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Sample records for urine lead concentration

  1. COX-2 disruption leads to increased central vasopressin stores and impaired urine concentrating ability in mice.

    PubMed

    Nrregaard, Rikke; Madsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Pernille B L; Bie, Peter; Thavalingam, Sugarna; Frkir, Jrgen; Jensen, Boye L

    2011-12-01

    It was hypothesized that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes urine concentrating ability through stimulation of vasopressin (AVP) release after water deprivation (WD). COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-), C57BL/6) and wild-type (WT) mice were water deprived for 24 h, and water balance, central AVP mRNA and peptide level, AVP plasma concentration, and AVP-regulated renal transport protein abundances were measured. In male COX-2(-/-), basal urine output and water intake were elevated while urine osmolality was decreased compared with WT. Water deprivation resulted in lower urine osmolality, higher plasma osmolality in COX-2(-/-) mice irrespective of gender. Hypothalamic AVP mRNA level increased and was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. AVP peptide content was higher in COX-2(-/-) compared with WT. At baseline, plasma AVP concentration was elevated in conscious chronically catheterized COX-2(-/-) mice, but after WD plasma AVP was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT mice (43 11 vs. 70 16 pg/ml). Renal V2 receptor abundance was downregulated in COX-2(-/-) mice. Medullary interstitial osmolality increased and did not differ between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. Aquaporin-2 (AQP2; cortex-outer medulla), AQP3 (all regions), and UT-A1 (inner medulla) protein abundances were elevated in COX-2(-/-) at baseline and further increased after WD. COX-2(-/-) mice had elevated plasma urea and creatinine and accumulation of small subcapsular glomeruli. In conclusion, hypothalamic COX-2 activity is not necessary for enhanced AVP expression and secretion in response to water deprivation. Renal medullary COX-2 activity negatively regulates AQP2 and -3. The urine concentrating defect in COX-2(-/-) is likely caused by developmental glomerular injury and not dysregulation of AVP or collecting duct aquaporins. PMID:21880835

  2. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... avoiding fluids Concentrated after receiving ADH Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. Methods During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Results Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples. Conclusions The UPCR in samples with low or high specific gravity is more likely to overestimate or underestimate actual daily urine protein amount, respectively, especially in a dilute urine sample with its creatinine below 38.8 mg/dL or a concentrated sample with its creatinine above 61.5 mg/dL. In particular, UPCR results should be interpreted with caution in cases that involve dilute urine samples because its overestimation may lead to an erroneous diagnosis of proteinuric renal disease or an incorrect staging of chronic kidney disease. PMID:26353117

  4. Urine concentrating and diluting ability during aging.

    PubMed

    Sands, Jeff M

    2012-12-01

    Urine concentrating ability is reduced during normal aging in people and rats. The abundance of many of the key transport proteins that contribute to urine concentrating ability is reduced in the kidney medulla of aged rats. The reductions in water, sodium, and urea transport protein abundances, and their reduced response to water restriction, contribute to the reduced ability of aged rats to concentrate their urine and conserve water. If similar mechanisms occur in human kidneys, it would provide a molecular explanation for the reduced urine concentrating ability in aging and may provide opportunities for novel therapeutic approaches to improve urine concentrating ability and/or nocturnal polyuria. PMID:22588950

  5. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  6. Ambient Concentrations of Lead

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes ambient concentrations of lead, for the contiguous U.S., from 1980 to 2009. Ambient air concentrations of lead, which can cause neurological and developmental problems in children, have decreased dramatically since the 1970s.

  7. Correlation between plasma and urine phenylalanine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Manal; Boulat, Olivier; Van Melle, Guy; Guignard, Jean-Pierre; Matthieu, Jean-Marie

    2004-01-01

    In this pilot study, we show that plasma phenylalanine concentration can be predicted from urine concentration if the age of the patient is taken into consideration. This observation could open the way to a new monitoring of phenylketonuric patients in which painful frequent blood sampling, mandatory to adapt the low phenylalanine diet, could be mostly replaced by urinalysis. Compliance to treatment would be improved and hence also the ultimate mental development. Since this study was based on a small number of patients, validation of the model in a large multicentric survey is needed before it can be recommended. PMID:14739551

  8. Urine protein concentration estimation for biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Hiten D; Bramham, Kate; Weston, Andrew J; Ward, Malcolm A; Thompson, Andrew J; Chappell, Lucy C

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances have been made in the study of urinary proteomics as a diagnostic tool for renal disease and pre-eclampsia which requires accurate measurement of urinary protein. We compared different protein assays (Bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Lowry and Bradford) against the 'gold standard' amino-acid assay in urine from 43 women (8 non-pregnant, 34 pregnant, including 8 with pre-eclampsia). BCA assay was superior to both Lowry and Bradford assays (Bland Altman bias: 0.08) compared to amino-acid assay, which performed particularly poorly at higher protein concentrations. These data highlight the need to use amino-acid or BCA assays for unprocessed urine protein estimation. PMID:26103798

  9. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  10. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo Garca; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  11. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo Garca; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  12. Urine chemistry

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Jones protein Urinary casts Urine amino acids Urine concentration test Urine culture (catheterized specimen) Urine culture (clean catch) Urine dermatan sulfate Urine - hemoglobin Urine metanephrine Urine pH Urine specific gravity Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)

  13. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers. PMID:655606

  14. Nickel concentration of blood, urine and sweat after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Christensen, O B; Mller, H; Andrasko, L; Lagesson, V

    1979-09-01

    Healthy volunteers without nickel hypersensitivity were given 5.6 mg nickel orally. The nickel concentration was assayed in urine, serum and sauna-provocated sweat from hands and trunk before and after nickel ingestion. The nickel concentration in serum increased in all subjects, and in most cases in urine, but not decisively in sweat. PMID:509933

  15. Nickel concentration of blood and urine after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Christensen, O B; Lagesson, V

    1981-01-01

    Nickel concentration in serum and whole blood as well as nickel excretion in urine was assayed at different time intervals before and after ingestion of nickel sulfate in eight healthy volunteers during a three days study. The peak level of nickel in blood was reached 2.5 hours after nickel ingestion and the maximal urinary excretion of nickel was during the first eight hours after ingestion. Great individual variations in nickel concentrations in blood and nickel excretion in urine were observed. Analysis of nickel in both urine and serum reflects ingestion of a soluble nickel salt, but urine seems to be most reliable to follow. PMID:7259086

  16. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol.

    PubMed

    Elers, J; Pedersen, L; Henninge, J; Hemmersbach, P; Dalhoff, K; Backer, V

    2011-08-01

    We examined blood and urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol in relation to the existing cut-off value used in routine doping control. We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy controls with no previous use of beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after the first inhalations. Urine samples were collected at baseline, 0-4 h, 4-8 h, and 8-12 h after the first inhalations. Median urine concentrations peaked in the period 4-8 h after the first inhalations in the asthmatics and between 8-12 h in controls and the median ranged from 268 to 611 ngmL (-1). No samples exceeded the WADA threshold value of 1000 ngmL (-1) when corrected for the urine specific gravity. When not corrected one sample exceeded the cut-off value with urine concentration of 1082 ngmL (-1). In conclusion we found no differences in blood and urine concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We found high variability in urine concentrations between subjects in both groups. The variability between subjects was still present after the samples were corrected for urine specific gravity. PMID:21563035

  17. Urine concentration and avian aquaporin water channels.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Hiroko

    2008-07-01

    Although birds and mammals have evolved from primitive tetrapods and advanced divergently, both can conserve water by producing hyperosmotic urine. Unique aspects in the avian system include the presence of loopless and looped nephrons, lack of the thin ascending limb of Henle's loop, a corticomedullary osmotic gradient primarily consisting of NaCl without contribution of urea, and significant postrenal modification of final urine. The countercurrent multiplier mechanism operates between the descending and ascending limbs of Henle via recycling of a single solute (NaCl) with no water accompaniment, forming an osmotic gradient along the medullary cone. Bird kidneys and developing rat kidneys share morphological and functional characteristics. Avian kidneys express aquaporin (AQP) 1, 2, and 4 homologues that share considerable homology with mammalian counterparts, but their distribution and function may not be the same. AQP2 expression in Japanese quail (q) evolves in the collecting duct of early metanephric kidneys and continues to increase in intensity and distribution during nephrogenesis and maturation. qAQP2 mRNA and protein are increased by arginine vasotocin (avian ADH), but vasotocin-induced enhancement of cAMP production and water permeability are less marked than in mammalian kidneys. Nephrogenesis is delayed by insufficient nutrition in avian embryos and newborns and results in fewer nephrons and an impaired water balance in adults. Diabetes insipidus quail with homozygous autosomal recessive mutation and an unaffected vasotocin system have low AQP2 expression, underdeveloped medullary cones. Comparative studies will provide important insight into integrative, cellular, and molecular mechanisms of epithelial water transport and its control by humoral, neural, and hemodynamic mechanisms. PMID:18278509

  18. Combined processing of lead concentrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubasov, V. L.; Paretskii, V. M.; Sidorin, G. N.; Travkin, V. F.

    2013-06-01

    A combined scheme of processing of lead concentrates with the production of pure metallic lead and the important components containing in these concentrates is considered. This scheme includes sulfating roasting of the lead concentrates and two-stage leaching of the formed cinder with the formation of a sulfate solution and lead sulfate. When transformed into a carbonate form, lead sulfate is used for the production of pure metallic lead. Silver, indium, copper, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, and other important components are separately extracted from a solution. At the last stage, zinc is extracted by either extraction followed by electrolytic extraction of a metal or the return of the forming solution of sulfuric acid to cinder leaching.

  19. Biomonitoring of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and mercury in urine and hair of children living near mining and industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Lacasaa, Marina; Rodrguez-Barranco, Miguel; Hernndez, Antonio F; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduo, Clemente; Gil, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Huelva (South West Spain) and its surrounding municipalities represent one of the most polluted estuaries in the world owing to the discharge of mining and industrial related pollutants in their proximity. A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess exposure to arsenic and some trace metals (cadmium, mercury, manganese and lead) in urine and scalp hair from a representative sample of children aged 6-9 years (n=261). This is the only study simultaneously analyzing those five metal elements in children urine and hair. The potential contribution of gender, water consumption, residence area and body mass index on urinary and hair metal concentrations was also studied. Urine levels of cadmium and total mercury in a proportion (25-50%) of our children population living near industrial/mining areas might have an impact on health, likely due to environmental exposure to metal pollution. The only significant correlation between urine and hair levels was found for mercury. Children living near agriculture areas showed increased levels of cadmium and manganese (in urine) and arsenic (in hair). In contrast, decreased urine Hg concentrations were observed in children living near mining areas. Girls exhibited significantly higher trace metal concentrations in hair than boys. The greatest urine arsenic concentrations were found in children drinking well/spring water. Although human hair can be a useful tool for biomonitoring temporal changes in metal concentrations, levels are not correlated with those found in urine except for total mercury, thus providing additional information. PMID:25434277

  20. Relationships of lead in breast milk to lead in blood, urine, and diet of the infant and mother.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Jameson, C W; Mahaffey, K R; Mizon, K J; Patison, N; Law, A J; Korsch, M J; Salter, M A

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained stable lead isotope and lead concentration data from a longitudinal study of mobilization of lead from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation and in which the newly born infants were monitored for 6 months postpartum to evaluate the effects of the local environment on lead body burden of the infant. Samples of maternal and infant blood, urine, and diet and especially breast milk were measured for 21 mothers and 24 infants. Blood lead concentrations were less than 5 microg/dl in all except one subject. The mean lead concentration in breast milk +/- standard deviation was 0.73 +/- 0.70 microg/kg. In seven subjects for whom serial breast milk sampling was possible, the lead concentration varied by factors of from 2 to 4, and for three subjects there was an increase at or after 90 days postpartum. For the first 60-90 days postpartum, the contribution from breast milk to blood lead in the infants varied from 36 to 80%. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated statistically significant relationships for some of the variables of isotope ratios and lead concentrations between breast milk, blood, urine, and diet for infants and mothers. For example, the analyses revealed that both a mother's breast milk 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios and lead concentration provide information to predict her infant's blood 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios. The major sources of lead in breast milk are from the maternal bone and diet. An evaluation of breast milk lead concentrations published over the last 15 years indicates that studies in which the ratio of lead concentrations in breast milk to lead concentrations in whole maternal blood (Multiple>100) were greater than 15 should be viewed with caution because of potential contamination during sampling and/or laboratory analyses. Selected studies also appear to show a linear relationship between breast milk and maternal whole blood, with the percentage of lead in breast milk compared with whole blood of <3% in subjects with blood lead levels ranging from 2 to 34 microgram/dl. The levels of lead in breast milk are thus similar to those in plasma. Breast-fed infants are only at risk if the mother is exposed to high concentrations of contaminants either from endogenous sources such as the skeleton or exogenous sources. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9755144

  1. An assessment of contemporary atomic spectroscopic techniques for the determination of lead in blood and urine matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Patrick J.; Geraghty, Ciaran; Verostek, Mary Frances

    2001-09-01

    The preparation and validation of a number of clinical reference materials for the determination of lead in blood and urine is described. Four candidate blood lead reference materials (Lots, 047-050), and four candidate urine lead reference materials (Lots, 034, 035, 037 and 038), containing physiologically-bound lead at clinically relevant concentrations, were circulated to up to 21 selected laboratories specializing in this analysis. Results from two interlaboratory studies were used to establish certified values and uncertainty estimates for these reference materials. These data also provided an assessment of current laboratory techniques for the measurement of lead in blood and urine. For the blood lead measurements, four laboratories used electrothermal atomization AAS, three used anodic stripping voltammetry and one used both ETAAS and ICP-MS. For the urine lead measurements, 11 laboratories used ETAAS (most with Zeeman background correction) and 10 used ICP-MS. Certified blood lead concentrations, S.D., ranged from 5.90.4 ?g/dl (0.280.02 ?mol/l) to 76.02.2 ?g/dl (3.670.11 ?mol/l) and urine lead concentrations ranged from 985 ?g/l (0.470.02 ?mol/l) to 64136 ?g/l (3.090.17 ?mol/l). The highest concentration blood lead material was subjected to multiple analyses using ETAAS over an extended time period. The data indicate that more stringent internal quality control practices are necessary to improve long-term precision. While the certification of blood lead materials was accomplished in a manner consistent with established practices, the urine lead materials proved more troublesome, particularly at concentrations above 600 ?g/l (2.90 ?mol/l).

  2. Impact of diet on lead in blood and urine in female adults and relevance to mobilization of lead from bone stores.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Mahaffey, K R; Jameson, C W; Patison, N; Law, A J; Mizon, K J; Korsch, M J; Pederson, D

    1999-01-01

    We measured high precision lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations in blood, urine, and environmental samples to assess the significance of diet as a contributing factor to blood and urine lead levels in a cohort of 23 migrant women and 5 Australian-born women. We evaluated possible correlations between levels of dietary lead intake and changes observed in blood and urine lead levels and isotopic composition during pregnancy and postpartum. Mean blood lead concentrations for both groups were approximately 3 microg/dl. The concentration of lead in the diet was 5.8 +/- 3 microg Pb/kg [geometric mean (GM) 5.2] and mean daily dietary intake was 8.5 microg/kg/day (GM 7.4), with a range of 2-39 microg/kg/day. Analysis of 6-day duplicate dietary samples for individual subjects commonly showed major spikes in lead concentration and isotopic composition that were not reflected by associated changes in either blood lead concentration or isotopic composition. Changes in blood lead levels and isotopic composition observed during and after pregnancy could not be solely explained by dietary lead. These data are consistent with earlier conclusions that, in cases where levels of environmental lead exposure and dietary lead intake are low, skeletal contribution is the dominant contributor to blood lead, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10090703

  3. Challenges for environmental epidemiology research: are biomarker concentrations altered by kidney function or urine concentration adjustment?

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Kotchmar, Dennis J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2016-01-01

    Biomonitoring has become a standard approach for exposure assessment in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The use of biological effect markers to identify early adverse changes in target organs has also become widely adopted. However, the potential for kidney function to affect biomarker levels in the body and the optimal approach to adjustment of biomarker concentrations in spot urine samples for hydration status are two important but underappreciated challenges associated with biomarker use. Several unexpected findings, such as positive associations between urine nephrotoxicant levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), have been reported recently in research using biomarkers. These and other findings, discussed herein, suggest an impact of kidney glomerular filtration or tubule processing on biomarker levels. This is more commonly raised in the context of decreased kidney filtration, traditionally referred to as reverse causality; however, recent data suggest that populations with normal kidney filtration may be affected as well. Misclassification bias would result if biomarkers reflect kidney function as well as either exposures or early biological effect outcomes. Furthermore, urine biomarker associations with eGFR that differ markedly by approach used to adjust for urine concentration have been reported. Associations between urine measures commonly used for this adjustment, such as urine creatinine, and specific research outcomes could alter observed biomarker associations with outcomes. Research recommendations to address the potential impact of kidney function and hydration status adjustment on biomarkers are provided, including a range of approaches to study design, exposure and outcome assessment, and adjustment for urine concentration. PMID:25736163

  4. Individual variability in human tibia lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Todd, A C; Parsons, P J; Tang, S; Moshier, E L

    2001-11-01

    Our aims in this study were to determine proximal-distal variability in adult human tibia lead concentration via electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and to determine whether there were any differences between core and surface tibia lead concentrations. We analyzed duplicate core and surface tibia samples for lead at multiple proximal-distal sections on 10 adult human cadaver legs. Dried bone samples were digested in nitric acid using microwave-assisted heating, and lead content was determined by ETAAS with Zeeman background correction. Lead concentrations in nine tibiae (one tibia was excluded because some of the data were compromised) ranged from 3.1 to 27.9 microg lead/g of dry bone. Both core and surface tibia lead concentrations were lower at the proximal and distal ends of the tibia. Surface tibia lead was approximately 5 microg/g greater than core tibia lead in six tibiae with relatively low lead concentration, and 8 microg/g greater in three tibiae with relatively high lead concentration. The difference between core and surface tibia lead was independent of proximal-distal tibia location. We conclude that these nine human tibiae showed a greater surface tibia lead concentration than core tibia lead concentration. This observation has consequences for the noninvasive measurement of tibia lead via K-shell and L-shell X-ray fluorescence. PMID:11712999

  5. Individual variability in human tibia lead concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, A C; Parsons, P J; Tang, S; Moshier, E L

    2001-01-01

    Our aims in this study were to determine proximal-distal variability in adult human tibia lead concentration via electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and to determine whether there were any differences between core and surface tibia lead concentrations. We analyzed duplicate core and surface tibia samples for lead at multiple proximal-distal sections on 10 adult human cadaver legs. Dried bone samples were digested in nitric acid using microwave-assisted heating, and lead content was determined by ETAAS with Zeeman background correction. Lead concentrations in nine tibiae (one tibia was excluded because some of the data were compromised) ranged from 3.1 to 27.9 microg lead/g of dry bone. Both core and surface tibia lead concentrations were lower at the proximal and distal ends of the tibia. Surface tibia lead was approximately 5 microg/g greater than core tibia lead in six tibiae with relatively low lead concentration, and 8 microg/g greater in three tibiae with relatively high lead concentration. The difference between core and surface tibia lead was independent of proximal-distal tibia location. We conclude that these nine human tibiae showed a greater surface tibia lead concentration than core tibia lead concentration. This observation has consequences for the noninvasive measurement of tibia lead via K-shell and L-shell X-ray fluorescence. PMID:11712999

  6. Stress-induced changes in corticosteroid metabolism. [plasma and urine concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacker, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    Because plasma and urine corticosteroid concentrations are influenced by several factors in addition to adrenal cortex secretion, the effect of stress on all of these factors was determined in order to interpret the plasma and urine concentrations. Progress on the investigation is reported.

  7. Measurement of the glucose concentration in human urine with optical refractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rui-Yang; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Meng, Ching-Tang; Cheng, Chih-Ching; Liao, Yu-Ching

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of human urine glucose measurement system is proposed. We measured the phase variation of human urine with/without glucose-urine mixture (to simulate diabetes mellitus). We were able to achieve high resolution with the proposed method. The relation curve between the phase difference and glucose concentration can be estimated, and the glucose concentration of a urine sample can be determined by using this relation curve. The proposed method showed that theoretical resolution is approximated of 1.47 mg/dl.

  8. A field lab method to determine urine concentration in small mammals.

    PubMed

    Corts, A; Rosenmann, M

    1989-01-01

    1. The concentrations of 136 urine samples from four species of small mammals were compared using osmometry, refractometry and a colorimetric test for urea concentration. 2. To obtain a wide range of concentrations (430-3950 mOsm/kg), urine samples were collected under normal and dehydration conditions. 3. Regression analyses of paired values indicate that measurements of total solids concentration (refractometric method) permit evaluations of urine osmolality and estimations of the concentration of urea with a high degree of confidence. PMID:2573471

  9. [Effect of tobacco smoking on albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smelters].

    PubMed

    Bizonń, Anna; Witt, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Malgorzata; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to estimate the nephrotoxicity of occupational exposure to heavy metals on albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in the urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters. The study was performed in urine of 101 smoking and non-smoking smelters as well as 65 smoking and non-smoking male subjects unexposed to heavy metals. Section into smoking and non-smoking groups was made on basis on direct personal interview and by determination of serum cotinine concentration. The concentration of albumin in urine was measured with commercial test (Micro-Albumin ELISA Cat. No 5MA 74212, ORGENTEC Diagnostika Gmbh, Germany). The activity of β-glucuronidase in urine were determined in urine using 4-nitrophenyl β D-glucuronide (Cat. No 73677, Sigma Aldrich, Germany) as a substrate. We have observed higher albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters when compared to control groups. We have also found the influence of tobacco smoke as well as amount of cigarettes smoked on albumin concentration in urine of smoking smelters. A statistically significant difference was detected between activity of β-glucuronidase in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters, which suggest as additional negative factor of exposure to tobacco smoke. Analyzing the impact of smoking intensity we have found higher albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smelters smoking ≥20 cigarettes per day when compared to smelters smoking <20 cigarettes per day. The elevation of albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of workers occupational exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke indicated, that environmental exposure on these factors can disorders kidney functions. PMID:25799848

  10. PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population

    SciTech Connect

    Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-09-15

    As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk. - Highlights: • Interpretation of urine cadmium concentrations in France • PBPK and Bayesian population modelling of cadmium exposure • Assessment of the historic time-trend of the cadmium exposure in France • Risk assessment from current and future external and internal exposure.

  11. Urinary concentrations and urine ex-vivo effect of mecillinam and sulphamethizole.

    PubMed

    Kerrn, M B; Frimodt-Mller, N; Espersen, F

    2004-01-01

    Healthy adult volunteers received 1 g of sulphamethizole orally (n = 10) and later 400 mg of pivmecillinam (274 mg of mecillinam) (n = 9). All urine was collected in defined periods over 24 h, and the drug concentrations in urine were determined. For sulphamethizole, the maximum urine concentration for seven subjects was reached in 0-3 h, and for the remaining three in 3-6 h. For mecillinam, eight of the nine subjects attained a maximum urine concentration in 0-3 h, after which the concentration declined rapidly for six subjects in 3-6 h. Strains of Escherichia coli with different MICs for sulphamethizole and mecillinam were exposed to collected urine for 2.5 h and 5 h. The results indicated that a sensitive E. coli population should be suppressed by sulphamethizole in urine for two-thirds of the time (with 1 g twice-daily) and by mecillinam in urine throughout the 24-h period (with 400 mg three times a day). There was a slight but significant correlation between the ex-vivo effect (Delta log10 CFU/mL) and the log10 concentration/MIC ratio after exposure to sulphamethizole for 5 h (r2 = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and a significant correlation between the variables with mecillinam (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.0001). PMID:14706087

  12. [Environmental tobacco smoke--assessment of formaldehyde concentration in urine samples of exposed medicine students].

    PubMed

    Szumska, Magdalena; Damasiewicz-Bodzek, Aleksandra; Tyrpień-Golder, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is ranked as one of the factors of confirmed carcinogenicity to human. It consists of the mixture of smoke exhaled by the smoker as well as the sidestream smoke and contains many times higher concentrations of some toxic substances in comparison to the amount of toxic compounds inhaled by a smoker. From many years the issue of passive smoking has been the subject of many research and still not all of its aspects of affecting human health have been explored. Apart from the tobacco varieties, also diverse additives added during the process of tobacco manufacturing, including particularly carbohydrates, influence the composition of the environmental tobacco smoke. During smoking they can undergo many complex transformations, as a result of which toxic components of the environmental tobacco smoke are formed, carbonyl compounds in particular, like aldehydes. They are marked by a significant chemical reactivity which enables them to modify amino groups of proteins leading to the changes in their structure, biological functions and often antigenicity. Therefore their influence to the human body is the cause of numerous adverse health effects caused by the increase in free radical processes which can constitute to the source of these compounds. Well known representative of this group of xenobiotics is formaldehyde as a compound that reflects well the environmental exposure to carbonyl compounds. The considerable source of this compound is tobacco smoke. Therefore analysis of formaldehyde in body fluids is a valuable biomonitoring tool of exposure to it. The aim of this study was the evaluation of formaldehyde concentration in urine samples of medicine students exposed to ETS. The study material consisted of 149 urine samples of students from School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia. The concentration of formaldehyde in urine samples was determined by a spectrophotometric method using the Purpald reagent. To verify the collected questionnaire data regarding exposure to constituents of tobacco smoke, the immuno-enzymatic method was used to determine main nicotine metabolites in tested urine samples. This enabled dividing the investigated students' group into active smokers, passively exposed to tobacco smoke and not exposed. Analysis of obtained results showed that mean concentration of formaldehyde in urine of active smokers (68.45 ± 58.67 µmol/l) and passive smokers (79.23 ± 53.64 µmol/l) were significantly higher in comparison to not exposed students (42.99 ± 30.29 µmol/l). Mean concentrations of formaldehyde in urine samples of active and passive smokers are comparable. The results of our study allow to conclude that passive exposure to tobacco smoke is an equivalent source of exposure to active smoking regarding formaldehyde adverse influence to human. Applied method enables to quick evaluation of formaldehyde concentration in biological samples. PMID:26731871

  13. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral salbutamol, subjects performed submaximal exercise for 15 min followed by two, 2-min exercise bouts at an intensity corresponding to 110% of VO2max and a bout to exhaustion at same intensity. Urine samples were collected 4, 8, and 12 h following administration of salbutamol. Samples were analyzed by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P = 0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4 h after administration when samples were adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment (3089 ± 911 vs. 1918 ± 1081 ng/mL). With the current urine decision limit of 1200 ng/mL for salbutamol on WADA's 2013 list of prohibited substances, fewer false negative urine samples were observed when adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020 g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol in doping cases. PMID:24166762

  14. Blood, urine, and hair kinetic analysis following an acute lead intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ho, G; Keutgens, A; Schoofs, R; Kotolenko, S; Denooz, R; Charlier, C

    2011-01-01

    A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate sodium and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, blood lead levels of this 51-year-old patient were moderate (412.9 ?g/L) and no clinical symptoms were observed. Numerous blood and urine samples were collected for kinetic analysis of lead elimination. However, we report the first case in which hair samples were analyzed to determine the excretion level of lead after acute intoxication. PMID:21219705

  15. Measurement of Sterigmatocystin Concentrations in Urine for Monitoring the Contamination of Cattle Feed

    PubMed Central

    Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15–0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01–0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

  16. Measurement of sterigmatocystin concentrations in urine for monitoring the contamination of cattle feed.

    PubMed

    Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15-0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01-0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

  17. Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood

    DOEpatents

    Nogar, Nicholas S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood. The present invention includes the use of resonant laser ablation to analyze .ltoreq.1 .mu.L (or equivalent mass) samples of blood for lead content. A typical finger prick, for example, yields about 10 .mu.L. Solid samples may also readily be analyzed by resonant laser ablation. The sample is placed on a lead-free, electrically conducting substrate and irradiated with a single, focused laser beam which simultaneously vaporizes, atomizes, and resonantly ionizes an analyte of interest in a sample. The ions are then sorted, collected and detected using a mass spectrometer.

  18. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  19. Short term effects of increasing dietary salt concentrations on urine composition in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, N; Burmeier, H; Brenten, T; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2014-09-01

    High dietary salt (NaCl) concentrations are assumed to be beneficial in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats, since increased water intake and urine volume have been observed subsequent to intake. In human beings, dietary NaCl restriction is recommended for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation, since high NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary Ca excretion. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of dietary NaCl in the formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight cats received four diets that differed in Na and Cl concentrations (0.38-1.43% Na and 0.56-2.52% Cl dry matter, DM). Each feeding period consisted of a 21 day adaptation period, followed by a 7 day sampling period for urine collection. Higher dietary NaCl concentrations were associated with increased urine volume and renal Na excretion. Urinary Ca concentration was constant, but renal Ca excretion increased from 0.62 to 1.05 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/day with higher dietary NaCl concentrations (P ≤ 0.05). Urinary oxalate (Ox), citrate, P and K concentrations decreased when NaCl intake was high (P ≤ 0.05), and urinary pH was low in all groups (6.33-6.45; P > 0.05). Relative supersaturation of CaOx in the urine was unaffected by dietary NaCl concentrations. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated several beneficial effects of high dietary NaCl intake over a relatively short time period. In particular, urinary Ca concentration remained unchanged because of increased urine volume. Decreased urinary Ox concentrations might help to prevent the formation of CaOx uroliths, but this should be verified in future studies in diseased or predisposed cats. PMID:24881513

  20. Role of thin descending limb urea transport in renal urea handling and the urine concentrating mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Tianluo; Zhou, Lei; Layton, Anita T.; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Xuejian; Bankir, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Urea transporters UT-A2 and UT-B are expressed in epithelia of thin descending limb of Henle's loop and in descending vasa recta, respectively. To study their role and possible interaction in the context of the urine concentration mechanism, a UT-A2 and UT-B double knockout (UT-A2/B knockout) mouse model was generated by targeted deletion of the UT-A2 promoter in embryonic stem cells with UT-B gene knockout. The UT-A2/B knockout mice lacked detectable UT-A2 and UT-B transcripts and proteins and showed normal survival and growth. Daily urine output was significantly higher in UT-A2/B knockout mice than that in wild-type mice and lower than that in UT-B knockout mice. Urine osmolality in UT-A2/B knockout mice was intermediate between that in UT-B knockout and wild-type mice. The changes in urine osmolality and flow rate, plasma and urine urea concentration, as well as non-urea solute concentration after an acute urea load or chronic changes in protein intake suggested that UT-A2 plays a role in the progressive accumulation of urea in the inner medulla. These results suggest that in wild-type mice UT-A2 facilitates urea absorption by urea efflux from the thin descending limb of short loops of Henle. Moreover, UT-A2 deletion in UT-B knockout mice partially remedies the urine concentrating defect caused by UT-B deletion, by reducing urea loss from the descending limbs to the peripheral circulation; instead, urea is returned to the inner medulla through the loops of Henle and the collecting ducts. PMID:21849488

  1. AT1 receptors in the collecting duct directly modulate the concentration of urine.

    PubMed

    Stegbauer, Johannes; Gurley, Susan B; Sparks, Matthew A; Woznowski, Magdalena; Kohan, Donald E; Yan, Ming; Lehrich, Ruediger W; Coffman, Thomas M

    2011-12-01

    Mice lacking AT(1) angiotensin receptors have an impaired capacity to concentrate the urine, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. To determine whether direct actions of AT(1) receptors in epithelial cells of the collecting duct regulate water reabsorption, we used Cre-Loxp technology to specifically eliminate AT(1A) receptors from the collecting duct in mice (CD-KOs). Although levels of AT(1A) receptor mRNA in the inner medulla of CD-KO mice were significantly reduced, their kidneys appeared structurally normal. Under basal conditions, plasma and urine osmolalities and urine volumes were similar between CD-KO mice and controls. The increase in urine osmolality in response to water deprivation or vasopressin administration, however, was consistently attenuated in CD-KO mice. Similarly, levels of aquaporin-2 protein in inner and outer medulla after water deprivation were significantly lower in CD-KO mice compared with controls, despite its normal localization to the apical membrane. In summary, these results demonstrate that AT(1A) receptors in epithelial cells of the collecting duct directly modulate aquaporin-2 levels and contribute to the concentration of urine. PMID:22052052

  2. Impedimetric method for measuring ultra-low E. coli concentrations in human urine.

    PubMed

    Settu, Kalpana; Chen, Ching-Jung; Liu, Jen-Tsai; Chen, Chien-Lung; Tsai, Jang-Zern

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we developed an interdigitated gold microelectrode-based impedance sensor to detect Escherichia coli (E. coli) in human urine samples for urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis. E. coli growth in human urine samples was successfully monitored during a 12-h culture, and the results showed that the maximum relative changes could be measured at 10Hz. An equivalent electrical circuit model was used for evaluating the variations in impedance characteristics of bacterial growth. The equivalent circuit analysis indicated that the change in impedance values at low frequencies was caused by double layer capacitance due to bacterial attachment and formation of biofilm on electrode surface in urine. A linear relationship between the impedance change and initial E. coli concentration was obtained with the coefficient of determination R(2)>0.90 at various growth times of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12h in urine. Thus our sensor is capable of detecting a wide range of E. coli concentration, 7×10(0) to 7×10(8) cells/ml, in urine samples with high sensitivity. PMID:25437359

  3. Correlations between cadmium concentration in urine and exposure variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Elmar; Chutsch, Martina; Krause, Christian M.; Schulz, Christine; Thefeld, Wolfgang

    1993-03-01

    As part of the study 'UMWELT und GESUNDHEIT 1985/86', a representative samples of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany was examined for urinary Cd. A log-linear prediction model based on 2109 cases led to an explained variance portion of R2 equals .32. Strong associations were revealed between urinary cadmium and the smoking history and age of the subjects. This is evidence of the function urinary cadmium has as an indicator of the Cd body burden. However, there are also clear connections with physiological parameters (urinary creatinine and serum urea), which are taken to be a modification of Cd excretion by renal function. The association between urinary Cd and serum urea can also be interpreted as a cadmium-induced renal dysfunction. Urinary Cd concentrations tend to be lower in regions with low industrial nitrogen oxide emissions and high economic dynamics, as well as in non- urban residential structures.

