate almost exclusively at the cell wall and closely associated to the cell membrane. Two types of PbNPs shapes were found in cells of both tissues, those associated to the cell wall were quasi-spherical with 17.2±4.2 nm of diameter, while those associated to the cell membrane/cytoplasm were elongated. Elongated particles were 53.7±29.6 nm in length and 11.1±2.4 nm wide. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) results indicate that cellulose, lignin and pectin are the major components that may be acting as the reducing agents for lead ions; these findings strongly suggest the potential use of this fern to further explore the bio-assisted synthesis of heavy metal nanostructures. PMID:24211828

Castro-Longoria, E; Trejo-Guillén, K; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Avalos-Borja, M; Andrade-Canto, S B; Leal-Alvarado, D A; Santamaría, J M



Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry.  


Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 ?g/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter. PMID:24468922

Ely, Craig R; Franson, J Christian



Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 ?g/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian



Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


A major source of environmental lead, particularly in urban areas, has been from the combustion of leaded petrol. Street dust has previously been used to assess urban lead contamination, and the dust itself can also be a potential source of lead ingestion, particularly to children. The progressive reduction of lead in petrol, in recent years, would be expected to have been reflected in a reduction of lead in urban dust. We have tested this hypothesis by repeating an earlier survey of Manchester street dust and carrying out a comparable survey in Paris. Samples were collected from streets and parks, lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid and determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead isotope ratios were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Manchester show that lead concentrations have fallen by about 40% (street dust averages, 941 micrograms g-1 (ppm) in 1975 down to 569 ppm in 1997). In Paris, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between types of street (not seen in Manchester). Additionally, lead levels in parks were much lower than in Manchester. Samples collected under the Eiffel Tower had very high concentrations and lead isotope ratios showed that this was unlikely to be fallout from motor vehicles but could be due to the paint used on the tower. Isotope ratios measurements also revealed that lead additives used in France and the UK come from different sources. PMID:9581021

Nageotte, S M; Day, J P



Photometric and spectrochemical determination of gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates.  


A photometric and a spectrochemical method have been developed for determining gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates. In both, the sample is dissolved and gold is extracted from 1M hydrochloric add solution with a mixture of ethyl methyl ketone and chloroform (1:1). Gold was determined photometrically with N,N'-tetramethyl-o-tolidine. Conditions have been found for satisfactorily sensitive and reproducible spectral determination of gold. For this purpose the effect of various collectors and buffers on the evaporation curves of gold has been studied, as well as excitation conditions, form of the electrodes, optimum slit-width, and photographic variables. The sensitivity and precision of both methods have been evaluated. PMID:18960389

Jordanov, N; Mareva, S; Krasnobaeva, N; Nedyalkova, N



Stimulation of TRPC5 cationic channels by low micromolar concentrations of lead ions (Pb2+)  

PubMed Central

Lead toxicity is long-recognised but continues to be a major public health problem. Its effects are wide-ranging and include induction of hyper-anxiety states. In general it is thought to act by interfering with Ca2+ signalling but specific targets are not clearly identified. Transient receptor potential canonical 5 (TRPC5) is a Ca2+-permeable ion channel that is linked positively to innate fear responses and unusual amongst ion channels in being stimulated by trivalent lanthanides, which include gadolinium. Here we show investigation of the effect of lead, which is a divalent ion (Pb2+). Intracellular Ca2+ and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on HEK 293 cells conditionally over-expressing TRPC5 or other TRP channels. Extracellular application of Pb2+ stimulated TRPC5 at concentrations greater than 1 ?M. Control cells without TRPC5 showed little or no response to Pb2+ and expression of other TRP channels (TRPM2 or TRPM3) revealed partial inhibition by 10 ?M Pb2+. The stimulatory effect on TRPC5 depended on an extracellular residue (E543) near the ion pore: similar to gadolinium action, E543Q TRPC5 was resistant to Pb2+ but showed normal stimulation by the receptor agonist sphingosine-1-phosphate. The study shows that Pb2+ is a relatively potent stimulator of the TRPC5 channel, generating the hypothesis that a function of the channel is to sense metal ion poisoning. PMID:20100462

Sukumar, Piruthivi; Beech, David J.



Evaluating a Mineralogical Control on Arsenic and Lead Concentrations in California Gold Mine Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abandoned gold mining operations in California often host tailings piles, which are a source of various heavy metal contaminants including arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Based on internal USDA Forest Service studies, it has been determined that some tailings are a concern due to high As and Pb while others are only a concern for high As. The research hypothesis is that this difference reflects a mineralogical control on the presence and concentration of As and Pb. This information would be valuable in the prioritization of mining sites for mitigation, as identifying whether both As and Pb are a concern or only As is key in determining the level of risk posed by the tailings. Ore from two mines (Bright Star and May-Lundy) in the Sierra Nevada provided a preliminary test of this hypothesis. Samples were collected from presumed ore found in proximity to mine adits or milling sites. A biased sampling method, based on the presence of clearly visible concentrations of metal sulfide minerals, served as a selection approach. Prior to lab processing, the samples were evaluated for their proportion of metal sulfide minerals to non-metallic minerals, to establish the range of variability at each mine site. A Gyral grinder was used to reduce samples to particles of less than 149 microns in size. The samples were then analyzed with a Niton XL3t model X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device for a one-minute interval. Based on this initial sampling, it is suggestive that the ratio of Pb/As, in the ore material reflects the concentration ratios within the tailings at the respective mine sites. This method assumes that a whole rock analysis is indicative of the proportion of As to Pb bearing minerals present.

Neptune, C. K.; De Graff, J.



Changing Trends in the Epidemiology of Pediatric Lead Exposure: Interrelationship of Blood Lead and ZPP Concentrations and a Comparison to the US Population  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives To determine blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations in a pediatric population, confirm their interrelationship at low blood lead concentrations, and assess changing trends through comparison of these data with those found in a similar population 10 years earlier and to US national values. Study Design and Methods The study was conducted in a large pediatric hospital in the Washington DC area (CNMC) on patient whole blood specimens (n = 4908) (0–17 years) accrued from January 2001 to June 2002. Pediatric blood lead concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and ZPP by hematofluorometry. The data were analyzed using a computer adaptation of the Hoffmann approach. Results and Conclusions Blood lead level (BLL) means ranged between 2.2 and 3.3 ?g/dL, and the median BLL was 3 ?g/dL throughout. Mean ZPP concentrations ranged between 21.1 and 26.6 ?g/dL and the median concentrations between 21 and 27 ?g/dL. In comparison to data obtained from a similar pediatric population at CNMC between 1991 and 1992, pediatric BLLs have significantly declined in the Washington DC area. The current data are also compared with data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) of the US population. The interrelationship between ZPP and BLLs is examined. PMID:12883223

Soldin, Offie Porat; Pezzullo, John C.; Hanak, Brian; Miller, Maureen; Soldin, Steven J.



Enhancing Potentially Plant-Available Lead Concentrations in Contaminated Residential Soils Using a Biodegradable Chelating Agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chelation of heavy metals is an important factor in enhancing metal solubility and, hence, metal availability to plants to promote phytoremediation. In the present study, we compared the effects of application of a biodegradable chelating agent, namely, ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) on enhancing plant available form of lead (Pb) in Pb-based paint contaminated residential soils compared to that of a more commonly used, but non-biodegradable chelate, i.e., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Development of a successful phytoremediation model for metals such as Pb depends on a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the soil, along with the optimization of a chelate treatment to mobilize Pb from `unavailable' pools to potentially plant available fraction. In this context, we set out to perform batch incubation experiments to investigate the effectiveness of the two aforementioned chelates in enhancing plant available Pb at four different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 mM/kg soil) and three treatment durations (0, 10 and 30 days). We selected 12 contaminated residential soils from two major metropolitan areas (San Antonio, TX and Baltimore, MD) with varying soil physico-chemical properties - the soils from San Antonio were primarily alkaline and those from Baltimore were typically acidic. Total soil Pb concentrations ranged between 256 mg/kg and 4,182 mg/kg. Our results show that both chelates increased the solubility of Pb, otherwise occluded in the complex soil matrix. For both EDTA and EDDS, the exchangeable concentrations of soil Pb also increased with increase in chelate concentration and incubation time. The most effective treatment was 15 mM chelate kg-1 soil incubated for 30 days, which caused many fold increase in potentially plant available Pb (a combination of the soluble and exchangeable fractions) relative to the unamended controls. Step wise multiple linear regression analysis using chelate-extractable Pb and soil properties showed that plant available Pb fraction could be assessed from the two inter-related soil parameters: soil organic matter and soil pH. Although EDTA was more effective in Pb solubilization than EDDS, the rapid kinetics of the Pb-EDTA complexation process and the prolonged persistence of EDTA in soils pose a potential groundwater contamination problem via metal leaching. In contrast to EDTA, EDDS addition caused relatively slow release of Pb from the soil matrix. The biodegradable nature (and short half life) of EDDS in soils makes it a promising chelating agent for use as soil amendment to enhance Pb solubilization and hence, potential plant uptake.

Andra, S.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S.



GerES IV: phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine of German children.  


Urine samples from GerES IV were analysed for concentrations of the metabolites of DEHP (MEHP, 5OH-MEHP, 5oxo-MEHP, 5cx-MEPP, and 2cx-MMHP), DnBP and DiBP (MnBP and MiBP), BBzP (MBzP), DiNP (7OH-MMeOP, 7oxo-MMeOP and 7cx-MMeHP), and bisphenol A (BPA) to assess the exposure of German children on a representative basis. 600 morning urine samples had been randomly chosen from stored 1800 GerES IV samples originating from 3 to 14 year old children living in Germany. All metabolites could be detected in nearly all urine samples (N=599). Descriptive data analysis leads to mean concentrations of 5-OH-MEHP and 5-oxo-MEHP of 48microg/l and 37microg/l, respectively. The mean concentration of 7OH-MMeOP was 11microg/l. MnBP, MiNP, MBzP showed mean levels of 96microg/l, 94microg/l, and 18microg/l, respectively. The concentrations of the phthalate metabolites decreased with increasing age. Compared to German adults all children showed three to five fold higher urine concentrations than adults analysed in the same decade. For some children the levels of the sum of 5OH-MEHP and 5oxo-MEHP in urine were higher than the German human biomonitoring value (HBM I) of 500mcirog/l, which indicates that adverse health effects cannot be excluded for these subjects with sufficient certainty. The mean concentration of BPA in urine was 2.7microg/l. A rough calculation of the daily intakes on the basis of the measured concentrations in urine resulted in daily intakes two orders of magnitude lower than the current EFSA reference dose of 50microg/kgbw/d. PMID:19729343

Becker, Kerstin; Göen, Thomas; Seiwert, Margarete; Conrad, Andre; Pick-Fuss, Helga; Müller, Johannes; Wittassek, Matthias; Schulz, Christine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike



Changes of n-hexane metabolites in urine of rats exposed to various concentrations of n-hexane and to its mixture with toluene or MEK  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that n-hexane produces peripheral neuropathy, and 2,5-hexanedione, one of the metabolites of n-hexane, is thought to be the main causative agent. Recently, the metabolites of n-hexane in urine have been measured by gas chromatography, and 2,5-hexanedione was proved to be useful for the biological monitoring of n-hexane exposure. In the present experiment, we intended to clarify

Masamitsu Iwata; Yasuhiro Takeuchi; Naomi Hisanaga; Yuichiro Ono



Widening the problem of lead poisoning to a South-American top scavenger: Lead concentrations in feathers of wild Andean condors  

E-print Network

in feathers of wild Andean condors Sergio A. Lambertucci a, , José Antonio Donázar b , Antonio Delgado Huertas-lived spe- cies. Nevertheless, no information is available for wild Andean condor (Vultur gryphus condor by a non- destructive method using feathers. We determined lead concentration from 152 feathers

Donázar, José A.


A Greenhouse Study on Lead Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) as a Function of Lead Concentration and Soil Physico-Chemical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead (Pb) is a toxic non-essential metal that can cause permanent learning disabilities, retardation, mental and behavioral problems in children. Lead accumulation in soils result from weathering, chipping, scraping, sanding and sand blasting of housing structures constructed prior to 1978, bearing lead-based paint. The primary objective of this study is to develop a cost-effective, chelate-assisted phytoremediation for cleaning up lead contaminated soils. Soils are a unique environment of diverse physical and chemical characteristics that influence the extent of phytoavailable (labile) Pb forms. The success of phytoremediation strategy depends on the physiological/ biochemical tolerance of the plants to lipid peroxidation induced by Pb at sub-lethal levels. Oxidative challenge is alleviated by antioxidant compounds, but more importantly by the induction of antioxidant enzymes, which are crucial for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and terminating lipid peroxidation chain reaction. A column study was conducted in a temperature and humidity-controlled greenhouse setting to assess the extent of Pb phytoextraction and antioxidant response in a lead accumulator, vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Treatments consisted of a randomized block arrangement of 4 soil types (Immokalee, Pahokee Muck, Tobosa, and Millhopper) and 3 soil Pb concentrations [normal - 400 mg/kg lead (following federal soil standards for lead), moderate - 800 mg/kg lead, and excessive - 1200 mg/kg lead] in 4 replicates. At the end of 6 months, selected columns were amended with a biodegradable chelating agent, ethylenediamene disuccinate (10 mmol/ kg EDDS), to mobilize Pb and enhance Pb uptake by vetiver. Total and exchangeable (labile) Pb were correlated with phytoextracted Pb, and levels of antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. Results indicate that Pb uptake and antioxidant enzymes activity in vetiver grass is dependent on soil physico-chemical properties and phytoavailable Pb concentrations.

Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S. K.



Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, S.N.; Mulhern, B.



Abrupt decrease of lead concentration in the Mediterranean sea: A response to antipollution policy  

SciTech Connect

The authors present data from water samples from the northwestern Mediterranean which show a marked decline in the density of lead in surface waters over the past 10 years. This decrease follows the establishments of limits on leaded gasoline usage in western European countries beginning in 1976. This study indicates that the major lead pollutant source was lead based fuels, and that antipollution efforts clearly are successful.

Nicolas, E.; Ruiz-Pino, D. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Villefranche (France)] [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Villefranche (France); Buat-Menard, P. [Universite de Bordeaux I (France)] [Universite de Bordeaux I (France)



Placental transfer and concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium in mothers, newborns, and young children  

PubMed Central

There is an emerging hypothesis that exposure to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in utero and early childhood could have long-term health consequences. However, there are sparse data on early life exposures to these elements in US populations, particularly in urban minority samples. This study measured levels of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se in 50 paired maternal, umbilical cord, and postnatal blood samples from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). Maternal exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se was 100% detectable in red blood cells (RBCs), and there was a high degree of maternal–fetal transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se. In particular, we found that Hg levels in cord RBCs were 1.5 times higher than those found in the mothers. This study also investigated changes in concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se during the first few years of life. We found decreased levels of Hg and Se but elevated Pb levels in early childhood. Finally, this study investigated the association between metal burden and preterm birth and low birthweight. We found significantly higher levels of Hg in maternal and cord plasma and RBCs in preterm or low birthweight births, compared with term or normal birthweight births. In conclusion, this study showed that maternal exposure to these elements was widespread in the BBC, and maternal–fetal transfer was a major source of early life exposure to Hg, Pb, and Se. Our results also suggest that RBCs are better than plasma at reflecting the trans-placental transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se from the mother to the fetus. Our study findings remain to be confirmed in larger studies, and the implications for early screening and interventions of preconception and pregnant mothers and newborns warrant further investigation. PMID:24756102

Chen, Zhu; Myers, Robert; Wei, Taiyin; Bind, Eric; Kassim, Prince; Wang, Guoying; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Bartell, Tami; Gong, Yiwei; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Wang, Xiaobin



Uric acid - urine  


The urine uric acid test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... to choose the best medicine to lower uric acid level in the blood. Uric acid is a ...


Nitrification of human urine for its stabilization and nutrient recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification of human urine performed for its stabilization, and culture of Spirulina platensis in the nitrified human urine were investigated for nutrient recovery. With daily adjusting to pH 8 and keeping high dissolved oxygen concentration, mean 95.0% of NH4-N in human urine can be finally stabilized and oxidized to NO3-N. Furthermore, this nitrified human urine seems to be an ideal

Daolun Feng; Zucheng Wu; Shihong Xu



The antispasmodic drug mebeverine leads to positive amphetamine results by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA)--studies on the toxicological analysis of urine by FPIA and GC-MS.  


Mebeverine (Duspatal, MB), an antispasmodic drug, is the veratric acid ester of 4-[ethyl-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl]amino]butan-1-ol (MB-OH), which is a N-substituted ethylamphetamine derivative. MB is metabolized via ester hydrolysis to MB alcohol (MB-OH) and veratric acid. N-Dehydroxybutylation leads to methoxyethylamphetamine (MO-EA) and, after O-demethylation, to hydroxy EA (HO-EA). N-Bisdealkylation leads to p-methoxyamphetamine (PMA). MO-EA and PMA are also known as designer drugs. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric studies on the toxicological analysis of MB after ingestion of a single 405-mg oral dose of MB were performed. We could show that intake of MB leads to positive FPIA results for amphetamine. The N-dehydroxybutyl metabolites of MB, MO-EA, HO-EA, and the bis-dealkyl metabolite PMA should be responsible for the positive immunoassay results. Using our systematic toxicological analysis procedure, every positive amphetamine immunoassay could be explained by detection of MO-EA, HO-EA, and/or PMA. Misinterpretation of the origin of MO-EA, HO-EA, or PMA can be avoided by detecting the specific (non-dehydroxybutylated) metabolites of MB, which are excreted for a much longer time after ingestion. PMID:11499887

Kraemer, T; Wennig, R; Maurer, H H



Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis



Lead-210 concentration in the air at Mt. Zeppelin, Ny-Ĺlesund, Svalbard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-volume aerosol particle samples have been collected onto glass fibre filters at Ny-Ĺlesund, Svalbard. The filters have been assayed for 210Pb by measuring the alpha particles of its in-grown daughter nuclide 210Po. The observed 210Pb activity concentrations at Mt. Zeppelin, Ny-Ĺlesund, Svalbard vary between 11 and 620 ?Bq/m 3 in 2001. The 25%, 50%, and 75% percentiles of the 210Pb activity concentrations at Mt. Zeppelin are 42, 83, and 220 ?Bq/m 3. The values are clearly lower than at Sodankylä, northern Finland with corresponding values of 100, 170, and 270 ?Bq/m 3. The arithmetic mean concentrations in 2001 were 144 and 245 ?Bq/m 3 at Ny-Ĺlesund and Sodankylä, respectively. The lowest 210Pb activity concentrations are found during summer both at Svalbard and in Finland. The highest concentrations occur in March-April at Svalbard. This differs from the seasonal behaviour of 210Pb in Finland, where the highest concentrations are usually observed in February-March. This 1-month difference between Svalbard and Finland may be related to the strength of solar radiation and its capability to cause vertical mixing of the air. Air mass back trajectory analysis shows that the lowest concentrations found at Svalbard are associated with air masses coming from the North Atlantic Ocean, Greenland and the Canadian Arctic. The highest concentrations are associated with air masses originating from northern Europe and Siberia, and during winter also in air masses coming from the central Arctic Ocean.

Paatero, Jussi; Hatakka, Juha; Holmén, Kim; Eneroth, Kristina; Viisanen, Yrjö


Organic and inorganic amendments affect soil concentration and accumulation of cadmium and lead in wheat in calcareous alkaline soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irrigation with untreated effluent in periurban agriculture could result in accumulation and bioconcentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Different amendments were used to investigate their effect on availability, concentration, and uptake of metals by wheat in texturally different soils. Crop w...


Comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) urine.  


To evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (USG) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate USG value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and feline scales. Osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometry. Specific gravity and osmolality measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.96). The linear relationship between refractivity measurements on a reference scale and osmolality was determined. An equation was calculated to allow specific gravity results from a medical refractometer to be converted to specific gravity values of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots: USGHAp = 0.201 +0.798(USGref). Use of the reference-canine scale to approximate the osmolality of parrot urine leads to an overestimation of the true osmolality of the sample. In addition, this error increases as the concentration of urine increases. Compared with the human-canine scale, the feline scale provides a closer approximation to urine osmolality of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots but still results in overestimation of osmolality. PMID:24640927

Brock, A Paige; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L; Fry, Michael M; Hall, James S; Bartges, Joseph W



Copper and lead concentrations in salt marsh plants on the Suir Estuary, Ireland.  


Concentrations of Cu and Pb were determined in the roots and shoots of six salt marsh plant species, and in sediment taken from between the roots of the plants, sampled from the lower salt marsh zone at four sites along the Suir Estuary in autumn 1997. Cu was mainly accumulated in the roots of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. Pb was mainly accumulated in the roots of monocotyledons, while dicotyledons tended to accumulate Pb in the shoots. In the case of Aster tripolium there was a clear differentiation in the partitioning of Pb within the plant, between low and high salinity sites. At the low salinity sites, Pb accumulated only in the roots while at the high salinity sites there was a marked translocation to the shoots. The increase in Pb concentrations in roots and shoots of A. tripolium was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in sediment concentrations of Pb. This inverse correlation between sediment and plant concentrations of Pb was also recorded for Spartina spp. and Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani but in the case of these species the roots contained higher concentrations of Pb regardless of salinity levels. These differences in accumulation of Cu and Pb in various salt marsh species, and the influence of salinity on the translocation of Pb in A. tripolium in particular, should be taken into account when using these plants for biomonitoring purposes. PMID:12663206

Fitzgerald, E J; Caffrey, J M; Nesaratnam, S T; McLoughlin, P



Concentration of iron, zinc, copper and lead in the brain of wild and domestic geese.  


Concentration of Fe, Zn, Cu and Pb were determined in the brain tissue of wild (bean goose, Anser fabalis, n = 14, and white-fronted goose, A. albifrons, n = 3) and domestic (A. anser f. domestica, n = 13) geese. The results are referred to 1 g fresh weight (micrograms/g). Out of 17 wild geese, 4 individuals showed a very high Pb level. Statistically significant differences in concentrations of the metals studied were found between the white-fronted and domestic geese; for 3 metals (Fe, Zn, Cu), differences between the bean and white-fronted geese were statistically significant as well. The two bean goose types, tundra and taiga, were found to differ in terms of their brain Zn and Cu concentrations: the tundra type geese showed higher content of the metals than those in the taiga type. PMID:8590898

Kalisi?ska, E



Stable lead (Pb) isotopes and concentrations - A useful independent dating tool for Baltic Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prehistory of the Baltic Sea has for a long time suffered from imprecise dating, due to the large uncertainties associated with bulk radiocarbon dating of Baltic Seasediments. To constrain the timing of environmental changes in the Baltic Sea it is critical to apply new dating approaches. This study identifies lead pollution isochrones in Baltic Sea sediments, which have previously

L. Zillén; C. Lenz; T. Jilbert



Determination of Lead, Cations, and Anions Concentration in Indoor and Outdoor Air at the Primary Schools in Kuala Lumpur  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08??g/g–7.01 ± 0.08??g/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca2+ (39.51 ± 5.01?mg/g–65.13 ± 9.42?mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3? and SO42? were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3? (29.72 ± 0.31??g/g–32.00 ± 0.75??g/g) was slightly higher than SO42?. The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3?, SO42?, and Pb2+, were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations. PMID:25136371

Awang, Normah; Jamaluddin, Farhana



Copper and lead concentrations in salt marsh plants on the Suir Estuary, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of Cu and Pb were determined in the roots and shoots of six salt marsh plant species, and in sediment taken from between the roots of the plants, sampled from the lower salt marsh zone at four sites along the Suir Estuary in autumn 1997. Cu was mainly accumulated in the roots of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. Pb was

E. J Fitzgerald; J. M Caffrey; S. T Nesaratnam; P McLoughlin



Deer exposed to exceptionally high concentrations of lead near the continental mine in Idaho, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat surrounding the inactive Continental Mine in northern Idaho, USA, supports bear (Ursus arctos, Ursus americanus), moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus elaphus), woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), and abundant mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Tailings on the mining site were capped and remediated in 2003 to reduce environmental exposure of surrounding soil and sediments of Blue Joe Creek, downslope of the mine. Before capping, the mean Pb concentration in deer pellets collected on-site was 920 mg/kg of Pb (dry wt). This exposure, if chronic, would be comparable to an exposure that could be lethal to cattle or horses. Surprisingly, the mean pellet Pb concentration of 950 mg/kg in 2004 was as high as it was before remediation, and it was related to a high rate of soil ingestion. Mean soil content of the pellets collected from the capped site in 2004 was 22% dry weight, estimated from the acid-insoluble ash, a marker of soil ingestion. Clumps of sand and bits of rock were observed inside some of the pellets, and Pb concentrations in the pellets were correlated (p < 0.05) with soil content. Although terrestrial risk assessments generally estimate exposure from diets and from incidentally ingested soil, the deer at this site were directly ingesting contaminated soil or mining waste. The mean Pb concentration of this ingested soil was estimated as 6,700 mg/kg and the maximum as 25,000 mg/kg, well above the Pb concentrations measured in the remediated cap. The deer seemed to be ingesting soil or mining waste from one or more small but highly contaminated sources located beyond the remediated cap.

Beyer, W.N.; Gaston, G.; Brazzle, R.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Audet, D.J.



Effect of lead ion concentration on the structural and optical properties of nano-crystalline PbS thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PbS thin films have received considerable attention because of their potential applications in opto-electronics applications. Spontaneous reaction of lead acetate and thiourea in aqueous hydrazine hydrate has been used for depositing PbS thin films on glass substrates. Structural and optical properties of PbS thin films are greatly influenced by the morality of the reactants and crystal defects in the lattice. Our work focuses on the variation in lead ion concentration and its effect on the structural and optical properties of PbS thin films. The deposited films were analyzed using XRD, SEM, spectrophotometer and dark resistance measurement. XRD patterns indicated the formation of major phase of nano crystalline PbS with minor presence of lead oxide phase. We also noticed that peak intensity ratio of I111/I200 varied by changing the Pb ion concentration. The film thickness and dark resistance increased whereas optical band gap decreased with the decreasing Pb ion concentration. SEM scans showed that the grain size is less than 100 nm and is not affected by varying Pb ion concentration.

Zaman, S.; Mehmood, S. K.; Mansoor, M.; Asim, M. M.



Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.



Urine the Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners compare water with artificial urine to see how urinalysis works. Learners use urinalysis test strips to test for glucose and protein in the fake urine. Use this activity to demonstrate why doctors examine urine samples to determine a person's health. Safety notes: Follow the safety notes described in the activity as well as Milli's safety tips on page 2.

Society, American C.



Lead concentration and isotopic composition in five peridotite inclusions of probable mantle origin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lead content of five whole-rock peridotite inclusions (four lherzolites and one harzburgite) in alkali basalt ranges from 82 to 570 ppb (parts per billion). Approximately 30-60 ppb of this amount can be accounted for by analyzed major silicate minerals (olivine ??? 10 ppb; enstatite 5-28 ppb; chrome diopside ???400 ppb). Through a series of acid leaching experiments, the remainder of the lead is shown to be quite labile and to reside in either glassy or microcrystalline veinlets or accessory mineral phases, such as apatite and mica. The lead isotopic composition of the peridotites (206Pb/204Pb = 18.01-18.90; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.52-15.61; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.80-38.86) lies within the range of values defined by many modern volcanic rocks and, in particular, is essentially coextensive with the abyssal tholeiite field. In all but one instance, isotopic differences were found between the peridotite and its host alkali basalt. Two of the peridotites clearly demonstrated internal isotopic heterogeneity between leachable and residual fractions that could not simply be due to contamination by the host basalt. However, there is no evidence that these ultramafic rocks form some layer in the mantle with isotopic characteristics fundamentally different from those of the magma sources of volcanic rocks. ?? 1973.

Zartman, R.E.; Tera, F.