  4. Metabolism and the scaling of urine concentrating ability in mammals: resolution of a paradox?

    PubMed

    Beuchat, C A

    1990-03-01

    Currently accepted theories of the urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney predict that concentrating ability should increase with increasing length of the loop of Henle. However, larger mammals have longer nephrons than do smaller ones, yet concentrating ability declines with increasing body mass (M, in kg) as M-0.097. Greenwald & Stetson (1988, News Physiol. Sci. 3, 46-49) have suggested that the diminished concentrating ability of large mammals reflects their lower mass-specific metabolic rate. They propose that, because the urine concentrating mechanism depends upon the energy-dependent transport of sodium chloride, concentrating ability should be closely related to mass-specific metabolic rate. Examination of the allometric scalings with body mass of medullary thickness and metabolic rate indicate that the rate of increase in length of the loop of Henle with body size (M0.129) is insufficient to offset the decline in mass-specific metabolism (M-0.24). The residual product of these scalings (M-0.11) indicates that urine concentrating ability should be inversely related to body size and is similar to the observed allometry of concentrating ability (M-0.097). The decline in concentrating ability of the kidney with body size is probably not a result of inability of the kidney to adapt physiologically or structurally to changes in size, but rather reflects the scaling of the need to conserve water. Small mammals, because of their high rates of evaporative and respiratory water loss, have a much higher rate of water turnover than do large mammals (Vwater.kg-1 alpha M-0.20). Because the need to concentrate the urine diminishes with increasing body size, the increase in loop length need only partially compensate for the simultaneous decline in metabolism. PMID:2359314

  5. Seafood Intake and Urine Concentrations of Total Arsenic, Dimethylarsinate and Arsenobetaine in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo

    2010-01-01

    Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 20032006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ?6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 g/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 g/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 g/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 g/L). Participants reporting seafood ?2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake. PMID:21093857

  6. Plasma prolactin concentrations in lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Govoni, S; Battaini, F; Fernicola, C; Castelletti, L; Trabucchi, M

    1987-01-01

    Plasma Prolactin (Prl) Zinc protoporphyrin (Zpp) and blood lead concentrations (PbB) were measured in 76 exposed male workers. All of them were employed in small (not more than 30 persons) pewter factories and were randomly selected from those regularly controlled by the National Health Service, Occupational Health Unit of Brescia (USSL 41). Although all plasma Prl values were within the normal range, the mean value of the subgroup having Zpp and PbB higher than 40 micrograms/dl was significantly higher (+47%) than that observed in the group of workers having Zpp and PbB less than 40 micrograms/dl. The data indicate the possibility of a lead-induced Prl secretion dysfunction, probably mediated by a decrease in dopaminergic inhibitory control. PMID:3598878

  7. mPGES-1 deletion potentiates urine concentrating capability after water deprivation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhanjun; Liu, Gang; Downton, Maicy; Dong, Zheng; Zhang, Aihua; Yang, Tianxin

    2012-04-15

    PGE(2) plays an important role in the regulation of fluid metabolism chiefly via antagonizing vasopressin-induced osmotic permeability in the distal nephron, but its enzymatic sources remain uncertain. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of microsomal PGE synthase (mPGES)-1 in the regulation of urine concentrating ability after water deprivation (WD). Following 24-h WD, wild-type (WT) mice exhibited a significant reduction in urine volume, accompanied by a significant elevation in urine osmolality compared with control groups. In contrast, in response to WD, mPGES-1 knockout (KO) mice had much less urine volume and higher urine osmolality. Analysis of plasma volume by measurement of hematocrit and by using a nanoparticle-based method consistently demonstrated that dehydrated WT mice were volume depleted, which was significantly improved in the KO mice. WD induced a twofold increase in urinary PGE(2) output in WT mice, which was completely blocked by mPGES-1 deletion. At baseline, the KO mice had a 20% increase in V(2) receptor mRNA expression in the renal medulla but not the cortex compared with WT controls; the expression was unaffected by WD irrespective of the genotype. In response to WD, renal medullary aquaporin-2 (AQP2) mRNA exhibited a 60% increase in WT mice, and this increase was greater in the KO mice. Immunoblotting demonstrated increased renal medullary AQP2 protein abundance in both genotypes following WD, with a greater increase in the KO mice. Similar results were obtained by using immunohistochemistry. Paradoxically, plasma AVP response to WD seen in WT mice was absent in the KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that mPGES-1-derived PGE(2) reduces urine concentrating ability through suppression of renal medullary expression of V(2) receptors and AQP2 but may enhance it by mediating the central AVP response. PMID:22237797

  8. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) gene deficiency impairs urine concentration in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shizheng; Gao, Min; Liu, Jia; Jia, Xiao; Han, Qifei; Zheng, Senfeng; Miao, Yifei; Li, Shuo; Weng, Haoyu; Xia, Xuan; Du, Shengnan; Wu, Wanfu; Gustafsson, Jan-ke; Guan, Youfei

    2014-02-11

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is mainly expressed in liver and small intestine, where it plays an important role in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. The kidney also has a high FXR expression level, with its physiological function unknown. Here we demonstrate that FXR is ubiquitously distributed in renal tubules. FXR agonist treatment significantly lowered urine volume and increased urine osmolality, whereas FXR knockout mice exhibited an impaired urine concentrating ability, which led to a polyuria phenotype. We further found that treatment of C57BL/6 mice with chenodeoxycholic acid, an FXR endogenous ligand, significantly up-regulated renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression, whereas FXR gene deficiency markedly reduced AQP2 expression levels in the kidney. In vitro studies showed that the AQP2 gene promoter contained a putative FXR response element site, which can be bound and activated by FXR, resulting in a significant increase of AQP2 transcription in cultured primary inner medullary collecting duct cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that FXR plays a critical role in the regulation of urine volume, and its activation increases urinary concentrating capacity mainly via up-regulating its target gene AQP2 expression in the collecting ducts. PMID:24464484

  9. Influence of storage conditions on aluminum concentrations in serum, dialysis fluid, urine, and tap water.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, M; Ohnesorge, F K

    1990-01-01

    The influence of storage temperature, vessel type, and treatment on alterations of aluminum (Al) concentrations in serum, urine, and dialysis fluid samples was studied at three different concentrations for each sample over an 18-month period. Furthermore, the influence of acidification on Al levels in tap water, urine, and dialysis fluid samples was studied over a four-month period. Al was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sample storage in glass vessels was unsuitable, whereas only minor alterations of Al levels were observed with storage in polypropylene tubes, polystyrene tubes, and Monovettes. By using appropriate plastic containers, acid washing of the vessels showed no improvement. Frozen storage was superior compared with 4 degrees C, whereas storage at -80 degrees C offered no advantage compared with storage at -20 degrees C. Acidification of tap water samples was necessary to stabilize Al levels during storage. No striking effect of acidification on Al levels in urine and dialysis fluid samples was found. It is concluded that longterm storage of serum, urine, tap water, and dialysis fluid samples is possible if appropriate conditions are used. PMID:2395338

  10. Mercury concentrations in urine, scalp hair, and saliva in children from Germany.

    PubMed

    Pesch, A; Wilhelm, M; Rostek, U; Schmitz, N; Weishoff-Houben, M; Ranft, U; Idel, H

    2002-07-01

    Mercury levels measured in urine, hair, and saliva of 245 German children (8-10 years old) are reported. Mercury concentrations in urine ranged between <0.1 and 5.3 microg/l [geometric mean (GM) 0.26 microg/l or 0.25 microg/g creatinine; median for both, 0.22 in microg/l and microg/g, respectively]. Using multiple linear regression analysis, two predictors have been found accounting for 25.3% of the variance of mercury levels in urine: the number of teeth with amalgam fillings (23.2%) and the number of defective amalgam fillings (2.1%). The mercury content in hair ranged from <0.06 to 1.7 microg/g (GM 0.18 microg/g; median 0.18 microg/g). The frequency of fish consumption, the smoking habits of the parents, and the age of the children accounted for 20.4% of the variance of mercury levels in hair. The correlation between the hair mercury content and urine mercury concentration was low (r=0.297). Mercury levels in saliva ranged between <0.32 and 4.5 microg/l (median 0.16 microg/l). The mercury concentration in saliva was below the limit of quantification of 0.32 microg/l in more than 70% of the samples. Mercury analysis in urine is suitable to estimate mercury exposure due to amalgam fillings, whereas hair mercury better reflects mercury intake by fish consumption. Up to now, saliva does not seem to be a suitable tool to monitor the mercury burden, at least not at low exposure levels. PMID:12087431

  11. [Methodological study on the determination of oxiracetam concentration in serum and urine by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Jiao, X L; Yu, D H; Zou, A Q; Lou, Y Q

    1994-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of oxiracetam concentration in serum and urine by HPLC. Acyclovir was used as an internal standard. The analytical column was a stainless-steel column (30 mm x 4.6 mm ID) filled with 10 microns Bondapak NH2. A mixture of acetonitrile and water (80: 20) as mobile phase was used at a flow rate of 1 ml.min-1. Detection was performed at 210 nm. The retention times were 6.3 min for oxiracetam and 8.1 min for the internal standard. The lower detection limits were 1 microgram.ml-1 for serum and 20 micrograms.ml-1 for urine. The precision and accuracy within-day and day-to-day for both serum and urine samples ranged from 5.0 to 10.7%. The mean recoveries were 99.7 +/- 5.9% and 99.0 +/- 5.6% for human serum and urine, respectively. The results showed that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive, reliable and good enough to be used in studying the clinical pharmacokinetics of oxiracetam. PMID:7985515

  12. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur

    2010-12-23

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

  13. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur

    2010-12-01

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.2360.677 kBq/L and 1.7040.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO4 addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 ?Sv/year and 0.532 ?Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 ?Sv/year.

  14. Mercury, lead and cadmium levels in the urine of 170 Spanish adults: a pilot human biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Castao, Argelia; Snchez-Rodrguez, Jinny E; Caas, Ana; Esteban, Marta; Navarro, Carmen; Rodrguez-Garca, Ana C; Arribas, Misericordia; Daz, Gema; Jimnez-Guerrero, Jos A

    2012-02-01

    Human biomonitoring is a well-recognized tool for estimating the exposure of human populations to environmental pollutants. However, information regarding biomarker concentrations of many environmental chemicals in the general population is limited for many countries. The Spanish Environment Ministry has recently funded a human biomonitoring study on the Spanish general population. This study aims to determine reference levels for several biomarkers, especially heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and cotinine, in urine, whole blood, serum and hair, and will involve 2000 volunteers throughout Spain. Samples were taken during 2009-2010 and analyses are currently underway. The results presented herein were obtained in a pilot study carried out in the Madrid region. The study group comprised 170 volunteers, of which 79% were female and 21% male (age: 23-66 years). All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding diet and living habits and provides a morning urine sample. The geometric means for total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were 1.23, 1.11 and 0.25 ?g/g creatinine, respectively. Levels of Pb and Hg were higher than those reported for the general population in the USA and Germany, whereas Cd was in the same range (CDC, 2009; Becker et al., 2003). The values reported here are similar to those reported in other Spanish studies. PMID:21968334

  15. Role of UTB urea transporters in the urine concentrating mechanism of the rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Layton, Anita T

    2007-04-01

    A mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney was used to investigate urine concentrating mechanism function in animals lacking the UTB urea transporter. The UTB transporter is believed to mediate countercurrent urea exchange between descending vasa recta (DVR) and ascending vasa recta (AVR) by facilitating urea transport across DVR endothelia. The model represents the outer medulla (OM) and inner medulla (IM), with the actions of the cortex incorporated via boundary conditions. Blood flow in the model vasculature is divided into plasma and red blood cell compartments. In the base-case model configuration tubular dimensions and transport parameters are based on, or estimated from, experimental measurements or immunohistochemical evidence in wild-type rats. The base-case model configuration generated an osmolality gradient along the cortico-medullary axis that is consistent with measurements from rats in a moderately antidiuretic state. When expression of UTB was eliminated in the model, model results indicated that, relative to wild-type, the OM cortico-medullary osmolality gradient and the net urea flow through the OM were little affected by absence of UTB transporter. However, because urea transfer from AVR to DVR was much reduced, urea trapping by countercurrent exchange was significantly compromised. Consequently, urine urea concentration and osmolality were decreased by 12% and 8.9% from base case, respectively, with most of the reduction attributable to the impaired IM concentrating mechanism. These results indicate that the in vivo urine concentrating defect in knockout mouse, reported by Yang et al. (J Biol Chem 277(12), 10633-10637, 2002), is not attributable to an OM concentrating mechanism defect, but that reduced urea trapping by long vasa recta plays a significant role in compromising the concentrating mechanism of the IM. Moreover, model results are in general agreement with the explanation of knockout renal function proposed by Yang et al. PMID:17265123

  16. Methamphetamine and Amphetamine Isomer Concentrations in Human Urine Following Controlled Vicks VapoInhaler Administration

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Nichols, Daniel C.; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A.; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A.; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2. Every urine specimen was collected as an individual void for 32 h after the first dose and assayed for d- and l-amphetamines specific isomers with a GC–MS method with >99% purity of R-(−)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl derivatives and 10 µg/L lower limits of quantification. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any urine specimen by GC–MS. The median l-methamphetamine maximum concentration was 62.8 µg/L (range: 11.0–1,440). Only two subjects had detectable l-amphetamine, with maximum concentrations coinciding with l-methamphetamine peak levels, and always ≤4% of the parent's maximum. Three commercial immunoassays for amphetamines EMIT® II Plus, KIMS® II and DRI® had sensitivities, specificities and efficiencies of 100, 97.8, 97.8; 100, 99.6, 99.6 and 100, 100, 100%, respectively. The immunoassays had high efficiencies, but our first hypothesis was not affirmed. The EMIT® II Plus assay produced 2.2% false-positive results, requiring an enantiomer-specific confirmation. PMID:25217541

  17. Specific gravity and creatinine as corrections for variation in urine concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys.

    PubMed

    White, Brent C; Jamison, Keri M; Grieb, Cassie; Lally, Drew; Luckett, Cloe; Kramer, Katie S; Phillips, Justin

    2010-12-01

    Hormones excreted in the urine are widely used to assess the physiological and psychological condition of unrestrained animals. In order to control for variation in the water concentration of urine samples, the hormone concentration is often indexed to the concentration of creatinine. Because there are several problems with using creatinine, we have investigated the efficacy of specific gravity as an alternative basis for adjusting the hormone concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys. In an experimental manipulation of human urine hydration, ten volunteers drank a water load proportional to body weight, and provided complete urine collection and saliva samples for four consecutive 20 min intervals. From the urine, we measured cortisol (radioimmunoassay), creatinine (colorimetric assay), and specific gravity (refractometer). Only cortisol was assayed from saliva. During 80 min following water ingestion, cortisol, creatinine, and specific gravity declined as urine became diluted; however, total cortisol excretion remained constant. Only cortisol concentration indexed to specific gravity accurately reflected the consistent cortisol excretion. Specific gravity and creatinine-corrected cortisol values were highly correlated but were significantly different. Salivary cortisol provided evidence for the relative stability of serum cortisol. To determine the utility of these corrections in other primates, we compared specific gravity- and creatinine-corrected cortisol in urine samples from captive gorillas (N=16) and woolly monkeys (N=8). As with the human study, the two corrections were strongly correlated in each species, but the means were different. Specific gravity correction was superior in revealing the circadian variation in cortisol. PMID:20648576

  18. Urine Concentrating Ability in Infants with Sickle Cell Disease: Baseline Data from the Phase III Trial of Hydroxyurea (BABY HUG)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Scott T.; Wang, Winfred C.; Iyer, Rathi; Rana, Sohail; Lane, Peter; Ware, Russell E.; Li, Daner; Rees, Renée C.

    2009-01-01

    Background A urine concentrating defect is quite common in sickle cell anemia, has its onset in early childhood, and may be reversible with transfusion. The Pediatric Hydroxyurea Phase III Clinical Trial (BABY HUG) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess efficacy of hydroxyurea in preventing organ damage in young children with sickle cell anemia. Procedures Enrolled infants were subjected to parent-supervised fluid deprivation and urine and serum osmolality were determined. Results Of 185 infants age 7.5 – 17.9 months (mean 13.0+/-2.7) and fluid-deprived 7.4+/-2.4 hours (range 4-13), 178 had concurrent determinations of urine and serum osmolality. Mean serum osmolality was 286+/-6 mOsm/kg H2O (range 275-312) and independent of age, height, weight, or duration of fluid deprivation. Urine osmolality (mean 407+/-151, range 58-794 mOsm/ kg H2O) was greater than serum (p<0.0001) and correlated with duration of fluid deprivation (p=0.001). Of 142 (77.2%) who concentrated urine, 54 (29.4%) had urine osmolality > 500 mOsm/kg H2O. Urine osmolality correlated with 99mTc-DTPA clearance (p=0.02) and serum urea nitrogen (p<0.0001), but not with serum osmolality, gender, age, height, weight or serum creatinine. Infants able to produce urine with osmolality > 500 mOsm/kg H2O had higher mean fetal hemoglobin concentrations than did those who could not (p=0.014). Conclusions Even with often limited fluid deprivation, 77.2 percent of young infants with sickle cell anemia were able to concentrate urine. Preservation of concentrating ability was associated with higher fetal hemoglobin concentration. Assessment will be repeated after two years of hydroxyurea or placebo treatment. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00006400.) PMID:19621454

  19. Normative concentrations of urine thiocyanate in cassava eating communities in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, O S A; Oludiran, A O

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to cyanide is a major public health problem where highly cyanogenic cassava foods are consumed. Thiocyanate (SCN), the biomarker of exposure to cyanide is present in several foods, and produced endogenously. Concentrations of urine SCN were measured in endemic and non-endemic areas of ataxic polyneuropathy in Nigeria. Cassava food consumption in the endemic area was twice that of non-endemic areas. Geometrical mean (95% CI) urine SCN was 20?mol/l (18-24) for no consumption of cassava foods, 56?mol/l (49-64) for daily consumption, 56?mol/l (48-65) for twice daily consumption and 85?mol/l (62-117) for thrice daily consumption. 95th percentile reference limit was 125?mol/l for no consumption of cassava food, but 360?mol/l for thrice daily consumption. Urine SCN is a useful biomarker of exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. There is strong ecological association of exposure to cyanide and endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy. PMID:23944969

  20. Regression models to estimate the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic and as such their exposure is of serious concern. Regression models to estimate the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites (?PAH) in urine were developed. Using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2003-2008 and 2011-2012, regression models were developed to estimate ?PAH in urine. The performance of the fitted models were computed by comparing percent predicted values located between 0 and 5%, 5-10%, 15-20% and >20% of the observed values. While data for 2003-2008 were used to fit the regression models, the data for 2011-2012 were solely used to evaluate the performance of the fitted models. R(2) of the fitted model was 94.7%. About 46% of the predicted values for the 2003-2008 data and over 48% of the predicted values for the 2011-2012 data were found to be between 0 and 10% of the observed values. In order to use these models, in addition to age, gender, and smoking status, and optionally race/ethnicity, the knowledge of the levels of only 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, and 9-hydroxyfluorene is necessary. Models that optionally require the knowledge of the levels of urine creatinine were also developed. PMID:26735733

  1. Paired Serum and Urine Concentrations of Biomarkers of Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Paraben, and Triclosan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Li, Qian; Lambertini, Luca; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservisi, Fabiana; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental chemicals, including phthalates and phenols such as parabens and triclosan, is ubiquitous within the U.S. general population. Objective This proof-of-concept rodent study examined the relationship between oral doses of three widely used personal care product ingredients [diethyl phthalate (DEP), methyl paraben (MPB), and triclosan] and urine and serum concentrations of their respective biomarkers. Methods Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we carried out two rounds of experiments with oral gavage doses selected in accordance with no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) derived from previous studies: 1,735 (DEP), 1,050 (MPB), 50 (triclosan) mg/kg/day. Administered doses ranged from 0.005 to 173 mg/kg/day, 10–100,000 times below the NOAEL for each chemical. Controls for the MPB and triclosan experiments were animals treated with olive oil (vehicle) only; controls for the DEP serum experiments were animals treated with the lowest doses of MPB and triclosan. Doses were administered for 5 days with five rats in each treatment group. Urine and blood serum, collected on the last day of exposure, were analyzed for biomarkers. Relationships between oral dose and biomarker concentrations were assessed using linear regression. Results Biomarkers were detected in all control urine samples at parts-per-billion levels, suggesting a low endemic environmental exposure to the three chemicals that could not be controlled even with all of the precautionary measures undertaken. Among the exposed animals, urinary concentrations of all three biomarkers were orders of magnitude higher than those in serum. A consistently positive linear relationship between oral dose and urinary concentration was observed (R2 > 0.80); this relationship was inconsistent in serum. Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of carefully considering the oral dose used in animal experiments and provides useful information in selecting doses for future studies. Citation Teitelbaum SL, Li Q, Lambertini L, Belpoggi F, Manservisi F, Falcioni L, Bua L, Silva MJ, Ye X, Calafat AM, Chen J. 2016. Paired serum and urine concentrations of biomarkers of diethyl phthalate, methyl paraben, and triclosan in rats. Environ Health Perspect 124:39–45; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409586 PMID:26047088

  2. Lead Concentrations in Inner-City Soils as a Factor in the Child Lead Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Howard W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Excess lead concentration (resulting primarily from vehicular emissions) in Baltimore's inner city soils probably has a bearing on that city's child lead poisoning problem. Soil lead concentrations were lower outside the inner city. (GC)

  3. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H C; Hurd, Yasmin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex-a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 C with 2,500 units ?-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x (2) weighting with linear ranges (r(2) > 0.990) of 2.5-100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5-500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7-105.3 %, imprecision 1.4-6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5-92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3-47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  4. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine

    PubMed Central

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H. C.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativexa cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 C with 2,500 units ?-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x2 weighting with linear ranges (r2>0.990) of 2.5100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7105.3 %, imprecision 1.46.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.592.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.347.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  5. Urine-concentrating defects exacerbate with age in male offspring with a low-nephron endowment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Reetu R; Denton, Kate M; Bertram, John F; Dowling, John; Moritz, Karen M

    2011-12-01

    Fetal uninephrectomy (uni-x) in male sheep at 100 days of gestation (term = 150 days) reduces overall nephron endowment without affecting birth weight. Offspring have a lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 6 mo of age. This study investigated whether this reduction in renal function was associated with impaired urine-concentrating ability at 6 mo of age and exacerbated with ageing (4 yr) and examined response to 1) nonpressor dose of exogenous arginine vasopressin (AVP; 0.2 ?gkg(-1)h(-1) iv) and 2) 30 h of water deprivation. Basal MAP was higher in uni-x animals at both ages, and became further elevated with age compared with the sham group (elevation in MAP with age; sham: ~4 mmHg, uni-x: 9 mmHg, P(group age) < 0.01). GFR declined with ageing in both groups with the decrease being greater with age in the uni-x group (further 26%, P(group age) < 0.001). In response to AVP infusion, urine osmolality increased in both treatment groups; this response was significantly lower in the uni-x animals and became further reduced with ageing. Uni-x animals had reduced renal expression of vasopressin-2 receptor and aquaporin-2 at both ages (P < 0.01). The increase in plasma AVP levels in response to dehydration was similar between the treatment groups, suggesting the urine-concentrating defect was associated with these renal gene changes rather than defects in AVP secretion. Renal insufficiency due to a low-nephron endowment increases the risk of hypertension and chronic renal disease and may incur greater vulnerability to physiological challenges such as water deprivation as observed in the uni-x animals. PMID:21921022

  6. Osmolality urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and urine concentration. Osmolality is a more exact measurement of urine concentration than the urine specific gravity ... slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  7. Benzonphenone-type UV filters in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, source and exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-08-01

    Benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters are commonly used in our daily life. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-3), 4-hydroxy benzophenone (4-HBP), 2,4-dihydroxy benzophenone (BP-1), 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxy benzophenone (BP-2) and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-8) were measured in urine samples from Chinese young adults. The results indicated that Chinese young adults were widely exposed to BP-3, BP-1, and 4-HBP, with the median concentrations of 0.55, 0.21, and 0.08 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was found between males and females, between urban and rural population. The correlations between urinary concentrations provided important indications for sources and metabolic pathways of target compounds. The estimated daily excretion doses of BP-3, 4-HBP, BP-1, BP-2 and BP-8 were 27.2, 2.24, 5.86, 0.76 and 0.30 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. The ratio of exposure to excretion must be considered for the exposure assessment with chemicals based on urine measurement. This is the first nationwide study on BP-derivatives with young adults in China. PMID:25841211

  8. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.

    PubMed

    Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. PMID:23867847

  9. Plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin following single subcutaneous administration to cats.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Manfred; Niedorf, Frank; Kramer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Marina; Schneider, Marc; Vallé, Marc; Pankow, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofoxacin, a third generation fluoroquinolone, were investigated in 12 healthy adult cats after single subcutaneous (SC) administration of 2 mg/kg BW (Part I, n=8 cats) and 4 mg/kg BW (Part II, n=4 cats). In each part of the study blood and urine samples were collected before treatment and thereafter for 5 days. The plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin were determined by HPLC with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed for each treated animal using an open one-compartment-model with first-order elimination after SC dosing. Marbofloxacin in plasma (means): Maximum concentrations (Cmax) of about 1.2 and 3.0 microg/ml were measured 2.3 and 4 hours (tmax) after dosing of 2 and 4 mg/kg BW, respectively. Elimination from the body was low with a total clearance (Cl/F) of approximately 0.1 l/h/kg for both dosages. The half-life (t 1/2) for this process was calculated with 8-10 hours. AUC increased almost proportional when doubling the dose, i.e., 19.77 +/- 6.25 microg * h/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 51.26 +/- 11.83 microg * h/ml (4 mg/kg BW). Plasma kinetics measured were in accordance with data from literature. Marbofloxacin in urine (means): Maximum drug concentrations were detected 4 and 8 hours after dosing with 70 microg/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 160 microg/ml (4 mg/kg BW), respectively. Inhibitory effects of the urinary matrix on the antimicrobial activity of the drug were taken into account when performing PK/PD calculations. However, a concentration-dependent bactericidal activity (Cmax/MIC > 8-10) which is claimed for fluoroquinolones was sufficiently met with focus on Escherichia (E.) coli (MIC90 0.5 microg/ml). In the same matrix a threshold value of 1.0 microg/ml was undercut 82 and 116 hours after SC dosing, respectively. Hence, a time-dependent bacteria killing kinetic (T > MIC) which may be of relevance for some Gram-positive germs like Staphylococcus spp. (MIC90 1.0 microg/ml) should be covered, too. PMID:21306059

  10. Acute changes in arginine vasopressin, sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations in exercising humans: does a coordinated homeostatic relationship exist?

    PubMed Central

    Hew-Butler, T; Noakes, T D; Soldin, S J; Verbalis, J G

    2013-01-01

    The parallel response of sweat rate and urine production to changes in plasma osmolality and volume support a role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) as the main endocrine regulator of both excretions. A maximal test to exhaustion and a steady-state run on a motorised treadmill were both completed by 10 moderately trained runners, 1 week apart. Sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations ([Na+]) were evaluated in association with the plasma concentrations of cytokines, neurohypophyseal and natriuretic peptides, and adrenal steroid hormones. When data from both the high-intensity and steady-state runs were combined, significant linear correlations were noted between: sweat [Na+] versus postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.80; p<0.001), postexercise serum [Na+] versus both postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.56; p<0.05) and sweat [Na+] (r = 0.64; p<0.01) and postexercise urine [Na+] versus postexercise plasma arginine vasopressin concentration ([AVP]P) (r = 0.48; p<0.05). A significant positive correlation was noted between postexercise [AVP]P and sweat [Na+] during the steady-state condition only (r = 0.66; p<0.05). These correlations suggest that changes in serum [Na+] during exercise may evoke corresponding changes in sweat and urine [Na+], which are likely regulated coordinately by changes in [AVP]P to preserve body fluid homeostasis. PMID:18801773

  11. A comparison of concentrations of lead in human tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Barry, P S

    1975-01-01

    This postmortem study of lead concentrations in the tissues of 129 subjects is an extension to a report by Barry and Mossman (1970). Lead concentrations in bone greatly exceeded the concentrations in soft tissues and were highest in the dense bones. Bone lead concentrations increased with age in both sexes, more especially in male subjects and in dense bone, varying between mean values of 2-16 ppm in the ribs of children to over 50 ppm in the dense petrous temporal bones of elderly male adults. Male adults contained over 30% more lead in their bones than females. Mean concentrations of lead in the soft tissues varied from less than 0-1 ppm in organs such as muscle and heart to over 2 ppm in the aorta. In most tissues with lead values in excess of 0-2 ppm the male concentrations exceeded female values by about 30%. With the exception of the aorta, spleen, lung, and prostate, lead concentrations did not increase with age in the soft tissues of either sex after about the second decade of life. Children showed concentrations of lead in their soft tissues comparable to female adults, but the concentrations in bone were much lower. It is suggested that children do not possess the same capacity as adults to retain lead in bone. In male adults occupationally exposed to lead the concentrations of lead in bone exceeded the concentrations in unexposed male adults within the same age group by two-to three-fold. Soft tissue lead concentrations between the two groups were less divergent. An assessment of the total body burden of lead revealed higher levels in adult male subjects than in females at mean values of 164-8 mg compared to 103-6 mg, respectively. Over 90% of the total body burden of lead in adults was in bone, of which over 70% was in dense bone. Male adults occupationally exposed to lead had mean total body burdens of 566-4 mg Pb, of which 97% was in bone. The release of lead from bone in conjunction with calcium was not considered to be of physiological significance. Lead concentrations of hair and nails were higher than soft tissue lead concentrations and varied widely. Hair lead measurements were not considered to provide a reliable assessment of lead absorption. The concentrations of lead in tissues of a mixed group of subjects with no known occupational exposure to lead have been shown to be comparable to the findings in earlier studies. Present levels of lead in the environment are not considered to be a hazard to the health of the population in general. PMID:1131339

  12. [Acute methoxetamine intoxication--a case report with serum and urine concentrations].