Comparison of Nevirapine Plasma Concentrations between Lead-In and Steady-State Periods in Chinese HIV-Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the potential of nevirapine 200 mg once-daily regimen and evaluate the influence of patient characteristics on nevirapine concentrations. Methods This was a prospective, multicentre cohort study with 532 HIV-infected patients receiving nevirapine as a part of their initial antiretroviral therapy. Plasma samples were collected at trough or peak time at the end of week 2 (lead-in period) and week 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 (steady-state period), and nevirapine concentrations were determined using a validated HPLC method. Potential influencing factors associated with nevirapine concentrations were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results A total of 2348 nevirapine plasma concentrations were collected, including 1510 trough and 838 peak values. The median nevirapine trough and peak concentration during the lead-in period were 4.26 µg/mL (IQR 3.05–5.61) and 5.07 µg/mL (IQR 3.92–6.44) respectively, which both exceeded the recommended thresholds of nevirapine plasma concentrations. Baseline hepatic function had a moderate effect on median nevirapine trough concentrations at week 2 (4.25 µg/mL v.s. 4.86 µg/mL, for ALT <1.5×ULN and ?1.5×ULN, respectively, P?=?0.045). No significant difference was observed in median nevirapine trough concentration between lead-in and steady-state periods in patients with baseline ALT and AST level ?1.5×ULN (P?=?0.171, P?=?0.769), which was different from the patients with ALT/AST level <1.5ULN. The median trough concentrations were significantly higher in HIV/HCV co-infected patients than those without HCV at week 48 (8.16 µg/mL v.s. 6.15 µg/mL, P?=?0.004). Conclusions The 200 mg once-daily regimen of nevirapine might be comparable to twice-daily in plasma pharmacokinetics in Chinese population. Hepatic function prior to nevirapine treatment and HIV/HCV coinfection were significantly associated with nevirapine concentrations. Registration ID: NCT00872417 PMID:23359265

Li, Yanling; Xie, Jing; Qiu, Zhifeng; Ye, Min; Fu, Qiang; Han, Yang; Zhu, Zhu; Li, Taisheng



Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscles of three species of wild birds.  


The aim of this study was to monitor accumulation of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscle of some wild birds from selected areas of Slovakia and the correlations among the heavy metals. A total of 160 wild birds representing 3 species-Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) (n = 24), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (n = 68) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) (n = 68) were involved for analyses. Concentrations of heavy metals from samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Metal concentrations are expressed as mg/kg wet weight. The order of lead and arsenic concentrations in muscles of wild birds were as follows: mallard > pheasant > Eurasian coot; in the case of arsenic the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Muscle of Eurasian coot accumulated the highest concentration of cadmium and mercury followed by pheasant and the lowest in mallard, but differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Moderately negative correlations were noted in pheasant between cadmium and mercury (r = -0.39), and between mercury and arsenic (r = -0.45). Moderately negative correlation between cadmium and arsenic (r = -0.31) was found for Eurasian coot. PMID:20397088

Gasparik, Jozef; Vladarova, Denisa; Capcarova, Marcela; Smehyl, Peter; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Garaj, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Massanyi, Peter



RBC urine test  


Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...


Urine collection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)



Concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel in boar semen and relation to the spermatozoa quality.  


The concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel as well as its relation to spermatozoa quality was investigated. The semen samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The concentration of copper in boar semen was 1.64 +/- 0.28 mg kg(-1) and of iron 16.14 +/- 10.35 mg kg(-1). The concentration of zinc in boar semen reached an average value of 171.74 +/- 64.72 mg kg(-1) and the level of cadmium reached 0.01-0.16 mg kg(-1) with the average value of 0.05 mg kg(-1). The analysis of lead showed that the concentration of this element in boar semen was 0.02 +/- 0.03 mg kg(-1) and the average level of nickel was 0.06 +/- 0.08 mg kg(-1). The total percentage of pathological spermatozoa was 9.82 +/- 1.47%. Detail analysis determined 3.18% of separated flagellum, 2.26% knob twisted flagellum, 0.88% flagellum torso, 0.85% flagellum ball, 0.42% broken flagellum, 0.23% retention of the cytoplasmic drop, 0.14% small heads, 0.03% large heads, and 1.83% forms other of pathological changes. Correlation analysis showed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation between copper and lead (r = 0.52). High correlation between small head and knob twisted tail (r = 0.67), small head and broken flagellum (r = 0.88) as well as between small head and total number of pathological spermatozoa (r = 0.73) was determined. PMID:14533929

Massányi, Peter; Trandzík, Jozef; Nad, Pavol; Koréneková, Beáta; Skalická, Magdaléna; Toman, Robert; Lukác, Norbert; Strapák, Peter; Halo, Marko; Turcan, Ján



Liver and kidney concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in cats  

PubMed Central

Background In order to provide new knowledge on the storage of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the feline organism, we measured the concentrations of these elements in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla, evaluating also the impact of age, sex or the occurrence of a chronic kidney disease (CKD). The element concentrations in the tissues of 47 cats (22 male; 25 female; aged between 2 months and 18 years) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Cu, Zn and Mn were the highest in the liver, followed by the renal cortex and the renal medulla. The Cd concentrations were lower in the renal medulla compared to the renal cortex and the liver, and Sr was higher in the renal medulla compared to the liver. The Se concentrations in the cortex of the kidneys were higher than in the medulla of the kidneys and in the liver. Higher Cd concentrations were measured in the renal cortex of female cats, while no further gender-related differences were observed. Except for Cr, Sb and Se, age-dependencies were detected for the storage of all elements. The occurrence of a CKD also affected the storage of the elements, with lower concentrations of Ba (renal medulla), Zn (renal cortex; renal medulla) and Mn (liver; renal medulla), but higher Cd concentrations (liver; renal cortex) in diseased cats. Conclusions In conclusion, the present results provide new information on the accumulation of specific elements in the feline liver and kidneys, demonstrating a dependency on age and an impaired kidney function, but not on the sex of the animals. PMID:25030305



Production of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer from urine.  


Human excreta, especially urine is rich in nitrogen that can be utilized for agricultural purposes, while the slow-release fertilizer allows effective utilization of nutrients in agricultural production. The direct formation of slow-release fertilizer--methylene urea--from urine was being proposed in this study. The experiments were tried to prove formation of methylene urea from human urine, and to investigate the effect of pH and salt concentration on the reaction rate. The synthetic urine and real urine were used for the urea source of the reaction. As a result, the precipitates were prepared from synthetic urine, while the small molecule fractions generated then they grew into precipitate. The nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, element analyses showed the precipitates in synthetic urine were the same compound found in the urea solution, which was methylene urea. The reaction rate was high at low pH value. The reaction rate in the buffer solution was lower than the synthetic urine at the same pH, because some salts may work as a catalyst. The urea concentration reduction rate in real urine showed the same trend with synthetic urine at the same pH, while the precipitation was quite similar to methylene urea. PMID:24527645

Ito, Ryusei; Takahashi, Eri; Funamizu, Naoyuki



Thermal lens study of thermo-optical properties and concentration quenching of Er3+-doped lead pyrophosphate-based glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have used the thermal lens technique combined with conventional spectroscopy to characterize the thermo-optical properties of Er3+-doped lead pyrophosphate-based glasses. More precisely, we have investigated and quantified experimentally the fluorescence quantum efficiencies of the Er3+ levels, and we describe the role of concentration quenching effects. The fluorescence quantum efficiency of the 4I13/2 level is very high when compared to other phosphate glasses, while that of the green-coupled levels is very small. Other important photonic materials parameters, such as the thermal diffusivity and temperature coefficient of the optical path length change, were obtained and compared with those of other glass systems. The cumulative results obtained here for the Er-doped lead pyrophosphate glass show that this material is a good candidate for photonic applications with a characteristic Er3+ infrared emission around 1550 nm.

Santos, C. C.; Rocha, U.; Guedes, I.; Vermelho, M. V. D.; Boatner, L. A.; Jacinto, C.



Thermal lens study of thermo-optical properties and concentration quenching of Er3+-doped lead pyrophosphate based glasses  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we have used the thermal lens technique combined with conventional spectroscopy to characterize the thermo-optical properties of Er3+-doped lead pyrophosphate-based glasses. More precisely, we have investigated and quantified experimentally the fluorescence quantum efficiencies of the Er3+ levels, and we describe the role of concentration quenching effects. The fluorescence quantum efficiency of the 4I13/2 level is very high when compared to other phosphate glasses, while that of the green-coupled levels is very small. Other important photonic materials parameters, such as the thermal diffusivity and temperature coefficient of the optical path length change, were obtained and compared with those of other glass systems. The cumulative results obtained here for the Er-doped lead pyrophosphate glass show that this material is a good candidate for photonic applications with a characteristic Er3+ infrared emission around 1550 nm.

Santos, C. C. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Rocha, U. [Grupo de Fotônica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Brazil; Guedes, Ilde [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Vermelho, M. V. D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Jacinto, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil



Laboratory Measurement of Urine Albumin and Urine Total Protein in Screening for Proteinuria in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Laboratory measurement of urine total protein has been important for the diagnosis and monitoring of renal disease for decades, and since the late 1990s, urine albumin has been measured to determine whether a diabetic patient has incipient nephropathy. Evolving understanding of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and, in particular, the cardiovascular risks that CKD confers, demands more sensitive detection of protein in urine. As well, evidence is now emerging that cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risks are increased at levels within the current ‘normal’ range for urine albumin. Standardisation is essential to permit valid application of universal decision points, and a National Kidney Disease Education Program/International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (NKDEP/IFCC) Working Party is making progress towards a reference system for urine albumin. In the meantime, available data suggest that Australasian laboratory performance is adequate in terms of precision and accuracy above current decision limits for urine albumin. In contrast, the complexity of proteins in urine makes standardisation of urine total protein measurement impossible. As well, urine total protein measurement is insufficiently sensitive to detect clinically important concentrations of urine albumin. An Australasian Expert Group, the Proteinuria Albuminuria Working Group (PAWG) has proposed that urine albumin/creatinine ratio is measured in a fresh, first morning, spot sample to screen for proteinuria in CKD. Both NKDEP/IFCC and PAWG emphasise the need for standardisation of sample collection and handling. PMID:21611083

Martin, Helen



Laboratory measurement of urine albumin and urine total protein in screening for proteinuria in chronic kidney disease.  


Laboratory measurement of urine total protein has been important for the diagnosis and monitoring of renal disease for decades, and since the late 1990s, urine albumin has been measured to determine whether a diabetic patient has incipient nephropathy. Evolving understanding of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and, in particular, the cardiovascular risks that CKD confers, demands more sensitive detection of protein in urine. As well, evidence is now emerging that cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risks are increased at levels within the current 'normal' range for urine albumin. Standardisation is essential to permit valid application of universal decision points, and a National Kidney Disease Education Program/International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (NKDEP/IFCC) Working Party is making progress towards a reference system for urine albumin. In the meantime, available data suggest that Australasian laboratory performance is adequate in terms of precision and accuracy above current decision limits for urine albumin. In contrast, the complexity of proteins in urine makes standardisation of urine total protein measurement impossible. As well, urine total protein measurement is insufficiently sensitive to detect clinically important concentrations of urine albumin. An Australasian Expert Group, the Proteinuria Albuminuria Working Group (PAWG) has proposed that urine albumin/creatinine ratio is measured in a fresh, first morning, spot sample to screen for proteinuria in CKD. Both NKDEP/IFCC and PAWG emphasise the need for standardisation of sample collection and handling. PMID:21611083

Martin, Helen



Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.  


In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (p<0.05). The results showed that Pb, Cd and As contents in 4.3%, 3.3% and 2.2% rice samples respectively, were above maximum allowable concentration (MAC). In fresh edible mushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety. PMID:24206698

Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui



Aluminium in the blood and urine of industrially exposed workers.  

PubMed Central

Blood and urine aluminium concentrations were studied in industrially exposed workers using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Welders and workers making aluminium powder and aluminium sulphate had higher concentrations in blood and urine than non-exposed referents. Workers in the electrolytic production of aluminium had higher urine but not blood concentrations than the referents. Thus aluminium was found to be absorbed by all industrially exposed workers. Blood concentrations were lower than those presumably associated with aluminium induced encephalopathy in patients receiving dialysis. PMID:6871119

Sjögren, B; Lundberg, I; Lidums, V



Potassium urine test  


... levels (hypomagnesemia) Use of non-potassium-sparing diuretics Low urine potassium levels may be due to: Certain medicines, including beta blockers, lithium, trimethoprim, potassium-sparing diuretics, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ...


24-hour urine protein  


... area around the urethra. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end), and ... For males, place the entire penis in the bag and attach the adhesive to the skin. For ...


Osmolality urine - series (image)  


... area around the urethra. Open a urine-collection bag (a plastic bag with adhesive paper on one end), and place ... the entire penis can be placed in the bag with the adhesive attached to the skin. For ...


Urine - abnormal color  


... anemia Injury to the kidneys or urinary tract Medication Porphyria Urinary tract disorders that cause bleeding Dark yellow or orange urine can be caused by: B complex vitamins or carotene Medications such as phenazopyridine (used to treat urinary tract ...


Variability of Organophosphorous Pesticide Metabolite Levels in Spot and 24-hr Urine Samples Collected from Young Children during 1 Week  

PubMed Central

Background: Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in spot urine samples are frequently used to characterize children’s exposures to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. However, variable exposure and short biological half-lives of OP pesticides could result in highly variable measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Objective: We examined within- and between-child variability in DAP metabolites in urine samples collected during 1 week. Methods: We collected spot urine samples over 7 consecutive days from 25 children (3–6 years of age). On two of the days, we collected 24-hr voids. We assessed the reproducibility of urinary DAP metabolite concentrations and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of spot urine samples as predictors of high (top 20%) or elevated (top 40%) weekly average DAP metabolite concentrations. Results: Within-child variance exceeded between-child variance by a factor of two to eight, depending on metabolite grouping. Although total DAP concentrations in single spot urine samples were moderately to strongly associated with concentrations in same-day 24-hr samples (r ? 0.6–0.8, p < 0.01), concentrations in spot samples collected > 1 day apart and in 24-hr samples collected 3 days apart were weakly correlated (r ? –0.21 to 0.38). Single spot samples predicted high (top 20%) and elevated (top 40%) full-week average total DAP excretion with only moderate sensitivity (? 0.52 and ? 0.67, respectively) but relatively high specificity (? 0.88 and ? 0.78, respectively). Conclusions: The high variability we observed in children’s DAP metabolite concentrations suggests that single-day urine samples provide only a brief snapshot of exposure. Sensitivity analyses suggest that classification of cumulative OP exposure based on spot samples is prone to type 2 classification errors. PMID:23052012

Kogut, Katherine; Eisen, Ellen A.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Chevrier, Jonathan; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Eskenazi, Brenda



Lead concentrations in sediments and blue-winged teals (Anas discors) from El Palmar State Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico.  


Reserve regulations at El Palmar State Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico, prohibit the use of lead (Pb) shot, but hunters continue to use it, and no enforcement is implemented. Pb was quantified in sediments and in blue-winged teal Anas discors. No shot pellets were found in the sediment samples, nor were differences in sediment Pb concentrations observed within the reserve between popular hunting sites and those no longer used for hunting. However, there were differences between the hunting sites and sediments from an adjacent area where hunting is prohibited. Average Pb concentrations were highest at hunting entrances (15.69 ± 18.69 mg/kg) and lowest at decoy locations (5.24 ± 4.84 mg/kg). These averages are lower than the lowest effects level (31 mg/kg), although 10 samples exceeded this level. Pb-shot prevalence in gizzards was 4.88% (n = 41). Pb levels exceeded 5.0 mg/kg dry weight in one or more of the tested tissues (liver, gizzard, and bone) in 14 (34.14%; 7 female, 7 male; 11 adult, 3 juvenile) of the total birds. Bird weight, sex, and age had no effect on Pb concentration. Hunting using Pb shot in the reserve clearly affects Pb levels in sediments and in A. discors that winter there. PMID:23775175

Adán, Echeverría-García; Gerardo, Gold-Bouchot



[A review of multi-scale studies on spatial variation of the lead (Pb) concentration in urban soils].  


The accumulation of Pb in urban soils is still apparent in China, and scientific assessment and management of risks from Pb-contaminated soils is necessarily based on contamination levels and extent evaluated accurately. Lead concentration in urban soils has a strong spatial variation and complex spatial structures. Carried out in a single spatial scale, most current investigations cannot comprehensively reveal characteristics of spatial structures, and did not promote more scientific assessment and management of risk. Exploring a new method which can help identify the overall spatial structures is needed. To achieve this aim, this paper firstly investigated the factors linked to the spatial variability of Pb concentration in urban soils, and three major factors were identified: various pollution sources, hierarchical pollution processes and heterogeneous urban landscape. These factors were form a nested hierarchical spatial structure with three spatial levels. Based on the conceptual spatial structure, we proposed a method framework guided by geostatistical theory and focused on linear mixed model (LMM). This proposed framework can divide the nested hierarchical spatial structures of Pb concentration in urban soils into three levels: global trend, random variation with spatial autocorrelation, and outliers. Two recommendations were given to promote the multiple-scale investigation in spatial variation of soil Pb contamination in urban area including: finding more efficient sampling strategy and determining the characteristic scale. PMID:24946621

Yang, Meng; Li, Feng-Ying; Diao, Yi-Wei; Wu, Dan



Effect of complexans (EDTA, NTA and DTPA) on the exposure to high concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead  

SciTech Connect

The effects of complexans on the toxicity of short exposures to high chemical concentrations of heavy meals were examined. The heavy metals used were cadmium, zinc, lead and copper. Mortality every 24-h and the content of metal in each of three areas of fish - viscera, gills and other parts - were detemined both in the groups kept in water containing metal alone and in those whose aqueous environments contained complexan in mole concentrations three time that of the heavy metal. The carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) 8.0 + 0.5 cm were kept in groups of 8 to 10. There were altogether 49 such groups: 12 kept in three relatively high concentrations of each of the metals, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, alone; 36 groups in environments each containing only one of the three complexans, the tetrasodium salt of ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the trisodium salt of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and the pentasodium salt of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) were used. Results indicate that the addition of the complexans resulted in the decrease of the tissue concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. It is considered that the heavy metals were not present merely as metal ions but formed complexes with the complexans, since the complexans were added at three times mole of the metal and therefore complex formation occurred in preference to the binding of the metals with the tissue proteins of the fish. It is furthermore assumed that the heavy metals can pass through the fish as metal-complexes, and so are not retained.

Muramoto, S.



Influence of PbF2 concentration on thermal, structural and spectroscopic properties of Eu3+-doped lead phosphate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of PbF2 content on the local structure, thermal and spectroscopic properties of Eu3+ ions in lead phosphate glass systems have been studied. The glass samples, where PbO was partially or totally replaced by PbF2, were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and luminescence spectroscopy. Based on DSC curves, characteristic temperatures and the thermal stability parameters useful for glass fiber drawing were determined. In order to confirm glass structure, XRD measurements were used. Luminescence spectra and their decays were analyzed in details. Especially, the changes of red-to-orange luminescence intensity ratios R/O (Eu3+) and measured lifetimes for 5D0 excited state of Eu3+ are presented and discussed as a function of PbF2 concentration.

?ur, Lidia; So?tys, Marta; Goryczka, Tomasz; Pisarska, Joanna; Pisarski, Wojciech A.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the NCTM Android app of their familiar on line Illuminations game, "Concentration" ( cataloged separately ) which challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.



Quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine by metalized nanostructured parylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly accurate, real-time multisensor agent monitor for biomarker detection is required for early detection of kidney diseases. Urine creatinine level can provide useful information on the status of the kidney. We prepare nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates without template or lithography, which provides controllable, well-organized nanostructures on the surface, for the quantitative analysis of creatinine concentration in urine. We present our work on sensitivity of the SERS substrate to urine samples collected from diabetic patients and healthy persons. We report the preparation of a new type of SERS substrate, which provides fast (<10 s), highly sensitive (creatinine concentration <0.5 ?g/mL) and reproducible (<5% variation) detection of urine. Our method to analyze the creatinine level in urine is in good agreement with the enzymatic method.

Wang, Hui; Malvadkar, Niranjan; Koytek, S.; Bylander, J.; Reeves, W. Brian; Demirel, Melik C.



Inhibitory effects of urine on the polymerase chain reaction for cytomegalovirus DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effects of urine samples taken from neonates and older children, some of which were known to be infected with cytomegalovirus, on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were investigated. Urea was the major inhibitory component of urine and inhibited the PCR at a concentration of more than 50 mM. Urine samples from older children were more inhibitory than those

G Khan; H O Kangro; P J Coates; R B Heath



Determination of catecholamines in plasma and urine.  


For more than 20 years, measurement of catecholamines in plasma and urine in clinical chemistry laboratories has been the cornerstone of the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors deriving from the neural crest such as pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and neuroblastoma (NB), and is still used to assess sympathetic stress function in man and animals. Although assay of catecholamines in urine are still considered the biochemical standard for the diagnosis of NB, they have been progressively abandoned for excluding/confirming PHEOs to the advantage of metanephrines (MNs). Nevertheless, catecholamine determinations are still of interest to improve the biochemical diagnosis of PHEO in difficult cases that usually require a clonidine-suppression test, or to establish whether a patient with PHEO secretes high concentrations of catecholamines in addition to metanephrines. The aim of this chapter is to provide an update about the catecholamine assays in plasma and urine and to show the most common pre-analytical and analytical pitfalls associated with their determination. PMID:24094641

Grouzmann, Eric; Lamine, Faiza



Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium.  


Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n=60) and Coot (n=50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006-2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n=5) and high concentrations (Mallards n=18 and Coots n=17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions. PMID:23500832

Binkowski, ?ukasz J; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna; Szarek, Józef; Strzy?ewska, Emilia; Felsmann, Mariusz



Urine collection - infants  


... gave you. You will be given a special bag to collect the urine. It will be a plastic bag with a sticky strip on one end, made ... fit over your baby's genital area. Open this bag and place it on the infant. For males, ...


Quantitative urine confirmatory testing for synthetic cannabinoids in randomly collected urine specimens.  


Synthetic cannabinoid intake is an ongoing health issue worldwide, with new compounds continually emerging, making drug testing complex. Parent synthetic cannabinoids are rarely detected in urine, the most common matrix employed in workplace drug testing. Optimal identification of synthetic cannabinoid markers in authentic urine specimens and correlation of metabolite concentrations and toxicities would improve synthetic cannabinoid result interpretation. We screened 20?017 randomly collected US military urine specimens between July 2011 and June 2012 with a synthetic cannabinoid immunoassay yielding 1432 presumptive positive specimens. We analyzed all presumptive positive and 1069 negative specimens with our qualitative synthetic cannabinoid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which confirmed 290 positive specimens. All 290 positive and 487 randomly selected negative specimens were quantified with the most comprehensive urine quantitative LC-MS/MS method published to date; 290 specimens confirmed positive for 22 metabolites from 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids. The five most predominant metabolites were JWH-018 pentanoic acid (93%), JWH-N-hydroxypentyl (84%), AM2201 N-hydroxypentyl (69%), JWH-073 butanoic acid (69%), and JWH-122?N-hydroxypentyl (45%) with 11.1 (0.1-2,434), 5.1 (0.1-1,239), 2.0 (0.1-321), 1.1 (0.1-48.6), and 1.1 (0.1-250) µg/L median (range) concentrations, respectively. Alkyl hydroxy and carboxy metabolites provided suitable biomarkers for 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids; although hydroxyindoles were also observed. This is by far the largest data set of synthetic cannabinoid metabolites urine concentrations from randomly collected workplace drug testing specimens rather than acute intoxications or driving under the influence of drugs. These data improve the interpretation of synthetic cannabinoid urine test results and suggest suitable urine markers of synthetic cannabinoid intake. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25231213

Castaneto, Marisol S; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Gandhi, Adarsh; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas M; Huestis, Marilyn A



Microdetermination of urea in urine using p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde /PDAB/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaptation of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde method for determining urea concentration in urine is an improved micromechanical method. Accuracy and precision are satisfactory. This method avoids extra steps of deproteinizing or removing normal urinary chromogens.

Geiger, P. J.



Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)  


... urinate into a cup, a catheter (a narrow, soft tube) may need to be inserted into the bladder to obtain the urine specimen. The skin surrounding the urinary opening has to be cleaned and rinsed just before the urine is collected. In this "clean-catch" method, you or your child cleans the skin around ...


Arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium concentrations in private bedrock wells in southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the trace metal arsenic have been identified in drinking water from groundwater sources in southeastern New Hampshire, a rapidly growing region of the State (Montgomery and others, 2003). During the past decade (2000–10), southeastern New Hampshire, which is composed of Hillsborough, Rockingham, and Strafford Counties, has grown in population by nearly 48,700 (or 6.4 percent) to 819,100. These three counties contain 62 percent of the State’s population but encompass only about 22 percent of the land area (New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning, 2011). According to a 2005 water-use study (Hayes and Horn, 2009), about 39 percent of the population in these three counties in southeastern New Hampshire uses private wells as sources of drinking water, and these wells are not required by the State to be routinely tested for trace metals or other contaminants. Some trace metals have associated human-health benchmarks or nonhealth guidelines that have been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate public water supplies. The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for arsenic (As) and a MCL of 30 ?g/L for uranium (U) because of associated health risks (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are essential for human health, but Mn at high doses may have adverse cognitive effects in children (Bouchard and others, 2011; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2012); therefore, the EPA has issued a lifetime health advisory (LHA) of 300 ?g/L for Mn. Recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for Fe (300 ?g/L) and Mn (50 ?g/L) were established primarily as nonhealth guidelines—based on aesthetic considerations, such as taste or the staining of laundry and plumbing fixtures—because these contaminants, at the SMCLs, are not considered to present risks to human health. Because lead (Pb) contamination of drinking water typically results from corrosion of plumbing materials belonging to water-system customers but still poses a risk to human health, the EPA established an action level (AL) of 15 ?g/L for Pb instead of an MCL or SMCL (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). The 15-?g/L AL for Pb has been adopted by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services for public water systems, and if exceeded, the public water system must inform their customers and undertake additional actions to control corrosion in the pipes of the distribution system (New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, 2013). Unlike the quality of drinking water provided by public water suppliers, the quality of drinking water obtained from private wells in New Hampshire is not regulated; consequently, private wells are sampled only when individual well owners voluntarily choose to sample them. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA New England, conducted an assessment in 2012–13 to provide private well owners and State and Federal health officials with information on the distribution of trace-metal (As, Fe, Pb, Mn, and U) concentrations in groundwater from bedrock aquifers in the three counties of southeastern New Hampshire. This fact sheet analyzes data from water samples collected by a randomly selected group of private well owners from the three-county study area and describes the major findings for trace-metal concentrations.

Flanagan, Sarah M.; Belaval, Marcel; Ayotte, Joseph D.



Measurement of sugar probes in serum: an alternative to urine measurement in intestinal permeability testing.  


The percentage dose of lactulose and mannitol excreted in urine after oral ingestion is used as a noninvasive method of assessing small intestinal permeability. The collection of incomplete or inaccurately timed urine samples can lead to errors in estimation of sugar probe molecules. We describe an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of lactulose and mannitol in serum after oral ingestion of test sugars. We applied the test to healthy volunteers and to subjects undergoing jejunal biopsy for suspected gluten-sensitive enteropathy. The ratio of concentrations of lactulose and mannitol in serum discriminated well between subjects with a normal biopsy and those with villous atrophy, discrimination being best at 90 min postdose. The results agree well with lactulose:mannitol ratios determined in urine (r= 0.88), and the two methods can be used interchangeably. The determination of mannitol and lactulose in serum provides an acceptable alternative to urine collection and may be particularly useful in young children. It also reduces the time spent on the investigation from 5 h to 90 min. PMID:8598111

Fleming, S C; Duncan, A; Russell, R I; Laker, M F



Selected pesticide residues and metabolites in urine from a survey of the U.S. general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophos?phorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or their metabolites. Urine concentration was also measured. The most frequently occurring residue in urine was penta?chlorophenol (PCP), found in quantifiable concentrations in

Frederick W. Kutz; Brion T. Cook; Debra Brody; Robert S. Murphy



Sulfur control of lead concentration during MORB genesis: clues to the origin of HIMU and FOZO sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been widely accepted that recycling of oceanic and continental crusts produced chemically distinct regions in the mantle, so called mantle reservoirs (FOZO, HIMU, EMI and EMII; e.g., Stracke et al. 2005). Thus the investigation of the process that produced these reservoirs would be essential to understand the material recycling in the Earth. In particular, FOZO and HIMU could be important because these reservoirs are inferred to be produced by recycling of oceanic crust that is major constituent of the subducting slab. As the recycled oceanic crust suffered subduction process to produce continental crust, the origin of the FOZO and HIMU, and continental crust could potentially be connected. Although the growth rate of the continental crust is still in debated, much of the crust seems to be formed during Archean and early Proterozoic times. In such ancient time, the subducting oceanic crust would be much more likely to be melted due to high geothermal gradient and low average age of the crust. It could follow that the recycled material observed in OIB should have experienced melting rather than dehydration because the age of recycled material is inferred to be ca 1.0-2.0 Ga (Chauvel, et al., 1992; Hofmann 1997). Nevertheless, melt-extraction process can not produce the suitable isotopic composition of OIBs. Dehydration of oceanic crust is another major process in subduction zone especially at present. In addition, the process is widely accepted as the origin of HIMU source (e.g., Kogiso et al., 1997). It might follow that HIMU magmas could be a common type of OIB as the dehydrated oceanic crust should be a major constituent of subducting slab. In spite of this expectation, occurrence of HIMU magmas is quite rare: only observed in St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean and the Cook-Austral islands in the South Pacific Ocean. These lines of evidence could suggest that simple dehydration reaction or melting event was not suitable to produce the OIB source. For the comprehensive understanding of the relationship between FOZO, HIMU and continental crust, geochemical modeling has been conducted using trace element composition and Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic ratios. The model focuses on the chemical evolution of the magma in mod-ocean ridges that can change U, Th, Pb and S concentration in magma. In particular, the model pays special attention to the behavior of S. The result suggests that dehydration melting of oceanic crust at shallow level (amphibole stability field) can produce melt of which trace element composition is similar to bulk continental crust. In addition, the residual oceanic crust can produce Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic composition that is consistent with FOZO component at the age of 10-20 billon years. HIMU component can only be produced by the dehydration melting of oceanic crust that suffered strong crystal fractionation during the production of the oceanic crust. The fractional crystallization at mid-ocean ridges can increase U and Th concentration in oceanic crust. Sulfur solubility is also enhanced during the crystal fractionation due to iron enrichment. High sulfur content in the evolved magma leads to distribute much more lead into sulfide compared to less evolved oceanic crust. This geochemical feature could be suitable to produce HIMU source via dehydration melting. We will present a geochemical model that is focused on origin of HIMU source and the relationship between continental crust and OIB sources.