    PubMed

    ?ukasik-G?ebocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Tezyk, Artur; Zieli?ska-Psuja, Barbara; Druzdz, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE) is a novel synthetic drug, structurally related to phencyclidine, with ketamine-like properties. Available in Poland since 2010, with no legal control, is adverti. sed as the "ideal dissociation drug". The aim of this study was to present a case of nasal methoxetamine acute poisoning in a 28-year-old man, the course of treatment, and the method of identification of this substance in serum and urine. In the course of this intoxication extreme agitation and aggression with slight response to benzodiazepines were observed. The patient was confused, hallucinated. In addition, the physical examination re. vealed tachycardia 120/min and normal blood pressure (130/80 mm Hg). The period of acute poisoning was covered by amnesia. The MXE concentrations in serum and urine were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method, and were respectively 270 ng/ml and 660 ng/ml. Confirmed MXE poisoning increases our knowledge about this new substance, providing relevant clinical and analytical data. PMID:24466717

  13. Nickel concentrations in serum and urine of patients with nickel eczema.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J M; Kristiansen, J; Nielsen, N H; Menn, T; Byrialsen, K

    1999-09-01

    This study is a part of the Biological Risk Assessment of Human Metal Sensitisation (BRAHMS) project with the aim of elucidating clinical and physiological effects of repeated exposures to low concentrations of metal allergens. Nickel allergic individuals (n = 35) with hand eczema and healthy controls (n = 30) were included in the study. Both groups had similar levels of nickel in urine, while the level of nickel in serum was significantly lower in nickel allergic individuals compared to controls. Nickel allergic individuals had a significantly lower intake of nickel-rich food items (chocolate, nuts, beans, porridge oats). Serum nickel levels correlated with intake of these foods, suggesting that the difference in serum nickel levels was caused by differences in dietary nickel intake. PMID:10511261

  14. Use of a pre-analysis osmolality normalisation method to correct for variable urine concentrations and for improved metabolomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Chetwynd, Andrew J; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Holt, Stephen G; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-29

    Metabolomics analyses of urine have the potential to provide new information on the detection and progression of many disease processes. However, urine samples can vary significantly in total solute concentration and this presents a challenge to achieve high quality metabolomic datasets and the detection of biomarkers of disease or environmental exposures. This study investigated the efficacy of pre- and post-analysis normalisation methods to analyse metabolomic datasets obtained from neat and diluted urine samples from five individuals. Urine samples were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to metabolomic analyses using a sensitive nanoflow/nanospray LC-MS technique and the data analysed by principal component analyses (PCA). Post-analysis normalisation of the datasets to either creatinine or osmolality concentration, or to mass spectrum total signal (MSTS), revealed that sample discrimination was driven by the dilution factor of urine rather than the individual providing the sample. Normalisation of urine samples to equal osmolality concentration prior to LC-MS analysis resulted in clustering of the PCA scores plot according to sample source and significant improvements in the number of peaks common to samples of all three dilutions from each individual. In addition, the ability to identify discriminating markers, using orthogonal partial least squared-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), was greatly improved when pre-analysis normalisation to osmolality was compared with post-analysis normalisation to osmolality and non-normalised datasets. Further improvements for peak area repeatability were observed in some samples when the pre-analysis normalisation to osmolality was combined with a post-analysis mass spectrum total useful signal (MSTUS) or MSTS normalisation. Future adoption of such normalisation methods may reduce the variability in metabolomics analyses due to differing urine concentrations and improve the discovery of discriminating metabolites associated with sample source. PMID:26755417

  15. Phthalate metabolites in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, profile, exposure and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Ying; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to their applications in daily life. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 108 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites ranged from 71.3 to 2670ng/mL, with the geometric mean concentration of 306ng/mL. mBP and miBP were the two most abundant compounds, accounting for 48% of the total concentrations. Principal component analysis suggested two major sources of phthalates: one dominated by the DEHP metabolites and one by the group of mCPP, mBP and miBP metabolites. The estimated daily intakes of DMP, DEP, DBP, DiBP and DEHP were 1.68, 2.14, 4.12, 3.52 and 1.26-2.98?g/kg-bw/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, urinary concentration and body weight were the most influential variables for human exposure estimation. Furthermore, cumulative risk for hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were evaluated. Nearly half of Chinese young adults had high HI values exceeding the safe threshold. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure to urinary phthalate metabolites with Chinese young adults. PMID:26575634

  16. Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gomez Ramos, M J; Heffernan, A L; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-03-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from <0.5 to 775ng/mL for all other metabolites. Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures. PMID:26760715

  17. An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.

    PubMed

    Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead concentrations in hot sauces. PMID:23581685

  18. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  19. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

  20. Concentration of Selected Metals in Whole Blood, Plasma, and Urine in Short Stature and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Klatka, Maria; Błażewicz, Anna; Partyka, Małgorzata; Kołłątaj, Witold; Zienkiewicz, Ewa; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2015-08-01

    The short stature in children is defined as height below the third percentile from the mean for age and gender. This problem affects about 3% of young people. More than 20,000 children in Poland have problems with short stature. There is not much information available in the literature on the study of metals in blood, plasma, and urine in children with short stature. The study was conducted on a group of 56 short stature Polish children and 35 healthy children. The content of metals was determined using high-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods. The study revealed significant differences between the content of selected metals in body fluids between a short stature group and healthy children. There were significant differences in the Fe, Cu, and Ni concentrations between the groups with respect to the hormonal therapy. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the area where the children lived. The results showed no statistically significant differences between metal concentration and age, body weight, and height. The study demonstrated statistically significant differences between the content of metals in body fluids in short stature children compared with the healthy children. It seems that the difference in the concentration of certain elements may also be the result of growth hormone therapy and the interaction between various metals. Both the alterations in the content of metals and their mutual interactions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of short stature children. PMID:25855373

  1. Evaluation of Urine Aquaporin 1 and Perilipin 2 Concentrations as Biomarkers to Screen for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Jeremiah J.; Mellnick, Vincent M.; Luo, Jinquin; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Figenshau, R. Sherburne; Bhayani, Sam; Kharasch, Evan D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Early detection of small asymptomatic kidney tumors presages better patient outcome. Incidental discovery of asymptomatic renal tumors by abdominal imaging is expensive and cannot reliably distinguish benign from malignant tumors. OBJECTIVE This investigation evaluated the clinical utility, sensitivity and specificity of urine aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and perilipin-2 (PLIN2) concentrations as unique noninvasive biomarkers to diagnose malignant clear cell or papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in a screening paradigm. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Urine samples were obtained from 720 patients undergoing routine abdominal CT (screening population), 80 healthy controls and 19 patients with pathologically confirmed RCC. Urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations were measured by sensitive and specific ELISA and Western blot procedures, respectively. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES AQP1 and PLIN2 were measured prospectively in a screening paradigm in an otherwise asymptomatic population. The absence or presence of a renal mass and of RCC, were verified by abdominal computed tomography (CT) and by post-nephrectomy pathologic diagnosis, respectively. RESULTS Median urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations in patients with known RCC were more than 12-fold higher (P<0.0001 each) than controls and the screening population. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for urine AQP1 and PLIN2 concentrations individually or in combination was ≥0.92, with ≥85% sensitivity and ≥87% specificity compared with control or screening patients. Three of the 720 screening patients had biomarker concentrations suggestive of RCC and were found to have an imaged renal mass by CT. Two patients, evaluated further, had RCC. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These results demonstrate the clinical utility, specificity and sensitivity of urine AQP1 and PLIN2 to diagnose RCC. These novel tumor-specific proteins have high clinical validity and substantial potential as specific diagnostic and screening biomarkers for clear cell and papillary RCC, and in the differential diagnosis of imaged renal masses. PMID:26181025

  2. Automatic On-line Solid-phase Extraction-Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Exploiting Sequential Injection Analysis for Trace Vanadium, Cadmium and Lead Determination in Human Urine Samples.

    PubMed

    Giakisikli, Georgia; Ayala Quezada, Alejandro; Tanaka, Junpei; Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Murakami, Hiroya; Teshima, Norio; Sakai, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated sequential injection column preconcentration method for the on-line determination of trace vanadium, cadmium and lead in urine samples was successfully developed, utilizing electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Polyamino-polycarboxylic acid chelating resin (Nobias chelate PA-1) packed into a handmade minicolumn was used as a sorbent material. Effective on-line retention of chelate complexes of analytes was achieved at pH 6.0, while the highest elution effectiveness was observed with 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 in the reverse phase. Several analytical parameters, like the sample acidity, concentration and volume of the eluent as well as the loading/elution flow rates, have been studied, regarding the efficiency of the method, providing appropriate conditions for the analysis of real samples. For a 4.5 mL sample volume, the sampling frequency was 27 h(-1). The detection limits were found to be 3.0, 0.06 and 2.0 ng L(-1) for V(V), Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, with the relative standard deviations ranging between 1.9 - 3.7%. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing a certified reference material (Seronorm(TM) trace elements urine) and spiked urine samples. PMID:25958867

  3. Comparison of lead bioavailability in F344 rats fed lead acetate, lead oxide, lead sulfide, or lead ore concentrate from Skagway, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dieter, M.P.; Matthews, H.B. ); Jeffcoat, R.A. ); Moseman, R.F. )

    1993-01-01

    An animal model using rats was developed to initiate investigations on the bioavailability of different sources of environmental lead. Lead must be absorbed and transported to target organs like brain, liver, kidney, and bone, before susceptible cells can be harmed. The bioavailability and therefore the toxicity of lead are dependent upon the route of exposure, dose, chemical structure solubility, particle size, matrix incorporation, and other physiological and physicochemical factors. In the present study male F344 rats were fed [<=] 38 [mu]m size particles of lead sulfide, lead oxide, lead acetate, and a lead ore concentrate from Skagway, Alaska, mixed into the diet at doses of 0, 10, 30, an 100 ppm as lead for 30 d. No morality or overt symptoms of lead toxicity were observed during the course of the study. Maximum blood lead concentrations attained in the 100 ppm groups were [approximately]80 [mu]g/dl in rats fed lead acetate and lead oxide and were [approximately]10 [mu]g/dl in those fed lead sulfide and lead ore concentrate. Maximum bone lead levels in rats fed soluble lead oxide and lead acetate were much higher ([approximately] 200 [mu]g/g) that those seen in rats fed the less soluble lead sulfide and lead ore ([approximately]10 [mu]g); kidney lead concentrations were also about 10-fold greater in rats fed the more soluble compared to the less soluble lead compounds. However, strong correlations between dose and tissue lead concentrations were observed in rats fed each of the four different lead compounds. Kidney lesions graded as minimal occurred in 7/10 rats fed 30 ppm and in 10/10 rats fed 100 ppm lead acetate, but not at lower doses or from other lead compounds. Similarly, urinary aminolevulinic acid excretion, a biomarker for lead toxicity, was increased in rats fed 100 ppm lead acetate or lead oxide, but was unaffected at lower doses or by the less soluble lead compounds. 25 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Delayed behavioral toxicity of lead with increasing exposure concentration.

    PubMed

    Cory-Slechta, D A; Weiss, B; Cox, C

    1983-12-01

    Twenty-one-day-old male Long-Evans hooded rats were exposed chronically to drinking solutions containing 500 ppm sodium acetate (controls) or 50, 100, or 500 ppm lead acetate. Performance on a fixed interval 1-min schedule of food reinforcement was assessed over 155 sessions. Blood lead values were monitored serially and brain lead determinations made at the end of testing (335 days of lead exposure). The lowest concentration of lead in the drinking water was associated with increases in the rate of fixed-interval responding over the first 30 sessions. At the two higher concentrations, response rate values similar to controls over the first 40 sessions were followed by rate increases. The latency to maximum rate depended on concentration; the highest concentration was associated with the longest latency. Response rates of rats exposed to 50 ppm lead gradually returned to control levels after 120 sessions, while increased rates were sustained in rats at 100 and 500 ppm lead, even 100 days after lead exposure was terminated. Marked individual differences in susceptibility to lead-induced rate increases were observed in all treatment lead values also reflected exposure concentrations. Blood-brain ratios averaged 0.743 to 0.913, which agree with other data for the rat and human. These results confirm the vulnerability to lead of rats beyond the neonatal period, and extend the range of conditions under which such effects occur. PMID:6658785

  5. Impacts of nitric oxide and superoxide on renal medullary oxygen transport and urine concentration.

    PubMed

    Fry, Brendan C; Edwards, Aurlie; Layton, Anita T

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the reciprocal interactions among oxygen (O2), nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide (O2 (-)) and their effects on medullary oxygenation and urinary output. To accomplish that goal, we developed a detailed mathematical model of solute transport in the renal medulla of the rat kidney. The model represents the radial organization of the renal tubules and vessels, which centers around the vascular bundles in the outer medulla and around clusters of collecting ducts in the inner medulla. Model simulations yield significant radial gradients in interstitial fluid oxygen tension (Po2) and NO and O2 (-) concentration in the OM and upper IM. In the deep inner medulla, interstitial fluid concentrations become much more homogeneous, as the radial organization of tubules and vessels is not distinguishable. The model further predicts that due to the nonlinear interactions among O2, NO, and O2 (-), the effects of NO and O2 (-) on sodium transport, osmolality, and medullary oxygenation cannot be gleaned by considering each solute's effect in isolation. An additional simulation suggests that a sufficiently large reduction in tubular transport efficiency may be the key contributing factor, more so than oxidative stress alone, to hypertension-induced medullary hypoxia. Moreover, model predictions suggest that urine Po2 could serve as a biomarker for medullary hypoxia and a predictor of the risk for hospital-acquired acute kidney injury. PMID:25651567

  6. Architecture of vasa recta in the renal inner medulla of the desert rodent Dipodomys merriami: potential impact on the urine concentrating mechanism.

    PubMed

    Issaian, Tadeh; Urity, Vinoo B; Dantzler, William H; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2012-10-01

    We hypothesize that the inner medulla of the kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami, a desert rodent that concentrates its urine to over 6,000 mosmol/kg H(2)O, provides unique examples of architectural features necessary for production of highly concentrated urine. To investigate this architecture, inner medullary vascular segments in the outer inner medulla were assessed with immunofluorescence and digital reconstructions from tissue sections. Descending vasa recta (DVR) expressing the urea transporter UT-B and the water channel aquaporin 1 lie at the periphery of groups of collecting ducts (CDs) that coalesce in their descent through the inner medulla. Ascending vasa recta (AVR) lie inside and outside groups of CDs. DVR peel away from vascular bundles at a uniform rate as they descend the inner medulla, and feed into networks of AVR that are associated with organized clusters of CDs. These AVR form interstitial nodal spaces, with each space composed of a single CD, two AVR, and one or more ascending thin limbs or prebend segments, an architecture that may lead to solute compartmentation and fluid fluxes essential to the urine concentrating mechanism. Although we have identified several apparent differences, the tubulovascular architecture of the kangaroo rat inner medulla is remarkably similar to that of the Munich Wistar rat at the level of our analyses. More detailed studies are required for identifying interspecies functional differences. PMID:22914749

  7. Relationship between the lead concentration in hair and occupational exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Niculescu, T; Dumitru, R; Botha, V; Alexandrescu, R; Manolescu, N

    1983-01-01

    The lead content of hair in workers occupationally exposed was correlated with the blood lead concentration. Determinations of lead in blood and hair were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in two exposed groups and a control group. A significant correlation was observed between the blood lead and hair lead concentrations, and a regression analysis showed an exponential accumulation of the lead content in hair, simultaneously with the increase of the values in blood. The colour of the hair and the age of the subject did not influence the lead accumulation in hair in the occupationally exposed subjects. The assessment of lead in hair is considered a useful screening test in estimating occupational exposure. Images PMID:6824602

  8. Evidence of Genetic Effects on Blood Lead Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, John B.; Dy, Veronica; McQuilty, Robert; Zhu, Gu; Montgomery, Grant W.; Ferreira, Manuel A.R.; Duffy, David L.; Neale, Michael C.; Heijmans, Bas T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Lead is an environmental pollutant that causes acute and chronic toxicity. Surveys have related mean blood lead concentrations to exogenous sources, including industrial activity, use of lead-based paints, or traffic density. However, there has been little investigation of individual differences in lead absorption, distribution, or toxicity, or of genetic causes of such variation. Objectives We assessed the genetic contribution to variation in blood lead concentration in adults and conducted a preliminary search for genes producing such variation. Methods Erythrocyte lead concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in venous blood samples from 2,926 Australian adult male and female twins. Mean lead concentrations were compared by place of residence, social class and education, and by the subjects age, sex, alcohol intake, smoking habits, iron status, and HFE genotype. Results After adjustment for these covariates, there was strong evidence of genetic effects but not for shared environmental effects persisting into adult life. Linkage analysis showed suggestive evidence (logarithm of odds = 2.63, genome-wide p = 0.170) for a quantitative trait locus affecting blood lead values on chromosome 3 with the linkage peak close to SLC4A7, a gene whose product affects lead transport. Conclusions We conclude that genetic variation plays a significant role in determining lead absorption, lead distribution within the body, or both. PMID:17687451

  9. The Concentration of Free and Conjugated 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid in the Urine of Bladder Tumour Patients Before and After Therapy, Measured with an Enzymatic Method

    PubMed Central

    Teulings, F. A. G.; Fokkens, W.; Kaalen, J. G. A. H.; van der Werf-Messing, B.

    1973-01-01

    The basal concentration of the tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3OHA), which has carcinogenic properties, was measured with an enzymatic method of determination which allowed separate measurement of free and conjugated 3OHA. The concentration of free 3OHA in untreated bladder cancer patients was significantly (P <0001) higher than in a healthy control group, but after local therapy the concentration was significantly lower than before treatment (P <001). The concentration of conjugated 3OHA was nearly constant in the three groups. It was concluded that other factors than a genetic determined abnormality might be operating in bladder cancer patients which could lead to an abnormal concentration of 3OHA in their urine. PMID:4701704

  10. Plasma and urine dimercaptopropanesulfonate concentrations after dermal application of transdermal DMPS (TD-DMPS).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jennifer P; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Curry, Steven C; Biswas, Kallol; Westenberger, Benjamin; Ye, Wei; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Lovecchio, Frank; Burkhart, Keith; Samia, Nasr

    2013-03-01

    2,3-Dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) is a metal chelator approved in Europe for oral or intravenous use for heavy metal poisoning. Transdermally applied DMPS (TD-DMPS) is used by some alternative practitioners to treat autism, despite the absence of evidence for its efficacy. We found no literature evaluating the pharmacokinetics of the transdermal route of delivery or the ability of TD-DMPS to enhance urinary mercury elimination. We hypothesized that TD-DMPS is not absorbed. Eight adult volunteers underwent application of 1.5-3 drops/kg of TD-DMPS. Subjects provided 12-h urine collections the day before and day of application. Subjects underwent blood draws at 0, 30, 60,90, 120, and 240 min after TD-DMPS application. Plasma and urine were assayed for the presence of DMPS. Urine was assayed for any change in urinary mercury excretion after DMPS. One control subject ingested 250 mg of oral DMPS and underwent the same urine and blood collections and analyses. No subject had detectable urine DMPS or increased urine mercury excretion after TD-DMPS. One subject had detectable levels of DMPS in the 30-min plasma sample, suspected to be contamination. All other samples for that subject and the other seven subjects showed no detectable plasma DMPS. The control subject had detectable urine and plasma DMPS levels and increased urine mercury excretion. These results indicate that TD-DMPS is not absorbed. There was no increase in urine mercury excretion after TD-DMPS. Our results argue that TD-DMPS is an ineffective metal chelator. PMID:23143832

  11. Cathepsin D serum and urine concentration in superficial and invasive transitional bladder cancer as determined by surface plasmon resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    GORODKIEWICZ, EWA; GUSZCZ, TOMASZ; ROSZKOWSKA-JAKIMIEC, WIESLAWA; KOZ?OWSKI, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Determination of cathepsin D (Cat D) concentration in serum and urine may be useful in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The present study included 54 healthy patients and 68 patients with bladder cancer, confirmed by transurethral resection or cystectomy. Cat D concentration was determined using a surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensor. Cat D concentration in the serum of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.35.59 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.280.52 ng/ml. In urine, the Cat D concentration of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.357.14 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.320.68 ng/ml. Cat D concentration may represent an efficient tumor marker, as its concentration in the serum and urine of transitional cell carcinoma patients is extremely high when compared with healthy subjects. PMID:25120717

  12. Evaluation of the BinaxNOW Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test on fresh, frozen and concentrated urine samples in elderly patients with and without community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Saukkoriipi, Annika; Pascal, Thierry; Palmu, Arto A

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the BinaxNOW urine antigen test in elderly. For fresh un-concentrated urine samples, the sensitivity for pneumococcal pneumonia was 63% and specificity 97%. After freezing and concentration, the results comparable to positive control line in intensity at 60min gave high sensitivity (81%) with no loss in specificity (96%). PMID:26684855

  13. Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Busard, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20C, 4C and 20C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20C compared to -20C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20C, 4C and 20C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

  14. Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in bus drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.S.; Osterloh, J.; Becker, C.E.; Bernard, B.; Smith, A.H.; Fisher, J.M.; Syme, S.L.; Holman, B.L.; Johnston, T.

    1988-06-01

    San Francisco bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in 342 drivers. The analysis reported in this study was limited to subjects not on treatment for hypertension (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic pressure varied from 102 to 173 mm Hg and from 61 to 105 mm Hg, respectively. The blood lead concentration varied from 2 to 15 ..mu..g/dL. The relationship between blood pressure and the logarithm of blood lead concentration was examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The largest regression coefficient relating systolic blood pressure and blood lead concentration was 1.8 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). The coefficient for diastolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). These findings suggest effects of lead exposure at lower blood lead concentrations than those concentrations that have previously been linked with increases in blood pressure.

  15. Correlation between petrol lead additive consumption and atmospheric lead concentrations in Perth, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, B. H.; Cameron, I.; Martin, D. J.

    The impact of unleaded petrol (ULP), and the variation in lead (Pb) content of leaded petrol (LP), on air quality in Perth, Western Australia, has been assessed using correlations between atmospheric Pb concentrations and petrol Pb consumption figures for the period 1982-1987 during which ULP was introduced in 1985. The study underlines the importance of taking into account the variability in the Pb content of LP when predicting atmospheric lead concentrations from petrol consumption data.

  16. Stable lead isotopes reveal a natural source of high lead concentrations to gasoline-contaminated groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.; Bullen, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of total lead as high as 1,600 ??g/L were detected in gasoline-contaminated and uncontaminated groundwater at three gasoline-release sites in South Carolina. Total lead concentrations were highest in turbid groundwater samples from gasoline-contaminated and uncontaminated wells, whereas lower turbidity groundwater samples (collected using low-flow methods) had lower total lead concentrations. Dissolved lead concentrations in all wells sampled, however, were less than 15 ??g total lead/L, the current United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL). Because many total lead concentrations exceeded the MCL, the source of lead to the groundwater system at two of the three sites was investigated using a stable lead isotope ratio approach. Plots of the stable isotope ratios of lead (Pb) in groundwater as 207Pb/206Pb versus 208Pb/206Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb versus 206Pb/204Pb were similar to ratios characteristic of lead-based minerals in local rocks of the southeastern US, and were not similar to the stable lead isotopes ratios characteristic of distant lead ore deposits such as Broken Hill, Australia, used to produce tetraethyl lead in gasoline products prior to its phase-out and ban in the United States. Moreover, the isotopic composition of dissolved lead was equivalent to the isotopic composition of total lead in turbid samples collected from the same well, suggesting that the majority of the lead detected in the groundwater samples was associated with sediment particulates of indigenous aquifer material, rather than lead associated with spilled leaded gasoline. The results of this investigation indicate that (1) lead detected at some gasoline-release sites may be derived from the local aquifer material, rather than the gasoline release, and consequently may affect site-specific remediation goals; (2) non-low flow groundwater sampling methods, such as a disposable bailer, may result in turbid groundwater samples and high total lead concentrations, and; (3) stable lead isotopes can be used to clarify the source of lead detected above permissible levels in gasoline-contaminated groundwater systems.

  17. Lead concentrations of herbs used in Van Herby cheese.

    PubMed

    Tuncturk, Murat; Tuncturk, Ruveyde; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Ertus, Mehmet M; Ozgokce, Fevzi

    2011-10-01

    Van Herby Cheese is a traditional milk product including local herb species in eastern Turkey. This special milk product was previously produced only for the local market, but industrial scale production and marketing have recently started in the region. However, some quality characteristics such as microbial flora and heavy metal concentrations of this novel product need to be investigated. In this study, lead concentrations of 28 different herbs mostly used in Van Herby Cheese were analyzed by AAS. The highest lead concentration of 1.69 mg kg(-1) of the analyzed herbs was found in Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia. PMID:22164786

  18. Taurine concentrations in plasma, blood cells, and urine of children undergoing long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Vinton, N E; Laidlaw, S A; Ament, M E; Kopple, J D

    1987-04-01

    Taurine concentrations in plasma, platelets, lymphocytes, granulocytes, erythrocytes, and urine were measured in 19 children who were undergoing long-term home parenteral nutrition for 27.4 +/- 7.1 (SEM) months. The parenteral solutions contained methionine, but not taurine or cysteine. The patients' plasma, platelet, and urine taurine concentrations were significantly reduced to 54, 48, and 16%, respectively, of the values from normal children of similar ages. The most significant reductions in plasma and platelet taurine concentrations were observed in the children who were estimated to absorb less than 5% of their daily calorie needs from the enteral tract. Lymphocyte and erythrocyte taurine levels tended to be lower but were not significantly different from those in normal children. The patients' plasma methionine and cystine levels were not different from normal. There was a direct correlation between plasma and platelet taurine concentrations and between plasma and urine taurine. Both plasma and platelet taurine tended to be directly correlated with age and, after the 1st yr of total parenteral nutrition, with the duration of total parenteral nutrition therapy. PMID:3106924

  19. Hypochlorite adulteration of urine causing decreased concentration of delta 9-THC-COOH by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Baiker, C; Serrano, L; Lindner, B

    1994-01-01

    Marijuana is confirmed and quantitated in urine as 11-nor-delta 9-THC-9-COOH by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring mode after extraction from urine. The addition of varying amounts of household bleach causes significant decreases in the quantitated amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Urine samples containing various known amounts of THC (25-219 ng/mL) were spiked with increasing amounts of household bleach (0-64 microL/mL of urine). The samples were extracted using a solid-phase extraction procedure, derivatized, and analyzed by GC/MS. The area counts for the deuterated internal standard versus the native drug, as well as the quantitation for the various spiked samples, were compared with those of the non-adulterated samples. The results demonstrated that there was an inverse relationship between the amount of bleach used and the amount of THC recovered. The area counts for both the deuterated and native THC decreased as the amount of bleach increased. There appeared to be a consistent decrease in the ratio of native to deuterated THC, suggesting that the bleach affected the native drug more than the deuterated compound. The same decrease in THC concentrations were noted when the samples were assayed by an RIA methodology (Roche Abuscreen) as well as by an FPIA assay (Abbott TDx). PMID:8207929

  20. Blood and urine fluoride concentrations associated with topical fluoride applications on dog gingiva

    SciTech Connect

    Hock, J.; Gerber, C.; Rheaume, M.; Hellden, L.

    1981-08-01

    The circulatory uptake and urinary excretion of topical fluoride were investigated by applying a sodium fluoride solution containing /sub 18/F for six min to healthy gingiva of four adult dogs. Blood and urine samples were taken a regular intervals. Maximal fluoride in blood represented 0.02-0.05% of the applied dose and occurred four min after completion of the application. By 6.0 h, 0.02-0.06% of the applied dose had been excreted in urine. Preliminary data showed that this represented about 8.8% of the fluoride absorbed through the gingiva.

  1. Nephron-specific deletion of the prorenin receptor causes a urine concentration defect.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Nirupama; Stuart, Deborah; Calquin, Matias; Quadri, Syed; Wang, Shuping; Van Hoek, Alfred N; Siragy, Helmy M; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Kohan, Donald E

    2015-07-01

    The prorenin receptor (PRR), a recently discovered component of the renin-angiotensin system, is expressed in the nephron in general and the collecting duct in particular. However, the physiological significance of nephron PRR remains unclear, partly due to developmental abnormalities associated with global or renal-specific PRR gene knockout (KO). Therefore, we developed mice with inducible nephron-wide PRR deletion using Pax8-reverse tetracycline transactivator and LC-1 transgenes and loxP flanked PRR alleles such that ablation of PRR occurs in adulthood, after induction with doxycycline. Nephron-specific PRR KO mice have normal survival to ?1 yr of age and no renal histological defects. Compared with control mice, PRR KO mice had 65% lower medullary PRR mRNA and protein levels and markedly diminished renal PRR immunofluorescence. During both normal water intake and mild water restriction, PRR KO mice had significantly lower urine osmolality, higher water intake, and higher urine volume compared with control mice. No differences were seen in urine vasopressin excretion, urine Na(+) and K(+) excretion, plasma Na(+), or plasma osmolality between the two groups. However, PRR KO mice had reduced medullary aquaporin-2 levels and arginine vasopressin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in the isolated renal medulla compared with control mice. Taken together, these results suggest nephron PRR can potentially modulate renal water excretion. PMID:25995108

  2. Ammonia volatilization from artificial dung and urine patches measured by the equilibrium concentration technique (JTI method)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarijrvi, K.; Mattila, P. K.; Virkajrvi, P.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of ammonia (NH 3) volatilization from intensively managed pastures on a soil type typical of the dairy production area in Finland and to clarify the effect of rainfall on NH 3 volatilization. The study included two experiments. In Experiment 1 the total amount of NH 3-N emitted was calculated based on the annual surface coverage of dung (4%) and urine (17%). The application rate of total N in the simulated dung and urine patches was approximately 47 g N m -2 and 113 g N m -2, respectively. In Experiment 1 the general level of NH 3 emissions from the urine patches was high and the peak volatilization rate was 0.54 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1. As expected, emissions from the dung pats were clearly lower with a maximum rate of 0.10 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1. The total emission calculated for the whole pasture area (stocking rate four cows ha -1 y -1, urine coverage 17% and dung coverage 4%) was 16.1 kg NH 3-N ha -1. Approximately 96% of the total emission originated from urine. In Experiment 2 we measured the emissions from urine only and the treatments on the urine patches were: (1) no irrigation, (2) 5+5 mm and (3) 20 mm irrigation. The peak emission rates were 0.13, 0.09 and 0.04 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1 and the total emissions were 6.9, 3.0 and 1.7 kg NH 3-N ha -1, for treatments (1), (2) and (3), respectively. In both measurements over 80% of the total emission occurred during the first 48 h and there was a clear diurnal rhythm. Increasing rainfall markedly decreased NH 3 emission. Volatilization was highest with dry and warm soil. The JTI method appeared to be suitable for measuring NH 3 volatilization in this kind of experiment. According to our results, the importance of pastures as a source of NH 3 emission in Finland is minor.

  3. Factors associated with blood lead concentrations of children in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Loveland, Katherine A; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal known to be detrimental to neurologic, physiologic, and behavioral health of children. Previous studies from Jamaica reported that mean lead levels in soil are four times that of lead levels in some other parts of the world. Other studies detected lead levels in fruits and root vegetables, which were grown in areas with lead contaminated soil. In this study, we investigate environmental factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The participants in this study comprised 125 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2-8 years) who served as controls in an age- and sex-matched case-control study that enrolled children from 2009-2012 in Jamaica. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as potential exposures to lead through food. Using General Linear Models (GLMs), we identified factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The geometric mean blood lead concentration (GMBLC) in the sample of children in this study was 2.80 ?g dL(-1). In univariable GLM analyses, GMBLC was higher for children whose parents did not have education beyond high school compared to those whose parents had attained this level (3.00 ?g dL(-1) vs. 2.31 ?g dL(-1); P = 0.05), children living near a high traffic road compared to those who did not (3.43 ?g dL(-1) vs. 2.52 ?g dL(-1); P < 0.01), and children who reported eating ackee compared to those who did not eat this fruit (2.89 ?g dL(-1) vs. 1.65 ?g dL(-1); P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, living near a high traffic road was identified as an independent risk factor for higher adjusted GMBLC (3.05 ?g dL(-1) vs. 2.19 ?g dL(-1); P = 0.01). While our findings indicate that GMBLC in Jamaican children has dropped by at least 62% during the past two decades, children living in Jamaica still have GMBLC that is twice that of children in more developed countries. In addition, we have identified significant risk factors for higher blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. We believe increasing awareness among parents regarding these risk factors could potentially lead to a lower level of lead exposure in Jamaican children. PMID:25837555

  4. Factors associated with blood lead concentrations of children in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    RAHBAR, MOHAMMAD H.; SAMMS-VAUGHAN, MAUREEN; DICKERSON, AISHA S.; LOVELAND, KATHERINE A.; ARDJOMAND-HESSABI, MANOUCHEHR; BRESSLER, JAN; SHAKESPEARE-PELLINGTON, SYDONNIE; GROVE, MEGAN L.; BOERWINKLE, ERIC

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal known to be detrimental to neurologic, physiologic, and behavioral health of children. Previous studies from Jamaica reported that mean lead levels in soil are four times that of lead levels in some other parts of the world. Other studies detected lead levels in fruits and root vegetables, which were grown in areas with lead contaminated soil. In this study, we investigate environmental factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The participants in this study comprised 125 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2–8 years) who served as controls in an age- and sex-matched case-control study that enrolled children from 2009 – 2012 in Jamaica. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as potential exposures to lead through food. Using General Linear Models (GLMs), we identified factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The geometric mean blood lead concentration (GMBLC) in the sample of children in this study was 2.80 μg/dL. In univariable GLM analyses, GMBLC was higher for children whose parents did not have education beyond high school compared to those whose parents had attained this level (3.00 μg/dL vs. 2.31 μg/dL; P = 0.05), children living near a high traffic road compared to those who did not (3.43 μg/dL vs. 2.52 μg/dL; P < 0.01), and children who reported eating ackee compared to those who did not eat this fruit (2.89 μg/dL vs. 1.65 μg/dL; P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, living near a high traffic road was identified as an independent risk factor for higher adjusted GMBLC (3.05 μg/dL vs. 2.19 μg/dL; P = 0.01). While our findings indicate that GMBLC in Jamaican children has dropped by at least 62% during the past two decades, children living in Jamaica still have GMBLC that is twice that of children in more developed countries. In addition, we have identified significant risk factors for higher blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. We believe increasing awareness among parents regarding these risk factors could potentially lead to a lower level of lead exposure in Jamaican children. PMID:25837555

  5. Dietary intake of lead and blood lead concentration in early infancy

    SciTech Connect

    Rye, J.E.; Ziegler, E.E.; Nelson, S.E.; Fomon, S.J.

    1983-09-01

    Under circumstances of low prenatal exposure to lead and low nondietary exposure to lead postnatally, four breast-fed infants and 25 formula-fed infants were studied to determine the relation between dietary intake of lead and blood lead concentration. From 8 through 111 days of age, the mean dietary intake of lead by the formula-fed infants was 17 micrograms/day (3 to 4 micrograms/kg/day), and intake of lead by the breast-fed infants was estimated to be only slightly greater. The mean blood lead concentration at the age of 112 days was 6.1 micrograms/dL. From 112 through 195 days of age, 17 infants continued in the study: ten received a mean dietary intake of lead of 16 micrograms/day, and seven received a mean intake of 61 micrograms/day. At 196 days of age, mean blood lead concentrations were significantly different (7.2 and 14.4 micrograms/dL, respectively).

  6. Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. [to combat orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary A.; Riddle, Jeanne; Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    To compensate for the reduced blood and fluid volumes that develop during weightlessness, the Space Shuttle crewmembers consume salt tablets and water equivalent to 1 l of normal saline, about 2 hrs before landing. This paper compares the effects on blood, urine, and cardiovascular variables of the ingestion of 1 l of normal (0.9 percent) saline with the effects of distilled water, 1 percent glucose, 0.74 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, 0.9 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, and 1.07 percent saline. It was found that the expansion of plasma volume and the concentration of urine were greater 4 hrs after ingestion of 1.07 percent saline solution than after ingestion of normal saline and that the solutions containig glucose did not enhance any variables as compared with normal saline.