Shimoda, G.; Kogiso, T.



Electrolytic pretreatment of urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.



Concentrations and loads of cadmium, zinc, and lead in the main stem Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho—March, June, September, and October 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

of the effects of different river discharges and lake levels of Coeur d'Alene Lake on the transport of cadmium, zinc, and lead within the main stem Coeur d'Alene River. In particular, water-quality data and loads during a broad range of hydrologic conditions were examined to determine if the river channel, flood plain, and associated ground water along the main stem Coeur d'Alene River acted as sources or sinks of trace elements. Water-quality samples were collected at six riverine stations and one lake station along a 35-mile reach during March, June, September, and October of 1999. Samples were analyzed for whole-water recoverable, filtered (0.45 micrometer), and dissolved (0.01 micrometer) concentrations of cadmium, zinc, and lead. Concentrations and loads of cadmium and zinc measured during the four sampling trips were predominately in the filtered and dissolved fraction ,rather than particulate. The smallest concentrations were measured during the June sampling trip when flows were high and snowmelt runoff diluted riverine concentrations. Conversely, the largest concentrations were measured during the latter two sampling trips when flows were low because a larger proportion of the river's discharge was contributed by ground-water inflow. During each sampling trip, cadmium and zinc concentrations generally decreased in a downstream directioeven as discharge increased in a downstream direction. Spatial and temporal trends exhibited by lead concentrations and loads during the four sampling trips were different from those of cadmium and zinc because of the propensity for lead to adsorb to sediment particles. Whole-water recoverable lead concentrations and loads during the four sampling trips were predominantly in the particulate fraction, with filtered and dissolved concentrations and loads composing a much smaller proportion of the recoverable fraction compared to cadmium and zinc. Filtered lead concentrations generally increased at a faster rate in the downstream direction than dissolved lead concentrations; thus, colloidallead either was being formed by complexation reactions or being added by sediment erosion in the downstream direction.

Woods, P.F.




SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B



Biological Fractionation of Lead Isotopes in Sprague-Dawley Rats Lead Poisoned via the Respiratory Tract  

PubMed Central

Objectives It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems. Methods 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces) were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance) and the low-lead animal feed (diet) administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results There are significant differences (p<0.05) in lead isotope ratios between blood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of 204Pb/206Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when 204Pb/206Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group. Conclusions The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for 204Pb/206Pb ratio under high-dose exposure. PMID:23300678

Wu, Jing; Liu, Duojian; Xie, Qing; Wang, Jingyu



Heavy metal pollution in Jamaica 1: Survey of cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations in the Kintyre and Hope Flat districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its being highly mineralised, the Hope Mine area has become a residential district. Composite soil samples taken from 91 allotments show values for cadmium: -1, lead: 6–38,000 mg kg-1, and zinc: 66–40,000 mg kg-1. Water samples from adits contain 52–86 µg kg-1 of lead and -1 of cadmium. The soil contents of cadmium and lead in at least two

B. Anglin-Brown; A. Armour-Brown; G. C. Lalor



[Lead in drinking water, determination of its concentration and effects of new recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) on public and private networks management].  


In 1993, the World Health Organization (WHO) has given a guideline value of 10 microgram/l for lead in drinking water, a phased approach should lead to a temporary parametric value of 25 micrograms/l within 5 years the final concentration value of 10 micrograms/l being achieved after 15 years. So far the current European Community Directive 80/778 and the French decree 89/3 stipulate a Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC) for lead of 50 micrograms/l. In a first step we studied the mechanisms of plumbosolvency in corrosive and scaling water. In the first case we have shown that simple oxidative corrosion of lead pipes forms a coating of lead carbonate and hydroxicarbonate on the inside wall of the pipe but "plumbosolvent" waters can dissolve those products, although at a lower level, resulting in a rather high lead concentration. In the case of scaling waters there is a co-precipitation of insoluble calcium carbonate but only on the microcathodics zones of the lead pipe. As this precipitate is poorly cohesive and does not cover the entire surface of the pipe its oxidative corrosion can proceed. In a second step we have shown the major importance of sampling for the determination of lead concentration in drinking water. We therefore compared random day time sampling, first draw and flushed samplings and composite proportional sampling. Only this last method gave a reasonably accurate idea of lead's amounts ingested by drinking water's consumers. The control of corrosion in lead-containing materials involves two successive steps: the reduction of lead concentration to 25 micrograms/l within five years and the compliance with the final 10 micrograms/l concentration 15 years later. The first step consists in water treatments such as pH increase, adjustment of alkalinity and addition of orthophospates. But available data suggest that it is unlikely that lead concentration could be reduced consistently to below 10 micrograms/l by avalable water treatment methods alone but it would enable to match the parametric 25 micrograms/l value in the great majority of cases. Therefore, to unable compliance with the 10 micrograms/l parametric value, it will be necessary to replace all the internal plumbing and supply lead pipes (70,000 buildings for Paris only). Data for materials able to replace lead such as plastic pipes are not yet complete and an currently under investigations. Although the United States Environmental Protection Agency have suggested in its 1988 report on air quality criteria for lead report (EPA 600/8-33-028 aF-dF) that each 1 microgram/l of lead in water can lead to an increase of blood lead levels of approximately 0.2 micrograms/l for a child, the data are still uncertain. The considerable cost of these works (143 billion of french francs for France and 347 billions of french francs for Europe), unrelated to any important Public Health problems, arises an ethical problem which has to be considered in view of many others letal illnesses such as heart and circulatory diseases, cancer and AIDS. PMID:8556413

Vilagines, R; Leroy, P



Pregnancy diagnosis in urine of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  


Diagnosis of pregnancies is an important management tool for the Iberian lynx Conservation Breeding Program, a program geared to recover the world's most endangered felid. Non-invasive methods such as fecal hormone analyses are not applicable to the lynx, since fecal progestin does not follow the typical pregnancy pattern of felids. Therefore, we aimed to test whether urine can be used as an alternative substance for pregnancy diagnosis in the Iberian lynx. Progesterone immunoreactive metabolites were determined in urine samples of pregnant and non-pregnant females before and during breeding season. Additionally, we used the Witness Relaxin test to determine relaxin in blood and urine. No differences were found in progestin concentrations determined in urine samples collected from pregnant and non-pregnant animals between day 1 and 65 following mating. Although the Witness Relaxin test was positive in serum samples collected from animals between day 32 and 56 of pregnancy, it failed in both fresh and frozen urine samples collected from the same stage of pregnancy. A weak relaxin reaction in urine samples collected from animals between day 29 and 46 of pregnancy was detectable after urines were concentrated by ultrafiltration (>50x). Concentrated samples obtained from non-pregnant and early pregnant animals yielded negative test results. In conclusion, the Witness Relaxin test can be applied for pregnancy diagnosis in Iberian lynx in both serum and concentrated urine samples obtained during the second half of pregnancy. A positive relaxin test indicates an ongoing pregnancy, whereas negative tests must be judged carefully as hormone concentrations might be below detection thresholds. PMID:19013637

Braun, B C; Frank, A; Dehnhard, M; Voigt, C C; Vargas, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K



The effects of the size and the doping concentration on the power factor of n-type lead telluride nanocrystals for thermoelectric energy conversion.  


For the first time, we demonstrate a successful synthesis of colloidal n-type lead telluride nanocrystals doped with iodine. By tuning the reaction time and iodine concentration in the precursor solution, nanocrystals with different sizes and doping concentrations are synthesized. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the nanocrystals are measured on nanocrystal thin films fabricated by dip-coating glass substrates in the nanocrystals solution. Investigations on the influence of size and doping concentration on the electrical properties have been performed. The results show that the size of the nanocrystals significantly influences the electrical conductivity but not the Seebeck coefficient of nanocrystal films, while higher doping concentration leads to lower Seebeck coefficient but higher electrical conductivity in the nanocrystal films. Proof-of-concept thin-film thermoelectric modules are also fabricated using both p-type and n-type PbTe nanocrystals for the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. PMID:24527850

Fang, Haiyu; Luo, Zhiqiang; Yang, Haoran; Wu, Yue



Determination of lead in sea-water with a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer and an improved automatic on-line pre-concentration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved automatic on-line pre-concentration system for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for the determination of trace metals in sea-water was developed. This system was modified from a Perkin-Elmer AS-40 autosampler by mounting a silica gel C 18 microcolumn near the tip of the autosampler capillary. The pre-concentration procedure was performed by using a four-way distribution valve and controlled by a programmable controller. The pre-concentration system developed previously was improved by using a peristaltic pump to replace the reciprocating pumps, a newly designed tube bed adjuster to release the back-pressure in the pre-concentration system, and a better control program, such that on-line pre-concentration became more reliable and fully automatic. The chelating agent ammonium pyrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and a miniature column packed with 5 mg of C 18 silica gel were used for pre-concentration. This system was tested by analyzing the lead content in reference standard sea-water samples. A sample volume of only 2 ml was required to determine lead in sea-water. The relative limit of detection of lead was 3.5 pg/ml.

Liu, Zhen-Shan; Huang, Shang-Da



Forest floor lead, copper and zinc concentrations across the northeastern United States: Synthesizing spatial and temporal responses.  


Understanding how metal concentrations in soil have responded to reductions of anthropogenic emissions is essential for predicting potential ecosystem impacts and evaluating the effectiveness of pollution control legislation. The objectives of this study were to present new data and synthesize existing literature to document decreases in Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations in forest soils across the northeastern US. From measurements at 16 sites, we observed that forest floor Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations have decreased between 1980 and 2011 at an overall mean rate of 1.3±0.5% yr(-1). E-folding times, a concentration exponential decay rate (1/k), for Pb, Cu and Zn at the 16 sites were estimated to be 46±7, 76±20 and 81±19yr, respectively. Mineral soil concentrations were correlated with forest floor concentrations for Pb, but not for Cu and Zn, suggesting an accumulation in one pool does not strongly influence accumulation in the other. Forest floor Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations from our sites and 17 other studies conducted from 1970-2014 in remote forests across the northeastern US were compiled into pooled data sets. Significant decreasing trends existed for pooled forest floor Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations. The pooled forest floor Pb e-folding time was determined to be 33±9yrs, but the explanatory power of pooled Cu and Zn regressions were inadequate for calculating e-folding times (r(2)<0.25). Pooled Pb, Cu, and Zn concentrations in forest floor were multiple-regressed with latitude, longitude, elevation, and year of sampling, cumulatively explaining 55, 38, and 28% of the variation across compiled studies. Our study suggests anthropogenic Pb in the forest floor will continue to decrease, but decreases in forest floor Cu and Zn concentrations may be masked by spatial heterogeneity or are at a new steady state. PMID:25461088

Richardson, J B; Donaldson, E C; Kaste, J M; Friedland, A J



Concentrations and Origins of Atmospheric Lead and Other Trace Species at a Rural Site in Northern China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study we analyze the ambient levels of lead and other trace species in the bulk aerosol samples from a rural site approx.70 km ESE of Beijing in spring 2005. Lead (0.28+/-0.24 micro-g/cu m, average +/- standard deviation), along with several pollution \\related trace elements, was enriched by over 100 fold relative to the Earth's crust. The ambient lead levels showing large synoptic variations were well-correlated with other anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., CO and SO2). The Unmix receptor model resolved four factors in the aerosol composition data: a biomass burning source, an industrial and coal combustion source, a secondary aerosol source, and a dust source. The first three sources were strongest in weak southerly winds ahead of cold fronts, while the dust source peaked in strong northerly winds behind cold fronts. The second source, primarily representing emissions from industrial processes and relatively small \\scale coal burning such as in home and institutional heating, was identified as the main source of ambient lead in this study. Mobile sources might also contribute to this factor, but there was no distinct evidence of emissions due to combustion of leaded gasoline, despite a correlation between lead and CO. Potential source contribution function, calculated from backward trajectories and aerosol composition, further reveals that lead observed in this study was predominantly from the populated and industrialized areas to the south and SW of Xianghe, rather than Beijing to the west. Our results and several recent studies show that the lead levels in suburban areas near big cities in China, although generally lower than those in industrial districts and urban areas, are substantial (near or above 0.15 micro-g/cu m). More extensive studies on airborne lead and its emission sources in China are called for.

Li, Can; Wen, Tianxue; Li, Zhanqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; Yang, Yongjie; Zhao, Yanan; Wang, Yuesi; Tsay, Si-Chee



Innovative processing technique to produce zinc concentrate from zinc leach residue with simultaneous recovery of lead and silver  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the conventional zinc hydrometallurgical roast-leach-electrowin process lead and silver report in the neutral leach residue along with zinc ferrite. Lead and silver from the zinc plant leach residue are recovered by a froth flotation process followed by roast-leach-precipitation-reduction to obtain a highly pure silver. Inherent process constraints of water balance and build-up of problem impurities from the silver recovery

R Raghavan; P. K Mohanan; S. C Patnaik



Associations between land cover categories, soil concentrations of arsenic, lead and barium, and population race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.  


The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between Anderson land cover category percentages and soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were investigated. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent. PMID:24914533

Davis, Harley T; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne



Metabolic alkalosis from unsuspected ingestion: use of urine pH and anion gap.  


Underlying causes of metabolic alkalosis may be evident from history, evaluation of effective circulatory volume, and measurement of urine chloride concentration. However, identification of causes may be difficult for certain conditions associated with clandestine behaviors, such as surreptitious vomiting, use of drugs or herbal supplements with mineralocorticoid activity, abuse of laxatives or diuretics, and long-term use of alkalis. In these circumstances, clinicians often are bewildered by unexplained metabolic alkalosis from an incomplete history or persistent deception by the patient, leading to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. We present a case of severe metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia with a borderline urine chloride concentration in an alcoholic patient treated with a thiazide. The cause of the patient's metabolic alkalosis eventually was linked to surreptitious ingestion of baking soda. This case highlights the necessity of a high index of suspicion for the diverse clandestine behaviors that can cause metabolic alkalosis and the usefulness of urine pH and anion gap in its differential diagnosis. PMID:22265393

Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Song, June-Seok; Kim, Ho-Jung



Re-evaluation of blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Québec): a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Arctic populations are exposed to mercury, lead and cadmium through their traditional diet. Studies have however shown that cadmium exposure is most often attributable to tobacco smoking. The aim of this study is to examine the trends in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure between 1992 and 2004 in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada) using the data obtained from two broad scale health surveys, and to identify sources of exposure in 2004. Methods In 2004, 917 adults aged between 18 and 74 were recruited in the 14 communities of Nunavik to participate to a broad scale health survey. Blood samples were collected and analysed for metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and dietary and life-style characteristics were documented by questionnaires. Results were compared with data obtained in 1992, where 492 people were recruited for a similar survey in the same population. Results Mean blood concentration of mercury was 51.2 nmol/L, which represent a 32% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Mercury blood concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20; p < 0.0001), and the most important source of exposure to mercury was marine mammal meat consumption (partial r2 = 0.04; p < 0.0001). In 2004, mean blood concentration of lead was 0.19 ?mol/L and showed a 55% decrease since 1992. No strong associations were observed with any dietary source, and lead concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20.; p < 0.001). Blood cadmium concentrations showed a 22% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Once stratified according to tobacco use, means varied between 5.3 nmol/L in never-smokers and 40.4 nmol/L in smokers. Blood cadmium concentrations were mainly associated with tobacco smoking (partial r2 = 0.56; p < 0.0001), while consumption of caribou liver and kidney remain a minor source of cadmium exposure among never-smokers. Conclusion Important decreases in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure were observed. Mercury decrease could be explained by dietary changes and the ban of lead cartridges use likely contributed to the decrease in lead exposure. Blood cadmium concentrations remain high and, underscoring the need for intensive tobacco smoking prevention campaigns in the Nunavik population. PMID:18518986

Fontaine, Julie; Dewailly, Éric; Benedetti, Jean-Louis; Pereg, Daria; Ayotte, Pierre; Déry, Serge



Simple method of determination of copper, mercury and lead in potable water with preliminary pre-concentration by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and chemical pre-concentration procedures have been applied for the analysis of trace concentrations of copper, mercury, and lead in drinking water samples. A simple total reflection module has been used in X-ray measurements. The elements under investigation were pre-concentrated by complexation using a mixture of carbamates followed by solvent extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone. The preconcentration procedure was tested with the use of twice-distilled water samples and samples of mineral and tap water spiked with known additions of copper, mercury, and lead. The obtained recovery and precision values are presented. The minimum detection limits for the determination of these elements in mineral and tap water samples were found to be 40 ng l -1, 60 ng l -1, and 60 ng l -1, respectively.

Ho?y?ska, B.; Ostachowicz, B.; W?grzynek, D.



Electroreduction of nitrate ions in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at lead, zinc, nickel, and phthalocyanine-modified electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical reduction of nitrate in strongly alkaline solution has been studied using nickel, lead, zinc, and iron cathodes. Intermediate formation of nitrate ion and ammonia product was observed for all electrode materials. Coating a nickel sponge electrode with phthalocyanine renders it less active toward nitrate reduction, while iron electrodes appear to be activated. Electrolysis between a lead cathode and a nickel anode is an efficient means of removing nitrate from strongly alkaline solutions. Electrode pretreatment and solution conditions were chosen to correspond to those that might be encountered in practical applications, for example, the cleanup of radioactive waste solutions.

Li, H. [Lanzhou Univ., Ganzu (China). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Chambers, J.Q. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Hobbs, D.T. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.



Using human urine as food for cyanobacteria in LSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In biological LSS: human, higher plants, algae, united by common cycle of matter, native human urine is the most problematic substance for using in inter-link exchange. It contains urea, ammonium compounds and up to 10 g/l of NaCl. Each of the mentioned components is toxic for growing higher plants. As for inferior plants, experiments showed that cyanobacteria of genus Spirulina platensis and similar genus Oscillatoria deflexa can grow at NaCl concentrations up to 20 g/l and NH4Cl concentrations up to 800 mg/l. These cyanobacteria can be used in LSS as a photosynthesizing link. Besides, S. platensis is edible for humans and fish. To use urine as food for algae, it is necessary to remove urea and organics. All previously used methods for urine treatment aimed at urea destruction: heating to 300oC, ultraviolet exposure, freezing, oxidation on reactor with hydrogen peroxide, had no effect. We used the following method of urine treatment: urine evaporation till dry residue, subsequent combustion in muffle furnace at 450-500oC and creation of ash water extract of the same volume as the initial urine. Comparison of standard Zarrouk's solution for S. platensis and O. deflexa with the water extract of urine ash showed that the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, S were similar. Successful experiments were made with O. deflexa that were grown on nutrient solution made of the water extract of urine ash with 10 g/l of NaHCO3 and 2 g/l of NaNO3. The sources of intersystem production of HCO3 and NO3 were shown, and the biochemical composition of the investigated algae species, including mineral composition, protein, carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid and vitamin content were studied.

Kalacheva, Galina; Gribovskaya, Iliada; Kolmakova, Angela


Other Causes of Painful Urination  


... douches, vaginal lubricants, soaps, scented toilet paper or contraceptive foams or sponges. If it hurts to urinate after you've used these products, you're probably sensitive to them. Do I need to see a doctor? Yes. Painful urination can ...


High concentration of blood lead levels among young children in Bagega community, Zamfara – Nigeria and the potential risk factor  

PubMed Central

Introduction In May 2010, lead poisoning (LP) was confirmed among children <5years (U5) in two communities in Zamfara state, northwest Nigeria. Following reports of increased childhood deaths in Bagega, another community in Zamfara, we conducted a survey to investigate the outbreak and recommend appropriate control measures. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Bagega community from 23rd August to 6th September, 2010. We administered structured questionnaires to parents of U5 to collect information on household participation in ore processing activities. We collected and analysed venous blood samples from 185 U5 with LeadCare II machine. Soil samples were analysed with X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for lead contamination. We defined blood lead levels (BLL) of >10ug/dL as elevated BLL, and BLL ?45ug/dL as the criterion for chelation therapy. We defined soil lead levels (SLL) of ?400 parts per million (ppm) as elevated SLL. Results The median age of U5 was 36 months (Inter-quartile range: 17-48 months). The median BLL was 71µg/dL (range: 8-332µg/dL). Of the 185 U5, 184 (99.5%) had elevated BLL, 169 (91.4%) met criterion for CT. The median SLL in tested households (n = 37) of U5 was 1,237ppm (range: 53-45,270ppm). Households breaking ore rocks within the compound were associated with convulsion related-children's death (OR: 5.80, 95% CI: 1.08 - 27.85). Conclusion There was an LP outbreak in U5 in Bagega community possibly due to heavy contamination of the environment as a result of increased ore processing activities. Community-driven remediation activities are ongoing. We recommended support for sustained environmental remediation, health education, intensified surveillance, and case management. PMID:25328633

Ajumobi, Olufemi Olamide; Tsofo, Ahmed; Yango, Matthias; Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Anagbogu, Ifeoma Nkiruka; Mohammed, Abdulazeez; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir; Mohammed, Suleiman; Abdullahi, Muhammad; Davis, Lora; Idris, Suleiman; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Gitta, Sheba; Nsubuga, Peter



Toenail, Blood and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers. Methods Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a workshift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n=49), as well as blood and urine before (n=27) and after (urine, n=26; blood, n=24) a workshift were collected. Results Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in months 7-9, 10-12, and 7-12 before toenail clipping date, but not months 1-6. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese. Conclusions Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical workshift. PMID:21494156

Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.



Growth in high serum concentrations leads to rapid deadaptation of cells previously adapted to growth in an extremely low concentration of serum.  

PubMed Central

A subline of NIH 3T3 cells adapted to multiply in 0.25% calf serum (CS) by frequent passage (every 2-3 days) at low population density in 0.25% CS was deadapted by frequent successive passages of the cells in 10% CS for 3 weeks. The cells adapted to 0.25% CS multiplied with an average doubling time of 16.9 hr in 10% CS, and cells that had always been kept in 10% CS multiplied with an average doubling time of 14.6 hr, so there was weak selection for the latter in the higher serum concentration. When adapted cells were subjected to two passagers in 10% CS prior to assay of growth in 0.25% CS, a 4-day lag period was evident before commencement of exponential growth, and there was a decrease in saturation density. Further delay of growth in 0.25% CS developed as the number of passages of cells in 10% CS increased. The marked delay of growth in 0.25% CS of the bulk population after a few days in 10% CS argued against selection in 10% CS of rare nonadapted mutants from the adapted population and for an epigenetic origin of the change. Reconstruction experiments utilizing adapted cells mixed with non-adapted cells in 0.25% CS buttressed this explanation. Eight clones of the adapted population exhibited some loss of growth capacity in 0.25% CS after a single passage in 10% CS, though the extent of loss varied from clone to clone. The results support the idea that all cells in the adapted population respond to the lifting of growth constraints with loss of their growth potential under highly constrained conditions. They are consistent with the concept of progressive state selection in which selection operates on fluctuating metabolic states of individual cells rather than on genetic variants. Images PMID:1946355

Yao, A; Huang, W; Rubin, H



Cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations and their influence on morphological parameters in blood donors from different age groups from southern Poland.  


Due to industrial development, environmental contamination with metals increases which leads to higher human exposure via air, water and food. In order to evaluate the level of the present exposition, the concentrations of metals can be measured in such biological materials as human blood. In this study, we assessed the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in blood samples from male blood donors from southern Poland (Europe) born in 1994 (n=30) and between 1947 and 1955 (n=30). Higher levels of Pb were seen in the group of older men (4.48 vs 2.48?g/L), whereas the Hg levels were lower (1.78 vs 4.28?g/L). Cd concentrations did not differ between age groups (0.56?g/L). The levels of Cd and Pb in older donors were significantly correlated (Spearman R 0.5135). We also observed a positive correlation between the number of red blood cells (RBC) and Hg concentrations in the older group (Spearman R 0.4271). Additionally, we noted numerous correlations among morphological parameters. Based on our results, we can state that metals influence the blood morphology and their concentrations in blood vary among age groups. PMID:25457282

Janicka, Monika; Binkowski, Lukasz J; B?aszczyk, Martyna; Paluch, Joanna; Wojta?, W?odzimierz; Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert



Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard of ingesting dangerous levels of copper, lead and arsenic if dishes are prepared with poorly washed foliage.

K?íbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevi?, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.



Use of a field portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzer to determine the concentration of lead and other metals in soil samples.  


Field portable methods are often needed in risk characterization, assessment and management to rapidly determine metal concentrations in environmental samples. Examples are for determining: "hot spots" of soil contamination, whether dust wipe lead levels meet housing occupancy standards, and worker respiratory protection levels. For over 30 years portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have been available for the in situ, non-destructive, measurement of lead in paint. Recent advances made possible their use for analysis of airborne dust filter samples, soil, and dust wipes. Research at the University of Cincinnati with the NITON 700 Series XRF instrument (40 millicurie Cadmium 109 source, L X-Rays) demonstrated its proficiency on air sample filters (NIOSH Method No. 7702, "Lead by Field Portable XRF; limit of detection 6 microg per sample; working range 17-1,500 microg/m3 air). Research with lead dust wipe samples from housing has also shown promising results. This XRF instrument was used in 1997 in Poland on copper smelter area soil samples with the cooperation of the Wroclaw Medical Academy and the Foundation for the Children from the Copper Basin (Legnica). Geometric mean soil lead concentrations were 200 ppm with the portable XRF, 201 ppm with laboratory-based XRF (Kevex) and 190 ppm using atomic absorption (AA). Correlations of field portable XRF and AA results were excellent for samples sieved to less than 125 micrometers with R-squared values of 0.997, 0.957, and 0.976 for lead, copper and zinc respectively. Similarly, correlations were excellent for soil sieved to less than 250 micrometers, where R-squared values were 0. 924, 0.973, and 0.937 for lead, copper and zinc, respectively. The field portable XRF instrument appears to be useful for the determination of soil pollution by these metals in industrial regions. PMID:10384212

Clark, S; Menrath, W; Chen, M; Roda, S; Succop, P



Anomalous concentrations of several metals in iron-formation of the Blue Lead Mountain area, Pennington County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical sampling of bedrock has revealed anomalous copper, silver, molybdenum, gold, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and cobalt in meta-iron-formation in the Blue Lead Mountain area 5 miles (8 kilometres) north-northwest of Keystone, S. Dak. The anomalies are in complexly folded and faulted iron-formation. Metal content decreases sharply in the surrounding rocks. The extent and intensity of the anomalous areas, despite evidence that previous mining had little success, are sufficient to make this area an interesting target for exploration.

Raymond, William H.; King, Robert Ugstad; Norton, James Jennings



Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio  


... test. Children, and sometimes adults, occasionally have some degree of transient proteinuria without apparent kidney dysfunction and may have a higher excretion of protein into their urine during the day than at night. The doctor may monitor their ...


Relationships between thiamine content of eggs and concentrations of lead and other heavy metals in water and survival of Atlantic salmon fry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were extirpated in much of New York state by the late 1800s. Currently, Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond (Saranac Lake, NY) are stocked in Cayuga Lake (Ithaca, NY) and Lake Ontario to support a fishery, but reproduction is severely impaired by thiamine deficiency in Cayuga Lake and probably in Lake Ontario--apparently caused by adults feeding on prey fish high in thiaminase. One study suggested that survival of these fry may be reduced by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, copper, or lead in water. Thiamine deficiency is known to increase lead toxicity. Bringing gravid Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond and Cayuga Inlet into the laboratory, we examined the effect of exposing their fertilized eggs during water-hardening to water with and without added lead (0.1 to 100 mg lead·liter-1) and to other contaminated waters (from New York State) on the survival of their eggs and fry. Our results showed no significant influence of our water-hardening treatments on survival of eggs or fry; therefore, it appears that exposure of eggs (during water-hardening) to lead in water (concentrations up to 100 mg lead·liter-1) or to several contaminated waters was not detrimental to the survival of eggs or fry of Atlantic salmon. We also determined the mineral and heavy metal content of dried eggs and found that eggs from Cayuga Lake salmon had significantly higher concentrations of copper (1.9 vs. 0.5 mg·g-1) than did eggs from salmon from Little Clear Pond. All concentrations of copper appeared to be within the range observed in other normal salmon. There were no other significant differences in concentrations of other minerals tested. Concentrations of copper in Cayuga Lake water (mean, 1.16 mg·liter-1) were significantly higher than in Little Clear Pond water (mean, 0.17 mg·liter-1). The effect of copper in eggs of thiamine-deficient salmon is not known.

Ketola, H. George; Wedge, Leslie R.; Lary, Sandra J.; Grant, Edward C.; Rutzke, Michael A.



Influence of pre-, post-, and simultaneous perfusion of elevated calcium on the effect of ascending concentrations of lead on digoxin-induced cardiac arrest in isolated frog heart  

SciTech Connect

Cardiotoxicity of lead, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has already been documented as a potentially lethal, although rarely recognized, complication of lead intoxication. Further, it has already been reported from this laboratory that lead acetate (LA) preperfusion potentiated cardiotoxicity of digoxin (DGN) in isolated frog heart preparation and that exposure to elevated calcium (elev. Ca{sup 2+}) prior to, and simultaneously with LA at 10{sup {minus}7} M concentration, attenuated this potentiation. As an extension of this work, it was considered of interest to study the effect of perfusion of elev. Ca{sup 2+} (6.5 mM) prior to, after and simultaneously with ascending concentrations of lead (10{sup {minus}9}, 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}5}M) on DGN induced cardiac arrest (CA) in isolated frog heart, since Pb{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions are known to compete with each other for the same target sites at the cellular level, an instance of competitive mass action effect. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Krishnamoorthy, M.S.; Muthu, P.; Parthiban, N. [Univ. of Madras (Indonesia)



Buccal mucosal delivery of a potent peptide leads to therapeutically-relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.  


Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) is an immunomodulatory peptide currently under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis by parenteral administration. To overcome the low patient compliance of conventional self-injections, we have investigated the potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative delivery route for ShK both in vitro and in vivo. After application of fluorescent 5-Fam-ShK to untreated porcine buccal mucosa, there was no detectable peptide in the receptor chamber using an in vitro Ussing chamber model. However, the addition of the surfactants sodium taurodeoxycholate hydrate or cetrimide, and formulation of ShK in a chitosan mucoadhesive gel, led to 0.05-0.13% and 1.1% of the applied dose, respectively, appearing in the receptor chamber over 5h. Moreover, confocal microscopic studies demonstrated significantly enhanced buccal mucosal retention of the peptide (measured by mucosal fluorescence associated with 5-Fam-ShK) when enhancement strategies were employed. Administration of 5-Fam-ShK to mice (10mg/kg in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w)) resulted in average plasma concentrations of 2.6-16.2nM between 2 and 6h, which were substantially higher than the pM concentrations required for therapeutic activity. This study demonstrated that the buccal mucosa is a promising administration route for the systemic delivery of ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25482338

Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; White, Paul J; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A



Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)



Problems Urinating in Public (Paruresis)  


... may provide you with some insight into this social anxiety disorder. What is paruresis? Paruresis, often referred to as ... attempts to control the process fail, and associated anxiety with performance ... social invitations to avoid urinating away from home. Paruretics ...


Treating urine by Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich


Changes in urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid at low lead exposure level with special reference to production activity.  


A 7-year follow-up survey on 53 workers was carried out in a lead storage battery factory to evaluate the significance of urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and blood lead in a work environment where lead in the air was considered to be about or less than the current occupational exposure limit. While lead in the blood and ALA in the urine had a good correlation to each other cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally, geometric means of lead concentrations in the workroom air samples which were collected following grid sampling strategy, did not correlate with ALA in urine significantly. On the contrary, the semiannual production of batteries significantly correlated with changes in mean ALA in urine. The questionnaire survey proved that the prolongation in work hours, lead to an increase in the mean ALA in urine as well as a higher incidence of higher-than-normal urinary ALA. The results clearly demonstrated the importance of the biological indicators, such as lead in blood and urinary ALA, as well as the necessity of paying attention to non-industrial hygiene factors, such as the production rate of batteries and the length of the daily shift, for the protection of the workers' health when lead in the air is moderate. PMID:6874089

Sato, K; Fujita, H; Inui, S; Ikeda, M



Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, eastern Kentucky coal field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation (Westphalian B) Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds are the 2 largest producing coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Single channel samples from 22 localities in the Pond Creek coal bed were obtained from active coal mines in Pike and Martin Countries, Kentucky, and a total of 18 Fire Clay coal bed channel samples were collected from localities in the central portion of the coal field. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution of potentially hazardous elements in the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal beds, with particular emphasis on As and Pb, 2 elements that are included in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as potential air toxics. The 2 coals are discussed individually as the depositional histories are distinct, the Fire Clay coal bed having more sites where relatively high-S lithologies are encountered. In an effort to characterize these coals, 40 whole channel samples, excluding 1-cm partings, were analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Previously analyzed samples were added to provide additional geographic coverage and lithotype samples from one site were analyzed in order to provide detail of vertical elemental trends. The As and Pb levels in the Fire Clay coal bed tend to be higher than in the Pond Creek coal bed. One whole channel sample of the Fire Clay coal bed contains 1156 ppm As (ash basis), with a single lithotype containing 4000 ppm As (ash basis). Most of the As and Pb appears to be associated with pyrite, which potentially can be removed in beneficiation (particularly coarser pyrite). Disseminated finer pyrite may not be completely removable by cleaning. In the examination of pyrite conducted in this study, it does not appear that significant concentration of As or Pb occurs in the finer pyrite forms. The biggest potential problem of As- or Pb-enriched pyrite is, therefore, one of refuse disposal.

Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Ruppert, L.F.



A urine volume measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.



Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration leads to increased whole-plant isoprene emission in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides).  


Effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] on plant isoprene emissions are controversial. Relying on leaf-scale measurements, most models simulating isoprene emissions in future higher [CO2] atmospheres suggest reduced emission fluxes. However, combined effects of elevated [CO2] on leaf area growth, net assimilation and isoprene emission rates have rarely been studied on the canopy scale, but stimulation of leaf area growth may largely compensate for possible [CO2] inhibition reported at the leaf scale. This study tests the hypothesis that stimulated leaf area growth leads to increased canopy isoprene emission rates. We studied the dynamics of canopy growth, and net assimilation and isoprene emission rates in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) grown under 380 and 780 ?mol mol(-1) [CO2]. A theoretical framework based on the Chapman-Richards function to model canopy growth and numerically compare the growth dynamics among ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2]-grown plants was developed. Plants grown under elevated [CO2] had higher C : N ratio, and greater total leaf area, and canopy net assimilation and isoprene emission rates. During ontogeny, these key canopy characteristics developed faster and stabilized earlier under elevated [CO2]. However, on a leaf area basis, foliage physiological traits remained in a transient state over the whole experiment. These results demonstrate that canopy-scale dynamics importantly complements the leaf-scale processes, and that isoprene emissions may actually increase under higher [CO2] as a result of enhanced leaf area production. PMID:23442171

Sun, Zhihong; Niinemets, Ülo; Hüve, Katja; Rasulov, Bahtijor; Noe, Steffen M



Effect of pulmonary lymphatic obstruction on rabbit urine flow.  


1. The effects of pulmonary lymphatic obstruction on urine flow, sodium and potassium excretion were examined on anaesthetized, artificially ventilated New Zealand White rabbits. Pulmonary lymphatic obstruction was produced by raising the pressure in a pouch created from the right external jugular vein. The experiments were performed on two groups of rabbits (non-hydrated and hydrated). 2. Pulmonary lymphatic obstruction caused a significant increase in urine flow in both groups of rabbits. After release of the obstruction, the urine flow returned to basal values. Urine flow (ml (10 min)-1) for both groups was initial control, 5.3 +/- 0.9; lymphatic obstruction, 8.9 +/- 1.0; final control, 6.2 +/- 0.7 (means +/- S.E.M.; n = 21, P < 0.025). 3. The increase in urine flow was not accompanied by significant changes in concentration of sodium and potassium in urine. Sodium excretion increased significantly only in the hydrated rabbits. 4. The increase in urine flow was abolished by bilateral cervical vagotomy and by renal nerve sectioning. Cooling the cervical vagi to 8 degrees C also abolished the response. 5. Pulmonary lymphatic obstruction did not produce any significant change in heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, mean right atrial pressure and peak airway pressure. 6. These findings suggest that obstructing the lymph drainage from the lung results in a reflex increase in urine flow. The afferent pathway for this reflex resides in the myelinated fibres of the vagi and the efferent pathway in the renal nerves. The rapidly adapting receptors of the airways are likely to be the receptors involved. PMID:9457656

Ravi, K; Bravo, M; Kappagoda, C T



[The human placenta's lead level as a parameter of the ecological lead exposure. Its validity in comparison to the lead level in blood, the activity of the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and the concentration of the free erythrocyte porphyrins of newborns and their mothers (author's transl)].  


In order to estimate the ecological exposure of lead, placenta- and blood-investigations were made at four collectives from variously industrialized regions (Ruhrregion, Middle Frankonia Centre, Bavarian Forest). 148 normal births and 19 premature births (in each case mothers and newborns) were listed as well as twelve abortions. We investigated the lead-level in blood, the activity of delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) the concentration of free erythrocyte porphyrine (FEP) and the placentas' lead concentration. Though in the Ruhrregion (Dortmund) significantly higher lead levels in blood were found compared to the Bavarian Forest, the results together, were in the normal range, less than 35 mug%. In an average the mothers' lead level in blood was around 1.4 times (ca. 5 mug%) above that of their newborns; analysing this statistically, highly significant correlations were found. However for the ALA-D activity and the FEP-results no direct dependence of the lead levels in blood could be found. In the placentas mean lead concentrations between 1.94 mug and 2.23 mug per gram dry-weight (30.6 mug-38.9 mug/100 g wet-weight) were gained. In the contrary to the measured results of lead in blood the average placentas' lead level of the most and least industrialized regions were almost identical. A correlation between the mothers' respectively their children's lead levels in blood and the placental lead concentrations could not be proved. No relation could be found between the results and the gestation ages. As final results: 1. The placenta is no ideal investigation object concerning the environment's lead exposure. 2. It has no special barriere - or depot - function in lead metabolism. 3. In order to estimate the environment's lead exposure the determination of the lead level in blood will also be in future the optimal method. This investigation is of special value because of its validity of the results and the practicability of winning the samples compared to other parameters and biological materials. PMID:983547

Engelhardt, E; Schaller, K H; Schiele, R; Valentin, H



Higher urine desmosine levels are associated with mortality in patients with acute lung injury  

PubMed Central

Desmosine is a stable breakdown product of elastin that can be reliably measured in urine samples. We tested the hypothesis that higher baseline urine desmosine would be associated with higher mortality in 579 of 861 patients included in the recent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network trial of lower tidal volume ventilation (1). We also correlated urine desmosine levels with indexes of disease severity. Finally, we assessed whether urine desmosine was lower in patients who received lower tidal volumes. Desmosine was measured by radioimmunoassay in urine samples from days 0, 1, and 3 of the study. The data were expressed as a ratio of urine desmosine to urine creatinine to control for renal dilution. The results show that higher baseline (day 0) urine desmosine-to-creatinine concentration was associated with a higher risk of death on adjusted analysis (odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.82, P = 0.03). Urine desmosine increased in both ventilator groups from day 0 to day 3, but the average rise was higher in the 12-ml/kg predicted body weight group compared with the 6-ml/kg predicted body weight group (P = 0.053, repeated-measures model). In conclusion, patients with acute lung injury ventilated with lower tidal volumes have lower urine desmosine levels, a finding that may reflect reduced extracellular matrix breakdown. These results illustrate the value of evaluating urinary biological markers that may have prognostic and pathogenetic significance in acute lung injury. PMID:16698854

McClintock, Dana E.; Starcher, Barry; Eisner, Mark D.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Hayden, Doug L.; Church, Gwynne D.; Matthay, Michael A.



Phosphate recovery using hybrid anion exchange: applications to source-separated urine and combined wastewater streams.  


There is increasing interest in recovering phosphorus (P) from various wastewater streams for beneficial use as fertilizer and to minimize environmental impacts of excess P on receiving waters. One such example is P recovery from human urine, which has a high concentration of phosphate (200-800 mg P/L) and accounts for a small volume (? 1%) of total wastewater flow. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to evaluate the potential to recover P from source-separated and combined wastewater streams that included undiluted human urine, urine diluted with tap water, greywater, mixture of urine and greywater, anaerobic digester supernatant, and secondary wastewater effluent. A hybrid anion exchange (HAIX) resin containing hydrous ferric oxide was used to recover P because of its selectivity for phosphate and the option to precipitate P minerals in the waste regeneration solution. The P recovery potential was fresh urine > hydrolyzed urine > greywater > biological wastewater effluent > anaerobic digester supernatant. The maximum loading of P on HAIX resin was fresh urine > hydrolyzed urine > anaerobic digester supernatant ? greywater > biological wastewater effluent. Results indicated that the sorption capacity of HAIX resin for phosphate and the total P recovery potential were greater for source-separated urine than the combined wastewater streams of secondary wastewater effluent and anaerobic digester supernatant. Dilution of urine with tap water decreased the phosphate loading on HAIX resin. The results of this work advance the current understanding of nutrient recovery from complex wastewater streams by sorption processes. PMID:23866131

O'Neal, Jeremy A; Boyer, Treavor H



Changes in volatile compounds of human urine as it ages: their interaction with water.  


The urinary odors are commonly perceived as unpleasant. While numerous studies have identified the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from urine, the odorants responsible for the urine odor are not well characterized. Furthermore, anecdotal reports suggest that the odor of aged urine is different from that of fresh urine. However, no study has yet to investigate the specific VOCs released from aged urine. In this study, we analyzed and compared the VOCs released from fresh and aged urine samples, investigating the changes in the urinary VOCs as urine aged. We found an overall decrease in concentration of many urinary VOCs, and concluded this was due to the urine evaporating as it aged. On the contrary, some highly water-soluble compounds such as short and branched-chain organic acids and trimethylamine, increased. Their increased release is most likely due to the loss of water and the subsequent release of water-soluble VOCs as urine ages. We suggest that these VOCs may contribute to the odor of the aged urine. PMID:24184836

Kwak, Jae; Grigsby, Claude C; Smith, Brittany R; Rizki, Mateen M; Preti, George



The analysis of paraquat in urine by high-speed liquid chromatography.  


The paraquat content of urine can be directly determined by high-speed liquid chromatography using ultraviolet spectrophotometric detection. The method separates paraquat (and diquat) from the ultraviolet-absorbing components of urine and no extraction or pre-treatment of the sample is required prior to analysis. Concentrations down to 100 mug/1 of paraquat in urine were determined. Quantitative results are in good agreement with those obtained by a colorimetric method. Diquat does not interfere with the analysis of paraquat, and it would also be possible to analyse diquat in paraquat-containing urine. PMID:1202055

Pryde, A; Darby, F J



Metals in Urine and Peripheral Arterial Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants ?40 years of age in NHANES 1999–2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 ?g/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population. PMID:15687053

Navas-Acien, Ana; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Calderon-Aranda, Emma; Selvin, Elizabeth; Guallar, Eliseo



Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.




EPA Science Inventory

Blood, hair, urine and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-water selenium levels. Bloo...


Monitoring exposure to chromic acid in chromeplating by measuring chromium in urine.  


With personal air samplers, exposure to hexavalent chromium was measured in a group of eight chromeplaters during a period of 5 d; urine samples were collected at all times of urination for 7 d. The concentration of chromium in the urine increased from Monday morning to Tuesday afternoon and then remained constant within the group as a whole throughout the rest of the work week. In a large group of 90 chromeplaters exposure was measured for 1 d, and urine samples were collected before and after the workshift on Monday and Thursday of the same week. There was a correlation between the exposure and the concentration of chromium in postshift urine samples on Thursday (correlation coefficient 0.71). Concentrations of chromium in urine of less than or equal to 100 nmol/l indicate time-weighted average values of exposure of about or below 2 micrograms/m3. Below this exposure no severe damage to the nasal septum and no influence on lung function have been found. After the initial measuring of the airborne hexavalent chromium and the concentrations of chromium in the urine of exposed workers, urine analyses are recommended for follow-up controls. PMID:6605579

Lindberg, E; Vesterberg, O



National contaminant biomonitoring program: Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in U.S. Freshwater Fish, 1976–1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

From late 1984 to early 1985, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected a total of 315 composite samples of whole fish\\u000a from 109 stations nationwide, which were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Geometric\\u000a mean, maximum, and 85th percentile concentrations (?g\\/g wet weight) for 1984 samples were as follows: arsenic-0.14, 1.5, 0.27;\\u000a cadmium-0.03, 0.22, 0.05;

Christopher J. Schmitt; William G. Brumbaugh



Hemoglobinuria Misidentified as Hematuria: Review of Discolored Urine and Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria  

PubMed Central

Discolored urine is a common reason for office visits to a primary care physician and urology referral. Early differentiation of the type or cause of discolored urine is necessary for accurate diagnosis and prompt management. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a clonal disorder caused by acquired somatic mutations in the PIG-A gene on the X- chromosome of hemopoietic stem cells and leads to deficiency of surface membrane anchor proteins. The deficiency of these proteins leads to an increased risk of hemolysis of erythrocytes and structural damage of platelets, resulting in a clinical syndrome characterized by complement-mediated intravascular hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure, and venous thrombosis. Patients with this clinical syndrome present with paroxysms of hemolysis, causing hemoglobinuria manifesting as discolored urine. This can be easily confused with other common causes of discolored urine and result in extensive urologic work-up. Three commonly confused entities of discolored urine include hematuria, hemoglobinuria, and myoglobinuria. Specific characteristics in a dipstick test or urinalysis can guide differentiation of these three causes of discolored urine. This article begins with a case summary of a woman presenting with cranberry-colored urine and a final delayed diagnosis of paryxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Her hemoglobinuria was misdiagnosed as hematuria, leading to extensive urologic work-up. The article also gives an overview of the approach to diagnosing and treating discolored urine. PMID:25512715

Veerreddy, Prashant



Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow differences in the two regression models, 1999-2001 and 1999-2004. Flow-weighted concentrations (FWCs) calculated from the estimated loads for 1999-2004 were examined to aid interpretation of metal load estimates, which were influenced by large spatial and temporal variations in streamflow. FWCs of total cadmium ranged from 0.04 micrograms per liter (?g/L) at Enaville to 14 ?g/L at Ninemile Creek. Total lead FWCs were lowest at Long Lake (1.3 ?g/L) and highest at Ninemile Creek (120 ?g/L). Elevated total lead FWCs at Harrison confirmed that the high total lead loads at this station were not simply due to higher streamflow. Conversely, relatively low total lead loads combined with high total lead FWCs at Ninemile and Canyon Creeks reflected low streamflow but high concentrations of total lead. Very low total lead FWCs (1.3 to 2.7 ?g/L) at the stations downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake are a result both of deposition of lead-laden sediments in the lake and dilution by additional streamflow. Total zinc FWCs also demonstrated the effect of streamflow on load calculations, and highlighted source areas for zinc in the basin. Total zinc FWCs at Canyon and Ninemile Creeks, 1,600 ?g/L and 2,200 ?g/L, respectively, were by far the highest in the basin but contributed among the lowest total zinc loads due to their relatively low streamflow. Total zinc FWCs ranged from 38 to 67 ?g/L at stations downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake, but total zinc load estimates at these stations were relatively high because of high mean streamflow compared to other stations in the basin. Long-term regression models for 1991 to 2003 or 2004 were developed and annual trace-metal loads and FWCs were estimated for Pinehurst, Enaville, Harrison, and Post Falls to better understand the variability of metal loading with time. Long-term load estimates are similar to the results for 1999-2004 in terms of spatial distribution of metal loads throughout the basin. LOADEST results for 1991-2004 indicated that statistically significant downward temporal trends for dissolved and total cadmium, dissolved zinc,

Donato, Mary M.



Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women  

SciTech Connect

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia)] [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)] [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia)] [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ř. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsř, N-9037 Tromsř (Norway)] [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsř, N-9037 Tromsř (Norway)



Hormone replacement therapy may reduce the return of endogenous lead from bone to the circulation.  


Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women suppresses the increase in bone resorption expected as circulating levels of endogenous estrogen decline. We tested the hypothesis that bone lead content might remain elevated in women on HRT. Fifty six women who at recruitment were on average 35 years postmenopausal were placed on calcium supplementation. Six months later 33 of these women were prescribed either low dose or moderate dose hormone replacement in addition to the calcium supplementation. After approximately 4 years of hormone replacement, lead content was measured at the tibia and calcaneus by in vivo fluorescence excitation, and lead concentrations were measured in serum, whole blood, and urine. Women not taking hormones had significantly lower lead concentrations in cortical bone compared to all women on HRT (p = 0.007). Tibia lead content (mean +/- SD) for women on calcium only was 11.13 +/- 6.22 microgram/g bone mineral. For women on HRT, tibia bone lead was 19.37 +/- 8.62 micrograms/g bone mineral on low-dose HRT and 16.87 +/- 11.68 micrograms/g bone mineral on moderate-dose HRT. There were no differences between groups for lead concentrations measured in trabecular bone, whole blood, serum or urine. Hormone replacement maintains cortical bone lead content. In women not on HRT, there will be a perimenopausal release of lead from bone. PMID:8747022

Webber, C E; Chettle, D R; Bowins, R J; Beaumont, L F; Gordon, C L; Song, X; Blake, J M; McNutt, R H



A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.



Effect of injected rotenone on the production and composition of urine from the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Renal function was evaluated in adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) dosed i.a. with rotenone at 225 and 275 ?g/kg. The chemical composition of urine samples and urine flow rates collected over a 5-h pretreatment period were compared with hourly urine samples collected over a 5-h posttreatment period. Significant increases in osmolality and in concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and total protein were observed in the urine of treated fish. Urine solute concentrations reached maximum values within 1 to 3 h after treatment and decreased thereafter, indicating that the effects were reversible. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were highly correlated in 2-h posttreatment urine samples at the low (r = 0.922) and high (r = 0.981) rotenone treatments. Urine flow rates were reduced in trout at each dose of rotenone but the decrease in volume of urine voided was not dose-dependent. In a separate study, [14C]polyethylene glycol was used as a filtration marker to determine the effect of rotenone treatment (225 &mu:g/kg) on urine flow rate, glomerular filtration rate, and renal water reabsorption. We showed that posttreatment urine flow rates were reduced partly by reduced glomerular filtration and partly by increased water reabsorption. Transient increases in plasma osmolality and hematocrit also were observed 0.5 h after rotenone treatment.

Erickson, D.A.; Gingerich, W.H.



Sensitivity of an opiate immunoassay for detecting hydrocodone and hydromorphone in urine from a clinical population: analysis of subthreshold results.  


Urine drug testing (UDT) is an emerging standard of care in the evaluation and treatment of chronic non-cancer pain patients with opioid analgesics. UDT may be used both to verify adherence with the opioid analgesic regimen and to monitor abstinence from non-prescribed or illicit controlled substances. In the former scenario, it is vital to determine whether the drug is present in the urine, even at low concentrations, because failure to detect the drug may lead to accusations of opioid abuse or diversion. Opiate immunoassays typically are developed to detect morphine and are most sensitive to morphine and codeine. Although many opiate immunoassays also detect hydrocodone (HC) and/or hydromorphone (HM), sensitivities for these analytes are often much lower, increasing the possibility of negative screening results when the drug is present in the urine. We selected 112 urine specimens from patients who had been prescribed HC or hydromorphone but were presumptive negative by the Roche Online DAT Opiate II™ urine drug screening assay, which is calibrated to 300 ng/mL morphine. Using a GC/MS confirmatory method with a detection limit of 50 ng/mL both for HC and for HM, one or both of these opiates were detected in 81 (72.3%) of the urine specimens. Examination of the raw data from these presumptive negative opiate screens revealed that, in many cases, the turbidity signal was greater than the signal obtained for the negative control, but less than the signal for the 300 ng/mL (morphine) threshold calibrator. A receiver operating characteristic curve generated for the reciprocal of the ratio of turbidity measurements in the patient specimens and negative (drug-free) controls, against the presence or absence of HC and/or HM by confirmatory analyses, produced an area under the curve of 0.910. We conclude that this opiate immunoassay has sufficient sensitivity to detect HC and/or HM in some urine specimens that screen presumptive negative for these commonly prescribed opiates at the established threshold. PMID:25288720

Bertholf, Roger L; Johannsen, Laura M; Reisfield, Gary M



Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine  

PubMed Central

The route of transmission of most naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infections remains speculative. To investigate urine as a potential source of TSE exposure, we used a sensitive method for detection and quantitation of TSE infectivity. Pooled urine collected from 22 hamsters showing clinical signs of 263K scrapie contained 3.8 ± 0.9 infectious doses/mL of infectivity. Titration of homogenates of kidneys and urinary bladders from the same animals gave concentrations 20,000-fold greater. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of these same tissues showed no indications of inflammatory or other pathologic changes except for occasional deposits of disease-associated prion protein in kidneys. Although the source of TSE infectivity in urine remains unresolved, these results establish that TSE infectivity is excreted in urine and may thereby play a role in the horizontal transmission of natural TSEs. The results also indicate potential risk for TSE transmission from human urine–derived hormones and other medicines. PMID:18760007

Gregori, Luisa; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Alexeeva, Irina; Budka, Herbert



The Recovery of Water and Nitrogen from Urine in BLSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recycle and reuse of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), and the treatment and recovery of the crew’s urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Urine contains a lot of water and high concentrations of urea and salts. Water can be used for the irrigation of the plants in BLSS, and the nitrogen is also the necessary nutrient for plant growth. Therefore, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urea was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification and urease processing methods were studied during the urea hydrolysis step. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the degrees of hydrolysis were compared. This investigation may provide a reference for the establishment of the urine recycle in BLSS.

Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Deng, Shengda


The influence of hepatic portal circulation on urine flow  

PubMed Central

1. A study of the effect of changes in the hepatic portal venous pressure (HPVP) on the rate of urine flow in dogs has been made. Normally this pressure varies between 3·7 and 14·9 cm H2O. It can be raised or lowered by varying the method of manipulation of the visceral organs. 2. When the HPVP was raised within 15 cm H2O above the premanipulation level it caused an increase in urine flow to 2-3 times the normal levels within 2-5 sec. If the HPVP was raised to more than 15 cm H2O above the pre-manipulation levels it resulted in a period of antidiuresis. The urine flow returned rapidly to normal level immediately after the pressure was released. 3. The kidney volume increased when an induced diuresis occurred and decreased when an antidiuresis occurred. 4. The urine chloride concentration decreased during diuresis, but total chloride excretion increased. Total chloride excretion was reduced when an antidiuresis occurred. 5. Topical application of local anaesthetics at the hilus of the kidney and on the renal nervous plexus abolished the response. This and other evidence indicate that this effect on urine flow is a result of nervous reflex activity, probably involving the sympathetic but not the vagus. 6. The receptive area lies in the mesentery between the mesenteric capillaries and the main portal vein. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:5580866

Liang, C. C.