  7. Identifying sources of lead exposure for children, with lead concentrations and isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Glorennec, P; Peyr, C; Poupon, J; Oulhote, Y; Le Bot, B

    2010-05-01

    Despite a dramatic decrease in children's blood lead levels (BLL), lead exposure remains a public health concern because increasing evidence shows effects at very low doses. Lowering BLL still further requires the identification of lead sources and, therefore, new tools to investigate and thus prevent exposure. We describe a procedure that uses both lead concentrations and isotope ratios (IRs) to identify sources of overexposure in homes. Water, dust, and paint chips were sampled from the homes of 21 children with elevated BLL from Aubervilliers (Paris metropolitan area). Lead concentrations of concern were calculated from reverse physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling for water and dust. Isotope ratio matching of blood and environmental samples (with a lead content above the concentration of concern) was performed by computation of the distance between their IRs. When the IR of the source did not match that of the blood, the source was eliminated as a source of lead intoxication. The number of sources eliminated (per child) due to lead concentration ranged from 14% to 86% (mean 66%) for dust, and 100% for water samples. The number of remaining potential sources eliminated by IR interpretation varied from 0% to 100% for both dust and paint chips (mean 63% and 58%, respectively). IRs made it possible to eliminate at least one source in 20 of 21 cases and identified a single source in 11 of 21. The number of dust and paint sources not eliminated by concentration or IR varied from 8% to 45% (median 18%). The pilot study supports the usefulness of these procedures and the added value of IRs for identifying sources of lead poisoning. However, systematic use should be supported by cost-effectiveness analysis on a larger and more representative population of elevated BLL. PMID:20182944

  8. A Direct Aqueous Derivatization GSMS Method for Determining Benzoylecgonine Concentrations in Human Urine.

    PubMed

    Chericoni, Silvio; Stefanelli, Fabio; Da Valle, Ylenia; Giusiani, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive and reliable method for extraction and quantification of benzoylecgonine (BZE) and cocaine (COC) in urine is presented. Propyl-chloroformate was used as derivatizing agent, and it was directly added to the urine sample: the propyl derivative and COC were then recovered by liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect the analytes in selected ion monitoring mode. The method proved to be precise for BZE and COC both in term of intraday and interday analysis, with a coefficient of variation (CV)<6%. Limits of detection (LOD) were 2.7 ng/mL for BZE and 1.4 ng/mL for COC. The calibration curve showed a linear relationship for BZE and COC (r2>0.999 and >0.997, respectively) within the range investigated. The method, applied to thirty authentic samples, showed to be very simple, fast, and reliable, so it can be easily applied in routine analysis for the quantification of BZE and COC in urine samples. PMID:26300490

  9. Australian atmospheric lead deposition reconstructed using lead concentrations and isotopic compositions of archival lichen and fungi.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liqin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Handley, Heather K; Wu, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lead concentrations and their isotopic compositions were measured in lichen genera Cladonia and Usnea and fungi genus Trametes from the Greater Sydney region (New South Wales, Australia) that had been collected and archived over the past 120 years. The median lead contents were elevated in lichens and fungi prior to the introduction of leaded petrol (Cladonia 12.5 mg/kg; Usnea 15.6 mg/kg; Trametes 1.85 mg/kg) corresponding to early industrial development. During the use of leaded petrol for automobiles in Australia from 1932 to 2002, total median lead concentrations rose: Cladonia 18.8 mg/kg; Usnea 21.5 mg/kg; Trametes 4.3 mg/kg. Following the cessation of leaded petrol use, median total lead concentrations decreased sharply in the 2000s: Cladonia 4.8 mg/kg; Usnea 1.7 mg/kg. The lichen and fungi isotopic compositions reveal a significant decrease in (206)Pb/(207)Pb values from the end of 19th century to the 1970s. The following decades were characterised by lower allowable levels of lead additive in fuel and the introduction of unleaded petrol in 1985. The environmental response to these regulatory changes was that lichen and fungi (206)Pb/(207)Pb values increased, particularly from 1995 onwards. Although the lead isotope ratios of lichens continued to increase in the 2000s they do not return to pre-leaded petrol values. This demonstrates that historic leaded petrol emissions, inter alia other sources, remain a persistent source of anthropogenic contamination in the Greater Sydney region. PMID:26608874

  10. Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected within the right-of-way of a major Maryland highway were greater than those found in Barn Swallows nesting within a rural area. Lead concentrations in the feathers of adults from the highway colony were also greater than Lead concentrations in the carcasses and stomach contents of adult and nestling Barn those of rural adults, but concentrations in the feathers of nestlings from the two locations were similar. Activity of u-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in red blood cells was lower in highway-nesting adults and their young than in their rural counterparts, although hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits did not differ. The number of eggs, nestlings, and body weights of the latter at 16-18 days of age were similar in the two colonies, as were body weights of adults from the two areas. These results suggest that contamination of roadside habitats by lead from automotive emissions does not pose a serious hazard to birds that are aerial feeders.

  11. Urine and Urination

    MedlinePLUS

    Your kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from your blood. The waste is called urea. Your blood carries it to the kidneys. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to ...

  12. Secondhand smoke exposure and urine cotinine concentrations by occupation among Korean workers: results from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Ryong; Lee, Chae Kwan; Im, Hosub; Yang, Wonho; Urm, Sang-Hwa; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Jin Heon; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Se Yeong; Lee, Soo Woong; Lee, Jong Tae

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure through urine cotinine analysis among nonsmoking workers in Korea and to analyze factors affecting urine cotinine concentrations. Data were based on "The 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body," a cross-sectional study of the National Institute of Environmental Research of Korea. We selected 1448 nonsmoking adult workers from 200 localities to participate in this survey. Urine cotinine concentrations were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass selective detector. We calculated separate covariate-adjusted geometric means for socio-demographic variables for males, females, and total subjects by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill.). The prevalence of self-reported exposure to SHS was 36.9%. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) of urine cotinine concentrations among all participants was 16.50 (14.48-18.80) ?g/L. Gender, living area, education, and SHS exposure showed significant differences in urine cotinine concentrations. The urine cotinine concentrations of farmworkers and blue-collar workers such as skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers, and elementary occupations were higher than those of white-collar workers such as clerical support workers, technicians, and associate professionals. Such a high proportion of the population having high urine cotinine levels indicates widespread exposure to SHS among nonsmoking workers in Korea. Furthermore, the urine cotinine levels among nonsmoking workers exposed to SHS varied by occupation. The measured urine cotinine concentration is suggested to be a valuable indication of SHS exposure in Korea. PMID:24219421

  13. Temporal trends in the lead concentrations of umbilical cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B.; Needleman, H.L.

    1982-06-25

    Umbilical cord blood specimens from 11,837 births between April 1979 and April 1981 have been analyzed for lead by anodic stripping voltammetry. The mean was 6.56 +/- 3.19 (standard deviation) micrograms per deciliter of blood, and the range was 0.0 to 37.0 micrograms per deciliter. The mean decreased annually by 0.77 +/- 0.03 microgram per deciliter, about 11 percent. Lead concentrations were higher in infants born in summer than in infants born in winter (7.17 versus 5.99, probability less than .001). A Fourier model of the data is presented, and possible reasons for the decline are discussed.

  14. Temporal trends in the lead concentrations of umbilical cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B.; Needleman, H.L.

    1982-06-25

    Umbilical cord blood specimens from 11,837 births between April 1979 and April 1981 have been analyzed for lead by anodic stripping voltammetry. The mean was 6.56 +- 3.19 (standard deviation) micrograms per deciliter of blood, and the range was 0.0 to 37.0 micrograms per deciliter. The mean decreased annually by 0.77 +- 0.03 microgram per deciliter, about 11 percent. Lead concentrations were higher in infants born in summer than in infants born in winter (7.17 versus 5.99, probability < .001). A Fourier model of the data is presented, and possible reasons for the decline are discussed.

  15. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... This test can be done on any urine sample. For an infant, thoroughly wash the area where urine exits the body. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an ...

  16. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for selective solid phase extraction and pre-concentration of Tizanidine in human urine.

    PubMed

    Sheykhaghaei, Golaleh; Hossainisadr, Moayad; Khanahmadzadeh, Salah; Seyedsajadi, Mirabdollah; Alipouramjad, Awat

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MMIP-NPs) for the selective pre-concentration of Tizanidine have been described. The polymer nanoparticles were synthesized by the polymerization of methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator and Tizanidine as a template molecule. The MMIP-NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimeteric analysis (TGA). Imprinted Tizanidine molecules were removed from the polymeric structure using acetic acid in methanol (10:90 V/V%), as the eluent solvent. The limits of detection (L.O.D) for Tizanidine were 1.13×10(-6)M and 1.68×10(-6)M in ultrapure water and urine, respectively. Also, the relative standard deviations (R.S.D) in ultrapure water and urine were 2.21% and 2.58%, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of Tizanidine in the human urine samples. PMID:26744788

  17. Nonlinearity in the relationship between bone lead concentrations and CBLI for lead smelter employees.

    PubMed

    Behinaein, Sepideh; Chettle, David R; Egden, Lesley M; McNeill, Fiona E; Norman, Geoff; Richard, Norbert; Stever, Susan

    2012-12-01

    494 smelter employees from New Brunswick participated in a bone lead survey conducted by McMaster University in 2008, using the four element "clover-leaf" geometry germanium detector system. The employees were measured at two different bone sites, tibia and calcaneus, each measurement lasting 30 minutes. Scattered photons, including Pb X-rays, were collected by the germanium detectors located behind the ??Cd source. A strong positive correlation was observed between tibia and calcaneus lead concentrations. Having been provided with blood lead levels, a cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) was generated. The employees were classified into four groups based on their date of hire, and their CBLI levels were compared to their tibia and calcaneus lead concentrations in the different groups. The slopes of bone Pb versus CBLI varied amongst groups, with those hired earliest showing the steepest slopes. This could be taken to imply a non-linearity in the uptake of Pb by bone from blood. In this paper, the association of the bone lead concentrations versus CBLI has been expressed by a polynomial function for the whole group of employees. PMID:23152131

  18. Effects of alpha-thalassemia and sickle polymerization tendency on the urine-concentrating defect of individuals with sickle cell trait.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A K; Kirchner, K A; Nicholson, R; Adams, J G; Schechter, A N; Noguchi, C T; Steinberg, M H

    1991-01-01

    A defect in urine concentrating ability occurs in individuals with sickle cell trait (HbAS). This may result from intracellular polymerization of sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in erythrocytes, leading to microvascular occlusion, in the vasa recta of the renal medulla. To test the hypothesis that the severity of the concentrating defect is related to the percentage of sickle hemoglobin present in erythrocytes, urinary concentrating ability was examined after overnight water deprivation, and intranasal desmopressin acetate (dDAVP) in 27 individuals with HbAS. The HbAS individuals were separated into those who had a normal alpha-globin genotype (alpha alpha/alpha alpha), and those who were either heterozygous (-alpha/alpha alpha) or homozygous (-alpha/-alpha) for gene-deletion alpha-thalassemia, because alpha-thalassemia modulates the HbS concentration in HbAS. The urinary concentrating ability was less in the alpha alpha/alpha alpha genotype than in the -alpha/alpha alpha or -alpha/-alpha genotypes (P less than 0.05). After dDAVP, the urine osmolality was greater in patients with the -alpha/-alpha genotype than with the -alpha/alpha alpha genotype (882 +/- 37 vs. 672 +/- 38 mOsm/kg H2O) (P less than 0.05); patients with the -alpha/alpha alpha genotype had greater concentrating ability than individuals with a normal alpha-globin gene arrangement. There was an inverse linear correlation between urinary osmolality after dDAVP and the percentage HbS in all patients studied (r = -0.654; P less than 0.05). A linear correlation also existed for urine concentrating ability and the calculated polymerization tendencies for an oxygen saturation of 0.4 and O (r = -0.62 and 0.69, respectively). We conclude that the severity of hyposthenuria in HbAS is heterogeneous. It is determined by the amount of HbS polymer, that in turn is dependent upon the percentage HbS, which is itself related to the alpha-globin genotype. Images PMID:1752955

  19. Redecoration of external leaded paintwork and lead-in-dust concentrations in school playgrounds.

    PubMed

    Schwar, M J; Alexander, D J

    1988-01-01

    Playground lead-in-dust concentrations have been measured immediately after the external redecoration of 216 schools in 1983/4 and of 63 schools in 1984/5. Schools were divided into four age categories: A, pre-1914; B, 1914-1939; C, 1945-1965; and D, post-1965. The results show that concentrations can vary widely from school to school within a given age category. For each school, dust samples were collected from an area adjacent to the facade which had been redecorated, referred to here as the 'corridor' area, and from the 'remaining' playground area. The highest mean corridor concentrations were found in playgrounds of schools of age categories A and B, the highest mean value being 74,400 micrograms g-1. The highest value for age category D schools was 2600 micrograms g-1. The mean concentration for all schools in age categories A to D, was respectively 4720, 2820, 820 and 630 micrograms g-1 for the corridor area and 1180, 730, 400 and 440 micrograms g-1 for the remaining area. The highest lead-in-dust concentrations tended to occur within 2.5 m of the building facade. A limited number of measurements showed that concentrations in the corridor area tended to reduce with time, falling to half their initial value (after correcting for the local background level) in about 90-170 days. A model is suggested linking lead-in-dust concentrations in the corridor and remaining areas to lead-in-paint debris dust concentrations. PMID:3363323

  20. Sociodemographic and lifestyle variables are compound- and class-specific correlates of urine phytoestrogen concentrations in the US population1,2,3,4

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, Michael E.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Pfeiffer, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Isoflavones and lignans are plant-derived dietary compounds generally believed to be beneficial to human health. We investigated the extent to which sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and income) and lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, and dietary supplement use) were correlates of spot urine concentration for daidzein (DAZ), genistein (GNS), O-desmethylangolensin (DMA), equol (EQU), enterodiol (ETD) and enterolactone (ETL) in the US population ≥20 y (NHANES 2003–2006). We performed correlation analyses with continuous variables and calculated stratified unadjusted geometric means for each sociodemographic and lifestyle variable. We used bivariate significance testing and covariate adjustment by use of multiple regression models to identify influential variables, and used beta coefficients to estimate relative effects. Urine creatinine was also included in our analyses because of its use in correcting for variable dilution in spot urine samples. We observed many statistically significant (P <0.05) associations with the sociodemographic and lifestyle variables that withstood covariate adjustment. Smoking was a significant correlate of urine DMA and ETL, with concentrations at least 25% lower in smokers vs. nonsmokers. Consumers of 1 daily alcoholic drink vs. none were estimated to have 18–21% lower urine EQU and DMA concentrations. A 25% increase in BMI was associated with 21% lower urine ETL, and increasing physical activity was associated with >6% higher urine ETL concentrations. Dietary supplement use was not significantly associated with any of the urine phytoestrogens. Overall, we found that relationships between sociodemographic and lifestyle variables and urine phytoestrogen concentration were highly compound- and class-specific. PMID:23596167

  1. Lead pellet ingestion and liver-lead concentrations in upland game birds from southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kreager, N; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; Tsuji, L J S

    2008-02-01

    One-hundred twenty-three gizzards from upland game birds (chukar, Alectoris chukar; and common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) harvested by hunters in southern Ontario, Canada, were examined for lead pellet ingestion by manual examination of gizzard contents and by radiography. Lead pellets were found to be ingested by chukars (6/76; 8%) and the common pheasant (16/47; 34%). Further, 13% (17/129) of the bird (wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo; Hungarian partridge, Perdix perdix; chukar; and common pheasant) livers analyzed had elevated lead concentrations (> or =6 microg/g wet weight [ww]). Liver-lead concentrations above Health Canada's guideline for human consumption of fish protein (<0.5 microg/g ww) were found in 40% (51/129) of livers analyzed. Data indicate that the ingestion of lead pellets in upland game birds and the potential consumption of lead-contaminated meat by humans are concerns related to the continued use of lead shotshell for hunting. PMID:17763885

  2. Predicting the phenylalanine blood concentration from urine analyses. An approach to noninvasive monitoring of patients with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Langenbeck, U; Baum, F; Mench-Hoinowski, A; Luthe, H; Behbehani, A W

    2005-01-01

    The need for regular blood-drawing in the management of chronic metabolic disorders may negatively influence the compliance of patients and their parents; noninvasive analytical procedures could well alleviate this burden. Using data obtained in six adult probands with phenylketonuria, we evaluate the feasibility of noninvasive prediction of phenylalanine blood concentrations from analysis of phenylalanine and creatinine in urine. Cross-validated regression equations correct for the significant inter-individual variation of phenylalanine fractional excretion rates. With sensitive and specific enzymatic assays for phenylalanine and creatinine, the accuracy of this noninvasive procedure may also become clinically satisfactory for the purpose of self-monitoring. PMID:16435177

  3. Reliability of concentrations of organophosphate pesticide metabolites in serial urine specimens from pregnancy in the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Spaan, Suzanne; Pronk, Anjoeka; Koch, Holger M; Jusko, Todd A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Shaw, Pamela A; Tiemeier, Henning M; Hofman, Albert; Pierik, Frank H; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2015-05-01

    The widespread use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides has resulted in ubiquitous exposure in humans, primarily through their diet. Exposure to OP pesticides may have adverse health effects, including neurobehavioral deficits in children. The optimal design of new studies requires data on the reliability of urinary measures of exposure. In the present study, urinary concentrations of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, the main urinary metabolites of OP pesticides, were determined in 120 pregnant women participating in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) across serial urine specimens taken at <18, 18-25, and >25 weeks of pregnancy were determined to assess reliability. Geometric mean total DAP metabolite concentrations were 229 (GSD 2.2), 240 (GSD 2.1), and 224 (GSD 2.2)?nmol/g creatinine across the three periods of gestation. Metabolite concentrations from the serial urine specimens in general correlated moderately. The ICCs for the six DAP metabolites ranged from 0.14 to 0.38 (0.30 for total DAPs), indicating weak to moderate reliability. Although the DAP metabolite levels observed in this study are slightly higher and slightly more correlated than in previous studies, the low to moderate reliability indicates a high degree of within-person variability, which presents challenges for designing well-powered epidemiological studies. PMID:25515376

  4. Urine concentrating mechanism in the inner medulla of the mammalian kidney: role of three-dimensional architecture.

    PubMed

    Dantzler, W H; Pannabecker, T L; Layton, A T; Layton, H E

    2011-07-01

    The urine concentrating mechanism in the mammalian renal inner medulla (IM) is not understood, although it is generally considered to involve countercurrent flows in tubules and blood vessels. A possible role for the three-dimensional relationships of these tubules and vessels in the concentrating process is suggested by recent reconstructions from serial sections labelled with antibodies to tubular and vascular proteins and mathematical models based on these studies. The reconstructions revealed that the lower 60% of each descending thin limb (DTL) of Henle's loops lacks water channels (aquaporin-1) and osmotic water permeability and ascending thin limbs (ATLs) begin with a prebend segment of constant length. In the outer zone of the IM (i) clusters of coalescing collecting ducts (CDs) form organizing motif for loops of Henle and vasa recta; (ii) DTLs and descending vasa recta (DVR) are arrayed outside CD clusters, whereas ATLs and ascending vasa recta (AVR) are uniformly distributed inside and outside clusters; (iii) within CD clusters, interstitial nodal spaces are formed by a CD on one side, AVR on two sides, and an ATL on the fourth side. These spaces may function as mixing chambers for urea from CDs and NaCl from ATLs. In the inner zone of the IM, cluster organization disappears and half of Henle's loops have broad lateral bends wrapped around terminal CDs. Mathematical models based on these findings and involving solute mixing in the interstitial spaces can produce urine slightly more concentrated than that of a moderately antidiuretic rat but no higher. PMID:21054810

  5. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W

    2009-04-01

    The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species. PMID:19416182

  6. GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Busardò, Francesco P.; Jones, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t½ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines. PMID:26074743

  7. GHB pharmacology and toxicology: acute intoxication, concentrations in blood and urine in forensic cases and treatment of the withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Busard, Francesco P; Jones, Alan W

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines. PMID:26074743

  8. Effective radium concentration of lead-contaminated topsoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Douay, Francis; Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie; Bollinger, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    As the global amount of topsoil is decreasing and its importance for agricultural purposes is increasing, the detection and quantification of metallic pollutions in topsoils has become a topical concern of the utmost importance. Radium, which is generally concentrated in metal oxides and hydroxides and relatively easily leached from rock and soil, could potentially give precious information about the extent of the pollution at large spatial scales. In this study, the radon source term (effective radium concentration, ECRa) of more than 300 topsoils from a lead-contaminated site in the North of France has been measured using the accumulation technique. After placing the sample in a container, sampling of the air is done using a scintillation flask after some accumulation time. Radon concentration in the flask is inferred from counting in a photomultiplier 3.5 h after sampling, from which the effective radium concentration (ECRa) of the soil sample is calculated, expressed in Bq kg-1. This technique allows the measurement of large numbers of samples. The ECRa results of the topsoils, obtained over ca. 800 km2, show remarkable spatial organization and the values are compared with the results of their chemical analyses performed at ISA (Lille, France) and BRGM (Orléans, France). The highly lead-contaminated zone (with Pb concentrations larger than 250 ppm) is also relatively well circumscribed using ECRa apart. Indeed, ECRa values of topsoils are larger in the contaminated area than outside, compared with the average regional ECRa value. The mapping of ECRa of topsoils at large spatial scale appears therefore as an important asset to characterize this polluted area. Our ECRa data are also compared with the low-field specific magnetic susceptibility (Ξm) and other magnetic parameters to infer some insights from the magnetic fabrics in the soil and the ECRa-Ξm relations. Relations between ECRa and others metallic elements (Cr, Co, Hg, Ag) or others intrinsic characteristics (amount of sand, silt, organic matter) of the topsoils are also provided. ECRa appears as a powerful parameter to characterize the spatial structure of soils, and in addition provides clues on the susceptibility to heavy metal contamination. This study opens some interesting perspectives for the understanding of the relation between radium and heavy metals in the environment.

  9. Cloud point extraction for the determination of lead and cadmium in urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with multivariate optimization using Box Behnken design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranho, Tatiane De A.; Martendal, Edmar; Borges, Daniel L. G.; Carasek, Eduardo; Welz, Bernhard; Curtius, Adilson J.

    2007-09-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Pb and Cd in undigested urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). Aliquots of 0.5 mL urine were acidified with HCl and the chelating agent ammonium O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (DDTP) was added along with the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 at the optimized concentrations. Phase separation was achieved by heating the mixture to 50 C for 15 min. The surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by GF AAS, employing the optimized pyrolysis temperatures of 900 C for Pb and 800 C for Cd, using a graphite tube with a platform treated with 500 ?g Ru as permanent modifier. The reagent concentrations for CPE (HCl, DDTP and Triton X-114) were optimized using a Box Behnken design. The response surfaces and the optimum values were very similar for aqueous solutions and for the urine samples, demonstrating that aqueous standards submitted to CPE could be used for calibration. Detection limits of 40 and 2 ng L- 1 for Pb and Cd, respectively, were obtained along with an enhancement factor of 16 for both analytes. Three control urine samples were analyzed using this approach, and good agreement was obtained at a 95% statistical confidence level between the certified and determined values. Five real samples have also been analyzed before and after spiking with Pb and Cd, resulting in recoveries ranging from 97 to 118%.

  10. Effect of cattle urine addition on the surface emissions and subsurface concentrations of greenhouse gases from a UK lowland peatland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Chadwick, David; Cardenas, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Grazing systems represent a substantial percentage of the global anthropogenic flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) as a result of nitrogen addition to the soil. Cattle urine has been shown to stimulate N2O production due to the dual effect of a large pool of readily available N and C and increased soil water content. Studies indicate that even short-term grazing can cause a significant increase in N2O emissions, particularly when combined with compaction and seasonal water-table rise. Peat soils have different physical and chemical characteristics to mineral soils including higher organic carbon content, higher porosity and greater variation in hydraulic properties due to swell and shrink. Peat soils have been shown to have increased N2O emissions with respect to mineral soils as a result of a combination of these factors, particularly when amended with fertilisers or livestock excreta. Many lowland peatland environments in the UK are under seasonal grazing management and cattle are increasingly being introduced to manage fen vegetation in lowland peatland. In this study, we simulated small urination events on a conservation area of UK peat grassland that is intensively grazed for a short period of time during autumn seasonal water-table rise. We measured subsurface and surface emissions of N2O, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) alongside soil physical and chemical changes to determine the key mechanisms of greenhouse gas production and transport. CO2emission peaked at 5200 mg CO2 m-2 d-1 directly after application from a background value of 905 mg CO2 m-2 d-1. CH4 flux decreased to -2000 μg CH4 m-2 d-1two days after application (control plots -580 μg CH4 m-2 d-1); however, net CH4 flux was positive from urine treated plots and negative from control plots. N2O emission peaked at 37 mg N2O m-2 d-1 12 days after application (1.08 mg N2O m-2 d-1 in control plots). Subsurface CH4 and N2O concentrations were higher in the urine treated plots than the controls. There was no effect of treatment on subsurface CO2 concentrations. Subsurface N2O peaked at 500ppm 12 days after and 1200ppm 56 days after application. Subsurface NO3- concentration peaked at approximately 300 mg N kg dry soil-112 days after application. Results indicate that denitrification is the key driver for N2O release in peatlands and that production is strongly related to increased soil moisture. N2O production at depth continued long after emissions were detected at the surface. Increased study of the interaction between subsurface gas concentrations, surface emissions and soil hydrological conditions is required to successfully predict greenhouse gas production and emission.

  11. AT1a receptor knockout in mice impairs urine concentration by reducing basal vasopressin levels and its receptor signaling proteins in the inner medulla.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao C; Shao, Yuan; Zhuo, Jia L

    2009-07-01

    Angiotensin II plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, body salt and fluid balance, and urine concentration. Mice with deletion of the AT(1a) receptor develop polyuria and urine concentration defects. We studied the mechanisms of these urine concentration defects by treating wild-type and AT(1a)-knockout mice with arginine vasopressin (AVP) for 2 weeks, controlling their water intake, or giving them an osmotic diuretic (sucrose) in order to determine whether central or nephrogenic mechanisms were involved. Under basal conditions, AT(1a)-knockout mice were hypotensive, had lower plasma AVP, and excreted more urine with a markedly reduced osmolality compared with wild-type mice. However, basal glomerular filtration rates were similar in both strains of mice. We isolated total lysate and membrane proteins from the inner medulla of wild-type and mutant mouse kidneys, and found that the amounts of aquaporin 2 (AQP2), adenylyl cyclases III and V/VI, and phosphorylated MAP kinases ERK 1/2 proteins were all reduced in the inner medulla of the knockout mice. Infusion of AVP raised plasma levels and blood pressure proportionally in both strains, but polyuria persisted and urine osmolality remained significantly lower in the knockout mice. Although AVP increased urine osmolality slightly in water-deprived knockout mice, this was well below the basal osmolality of wild-type mice. The diuretic response to the hyperosmotic sucrose was also impaired in the knockout mice. Neither AVP nor water rationing restored the levels of the inner medullary signaling proteins and membrane AQP2 proteins in the knockout mice. We suggest that AT(1a) receptor deletion causes polyuria and urine concentration defects by decreasing basal AVP release and impairing AVP-induced receptor signaling in the inner medulla. PMID:19387470

  12. Role of three-dimensional architecture in the urine concentrating mechanism of the rat renal inner medulla.

    PubMed

    Pannabecker, Thomas L; Dantzler, William H; Layton, Harold E; Layton, Anita T

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies of three-dimensional architecture of rat renal inner medulla (IM) and expression of membrane proteins associated with fluid and solute transport in nephrons and vasculature have revealed structural and transport properties that likely impact the IM urine concentrating mechanism. These studies have shown that 1) IM descending thin limbs (DTLs) have at least two or three functionally distinct subsegments; 2) most ascending thin limbs (ATLs) and about half the ascending vasa recta (AVR) are arranged among clusters of collecting ducts (CDs), which form the organizing motif through the first 3-3.5 mm of the IM, whereas other ATLs and AVR, along with aquaporin-1-positive DTLs and urea transporter B-positive descending vasa recta (DVR), are external to the CD clusters; 3) ATLs, AVR, CDs, and interstitial cells delimit interstitial microdomains within the CD clusters; and 4) many of the longest loops of Henle form bends that include subsegments that run transversely along CDs that lie in the terminal 500 microm of the papilla tip. Based on a more comprehensive understanding of three-dimensional IM architecture, we distinguish two distinct countercurrent systems in the first 3-3.5 mm of the IM (an intra-CD cluster system and an inter-CD cluster system) and a third countercurrent system in the final 1.5-2 mm. Spatial arrangements of loop of Henle subsegments and multiple countercurrent systems throughout four distinct axial IM zones, as well as our initial mathematical model, are consistent with a solute-separation, solute-mixing mechanism for concentrating urine in the IM. PMID:18495796

  13. Concentration distribution of the marijuana metabolite Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in the department of defense urine drug-testing program.

    PubMed

    Jemionek, John F; Copley, Curtis L; Smith, Michael L; Past, Marilyn R

    2008-01-01

    Urine drug testing has been employed for punitive purposes by the Department of Defense since December 1981 (Memorandum 62884, Deputy Secretary of Defense Frank C. Carlucci). Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs were initiated in response to Executive Order 12564 issued on September 15, 1986, that required Drug-Free Federal Workplaces be established. In their respective programs, a positive urine drug test may be referred to a military court martial or to an administrative board. To address safety and insurance requirements, the testing of civilians has expanded beyond Federal Programs to include pre-employment and post-accident urine drug testing. During adjudication, an Expert Toxicologist may be asked to opine what can be discerned from the concentration of drug or drug metabolite found in the urine. Little can be opined with certainty from a positive urine drug test as to the amount of drug ingested, when the drug was ingested, and in most instances, whether the individual felt the effects of the drug, or was under the influence of the drug found in the urine. What may be useful to both the Expert and to the Trier-of-Facts is the frequency that a particular urine drug concentration is encountered in positive drug tests. The finding that 50% of all positive marijuana and cocaine urine metabolite concentrations in the military testing program over the three-year period of October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007, are below a median value of 65 and 968 ng/mL, respectively, provide reference points. A median drug concentration combined with the percentile or frequency that a particular urine drug concentration occurs may provide evaluative information for a determination of the facts and the outcome of judicial or administrative proceedings. This may be especially useful to jurors when the concentration of marijuana or cocaine metabolite is perceptibly low. The information would also be applicable to medical review officers, medical examiners, drug treatment professionals, probation officers, and program analysts coordinating drug policy decisions. PMID:18652746

  14. Decrease in the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers between 2009 and 2011 following implementation of stricter smoking regulations.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hyoung; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Se Yeong; Yu, Seung Do; Kim, Sue Jin; Choi, Wook Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Yeong Beom; Park, Seok Hwan; Lee, Soo Woong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if there was an association between the implementation of smoking regulation policies and the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers. The subjects of this study were 4612 non-smoking Korean citizens (aged 19 or older) selected from the first stage of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research from 2009 to 2011. Cotinine concentrations in urine were measured by GC-MS (limit of detection: 0.05 ng/mL). Changes in the urine cotinine concentration were analyzed using a weighted general linear model and linear regression and values were shown as geometric mean (GM). The GM urine cotinine concentration decreased over time (2.92 ng/mL in 2009, 1.93 ng/mL in 2010, and 1.25 ng/mL in 2011). The total decrease in the subjects' urine cotinine concentration between 2009 and 2011 was 2.79 ng/mL, representing a relative decrease of 54.7%. The decrease in GM urine cotinine concentration in each subgroup ranged from 2.17 ng/mL to 3.29 ng/mL (relative decreases of 46.4% and 62.8%, respectively), with the largest absolute reductions in subjects in the following groups: females, aged 40-49 years, detached residence type, no alcohol consumption, employed, secondhand smoke exposure. All groups had negative regression coefficients, all of which were significant (p < 0.001). Our results provide indirect indicators of the effectiveness of smoking regulation policies including the revision of the National Health Promotion Act in Korea. PMID:26507969

  15. Routine clinical determination of lead, arsenic, cadmium, and thallium in urine and whole blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, David E.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    1996-01-01

    For the measurement of As, Cd, Pb, and Tl in urine or whole blood, judicious choices of internal standard elements for matrix correction and the development of a refined isobaric arsenic correction are necessary to produce accurate ICP-MS results. Ga and Rh are chosen as internal standards for As and Cd respectively. Bi is better for the correction of Pb and Tl than Re. An empirically derived equation relating the measurement of 16O 35Cl to the 40Ar 35Cl contribution to the arsenic signal at mass 75 is refined by measuring the responses at mass 51 and 75 for urines with added hydrochloric acid. Overall, ICP-MS results for blood and urine are within 6% of Zeeman GFAAS results for patient samples. For surveys, the overall average of ICP-MS results is within 3% of target.

  16. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jimnez-Corona, Aida; vila-Hermosillo, Antonio; Nelson, Robert G; Ramrez-Lpez, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ?20?mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.6-59.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.5-13.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.2-16.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components. PMID:26347891

  17. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jimnez-Corona, Aida; vila-Hermosillo, Antonio; Nelson, Robert G.; Ramrez-Lpez, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ?20?mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.659.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.513.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.216.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components. PMID:26347891

  18. Bisphenol A in Urine of Chinese Young Adults: Concentrations and Sources of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chongjing; Liu, Liyan; Ma, Wanli; Zhu, Ningzheng; Jiang, Ling; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental chemical. Urinary concentrations of BPA were measured in samples collected nationwide from Chinese young adults. The geometric mean urinary concentration of BPA in Chinese young adults was 2.23ng/mL. The estimated daily exposure dose for BPA was 64.8ng/kgbw/day. Contributions of various BPA sources to exposure in Chinese young adults were estimated. Dietary intake was the primary exposure pathway. The contribution of dietary intake, indoor dust, paper products and personal care products to BPA intake was 72.5%, 0.74%, 0.98%, 0.22% of the total exposure dose, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of BPA in young adults from most provinces and autonomous regions of China. The results can be used to establish a database for BPA exposure assessment for Chinese general population. PMID:26679324

  19. Plasma and urine diketopiperazine concentrations in normal adults ingesting large quantities of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Cho, E S; Coon, J D; Stegink, L D

    1987-07-01

    In aqueous solution, aspartame can cyclicize to form its corresponding diketopiperazine (3-carboxymethyl-6-benzyl-2,5-diketopiperazine; DKP) and methanol. We measured plasma and urinary concentrations of DKP in samples obtained from six normal adult subjects ingesting 2.2 mg DKP/kg body weight. The DKP was administered as part of a dose of 200 mg aspartame/kg body weight. DKP concentrations in plasma were below the detection limit (less than 1 microgram/ml) of the high-pressure liquid chromatographic method at each time interval after ingestion at which they were measured. Mean (+/- SD) total urinary DKP excreted during the first 24-hr period after dosing was 6.68 +/- 1.30 mg (4.83 +/- 0.23% of the ingested DKP dose). Approximately 44% of the total DKP excreted was excreted in the first 4 hr after dosing. PMID:3623338

  20. Urine odor

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not have a strong smell if you ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may ...

  1. [Forensic medical expertise of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy in the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, O V; Petrova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cases of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy of the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine; the second objective was the statistical analysis of the data thus obtained. It was shown that sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy occurs in the men more frequently than in the women despite rather low ethanol levels in the blood and urine of both genders or even in the cases of complete absence of ethanol in these fluids. It is concluded that ethanol concentration in the blood and urine of the subjects who died from the alcohol-induced heart injury depends on their age and sex. PMID:26521311

  2. Lead concentrations in white-tailed deer mandibles and teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Witkowski, S.A.; Ault, S.R.; Field, R.W.

    1982-05-01

    Mandibles and teeth of 48 white-tailed deer from 6 counties in Pennsylvania were analyzed for lead by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate little influence of age, sex, and county on lead levels. (JMT)

  3. Elimination of matrix and spectral interferences in the measurement of lead and cadmium in urine and blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction

    SciTech Connect

    D'Haese, P.C.; Lamberts, L.V.; Liang, L.; Van de Vyver, F.L.; De Broe, M.E. )

    1991-09-01

    Direct measurement of lead and cadmium in blood and urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction (D2-AAS) is prone to severe matrix and spectral interferences. The authors overcame these effects by coating the L'vov platform with ammonium molybdate, reducing the atomization time, introducing a post-atomization cooling step, carefully selecting ashing and atomization temperatures, and using an appropriate procedure for matrix modification. To determine Pb and Cd in blood and urine, they used matrix-matched calibration curves. With the proposed procedure for sample preparation, both Pb and Cd in whole blood can be determined in the same diluted sample. Results obtained by D2-AAS correlate closely with those by Zeeman-corrected AAS. Detection limits (mean blank + 3 SDblank) for Pb in urine and blood were 4 micrograms/L. For cadmium, the detection limits were 0.4 and 0.1 micrograms/L for urine and blood analysis, respectively. Between-run CVs were less than 5.0%.

  4. Isotope Concentrations from 24-h Urine and 3-h Serum Samples Can Be Used to Measure Intestinal Magnesium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women123

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karen E.; Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Shafer, Martin M.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ?6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ?23 mg of oral 26Mg and ?11 mg of i.v. 25Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 024 h urine MgA value alone (? = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 024 h urine and the 3-h (? = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (? = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (?0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 024 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 024 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01593501. PMID:24500940

  5. Mobilisation of heavy metals into the urine by CaEDTA: relation to erythrocyte and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Araki, S; Aono, H; Murata, K

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA) on the urinary excretion, erythrocyte, and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators of seven heavy metals, CaEDTA was administered by intravenous infusion to 20 workers exposed to lead, zinc, and copper. The workers' blood lead concentrations ranged from 22 to 59 micrograms/dl (mean 38 micrograms/dl (1.8 mumol/l]. The 24 hour urinary excretion of metals after CaEDTA administration (mobilisation yield) was on average 13 times the background excretion for lead, 11 times for zinc, 3.8 times for manganese, 3.4 times for cadmium, 1.3 times for copper, and 1.1 times for chromium; no significant increase was found for mercury. The mobilisation yield of lead (MPb) was significantly correlated with whole blood and erythrocyte concentrations and the urinary excretion of lead but not with its plasma concentration; similarly, the mobilisation yield of cadmium was significantly correlated with its erythrocyte concentration. In addition, MPb was significantly correlated with intra-erythrocytic enzyme delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase activity and urinary coproporphyrin excretion. The relation between the mobilisation yield of heavy metals and their body burden (and toxic signs) is discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:3092853

  6. Urine culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  7. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order to work. ... A 24-hour urine sample is most often needed: On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you wake up in the morning. ...

  8. Assessing the relationship between environmental lead concentrations and adult blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Bowers, T S; Beck, B D; Karam, H S

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents a model for predicting blood lead levels in adults who are exposed to elevated environmental levels of lead. The model assumes a baseline blood lead level based on average blood lead levels for adults described in two recent U.S. studies. The baseline blood level in adults arises primarily from exposure to lead in diet. Media-specific ingestion and absorption parameters are assessed for the adult population, and a biokinetic slope factor that relates uptake of lead into the body to blood lead levels is estimated. These parameters are applied to predict blood lead levels for adults exposed to a hypothetical site with elevated lead levels in soil, dust and air. Blood lead levels ranging from approximately 3-57 micrograms/dl are predicted, depending on the exposure scenarios and assumptions. PMID:8008927

  9. Association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (estimated from job category) with concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in urine from workers at a steel plant.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, D; Rothman, N; Cho, S H; Lim, H S; Kwon, H J; Kim, S M; Schwartz, B; Strickland, P T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Increased risk of lung cancer has been associated with employment in the steel industry. This association is thought to be due in part to increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air found in this work environment. Measurement of PAH metabolites in human urine provides a means of assessing individual internal dose of PAHs. This study examined the relative contribution of occupation and smoking to urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG) among a group of workers at a steel plant. METHODS--Concentrations of 1-OHPG in urine from 44 workers with jobs associated with increased air concentrations of PAHs and 40 workers with jobs with low or no exposure to PAHs were measured. 20 workers in each group were not current smokers. Urinary 1-OHPG was measured by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy after immunoaffinity chromatography specific for PAH metabolites. RESULTS--Mean (SEM) urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 2.16 (0.42) pmol/ml urine among the 44 occupationally exposed workers compared with 0.38 (0.05) among the 40 workers with no or low exposure (P < 0.0001). Mean urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 1.82 (0.41) pmol/ml urine among the 44 current smokers compared with 0.75 (0.20) among the 40 non-smokers (P < 0.005). Mean 1-OHPG concentrations in non-smokers were 0.26 (n = 20), 0.70 (n = 15), and 2.84 pmol/ml urine (n = 5) for strata of exposure to PAHs (no or low, mid, and high) based on job category; the corresponding values in smokers were 0.55 (n = 20), 0.94 (n = 12), and 4.91 pmol/ml (n = 12), respectively. Multiple linear regression showed significant differences between subjects in different PAH exposure with increased concentrations of 1-OHPG in urine. Amounts of foods containing PAHs ingested by this group of workers were relatively low and did not contribute significantly to urinary 1-OHPG concentrations. CONCLUSIONS--These results indicate that 1-OHPG is a common urinary metabolite in people with recent occupational exposure to PAHs and is associated with both job category and estimated stratum of PAH exposure. PMID:7550799

  10. Action of lead in locally concentrating and producing SCC

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    A discussion group reviewed the current information on lead assisted stress corrosion cracking. The group listed the characterizing features of the phenomenon, discussed the importance of influencing factors, indicated where information was lacking, and listed priorities for obtaining the information that is lacking. Priorities were listed based on providing information to plant operators to help make decisions regarding the likelihood of lead assisted stress corrosion.

  11. Hypothyroidism leads to increased dopamine receptor sensitivity and concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, A.D.; Overstreet, D.H.; Crocker, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    Rats treated with iodine-131 were confirmed to be hypothyroid by their reduced baseline core body temperatures, reduced serum thyroxine concentrations and elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations. When hypothyroid rats were compared to euthyroid controls they were more sensitive to the effects of apomorphine (1.0 mumol/kg) on stereotypy, operant responding and body temperature and showed a smaller reduction in locomotor activity after injection of haloperidol (0.25 mumol/kg). Receptor binding studies on striatal homogenates indicated that hypothyroid rats had increased concentrations of D2 dopamine receptors but there was no change in the affinity. It is concluded that hypothyroidism increases dopamine receptor sensitivity by increasing receptor concentration.

  12. Urine Metabolomics by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy Indicates Associations between Serum 3,5-T2 Concentrations and Intermediary Metabolism in Euthyroid Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pietzner, Maik; Homuth, Georg; Budde, Kathrin; Lehmphul, Ina; Vlker, Uwe; Vlzke, Henry; Nauck, Matthias; Khrle, Josef; Friedrich, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Context 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) is a thyroid hormone metabolite which exhibited versatile effects in rodent models, including the prevention of insulin resistance or hepatic steatosis typically forced by a high-fat diet. With respect to euthyroid humans, we recently observed a putative link between serum 3,5-T2 and glucose but not lipid metabolism. Objective The aim of the present study was to widely screen the urine metabolome for associations with serum 3,5-T2 concentrations in healthy individuals. Study Design and Methods Urine metabolites of 715 euthyroid participants of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Multinomial logistic and multivariate linear regression models were used to detect associations between urine metabolites and serum 3,5-T2 concentrations. Results Serum 3,5-T2 concentrations were positively associated with urinary levels of trigonelline, pyroglutamate, acetone and hippurate. In detail, the odds for intermediate or suppressed serum 3,5-T2 concentrations doubled owing to a 1-standard deviation (SD) decrease in urine trigonelline levels, or increased by 29-50% in relation to a 1-SD decrease in urine pyroglutamate, acetone and hippurate levels. Conclusion Our findings in humans confirmed the metabolic effects of circulating 3,5-T2 on glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and enhanced drug metabolism as postulated before based on interventional pharmacological studies in rodents. Of note, 3,5-T2 exhibited a unique urinary metabolic profile distinct from previously published results for the classical thyroid hormones. PMID:26601079

  13. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered species: correlations with physiologic events and use as a marker of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, Bernard G; Brown, Janine L; Roth, Terri L; Czekala, Nancy

    2005-05-01

    Many mammalian species are facing extinction due to problems created by human encroachment, agriculture, pollution, and willful slaughter. Among those at risk are the Asian and African elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros, and giant panda. Conservation groups try to save species in the wild by preserving habitat and limiting animal-human conflicts, often with limited success. Another alternative is to preserve the extant gene pool through captive breeding as a hedge against extinction. Measurement of circulating reproductive hormones is impractical for most wildlife species; determination of urinary or fecal hormone metabolites provides a more viable approach. To aid breeding management, one important tool is the ability to diagnose and monitor pregnancy, especially in species with long gestations (e.g., rhinos over 15 mo and elephants over 20 mo). Unfortunately, measuring progestins often is not useful diagnostically, because concentrations are similar during at least part of the pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase in some species (e.g., elephants, rhinoceroses, and giant pandas). As serum relaxin reliably distinguishes between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in bitches, relaxin measurement might also provide a method for detecting a successful pregnancy in endangered species. Appropriate immunoassay reagents have enabled the estimation of relaxin concentrations in the serum of elephants and rhinos and the determination of pregnancy establishment and the outcome. Relaxin was also detected in panda serum and urine. However, the extreme variability of the time between observed mating and parturition and the confounding factors of delayed implantation, pseudopregnancy, and frequent fetal resorptions made it impossible to use the panda relaxin data as a specific marker of pregnancy. PMID:15956734

  14. Urine melanin

    MedlinePLUS

    Thormahlen's test; Melanin - urine ... A clean-catch urine sample is needed. ... this substance that it shows up in the urine. ... Normally, melanin is not present in urine. Normal value ranges may ... measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor ...

  15. Lead in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in sublethal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Osuna Flores, Israel; Meyer-Willerer, Alejandro O; Olivos-Ortiz, Aramis; Barragn Vzquez, Francisco J; Marmolejo-Rodrguez, Ana J

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the accumulation and elimination of sublethal lead (Pb) in different shrimp tissues may be useful as an indicator of uptake and elimination characteristics of this metal. Aquaculture ponds are particularly influenced by Pb contamination, where aquatic animals may acquire the metal through adsorption to exoskeletons or gills from the surrounding water. Cationic Pb is accumulated preferentially in the nonedible fraction of shrimp, followed by exoskeleton, and to a minor extent in muscle. Lead contents in different tissues were lower than metal levels in exoskeleton. However, the presence of Pb in sediment due to purging may exert adverse consequences on shrimp as bottom feeders. PMID:25072895

  16. Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.

    2003-05-01

    At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

  17. Breast milk lead concentrations of mothers living near tin smelters.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Moreira, Maria de Fátima R; Bernardi, José Vicente E; Dórea, José G

    2013-11-01

    We compared Pb concentration in human milk from 37 mothers living in a neighborhood of tin-ore smelters to that from 45 mothers living in a fishing community. The median breast-milk-Pb (BM-Pb) concentration was significantly (p = 0.0000001) higher (11.3 μg L(-1); ≤0.96-29.4 μg L(-1)) in mothers living in the vicinity of smelters than that of rural mothers (1.9 μg L(-1); ≤0.96-20.0 μg L(-1)). These mothers also showed a statistically significant correlation between length of residence and BM-Pb concentration (Spearman r = 0.6864; p < 0.0001). The estimated median exposure (for infants <6 months) was 3.0 μg kg(-1) b.w. for rural infants compared to 7.5 μg kg(-1) b.w. for infants in the vicinity of metal smelters. Overall, most BM-Pb concentrations (79 %) in the metal smelter area were above the critical limit of 5.0 μg L(-1) set by the WHO. PMID:24068462

  18. Lead concentrations in blood and milk from periparturient dairy heifers seven months after an episode of acute lead toxicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Galey, F.D.; Slenning, B.D.; Anderson, M.L.; Breneman, P.C.; Littlefield, E.S.; Melton, L.A.; Tracy, M.L. )

    1990-07-01

    In September 1988, 100 of 300 yearling dairy heifers developed blindness, tachypnea, foaming at the mouth, chewing, and facial fasciculations. Twenty-five animals died. Lead toxicosis was diagnosed based on the clinical signs and the presence of excessive concentrations of lead in whole blood, liver, kidney, and rumen contents of affected animals. The source of the lead was sudan grass silage that had been contaminated by soil that contained up to 77,000 mg/kg of lead. Lead concentrations were determined approximately 7 months after the acute episode of lead toxicosis. Whole blood and milk samples were obtained from heifers and a group of control cows 2 weeks prior to (blood only), at the time of, and 2 and 4 weeks after freshening. No lead was found in any of the milk samples (detection limit = 0.055 mg/liter). Animals that had been severely affected by lead toxicosis experienced a transient increase in whole blood lead concentrations at freshening that was not high enough to be considered toxic. No similar increases in blood lead were observed for control cows or heifers that had experienced milder toxicosis. These findings suggest that at parturition lead is mobilized into the blood of cattle previously exposed to excessive lead.

  19. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; R, Kannan; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  20. Abnormal function of the vasopressin-cyclic-AMP-aquaporin2 axis during urine concentrating and diluting in patients with reduced renal function. A case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The kidneys ability to concentrate and dilute urine is deteriorated during progressive renal insufficiency. We wanted to test the hypothesis that these phenomena could be attributed to an abnormal function of the principal cells in the distal part of the nephron. Methods Healthy control subjects and patients with chronic kidney diseases were studied. Group 1 comprised healthy subjects, n = 10. Groups 2-4 comprised patients with chronic kidney disease (Group 2, n = 14, e-GFR ? 90 m1/min; Group 3, n = 11, 60 m1/min ? e-GFR < 90 ml/min; and Group 4, n = 16, 15 ml/min ? e-GFR < 60 ml/min). The subjects collected urine during 24 hours. A urine concentrating test was done by thirsting during the following 12 hours. Thereafter, a urine diluting test was performed with a water load of 20 ml/kg body weight. The effect variables were urinary excretions of aquaporin2 (u-AQP2), cyclic-AMP (u-c-AMP), urine volume (UV), free water clearance (CH2O), urine osmolarity (u-Osm), and plasma arginine vasopressin (p-AVP). Results After fluid deprivation, u-Osm increased. In all groups, UV and CH2O decreased and u-AQP2 and u-c-AMP increased in Groups 1 and 2, but were unchanged in Group 3 and 4. P-AVP was significantly higher in Group 4 than in the other groups. During urine diluting, UV and CH2O reached significantly higher levels in Groups 1-3 than Group 4. Both before and after water loading, u-AQP2 and p-AVP were significantly higher and u-c-AMP was significantly lower in Group 4 than the other groups. Estimated-GFR was correlated negatively to p-AVP and positively to u-c-AMP. Conclusions Patients with moderately severe chronic kidney disease have a reduced renal concentrating and diluting capacity compared to both patients with milder chronic kidney disease and healthy control subjects. These phenomena can be attributed, at least partly, to an abnormally decreased response in the AVP-c-AMP-AQP2 axis. ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT00313430 PMID:20923561

  1. AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in AT1a receptor-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao C.; Shao, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    It is well recognized that ANG II interacts with arginine vasopressin (AVP) to regulate water reabsorption and urine concentration in the kidney. The present study used ANG II type 1a (AT1a) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a?/?) mice to test the hypothesis that AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in the renal medulla. Eight groups of wild-type (WT) and Agtr1a?/? mice were treated with or without 24-h water deprivation and 1-desamino-8-d-AVP (DDAVP; 100 ng/h ip) for 2 wk or with losartan (10 mg/kg ip) during water deprivation. Under basal conditions, Agtr1a?/? mice had lower systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), greater than threefold higher 24-h urine excretion (WT mice: 1.3 0.1 ml vs. Agtr1a?/? mice: 5.9 0.7 ml, P < 0.01), and markedly decreased urine osmolality (WT mice: 1,834 86 mosM/kg vs. Agtr1a?/? mice: 843 170 mosM/kg, P < 0.01), without significant changes in 24-h urinary Na+ excretion. These responses in Agtr1a?/? mice were associated with lower basal plasma AVP (WT mice: 105 8 pg/ml vs. Agtr1a?/? mice: 67 6 pg/ml, P < 0.01) and decreases in total lysate and membrane aquaporin-2 (AQP2; 48.6 7% of WT mice, P < 0.001) and adenylyl cyclase isoform III (55.6 8% of WT mice, P < 0.01) proteins. Although 24-h water deprivation increased plasma AVP to the same levels in both strains, 24-h urine excretion was still higher, whereas urine osmolality remained lower, in Agtr1a?/? mice (P < 0.01). Water deprivation increased total lysate AQP2 proteins in the inner medulla but had no effect on adenylyl cyclase III, phosphorylated MAPK ERK1/2, and membrane AQP2 proteins in Agtr1a?/? mice. Furthermore, infusion of DDAVP for 2 wk was unable to correct the urine-concentrating defects in Agtr1a?/? mice. These results demonstrate that AT1a receptor-mediated ANG II signaling is required to maintain tonic AVP release and regulate V2 receptor-mediated responses to water deprivation in the inner medulla. PMID:22739536

  2. AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in AT1a receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao C; Shao, Yuan; Zhuo, Jia L

    2012-09-01

    It is well recognized that ANG II interacts with arginine vasopressin (AVP) to regulate water reabsorption and urine concentration in the kidney. The present study used ANG II type 1a (AT(1a)) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a(-/-)) mice to test the hypothesis that AT(1a) receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in the renal medulla. Eight groups of wild-type (WT) and Agtr1a(-/-) mice were treated with or without 24-h water deprivation and 1-desamino-8-d-AVP (DDAVP; 100 ng/h ip) for 2 wk or with losartan (10 mg/kg ip) during water deprivation. Under basal conditions, Agtr1a(-/-) mice had lower systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), greater than threefold higher 24-h urine excretion (WT mice: 1.3 0.1 ml vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 5.9 0.7 ml, P < 0.01), and markedly decreased urine osmolality (WT mice: 1,834 86 mosM/kg vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 843 170 mosM/kg, P < 0.01), without significant changes in 24-h urinary Na(+) excretion. These responses in Agtr1a(-/-) mice were associated with lower basal plasma AVP (WT mice: 105 8 pg/ml vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 67 6 pg/ml, P < 0.01) and decreases in total lysate and membrane aquaporin-2 (AQP2; 48.6 7% of WT mice, P < 0.001) and adenylyl cyclase isoform III (55.6 8% of WT mice, P < 0.01) proteins. Although 24-h water deprivation increased plasma AVP to the same levels in both strains, 24-h urine excretion was still higher, whereas urine osmolality remained lower, in Agtr1a(-/-) mice (P < 0.01). Water deprivation increased total lysate AQP2 proteins in the inner medulla but had no effect on adenylyl cyclase III, phosphorylated MAPK ERK1/2, and membrane AQP2 proteins in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Furthermore, infusion of DDAVP for 2 wk was unable to correct the urine-concentrating defects in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that AT(1a) receptor-mediated ANG II signaling is required to maintain tonic AVP release and regulate V(2) receptor-mediated responses to water deprivation in the inner medulla. PMID:22739536

  3. Reduction of lead concentrations in vegetables grown in Tarragona Province, Spain, as a consequence of reduction of lead in gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, M.; Rico, A.; Schuhmacher, M.

    1995-12-31

    Lead concentrations were determined in 350 samples belonging to 13 different species of vegetables from Tarragona Province, Spain. The samples were subjected to lead analyses by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. During the period 1989-1994, an average decrease for lead concentrations of 69% was estimated. Spinach showed the lowest reduction2 in lead content (6%), while the highest decreases were observed for onion (87%) and leek (90%). Taking into account the average consumption of vegetable foodstuffs by the population of Tarragona Province, the daily lead intake through edible vegetables was reduced from 41.5 {mu}g/d in 1989 to 10.6 {mu}g/d in 1994. The results of the current study demonstrate a substantial decline in the lead levels of vegetables from Tarragona Province. The major cause of this decline is most likely the reduced leaded gasoline consumption.

  4. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

  5. Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

  6. Effect of pH, temperature, and lead concentration on the bioremoval of lead from water using Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ya?mur; Taner, Fadime

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the ability of the aquatic plant Lemna minor (duckweed) to remove soluble lead under various laboratory conditions. In a batch process L. minor was exposed to different pH values (4.5-8.0) and temperature (15-35 degrees C) in presence of different lead concentrations (0.1-10.0 mg L(-1)) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period on a dry weight basis, the concentrations of lead in tissue and in medium and net uptake of lead by Lemna all have been determined in each condition. The percentages of lead uptake ratios (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated for these conditions. Bioaccumulated lead concentrations and the PMU were obtained at lowest pH of 4.5, and at 30 degrees C. The highest accumulated lead concentration was found at pH 4.5 as 3.599 mg Pb g(-1) in 10.0 mg L(-1). It decreased to pH 6.0, but it did not change at pH 6.0-8.0 range. The maximum lead accumulation was obtained at 30 degrees C as 8.622 mg Pb g(-1) in 10 mg L(-1) at pH 5.0, and the minimum was at 15 degrees C as 0.291 mg g(-1) in 0.1 mg L(-1). Lead accumulation gradually increased with increasing lead in medium, but the opposite trend was observed for PMU. Lead accumulation increased up to 50 mg L(-1), but did not change significantly in the 50.0-100.0 mg L(-1) range. The lead uptake from water was modeled and the equation fit the experimental data very well PMID:19810357

  7. Urine Metanephrines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Urine Metanephrines, Total and Fractionated Related tests: Catecholamines , Plasma Free Metanephrines , VMA All content on Lab Tests ... The Endocrine Society recommends using a test for plasma free metanephrines or urine metanephrines to evaluate an ...

  8. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  9. A surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method for the determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine and variation of endogenous urinary concentrations of GHB.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyoung; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun

    2014-09-01

    ?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a strong anesthetic effect; however, proving its ingestion through the quantification of GHB in biological specimens is not straightforward due to the endogenous presence of GHB in human blood, urine, saliva, etc. In the present study, a surrogate analyte approach was applied to accurate quantitative determination of GHB in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to overcome this issue. For this, (2)H6-GHB and (13)C2-dl-3-hydroxybutyrate were used as a surrogate standard and as an internal standard, respectively, and parallelism between the surrogate analyte approach and standard addition was investigated at the initial step. The validation results proved the method to be selective, accurate, and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges (0.1-1?g/ml). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of (2)H6-GHB were 0.05 and 0.1?g/ml, respectively. No significant variations were observed among urine matrices from different sources. The stability of (2)H6-GHB was satisfactory under sample storage and in-process conditions. However, in vitro production of endogenous GHB was observed when the urine sample was kept under the in-process condition for 4h and under the storage conditions of 4 and -20C. In order to facilitate the practical interpretation of urinary GHB, endogenous GHB was accurately measured in urine samples from 79 healthy volunteers using the surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method developed in the present study. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations in 74 urine samples with quantitative results ranged from 0.09 to 1.8?g/ml and from 4.5 to 530?g/mmol creatinine, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between the unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations. The urinary endogenous GHB concentrations were affected by gender and age while they were not significantly influenced by habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, or caffeine-containing beverage drinking. PMID:24929871

  10. Changes of n-hexane metabolites in urine of rats exposed to various concentrations of n-hexane and to its mixture with toluene or MEK.

    PubMed

    Iwata, M; Takeuchi, Y; Hisanaga, N; Ono, Y

    1983-01-01

    It is well known that n-hexane produces peripheral neuropathy, and 2,5-hexanedione, one of the metabolites of n-hexane, is thought to be the main causative agent. Recently, the metabolites of n-hexane in urine have been measured by gas chromatography, and 2,5-hexanedione was proved to be useful for the biological monitoring of n-hexane exposure. In the present experiment, we intended to clarify the change of n-hexane metabolites in the urine of rats exposed to various concentrations of n-hexane and to its mixture with toluene of MEK. In the first experiment, five separate groups of five rats each were exposed to 100, 500, 1000, or 3000 ppm of n-hexane, or fresh air respectively in an exposure chamber for 8 h a day. Urinary samples were gathered during exposure, 16, 24, and 40 h after exposure. Half of each sample was analyzed by gas chromatography after hydrolysis with acid and enzymes, and the other half was analyzed without hydrolysis. 2,5-Dimethylfuran, MBK, 2-hexanol, 2,5-hexanedione, and gamma-valerolactone could be identified as n-hexane metabolites in the urine. The main metabolites were 2-hexanol and 2,5-hexanedione. 2-Hexanol was mostly excreted during exposure, while most of the 2,5-hexanedione was excreted after the end of exposure. The amount of metabolites in the urine correlatively increased with the concentration of n-hexane from 100 to 1000 ppm, but the amount of metabolites scarcely increased when the concentration of n-hexane increased from 1000 to 3000 ppm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6654498

  11. Anthropogenic lead concentrations and sources in Baltic Sea sediments based on lead isotopic composition.

    PubMed

    Zaborska, Agata

    2014-08-15

    The Gulf of Gda?sk is influenced by heavy metals of anthropogenic origin. In this study, temporal concentration changes of Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were studied in six, 50 cm long sediment cores. The main aim of the study was to concentrate on the history of Pb fluxes and Pb isotopic composition ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) to trace Pb sources. The lowest Pb concentrations (19 ?g g(-1)) were measured in sediments deposited circa 1860, while the highest Pb concentrations (63-147 ?g g(-1)) were measured in sediments deposited between 1960s and 70s. Pre-industrial Pb fluxes were 7 Pb m(2)year(-1), while after WWII they reached 199 Pb m(2)year(-1). Highest (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios (?1.22) were measured in the oldest sediment layers, and the lowest (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios (?1.165) were measured in the sediments deposited in 1970s-90s. During the period of highest Pb contamination, the anthropogenic Pb fraction reached up to 93%. A general discussion of the Pb sources, emissions, and loads for Poland is included. PMID:25016419

  12. Lead concentrations in bullfrog Rana catesbeiana and green frog R. clamitans tadpoles inhabiting highway drainages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdsall, C.W.; Grue, C.E.; Anderson, A.

    1986-01-01

    Lead concentrations were determined in sediment and tadpoles of bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana and green frogs R. clamitans from drainages along highways with different daily average traffic volumes (range, 4272 to I08,800 vehicles day-I) and from ponds >0.4 km from the nearest highway. Lead concentrations (mg kg--I dry weight) in sediment (7-8 to 940) were usually greater (4-5 times) than those in the tadpoles (bullfrog, 0,07 to 270; green frog, 0,90 to 240 mg kg-I). Lead concentrations in sediment (r =0.63) and in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = 0.69; green frog, r = 0.57) were positively correlated with average daily traffic volume. Lead concentrations in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = (). 76: green frog, r = 0.75) were also positively correlated with lead concentrations in sediment. At sites where both bullfrog and green frog tadpoles were collected. lead concentrations in the two species were closely related (r = 0.84). Lead concentrations in tadpoles living near highways may contribute to the elevated lead levels reported in wildlife that are potential tadpole predators. Dietary lead concentrations similar to those in our tadpoles have been associated with physiological and reproductive effects in some species of birds and mammals. However, additional data are needed to determine the hazards to predators of lead concentrations in tadpoles.

  13. Indices of potential lead hazard.

    PubMed Central

    Posner, H S

    1977-01-01

    This review is concerned with the concentrations of lead in human whole blood, erythrocytes, plasma, serum, soft tissues, bone, and urine. The extent to which redistribution of some of the bound lead occurs is outlines. The effects of lead on enzyme activities and on the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in the blood and urine are described. A brief section deals with the range of signs and symptoms that can occur and differences seen between symptomatic children and adults. PMID:332498

  14. Effect of intravenous taurine supplementation on plasma, blood cell, and urine taurine concentrations in adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kopple, J D; Vinton, N E; Laidlaw, S A; Ament, M E

    1990-11-01

    Thirty-four adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition (TPN) were treated either with or without intravenous taurine for less than or equal to 24 mo. Statistical comparisons were carried out in eight patients randomly assigned to receive intravenous taurine, usually 10 mg.kg-1.d-1, and 10 patients not receiving taurine. Compared with normal adults, baseline plasma taurine and urine taurine-creatinine ratios were decreased in both groups and platelet taurine was reduced in the taurine-treated group. During taurine treatment the mean of the mean values for taurine became normal in plasma and platelets and remained normal in erythrocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes; urine taurine-creatinine ratios rose to approximately five times normal. During follow-up, patients not given taurine had plasma, erythrocyte, and granulocyte taurine and urine taurine-creatinine ratios below normal values and the concentrations of taurine-treated patients. Their platelet taurine was also subnormal. Thus, 10 mg taurine.kg-1.d-1 intravenously normalizes plasma and blood cell taurine concentrations in long-term TPN patients. PMID:2122710

  15. Posidonia oceanica as a historical monitor device of lead concentration in marine environment.

    PubMed

    Tranchina, L; Miccich, S; Bartolotta, A; Brai, M; Mantegna, R N

    2005-05-01

    We show that Posidonia oceanica is able to reliably monitor the variability of environmental lead (Pb). We analyze lead concentration measured in the scales and rhizomes of Posidonia oceanica collected in seven sites along the coasts of the Sicily island and subsequently fractioned them according to a lepidochronological analysis. We measure lead concentration in Posidonia oceanica tissues by using the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. We compare the measured lead concentration with the estimated lead emission in air due to the gasoline sold and used for combustion in car engines in Sicily. By computation of the Pearson cross-correlation coefficient, we show that lead concentration, which is measured in the scales of Posidonia oceanica, is statistically correlated to lead emission in air and reflects the level of lead pollution in the coastal marine environment. PMID:15926545

  16. Feather lead concentrations and (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus).

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, M E; George, D; Scherbinski, S; Gwiazda, R; Johnson, M; Burnett, J; Brandt, J; Lawrey, S; Pessier, A P; Clark, M; Wynne, J; Grantham, J; Smith, D R

    2010-04-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only approximately 10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant of population health, our findings should increase the understanding of population-level effects from lead poisoning in condors; this information may also be helpful for other avian species potentially impacted by lead poisoning. PMID:20199067

  17. Simultaneous quantification of vinblastine and desacetylvinblastine concentrations in canine plasma and urine samples using LC-APCI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Achanta, Satyanarayana; Ngo, Minh; Veitenheimer, Allison; Maxwell, Lara K; Wagner, Jarrad R

    2013-01-15

    A highly sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of vinblastine and its metabolite, desacetylvinblastine, in canine plasma and urine samples. Plasma and urine samples were processed by a solid phase extraction procedure. The optimal chromatographic behavior of these analytes was achieved on pentafluorophenyl (PFP) propyl analytical column (5μm, 50×2.1mm) under isocratic elution of 0.75mL/min with a mobile phase of 5mM ammonium acetate and methanol. The samples were analyzed in positive ion, multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curves were linear over 0.125-2ng/mL (lower calibration curve); 2-100ng/mL (higher calibration curve) and 0.125-5ng/mL for vinblastine and desacetylvinblastine in plasma, and over 1-2000ng/mL and 0.5-100ng/mL for vinblastine and desacetylvinblastine in urine samples, respectively. The limits of quantitation of vinblastine and desacetylvinblastine were 0.125ng/mL in both matrices. The intra and interday accuracy was above 89% and precision below 8.6% for both analytes in both matrices. The developed method was successfully applied to ongoing in vivo vinblastine pharmacokinetic studies in dogs. PMID:23314352

  18. Characterization of the airborne concentrations of lead in U. S. industry

    SciTech Connect

    Froines, J.R.; Baron, S.; Wegman, D.H.; O'Rourke, S. )

    1990-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead represents a continuing problem of significant magnitude in the United States. To characterize the problem for surveillance purposes, an analysis of the airborne concentrations of lead identified in OSHA compliance inspections was conducted for the years 1979 to 1985. The five specific objectives of the study were: (1) to examine the distribution of air lead concentration in industrial environments; (2) to determine the secular trends in air lead concentrations for high lead industries; (3) to assess which job titles had excessive airborne lead concentrations; (4) to evaluate whether there was a relationship between lead overexposure and company size, unionization, or type of inspection; and (5) to investigate the prevalence of respirator violations for lead. Fifty-two industries were identified which had more than 1/3 of their inspection medians greater than the permissible exposure limit. These included primary and secondary lead smelting, battery manufacture, pigment manufacture, brass/bronze foundries, as well as 46 other industries. There has been little if any improvement in the prevalence and severity of airborne lead concentrations for the high lead industries, battery manufacture, secondary smelting, pigment manufacture, and brass/bronze foundries. Specific high exposure job titles are identified for certain high lead industries. The job title of painting stands out as an especially problematical job title across a number of industries. The prevalence of respirator violations is approximately 20% of all lead inspections.