An Extensive Targeted Proteomic Analysis of Disease-Related Protein Biomarkers in Urine from Healthy Donors  

PubMed Central

The analysis of protein biomarkers in urine is expected to lead to advances in a variety of clinical settings. Several characteristics of urine including a low-protein matrix, ease of testing and a demonstrated proteomic stability offer distinct advantages over current widely used biofluids, serum and plasma. Improvements in our understanding of the urine proteome and in methods used in its evaluation will facilitate the clinical development of urinary protein biomarkers. Multiplexed bead-based immunoassays were utilized to evaluate 211 proteins in urines from 103 healthy donors. An additional 25 healthy donors provided serial urine samples over the course of two days in order to assess temporal variation in selected biomarkers. Nearly one-third of the evaluated biomarkers were detected in urine at levels greater than 1ng/ml, representing a diverse panel of proteins with respect to structure, function and biological role. The presence of several biomarkers in urine was confirmed by western blot. Several methods of data normalization were employed to assess impact on biomarker variability. A complex pattern of correlations with urine creatinine, albumin and beta-2-microglobulin was observed indicating the presence of highly specific mechanisms of renal filtration. Further investigation of the urinary protein biomarkers identified in this preliminary study along with a consideration of the underlying proteomic trends suggested by these findings should lead to an improved capability to identify candidate biomarkers for clinical development. PMID:23723977

Nolen, Brian M.; Orlichenko, Lidiya S.; Marrangoni, Adele; Velikokhatnaya, Liudmila; Prosser, Denise; Grizzle, William E.; Ho, Kevin; Jenkins, Frank J.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Lokshin, Anna E.




EPA Science Inventory

Urine from cigarette smokers was prepared for mutagenicity testing by extracting mutagens with solid phase extraction columns. ommercially available prepacked bonded silicas (cotadecyl, cyclohexyl, cyanopropyl) were compared for their efficiency and specificity in concentration o...


Relative density of urine: methods and clinical significance.  


The physical properties and chemical composition of urine are highly variable and are determined in large measure by the quantity and the type of food consumed. The specific gravity is the ratio of the density to that of water, and it is dependent on the number and weight of solute particles and on the temperature of the sample. The weight of solute particles is constituted mainly of urea (73%), chloride (5.4%), sodium (5.1%), potassium (2.4%), phosphate (2.0%), uric acid (1.7%), and sulfate (1.3%). Nevertheless, urine osmolality depends only on the number of solute particles. The renal production of maximally concentrated urine and formation of dilute urine may be reduced to two basic elements: (1) generation and maintenance of a renal medullary solute concentration hypertonic to plasma and (2) a mechanism for osmotic equilibration between the inner medulla and the collecting duct fluid. The interaction of the renal medullary countercurrent system, circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone, and thirst regulates water metabolism. Renin, aldosterone, prostaglandins, and kinins also play a role. Clinical estimation of the concentrating and diluting capacity can be performed by relatively simple provocative tests. However, urinary specific gravity after taking no fluids for 12 h overnight should be 1.025 or more, so that the second urine in the morning is a useful sample for screening purposes. Many preservation procedures affect specific gravity measurements. The concentration of solids (or water) in urine can be measured by weighing, hydrometer, refractometry, surface tension, osmolality, a reagent strip, or oscillations of a capillary tube. These measurements are interrelated, not identical. Urinary density measurement is useful to assess the disorders of water balance and to discriminate between prerenal azotemia and acute tubular necrosis. The water balance regulates the serum sodium concentration, therefore disorders are revealed by hypo- and hypernatremia. The disturbances are due to renal and nonrenal diseases, mainly liver, cardiovascular, intestinal, endocrine, and iatrogenic. Fluid management is an important topic of intensive care medicine. Moreover, the usefulness of specific gravity measurement of urine lies in interpreting other findings of urinalysis, both chemical and microscopical. PMID:3077030

Pradella, M; Dorizzi, R M; Rigolin, F



Alveolar air and urine analyses as biomarkers of exposure to trihalomethanes in an indoor swimming pool.  


The exposure of workers and swimmers at an indoor swimming pool to trihalomethanes (THMs) as a consequence of water chlorination was evaluated by analyzing alveolar air and urine samples. Environmental monitoring of THMs in water and ambient air was also performed in order to assess the possible correlation between environmental and biological samples. The sampling was done concurrently, taking the urine and alveolar air samples before and after the work shift for 15 workers and the swimming activity for 12 swimmers. A high THM uptake was observed in alveolar air and urine of subjects exposed, with chloroform being the most abundant THM. Mean chloroform levels in alveolar air and urine before exposure were 4 microg/ m3 and 475 ng/L, respectively. After 2 h of exposure, concentration increases of ca. 8 times in alveolar air and 2 times in urine were observed in workers. After 1 h swimming, the increases found in swimmers were ca. 20 and 3 times in alveolar air and urine, respectively. High increases have also been observed in bromodichloromethane levels. We have obtained excellent correlations between the chloroform concentrations found in the swimming pool ambient air/alveolar air, and between the urine/ alveolar air of the participants after exposure (r > 0.9). In conclusion, alveolar air provides better response sensitivity and shorter reaction time to external exposure than urine, being therefore the most sensitive biomarker. PMID:18678040

Caro, J; Gallego, M



Urine chromium as an estimator of air exposure to stainless steel welding fumes.  


Welding stainless steel with covered electrodes, also called manual metal arc welding, generates hexavalent airborne chromium. Chromium concentrations in air and post-shift urine samples, collected the same arbitrarily chosen working day, showed a linear relationship. Since post-shift urine samples reflect chromium concentrations of both current and previous stainless steel welding fume exposure, individual urine measurements are suggested as approximate although not exact estimators of current exposure. This study evaluates the practical importance of such measurements by means of confidence limits and tests of validity. PMID:6862648

Sjögren, B; Hedström, L; Ulfvarson, U



Detection of Zika Virus in Urine  

PubMed Central

We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections. PMID:25530324

Gourinat, Ann-Claire; O’Connor, Olivia; Calvez, Elodie; Goarant, Cyrille



Concentrations and loads of cadmium, lead, zinc, and nutrients measured during the 1999 water year within the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

the network was to quantify the absolute and relative magnitude of hydrologic, trace-element, and nutrient loads transported by numerous stream reaches within the Spokane River Basin. Of the 29 water-quality stations in the network, 19 were in the Coeur d?Alene River Basin, 2 were in the St. Joe River Basin, and the remaining 8 were on the Spokane River downstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake. All stations were sampled for whole-water recoverable and dissolved concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were sampled at nine stations to determine loads of nutrients into and out of Coeur d'Alene Lake and transported down the Spokane River into the Columbia River. Mean daily discharge during the 1999 water year was about 120 percent of the long-term average. Trace-element loads to the Columbia River were calculated for the basin's terminal station, Spokane River at Long Lake. For whole-water recoverable cadmium, 2,110 pounds, 92 percent of which was dissolved, was delivered to the Columbia River. The Columbia River received 25,000 pounds of whole-water recoverable lead, 29 percent of which was dissolved, from the Spokane River Basin. The largest trace-element load delivered to the Columbia River by the Spokane River was 764,000 pounds of whole-water recoverable zinc, 76 percent of which was dissolved. The primary source of trace-element loads in the Spokane River Basin was the Coeur d'Alene River Basin. The South Fork Coeur d'Alene River was the largest source of dissolved and wholewater recoverable loads of cadmium and zinc. In contrast, the main stem of the Coeur d'Alene River was the largest source of dissolved and wholewater recoverable loads of lead. Within the South Fork, substantial increases in dissolved loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc were detected in excess of those measured by the monitoring network stations upstream from the terminal station, South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst. Much of the added load was attributed to inflow of traceelement-contaminated ground water. Similarly, increases in whole-water recoverable loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc were detected in the South Fork in excess of measured loads; these were attributed largely to erosion and transport of sediment-associated trace elements during increased stream discharge events. Coeur d'Alene Lake received nearly all its trace-element loads from the Coeur d'Alene River. The lake retained the majority of the dissolved and whole-water recoverable loads of lead input to it, but retained almost none of its dissolved and whole-water recoverable loads of zinc. About one-half of the dissolved and whole-water recoverable loads of cadmium was retained in the lake. Within the Spokane River Basin, the largest loads of total nitrogen, 13,000,000 pounds, and total phosphorus, 677,000 pounds, were measuredat Spokane River at Long Lake, the station closest to the Columbia River. At Coeur d'Alene Lake, total nitrogen loads input to the lake from the Coeur d'Alene and St. Joe Rivers totaled 1,890,000 pounds; the lake discharged 2,430,000 pounds. The lake received 253,000 pounds of total phosphorus and discharged 187,000 pounds; thus, 66,000 pounds was retained by the lake.

Woods, P.F.



A preliminary Raman spectroscopic study of urine: diagnosis of breast cancer in animal models.  


Prognosis of breast cancer, the most common cancer in females worldwide, has been shown to improve with early detection. Owing to disadvantages like low sensitivity, specificity, tedious sample preparation, long output times and inter-observer variance of currently available screening/diagnostic tools, rapid and objective alternatives such as Raman spectroscopy (RS) are being extensively explored. Body fluid (serum and saliva) based RS assays have shown promising results in diagnosis of oral, lung and nasopharyngeal cancers. The current study aims to explore the feasibility of breast cancer diagnosis using urine based RS. In this study, spectra were acquired from unprocessed as well as concentrated urine of controls (C) and breast tumor bearing (T) rats and analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Principal Component-Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA). Classification efficiencies of 80% and 72% using unprocessed urine and 78% and 91% using concentrated urine for C and T rats were achieved. Thus, results suggest the possibility of breast cancer diagnosis using urine based RS. Further, spectra were also acquired from concentrated urine samples collected prior to breast tumor development (TT) in rats and from rats that did not develop tumors despite carcinogen treatment (NTT). Concentrated urine of NTT rats could be classified as 'normal' (C or NTT) with ?83% efficiency whereas concentrated urine from visibly and palpably normal rats that eventually developed tumor (TT rats) could be classified as 'abnormal' (TT or T) with ?72.5% efficiency using PC-LDA. These results suggest the possibility of detecting biochemical changes occurring prior to tumor development using urine based RS. PMID:25429666

Bhattacharjee, T; Khan, A; Maru, G; Ingle, A; Krishna, C Murali



Evaluation of abalone ?-glucuronidase substitution in current urine hydrolysis procedures.  


This study examined the potential of abalone ?-glucuronidase as a viable and cost effective alternative to current hydrolysis procedures using acid, Helix pomatia ?-glucuronidase and Escherichia coli ?-glucuronidase. Abalone ?-glucuronidase successfully hydrolyzed oxazepam-glucuronide and lorazepam-glucuronide within 5% of the spiked control concentration. Benzodiazepines present in authentic urine specimens were within 20% of the concentrations obtained with the current hydrolysis procedure using H. pomatia ?-glucuronidase. JWH 018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) ?-d-glucuronide was hydrolyzed within 10% of the control concentration. Authentic urine specimens showed improved glucuronide cleavage using abalone ?-glucuronidase with up to an 85% increase of drug concentration, compared with the results obtained using E. coli ?-glucuronidase. The JWH 018 and JWH 073 carboxylic acid metabolites also showed increased drug concentrations of up to 24%. Abalone ?-glucuronidase was able to completely hydrolyze a morphine-3-glucuronide control, but only 82% of total morphine was hydrolyzed in authentic urine specimens compared with acid hydrolysis results. Hydrolysis of codeine and hydromorphone varied between specimens, suggesting that abalone ?-glucuronidase may not be as efficient in hydrolyzing the glucuronide linkages in opioid compounds compared with acid hydrolysis. Abalone ?-glucuronidase demonstrates effectiveness as a low cost option for enzyme hydrolysis of benzodiazepines and synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:24488113

Malik-Wolf, Brittany; Vorce, Shawn; Holler, Justin; Bosy, Thomas



Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden.  


Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals. PMID:25300751

Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola



Thiamine response in maple syrup urine disease.  


We measured the biochemical response for four patients with maple syrup disease to pharmacologic doses of thiamine, and correlated their response to their branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity. We observed a linear correlation between the concentrations of each plasma branched-chain amino acid and its corresponding ketoacid analogue. In addition, the renal tubular reabsorption of branched-chain amino and ketoacids was nearly complete within these physiologic concentrations. Three children responded to thiamine therapy with a reduction in concentration of plasma and urinary branched-chain amino and ketoacids. Each responder had at least 5% activity for branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase in their mononuclear blood cells and in whole cell fibroblasts from cultured skin when compared to the activity in normal control cells. We propose that each child with maple syrup urine disease be assessed for their response to thiamine by quantifying the concentration of branched-chain amino acids in plasma before and after vitamin supplementation. PMID:3903643

Fernhoff, P M; Lubitz, D; Danner, D J; Dembure, P P; Schwartz, H P; Hillman, R; Bier, D M; Elsas, L J



Determination of ptaquiloside and pterosin B derived from bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) in cattle plasma, urine and milk.  


Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a toxin from bracken fern (Pteridium sp.) with genotoxic effects. Hydrolysis of PTA leads to the non-toxic and aromatised indanone, pterosin B (PTB). Here we present a sensitive, fast, simple and direct method, using SPE cartridges to clean and pre-concentrate PTA and PTB in plasma, urine and milk followed by LC-MS quantification. The average recovery of PTA in plasma, urine, and milk was 71, 88 and 77%, respectively, whereas recovery of PTB was 75, 82 and 63%. The method LOQ for PTA and PTB in plasma was 1.2 and 3.7ngmL(-1), 52 and 33ngmL(-1) for undiluted urine and 5.8 and 5.3ngmL(-1) for milk. The method is repeatable within and between days, with RSD values lower than 15% (PTA) and 20% (PTB). When PTA and PTB spiked samples were stored at -18°C for 14 days both compounds remained stable. In contrast, the PTA concentration was reduced by 15% when PTA spiked plasma was left for 5h at room temperature before SPE clean-up, whereas PTB remained stable. The method is the first to allow simultaneous quantification of PTA and PTB in biological fluids in a relevant concentration range. After intravenous administration of 0.092mg PTA per kgbw in a heifer, the plasma concentration was more than 300ngmL(-1) PTA and declined to 9.8ngmL(-1) after 6h, PTB was determined after 10min at 50ngmL(-1.) PMID:24508676

Aranha, Paulo César Reis; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Strobel, Bjarne W; Friis, Christian



Detection of antigens and antibodies in the urine of humans with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.  

PubMed Central

Humans infected with Plasmodium falciparum frequently have elevated levels of proteins in their urine, but it is unclear if any of these proteins are parasite antigens or antimalarial antibodies. To resolve this question, urine samples from malaria patients and controls living in Thailand and Ghana were evaluated. Urine samples from 85% of the patients had elevated protein levels and contained proteins with Mrs ranging from less than 29,000 to greater than 224,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Antisera were produced against urine from infected and control subjects. Antisera raised against infected, but not control, urine were positive by indirect immunofluorescence on P. falciparum parasites and immunoprecipitated approximately 12 unique bands from extracts of parasites metabolically labeled with 35S-methionine. These data suggest that a variety of P. falciparum antigens are released into urine during acute infection. It is also likely that anti-P. falciparum antibodies are present in the urine of malaria patients because samples from these patients, but not controls, were positive in indirect immunofluorescence assays and immunoprecipitated at least 19 P. falciparum antigens from extracts of metabolically labeled parasites. The detection of malarial antigens and antibodies in urine may lead to a new approach for the diagnosis of malaria. Images PMID:1864942

Rodriguez-del Valle, M; Quakyi, I A; Amuesi, J; Quaye, J T; Nkrumah, F K; Taylor, D W



Repeat exposure to ciguatoxin leads to enhanced and sustained thermoregulatory, pain threshold and motor activity responses in mice: relationship to blood ciguatoxin concentrations.  


Ciguatera is a common illness in tropical and subtropical regions that manifests in complex and long-lived symptoms which are more severe in subsequent exposures. This study measures central and peripheral neurologic signs, in parallel with blood toxin levels, in mice exposed once or twice (at 3 days interval) to a sublethal dose of ciguatoxin P-CTX-1 (0.26ng/g via i.p.). Mice were implanted with radiotransmitters to monitor motor activity and core temperature. A single exposure to ciguatoxin elicited an immediate and transient decrease in motor activity and temperature, and subsequent long-lasting thermoregulatory dysfunction resulting in stabilized body temperature around 36.0 degrees C with no observable circadian rhythm. The hypothermic response and the reduced activity were enhanced with a second exposure with 30% of the mice dying within 7h. Measurement of the peripheral nervous system by the tail flick assay revealed increased latency with a single ciguatoxin exposure, and a greater effect following the second exposure. Toxin was measurable in blood up to 3 days following the first exposure; at the 1h time point the concentrations were significantly elevated after a second exposure. These findings indicate an early response to ciguatoxin manifest in a central response to lower body temperature and reduce motor activity and a more persistent effect on the peripheral system leading to spinal heat antinociception and delayed fever-like response. The greater neurological response to a second ciguatoxin exposure was associated with elevated concentrations of ciguatoxin in the blood solely over the first hour of exposure. In conclusion, a single exposure to toxin exerts a significant neurological response which may be enhanced with subsequent exposure. PMID:18280027

Bottein Dechraoui, Marie-Yasmine; Rezvani, Amir H; Gordon, Christopher J; Levin, Edward D; Ramsdell, John S



Toxic trace element reference levels in blood and urine: influence of gender and lifestyle factors.  


This study is part of the EURO-TERVIHT project (Trace Element Reference Values in Human Tissues) which aims at establishing reference intervals for trace elements in blood, urine and other human tissues. In this study reference intervals (0.05-0.95 fractiles) were estimated for lead in blood (105-529 nmol/l for men, 80-340 nmol/l for women), manganese in blood (100-271 nmol/l) and arsenic in urine (36-541 nmol/l for men, 21-475 nmol/l for women). Upper reference limits (0.95 fractile) were established for chromium in urine (13 nmol/l), nickel in urine (52 nmol/l) and cobalt in urine (23 nmol/l for men, 31 nmol/l for women). The reference group was a Danish subpopulation (n = 189), age 40-70 years. The influence of gender, age, health status parameters, nutrition and various lifestyle factors was investigated. Urinary arsenic and blood lead levels were found to be higher for men than for women. Arsenic levels also increased with age up to 60 years, and then decreased. Alcohol intake lead to increased arsenic levels in urine as well as blood lead levels. Urinary nickel levels were higher in persons frequently eating porridge and porridge oats. PMID:9301099

Kristiansen, J; Christensen, J M; Iversen, B S; Sabbioni, E



Urine ? 2-Microglobolin in the Patients with Congenital Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to evaluate the renal tubular function in the patients with congenital heart disease using ?2-microglobulin. Methods In this case-control study, based on oxymetry, the patients with congenital heart disease were divided into two groups of cyanotic (n=20) and acyanotic (n=20). Congenital heart disease was diagnosed by echocardiography. Healthy individuals within the same age and sex groups were used as controls. Na+, ?2-micro globulin, creatinine (Cr), and ?2-microglobulin/Cr ratio were measured in random urine samples and the results were compared to the same parameters in the control group using Tukey, One-Way ANOVA, and X2 tests. Results Based on the study results, urine sodium in the patients with cyanotic heart disease was significantly different from that of the controls (P=0.023). The results also revealed a significant difference between the two groups with congenital heart disease regarding urine ?2-microglobulin (P=0.045). In addition, the patients with cyanotic heart disease were significantly different from those with acyanotic heart disease and the controls regarding urine ?2-micro globulin/Cr ratio (P=0.012 and P=0.026, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that renal tubular dysfunction began in the patients with congenital heart disease, especially in those with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Besides, early diagnosis before cardiac surgery leads to better control of renal tubular disease. PMID:24757623

Noori, Noor Mohammad; Sadeghi, Simin; Shahramian, Iraj; Keshavarz, Kambiz



The Analysis of Riboflavin in Urine Using Fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To become functional as scientists, chemistry students must integrate concepts learned in their classes and apply them to novel, "real life" situations. The laboratory provides an important place for the students to practice integrating concepts. This laboratory experiment, designed for undergraduate biochemistry students, requires each student to determine the amount of riboflavin excreted by his/her body following oral administration of riboflavin contained in a multi-vitamin tablet. The experimental procedure describes a protocol for the analysis of riboflavin concentration in urine using a fluorometric assay. The students must draw upon their knowledge of solution preparation, construction of a standard curve, and back-calculation procedures to determine the concentration of riboflavin in their urine. Students need to combine knowledge from general and analytical chemistry with that learned in biochemistry to complete this analysis, thus providing an opportunity to integrate knowledge while answering a novel question.

Henderleiter, Julie A.; Hyslop, Richard M.



The effects of prenatal exposure to low-level cadmium, lead and selenium on birth outcomes.  


To evaluate the current maternal and fetal exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and their potential effect on newborn birth outcomes, a cross-sectional study involving an assessment of the levels of these three metals in maternal blood, urine and umbilical cord blood was conducted in 209 pregnant women living in Eastern China. The maternal blood, urine and cord blood samples were collected and measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The maternal blood concentrations of Cd, Pb and Se (the geometric means (GMs) were 0.48, 39.50 and 143.53 ?g L(-1)) were significantly higher than and correlated with those in the cord blood (GM: 0.09, 31.62 and 124.61 ?g L(-1)). In the urine samples, the GMs for Cd, Pb and Se were 0.13, 0.48, and 4.78 ?g L(-1), respectively. Passive smoking was found to positively correlate with urine Cd (r=0.16) and negatively correlate with urine Se (r=-0.29). The maternal blood Se level was negatively associated with the cord Cd levels (r=-0.41). The blood Cd concentration in the mother could significantly affect the newborn birth weight (r=-0.22), but it was not correlated with birth height. We identified cord Se as a new factor which significantly correlated with birth weight. In conclusion, maternal Cd, Pb, Se exposure correlated with their umbilical cord concentration, and maternal Cd exposure might affect the newborn birth weight. Increasing the Se intake might reduce the cord blood Cd concentration and promote the fetal growth. PMID:24875909

Sun, Hong; Chen, Wen; Wang, Dongyue; Jin, Yinlong; Chen, Xiaodong; Xu, Yan



A sensitive assay method of furosemide in plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromotography.  


A sensitive assay method of furosemide in plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is described. The minimum measurable concentrations of furosemide in plasma and urine were 0.2 and 5.0 microgram/ml, respectively; whereas the coefficients of variation of furosemide levels were found to be 7.8% for plasma and 2.0% for urine. These are within the acceptably low limits. Hence, the present method of furosemide is sensitive, reproducible, and accurate for therapeutic drug monitoring. The significance of this HPLC assay method is discussed. PMID:7157461

Snedden, W; Sharma, J N; Fernandez, P G



Lead content in human scalp hair of rural and urban residents in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

In the last three decades, vehicular traffic has increased drastically in Taiwan, from 50 thousand registered motor vehicles in 1967 to over 5 million at present. Although the lead content of leaded gasoline produced in Taiwan was reduced from 0.56 g/L to 0.12 g/L between 1982 and 1988, half of these vehicles still use leaded gasoline. It is one of the major sources of lead contamination in the ambient air and dust in the city. The suitability of hair analysis as a means of screening for heavy metal exposure and heavy-metal poisoning is well documented. Numerous investigations worldwide have shown that hair lead concentrations are strongly correlated with the lead concentrations of other organs in the body. Hair presents an advantage from the sampling point of view because it is easily obtained, stored and analyzed. It also concentrates more lead per unit weight than any other tissue or body fluid. It has been estimated that for healthy persons, the lead concentration in hair may be 2-5 times higher than that in bone, 10-50 times than that of blood and from 100-500 times higher than in urine. The determination of trace elements in human scalp hair has become an accepted adjuvant to the more traditional blood and urine analyses for identifying systemic heavy metal intoxication. In this study, the concentrations of lead were measured in hair from an urban and a rural population in Taiwan. The levels and distributions of lead between rural and urban residents were compared. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Cheng, P.C.; Saito, S.; Kojima, Y. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)] [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)



Estimation of Dietary Pb and Cd Intake from Pb and Cd in Blood or Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful trials were made to estimate the dietary daily intake of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) via foods from the levels of\\u000a the metals in blood or urine. In practice, 14 and 15 reports were available for Pb and Cd in blood (Pb-B and Cd-B), urine\\u000a (Pb-U and Cd-U) and 24-h diet duplicates (Pb-D and Cd-D), respectively, from which 68

Masayuki Ikeda; Shinichiro Shimbo; Takao Watanabe; Fumiko Ohashi; Yoshinari Fukui; Sonoko Sakuragi; Jiro Moriguchi



Correlations of Trace Element Levels in the Diet, Blood, Urine, and Feces in the Chinese Male  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the associations between trace elements in dietary intake and the other three biological media (blood,\\u000a urine, or feces) and inter-element interactions among the latter, we simultaneously collected 72-h diet duplicates, whole\\u000a blood, and 72-h urine and feces from 120 free-living healthy males in China. Correlations among the toxic (cadmium [Cd], lead\\u000a [Pb]), and nutritionally essential (zinc

Ying Wang; Yang-Li Ou; Ya-Qiong Liu; Qing Xie; Qing-Fen Liu; Quan Wu; Ti-Qiang Fan; Lai-Lai Yan; Jing-Yu Wang


Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), antibodies to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts were measured by ELISA and hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS--Mean urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in samples from coke oven workers varied from 1.11 to 5.53 umol/mol creatinine and 0.14 umol/mol creatinine in the control group. Workers at the top side had the highest values of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts did not correlate with either 1-hydroxypyrene nor length of work at the coke oven plant. But antibody concentration in samples collected in January was predictive of the concentration in samples collected in June. A small non-significant increase in hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts was found in samples from coke oven workers relative to the control group when comparing smokers and nonsmokers separately. CONCLUSION--1-Hydroxypyrene correlates well with exposure groups based on job description. Antibodies to benzo(a)-pyrene DNA adducts was related to people and not exposure. Work at a coke oven plant might lead to increased hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts. PMID:8535495

Ovrebř, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D



Investigation of the origin of prednisolone in cow urine.  


After a two-year period of the frequent detection of prednisolone-positive bovine urine samples in the Italian region of Lombardy, studies were initiated to investigate the source. Because the majority of positive samples were detected at the slaughterhouse, researchers hypothesised that, together with increased cortisol and cortisone, a small quantity of prednisolone could be produced by the cows in stressful situations. In the present study, three dairy cows underwent intramuscular treatments with tetracosactide hexaacetate, a synthetic analogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone, to simulate stress. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the study. The results indicated that prednisolone could be detected occasionally in the non-stressful state, but was consistently found in the urine of stressed cows (concentrations ranged from 1.01 to 4.08 ng/mL). To confirm the stress condition, urinary cortisol and cortisone were also detected at high concentrations in the urine, typically at concentrations of hundreds of nanograms per millilitre. The results of this preliminary study did not reveal the metabolic pathway responsible for prednisolone but suggested that this corticosteroid could be produced endogenously. PMID:20869978

Pompa, G; Arioli, F; Casati, A; Fidani, M; Bertocchi, L; Dusi, G



Effective extraction and radioimmunoassay of chorionic gonadotropin in human urine.  


A single-step procedure for extracting and concentrating hCG from 24hr urine samples was developed. The procedure involves the adsorption chromatography with Vitachange (Permutit). Its hCG recovery was improved to be more than 90% compared with about 50% of a standard kaolin-acetone method. Nonspecific urinary protein concentration in extracts was also reduced. Thus, partial purification and concentration of urinary hCG by this procedure with subsequent RIA using antisera against the unique carboxyl-terminal peptide of hCG beta subunit provides a sensitive and specific method for detecting hCG in urine. In urine samples obtained from normal persons, the upper limit of hCG-immunoreactivity detected by this new system was 1.1 IU/24hr. However, 93% of subjects gave values lower than 0.5 IU/24hr. The urinary hCG level of lower than 1.1 IU/24hr may be designated as normal. This new assay system now provides reliable potentiality in the strict management of patients who are undergoing treatment for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:6827167

Matsuura, S; Shimizu, T; Oh, S; Ohashi, M; Ashitaka, Y; Tojo, S



Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study: Monitoring and Elimination of Bioaccumulated Toxic Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited understanding of the toxicokinetics of bioaccumulated toxic elements and their methods of excretion from\\u000a the human body. This study was designed to assess the concentration of various toxic elements in three body fluids: blood,\\u000a urine and sweat. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with\\u000a various health problems) and

Stephen J. Genuis; Detlef Birkholz; Ilia Rodushkin; Sanjay Beesoon



Blood Erythrocyte Concentrations of Cadmium and Lead and the Risk of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma: A Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are hypothesised to be risk factors for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), a group of haematological malignancies with a suspected environmental aetiology. Within the EnviroGenoMarkers study we utilised pre-diagnostic erythrocyte concentrations of Cd and Pb to determine whether exposure was associated with risk of B-cell NHL and multiple myeloma. Methods 194 incident cases of B-cell NHL and 76 cases of multiple myeloma diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 were identified from two existing cohorts; EPIC-Italy and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Cases were matched to healthy controls by centre, age, gender and date of blood collection. Cd and Pb were measured in blood samples provided at recruitment using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association with risk. Analyses were stratified by cohort and gender and by subtype where possible. Results There was little evidence of an increased risk of B-cell NHL or multiple myeloma with exposure to Cd (B-cell NHL: OR 1.09 95%CI 0.61, 1.93, MM: OR 1.16 95% CI: 0.40, 3.40 ) or Pb (B-cell NHL: 0.93 95% CI 0.43, 2.02, multiple myeloma: OR 1.63 95%CI 0.45, 5.94) in the total population when comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of exposure. However, gender and cohort specific differences in results were observed. In females the risk of B-cell NHL was more than doubled in those with a body burden of Cd >1µg/L (OR 2.20 95%CI; 1.04, 4.65). Conclusions This nested case-control study does not support a consistent positive association between Cd or Pb and NHL, but there is some indication of a gender specific effect suggesting further research is warranted. PMID:24312375

Porta, Miquel; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Palli, Domenico; Johansson, Ann-Sofie; Botsivali, Maria; Vineis, Paolo; Vermeulen, Roel; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc



Pentachlorophenol levels in human urine  

SciTech Connect

Pentachlorophenol is perhaps one of the most persistent and widespread pollutants in existence today. The ubiquitous nature of this molecule and its toxicological properties have aroused the interest of numerous researchers in diverse areas of environmental chemistry, occupational health and safety, and environmental and occupational medicine. Unfortunately, due to the unavailability of data indicative of {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} or background levels of PCP exposure in the general population, researchers have encountered difficulty assessing long-term toxicological effects. It is desirable to be able to determine the minimum level of long-term exposure which will result in an adverse effect to human health. There have been a limited number of studies examining PCP levels in the urine of non-occupationally exposed individuals. In continuation of previous work carried out at our laboratory, we have analyzed a series of urine samples which were collected in the middle of winter as opposed to early in the fall. This work will provide further information regarding background levels of PCP and also determine whether or not there is potentially seasonal variation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Thompson, T.S.; Treble, R.G. [Saskatchewan Health, Regina (Canada)] [Saskatchewan Health, Regina (Canada)



Phosphorus recovery from urine with different magnesium resources in an air-agitated reactor.  