  19. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.

  20. Comparative Study of Lead Concentration in Feathers of Urban and Rural Passerines in Merida, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava-Diaz, Remedios; Hoogesteijn, Almira L; Erosa, Mercy Dzul; Febles, Jose L; Mendez-Gonzalez, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    Lead is a commonly monitored heavy metal because of potential health effects on exposed organisms. We quantified lead in secondary feathers of two passerine bird species, clay-colored thrushes (Turdus grayi) and great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus), from an urban and a rural site in the municipality of Merida, Yucatan. Urban lead concentration was significantly higher than its rural counterpart for both species (p<0.05). In the urban site, lead concentration was similar in both species (p=0.14). However, data from the rural site showed that lead concentration was significantly higher in thrush feathers (p<0.05). Lead levels herein presented are among the lowest ever reported suggesting that either lead accumulation or absorption is limited. Finally, our data seem to support the hypothesis that species feeding ecology plays a major role in lead accumulation. PMID:26253842

  1. Evaluation of lead concentrations in 18th-century Omaha Indian skeletons using ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, K J; Ghazi, A M

    1992-10-01

    The analysis of skeletal remains of Omaha Indians buried between AD 1780 and 1820 indicated that lead was incorporated in cortical bone. The diagenetic or biogenetic origin of the lead was evaluated by examination of lead isotope ratios of the bones and artifacts, and comparison of lead concentrations in burial soils with those of the bones. The isotopic values of the lead artifacts demonstrate that the lead was mined in the Missouri region. Although the isotope ratios in the bones are not identical with that from the lead artifacts, there is a strong relationship between them. This finding indicates that the lead in the bone was at least partly derived from the artifacts. Because lead artifacts rarely accompanied the burials but lead was ubiquitous in the bones, we suggest a biogenetic origin for the lead. There is also the possibility that some of the lead may have been derived from pigments applied to the corpse during mortuary ritual. PMID:1443093

  2. Feather lead concentrations and207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gwiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, Allan P.; Clark, M.; Wynne, J.; Grantham, And J.; Smith, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ???10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. A longitudinal study of the relation of lead in blood to lead in air concentrations among battery workers.

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkins, D G; Robins, T G; Hinkamp, D L; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1992-01-01

    The relation between lead in air (PbA) and lead in blood (PbB), concentrations was investigated among 44 workers in five major operations in a United States high volume, lead acid battery plant. The study covered a 30 month period in which workers received frequent PbA and PbB determinations, workers remained in a single job, and PbA concentrations averaged below the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 50 micrograms/m3. In both univariate and multivariable linear regressions, longitudinal analyses averaging PbA concentrations over the 30 month study period appeared superior to cross sectional analyses using only six month PbA averages to model PbB concentrations. The covariate adjusted coefficient (alpha value) for PbA (mu/m3) in models of PbB (micrograms/100 g) was 1.14. This figure is strikingly higher than that reported in previous studies in the lead acid battery industry in all of which PbA concentrations were substantially higher than in the current study. Plausible explanations for the difference in alpha values include non-linearity of the PbA-PbB curve, a higher fraction of large size particulate associated with higher PbA concentrations, survivor bias among workers exposed to higher PbA concentrations, and the cross sectional designs of most previous studies. Despite previously reported problems with the model used by OSHA to predict PbA-PbB relations, the findings of this study are in good agreement with the predictions of that model. PMID:1571294

  4. A longitudinal study of the relation of lead in blood to lead in air concentrations among battery workers.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, D G; Robins, T G; Hinkamp, D L; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1992-04-01

    The relation between lead in air (PbA) and lead in blood (PbB), concentrations was investigated among 44 workers in five major operations in a United States high volume, lead acid battery plant. The study covered a 30 month period in which workers received frequent PbA and PbB determinations, workers remained in a single job, and PbA concentrations averaged below the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 50 micrograms/m3. In both univariate and multivariable linear regressions, longitudinal analyses averaging PbA concentrations over the 30 month study period appeared superior to cross sectional analyses using only six month PbA averages to model PbB concentrations. The covariate adjusted coefficient (alpha value) for PbA (mu/m3) in models of PbB (micrograms/100 g) was 1.14. This figure is strikingly higher than that reported in previous studies in the lead acid battery industry in all of which PbA concentrations were substantially higher than in the current study. Plausible explanations for the difference in alpha values include non-linearity of the PbA-PbB curve, a higher fraction of large size particulate associated with higher PbA concentrations, survivor bias among workers exposed to higher PbA concentrations, and the cross sectional designs of most previous studies. Despite previously reported problems with the model used by OSHA to predict PbA-PbB relations, the findings of this study are in good agreement with the predictions of that model. PMID:1571294

  5. The Effects of Different Concentrations of Lead Salts on a Variety of Crop Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Liz; Gibbon, Jamie; Hofgartner, Jon; Mason, Craig; Willmetts, Helen

    2003-01-01

    An investigation is described that would be suitable for A-level or first year degree Biology or Environmental Science students. Crop plants were grown in different concentrations of lead chloride and lead nitrate. French beans, carrots and Brussels sprouts were all inhibited at concentrations over 0.01 mol dm[superscript -3] showing stunted root

  6. The Effects of Different Concentrations of Lead Salts on a Variety of Crop Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Liz; Gibbon, Jamie; Hofgartner, Jon; Mason, Craig; Willmetts, Helen

    2003-01-01

    An investigation is described that would be suitable for A-level or first year degree Biology or Environmental Science students. Crop plants were grown in different concentrations of lead chloride and lead nitrate. French beans, carrots and Brussels sprouts were all inhibited at concentrations over 0.01 mol dm[superscript -3] showing stunted root…

  7. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices

    SciTech Connect

    Umoren, J.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-01

    Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Lead and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.

  8. High-throughput chemical screening identifies AG-490 as a stimulator of aquaporin 2 membrane expression and urine concentration

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Naohiro; Nunes, Paula; Bouley, Richard; Nair, Anil V.; Shaw, Stanley; Ueda, Erica; Pathomthongtaweechai, Nutthapoom; Lu, Hua A. Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A reduction or loss of plasma membrane aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in kidney principal cells due to defective vasopressin (VP) signaling through the VP receptor causes excessive urine production, i.e., diabetes insipidus. The amount of AQP2 on the plasma membrane is regulated by a balance of exocytosis and endocytosis and is the rate limiting step for water reabsorption in the collecting duct. We describe here a systematic approach using high-throughput screening (HTS) followed by in vitro and in vivo assays to discover novel compounds that enhance vasopressin-independent AQP2 membrane expression. We performed initial chemical library screening with a high-throughput exocytosis fluorescence assay using LLC-PK1 cells expressing soluble secreted yellow fluorescent protein and AQP2. Thirty-six candidate exocytosis enhancers were identified. These compounds were then rescreened in AQP2-expressing cells to determine their ability to increase AQP2 membrane accumulation. Effective drugs were then applied to kidney slices in vitro. Three compounds, AG-490, ?-lapachone, and HA14-1 increased AQP2 membrane accumulation in LLC-PK1 cells, and both AG-490 and ?-lapachone were also effective in MDCK cells and principal cells in rat kidney slices. Finally, one compound, AG-490 (an EGF receptor and JAK-2 kinase inhibitor), decreased urine volume and increased urine osmolality significantly in the first 24 h after a single injection into VP-deficient Brattleboro rats. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic procedure for identifying new compounds that modulate AQP2 trafficking using initial HTS followed by in vitro assays in cells and kidney slices, and concluding with in vivo testing in an animal model. PMID:24944200

  9. Concentrations of isoflavones in plasma and urine of post-menopausal women chronically ingesting high quantities of soy isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Mathey, J; Lamothe, V; Coxam, V; Potier, M; Sauvant, P; Bennetau-Pelissero, C

    2006-06-01

    Soy food or food supplements based on soy containing isoflavones (Isos) are increasingly available in Western countries. However, the variability of Isos levels in urine and plasma in humans during chronic ingestion is poorly documented. Nevertheless, this is the way these compounds will most probably be used in the future, especially if the soy-based supplements market goes on increasing. Here, glycosilated Isos in an enriched extract of Prevastein equal to 100 mg of equivalent Isos aglycone was given daily to 27 post-menopausal women for 30 days and to 12 post-menopausal women for 60 days. Volunteers were given Prevastein in a cereal bar (25 mg Isos) and in a yoghurt (25 mg Isos) both at breakfast and dinner. Plasma samples were collected after overnight fasting. Urine samples were aliquots of a 24 h collection checked on volume and creatinin excretion levels. Genistein, daidzein and equol were measured at day 0 and every 15 days afterwards, using original specific ELISAs. Constant levels were reached from the 15th day. About 59.2% of the volunteers were significant equol producers in the first experiment and 58.3% in the second. A large variability in plasma and urine levels was observed among post-menopausal women consuming 100 mg Isos per day, although remaining relatively stable in each individual subject. This could partly account for the controversial effects of Isos recorded so far in clinical studies. So Isos plasma levels would have to be assayed during chronic exposures, and could help to better understand the large variability of the effects classically observed in clinical studies. ELISA techniques could be easily exported to analytical laboratories to help physicians and nutritionists with their prescriptions. PMID:16513315

  10. Correlation between some parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Waldron, H. A. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 195-199. Correlation between some parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication. Use has been made of data collected over a number of years from workers exposed to a lead hazard in a motor-car factory. The correlations between various parameters of lead absorption and lead intoxication were computed, including blood and urine lead concentrations, urinary coproporphyrin, ALA and PBG concentrations, and haemoglobin concentration. In all, 15 correlation coefficients were calculated, of which only six showed a statistically significant result (i.e., P<005). These six were blood lead and urine lead (r = 038, P<0001), urine lead and coproporphyrin (r = 042, P<0001), urine lead and ALA (r = 043, P<0001), coproporphyrin and ALA (r = 075, P<0001), ALA and PBG (r = 049, P<0001), and urine lead and PBG (r = 019, P<005). PMID:5572689

  11. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  12. Lead concentrations and isotopic signatures in vintages of French wine between 1950 and 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rosman, K.J.R.; Chisholm, W.; Jimi, S.; Candelone, J.P.; Boutron, C.F.; Teissedre, P.L.; Adams, F.C.

    1998-08-01

    Vintages of French wine from 1950 to 1991 were analyzed for lead isotopes and concentration to investigate whether they might be used to archive the isotopic composition of the anthropogenic lead in aerosols to which the vineyard was exposed. Early vintages (1950--1980) contained 78--227 ng/g of lead with {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios between 1.152 and 1.173, while the later vintages displayed significantly lower concentrations and a smaller range of isotopic ratios. The concentration of trimethyl lead, which is associated with automobile emissions, was found to be poorly correlated with total lead in the wines, suggesting that automobile aerosols were not a significant source of the lead. This result was supported by lead isotope data which showed a poor correlation with the available petrol and aerosol data. To identify its origin lead isotopes were measured in vineyard aerosols, soil particles, bottle caps, corks, and brass components used to dispense the wine. Although a dominant source could not be identified there was some evidence to suggest that brass which had a high lead concentration was a significant contributor. Because the lead contribution from the processing of wine was probably relatively high in the past it is unlikely that old vintages of wine will be a suitable archive for lead isotopes in aerosols.

  13. Lead concentration in meat from lead-killed moose and predicted human exposure using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Lindboe, M; Henrichsen, E N; Hgsen, H R; Bernhoft, A

    2012-01-01

    Lead-based hunting ammunitions are still common in most countries. On impact such ammunition releases fragments which are widely distributed within the carcass. In Norway, wild game is an important meat source for segments of the population and 95% of hunters use lead-based bullets. In this paper, we have investigated the lead content of ground meat from moose (Alces alces) intended for human consumption in Norway, and have predicted human exposure through this source. Fifty-two samples from different batches of ground meat from moose killed with lead-based bullets were randomly collected. The lead content was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The lead intake from exposure to moose meat over time, depending on the frequency of intake and portion size, was predicted using Monte Carlo simulation. In 81% of the batches, lead levels were above the limit of quantification of 0.03 mg kg(-1), ranging up to 110 mg kg(-1). The mean lead concentration was 5.6 mg kg(-1), i.e. 56 times the European Commission limit for lead in meat. For consumers eating a moderate meat serving (2 g kg(-1) bw), a single serving would give a lead intake of 11 g kg(-1) bw on average, with maximum of 220 g kg(-1) bw. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the median (and 97.5th percentile) predicted weekly intake of lead from moose meat was 12 g kg(-1) bw (27 g kg(-1) bw) for one serving per week and 25 g kg(-1) bw (45 g kg(-1) bw) for two servings per week. The results indicate that the intake of meat from big game shot with lead-based bullets imposes a significant contribution to the total human lead exposure. The provisional tolerable weekly intake set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 25 g kg(-1) bw is likely to be exceeded in people eating moose meat on a regular basis. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has recently concluded that adverse effects may be present at even lower exposure doses. Hence, even occasional consumption of big game meat with lead levels as those found in the present study may imply an increased risk for adverse health effects. Children and women of child-bearing age are of special concern due to the neurodevelopmental effects of lead. PMID:22651819

  14. Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wan; Liu, Xiande; Zhao, Liwei; Guo, Dongfa; Tian, Xiaodan; Adams, Freddy

    2006-07-01

    The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The 206Pb/207Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level. PMID:16165188

  15. Relationship of sociodemographic factors to blood lead concentrations in New Haven children.

    PubMed Central

    Stark, A D; Quah, R F; Meigs, J W; Delouise, E R

    1982-01-01

    From September 1974 to 28th February 1977 80% of the children in New Haven, Connecticut, aged from 1 month to 72 months were screened for blood lead concentrations. This report examines the relationship of several socioeconomic factors to blood lead concentrations. In addition, a set of hypotheses regarding the effect of environmental and social factors on blood level concentrations in racially defined groups was tested. Characteristics associated with increased blood lead concentrations were found to be those that tend to impair the ability of a family to provide the necessary care and supervision for the young child. The risk factors, however, produce different effects on the various race groups. The analyses support the belief that the elimination of childhood lead poisoning as a public health problem will require recognition of social-demographic and family operational factors that underlie the interactions of childhood behaviour and environmental lead potentially available to children. PMID:7119656

  16. Blood lead concentration, renal function, and blood pressure in London civil servants.

    PubMed Central

    Staessen, J; Yeoman, W B; Fletcher, A E; Markowe, H L; Marmot, M G; Rose, G; Semmence, A; Shipley, M J; Bulpitt, C J

    1990-01-01

    Blood lead concentration was measured in 398 male and 133 female London civil servants not subject to industrial exposure to heavy metals. The relation between blood lead and serum creatinine concentrations and blood pressure were examined. Blood lead concentration ranged from 0.20 to 1.70 mumol/l with a geometric mean concentrations of 0.58 mumol/l in men and 0.46 mumol/l in women (p less than 0.001). In women blood lead concentration increased with age (r = +0.27; p = 0.002). In the two sexes blood lead concentration was positively correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked a day (men r = +0.17 and women r = +0.22; p less than or equal to 0.01), with the reported number of alcoholic beverages consumed a day (men r = +0.34 and women r = 0.23; p less than 0.01), and with serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (men r = +0.23 and women r = +0.14; for men p less than 0.01). Blood lead concentration was not correlated with body weight, body mass index, and employment grade. In men 14% of the variance of blood lead concentration was explained by the significant and independent contributions of smoking and alcohol intake and in women 16% by age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In men serum creatinine concentration tended to rise by 0.6 mumol/l (95% confidence interval from -0.2 to +1.36 mumol/l) for each 25% increment in blood lead concentration. In men and women the correlations between blood lead concentration and systolic and diastolic blood did not approach statistical significance. In conclusion, in subjects not exposed to heavy metals at work gender, age, smoking, and alcohol intake are determinants of blood lead concentration. At a low level of exposure, lead accumulation may slightly impair renal function, whereas blood pressure does not seem to be importantly influenced. Alternatively, a slight impairment of renal function may give rise to an increase in blood lead concentration. PMID:1974456

  17. The ferric fluosilicate leaching of lead concentrates; Part 1: Kinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.A.; Dreisinger, D.B. )

    1994-08-01

    Under the current pressure of strict environmental regulations, lead producers are seeking more efficient ways to produce lead. A new hydrometallurgical leaching process, which dissolves lead concentrates with acidified ferric fluosilicate solution, has been investigated for the selective extraction of lead and zinc from lead concentrates containing galena. The leaching of the Pine Point lead concentrate by ferric fluosilicate solutions was studied under various experimental conditions in the temperature range 20 C to 95 C. Temperature had a pronounced effect on the dissolution of the concentrates. The rates of lead leaching are very rapid over the temperature range 38 C to 95 C. The kinetics of zinc extraction are much lower than those of lead extraction. The reaction rates for the dissolution of galena were found to be controlled by surface chemical reaction. The apparent activation energy of the leaching reaction was calculated to be 62.1 kJ/mol. The initial concentrations of Pb[sup 2+], H[sup +], and Fe[sup 3+] in the lixiviant do not have a significant effect on the rate or extent of lead extraction under the experimental conditions in this study.

  18. Concentrations of lead in maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, C N; Phoon, W O; Law, H Y; Tye, C Y; Lim, H H

    1985-01-01

    Lead concentrations in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and breast milk from 114 women who were not occupationally exposed to lead were determined by graphite atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations of lead in maternal blood, umbilical cord blood and breast milk were 0.7, 0.55, and 0.23 mumol/l, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between maternal and umbilical cord blood (r = 0.63). A lower correlation was noted between maternal blood and breast milk (r = 0.29). These results suggest that lead freely crosses the placental barrier from mother to fetus and the transfer of this heavy metal from maternal tissues to breast milk is possible, but the metabolic mechanisms are more complicated. In addition, a longitudinal study was conducted of concentrations of lead in breast milk in nine lactating women. Results suggested no significant change in the content of lead in breast milk during early lactation. PMID:4037861

  19. Blood lead concentrations of spectacled eiders near the Kashunuk River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Creekmore, L.H.; Flint, P.; Smith, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    We collected, 342 blood samples from spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) on their breeding grounds in western Alaska from late May through to early August 1993a??1995. Lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. wet weight were found in the blood of 20% of the adult female eiders, 2% of the adult males and 6% of the ducklings. Lead was detected (a?Y0.02 p.p.m.) more frequently in the blood of adult females than in adult males or ducklings and the maximum concentrations were 14.37, 0.50 and 4.28 p.p.m. wet weight, respectively. In adult females, there was a significant difference in the proportion of detectable blood lead concentrations between three collection times (arrival/nesting, hatch and brood rearing), with the highest proportion (92%) occurring at hatch. Nine hens with blood lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. were captured a second time several weeks to 1 year later. In the hens sampled twice at intervals of several weeks, the blood lead concentrations increased and declined at mean daily rates of 1.10 and 0.94, respectively. The lead concentrations in the blood of adults were not correlated with body weights. Radiographs were taken of 119 eiders and corresponding blood samples from 98 of these birds were analysed for lead. Ingested shot was seen in X-rays of 12 adults and three ducklings and, of the 13 blood samples tested, all had detectable lead concentrations. Of the birds without radiographic evidence of ingested shot, 84% of the adult females, 19% of the adult males and 17% of the ducklings had detectable lead concentrations in their blood. Breeding ground exposure of waterfowl to lead shot is unusual and is of particular concern in spectacled eiders because of their threatened status and declining numbers in western Alaska.

  20. The behaviour of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during struvite precipitation in urine.

    PubMed

    Ronteltap, Mariska; Maurer, Max; Gujer, Willi

    2007-05-01

    Separating urine from wastewater at the source reduces the costs of extensive wastewater treatment. Recovering the nutrients from urine and reusing them for agricultural purposes adds resource saving to the benefits. Phosphate can be recovered in the form of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate). In this paper, the behaviour of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during the precipitation of struvite in urine is studied. When precipitating struvite in urine spiked with hormones and non-ionic, acidic and basic pharmaceuticals, the hormones and pharmaceuticals remain in solution for more than 98%. For heavy metals, initial experiments were performed to study metal solubility in urine. Solubility is shown to be affected by the chemical conditions of stored and therefore hydrolysed urine. Thermodynamic modelling reveals low or very low equilibrium solute concentrations for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). Experiments confirmed Cd, Cu and Pb carbonate and hydroxide precipitation upon metal addition in stored urine with a reaction half-life of ca. 7 days. For all metals considered, the maximum specific metal concentrations per gram phosphate or nitrogen showed to be typically several orders of magnitudes lower in urine than in commercially available fertilizers and manure. Heavy metals in struvite precipitated from normal stored urine could not be detected. Phosphate recovery from urine over struvite precipitation is shown to render a product free from most organic micropollutants and containing only a fraction of the already low amounts of heavy metals in urine. PMID:17368503

  1. Lead and cadmium concentrations in the hair of fishermen from the Subae River basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F.; Tavares, T.M.; Souza, S.P.; Linhares, P.S.

    1984-04-01

    Previous studies have shown heavy pollution by lead and cadmium in the Subae River basin, State of Bahia, Brazil, caused by a lead smelter. Concentrations of these metals were determined in scalp hair of fishermen from three riverside towns and from a reference town. Increased levels for both metals were associated with increasing proximity to the smelter. Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were higher among fishermen with straight hair than among those with curly hair. The effects of hair washing, hair type, and color and age on metal concentrations in fishermen's hair were studied.

  2. Elevated soil lead concentrations in residential yards in Appleton, WI, a small Midwestern city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. J.; Knudsen, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated soil lead concentrations are well documented in large urban areas, having been attributed to a combination of leaded-paint, leaded-gasoline, and industrial emissions. Fewer studies, however, have been conducted in smaller communities. We analyzed 200 surface soils in the neighborhood near Lawrence Universitys campus in Appleton, WI (population ~70,000). Like many larger cities Appleton has a historic city-center. However, it is has no high-density housing or commercial districts and has not seen heavy traffic. The socioeconomic pressures that lead to disrepair of inner city neighborhoods have been less prevalent here as well. At each property 3 integrated samples were taken, one adjacent to the front of the house, one in the front lawn, and one between the road and sidewalk. We correlated building and property traits (e.g. structure age, distance from road, exterior type, exterior condition, direction of exposure, and assessed home value) with soil lead concentrations determined by XRF and subsequently, mapped these data for geospatial patterns. Soil lead concentrations in the city park and campus greens were typically less than 100 ppm. The highest lead concentrations are close to campus, which has a number of civil war era buildings and homes. High lead concentrations (averaging over 1,000 ppm near the home, with concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm) were associated with aging, poorly maintained structures as expected. However, a number of well-maintained structures also show substantially elevated concentrations. These soil lead concentrations are not dissimilar to those found in much larger cities such as New Orleans, Milwaukee, and Chicago. Lead levels dropped quickly as distance from the house increased suggesting that the contamination is from lead paint and not from gasoline exhaust. Furthermore, samples taken adjacent to the main arterial through town exhibited relatively low, but slightly elevated lead levels (~250 ppm). Not surprisingly, these concentrations are in line with those typically found in suburban settings, rather than urban settings. Studying the nature and distribution of soil lead contamination in a smaller city such as Appleton will allow for a better understanding of the public health risks in this and similar cities. Additionally, with fewer likely contributors to soil lead contamination, this study allows a clearer connection to be drawn between one primary factor, paint, and the distribution of soil lead.

  3. Association of Prenatal and Childhood Blood Lead Concentrations with Criminal Arrests in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John Paul; Dietrich, Kim N; Ris, M. Douglas; Hornung, Richard W; Wessel, Stephanie D; Lanphear, Bruce P; Ho, Mona; Rae, Mary N

    2008-01-01

    Background Childhood lead exposure is a purported risk factor for antisocial behavior, but prior studies either relied on indirect measures of exposure or did not follow participants into adulthood to examine the relationship between lead exposure and criminal activity in young adults. The objective of this study was to determine if prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations are associated with arrests for criminal offenses. Methods and Findings Pregnant women were recruited from four prenatal clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio if they resided in areas of the city with a high concentration of older, lead-contaminated housing. We studied 250 individuals, 19 to 24 y of age, out of 376 children who were recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984. Prenatal maternal blood lead concentrations were measured during the first or early second trimester of pregnancy. Childhood blood lead concentrations were measured on a quarterly and biannual basis through 6.5 y. Study participants were examined at an inner-city pediatric clinic and the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. Total arrests and arrests for offenses involving violence were collected from official Hamilton County, Ohio criminal justice records. Main outcomes were the covariate-adjusted rate ratios (RR) for total arrests and arrests for violent crimes associated with each 5 ?g/dl (0.24 ?mol/l) increase in blood lead concentration. Adjusted total arrest rates were greater for each 5 ?g/dl (0.24 ?mol/l) increase in blood lead concentration: RR = 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.071.85) for prenatal blood lead, 1.07 (95% CI 0.881.29) for average childhood blood lead, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.031.57) for 6-year blood lead. Adjusted arrest rates for violent crimes were also greater for each 5 ?g/dl increase in blood lead: RR = 1.34 (95% CI 0.882.03) for prenatal blood lead, 1.30 (95% CI 1.031.64) for average childhood blood lead, and 1.48 (95% CI 1.151.89) for 6-year blood lead. Conclusions Prenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations are associated with higher rates of total arrests and/or arrests for offenses involving violence. This is the first prospective study to demonstrate an association between developmental exposure to lead and adult criminal behavior. PMID:18507497

  4. Impact of Low Blood Lead Concentrations on IQ and School Performance in Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Li, Linda; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Chonghuai; Liu, Xianchen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance. Participants and Methods Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls) from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 35 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assessed by standardized city tests on 3 major subjects (Chinese, Math, and English [as a foreign language]) when children were age 810 years. Results Mean blood lead concentration was 6.43 g/dL (SD?=?2.64). For blood lead concentrations, 7.8% of children (n?=?105) had ?10.0 g/dL, 13.8% (n?=?185) had 8.0 to <10.0 g/dL, and 78.4% (n?=?1051) had <8.0 g/dL. Compared to children with blood lead concentrations <8 g/dL, those with blood lead concentrations ?8 g/dL scored 23 points lower in IQ and 56 points lower in school tests. There were no significant differences in IQ or school tests between children with blood lead concentrations groups 810 and ?10 g/dL. After adjustment for child and family characteristics and IQ, blood lead concentrations ?10 g/dL vs <8 g/dL at ages 35 years was associated with reduced scores on school tests at age 810 years (Chinese, ??=??3.54, 95%CI?=??6.46, ?0.63; Math, ??=??4.63, 95%CI?=??7.86, ?1.40; English, ??=??4.66, 95%CI?=??8.09, ?1.23). IQ partially mediated the relationship between elevated blood lead concentrations and later school performance. Conclusions Findings support that blood lead concentrations in early childhood, even <10 g/dL, have a long-term negative impact on cognitive development. The association between blood lead concentrations 810 g/dL and cognitive development needs further study in Chinese children and children from other developing countries. PMID:23734241

  5. Increased concentrations of serum inhibin B among male workers with long-term moderate lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Jung; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Li, Wan-Fen; Wu, Ching-Hu; Chen, Hsin-I; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2009-04-01

    Lead is known to have an adverse effect to human reproductive system. This study investigates the association between different lead indices (both current and cumulative) and serum inhibin B as well as hormone concentrations in a group of 181 male lead workers. We used data collected during annual health examinations, including measurements of blood lead levels, inhibin B, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (TTE) as well as age, gender, height, weight, smoking and drinking habits. The cumulative lead index included index of cumulative blood lead (ICL) and time weighted index of cumulative blood lead (TWICL) which were calculated from the series blood lead concentrations by annual health examinations since 1991 to the time of the study. Data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple regressions. We found the Pearson correlation coefficients of ICL and TWICL vs. inhibin B to be 0.220 (p=0.003) and 0.231 (p=0.008), respectively. After adjusting for age, smoking, drinking, LH, FSH, and TTE, our multiple regression models revealed that with each unit increase in ICL and TWICL, there was a 0.047 pg/mL (p=0.017) and 1.333 pg/mL (p=0.007) increase in inhibin B. We found an association between cumulative lead index and concentration of serum inhibin B in male workers exposed to lead over long period, possibly indirectly affecting spermatogenesis. PMID:19193394

  6. Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element. PMID:12471396

  7. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  8. Amylase - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .

  9. Urine Culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of bacteria at lower colony counts or other microorganisms that may cause these symptoms. The presence of white blood cells and low numbers of microorganisms in the urine of a symptomatic person is ...

  10. Frequent Urination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day World Prematurity Your support helps babies We are ... very strong. After birth For the first few days after delivery, you may urinate even more often ...

  11. Novel DFO-functionalized mesoporous silica for iron sensing. Part 2. Experimental detection of free iron concentration (pFe) in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Giancarla; Emma, Giovanni; Colleoni, Roberta; Pesavento, Maria; Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Biesuz, Raffaela

    2014-08-21

    Successful in vivo chelation treatment of iron(iii) overload pathologies requires that a significant fraction of the administered drug actually chelates the toxic metal. Increased mobilization of the iron(iii) in experiments on animals or humans, most often evaluated from urinary output, is usually used as an assessment tool for chelation therapy. Alternatively, the efficiency of a drug is estimated by calculating the complexing ability of a chelating agent towards Fe(iii). The latter is calculated by the pFe value, defined as the negative logarithm of the concentration of the free metal ion in a solution containing 10 ?M total ligand and 1 ?M total metal at a physiological pH of 7.4. In theory, pFe has to be calculated taking into account all the complexation equilibria involving the metal and the possible ligands. Nevertheless, complexation reactions in complex systems such as serum and urine may hardly be accurately modelled by computer software. The experimental determination of the bioavailable fraction of iron(iii) in biological fluids would therefore be of the utmost relevance in the clinical practice. The efficiency of the therapy could be more easily estimated as well as the course of overload pathologies. In this context, the aim of the present work was the development of a sensor to assess the free iron directly in biological fluids (urine) of patients under treatment with chelating agents. In the proposed device (DFO-MS), the strong iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) is immobilized on the MCM-41 mesoporous silica. The characterization of the iron(iii) sorption on DFO-MS was undertaken, firstly in 0.1 M KNO3, then directly in urine samples, in order to identify the sorption mechanism. The stoichiometry of the reaction in the solid phase was found to be: with an exchange constant (average value) of log??ex = 40(1). The application of DFO-MS to assess pFe in SPU (Simulating Pathology Urine) samples was also considered. The results obtained were very promising for a future validation and subsequent application of the sensor in samples of patients undergoing chelation therapy. PMID:24883429

  12. Lead concentrations: Bats vs. terrestrial small mammals collected near a major highway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Wholebody lead concentrations of two species of bats (big brown and little brown) and three species of terrestrial mammals (meadow voles, white-footed mice, and short-tailed shrews) trapped along the Baltimore-Washington Parkway in 1976 are compared, including embryo lead concentration. These data are also compared to those of previous studies conducted in Illinois and Virginia within 20 miles of highways with high traffic volumes. Minimum dosages of various lead compounds that cause mortality or reproductive impairment in six species of domestic mammals (horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, rats, and mice) are noted.

  13. Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations and Vitamin D Deficiency in Winter and Summer in Young Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Francis W.; Neti, Prasad V.S.V.; Howell, Roger W.; Wenger, Peter; Louria, Donald B.; Bogden, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that blood lead concentrations are higher in the summer than in winter. Although the effects of some environmental factors such as lead in dust on this phenomenon have been studied, relationships to sunlight-induced vitamin D synthesis have not been adequately investigated. Vitamin D status is influenced by the diet, sunlight exposure, age, skin pigmentation, and other factors, and may modify gastrointestinal lead absorption or release of lead stored in bones into the bloodstream. Objective and Methods We collected paired blood samples from 142 young, urban African-American and Hispanic children in the winter and summer to study the seasonal increase in blood lead and its relationships to vitamin D nutrition, age, and race. Results A winter/summer (W/S) increase in blood lead concentrations of 32.4% was found for children 1–3 years of age. There was a smaller W/S increase of 13.0% in children 4–8 years of age. None of the 51 Hispanic children had an elevated blood lead concentration (≥ 10 μg/dL) during the winter, and only one had an elevated summertime concentration. In contrast, elevated blood lead concentrations were frequent in the 91 African-American children, especially those 1–3 years of age. For the latter, the percentage with elevated blood lead levels increased from 12.2% in winter to 22.5% in summer. A 1.2% W/S increase in serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (serum 25-OH-D) concentrations was found for children 1–3 years of age. However, in children 4–8 years of age the W/S increase in serum 25-OH-D was much larger—33.6%. The percentages of children with low (< 16 μg/L) serum 25-OH-D concentrations were 12.0% in winter and 0.7% in summer and were consistently greater in African-American than in Hispanic children. The seasonal increases in blood lead and serum 25-OH-D in children 4–8 years of age were significantly associated. Conclusion The higher summertime serum 25-OH-D concentrations for the 4- to 8-year-old children are likely caused by increased sunlight-induced vitamin D synthesis and may contribute to the seasonal increase in blood lead. Age and race are key factors that affect blood lead and vitamin D nutrition, as well as their interactions, in young urban children. PMID:17450235

  14. Blood lead concentrations in marine mammals validate estimates of 10{sup 2}- to 10{sup 3}-fold increase in human blood lead concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, B.D.; Flegal, A.R.