Phosphorus (P) recovery through struvite formation from urine has gained increasing attention as an approach to alleviate the potential shortage of P. The concentration of magnesium (Mg) is lower than those of ammonium and ortho-phosphate in urine, so the cost of adding Mg is a major economic constraint for P recovery. This study aims at evaluating the potential of seawater and bittern as Mg resources to recover P from urine in an air-agitated reactor. Results indicate that effects of seawater and bittern on P recovery from urine are comparable to that of magnesium chloride, with an average crystal size of around 34 ?m under an Mg/P molar ratio of 1.3. The average crystal size of the struvite crystals obtained from high P concentration urine with different Mg resources showed no significant difference, whereas larger crystal size was obtained from low P concentration urine with bittern as Mg resource. Analysis of mainly rod-like crystals produced in the reactor indicates the presence of pure struvite (>98.0% by weight) with small amounts of calcium (<1.39% by weight). Bittern is recommended as a suitable Mg resource for P recovery because of its high Mg content and the convenience it offers in terms of transportation and storage. PMID:25176481

Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Zhengyi; Mu, Jing; Zang, Haixing; Liu, Li



Spot Urine Estimations Are Equivalent to 24-Hour Urine Assessments of Urine Protein Excretion for Predicting Clinical Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background. The use of spot urine protein to creatinine ratios in estimating 24?hr urine protein excretion rates for diagnosing and managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) predated the standardization of creatinine assays. The comparative predictive performance of spot urine ratios and 24?hr urine collections (of albumin or protein) for the clinical outcomes of CKD progression, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality in Asians is unclear. We compared 4 methods of assessing urine protein excretion in a multiethnic population of CKD patients. Methods. Patients with CKD (n = 232) provided 24?hr urine collections followed by spot urine samples the next morning. We created multiple linear regression models to assess the factors associated with GFR decline (median follow-up: 37 months, IQR 26–41) and constructed Cox proportional-hazards models for predicting the combined outcome of ESRD and death. Results. The linear regression models showed that 24?hr urine protein excretion was most predictive of GFR decline but all other methods were similar. For the combined outcomes of ESRD and death, the proportional hazards models had similar predictive performance. Conclusions. We showed that all methods of assessments were comparable for clinical end-points, and any method can be used in clinical practice or research. PMID:25649135

Teo, Boon Wee; Loh, Ping Tyug; Wong, Weng Kin; Ho, Peh Joo; Choi, Kwok Pui; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Saw, Sharon; Lau, Titus; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J. C.



Beating the system: a study of a creatinine assay and its efficacy in authenticating human urine specimens.  


Creatinine concentration is commonly used to verify the authenticity of urine specimens submitted for illicit drug screening. This study evaluated creatinine screening of donor urine specimens as a tool for detecting substituted and/or tampered specimens. The study carried out creatinine assay of animal urine, fruit juices, and urine from creatine-supplemented subjects by a modified version of the Jaffe reaction. All specimens were analyzed for creatinine concentration in a chemistry-immuno analyzer. Results showed that urine specimens from common domestic pets, including cats, dogs, and horses, have creatinine values similar to normal human values. Most fruit juices tested contained no detectable creatinine, and the few that did showed poor "urine" chemical integrity. Creatine supplementation by donors was found not to provide an effective means of elevating creatinine concentration in urine when attempting to flush out water-soluble drugs in the body. Thus, the assay for creatinine proved useful for the detection of some but not all adulterated urine specimens. PMID:20109301

Villena, Vincent P



Compatibility Testing of Non-Metallic Materials for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) of International Space Station (ISS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts will convert urine into potable water with the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The urine is distilled, with the concentrated form containing about 15% brine solids, and the dilute form as a blend of pre-treated urine/wastewater. Eighteen candidate non-metallic materials for use with the UPA were tested in 2000 for compatibility with the concentrated and dilute urine solutions for continuous times of at least 30 days, and at conditions of 0.5 psia pressure and 100 F, to simulate the working UPA environment. A primary screening test for each material (virgin and conditioned) was dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in the stress relaxation mode, with the test data used to predict material performance for a 10-year use in space. Data showed that most of the candidate materials passed the compatibility testing, although a few significant changes in stress relaxation modulus were observed.

Wingard, Charles Doug; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)



Isolation and comparative study of cell-free nucleic acids from human urine.  


Cell-free nucleic acids (NA) from human urine were investigated. Concentrations of DNA and RNA in the urine of healthy people were independent of gender and were in the range of 6 ng/mL to 50 ng/mL and 24 ng/mL to 140 ng/mL, respectively. DNA fragments of 150-400 bp represent the main part of cell-free DNA, along with DNA fragments up to 1,300 bp, which were found in male urine, and DNA fragments up to 19 kbp, which were found in female urine. Analysis of circulating DNA, isolated from blood of breast cancer patients and cell-free DNA isolated from their urine by methylation-specific PCR, demonstrates that the presence of methylated promoters of RASSF1A and RARbeta2 genes in plasma was accompanied by the detection of the same methylated markers in urine. The data obtained demonstrate applicability of cell-free urine DNA in cancer diagnostics. PMID:17108229

Bryzgunova, Olga E; Skvortsova, Tatyana E; Kolesnikova, Elena V; Starikov, Andrey V; Rykova, Elena Yu; Vlassov, Valentin V; Laktionov, Pavel P



Highly sensitive radioimmunoassay of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in human plasma and urine  

SciTech Connect

A highly sensitive radioimmunoassay has been established for measurement of human plasma and urine concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and requires no extraction or concentration process. An antiserum was prepared from rabbits immunized with ..cap alpha..-human ANP (..cap alpha..-hANP) coupled with bovine-thyroglobulin. The sensitivity of this method was 0.2 pg/tube of synthetic ..cap alpha..-hANP utilized as authentic standard. Recovery of ..cap alpha..-hANP spiked to plasma and urine was 97.7 +/- 15.4% and 97.1 +/- 9.5% (mean +/- SD), respectively. Plasma and urinary ANP concentrations versus assay data showed satisfactory linearity. In 124 health subjects, the plasma ANP concentration was 31.7 +/- 12.0 pg/ml. Two different molecular forms of ANP in plasma and a single form in urine were found by gel permeation chromatography.

Marumo, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Ando, K.; Ishigami, T.; Kawakami, M.



Energy efficient reconcentration of diluted human urine using ion exchange membranes in bioelectrochemical systems.  


Nutrients can be recovered from source separated human urine; however, nutrient reconcentration (i.e., volume reduction of collected urine) requires energy-intensive treatment processes, making it practically difficult to utilize human urine. In this study, energy-efficient nutrient reconcentration was demonstrated using ion exchange membranes (IEMs) in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) where substrate oxidation at the MEC anode provides energy for the separation of nutrient ions (e.g., NH4(+), HPO4(2-)). The rate of nutrient separation was magnified with increasing number of IEM pairs and electric voltage application (Eap). Ammonia and phosphate were reconcentrated from diluted human urine by a factor of up to 4.5 and 3.0, respectively (Eap = 1.2 V; 3-IEM pairs). The concentrating factor increased with increasing degrees of volume reduction, but it remained stationary when the volume ratio between the diluate (urine solution that is diluted in the IEM stack) and concentrate (urine solution that is reconcentrated) was 6 or greater. The energy requirement normalized by the mass of nutrient reconcentrated was 6.48 MJ/kg-N (1.80 kWh/kg-N) and 117.6 MJ/kg-P (32.7 kWh/kg-P). In addition to nutrient separation, the examined MEC reactor with three IEM pairs showed 54% removal of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in 47-hr batch operation. The high sulfate concentration in human urine resulted in substantial growth of both of acetate-oxidizing and H2-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria, greatly diminishing the energy recovery and Coulombic efficiency. However, the high microbial activity of sulfate reducing bacteria hardly affected the rate of nutrient reconcentration. With the capability to reconcentrate nutrients at a minimal energy consumption and simultaneous COD removal, the examined bioelectrochemical treatment method with an IEM application has a potential for practical nutrient recovery and sustainable treatment of source-separated human urine. PMID:25046373

Tice, Ryan C; Kim, Younggy



Grass-green urine from propofol infusion.  


Green urine from propofol infusion is a benign and rare side effect. The discolouration appears when clearance of propofol exceeds hepatic elimination, and extrahepatic elimination of propofol occurs. This case report presents a 24-year-old male with grass green discolouration of urine based on propofol infusion. PMID:25394533

Pedersen, A B; Kobborg, T K; Larsen, J R



Clinical Significance of Mites in Urine  

PubMed Central

We report a case where a mite egg found in urine caused diagnostic confusion. The possibility of gut or bladder mite infection should be entertained only after repeated identification of mites in urine or stool samples from a symptomatic patient with no other cause for the symptoms and where the possibilities of contamination and spurious infection have been excluded. PMID:16333130

Dini, Leigh A.; Frean, John A.



Genetics Home Reference: Maple syrup urine disease  


... but they still involve developmental delay and other health problems if not treated. How common is maple syrup urine disease? Maple syrup urine disease affects an estimated 1 in 185,000 infants worldwide. The disorder occurs much more frequently in ...


Measurement of Menadione in urine by HPLC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Menadione may be an important metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a C30 column, fluorescence detection and post-column zinc reduction was developed to measure menadione in urine. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol...


Source Separation and Treament of Anthropogenic Urine  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: Anthropogenic urine, although only 1% of domestic wastewater flow, is responsible for 50-80% of the nutrients and a substantial portion of the pharmaceuticals and hormones present in the influent to wastewater treatment plants. Source separation and treatment of urine...


Radioscintigraphic demonstration of unsuspected urine extravasation  

SciTech Connect

Three cases of unsuspected urine extravasation first detected by radionuclide scintigraphy are presented with subsequent confirmation by CT and, retrograde pyelograms. A renal study done to rule out acute transplant rejection demonstrates gallbladder uptake which was initially thought to be consistent with urine extravasation.

Bocchini, T.; Williams, W.; Patton, D.



The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.  


Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer, but also during surgery and in intensive care units. The investigation of cell cultures opens up new possibilities for elucidation of the biochemical background of volatile compounds. In future studies, combined investigations of a particular compound with regard to human matrices such as breath, urine, saliva and cell culture investigations will lead to novel scientific progress in the field. PMID:24946087

Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence



Impact of separate urine collection on wastewater treatment systems.  


Wastewater treatment should not only be concerned with urban hygiene and environmental protection, but development of a sustainable society must also be considered. This implies a minimisation of the energy demand and potential recovery of finite minerals. Urine contains 80% of the nitrogen (N) and 45% of the phosphorus (P) in wastewater. Separate collection and treatment would improve effluent quality and save energy in centralised biological nutrient removal (BNR). BNR processes are not optimal to treat water with very low N concentration resulting from separate urine collection. Relying on nutrient removal through sludge production, methanation of the sludge, subsequent nutrient removal from the digestion effluent results in optimised and more sustainable wastewater treatment. This paper quantitatively evaluates this option and discusses the potential. PMID:12926626

Wilsenach, J; van Loosdrecht, M



Immunodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis using urine samples.  


Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is one of the most lethal zoonotic parasitic infections. The diagnosis is based on the combination of the abdominal imaging including CT, MRI and PET, and serology. To develop a new diagnostic tool for AE with urine as samples, mouse-Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) model and then human cases were studied. The antibody levels of urine and serum samples from the infected mice and AE cases were well correlated with each other. The sensitivity and specificity of the method with urine were 91% and 98%, respectively, when IgG4 to crude Em was examined. Comparing with serum samples, the collection of urine is easier and safer and the urine diagnostic tool makes surveys of this silent disease easier. PMID:23872436

Itoh, Makoto; Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Ishikawa, Yuji; Akabane, Hiromitsu; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Nagaoka, Fumiaki; Ito, Akira



Cycle-Characteristic Odour of Cow Urine Can Be Detected by the Female Face Fly (Musca autumnalis).  


Due to declining dairy cow fertility rates, there is great interest in developing tools for oestrus detection. Compounds in the volatile profile of oestrous cows are suggested as oestrus-specific, but consistent results have not been presented. Certain haematophagous arthropods can discriminate stages of the mammalian reproductive cycle based on host volatiles. This study investigated whether the face fly, Musca autumnalis de Geer (Diptera: Muscidae), can discriminate between urine from cows in oestrus and urine collected during the luteal phase. Individual flies were tested in a two-choice behavioural assay with choice between odour of oestrous or luteal urine and water (control). Flies chose the control arm significantly more when exposed to oestrous urine than when exposed to luteal urine. Analysis of volatiles showed that 1-hexadecanol (cetyl alcohol) was released in greater amounts from oestrous urine than from urine collected during the luteal phase. In a dose response assay, flies were significantly attracted by 0.01 ng of 1-hexadecanol but significantly repelled by 0.1 ng, a pattern consistent with fly responses to urine. In conclusion, M. autumnalis can discriminate between oestrous and luteal urine, and this may be mediated by differences in 1-hexadecanol concentration. PMID:25244510

Nordéus, K; Webster, B; Söderquist, L; Bĺge, R; Glinwood, R



Cycle-Characteristic Odour of Cow Urine Can Be Detected by the Female Face Fly (Musca autumnalis)  

PubMed Central

Contents Due to declining dairy cow fertility rates, there is great interest in developing tools for oestrus detection. Compounds in the volatile profile of oestrous cows are suggested as oestrus-specific, but consistent results have not been presented. Certain haematophagous arthropods can discriminate stages of the mammalian reproductive cycle based on host volatiles. This study investigated whether the face fly, Musca autumnalis de Geer (Diptera: Muscidae), can discriminate between urine from cows in oestrus and urine collected during the luteal phase. Individual flies were tested in a two-choice behavioural assay with choice between odour of oestrous or luteal urine and water (control). Flies chose the control arm significantly more when exposed to oestrous urine than when exposed to luteal urine. Analysis of volatiles showed that 1-hexadecanol (cetyl alcohol) was released in greater amounts from oestrous urine than from urine collected during the luteal phase. In a dose response assay, flies were significantly attracted by 0.01 ng of 1-hexadecanol but significantly repelled by 0.1 ng, a pattern consistent with fly responses to urine. In conclusion, M. autumnalis can discriminate between oestrous and luteal urine, and this may be mediated by differences in 1-hexadecanol concentration. PMID:25244510

Nordéus, K; Webster, B; Söderquist, L; Bĺge, R; Glinwood, R



28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall have each positive urine test validated to if the inmate's urine test shows a positive result for the presence of drugs which the inmate cannot...and a copy of positive urine testing results which the...



10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the remaining urine into Bottle...laboratory for drug and validity testing; and (3...splitting of the urine specimen and...for additional drugs, as permitted...if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...



Exosomes in urine biomarker discovery.  


Nanovesicles present in urine the so-called urinary exosomes have been found to be secreted by every epithelial cell type lining the urinary tract system in human. Urinary exosomes are an appealing source for biomarker discovery as they contain molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including proteins and genetic materials, and they can be isolated in a non-invasive manner. Following the discovery of urinary exosomes in 2004, many studies have been performed using urinary exosomes as a starting material to identify biomarkers in various renal, urogenital, and systemic diseases. Here, we describe the discovery of urinary exosomes and address the issues on the collection, isolation, and normalization of urinary exosomes as well as delineate the systems biology approach to biomarker discovery using urinary exosomes. PMID:25355568

Huebner, Alyssa R; Somparn, Poorichaya; Benjachat, Thitima; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Fenton, Robert A; Pisitkun, Trairak



Effects of chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of lead acetate on heme synthesis and immune function in red-tailed hawks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-tailed hawks were exposed to sublethal levels of lead acetate for periods of 3 or 11 weeks. Alterations in the heme biosynthetic pathway were demonstrated after the first week of exposure to 0.82 mg lead per kilogram body weight per day. Activity of erythrocyte porphobilinogen synthase (aminolevulinic acid dehydratase) was depressed significantly and did not return to normal levels until

Patrick T. Redig; Ellen M. Lawler; Samuel Schwartzt; Jean L. Dunnette; Betty Stephenson; Gary E. Dukett



area air samples were collected in the fire assay laboratory to determine concentrations of airborne lead and other trace metals. Air velocity measurements of the local exhaust ventilation systems in these areas also were made  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the environmental survey revealed 8-hour TWA concentrations of 113 micrograms per cubic meter of air (ug\\/M 3 ) and 40 ug\\/M 3 of lead in the personal air samples collected for the assayer and scale operator, respectively. While both of these concentrations are below the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) standard of 150 ug\\/M 3 as

William J. Daniels


Urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) excretion in humans and cattle as an index of exposure to lead.  


Disposable ion-exchange chromatographic columns were used to determine delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) concentrations in 11 bovine and 184 human urine samples. The mean urinary ALA concentrations in persons working as battery charges, autopainters, automechanics, and urban first-grade pupils were 11.61 +/- 14.23, 6.51 +/- 3.31, 6.48 +/- 3.36, and 5.71 +/- 2.91 micrograms/ml respectively. These values were higher than those found in urine from gasoline station attendants, university students and laboratory assistants, rural adult farmers, and rural first-grade pupils, which were 4.90 +/- 1.95, 4.93 +/- 1.76, 4.40 +/- 1.79 and 4.51 +/- 2.65 micrograms/ml respectively. In cattle (Holstein Friesian/White Fulani cross) the mean urinary ALA concentration was 1.84 +/- 0.04 micron/ml. The data indicates that persons working around automobile, lead batteries and leaded gasoline had elevated ALA concentrations in urine. Rural humans and cattle did not have significant elevations of urinary ALA. PMID:7210469

Adaudi, A O; Aliu, Y O



Spectrofluorimetric determination of nomifensine in human plasma and urine by derivatization with fluorescamine.  


A sensitive, simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of nomifensine in human plasma and urine. The present method was based on the derivatization by fluorescamine in phosphate buffer at pH 4.0 to produce a highly fluorescent product which was measured at 488?nm (excitation at 339?nm). The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, recovery and robustness. The assay was linear over the concentration ranges 100-2,000 and 50-2,000?ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. The limits of detection were calculated to be 13.9 and 7.5?ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of the drug in human plasma and urine. PMID:21681914

Ulu, Sevgi Tatar



Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure  

PubMed Central

Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides detected in urine demonstrated the exposure as well as the ability of the rat to excrete these compounds. PMID:23736656

Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Boberg, Julie; Bonefeld-Jřrgensen, Eva Cecilie



Observations on the urine metabolic profile of codeine in pain patients.  


This retrospective data analysis explored the relationship between codeine and its metabolites morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone. The objectives were: (i) to determine urine concentrations and mole fractions of codeine and metabolites and (ii) to examine the effect of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 inhibition on metabolite mole fractions. De-identified urine specimens were collected between September 2010 and July 2011 and analyzed using LC-MS-MS to determine codeine, morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone concentrations. Geometric mean urine concentrations were 0.833, 0.085 and 0.055 for morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone, respectively. Mole fractions were 0.23, 0.025 and 0.014 for morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone, respectively. The fraction of excreted codeine in the urine increased (slope = 0.06 ± .01, R˛ = 0.02) with total moles. As the total amount of codeine and metabolites increased, the fraction of codeine increased, while the fraction of active metabolites decreased. CYP2D6 inhibition with paroxetine, fluoxetine, bupropion and methadone significantly decreased the fraction of morphine excreted. The prevalence of codeine metabolism to morphine was considerably higher than codeine to hydrocodone. The urine concentration of codeine excreted was the greatest, followed by morphine and hydrocodone. Subjects should be monitored during concomitant use of codeine and CYP2D6 inhibitors as this affects the amount of morphine metabolite formation. PMID:24396053

Yee, David A; Atayee, Rabia S; Best, Brookie M; Ma, Joseph D



The effect of lead-induced oxidative stress on blood viscosity and rheological properties of erythrocytes in lead exposed humans.  


Lead-induced oxidative stress has been identified as the essential factor in lead poisoning pathogenesis. Therefore, the present study examined the association between occupational lead exposure and blood rheological parameters with respect to malondialdehyde (a lipid peroxidation product), lipofuscin, and glutathione concentrations in erythrocytes. The examined group included 283 healthy male employees of lead-zinc works. In brief, 129 workers were classified as the low-exposure group, while the high-exposure group was composed of 154 workers. The mean blood levels of lead and zinc-protoporphyrin and the mean urine concentrations of delta-aminolevulinic acid were used as exposure markers. The control group consisted of 73 healthy male administrative workers. Whole blood viscosity was elevated in both exposure subgroups compared with the control group. Erythrocyte aggregability increased significantly; although the increase was greater in the low exposure group. Erythrocyte deformability decreased in both subgroups. The levels of malondialdehyde and lipofuscin were significantly elevated, whereas the glutathione content decreased. In conclusion, occupational exposure to lead may induce oxidative stress in erythrocytes. This stress elevates whole blood viscosity and disturbs erythrocyte aggregability and deformability. There is a dose-effect relationship between lead levels and blood rheological parameters. PMID:23370159

Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; S?owi?ska-?o?y?ska, Ludmi?a; Dobrakowski, Micha?; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Kasperczyk, S?awomir



[Delta-aminolevulinic acid measurement in people professionally exposed to lead].  


Lead is an enzymatic toxic agent, one of its main effects being the perturbation of the porphyrine biosynthesis. This perturbation can be easily spotted using the rapid method of dosing the delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA). In this paper there are presented the results of the biotoxicological screening on a segment of population professionally exposed to lead. The exposed group contains 65 persons (50 men and 15 women) with the ages between 20 and 52, employed at different gas stations. Simultaneously, there was determined the concentration of the delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine on a witness group made up of 37 voluntary persons (22 men and 15 women) with the ages between 16 and 58. The delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine was ascertained by spectrophotometry method with Ehrlich reagent. The obtained data were statistically processed by "t student" test. At the exposed group the delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine ranges between 0.14 and 17.0 mg/l, and for each sex between 0.14-17.0 mg/l at men and 4.7-16.5 mg/l at women. The delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine of the witness group ranges between 0.2 and 8.1 mg/l, and for each sex 0.2-5.73 mg/l at men and 1.44-8.1 mg/l at women. The difference between the average value (9.45 +/- 4.47) of the exposed group and the median value of the witness group (3.85 +/- 2.05) is very significant (P < 0.01). PMID:15688777

Butnaru, Elena; Mircea, Cornelia; Butnaru, Claudia; Agoroaei, Lumini?a; Proca, Maria; Alexandrescu, Lucia; Cotae, Nicoleta



Monitoring of occupational exposure to volatile organohalogen solvents (VOXs) in human urine samples of dry-cleaner workers by TLHS-DAI-GC-ECD procedure.  


Chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents are often used for dry-cleaning clothes in the laundry industry. The object of this study was to monitor the occupational exposure of dry-clean employees coming into contact with VOXs. Twenty five workers collected their urine samples before the work shift, after 4 h of work and after the work shift. The analyses of urine samples and solvents used in dry-cleaning were performed using TLHS-DAI-GC-ECD. Chloroform was detected in all urine samples, and dichloromethane and tetrachloroethene in nearly all urine samples collected before and after the work shift. The concentrations of the compounds determined in urine samples were higher at the end of the workday in directly exposed individuals. Concentrations of the compounds determined in urine samples depended mainly on the type of activities carried out at the dry-cleaning establishments. PMID:20823626

Rutkiewicz, Irena; Jakubowska, Natalia; Polkowska, Zaneta; Namie?nik, Jacek



Antibiotic Prescribing Practices for Catheter Urine Culture Results  

PubMed Central

Background: The literature suggests that positive results of catheter urine cultures frequently lead to unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing, which therefore represents an important target for stewardship. Objective: To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in response to the results of urine cultures from patients with indwelling urinary catheters. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care centre and involved adults with indwelling urinary catheters from whom urine specimens were obtained for culture. Patients with positive or negative culture results were identified from microbiology laboratory reports. The medical records of consecutive patients were screened to select a sample of 80 inpatients (40 per group). Abstracted patient histories were independently evaluated by an expert panel of 3 infectious diseases consultants blinded to the decisions of prescribers and of fellow panelists. The primary end point was concordance of each patient’s treatment decision (with respect to the indication) between the expert panel (based on majority agreement, i.e., at least 2 of the 3 expert panelists) and the prescriber. The secondary end points were unnecessary days of therapy and selected outcomes over a predefined period after urine was obtained for culture. Results: A total of 591 charts were screened to generate the targeted number of patients. Baseline demographic characteristics were comparable for the 2 groups, except antibiotic exposure before urine collection was significantly more frequent for the group with negative culture results. The treatment decision was concordant in 40% (16/40) of the patients with a positive culture result and 85% (34/40) of those with a negative culture result (p < 0.001). The most common reason for discordance was administration of antibiotics when not indicated (23 of 24 patients with a positive result and 5 of 6 patients with a negative result), which accounted for 165 and 32 unnecessary days of therapy per 1000 inpatient-days, respectively (p < 0.001). Adverse effects occurred in 2 of the 23 patients with a positive result who received antibiotics that were not indicated. Conclusions: Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing, as measured by concordance of decisions between the expert panel and prescribers, was more common among patients with negative urine culture results than among those with positive results. However, there is an opportunity to improve prescribing for both groups through antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. Unnecessary days of therapy and adverse effects were more common in patients with a positive culture result. PMID:23467594

Chiu, Jonathan; Thompson, G William; Austin, Thomas W; Hussain, Zafar; John, Michael; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Connelly, Sarah E; Elsayed, Sameer



Lead excretion in spanish children with autism spectrum disorder.  


Among epigenetic factors leading to increased prevalence of juvenile neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, exposure to metals, such as lead (Pb) have led to conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of Pb in the urine of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with typically developing children (TD) age- and sex-matched, and to analyze any association between core symptoms of ASD, special diets, supplements intake or prescription drugs and the concentration of Pb. The study was performed in a group of children with ASD (n = 35, average age 7.4 ± 0.5 years) and TD (n = 34, average age 7.7 ± 0.9 years). Measurement of lead in urine was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry; symptoms of ASD were analyzed by diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DMS-IV) using the questionnary ADI-R. Careful clinical evaluation was also undertaken and statistical analysis was done taking into account any possible confounding factor. PMID:25692508

Fuentes-Albero, Milagros; Puig-Alcaraz, Carmen; Cauli, Omar



Concentrations of Cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker ( Hypentelium nigricans ) from Streams Contaminated by Lead–Zinc Mining: Implications for Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers\\u000a are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb–zinc\\u000a (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory

C. J. Schmitt; W. G. Brumbaugh; T. W. May



Heteroatom-doped highly porous carbon from human urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human urine, otherwise potentially polluting waste, is an universal unused resource in organic form disposed by the human body. We present for the first time ``proof of concept'' of a convenient, perhaps economically beneficial, and innovative template-free route to synthesize highly porous carbon containing heteroatoms such as N, S, Si, and P from human urine waste as a single precursor for carbon and multiple heteroatoms. High porosity is created through removal of inherently-present salt particles in as-prepared ``Urine Carbon'' (URC), and multiple heteroatoms are naturally doped into the carbon, making it unnecessary to employ troublesome expensive pore-generating templates as well as extra costly heteroatom-containing organic precursors. Additionally, isolation of rock salts is an extra bonus of present work. The technique is simple, but successful, offering naturally doped conductive hierarchical porous URC, which leads to superior electrocatalytic ORR activity comparable to state of the art Pt/C catalyst along with much improved durability and methanol tolerance, demonstrating that the URC can be a promising alternative to costly Pt-based electrocatalyst for ORR. The ORR activity can be addressed in terms of heteroatom doping, surface properties and electrical conductivity of the carbon framework.