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of ultra-low ambient blood lead (PbB) concentrations (mean {+-} SD = 0.13 {+-} 0.06 {micro}g/dL) in Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) validate previous estimates of ultra-low PbB levels in preindustrial humans. These estimates had been unsubstituted, since PbB levels in this range had never been measured in any organisms prior to this study. Similarities in PbB levels among these contemporary and preindustrial mammals are consistent with similarities in their measured and estimated lead exposures, respectively. The marginally higher PbB levels and rates of lead exposure in contemporary marine mammals are, also, consistent with lead isotopic composition analyses that indicate their PbB levels have been elevated from exposure to industrial lead. Consequently, these analyses substantiate concerns that current baseline PbB levels in humans, which are estimated to be two to three orders of magnitude above natural levels, may still constitute public health risks.

  15. Lead and chromium concentrations in the potable water of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, H.M.A.; Mustafa, H.T.; Rihan, T.I. )

    1989-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and United States Public Health Service (USPHS) standards for drinking water recommend an upper limit concentration of 0.05 mg/L for both lead and chromium. The authors studied the cadmium and zinc concentrations in the potable water of the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They report here the results of the study of lead and chromium concentrations in the potable water of the same area to provide a more complete profile of the levels of heavy metals in the potable water of the Eastern Province.

  16. Changes in concentration of lead and cadmium in water from three rivers in Derbyshire.

    PubMed

    Douben, P E

    1989-01-01

    River water from three sites in different streams in Derbyshire was sampled during different periods within 1 year to evaluate fluctuations in cadmium and lead concentration. The results indicate that most of the cadmium was in solution, while most of the lead was associated with particles at all sites. Period of sampling appeared to have a greater effect on the concentration of cadmium and lead than flow rate: metal levels were higher in spring than in autumn. Nevertheless, the total lead concentration increased with flow rate, presumably because more particles were then brought into suspension; however, the lead concentration in the filtrate was reduced at higher flow rates, presumably due to dilution in the greater water volume. Dissolved cadmium concentration increased with rising flow rate at relatively low flow rates and was diluted at high flow rates. The data suggest that particles with which most of the lead is associated remain in suspension for a considerable time even when flow rate decreases. PMID:15092361

  17. Drosophila subobscura flies adapted to low lead concentration carry no fitness cost.

    PubMed

    Kalajdzic, Predrag; Kenig, Bojan; Andjelkovic, Marko

    2015-09-01

    As a response to the long-term presence of heavy metals in the environment, populations can evolve resistance. Its maintenance may have detrimental effect on population's fitness, causing a fitness cost. Lead is one of the widely distributed elements in the environment exhibiting high toxicity on organisms. By analyzing developmental stages viability and developmental time, we evaluated fitness cost in Drosophila subobscura flies adapted to low lead concentration and control flies derived from the same wild population, as well as their hybrids. Significant changes in specific developmental stages viability were detected in both lines, as well as their hybrids, suggesting complex response to low lead concentration. The results show that a long-term exposure to low lead concentration may have a significant impact on a population's survival, especially in a changing environment conditions. PMID:25935609

  18. Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations in Essential Tremor: A CaseControl Study in Mersin, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dogu, Okan; Louis, Elan D.; Tamer, Lulufer; Unal, Ozgur; Yilmaz, Arda; Kaleagasi, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Background Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common neurologic disorders. Aside from underlying susceptibility genes, recent studies have also begun to focus on environmental toxic factors. Yet there remains a paucity of information on such factors, making studies of environmental factors important. A recent study in New York City found blood lead concentrations to be elevated in ET cases compared with matched controls. Chronic exposure to lead produces cerebellar damage, and this could predispose individuals to develop ET. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether the elevation in blood lead concentrations observed in a single study in New York was similarly present in ET cases sampled from a completely different geographic region. Methods Blood lead concentrations were measured in 105 ET cases and 105 controls at Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey. Results The median blood lead concentration was 2.7 ?g/dL in ET cases compared with 1.5 ?g/dL in controls (p < 0.001). In an unadjusted logistic regression model, blood lead concentration was associated with diagnosis: odds ratio (OR) = 4.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.536.37; p < 0.001 (i.e., each 1-?g/dL increase in blood lead concentration was associated with a 4-fold increased odds of ET). This association was more robust when cases were compared with a subsample of controls who did not share the same home environment (OR = 8.13; 95% CI, 3.0521.65; p < 0.001). In adjusted models, results were similar. Conclusions These data replicate those of a previous study in New York and demonstrate an association between the environmental toxicant lead and a common neurologic disorder. PMID:18007985

  19. Blood Lead Concentration and Thyroid Function during Pregnancy: Results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Linda G.; Liu, Xinhua; Rajovic, Biljana; Popovac, Dusan; Oberfield, Sharon; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk of adverse neonatal and obstetric outcomes as well as lower IQ in children, the environmental determinants of maternal thyroid dysfunction have yet to be fully explored. Objectives: We aimed to examine associations between mid-pregnancy blood lead (BPb) and concomitant measures of thyroid function among participants in the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Methods: As part of a population-based prospective study of two towns in Kosovoone with high levels of environmental lead and one with lowwomen were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy, at which time blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. We measured concentrations of BPb, free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in archived serum samples. Results: Compared with women from the unexposed town, women from the exposed town had lower mean FT4 (0.91 0.17 vs. 1.03 0.16 ng/dL), higher mean TPOAb (15.45 33.08 vs. 5.12 6.38 IU/mL), and higher mean BPb (20.00 6.99 vs. 5.57 2.01 ?g/dL). No differences in TSH levels were found. After adjustment for potential confounders, for each natural log unit increase in BPb, FT4 decreased by 0.074 ng/dL (95% CI: 0.10, 0.046 ng/dL), and the odds ratio for testing positive to TPOAb was 2.41 (95% CI: 1.53, 3.82). We found no association between BPb and TSH. Conclusions: Prolonged lead exposure may contribute to maternal thyroid dysfunction by stimulating autoimmunity to the thyroid gland. Citation: Kahn LG, Liu X, Rajovic B, Popovac D, Oberfield S, Graziano JH, Factor-Litvak P. 2014. Blood lead concentration and thyroid function during pregnancy: results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:11341140;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307669 PMID:24866691

  20. Concentration of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, arsenic and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Desai, Charlene Coore; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 ?g/dL), 4.4 (2.4 ?g/L), 10.9 (9.2 ?g/L), and 43.7 (17.7 ?g/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 ?g/L vs. 6.4 ?g/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  1. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  2. Total lead concentration in new decorative enamel paints in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Scott; Speranskaya, Olga; Brosche, Sara; Gonzalez, Hebe; Solis, Daniela; Kodeih, Naji; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Lead concentrations in new enamel decorative paints were determined in three countries in different areas of the world where data were not previously available. The average total lead concentration of the enamel decorative paints purchased in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia was 24,500ppm (ppm, dry weight), more than 270 times the current limit of 90ppm in Canada and in the United States. Sixty-three percent of these paints contained concentrations greater than 90ppm. Fifty-nine percent contained concentrations greater than 600ppm, the current limit in some countries. The maximum concentrations found were 236,000ppm in Lebanon, 169,000ppm in Paraguay and 52,900ppm in Russia. An average of 29% of the samples contained exceedingly high lead concentrations, >=10,000ppm. Five brands of paint were sampled in each of Lebanon and Paraguay and seven in Russia. Three colors from each brand were analyzed. For five of the six samples of the two brands in Lebanon with affiliations outside the country, the lead concentrations ranged from 1360ppm to 135,000ppm. In Lebanon the maximum concentration in the Egypt-affiliated brand (Sipes) was 135,000ppm and the maximum for the USA-affiliated brand (Dutch Boy) was 32,400ppm. Lead was not detected in any paints from the three of the four brands of paint purchased in Paraguay that had headquarters/affiliations in other countries (Brazil-Coralit), Germany (Suvinil) and USA (Novacor)). Two of the three paints from each of the other Paraguay brands contained high levels of lead with the maximum concentrations of 108,000 and 168,000ppm; one of these brands was manufactured under a license from ICI in the Netherlands. All of the paints purchased in Russia were from Russian brands and were manufactured in Russia. All three paints from one brand contained below detection levels of lead. The maximum levels of lead in the other six brands in Russia ranged from 3230 to 52,900ppm. The two brands with the highest lead concentration, TEKS and LAKRA, were produced by companies in the top three in market share.. Overall, lead concentrations were much higher in the colored paints such as red and yellow than in white paints. In each of the three countries a brand based in that country had a colored paint that either met a 90ppm limit or was close to meeting the limit-demonstrating that practical technology was available in each of these countries to produce low lead bright colored enamel decorative paints. Even though technology for producing paint without added lead existed in each of these countries, twenty-nine (29) percent of the paints analyzed contained exceedingly high concentrations (>=10,000ppm) of lead. PMID:25791866

  3. Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 μg/dL cases vs. 2.73 μg/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 μg/dL vs. 2.72 μg/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

  4. Lead Concentration Levels in Drinking Water from Schools in Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araraso, I.; Huang, J.; Lau, S.; Le, A.

    2006-12-01

    Lead was often used in plumbing during the past century because of its malleability and ability to ensure water tight pipe connections. However, when this element was discovered to be poisonous, the use of lead pipes was outlawed. In spite of this, lead solder continued to be used until the late 1980's. In 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) passed an act that established a lead concentration limit of 15 ppb (parts per billion) in drinking water. Still, any trace of this heavy metal has been determined to be a health risk. Several schools in the Oakland Unified School District have been built close to one century ago. Many schools were built during the time in which lead pipes or lead solder were allowed. As a result, drinking water at these schools is a cause for concern. In an effort to begin assessing the drinking water quality in Oakland schools, five water samples were collected from each of thirteen schools between mid March and early May 2006. Schools were specifically chosen because of their age and location. The samples were taken to the Lawrence Hall of Science for analysis, and the results were tabulated and analyzed. Preliminary analysis of our data suggests that drinking water in schools built after the 1950's contain average lead concentrations above 15 ppb. Furthermore, out of the thirteen schools from which samples were collected, all but two issued water with lead concentrations that exceed the EPA action limit of 15 ppb. Overall, our work thus far indicates that greater attention should be devoted to investigating lead concentrations in Oakland schools' drinking water, and that in some cases immediate intervention strategies must be devised. To aid in such efforts, we plan to continue our study and further investigate water quality in Oakland Schools by collecting additional samples from a wider range of school sites.

  5. Temporal Variations in Surface Concentrations of Terrestrial Lead 210 and Uranium 235 Radionucleides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimori, M.

    We have started to measure the surface concentrations of terrestrial radionucleides of lead 210 and uranium 235 in Tokyo (N35, E139) in 2002. Lead 210 which is a daughter nucleus of Rn-222 (uranium series) emits 46 keV gamma-ray with a half-life of 22.4 years, while uranium 235 (actinium series) emits a gamma-ray at 186 keV with a half-life of 0.7 billion years. The present measurement of the surface concentration of lead 210 exhibits two peaks in spring and fall, similar to the beryllium 7 seasonal variations, while the uranium 235 concentration does not vary with time within statistical errors. These two terrestrial radionucleides exhibit different temporal variations on the surface. We discuss possible explanations for the differences in the temporal variations from a point of view of differences in their altitude distribution.

  6. Trends in lead concentrations in major U.S. rivers and their relation to historical changes in gasoline-lead consumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Smith, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Declines in concentrations of dissolved lead occurred at nearly two-thirds of 306 locations on major U.S. rivers from 1974 to 1985. Declines in dissolved lead concentrations are statistically significant (p < 0.10) at approximately one-third of the sampling locations. Statistically significant increases in dissolved lead concentrations occurred at only 6 percent of the sites, but are clustered in the Texas-Gulf and Lower Mississippi region. Possible explanations for the observed trends in lead concentrations are tested through comparisons with (1) records of lead discharges from major sources including leaded-gasoline consumption and municipal- and industrial-point source discharges, (2) trends in various water-quality constituents such as pH and total alkalinity, and (3) basin characteristics such as drainage area. Statistically significant declines in lead concentrations in streams and gasoline lead (i.e., the largest source of lead at these sites) are highly coincident for the 1979 to 1980 period at most sampling locations. The greatest amount of decline in gasoline lead occurred at sites showing statistically significant downtrends in stream concentrations of lead from 1974 to 1985. No more than 5 percent of the trends in stream lead are influenced by municipal- and industrial-point sources of lead. Factors that affect the transport of dissolved lead, including lead solubility, suspended sediment, and basin characteristics such as drainage basin size, are not significantly related to trends in dissolved lead. Trends in streamflow explain no more than 7 percent of the downtrends in concentrations of lead and may partly explain the frequent increases in lead concentrations in the Texas-Gulf and Lower Mississippi regions.Declines in concentrations of dissolved lead occurred at nearly two-thirds of 306 locations on major US rivers from 1974 to 1985. Declines in dissolved lead concentrations are statistically significant at approximately one-third of the sampling locations. Statistically significant increases in dissolved lead concentrations occurred at only 6 percent of the sites, but are clustered in the Texas-Gulf and Lower Mississippi regions. Possible explanations for the observed trends in lead concentrations are tested through comparisons with records of lead discharges from major sources including leaded-gasoline consumption and municipal- and industrial-point source discharges, trends in various water-quality constituents such as pH and total alkalinity, and basin characteristics such as drainage area. Study results are discussed.

  7. Increased urinary cobalt and whole blood concentrations of cadmium and lead in women with uterine leiomyomata: Findings from the ENDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Erica B.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Chen, Zhen; Sun, Liping; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Dorais, Jessie; Peterson, C. Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trace elements have estrogen receptor activity, but the association of these elements with uterine leiomyoma has not been defined. A cohort of 473 women aged 1844 undergoing surgery for benign gynecologic indications provided whole blood and urine specimens for trace element analysis, which was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The surgeon documented whether fibroids were present. Geometric mean concentrations were compared between women with and without fibroids, and logistic regression models were generated to assess the impact of the concentration of each trace element on the odds of fibroids. In multivariate regressions, odds of a fibroid diagnosis was higher with increased whole blood cadmium (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.04) and lead (AOR 1.31 95% CI 1.02, 1.69), and urine cobalt (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02, 1.70). Increased exposure to trace elements may contribute to fibroid growth, and fibroids may serve as a reservoir for these elements. PMID:24994689

  8. Exposure to a Low Lead Concentration Impairs Contractile Machinery in Rat Cardiac Muscle.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marito A S C; de Oliveira, Thiago F; Almenara, Camila C P; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson B; Vassallo, Dalton V; Padilha, Alessandra S; Silveira, Edna A

    2015-10-01

    Lead exposure has been considered to be a risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of low plasma lead concentration on cardiac contractility in isolated papillary muscles. Wistar rats were divided in control group or group treated with 100 ppm of lead acetate in the drinking water for 15 days. Blood pressure (BP) was measured weekly. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were anesthetized and euthanized, and parameters related to isolated papillary muscle contractility were recorded. The lead concentrations in the blood reached 12.3 ± 2 μg/dL. The BP was increased in the group treated with 100 ppm of lead acetate. Lead treatment did not alter force and time derivatives of the force of left ventricular papillary muscles. In addition, the inotropic response induced by an increase in the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration was reduced in the Pb(2+) group. However, the uptake of Ca(2+) by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the protein expression of SERCA and phospholamban remained unchanged. Postrest contraction was similar in the both groups, and tetanic peak and plateau tension were reduced in lead group. These results demonstrated that the reduction in the inotropic response to calcium does not appear to be caused by changes in the trans-sarcolemmal calcium flux but suggest that an impairment of the contractile machinery might be taking place. Our results demonstrate that even at a concentration below the limit considered to be safe, lead exerts deleterious effects on the cardiac contractile machinery. PMID:25795172

  9. Random left censoring: a second look at bone lead concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, M.; Nie, H.; Chettle, D. R.; McNeill, F. E.

    2007-09-01

    Bone lead concentrations measured in vivo by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) are subjected to left censoring due to limited precision of the technique at very low concentrations. In the analysis of bone lead measurements, inverse variance weighting (IVW) of measurements is commonly used to estimate the mean of a data set and its standard error. Student's t-test is used to compare the IVW means of two sets, testing the hypothesis that the two sets are from the same population. This analysis was undertaken to assess the adequacy of IVW in the analysis of bone lead measurements or to confirm the results of IVW using an independent approach. The rationale is provided for the use of methods of survival data analysis in the study of XRF bone lead measurements. The procedure is provided for bone lead data analysis using the Kaplan-Meier and Nelson-Aalen estimators. The methodology is also outlined for the rank tests that are used to determine whether two censored sets are from the same population. The methods are applied on six data sets acquired in epidemiological studies. The estimated parameters and test statistics were compared with the results of the IVW approach. It is concluded that the proposed methods of statistical analysis can provide valid inference about bone lead concentrations, but the computed parameters do not differ substantially from those derived by the more widely used method of IVW.

  10. Blood lead concentrations in mallards from Delevan and Colusa National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauser, David M.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Mensik, John G.; Brand, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 181 (108 adult drakes and 73 individuals of mixed age and sex) mallards, Anas platyrhynchos , from Colusa and Delevan National Wildlife Refuges during late winter and summer of 1987. The percentage of birds with elevated lead concentration was 28.7 for late winter and 16.4 for late summer. For summer trapped birds, a significantly greater proportion of males than females contained elevated lead levels. These findings indicate that lead poisoning may be a year-round event in certain areas of the Sacramento Valley.

  11. Skeletal concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver in ancient North American Pecos Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, J E; Smith, D R; Flegal, A R

    1991-01-01

    Bone samples of 14 prehistoric North American Pecos Indians from circa 1400 A.D. were analyzed for lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to establish the baseline levels of these elements in an ancient North American population. Measurements of outer and inner bone fractions indicate the former were contaminated postmortem for lead, zinc, and cadmium. The contamination-adjusted average (mean +/- SD) level of lead (expressed as the ratio of atomic lead to atomic calcium) in bones of the Indians was 8.4 +/- 4.4 x 10(-7)), which was similar to ratios in bones of ancient Peruvians (0.9 to 7.7 x 10(-7)) and significantly lower than ratios in bones of modern adults in England and the United States (210 to 350 x 10(-7]. The adjusted average concentrations (microgram per gram dry weight) of biologic cadmium, silver, and zinc in the Pecos Indian bones were 0.032 +/- 0.013, 0.094 +/- 0.044, and 130 +/- 66, as compared to concentrations of 1.8, 0.01 to 0.44, and 75 to 170 in the bones of modern people, respectively. Therefore, cadmium concentrations in Pecos Indian bones are also approximately 50-fold lower than those of contemporary humans. These data support earlier findings that most previously reported natural concentrations of lead in human tissues are erroneously high and indicate that natural concentrations of cadmium are also between one and two orders of magnitude lower than contemporary concentrations. PMID:1773793

  12. Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.

    1986-07-01

    Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

  13. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  14. Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukona??Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid-June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

  15. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Porphyrins are natural chemicals in the body that help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins can be measured in the urine or ...

  16. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina ... care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile ...

  17. Urination - painful

    MedlinePLUS

    ... any allergies to any medicines? Have you had sexual intercourse with someone who has, or may have, gonorrhea or chlamydia? Has there been a recent change in your brand of soap, ... urinary or sexual organs? A urinalysis will be done. A urine ...

  18. Speciation analysis of triethyl-lead and tributyl-tin compounds in human urine by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography microwave-induced plasma atomic emission detection.

    PubMed

    Zachariadis, George A; Rosenberg, Erwin

    2012-05-01

    This work describes the development of a fast method for speciation analysis of triethyl-lead and tributyl-tin species in urine samples after in situ derivatization by tetraethyl- or tetrapropyl-borate reagents. The alkylation reaction is done in the aqueous and urine medium and the less-polar derivatives are extracted in hexane by liquid-liquid extraction. The species were extracted and the extract was efficiently collected from the aqueous phase after centrifugation. Finally, the organometallic species are separated by gas chromatography and determined from the emission signals of elemental lead and tin. Atomic lead and tin are formed from the organolead and organotin compounds during atomization of the column eluate in a microwave-induced helium plasma source. The simultaneous measurement of lead (Pb) at 405.780 nm and tin (Sn) at 303.419 nm was achieved by an atomic emission detector. Finally, the analytes were determined with satisfactory precision (<5%) and detection limits of 0.05 ?g Pb/L and 0.48 ?g Sn/L, respectively, when 10 mL of urine is extracted with 1 mL of hexane and 1 ?L of extract is injected. PMID:22689489

  19. Zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead concentrations in water, sediment, and Anadara senilis in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Bakary, Inza; Yao, Koffi Marcellin; Etchian, Olivier Assoi; Soro, Metongo Bernard; Trokourey, Albert; Bokra, Yobou

    2015-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal contaminations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead were assessed simultaneously in water, sediment, and in the bivalve Arca senilis from the Milliardaires Bay (Cote d'Ivoire) between February and October 2008. The metal load in sediments doubled from the dry season to the rainy season. On the contrary, metal concentrations in waters decreased significantly from the dry season to the rainy season. Zn and Pb concentrations in A. senilis showed similar seasonal variation with sediments. On the other hand, A. senilis regulated Cu concentrations by eliminating about twelve times the concentration accumulated during the dry season. Apparent Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb concentration gradients were observed, but no significant differences between stations for sediment, water, and A. senilis. Concentrations in sediment increased from stations close to Abidjan Harbor towards farther stations, while concentrations in A. senilis showed a reverse gradient. The distribution gradient of A. senilis indicates pollution from local sources, but a transplant experiment is needed to better understand the observed spatial trend. Zn and Cu concentrations may pose little risk to human health and the environment, but they are the highest on the regional scale. On the contrary, Cd and Pb concentrations in A. senilis exceeded the maximum allowable limits set by the European Commission. Complementary studies including chemical speciation should be considered to provide a more accurate assessment of the risk of heavy metals to the environment. PMID:26581608

  20. Lead concentrations and reproductive success in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within highway roadside verges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beyer, W.N.; Franson, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981, the authors studied lead concentrations and reproductive success in free-living European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within the verges of two Maryland highways with different traffic volumes, Route 197(average daily traffic volume[ADT] = 10,800 vehicles) and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (ADT=52,500 vehicles) and a nearby control area. Concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight) of lead in the ingesta (84-94 mg kg-1), carcasses (4.0-9.6 mg kg-1)and feathers (6.8-52 mg kg-1) of Parkway nestlings and adults were 3 to 13 times those found in starlings from the control area, whereas lead concentrations in the ingesta and tissues of starlings from the verge of Route 197 were similar to those of controls. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells (RBCs) of adult and nestling starlings from the Parkway was depressed from 43 to 60% compared to controls. RBC ALAD activity in adults from nests along Route 197 was similar to that of adult starlings from the control area, but that of their young was depressed 17%. Haemoglobin concentrations (-16%) and haematocrits (-10%) in Parkway nestlings were depressed compared with those of nestlings from the other two study areas, whereas those of adults were not affected. Clutch size, number of young hatched and the number of young in nests 1 to 3 days before fledging were similar among sites, as were body weights of adults and prefledging weights of their young. However, brain weights of Parkway nestlings were lower (P < 0.05) than those of nestlings from the other study areas. Results suggests that lead within verges of major highways probably does not pose a serious hazard to adult ground-foraging songbirds. However, the effects of lead-induced reductions in haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, RBC ALAD activity and brain weight on the postfledging survival of their young are not known.

  1. Lead concentration in the blood of the general population living near a lead-zinc mine site, Nigeria: Exposure pathways.

    PubMed

    Bello, Olanrewaju; Naidu, Ravi; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Liu, Yanju; Dong, Zhaomin

    2016-01-15

    Lead (Pb) poisoning in children is a major public health catastrophe worldwide. This report summarises both exposure pathways and blood Pb levels in children below 7 years of age and adults (above 18 years) from the Adudu community living near a lead-zinc mine in Nasawara, Nigeria. The average and median blood Pb levels in children and adults were 2.1 and 1.3 μg/dL, 3.1 and 1.8 μg/dL, respectively. However, Pb in 14% of adults' blood exceeded 5 μg/dL, which is the recommended threshold blood Pb concentration in adults as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore 68% of adults' blood exceeded blood Pb action level of 2 μg/dL. For children, 11.4% and 31% of the blood samples exceeded 5 μg/dL and 2 μg/dL, respectively, while no safe blood Pb level in children has been recommended. In Nasawara, a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the various age groups in children with 2-4 years old having the highest levels and 6 year old children having the lowest Pb levels. Although this study did not detect elevated levels of Pb in children's blood in regions such as Zamfara, Nigeria and Kabwe, Zambia, a high percentage of samples exceeded 2 μg/dL. Soils, floor dusts, water and crops also reveal that Pb contamination in the study area could potentially be the major cause of blood Pb in the community exposed to mining. This study also observed a significant correlation between water Pb levels of adults and blood Pb levels, suggesting that water is the major exposure pathway. This analysis highlights the need to properly manage mining activities so that the health of communities living in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine is not compromised. PMID:26556755

  2. Multiple Sclerosis Incidence Associated with the Soil Lead and Arsenic Concentrations in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies in the world have assessed the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) with soil heavy metal concentrations. We explored the association of soil heavy metal factors and the MS incidence in Taiwan. Methods There were 1240 new MS cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database and were verified with serious disabling disease certificates, 19972008. Soil heavy metal factors records included arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in Taiwan from 1986 to 2002. Spatial regression was used to reveal the association of soil heavy metals and age- and gender-standardized incidence ratios for townships by controlling sunlight exposure hours, smoking prevalence and spatial autocorrelation. Results The lead (Pb) concentration in the soil positively correlated with the township incidence; on the other hand, the arsenic (As) concentration in soil negatively correlated with the township incidence and when found together controlled each other. The positive correlation of lead (Pb) predominated in males, whereas the negative correlation of arsenic (As) in soil predominated in females. Conclusions We conclude that exposure to lead (Pb) in soil positive associated with incidence of MS in Taiwan, especially in males. Exposure to arsenic (As) in soil negative associated with MS in Taiwan, especially in females. PMID:23799061

  3. Chloride - urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine chloride test measures the amount of chloride in a certain volume of urine. ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested in the lab. If needed, the health care provider may ask you to collect your urine ...

  4. Cytology exam of urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine cytology ... the sample is collected as a clean catch urine sample in your doctor's office or at home. ... the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, you may get ...

  5. Protein urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine protein; Albumin - urine; Urine albumin; Proteinuria; Albuminuria ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The color the ...

  6. Effect of Nd3+ concentration quenching in highly doped lead lanthanum zirconate titanate transparent ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Camargo, A. S. S.; Jacinto, C.; Nunes, L. A. O.; Catunda, T.; Garcia, D.; Botero, . R.; Eiras, J. A.

    2007-03-01

    The concentration dependence of the fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd3+ doped lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT), transparent ceramics, is presented. The total emission decay of the emitting level F3/24 is close to exponential, even for high Nd3+ concentration Nt, due to the very low probability of the cross relaxation energy transfer processes among ions. Owing to this low probability, it was inferred that Nd:PLZT presents lower concentration quenching than other laser materials as Nd:YAG. The figure of merit ?Nt, where ? is the fluorescence quantum efficiency, presents a maximum around 6.0wt% Nd2O3, indicating the good prospects of concentrated samples for miniaturization of the laser medium (microchip laser).

  7. Lead Concentration Levels In Public Water Sources in the Fruitvale District of Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A.; Edel, M.; Tril, E.; Crockett, R.; Moreno, K.; Telles, C.; Rodriguez, F.; Folgar, E.; Ramirez-Tril, J.; Torres, J.; Navarro, J.; Nguyen, R.; Moqadam, S.

    2010-12-01

    To assess the possible risk of lead contamination in drinking water in the Fruitvale neighborhood in Oakland, California we collected samples from different fresh water sources and used an EPA approved method to analyze these samples for lead using a spectrophotometer. Our sample locations included drinking fountains at a school, library and train station, as well as an ornamental fountain in a plaza area. Our preliminary results revealed that 8 out of 11, or about 73% of water samples collected contained lead concentrations that exceed the EPA action level of 15?g/l. Given these preliminary results, there is an urgent need for us to continue further testing to confirm these concentrations, so that we can quickly notify the public and city officials of the risks associated with these drinking water sources within this community. Future sampling will follow a more rigorous collection strategy, which will help determine whether or not initial high lead values detected result from waters having had long residence times in local plumbing systems. If this is in fact the case, we intend to produce information that instructs the public on procedures that can be used to reduce the risk of lead exposure, such as only using water after it has been issuing from sources for specified amounts of time, or using filtration devices.

  8. Active concentration of vorticity along the leading edge of a semi-circular wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David; Collins, Jesse; Colonius, Tim

    2007-11-01

    Leading-edge vorticity concentration plays a key role in lift enhancement for insect flight, swept wings on aircraft, and in unsteady flows through the formation of the dynamic stall vortex. Using 16 spatially localized pulsed-blowing actuators, we are able to concentrate the vorticity at the leading edge of a wing with a semi-circular planform. The experiments are done in a wind tunnel with a model chord Reynolds number of 68,000. Peak vorticity values double those of the unforced case result in an 80 percent increase in lift on the wing relative to the unforced post-stall lift. The semi-circular wing obtains lift coefficients approximately 35 percent larger than a rectangular planform wing with a comparable aspect ratio. The sweep of the wing's leading edge is believed to establish a spanwise transport of vorticity, contributing to the stabilization of the leading edge vortex. Closed-loop control of the wing plunging motion in an unsteady flow stream is demonstrated by modulating the strength of the leading-edge vorticity via a proportional-derivative controller.

  9. First-Trimester Urine Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites and Phenols and Placenta miRNA Expression in a Cohort of U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Jessica; Binder, Alexandra M.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Michels, Karin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing concern that early-life exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can influence the risk of disease development. Phthalates and phenols are two classes of suspected EDCs that are used in a variety of everyday consumer products, including plastics, epoxy resins, and cosmetics. In utero exposure to EDCs may affect disease propensity through epigenetic mechanisms. Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether prenatal exposure to multiple EDCs is associated with changes in miRNA expression of human placenta, and whether miRNA alterations are associated with birth outcomes. Methods Our study was restricted to a total of 179 women co-enrolled in the Harvard Epigenetic Birth Cohort and the Predictors of Preeclampsia Study. We analyzed associations between first-trimester urine concentrations of 8 phenols and 11 phthalate metabolites and expression of 29 candidate miRNAs in placenta by qRT-PCR. Results For three miRNAs—miR-142-3p, miR15a-5p, and miR-185—we detected associations between Σphthalates or Σphenols on expression levels (p < 0.05). By assessing gene ontology enrichment, we determined the potential mRNA targets of these microRNAs predicted in silico were associated with several biological pathways, including the regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity. Four gene ontology biological processes were enriched among genes significantly correlated with the expression of miRNAs associated with EDC burden. Conclusions Overall, these results suggest that prenatal phenol and phthalate exposure is associated with altered miRNA expression in placenta, suggesting a potential mechanism of EDC toxicity in humans. Citation LaRocca J, Binder AM, McElrath TF, Michels KB. 2016. First-trimester urine concentrations of phthalate metabolites and phenols and placenta miRNA expression in a cohort of U.S. women. Environ Health Perspect 124:380–387; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408409 PMID:26090578

  10. Investigation of Higher Than Standard Lead Concentrations in Drinking Water From Washington, D.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adarkwah, N. E.; Ararso, I.; Garcia, N.; Goldman, A.; Lieu, C.; Mondragon, J.; Swamy, V.; Unigarro, M.; Cuff, K.

    2005-12-01

    For over two years, the Washington, D.C. area has been plagued by the incidence of alarming concentrations of lead found in local drinking water. During this period, water with lead concentration levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) action limit of 15 ppb has been found in approximately 66% of the homes tested. Because of the problems with lead in drinking water in the D.C. area, the EPA has begun the process of trying to determine whether or not this problem occurs nationwide by obtaining as much lead data as possible. However, it recently reported that no current information exists on lead levels from 78 percent of the nation's public drinking water systems, and that it has no data from as many as 20 states. In an effort to generate information that contributes to a greater understanding of the scope and nature of this real-world environmental health problem, we have begun collecting and performing lead analysis of drinking water samples from different parts of the country. As San Francisco Bay Area - based participants in the NSF-sponsored Environmental Science Information Technology Activities (ESITA) project, we began by establishing E-mail correspondence with children who attend elementary schools in the Washington, D.C. area two years ago, during the first year of the lead crisis. Since that time the elementary school children have sent over 150 water samples from their homes and schools, along with information on the locations from which the water samples were collected to the Bay Area. Upon receipt, we prepare and analyze these samples at UC Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science. Following analysis results are compiled, statistically analyzed, and used to create maps that aid in the interpretation of our data. The majority of samples collected from the D.C. area were obtained from schools and homes located in the central north-northeast section of the District. Of these samples, 72% contained lead in excess of the EPA action limit. Despite reports that lead levels have fallen significantly over the past year, 63% of all homes tested during the second year of our study still contained lead levels that exceed the EPA limit. In addition, drinking water collected from a well-used fountain at an elementary school site that a local government reported as lead free contained lead concentrations greater than 5 times the EPA action limit two years in a row. During the first year of our study, waters collected from this same fountain yielded values as high as 20 times the action limit! Our work over the past two years clearly shows that by working with students who attend schools in different parts of the country, we can contribute in a major way to the EPA's monitoring of lead levels in the country's drinking water. As a result, we intend to continue this work in the future, as well as continuing an investigation that includes the use of water delivery system models that enable us to assess how much water mains, service mains, and home piping systems contribute to the total lead concentrations measured in drinking water samples.