Chaudhari, Nitin Kaduba; Song, Min Young; Yu, Jong-Sung



Heteroatom-doped highly porous carbon from human urine.  


Human urine, otherwise potentially polluting waste, is an universal unused resource in organic form disposed by the human body. We present for the first time "proof of concept" of a convenient, perhaps economically beneficial, and innovative template-free route to synthesize highly porous carbon containing heteroatoms such as N, S, Si, and P from human urine waste as a single precursor for carbon and multiple heteroatoms. High porosity is created through removal of inherently-present salt particles in as-prepared "Urine Carbon" (URC), and multiple heteroatoms are naturally doped into the carbon, making it unnecessary to employ troublesome expensive pore-generating templates as well as extra costly heteroatom-containing organic precursors. Additionally, isolation of rock salts is an extra bonus of present work. The technique is simple, but successful, offering naturally doped conductive hierarchical porous URC, which leads to superior electrocatalytic ORR activity comparable to state of the art Pt/C catalyst along with much improved durability and methanol tolerance, demonstrating that the URC can be a promising alternative to costly Pt-based electrocatalyst for ORR. The ORR activity can be addressed in terms of heteroatom doping, surface properties and electrical conductivity of the carbon framework. PMID:24909133

Chaudhari, Nitin Kaduba; Song, Min Young; Yu, Jong-Sung



Heteroatom-doped highly porous carbon from human urine  

PubMed Central

Human urine, otherwise potentially polluting waste, is an universal unused resource in organic form disposed by the human body. We present for the first time “proof of concept” of a convenient, perhaps economically beneficial, and innovative template-free route to synthesize highly porous carbon containing heteroatoms such as N, S, Si, and P from human urine waste as a single precursor for carbon and multiple heteroatoms. High porosity is created through removal of inherently-present salt particles in as-prepared “Urine Carbon” (URC), and multiple heteroatoms are naturally doped into the carbon, making it unnecessary to employ troublesome expensive pore-generating templates as well as extra costly heteroatom-containing organic precursors. Additionally, isolation of rock salts is an extra bonus of present work. The technique is simple, but successful, offering naturally doped conductive hierarchical porous URC, which leads to superior electrocatalytic ORR activity comparable to state of the art Pt/C catalyst along with much improved durability and methanol tolerance, demonstrating that the URC can be a promising alternative to costly Pt-based electrocatalyst for ORR. The ORR activity can be addressed in terms of heteroatom doping, surface properties and electrical conductivity of the carbon framework. PMID:24909133

Chaudhari, Nitin Kaduba; Song, Min Young; Yu, Jong-Sung



Precise measurements of the total concentration of atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2/12CO2 isotopic ratio using a lead-salt laser diode spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a tunable diode laser spectrometer, called SIMCO (spectrometer for isotopic measurements of CO2), for determining the concentrations of C12O2 and C13O2 in atmospheric air, from which the total concentration of CO2 and the isotopic composition (expressed in delta units) ?C13O2 are calculated. The two concentrations are measured using a pair of lines around 2290.1cm-1, by fitting a line profile model, taking into account the confinement narrowing effect to achieve a better accuracy. Using the Allan variance, we have demonstrated (for an integration time of 25s) a precision of 0.1ppmv for the total CO2 concentration and of 0.3‰ for ?C13O2. The performances on atmospheric air have been tested during a 3 days campaign by comparing the SIMCO instrument with a gas chromatograph (GC) for the measurement of the total CO2 concentration and with an isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (MS) for the isotopic composition. The CO2 concentration measurements of SIMCO are in very good agreement with the GC data with a mean difference of ?(CO2)=0.16±1.20ppmv for a comparison period of 45h and the linearity of the concentration between the two instruments is also very good (slope of correlation: 0.9996±0.0003) over the range between 380 and 415ppmv. For ?C13O2, the comparison with the MS data shows a larger mean difference of ?(?C13O2)=(-1.9±1.2)‰, which could be partly related to small residual fluctuations of the overall SIMCO instrument response.

Croizé, Laurence; Mondelain, Didier; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Delmotte, Marc; Schmidt, Martina



Iodine-129 in thyroid and urine in Ukraine and Denmark.  


Human thyroids collected from Gomel in Belarus, sheep thyroid from Jutland and human urine from Zealand in Denmark were analysed for 129I and 127I concentrations. The ratios of 129I/127I in human thyroid in Gomel are 2.65-11.0 x 10(-9) with an average of 7.21 x 10(-9), which is one order of magnitude higher than those from Asia and South America (10(-10)), but significantly lower than those observed in west Europe (10(-8)). A weak negative correlation (P < 0.05) between 129I/127I ratio in human thyroid and the age of the subjects was observed in Gomel. The average ratio of 129I/127I in sheep thyroids from Jutland of Denmark is 1.81 x 10(-7), which is two orders of magnitude higher than those in south hemisphere, and Asia. It is also significantly higher than those observed in other west European countries before 1984 and that in human thyroid in Gomel. The high thyroid 129I level in Jutland is attributed to the release of reprocessing plants in France and UK. The 129I/127I ratios in human urine in Zealand of Denmark are 0.86-2.86 x 10(-8). The possibility of using urine 129I to evaluate the thyroid exposure to 129I is investigated. PMID:12526898

Hou, Xiaolin; Malencheko, A F; Kucera, J; Dahlgaard, H; Nielsen, S P



[Serum and urine osmolality: clinical and laboratory features].  


Clinical practice is frequently challenged by limited funding and resources, which finally limit both clinical effectiveness and safety of some therapies. Electrolyte disorders represent serious problems in the clinical management. Nonetheless the osmometer, that is the reference instrument for routine assessment of osmolality, it is only available in a limited number of healthcare facilities. The diagnosis of the leading electrolyte disorders relies therefore on indirect criteria, frequently inaccurate, especially when inappropriately used. According to recent evidences emerged on prevalence, severity and therapeutic approach of patients with electrolyte disturbances such as hyponatremia, the diagnostic appropriateness is now regarded as an essential aspect of the clinical decision making. Recent multidisciplinary guidelines indicate that urinary osmolality is a mainstay in the differential diagnosis of hyponatremic states. Since hyponatremia is commonplace across a broad range of clinical conditions, it is noteworthy that accurate knowledge of the different equations that may be used for its calculation in serum or urine is not widespread among general and hospital physicians. To couple with these clinical issues, this article is aimed to briefly describe the epidemiology and clinics of osmolality disturbances and to suggest some equations that may be useful for its routine assessment in serum or urine, and which can be applied to different categories of patients. The usefulness and reliability of additional indirect methods used in the diagnostic approach of electrolyte disturbances, such as the assessment of urine specific gravity, will also be briefly discussed. The equations that will be proposed have been validated in small sample population studies, but are commonly used as a surrogate or replacement of direct osmolality assessment. A larger multicentric study is hence necessary to validate the clinical use of the equations used for the calculation of serum and urine osmolality. PMID:25315724

Trepiccione, Francesco; Capasso, Giovambattista; Lippi, Giuseppe



The Outcomes of Concentration-Specific Interactions between Salicylate and Jasmonate Signaling Include Synergy, Antagonism, and Oxidative Stress Leading to Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) has been proposed to antagonize jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signaling. We report, however, that in salicylate hydroxylase-expressing tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, where SA levels were reduced, JA levels were not elevated during a hypersensitive response elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola. The effects of cotreatment with various concentrations of SA and JA were assessed in tobacco and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). These suggested that there was a transient synergistic enhancement in the expression of genes associated with either JA (PDF1.2 [defensin] and Thi1.2 [thionin]) or SA (PR1 [PR1a-?-glucuronidase in tobacco]) signaling when both signals were applied at low (typically 10–100 ?m) concentrations. Antagonism was observed at more prolonged treatment times or at higher concentrations. Similar results were also observed when adding the JA precursor, ?-linolenic acid with SA. Synergic effects on gene expression and plant stress were NPR1- and COI1-dependent, SA- and JA-signaling components, respectively. Electrolyte leakage and Evans blue staining indicated that application of higher concentrations of SA + JA induced plant stress or death and elicited the generation of apoplastic reactive oxygen species. This was indicated by enhancement of hydrogen peroxide-responsive AoPR10-?-glucuronidase expression, suppression of plant stress/death using catalase, and direct hydrogen peroxide measurements. Our data suggests that the outcomes of JA-SA interactions could be tailored to pathogen/pest attack by the relative concentration of each hormone. PMID:16377744

Mur, Luis A.J.; Kenton, Paul; Atzorn, Rainer; Miersch, Otto; Wasternack, Claus



Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two batches of nominally pretreated and augmented urine were prepared with the baseline pretreatment formulation of sulfuric acid and chromium trioxide. The urine was augmented with inorganic salts and organic compounds in order to simulate a urinary ionic concentrations representing the upper 95 percentile on orbit. Three strong mineral acids: phosphoric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid, were substituted for the sulfuric acid for comparison to the baseline sulfuric acid pretreatment formulation. Three concentrations of oxidizer in the pretreatment formulation were also tested. Pretreated urine was distilled to 85% water recovery to determine the effect of each acid and its conjugate base on the precipitation of minerals during distillation. The brines were analyzed for calcium and sulfate ion, total, volatile, and fixed suspended solids. Test results verified that substitution of phosphoric, hydrochloric, or nitric acids for sulfuric acid would prevent the precipitation of gypsum up to 85% recovery from pretreated urine representing the upper 95 percentile calcium concentration on orbit.

Muirhead, Dean



Urine Specimens: Tips to Help Children  


... website will be limited. Search Help? Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests Share this page: ... child to drink before the office visit can help the child need to urinate when it is ...


Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications  

E-print Network

. Waterless, or no-flush urinals, may help mitigate these effects and offer other advantages, including lower utility charges, improved restroom hygiene, and decreased fixture maintenance. Some notable caveats include possible lack of acceptance by users, odor...

Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.



Urine PCR Evaluation to Diagnose Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Culture and specific staining (including Zeil-Nelson and fluorescent methods) are standard measures for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). These methods are time-consuming and sometimes have a low level of accuracy. In addition, in some cases obtaining samples for smear and culture involves invasive procedures; while in other cases there is no suitable sample for evaluation. Therefore, there is a need for faster and more accurate diagnostic methods. Objectives: The current study investigated the diagnostic value of tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR) of urine in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Patients and Methods: This case-control study included; 77 proven pulmonary tuberculosis cases (according to the national TB protocol), and 30 subjects who were completely healthy. The urine samples (50 mL) were mixed with 0.5 mL Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. DNA extraction and PCR testing were performed on all blood samples using SI 6110 primers. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also cultivated in the sputum and urine samples of the patients. Results: Results of the current study indicated that 48 (62.3%) patients out of 77 had a positive sputum culture. Urine cultures and acid-fast smears were negative. Urine PCR-TB was positive in 48.0% (37/77) of the patients. The speci?c TBPCR complex was positive in 56.2% (27/48) of the positive cultures and 34.4% (10/29) of the negative culture PTB patients. The control group had negative urine PCR (sensitivity 56.2% and specificity 100%). Conclusions: With regard to the ease of urine sample preparation and the 100% specificity the PCR method, performing urine PCR could be used as a diagnostic aid in PTB cases obtaining sputum samples is problematic. PMID:25147688

Heydari, Ali Akbar; Movahhede Danesh, Masood Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash



Urine sample preparation in 96-well filter plates for quantitative clinical proteomics.  


Urine is an important, noninvasively collected body fluid source for the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based shotgun proteomics has evolved as a sensitive and informative technique to discover candidate disease biomarkers from urine specimens. Filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) generates peptide samples from protein mixtures of cell lysate or body fluid origin. Here, we describe a FASP method adapted to 96-well filter plates, named 96FASP. Soluble urine concentrates containing ~10 ?g of total protein were processed by 96FASP and LC-MS resulting in 700-900 protein identifications at a 1% false discovery rate (FDR). The experimental repeatability, as assessed by label-free quantification and Pearson correlation analysis for shared proteins among replicates, was high (R ? 0.97). Application to urinary pellet lysates which is of particular interest in the context of urinary tract infection analysis was also demonstrated. On average, 1700 proteins (±398) were identified in five experiments. In a pilot study using 96FASP for analysis of eight soluble urine samples, we demonstrated that protein profiles of technical replicates invariably clustered; the protein profiles for distinct urine donors were very different from each other. Robust, highly parallel methods to generate peptide mixtures from urine and other body fluids are critical to increase cost-effectiveness in clinical proteomics projects. This 96FASP method has potential to become a gold standard for high-throughput quantitative clinical proteomics. PMID:24797144

Yu, Yanbao; Suh, Moo-Jin; Sikorski, Patricia; Kwon, Keehwan; Nelson, Karen E; Pieper, Rembert



Design, fabrication and testing of a dual catalyst ammonia removal system for a urine VCD unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-man capacity catalytic system for the recovery of water from urine was designed, constructed, and tested, it was designed to operate with feed streams containing high concentrations of urine vapor and only 5 to 7% of oxygen for the oxidation of ammonia and volatile organic vapor.It can operate either in a flow-through or a recycle mode and is capable of accepting the urine vapor produced by a vapor compression distillation evaporator. Testing consisted of short preliminary and optimization test, an endurance test of 74 hours continuous operation, and recycle tests using both air and oxygen. The system was designed for a urine processing rate of 0.86 liters/hr; however, it was tested at rates up to 1.2 liter/hr. Untreated urine evaporated by an electrically heated evaporator was used. The quality of the recovered water meets the U.S. Drinking Water Standards, with the exception of a low pH. Accumulation of solids in the urine sludge is reduced to approximately 65% of the anticipated value.

Budinikas, P.



Urine post equivalent daily cranberry juice consumption may opsonize uropathogenicity of Escherichia coli.  


Basic studies have proven that cranberries may prevent urinary tract infections through changing the adhesiveness of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to urothelial cells. Various cranberry preparations, including extract powder, capsules, and juice, have been shown to be effective in clinical and epidemiological research. Because cranberries are most commonly consumed as juice in a diluted concentration, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the equivalent daily dose of cranberry juice is sufficient to modify host urine to change the uropathogenicity of E. coli. Urine from rats taking an equivalent daily dose of cranberry juice has been shown to decrease the capability of E. coli in hemagglutination, urothelium adhesion, nematode killing, and biofilm formation. All these changes occurred after E. coli was incubated in cranberry metabolite-containing urine, defined as urine opsonization. Urine opsonization of E. coli resulted in 40.9% (p = 0.0038) decrease in hemagglutination ability, 66.7% (p = 0.0181) decrease in urothelium adhesiveness, 16.7% (p = 0.0004) increase in the 50% lethal time in killing nematodes, and 53.9% (p = 5.9 × 10(-4)) decrease in biofilm formation. Thus, an equivalent daily dose of cranberry juice should be considered sufficiently potent to demonstrate urine opsonization in E. coli. PMID:23440506

Chen, Chih-Shou; Ho, Dong-Ru; Chang, Pey-Jium; Lin, Wei-Yu; Huang, Yun-Ching



Determination of ibuprofen in human plasma and urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  


This paper describes a GC/MS method for the determination of ibuprofen in human plasma and urine. Ibuprofen and internal standard naproxen were extracted from plasma and urine by using a liquid-liquid extraction method. Derivatization was carried out using N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 0.05-5.0 and 0.1-10.0 microg/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. Intraday and interday precision (RSD) values for ibuprofen in plasma and urine were less than 6.31%, and accuracy (relative error) was better than 12.00%. The mean recovery of ibuprofen was 89.53% for plasma and 93.73% for urine. The LOD was 0.015 and 0.03 microg/mL and the LOQ was 0.05 and 0.1 microg/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. The method was successfully applied to blood samples from three healthy male volunteers who had been given an oral tablet of 600 mg ibuprofen. PMID:24830154

Yilmaz, Bilal; Erdem, Ali Fuat



Assessment of semen function and lipid peroxidation among lead exposed men  

SciTech Connect

The study population included healthy, fertile men, employees of Zinc and Lead Metalworks (n = 63). Workers exposed to lead were divided into two groups: a group with moderate exposure to lead (ME) - blood lead level (PbB) 25-40 {mu}g/dl and a group with high exposure to lead (HE) PbB = 40-81 {mu}g/dl. The control group consisted of office workers with no history of occupational exposure to lead. Evaluation of lead, cadmium and zinc level in blood and seminal plasma, zinc protoporphyrin in blood (ZPP), 5-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA), malondialdehyde (MDA) in seminal plasma and sperm analysis were performed. No differences were noted in the concentration of cadmium and zinc in blood and seminal plasma in the study population. Lipid peroxidation in seminal plasma, represented as MDA concentration, significantly increased by about 56% in the HE group and the percentage of motile sperm cells after 1 h decreased by about 34% in comparison to the control group. No statistically significant correlation between other parameters of sperm analysis and lead exposure parameters nor between lead, cadmium and zinc concentration in blood and seminal plasma were found. A positive association between lead intoxication parameters (PbB, ZPP, lead seminal plasma) and MDA concentration in sperm plasma and inverse correlation with sperm cells motility (PbB, ZPP) was found. An increased concentration of MDA was accompanied by a drop in sperm cells motility. In conclusion, we report that high exposure to lead causes a decrease of sperm motility in men most likely as a result of increased lipid peroxidation, especially if the level in the blood surpasses the concentration of 40 {mu}g/dl.

Kasperczyk, Aleksandra [Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, 41-808 Zabrze, Jordana 19 (Poland); Kasperczyk, Slawomir [Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, 41-808 Zabrze, Jordana 19 (Poland)], E-mail:; Horak, Stanislaw [Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology, Medical University of Silesia, 41-902 Bytom, Batorego 15 (Poland); Ostalowska, Alina; Grucka-Mamczar, Ewa; Romuk, Ewa [Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, 41-808 Zabrze, Jordana 19 (Poland); Olejek, Anita [Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology, Medical University of Silesia, 41-902 Bytom, Batorego 15 (Poland); Birkner, Ewa [Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, 41-808 Zabrze, Jordana 19 (Poland)



Variations in Lead Isotopic Abundances in Sprague-Dawley Rat Tissues: Possible Reason of Formation  

PubMed Central

It has been reported in previous research that the lead isotopic composition of blood, urine and feces samples statistically differed from the given lead sources in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. However, the reason for this phenomenon is still unclear. An animal experiment was performed to investigate the lead isotope fractionation in diverse biological samples (i.e., lungs, liver, kidneys, bone) and to explore the possible reasons. SD rats were intratracheally instilled with lead acetate at the concentrations of 0, 0.02, 0.2, and 2 mg/kg body weight. Biological samples were collected for lead isotope analysis using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences are observed in lead isotope abundances among the diverse biological samples. The lead isotope abundances (206Pb, 207Pb and 208Pb) in diverse biological samples show different degrees and directions of departure from the given lead source. The results suggest that differences in enrichment or depletion capacity for each lead isotope in the various tissues might lead to the variation in lead isotopic abundances in tissues. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead level and the lead isotope abundances in liver and bone is observed. When the whole-blood level is higher than 50 ng/mL, the lead isotopic compositions of biological samples tend to be the same. Thus, the data support the speculation of a fractionation functional threshold. PMID:24587048

Liu, Duojian; Wu, Jing; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Jingyu



Lead induced increase of blood pressure in female lead workers  

PubMed Central

Aims: Although lead exposure has, in the absence of mathematical modelling, been believed to elevate blood pressure in females, it is necessary to clarify the relation between lead and blood pressure by eliminating confounding factors in the analysis. Methods: Blood lead was measured in 193 female workers, including 123 lead exposed workers. Possible confounding factors were controlled by multiple regression analyses. Results and Conclusion: Blood lead above 40 µg/dl was found to be the most potent factor for elevating systolic/diastolic blood pressure. Aging, urine protein, and plasma triglyceride also contributed to systolic/diastolic/pulse pressure increase, but hypertensive heredity did not. Data suggested that lead induced changes in lipoprotein metabolism may play an important role in the lead induced blood pressure increase in female workers. PMID:12409531

Nomiyama, K; Nomiyama, H; Liu, S; Tao, Y; Nomiyama, T; Omae, K



[Thin layer chromatography of riboflavin in urine (author's transl)].  


A method is described for determining riboflavin excretion in urine by thin-Layer chromatography. The sample will be preliminarily purified on Permutit T with subsequent separation of riboflavin by thin-layer chromatography on Kieselgel HR with pyridine--acetic acid--water as an eluant. Substances interfering with the fluorescence of riboflavin can be eliminated through the procedure. Riboflavin remission is measured by a chromatogram-spectralphotometer with fluorescence equipment. Between 0.02 to 0.5 mug riboflavin intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the concentration of riboflavin. PMID:846186

Krämer, U; Bitsch, R; Hötzel, D



Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of melamine in urine and plasma.  


A novel flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of melamine in urine and plasma was developed. It was found that melamine can remarkably enhance chemiluminescence emission from the luminol-K(3) Fe(CN)(6) system in an alkaline medium. Under the optimum conditions, chemiluminescence intensity had a good linear relationship with the concentration of melamine in the range 9.0 × 10(-9) -7.0 × 10(-6) g/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. The detection limit (3?) was 3.5 ng/mL. The method has been applied to determine the concentration of melamine in samples using liquid-liquid extraction. Average recoveries of melamine were 102.6% in urine samples and 95.1% in plasma samples. The method provided a reproducible and stable approach for the sensitive detection of melamine in urine and plasma samples. PMID:21830295

Tang, Xiaoshuang; Shi, Xiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Yue, Zhongjin; He, Qiqi



Refinement of a commercial bench-top relaxin assay for pregnancy diagnosis using urine from domestic and nondomestic felids.  


Relaxin, a 6-kDa polypeptide hormone, is excreted in the urine during pregnancy in several mammalian species. A recent study showed that detection of urinary relaxin using a bench-top serum assay (Witness relaxin kit, Synbiotics Corp., San Diego, California 92127, USA) can be diagnostic for pregnancy in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus), but it is unknown whether the bench-top kit is applicable with urine across felid species. Our objectives were to 1) examine modifications in urine processing to improve kit reliability in pregnant cats, 2) evaluate the impact of concentrating urine via filtration on relaxin detection, 3) assess the effect of sample freezing on relaxin concentrations, and 4) begin quantifying urinary relaxin levels in nondomestic felids. Urine and serum were collected from domestic cats and nondomestic cat species (Pallas' cat, Otocolobus manul; sand cat, Felis margarita; cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus; and lion, Panthera leo) at several times after breeding. Urine samples, subjected to various processing methods, were tested using the bench-top kit, and relaxin levels were later quantified via radioimmunoassay. For domestic cat urine samples, filtration and addition of protein/phosphate buffer improved the consistency of the relaxin kit for early pregnancy diagnosis. Urine freezing caused a slight (approximately 13%) but significant decrease in relaxin concentrations, but frozen-thawed samples still tested positive with the bench-top kit. In nondomestic felids, urinary relaxin immunoreactivity during pregnancy was similar to or higher than that of pregnant domestic cats, suggesting that relaxin is a reliable cross-species marker of pregnancy. Urinary relaxin was detectable using the bench-top kit in pregnant Pallas' cats, but urine samples from other species tested negative, regardless of processing methods. Findings suggest that measurement of urinary relaxin is a promising approach for noninvasive pregnancy diagnosis in exotic felids, but further assessment of urinary relaxin profiles among cat species and modification of the bench-top relaxin kit are warranted to improve cross-species utility. PMID:18634207

Harris, Laurie A; Steinetz, Bernard G; Bond, Jennifer B; Lasano, Sally; Swanson, William F



Analysis of lipid peroxidation biomarkers in extremely low gestational age neonate urines by UPLC-MS/MS.  


Extremely low gestational age neonates (ELGAN) frequently require the use of oxygen supply in the delivery room leading to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that are responsible for increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to establish reference ranges of a set of representative isoprostanes and prostaglandins, which are stable biomarkers of lipid peroxidation often correlated with oxidative stress-related disorders. First, a quantitative ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated. The proposed analytical method was tailored for its application in the field of neonatology, enabling multi-analyte detection in non-invasive, small-volume urine samples. Then, the lipid peroxidation product concentrations in a total of 536 urine samples collected within the framework of two clinical trials including extremely low gestational age neonates (ELGAN) were analyzed. The access to a substantially large number of samples from this very vulnerable population provided the chance to establish reference ranges of the studied biomarkers. Up to the present, and for this population, this is the biggest reference data set reported in literature. Results obtained should assist researchers and pediatricians in interpreting test results in future studies involving isoprostanes and prostaglandins, and could help assessing morbidities and evaluate effectiveness of treatment strategies (e.g., different resuscitation conditions) in the neonatal field. PMID:24817352

Kuligowski, Julia; Escobar, Javier; Quintás, Guillermo; Lliso, Isabel; Torres-Cuevas, Isabel; Nuńez, Antonio; Cubells, Elena; Rook, Denise; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Vento, Máximo



Metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies of scutellarin in rat plasma, urine, and feces  

PubMed Central

Aim: To study the metabolic and pharmacokinetic profile of scutellarin, an active component from the medical plant Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the low bioavailability of scutellarin though oral or intravenous administration in rats. Methods: HPLC method was developed for simultaneous detection of scutellarin and scutellarein (the aglycone of scutellarin) in rat plasma, urine and feces. The in vitro metabolic stability study was carried out in rat liver microsomes from different genders. Results: After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the plasma concentrations of scutellarin and scutellarein in female rats were significantly higher than in male ones. Between the female and male rats, significant differences in AUC, tmax2 and Cmax2 for scutellarin were found. The pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin in the urine also showed significant gender differences. After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the total percentage excretion of scutellarein in male and female rats was 16.5% and 8.61%, respectively. The total percentage excretion of scutellarin and scutellarein in the feces was higher with oral administration than with intravenous administration. The in vitro t1/2 and CLint value for scutellarin in male rats was significantly higher than that in female rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that a large amount of ingested scutellarin was metabolized into scutellarein in the gastrointestinal tract and then excreted with the feces, leading to the extremely low oral bioavailability of scutellarin. The gender differences of pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin and scutellarein are due to the higher CLint and lower absorption in male rats. PMID:21516133

Xing, Jian-feng; You, Hai-sheng; Dong, Ya-lin; Lu, Jun; Chen, Si-ying; Zhu, Hui-fang; Dong, Qian; Wang, Mao-yi; Dong, Wei-hua



Lead Poisoning Mimicking Acute Porphyria!  

PubMed Central

We are presenting a case of a 13-year-old autistic boy whose urine porphyrin test came positive on three separate occasions. The child was brought to emergency department of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Attavar, Mangalore, India, with fever and acute abdominal pain, with no previous history of any serious illness. Investigations revealed thalassemia trait,microcytic hypochromic anaemia while the other biochemical and haematological parameters were normal. False positive urine porphyrin test may be seen in porphyria induced by liver cancer, hepatitis and heavy metal poisoning such as lead, arsenic and mercury. Blood lead (PbB) level was 59.5?g/dl. Further evaluation revealed a daily consumption of native medicine in the form of syrup. PMID:25653942

L N, Akshatha; Shenoy, Mamatha T; P, Sadashiva Rao; B, Prashanth



Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland  

PubMed Central

Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD for saliva was 0.12?ng/mL and for urine 0.05?ng/mL; LOQ was 0.4?ng/mL and 0.8?ng/mL, respectively. Intraday and interday precision equaled, respectively, 1.2% and 3.4% for urine, and 2.3% and 6.4% for saliva. There was a strong correlation between salivary cotinine and the uncorrected cotinine concentration in urine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The cutoff values were established for saliva 12.9?ng/mL and urine 42.3?ng/mL or 53.1??g/g creatinine with the ROC curve analysis. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to quantify cotinine, and a significant correlation between the urinary and salivary cotinine levels was found. The presented cut-off values for salivary and urinary cotinine ensure a categorization of the smoking status among pregnant women that is more accurate than self-reporting. PMID:24228246

Pola?ska, Kinga



A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CYP2B6 Leads to >3-Fold Increases in Efavirenz Concentrations in Plasma and Hair Among HIV-Infected Women  

PubMed Central

Background.?Efavirenz exhibits marked interindividual variability in plasma levels and toxicities. Prior pharmacogenetic studies usually measure exposure via single plasma levels, examine limited numbers of polymorphisms, and rarely model multiple contributors. We analyzed numerous genetic and nongenetic factors impacting short-term and long-term exposure in a large heterogeneous population of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women. Methods.?We performed 24-hour intensive pharmacokinetic studies in 111 women receiving efavirenz under actual-use conditions and calculated the area-under-the-concentration-time curve (AUC) to assess short-term exposure; the efavirenz concentration in hair was measured to estimate long-term exposure. A total of 182 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 45 haplotypes in 9 genes were analyzed in relationship to exposure by use of multivariate models that included a number of nongenetic factors. Results.?Efavirenz AUCs increased 1.26-fold per doubling of the alanine aminotransferase level and 1.23-fold with orange and/or orange juice consumption. Individuals with the CYP2B6 516TT genotype displayed 3.5-fold increases in AUCs and 3.2-fold increases in hair concentrations, compared with individuals with the TG/GG genotype. Another SNP in CYP2B6 (983TT) and a p-glycoprotein haplotype affected AUCs without substantially altering long-term exposure. Conclusions.?This comprehensive pharmacogenomics study showed that individuals with the CYP2B6 516TT genotype displayed >3-fold increases in both short-term and long-term efavirenz exposure, signifying durable effects. Pharmacogenetic testing combined with monitoring of hair levels may improve efavirenz outcomes and reduce toxicities. PMID:22927450

Gandhi, Monica; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Bacchetti, Peter; Jin, Chengshi; Huang, Yong; Anastos, Kathryn; Cohen, Mardge; DeHovitz, Jack A.; Sharp, Gerald B.; Gange, Stephen J.; Liu, Chenglong; Hanson, Susan C.; Aouizerat, Bradley



Easy-to-use IEF compatible immunoaffinity purification of Erythropoietin from urine retentates.  


Erythropoietin (EPO) is a peptide hormone responsible for hypoxia-induced promotion of erythrocyte production. The possibility of enhancing oxygen transport through an increase of erythrocytes has led to EPO abuse in sports. Detection of exogenous EPO is most commonly done via isoelectric focusing (IEF) which is a method provided by the Technical Document TD2009EPO of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Before analysis, collected urine samples need to be concentrated 500- to 1000-fold, leading to high protein abundance in the retentates. Reduction of protein concentration through an immunoaffinity purification using ELISA wells has been successfully used prior to SDS-PAGE. This ELISA kit was used to purify samples using an IEF-compatible elution. The purification showed recovery ratios between 50 and 90% depending on substance and application volume. Application of immunopurified samples to IEF was shown to improve the quality of the gels by reducing streaks and curvatures within the lanes and bands of the gel. The result was an increase of quality for IEF gels. PMID:22566398

Reihlen, P; Völker-Schänzer, E; Majer, B; Schänzer, W



Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra



Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in the liver and kidneys of dogs, depending on age, sex and the occurrence of a chronic kidney disease.  


Only few data are available for the storage of elements in the organs of dogs. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the canine liver, renal cortex and renal medulla, evaluating also the relevance of age, sex and the occurrence of a chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, tissues of 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn and Mn were highest in the liver, followed by the renal cortex and the renal medulla. Highest Sr, Cd and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex, while markedly lower concentrations were found in the renal medulla and the liver. Female dogs showed higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver; renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver; renal cortex), Cr (liver; renal cortex; renal medulla) and Pb (liver) than male dogs. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. The hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge on the storage of specific elements in the canine liver and kidneys and can be considered as important reference data for diagnostics and further investigations. PMID:25234328

Paßlack, Nadine; Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Zentek, JÜrgen



Occupational Exposure Control by Simultaneous Determination of N-methylcarbamates and Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Human Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-column transesteritication with methanol was applied for the gas chromatographic determination of N-methylcarbamates extracted from human urine. Transesterification conversion efficiencies of N-methylcarbamates dioxacarb, carbofuran and OMS-22, calculated from the amount of the on-column produced O-methyl-N-methylcarbamate (DMC), were 96, 77 and 76% with detection limits of 8, 10 and 10 ng, respectively.In the investigated concentration range of 0.2–3 ?g\\/ml of urine

V. Drevenkar; B. Štengl; B. Tkal?evi?; Ž. Vasili?




EPA Science Inventory

Five communities with water supplies having arsenic concentrations of 6, 51, 98, 123 and 393 micrograms/liter were selected for study. Samples of blood, hair, urine and tap water were obtained from participants in each community and analyzed for arsenic content. Results showed an...


Biological Monitoring of 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid in Urine by an Enzyme -Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

EPA Science Inventory

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was employed for determination of the pyrethroid biomarker, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) in human urine samples. The optimized coating antigen concentration was 0.5 ng/mL with a dilution of 1:4000 for the 3-PBA antibody and 1:6...


The detection of urine in the equine ejaculate and its effects on spermatozoa  

E-print Network

in and if spermatozoa were present in the zona pellucida. It was concluded that as the concentration of urine increased, the motility of the spermatozoa proportionally decreased. At 50% and above, few spermatozoa were motile. Even with this decreased or zero motility...

Althouse, Gary Carl



Iodine content in urine samples among Malays and aborigines.  


A study was conducted to compare the urinary iodine concentrations in populations from Pahang, Central Malaysia, with those in the capital city Kuala Lumpur, and to compare those of Malays from villages at Batu Talam, Batu Malim, FELDA Sungai Koyan and Hulu Sungai with neighboring aboriginal settlements at Lanai and Buntu. Two hundred and forty urine samples were collected randomly among the population (male 1 1 1 and female 129). The urinary iodine concentrations, measured by the ashing method, among Malays were as follows: Batu Talam 1.1-7.6 micrograms/dl, Batu Malim 1.4-6.6 micrograms/dl, FELDA Sungai Koyan 0.5-6.9 micrograms/dl and Hulu Sungai 0.6-9.9 micrograms/dl. Among aborigines, the urinary iodine levels were 0.1-2.9 micrograms/dl in Lanai and 1.7-6.5 micrograms/dl in Buntu. There was a significant difference in the levels of urinary iodine with regard to gender, but not regarding age. The aborigines had significantly lower iodine levels than Malays (P < 0.001). This difference was also significant with regard to location. The urinary iodine content in Kuala Lumpur was the highest and that in the aboriginal Lanai village was the lowest. Thus, the study showed that the levels of iodine in the urine were influenced by ethnicity and geographic location. PMID:7709757

Ali, O; Muda, K; Khalid, B



Mutagenic activity and metabolites in the urine of workers exposed to trinitrotoluene (TNT).  

PubMed Central

Urine samples taken after work and after a free weekend from 50 workers employed in various activities in a chemical plant manufacturing explosives were analysed. On the basis of hygienic surveys, the subjects were divided into three categories of exposure to trinitrotoluene (TNT). The urine analyses consisted of gas chromatographic identification of TNT and its two metabolites, 4-ADNT and 2-ADNT, and a determination of the mutagenic activity. Two frame shift detector strains of Salmonella typhimurium were used, TA 98 and TA 98 NR, the latter being deficient in endogenous nitroreductase activity. On the basis of previous results on TNT mutagenicity, no exogeneous metabolic system was used to test the urine concentrates. Both tester strains showed that the mean urinary mutagenic activity was higher in the after work samples than in post weekend samples from the same subjects, showing that bacterial nitroreductase activity was not significantly responsible for the mutagenicity, although the response was higher with strain TA 98 than with TA 98 NR. The interindividual variation in urine mutagenicity was high, however, and the difference between the two sampling times was statistically significant (p less than 0.05) only for the high exposed group (workers in trotyl foundry and sieve house). Correlation between urinary mutagenicity and concentration of TNT in urine was poor; correlation was significant only with the urinary concentration of 4-ADNT. The correlation between urinary TNT and both metabolites was good (p less than 0.001). These results suggest that analysis of 4-ADNT in urine would be a sufficient biological measure for controlling exposure to TNT. PMID:3378017

Ahlborg, G; Einistö, P; Sorsa, M



Red discoloration of urine caused by Serratia rubidae: A rare case.  


There have been only a few reported human cases of infections caused by Serratia rubidae in literature. Among these sparse cases there is only one reported case of urinary tract infection (UTI) due to S. rubidae in literature. The organism is known to produce a red pigment known as prodigiosin. We report a case of UTI caused by S. rubidae in a diabetic patient who presented with burning micturition and reddish discoloration of urine, which on laboratory diagnosis, was proved to be due to the reddish pigment produced by the organism. This case report highlights that this rare organism might be associated with UTI leading to reddish discoloration of urine. PMID:23984263

Kumar, Simit; Bandyopadhyay, Maitreyi; Chatterjee, Mitali; Mukhopadhyay, Prabir; Pal, Suranjan; Poddar, Sumon; Banerjee, Parthajit



Parental exposure to environmental concentrations of diuron leads to aneuploidy in embryos of the Pacific oyster, as evidenced by fluorescent in situ hybridization.  


Changes in normal chromosome numbers (i.e. aneuploidy) due to abnormal chromosome segregation may arise either spontaneously or as a result of chemical/radiation exposure, particularly during cell division. Coastal ecosystems are continuously subjected to various contaminants originating from urban, industrial and agricultural activities. Genotoxicity is common to several families of major environmental pollutants, including pesticides, which therefore represent a potential important environmental hazard for marine organisms. A previous study demonstrated the vertical transmission of DNA damage by subjecting oyster genitors to short-term exposure to the herbicide diuron at environmental concentrations during gametogenesis. In this paper, Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to further characterize diuron-induced DNA damage at the chromosomal level. rDNA genes (5S and 18-5.8-28S), previously mapped onto Crassostrea gigas chromosomes 4, 5 and 10, were used as probes on the interphase nuclei of embryo preparations. Our results conclusively show higher aneuploidy (hypo- or hyperdiploidy) level in embryos from diuron-exposed genitors, with damage to the three studied chromosomal regions. This study suggests that sexually developing oysters are vulnerable to diuron exposure, incurring a negative impact on reproductive success and oyster recruitment. PMID:25498420

Barranger, Audrey; Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Dégremont, Lionel; Burgeot, Thierry; Akcha, Farida



Mapping and Identification of the Urine Proteome of Prostate Cancer Patients by 2D PAGE/MS  

PubMed Central

Proteome analysis of the urine has shown that urine contains disease-specific information for a variety of urogenital system disorders, including prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to determine the protein components of urine from PCa patients. Urine from 8 patients with clinically and histologically confirmed PCa was analyzed by conventional 2D PAGE. The MS identification of the most prominent 125 spots from the urine map revealed 45 distinct proteins. According to Gene Ontology, the identified proteins are involved in a variety of biological processes, majority of them are secreted (71%), and half of them are enzymes or transporters. Comparison with the normal urine proteome revealed 11 proteins distinctive for PCa. Using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, we have found 3 proteins (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase rififylin, tumor protein D52, and thymidine phosphorylase) associated with cellular growth and proliferation (p = 8.35 × 10?4 ? 3.41 × 10?2). The top network of functional associations between 11 proteins was Cell Death and Survival, Cell-To-Cell Signaling and Interaction, and System Development and Function (p = 10?30). In summary, we have created an initial proteomic map of PCa patient's urine. The results from this study provide some leads to understand the molecular bases of prostate cancer. PMID:25215235

Kiprijanovska, Sanja; Stavridis, Sotir; Stankov, Oliver; Komina, Selim; Petrusevska, Gordana; Polenakovic, Momir; Davalieva, Katarina



Biomonitoring of infant exposure to phenolic endocrine disruptors using urine expressed from disposable gel diapers.  


Infant exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) may cause adverse health effects because of their fast growth and development during this life stage. However, collecting urine from infants for exposure assessment using biological monitoring is not an easy task. For this purpose, we evaluated the feasibility of using urine expressed from disposable gel absorbent diapers (GADs) as a matrix for biomonitoring selected phenolic EDs. GADs urine was expressed with the assistance of CaCl(2) and was collected using a device fabricated in our laboratory. The analytes were extracted and concentrated using a liquid-liquid method and their hydroxyl groups were modified by dansyl chloride to enhance their chromatography and detection. Finally, the analytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The target chemicals were bisphenol A, triclosan, 17 ?-ethynylestradiol, the natural hormone estrone, and 17 ?-estradiol. The ratio of the CaCl(2) to the urine-wetted gel absorbent, variation of the inter-urination volume, and analyte deposition bias in the diaper were assessed. Analyte blank values in the diapers, the sample storage stabilities, and recoveries of the analytes were also evaluated. The results showed that 70-80 % of the urine could be expressed from the diaper with the assistance of CaCl(2) and 70.5-124 % of the spiked analytes can be recovered in the expressed urine. The limits of detections (LODs) were 0.02-0.27 ng/mL, well within the range for detection in human populations. Our pilot data suggest that infants are widely exposed to the selected EDs. PMID:24924209

Liu, Liangpo; Xia, Tongwei; Zhang, Xueqin; Barr, Dana Boyd; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Meiping; Huang, Qingyu; Shen, Heqing



Integrated sorption-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence detection for automatic determination of lead and cadmium in low-concentration solutions.  


Sorbent material packed in a PTFE laboratory-made flow cell located in the specimen holder of an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) detector has been used for in situ solid-phase extraction (SPE) preconcentration-detection of metals. The flow cell was connected to a single-channel flow-injection (FI) manifold (for full automation of the steps and proper development of the method) by two PTFE tubes of 0.5-mm inner diameter introduced into the spectrometer specimen holder by a small orifice without distortion or modification of the instrument. The optical window open in the PTFE flow cell was adjusted to the X-ray irradiation zone of the spectrometer and fixed to it. The approach was tested by using both Pb and Cd aqueous solutions and a Dowex 50 cation-exchange resin as a sorbent, and flushing the sample through the flow cell for EDXRF measurements after removal of the sample matrix. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification (LOQs) thus obtained were 0.15 and 0.5 microg for Pb and 0.3 and 0.8 microg for Cd, respectively, values that allow the approach to be used for the analysis of drinking water by injecting a 100-mL sample into the FI manifold, taking into account the EC drinking water directives. The linear dynamic ranges are between the LOQ and 600 microg for both analytes. The method was validated by the standard addition method using tap-water samples. In addition, the integrated SPE-EDXRF approach enables the study of the variables influencing the sorption step-namely the effects of the volume of sample flushed through the column, concentrations of the analytes in the sample, breakthrough volume of the resin, elution profiles, sample pH and retention and elution flow rates-in an automatic, cheap, fast and precise way. PMID:17846752

Pérez-Serradilla, J A; Luque de Castro, M D



Quantitation of metformin in human plasma and urine by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and application to a pharmacokinetic study.  


We describe an analytical method for the quantification of the widely used antihyperglycemic agent, metformin, in human plasma and urine. The separation was performed using isocratic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography on a Luna hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (125 × 4.6 mm, 3 ?m). The sample preparation was accomplished by solid-phase extraction. Validation of the method was performed in the range 10-2000 ng/mL for plasma and 5-30 mcg/mL for urine. The methods were linear within the investigated range (r(2) > 0.988). Within-day repeatability ranged from 3.1% to 7.5% in plasma and 1.6% to 6.2% in urine. Between-day reproducibility ranged from 2.9% to 5.3% in plasma and 0.6% to 1.8% in urine. The inaccuracy expressed as bias ranged from -3.1% to 1.9% in plasma and from -7.2% to 0.7% in urine. The lower limit of quantification for metformin in plasma was 5 ng/mL and in urine was 40 ng/mL. The method was therefore considered to be precise, accurate, reproducible, and sensitive enough to be appropriate for pharmacokinetic studies of metformin. The applicability of the method for human pharmacokinetic studies was demonstrated by dosing a healthy male volunteer with 500-mg metformin hydrochloride as a single oral dose; plasma and urine concentrations were measured for 24 hours. PMID:24097013

Nielsen, Flemming; Christensen, Mette M H; Brřsen, Kim



Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats  

PubMed Central

A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and ?-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 µg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin. PMID:23820209

Soliman, Ahmed M.; Abu-Basha, Ehab A.; Youssef, Salah A. H.; Amer, Aziza M.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hauck, Catherine C.; Gehring, Ronette



Dalbavancin: Quantification in human plasma and urine by a new improved high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.  


Dalbavancin is a novel second-generation lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with activity against broad range of Gram-positive pathogens. In order to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of dalbavancin in pediatric patients, a new High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) bioanalytical method has been developed for quantification of dalbavancin in plasma and in urine. The plasma method was validated for dalbavancin in the linear range from 0.5 ?g/mL to 500 ?g/mL using 50 ?L of K(2) EDTA plasma. For dalbavancin spiked in urine, non-specific binding (NSB) of the drug to polypropylene (PP) urine collection containers was observed. The loss amounted to about 10% per transfer. After successfully establishing the collection/sampling procedure for urine by addition of Triton X-100 to the collection vessels (with a purpose of preventing NSB), the method was validated for dalbavancin in the range from 0.05 ?g/mL to 50 ?g/mL, using 100 ?L of urine. These methods were used to quantify dalbavancin in plasma and urine of hospitalized children in a pediatric dalbavancin PK study. Eighteen percent of the total number of plasma study samples was reassayed for incurred samples reproducibility (ISR) and all the reassayed dalbavancin concentrations were within the ± 20% limits. For urine, all the collected samples were reassayed for ISR and the original dalbavancin concentration was confirmed within the ± 20% limits for 17 (94%) samples; the one remaining urine sample had its reassayed concentration confirmed within ± 25% of the original result. PMID:21831727

Alebic-Kolbah, Tanja; Demers, Roger; Cojocaru, Laura



Preputial urinary diversion to treat urine soaking during urination in a dog.  


A young dog was presented with a history of adopting an unusual posture to urinate, resulting in urine soaking of the ventral abdomen and caudal forelimbs. The dog was initially treated surgically with cranial advancement of the prepuce, which did not resolve the problem. Further surgery was then successfully carried out to create a more caudal preputial orifice, which angled the penis ventrally when extruded, directing urine away from the body. At follow-up clinical examination, the dog was clinically normal. PMID:19490377

Thomas, E K; Friend, E J; Taylor, A S; Hamilton, M H



Micellar electrokinetic chromatography for the determination of cortisol in urine samples in view of biomedical studies.  


An MEKC method used for the determination of cortisol in urine was developed and elaborated. In turn, the measurements of urinary free cortisol provided the diagnostic information for excess adrenal production of cortisol. MEKC realized by the addition of anionic surfactant SDS to the buffer solution was demonstrated to be the appropriate mode for the separation of cortisol and dexamethasone was used as internal standard. A buffer solution composed of 10 mM sodium tetraborate and 50 mM SDS at pH 8.8 was used. The MEKC assay was evaluated by analyzing a series of urine samples containing cortisol in variable concentrations. The proposed method was validated for specificity, linearity, LODs and LOQs, precision and trueness. The LOQ for cortisol equaled 5 ng/mL. The method was selective and reliable for identification and can detect changes of endogenous levels of cortisol in urine under different stress situations. PMID:20578132

Oledzka, Ilona; Plenis, Alina; Konieczna, Lucyna; Kowalski, Piotr; Baczek, Tomasz



Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone.  


We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in the urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~5 min per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5-10 ?g mL(-1) (which is more than 3 times lower than the clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

Coskun, Ahmet F; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan



Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~ 5 minutes per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5–10 ?g/mL (which is more than 3 times lower than clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

Coskun, Ahmet F.; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan



Evaluation of the L-CLONE Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Urine Antigen Latex Test.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the L-CLONE Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Urine Antigen Latex Test (Access Medical Systems, Inc., Branford, Conn.) for detection of Legionella antigen in urine. A total of 481 frozen urine samples previously tested by an in-house solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was thawed and retested by using L-CLONE. Included in this sample were 140 RIA-positive samples from culture-positive or serologically confirmed cases of legionellosis and 341 RIA-negative samples from patients with non-Legionella respiratory disease or bacteriuria. The original RIA test result was accepted as the true value. L-CLONE correctly identified 76 of 140 (54%) known positive samples. False-negative results could not be attributed to a low Legionella antigen concentration or to a Legionella antigen subgroup. L-CLONE correctly identified 252 of 341 (74%) known negative samples. False-positive results were experienced in all groups of negative samples, regardless of the patients' underlying diseases. A total of 141 fresh urine samples was tested; all were Legionella antigen negative by RIA. L-CLONE provided 86% specificity. The sensitivity of the L-CLONE in testing fresh urine samples could not be evaluated because of the lack of Legionella antigen RIA-positive samples. PMID:1939574

Leland, D S; Kohler, R B



Urine glycoprotein crystal growth inhibitors. Evidence for a molecular abnormality in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.  

PubMed Central

One reason that some people are prone to calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis is that they produce urine that is subnormal in its ability to inhibit the growth of calcium oxalate crystals. We have identified in human urine a glycoprotein (GCI) that inhibits calcium oxalate crystal growth strongly, and at low concentrations (10(-7) M); in this study, we have isolated GCI molecules from the urine of normal people and patients with calcium oxalate stones. GCI from stone formers is abnormal in three ways: it contains no detectable gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), whereas normal GCI contains 2-3 residues of Gla per mole; about half of the GCI in urine of patients inhibits crystal growth 4-20 times less than normal GCI as judged by its performance in a kinetic growth assay, in vitro; at the air-water interface, patient GCI has a film collapse pressure approximately half of normal. GCI molecules from the urine of patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis are intrinsically abnormal, and these abnormalities could play a role in the genesis of stones. PMID:4056037

Nakagawa, Y; Abram, V; Parks, J H; Lau, H S; Kawooya, J K; Coe, F L



Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA. PMID:22253637

Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef; Lobo, Rebecca A.



Urban nutrient recovery from fresh human urine through cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana.  


High rate food consumption in urban cities causes vast amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus used in agriculture to end up in urban wastewaters. To substantially recover these nutrients, source-separated human urine should be targeted. The present study was to investigate the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus in urine via microalgae cultivation. In concentrated urine, urea hydrolysis and precipitation occur rapidly, making microalgal growth difficult and nutrient recovery ineffective. However, when fresh urine was added as nutrient stock for 1-day growth requirement, biomass of Chlorella sorokiniana grew from 0.44 to 0.96 g L(-1) utilising 62.64 mg L(-1) of N and 10.64 mg L(-1) of P, achieving 80.4% and 96.6% recoveries, respectively in a 1-day non-sterile cultivation cycle. Overall, microalgae grown with urine added as nutrient supplement show no signs of inferiority as compared to those grown in recipe medium BG11 in terms of mass and chlorophyll a growth rates as well as resulting lipids (36.8%) and energy contents (21.0 kJ g(-1)). PMID:25016102

Zhang, Shanshan; Lim, Chun Yong; Chen, Chia-Lung; Liu, He; Wang, Jing-Yuan



Sensitive headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of trihalomethanes in urine.  


A sensitive and straightforward method for the determination of trihalomethanes (THMs) in urine by using headspace extraction technique has been developed. Chemical and instrumental variables were studied in order to optimize the method for sensitivity: an excess of KCl (4 g per 12 ml of urine), an oven temperature of 85 degrees C and an equilibration time of 30 min were selected. The use of the mass spectrometer in selected ion monitoring mode allows achieving linear ranges between 10 and 5000 ng/l and detection limits from 3 to 10 ng/l, for 12 ml of urine. The stability of the urine sample during storage at 4 and -20 degrees C was also evaluated: THMs remained stable for up to 2 days and 2 months, respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to study the THM uptake from swimmers of an indoor swimming pool, as well as non-swimmers. This study revealed that the concentrations of THMs in urine increased approximately three times for chloroform and bromodichloromethane after swimming activity. In addition, THMs in unchanged form were mainly excreted within 2-3h after the end of exposure. PMID:17092785

Caro, J; Serrano, A; Gallego, M



Detection of CWD Prions in Urine and Saliva of Deer by Transgenic Mouse Bioassay  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease affecting captive and free-ranging cervids (e.g. deer, elk, and moose). The mechanisms of CWD transmission are poorly understood, though bodily fluids are thought to play an important role. Here we report the presence of infectious prions in the urine and saliva of deer with chronic wasting disease (CWD). Prion infectivity was detected by bioassay of concentrated, dialyzed urine and saliva in transgenic mice expressing the cervid PrP gene (Tg[CerPrP] mice). In addition, PrPCWD was detected in pooled and concentrated urine by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The concentration of abnormal prion protein in bodily fluids was very low, as indicated by: undetectable PrPCWD levels by traditional assays (western blot, ELISA) and prolonged incubation periods and incomplete TSE attack rates in inoculated Tg(CerPrP) mice (373±3days in 2 of 9 urine-inoculated mice and 342±109 days in 8 of 9 saliva-inoculated mice). These findings help extend our understanding of CWD prion shedding and transmission and portend the detection of infectious prions in body fluids in other prion infections. PMID:19293928

Haley, Nicholas J.; Seelig, Davis M.; Zabel, Mark D.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.



Selenium metabolites in urine of cancer patients receiving L-selenomethionine at high doses  

SciTech Connect

We investigated, with quantitative HPLC/mass spectrometry, the selenium metabolites in urine from five cancer patients receiving high doses of L-selenomethionine over an extended period (2 x 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 7 days, then 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 21 days) as an adjunct to their normal cancer chemotherapy. Urine samples were collected at day 0 (all 5 patients), and at 2-3 additional collection times ranging from 1 to 33 days. The background selenium concentrations ranged from 12 to 55 {mu}g Se/L and increased to 870 to 4420 {mu}g Se/L for the five patients during the study. All five patients had appreciable levels of selenosugars in their background urine sample, and the concentrations increased dramatically after selenium intake. Trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe), on the other hand, was generally present as only a trace metabolite in background urine, and, although the concentration of TMSe increased following selenium exposure, it became a less significant proportion relative to selenosugars. These data refute the currently accepted role of TMSe as the preferred excretion metabolite when selenium exposure is high.

Kuehnelt, Doris [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens University Graz, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria); Juresa, Dijana [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens University Graz, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria); Francesconi, Kevin A. [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens University Graz, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria)]. E-mail:; Fakih, Marwan [Department of Epidemiology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Reid, Mary E. [Department of Epidemiology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)



Determination of five phthalate monoesters in human urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


We have developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine five phthalate monoesters (monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), monoisononyl phthalate (MINP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBz)) in human urine. Human urine samples were subjected to enzymatic deconjugation of the glucuronides followed by extraction with hexane. The extracted phthalate monoesters were methylated with diazomethane, purified on a Florisil column and then subjected to GC-MS analysis. The recoveries from urine spiked with five phthalate monoesters were 86.3%-119% with coefficients of variation of 0.6%-6.1%. We measured phthalate monoester levels in human urine by analyzing 36 samples from volunteers. MBP and MEP were detected in all samples, and their median concentrations were 60.0 and 10.7 ng/mL, respectively. MBzP and MEHP were found in 75% and 56% of samples, and their median concentrations were 10.9 and 5.75 ng/mL, respectively. MINPs were not detected in most samples (6% detectable). Women had significantly (p < 0.05) higher mean concentrations of MBP and MEP than men. The estimated daily exposure levels for the four parent phthalates excluding diisononyl phthalate ranged from 0.27 to 5.69 mug/kg/day (median). PMID:20574658

Kondo, Fumio; Ikai, Yoshitomo; Hayashi, Rumiko; Okumura, Masanao; Takatori, Satoshi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Shun-ichiro; Makino, Tsunehisa



Selenium metabolites in urine of cancer patients receiving L-selenomethionine at high doses.  


We investigated, with quantitative HPLC/mass spectrometry, the selenium metabolites in urine from five cancer patients receiving high doses of L-selenomethionine over an extended period (2 x 4000 microg Se/day for 7 days, then 4000 microg Se/day for 21 days) as an adjunct to their normal cancer chemotherapy. Urine samples were collected at day 0 (all 5 patients), and at 2-3 additional collection times ranging from 1 to 33 days. The background selenium concentrations ranged from 12 to 55 microg Se/L and increased to 870 to 4420 microg Se/L for the five patients during the study. All five patients had appreciable levels of selenosugars in their background urine sample, and the concentrations increased dramatically after selenium intake. Trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe), on the other hand, was generally present as only a trace metabolite in background urine, and, although the concentration of TMSe increased following selenium exposure, it became a less significant proportion relative to selenosugars. These data refute the currently accepted role of TMSe as the preferred excretion metabolite when selenium exposure is high. PMID:17320129

Kuehnelt, Doris; Juresa, Dijana; Francesconi, Kevin A; Fakih, Marwan; Reid, Mary E