  11. Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust in major cities in Greece in relation to the use of lead in petrol.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulou, Maria A; Day, J Philip

    2006-08-31

    Until recently, the most important source of environmental lead pollution in cities was thought to come from the combustion of leaded petrol. A simple way to monitor the extent of this phenomenon, used in a number of studies in the past, has been to measure lead levels in street dust. Nowadays, it would be expected that lead concentrations in urban dust would have decreased from earlier values, following the progressive reduction of lead in petrol over the past few years, and this hypothesis has recently been confirmed in Manchester, UK. The object of the present work is to determine levels of lead pollution in cities in Greece on 1997 and, if possible, to discover whether similar reductions in lead concentrations have occurred there also. Surveys have been conducted in Thessaloniki, Athens and Piraeus. Samples of roadside dust were collected from streets (categorised by traffic density), national gardens and school playgrounds, and lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid. Lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and lead isotope ratios measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Thessaloniki showed that mean lead concentrations in all categories of location are similar to present levels in Manchester. Further, lead concentrations in dust in the busiest streets in Thessaloniki have fallen by about 55% since a previous study 17 years ago. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between the various types of street. In particular, it was observed that lead levels in school playgrounds in these two cities were much higher than in similar locations in Thessaloniki and Manchester, with a possible hazard to children. Isotope ratio measurements showed that Thessaloniki's lead is isotopically distinct from that found in Athens and Piraeus, which presumably reflects differences in sources of supply. PMID:16687163

  12. Concentrations of Morphine and Codeine in Paired Oral Fluid and Urine Specimens Following Ingestion of a Poppy Seed Roll and Raw Poppy Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Samano, Kimberly L.; Clouette, Randal E.; Rowland, Barbara J.; Sample, R.H. Barry

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of opiate drug test results can be challenging due to casual dietary consumption of poppy seeds, which may contain variable opiate content. Opiate concentrations in paired oral fluid (OF), collected with the Oral-Eze® Oral Fluid Collection System, and urine were analyzed after ingestion of poppy seeds from the same source, consumed raw or contained in a roll. In Part 1, 12 individuals consumed equal portions of a poppy seed roll. For Part 2, the same individuals consumed an equivalent quantity of raw poppy seeds, containing ∼3.2 mg of morphine and 0.6 mg of codeine. Specimens were analyzed both by enzyme immunoassay (opiates) and by GC–MS (morphine/codeine). Urinary morphine was between 155–1,408 (roll) and 294–4,213 ng/mL (raw), measured at 2, 4, 6 and 20 h post-ingestion. Urinary codeine concentrations between 140–194 (roll) and 121–664 ng/mL (raw) were observed up to 6 h post-ingestion. Following consumption of raw poppy seeds, OF specimens were positive, above LOQ, from 0.25 to 3.0 h with morphine ranging from 7 to 600 ng/mL and codeine from 8 to 112 ng/mL. After poppy seed roll consumption, morphine concentrations of 7–143 ng/mL were observed up to 1.5 h with codeine detected in only 5.5% of OF specimens and ranging from 8 to 28 ng/mL. Combined with the existing poppy seed literature, these results support previous findings and provide guidance for interpretation of OF opiate testing. PMID:26378141

  13. Concentrations of Morphine and Codeine in Paired Oral Fluid and Urine Specimens Following Ingestion of a Poppy Seed Roll and Raw Poppy Seeds.

    PubMed

    Samano, Kimberly L; Clouette, Randal E; Rowland, Barbara J; Sample, R H Barry

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation of opiate drug test results can be challenging due to casual dietary consumption of poppy seeds, which may contain variable opiate content. Opiate concentrations in paired oral fluid (OF), collected with the Oral-Eze() Oral Fluid Collection System, and urine were analyzed after ingestion of poppy seeds from the same source, consumed raw or contained in a roll. In Part 1, 12 individuals consumed equal portions of a poppy seed roll. For Part 2, the same individuals consumed an equivalent quantity of raw poppy seeds, containing ?3.2 mg of morphine and 0.6 mg of codeine. Specimens were analyzed both by enzyme immunoassay (opiates) and by GC-MS (morphine/codeine). Urinary morphine was between 155-1,408 (roll) and 294-4,213 ng/mL (raw), measured at 2, 4, 6 and 20 h post-ingestion. Urinary codeine concentrations between 140-194 (roll) and 121-664 ng/mL (raw) were observed up to 6 h post-ingestion. Following consumption of raw poppy seeds, OF specimens were positive, above LOQ, from 0.25 to 3.0 h with morphine ranging from 7 to 600 ng/mL and codeine from 8 to 112 ng/mL. After poppy seed roll consumption, morphine concentrations of 7-143 ng/mL were observed up to 1.5 h with codeine detected in only 5.5% of OF specimens and ranging from 8 to 28 ng/mL. Combined with the existing poppy seed literature, these results support previous findings and provide guidance for interpretation of OF opiate testing. PMID:26378141

  14. Observations on the effect of parathyroid hormone on environmental blood lead concentrations in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Osterloh, J.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on blood lead (Pb) concentrations was observed preliminarily in three different situations. Of 342 healthy bus drivers with no unusual exposure to Pb, 25 drivers with the highest and 25 with the lowest blood Pb were compared for serum PTH concentrations. There was no association between blood Pb and serum PTH concentrations. Eight women with postmenopausal osteoporosis enrolled in an experimental protocol to increase bone mass received daily PTH (1-34 fragment) for 1 week, calcitonin for the next 2 weeks, and oral calcium for the subsequent 10 weeks. This cycle was repeated four times during the year. Initial blood Pb concentrations averaged 6.0 micrograms/dl (range 2.1-8.9). Mean blood Pb concentrations decreased by 1.7 micrograms/dl over 1 year of therapy. The confidence interval for this change excluded zero, the mean change was significantly different from the mean change for comparative population (P less than 0.050), and paired changes were statistically significant (P = 0.045). Lastly, a single subject with hyperparathyroid disease and no unusual exposures to lead demonstrated stabilized blood Pb concentrations that were 50% lower after removal of his hyperplastic parathyroid glands. These observations suggest that the effect of PTH on increasing bone turnover and releasing Pb into blood is not easily detected at low physiologic amounts of PTH, but that with pathologic increases of PTH in hyperparathyroid disease, elevation of blood Pb from bone or increased gastrointestinal absorption may be possible. Likewise, either bone building therapies (PTH + calcitonin + calcium) may move Pb from blood into bone or supplemental calcium may decrease Pb gastrointestinal absorption, thereby explaining the observed lower blood Pb concentrations.

  15. High Sensitivity of an Ha-RAS Transgenic Model of Superficial Bladder Cancer to Metformin Is Associated with ∼240-Fold Higher Drug Concentration in Urine than Serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongbo; Yokoyama, Noriko N; Blair, Christopher A; Li, Xuesen; Avizonis, Daina; Wu, Xue-Ru; Uchio, Edward; Youssef, Ramy; McClelland, Michael; Pollak, Michael; Zi, Xiaolin

    2016-03-01

    While pharmacoepidemiologic and laboratory studies have supported the hypothesis that the antidiabetic drug metformin may be useful in treating or preventing cancer, there is limited evidence to suggest which specific cancer sites may be particularly sensitive. Sensitivity likely is determined both by features of tumor pathophysiology and by pharmacokinetic factors. We used UPII-mutant Ha-ras transgenic mice that develop hyperplasia and low-grade, papillary urothelial cell carcinoma to determine whether metformin has activity in a model of superficial bladder cancer. Metformin significantly improved survival, reduced urinary tract obstruction, reduced bladder weight (a surrogate for tumor volume), and led to clear activation of AMP α kinase and inhibition of mTOR signaling in neoplastic tissue. We investigated the basis of the unusual sensitivity of this model to metformin, and observed that following oral dosing, urothelium is exposed to drug concentrations via the urine that are approximately 240-fold higher than those in the circulation. In addition, we observed that bladder cancer cell lines (RT4, UMUC-3, and J82) with homozygous deletion of either TSC1 or PTEN are more sensitive to metformin than those (TEU2, TCCSUP, and HT1376) with wild-type TSC1 and PTEN genes. Our findings provide a strong rationale for clinical trials of oral metformin in treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(3); 430-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26921394

  16. Lead

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lead Epidemiology Surveillance Program (ABLES) Lead in the environment Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Healthy Homes ...

  17. Lead

    MedlinePLUS

    ... serious about making sure companies that break the law are held accountable In the past year, EPA ... health effects of lead in drinking water The law mandates no-lead products for drinking water after ...

  18. Aflatoxin B1 albumin adducts in plasma and aflatoxin M1 in urine are associated with plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E

    PubMed Central

    Obuseh, Francis A.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Jiang, Yi; Shuaib, Faisal M. B.; Waterbor, John; Ellis, William O.; Piyathilake, Chandrika J.; Desmond, Renee A.; Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although aflatoxin exposure has been shown to be associated with micronutrient deficiency in animals, there are few investigations on the effects of aflatoxin exposure on micronutrient metabolism in humans. Objective To examine the relationship between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in plasma and the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) metabolite in urine and plasma concentrations of retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) in Ghanaians. Methods A cross-sectional study of 147 adult participants was conducted. Blood and urine samples were tested for aflatoxin and vitamins A and E levels. Results Multivariable analysis showed that participants with high AF-ALB (≥ 0.80 pmol/mg albumin) had increased odds of having vitamin A deficiency compared to those with lower AF-ALB [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61; CI = 1.03 – 6.58; p=0.04]. Participants with high AF-ALB also showed increased odds of having vitamin E deficiency but this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.4; CI = 0.96–6.05; p = 0.06). Conversely, those with higher AFM1 values had a statistically nonsignificant reduced odds of having vitamin A deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 1.15–0.09; p=0.05) and statistically significant reduced odds of having vitamin E deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 0.10 – 0.97; p = 0.04). Participants with high AF-ALB or high AFM1 (≥ 437.95 pg/dL creatinine) were almost 6 times more likely to be hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)- positive (OR = 5.88; CI = 1.71–20.14; p = 0.005) and (OR = 5.84; CI = 1.15–29.54; p = 0.03) respectively. Conclusions These data indicate that aflatoxin may modify plasma micronutrient status. Thus, preventing aflatoxin exposure may greatly reduce vitamins A and E deficiencies. PMID:21792816

  19. Lead fluxes, isotopic and concentration profiles in a peat deposit near a lead smelter (Prbram, Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Mihaljevic, M; Zuna, M; Ettler, V; Sebek, O; Strnad, L; Golis, V

    2006-12-15

    The content and the isotopic composition of lead (Pb) were studied in a peat deposit on the ridge of the Brdy Hills, in the vicinity of the Prbram metallurgical works, in the Czech Republic. Quadrupole ICP MS was employed to determine the elemental composition and (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb isotope ratios. The individual layers were dated using alpha spectrometric measurement of the (210)Pb activity. The historical time period covered by the studied cores reached back to the 18th century. The Pb concentration in the studied profiles varied from 10 to 550 mg kg(-1). The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio varied in the range from 1.154 to 1.194 in the individual parts of the profile. The metallurgy of the Pb ores ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.16), lithogenic Pb ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.2), metallurgical processing of automobile batteries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.17) and the combustion of coal ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.17-1.19) yield isotopic signatures that determine the isotope compositions of the individual profiles. Deposition rates between 15 mg m(-2) year(-1) at the beginning of the 19th century and 320 mg m(-2) year(-1) in the 1980s were determined in the dated profiles. The increased deposition rates determined on the dated profiles correspond to the increasing production of Pb ores in the Prbram mining area at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The maximum for metallurgical production corresponds to the highest deposition rates recorded in 1960s and 1970s. The current deposition rate of 5-89 mg m(-2) year(-1) Pb is related to erosion of contaminated soils and waste dumps. PMID:17081595

  20. 75 FR 76336 - Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 58 Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations..., 2009) that revised the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for lead... published, EPA completed a study of ambient lead concentrations near a general aviation airport which may...

  1. Spatial analysis of bioavailable soil lead concentrations in Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Edwards, Rufus; He, Xueqin Elaine; Liu, Zhen; Kleinman, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Lead (Pb) poisoning causes permanent neurologic and developmental disorders and remains an important environmental health problem for US children, despite removal of Pb from gasoline and household paints. To better understand the contribution of Pb from historical traffic and residential Pb based paint to soil Pb concentrations in Los Angeles, we analyzed 550 soil Pb samples from south central Los Angeles County, CA, in relation to land-use patterns (commercial, industrial, residential, and parks and open areas) and proximity to freeways, highways, and major arterials. House age variables (surrogates of historical Pb-based paint) and traffic index variables (surrogates of historical traffic) were created at different buffer distances (10-5000m). Total and bioavailable Pb concentrations near freeways and major arterials were significantly higher than those collected elsewhere. Total and bioavailable Pb concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.96) after the removal of one outlier. Both parcel-age related variables and traffic variables were important predictors of current soil bioavailable Pb concentrations. Average age of parcels within 30m and length of small streets within 3000m explained 57% and 38% of the variance, respectively, in soil bioavailable Pb concentrations in residential areas away from freeways and major arterials (N=44). Road length of freeways within 750m explained 28% of bioavailable Pb concentrations in parks and open areas (N=26). Multi-variable regression models predicted 16-61% of the variances in bioavailable Pb concentrations, depending on land-use type and spatial relationship to roadways. Based on these models a map of spatial distributions of soil Pb concentrations was created for the Los Angeles area that shows promise as a screening tool to evaluate continued Pb poisoning in children. PMID:20219189

  2. Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

    2014-07-01

    Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH?-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 2.02 + 0.069 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g/L. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by K addition, but allantoin excretion increased linearly by 27% from LO to HI, suggesting increased rumen microbial growth. Rumen pH, acetate proportion of total volatile fatty acids, and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with increasing potassium intake. We concluded that increased ration K concentration lowers milk urea concentration with a magnitude significant for the interpretation of milk urea values, but other sources of variation, such as sampling time relative to feeding, may be even more important. PMID:24835966

  3. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

  4. Blood Lead Concentrations in 13 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ? 100 ?g/L) among 13 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 199798. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ? 100 ?g/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 ?g/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 ?g/L (median 60.0; range 10160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ? 100 ?g/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  5. Correlation Between Surface Area and Dissolving Properties of Lead - A Step in the Investigation of Higher than Standard Lead Concentration in Drinking Water in Washington, D.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, M.; Garduno, L.; Mondragon, J. D.; Cuff, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    Several recently published articles by the Washington Post exposing the alarming concentration of lead in drinking water from schools and homes in the Washington D.C. area sparked our interest in the correlation between lead-containing materials used in plumbing and rate of lead solubility. Elementary children who attend schools in various regions of the District were contacted by San Francisco Bay Area- based high school students who are participants in the NSF-sponsored Environmental Science Information Technology Activities (ESITA) project. After receiving a thorough explanation of required sampling procedures, the elementary school children sent 500 ml water samples from their homes and schools to Berkeley along with information on the locations from which the water samples were collected. These water samples were analyzed for lead content at the Environmental Science Research Program laboratory at Lawrence Hall of Science. The majority of the samples contained more than 15 ppb of lead, which is the EPA action level. We hypothesize that there are three possible sources of lead in the drinking water: 1) lead pipes in the water main; 2) lead pipes in the service main; and 3) lead soldering that was often previously used to connect piping. We chose to investigate the effect of lead-based solder on the overall lead concentration in water. Using a soldering iron, we melted lead solder to create discs ranging from one to five centimeter diameter and one to thirty-six grams of mass. These discs were then placed into a beaker with 500 ml of 7.1pH distilled water and allowed to stand for 48 hours. At the end of 48 hours, the water samples were prepared for analysis using the EPA approved lead-dithizone procedure. Results showed an exponential relationship between disc surface area and the concentration of dissolved lead measured in the sample. Therefore, lead-based solder can represent a possible major source of lead contamination.

  6. Lead concentrations of white-winged doves, Zenaida asiatica L., collected in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Fedynich, Alan M; Fredricks, Timothy B; Benn, Steve

    2010-09-01

    White-winged dove (Zenaida asiatica L.) exposure to environmentally accessible lead is a management concern. Detectable concentrations of lead were found in 142 (66%) of 214 white-winged doves collected in 2002 and 2003 at two wildlife management units in South Texas. Mean +/- SD lead concentration was 0.70 +/- 1.10 microg/g dry weight and ranged from ND to 11.01 microg/g dw. Lead concentrations were significantly lower in the 2002 samples, but similar between management units, age, and gender. White-winged doves in South Texas are being exposed to lead in the environment with some reaching subclinical to toxic levels. PMID:20686750

  7. DDE, PCBs, cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in rhinoceros auklets from Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Fitzner, R.E.; Leschner, L.L.; Wilson, U.W.

    1999-01-01

    In July 1981, 5 adult rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) were captured on the ground near nesting areas on each of Protection and Destruction Islands, Washington. The birds were euthanized, and their livers and kidneys removed and analyzed. Levels (I?g / g wet weight) of DDE (0.11 to 0.95), polychlorinated biphenyls (no residue detected [ND] to 1.1), mercury (0.60 to 1.8), and lead (ND to 0.85) in livers and cadmium (9.1 to 21.9) in kidneys were similar in each colony. All concentrations were less than known effect levels.

  8. On the seasonal variability of urban air particulate lead concentration under tropical monsoon atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hien, P.D.; Binh, N.T.; Truong, Y.; Ngo, N.T.

    1996-12-31

    Hochiminh city has two distinct - dry and rainy - seasons with the seasonal transitions taking place during 1-2 weeks in May and November when the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) passes over the area during its annual north-south migration around the equator. The prevailing wind direction and rainfall change sharply following the seasonal transitions. Air particulate lead concentrations measured during 1993-1994 exhibit a temporal variability reflecting the seasonal changes of relevant atmospheric factors typical of Southeast Asia tropical monsoon conditions.

  9. Histopathological biomarkers in juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to a sublethal lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Muoz, Lautaro; Weber, Paula; Dressler, Valderi; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Vigliano, Fabricio Andrs

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the 96-h lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of lead (Pb) in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, and to determine histopathological biomarkers in fish exposed for 96-h to a sublethal concentration at 25% of the LC50. The 96-h LC50 was 108 mgl(-1). In gills, the length and thickness of lamella and thickness of the filament epithelium were significantly higher in fish exposed to Pb for 48-h than in control fish whereas the interlamellar distance decreased. In the liver, the area occupied by lipid droplets and size of hepatocytes showed significantly higher values after 24-h of exposure. The percentage of abnormal renal tubules was higher in fish exposed to Pb, exhibiting a time-dependent increase. These variations in histopathological biomarkers permit the definition of the overall response of R. quelen to Pb and the potential usefulness in the monitoring of Pb contamination. PMID:25521338

  10. Correlations between lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in frozen tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, L.; Hardisson, A.; Montelongo, F.G.

    1986-04-01

    The presence of metallic pollutants in marine ecosystems has promoted wide research plans in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine organisms. However, little is known concerning environmental and physiological processes that regulate the concentration of trace metals in marine organisms. Even though the toxicity of lead and cadmium is well established, copper, zinc and iron are considered as essential elements for mammals. Little is known about heavy metals, other than mercury, concentrations in fresh and frozen tuna fish. Fifty samples obtained at the entrance of a canning factory in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were treated by applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences compiled and linked in the software of a Digital VAX/VMS 11/780 computer.

  11. Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations <10 microg/dL in US children and adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, B P; Dietrich, K; Auinger, P; Cox, C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lead is a confirmed neurotoxicant, but the lowest blood lead concentration associated with deficits in cognitive functioning and academic achievement is poorly defined. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of relatively low blood lead concentrations-especially concentrations <10 micrograms per deciliter (microg/dL)--with performance on tests of cognitive functioning in a representative sample of US children and adolescents. METHODS: The authors used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted from 1988 to 1994, to assess the relationship between blood lead concentration and performance on tests of arithmetic skills, reading skills, nonverbal reasoning, and short-term memory among 4,853 children ages 6-16 years. RESULTS: The geometric mean blood lead concentration for children n the study sample was 1.9 microg/dL; 172 (2.1%) had blood lead concentrations > or =10 microg/dL. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, poverty, region of the country, parent or caregiver's educational level, parent or caregiver's marital status parent, serum ferritin level, and serum cotinine level, the data showed an inverse relationship between blood lead concentration and scores on four measures of cognitive functioning. For every 1 microg/dL increase in blood lead concentration, there was a 0.7-point decrement in mean arithmetic scores, an approximately 1-point decrement in mean reading scores, a 0.1-point decrement in mean scores on a measure of nonverbal reasoning, and a 0.5-point decrement in mean scores on a measure of short-term memory. An inverse relationship between blood lead concentration and arithmetic and reading scores was observed for children with blood lead concentrations lower than 5.0 microg/dL. CONCLUSION: Deficits in cognitive and academic skills associated with lead exposure occur at blood lead concentrations lower than 5 microg/dL. PMID:11354334

  12. Determination of cadmium and lead in urine samples after dispersive solid-liquid extraction on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lvarez Mndez, J.; Barciela Garca, J.; Garca Martn, S.; Pea Crecente, R. M.; Herrero Latorre, C.

    2015-04-01

    A new method for the determination of Cd and Pb in urine samples has been developed. The method involves dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE), slurry sampling (SS), and subsequent electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as the sorbent material. The isolated MWCNT/analyte aggregates were treated with nitric acid to form a slurry and both metals were determined directly by injecting the slurry into the ETAAS-atomizer. The parameters that influence the adsorption of the metals on MWCNTs in the DSPE process, the formation and extraction of the slurry, and the ETAAS conditions were studied by different factorial design strategies. The detection and quantification limits obtained for Cd under optimized conditions were 9.7 and 32.3 ng L- 1, respectively, and for Pb these limits were 0.13 and 0.43 ?g L- 1. The preconcentration factors achieved were 3.9 and 5.4. The RSD values (n = 10) were less than 4.1% and 5.9% for Cd and Pb, respectively. The accuracy of the method was assessed in recovery studies, with values in the range 96-102% obtained for Cd and 97-101% for Pb. In addition, the analysis of certified reference materials gave consistent results. The DSPE-SS-ETAAS method is a novel and useful strategy for the determination of Pb and Cd at low levels in human urine samples. The method is sensitive, fast, and free of matrix interferences, and it avoids the tedious and time-consuming on-column adsorption and elution steps associated with commonly used SPE procedures. The proposed method was used to determine Cd and Pb in urine samples of unexposed healthy people and satisfactory results were obtained.

  13. Corrosion behavior of steels in liquid lead bismuth with low oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Saito, Shigeru

    2008-02-01

    Corrosion tests in pots were conducted to elucidate corrosion behavior of various steels in liquid lead-bismuth for 3000 h under the condition of an oxygen concentration of 5 10 -8 wt% at 450 C and an oxygen concentration of 3 10 -9 wt% at 550 C, respectively. Significant corrosion was not observed at 450 C for ferritic/martensitic steels, F82H, Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel, 410SS, 430SS except 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Pb-Bi penetration into steels and dissolution of elements into Pb-Bi were severe at 550 C even for ferritic/martensitic steels. Typical dissolution attack occurred for pure iron both at 550 C without surface Fe 3O 4 and at 450 C with a thin Fe 3O 4 film. Ferritization due to dissolution of Ni and Cr, and Pb-Bi penetration were recognized for austenitic stainless steels, 316SS and 14Cr-16Ni-2Mo steel at both temperatures of 450 C and 550 C. The phenomena were mitigated for 18Cr-20Ni-5Si steel. In some cases oxide films could not be a corrosion barrier in liquid lead-bismuth.

  14. Urinal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Hacking, Kip; Haymore, Benjamin; Truscott, Tadd; Splash Lab Team

    2013-11-01

    In response to harsh and repeated criticisms from our mothers and several failed relationships with women, we present the splash dynamics of a simulated human male urine stream impacting rigid and free surfaces. Our study aims to reduce undesired splashing that may result from lavatory usage. Experiments are performed at a pressure and flow rate that would be expected from healthy male subjects. For a rigid surface, the effects of stream breakup and surface impact angle on lateral and vertical droplet ejection distances are measured using high-speed photography and image processing. For free surface impact, the effects of velocity and fluid depth on droplet ejection distances are measured. Guided by our results, techniques for splash reduction are proposed.

  15. Maternal blood lead concentration, diet during pregnancy, and anthropometry predict neonatal blood lead in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Lawrence M; Denham, Melinda; Stark, Alice D; Gomez, Marta; Ravenscroft, Julia; Parsons, Patrick J; Aydermir, Aida; Samelson, Renee

    2003-01-01

    To determine the influences of maternal diet and nutrition during pregnancy on the blood lead level of neonates, we conducted a study of mother-infant pairs from lower socioeconomic circumstances living in Albany County, New York. Maternal blood lead (MBPb), anthropometry, and diet were assessed in each trimester. Neonates' blood lead (NBPb) levels were low (geometric mean = 1.58 micro g/dL), and none had elevated blood lead. More than 50% of the mothers had intakes below the recommended dietary allowances for zinc, calcium, iron, vitamin D, and kilocalories. As expected, MBPb was strongly and positively related to NBPb. Among the anthropometric measures of maternal nutritional status, variables measuring gain in weight and arm circumference were negatively related to NBPb. In multivariable models reflecting different analytic strageties and including MBPb, anthropometry, and sociodemographic characteristics, dietary intakes of iron and vitamin D were negatively related to NBPb. The effect of zinc varied substantially depending on model covariates. Effects of dietary constituents are difficult to distinguish, given the intercorrelated nature of nutrients in the diet. Nevertheless, the influences of maternal anthropometric variables, iron, and vitamin D on neonatal lead levels are clear in our analyses. PMID:12573905

  16. Biosynthesis of lead nanoparticles by the aquatic water fern, Salvinia minima Baker, when exposed to high lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Castro-Longoria, E; Trejo-Guilln, K; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Avalos-Borja, M; Andrade-Canto, S B; Leal-Alvarado, D A; Santamara, J M

    2014-02-01

    Salvinia minima Baker is a small floating aquatic fern that is efficient for the removal and storage of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, we report that lead removal by S. minima causes large accumulation of lead inside the cells in the form of nanoparticles (PbNPs). The accumulation pattern of lead was analyzed in both, submerged root-like modified fronds (here named "roots"), and in its aerial leaf-like fronds ("leaves"). Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the biosynthesis of PbNPs by the plant. In both, roots and leaves, PbNPs were found to accumulate almost exclusively at the cell wall and closely associated to the cell membrane. Two types of PbNPs shapes were found in cells of both tissues, those associated to the cell wall were quasi-spherical with 17.24.2 nm of diameter, while those associated to the cell membrane/cytoplasm were elongated. Elongated particles were 53.729.6 nm in length and 11.12.4 nm wide. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) results indicate that cellulose, lignin and pectin are the major components that may be acting as the reducing agents for lead ions; these findings strongly suggest the potential use of this fern to further explore the bio-assisted synthesis of heavy metal nanostructures. PMID:24211828

  17. VAPORIZATION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY FROM POOLS OF MOLTEN LEAD AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

    2000-10-01

    Should coolant accidentally be lost to the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) blanket and target, and the decay heat in the target be deposited in the surrounding blanket by thermal radiation, temperatures in the blanket modules could exceed structural limits and cause a physical collapse of the blanket modules into a non-coolable geometry. Such a sequence of unmitigated events could result in some melting of the APT blanket and create the potential for the release of mercury into the target-blanket cavity air space. Experiments were conducted which simulate such hypothetical accident conditions in order to measure the rate of vaporization of elemental mercury from pools of molten lead to quantify the possible severe accident source term for the APT blanket region. Molten pools of from 0.01% to 0.10% mercury in lead were prepared under inert conditions. Experiments were conducted, which varied in duration from several hours to as long as a month, to measure the mercury vaporization from the lead pools. The melt pools and gas atmospheres were held fixed at 340 C during the tests. Parameters which were varied in the tests included the mercury concentration, gas flow rate over the melt and agitation of the melt, gas atmosphere composition and the addition of aluminum to the melt. The vaporization of mercury was found to scale roughly linearly with the concentration of mercury in the pool. Variations in the gas flow rates were not found to have any effect on the mass transfer, however agitation of the melt by a submerged stirrer did enhance the mercury vaporization rate. The rate of mercury vaporization with an argon (inert) atmosphere was found to exceed that for an air (oxidizing) atmosphere by as much as a factor of from ten to 20; the causal factor in this variation was the formation of an oxide layer over the melt pool with the air atmosphere which served to retard mass transfer across the melt-atmosphere interface. Aluminum was introduced into the melt to investigate its effect upon the mercury vaporization rate in simulation of the aluminum structure in the APT blanket. No effect at all was observed for a case with an argon atmosphere. This suggests that there are no chemical effects of the aluminum on the vaporization kinetics. With an air atmosphere, the presence of aluminum in the melt reduced the mercury vaporization by a factor of six in comparison to the identical test but without aluminum present. This suggests that aluminum in the lead/mercury .melt retards the vaporization of mercury by creating a surface oxide layer in addition to the lead-oxide layer which increases the mass transfer resistance.

  18. Apparatus and methods for monitoring the concentrations of hazardous airborne substances, especially lead

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2004-07-13

    Air is sampled at a rate in excess of 100 L/min, preferably at 200-300 L/min, so as to collect therefrom a substantial fraction, i.e., at least 20%, preferably 60-100%, of airborne particulates. A substance of interest (analyte), such as lead, is rapidly solubilized from the the collected particulates into a sample of liquid extractant, and the concentration of the analyte in the extractant sample is determined. The high-rate air sampling and particulate collection may be effected with a high-throughput filter cartridge or with a recently developed portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler. Rapid solubilization of lead is achieved by a liquid extractant comprising 0.1-1 M of acetic acid or acetate, preferably at a pH of 5 or less and preferably with inclusion of 1-10% of hydrogen peroxide. Rapid determination of the lead content in the liquid extractant may be effected with a colorimetric or an electroanalytical analyzer.

  19. Cadmium concentrations in blood of children living near a lead smelter in Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima, M.E.; Alt, F.

    1986-08-01

    A prevalence study of cadmium absorption was carried out among 396 children aged 1 to 9 years living at less than 900 m from a primary lead smelter in Santo Amaro City, northeast Brazil. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of cadmium concentrations in blood (CdB) were 0.087 and 2.5 mumole/liter, respectively, ranging from 0.004 to 0.511 units. Ninety-six per cent of these children presented CdB higher than 0.0089 mumole/liter (or 1.0 microgram/liter) which is usually taken as a reference level. Higher CdB levels were significantly associated with shorter distance from child's home to smelter chimney, residence time in the area greater than 7 months, racial groups Light and Medium, and heavy infection by hookworm. The variation in CdB levels was not associated with child's age, nutritional status, iron status, family per capita income, blood lead level, being a child of a lead worker, the habit of pica, and contamination of child's peridomiciliar environment by smelter dross.

  20. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at night? Is the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ... conditions or surgeries that could affect your urine flow? What medicines do you take? Tests that may ...

  1. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean ... urethra of contaminants). Then, in a clean container, catch about 1 to 2 ounces of urine and ...

  2. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  3. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach to a catheter (tube) that is inside your bladder. You may have a catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary ...

  4. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...

  5. Simultaneous determination of urinary zinc, cadmium, lead and copper concentrations in steel production workers by differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Horng, C J

    1996-10-01

    The determination of toxic metals in urine is an important clinical screening procedure. In this study, differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry on a hanging mercury drop electrode was used for the simultaneous determinations of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper in the urine of 23 production and 23 quality control workers in a steel production plant and their matched normal controls. The urine specimens were pre-treated with a mixed acid solution and Analytical Products Group set-point laboratory standards were used to check the analytical accuracy. The results indicated that the urinary zinc, cadmium, lead and copper levels of the production and quality control workers are significantly higher than those of the controls. The possible connection of these elements with the etiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements in workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices. PMID:8918222

  6. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 ?g/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  7. Examination of lead concentrations in new decorative enamel paints in four countries with different histories of activity in lead paint regulation.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Scott; Kumar, Abhay; Mohapatra, Piyush; Rajankar, Prashant; Nycz, Zuleica; Hambartsumyan, Amalia; Astanina, Lydia; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline; Menrath, William; Peng, Hongying

    2014-07-01

    Paints with high lead concentrations (ppm) continue to be sold around the world in many developing countries and those with economies in transition representing a major preventable environmental health hazard that is being increased as the economies expand and paint consumption is increasing. Prior lead paint testing had been performed in Brazil and India and these countries were selected to examine the impact of a new regulatory limit in Brazil and the impact of efforts of non-governmental organizations and others to stop the use of lead compounds in manufacturing paints. Armenia and Kazakhstan, in Central Asia, were selected because no information on lead concentration in those regions was available, no regulatory activities were evident and non-governmental organizations in the IPEN network were available to participate. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the lead loading (g/cm(2)) limit determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for areas on toys that are too small to obtain a sample of sufficient size for laboratory analysis. The lead concentrations in more than three-fourths of the paints from Armenia and Kazakhstan exceeded 90 ppm, the limit in the United States, and 600 ppm, the limit in Brazil. The percentages were about one-half as high in Brazil and India. The average concentration in paints purchased in Armenia, 25,000 ppm, is among the highest that has been previously reported, that in Kazakhstan, 15,700 ppm, and India, 16,600, about median. The average concentration in Brazil, 5600 ppm, is among the lowest observed. Paints in Brazil that contained an average of 36,000 ppm before the regulatory limit became effective were below detection (< 9 ppm) in samples collected in the current study. The lack of any apparent public monitoring of paint lead content as part of regulatory enforcement makes it difficult to determine whether the regulation was a major factor contributing to the decline in lead use in these paints. Using data from the current study and those available from other studies 24 of 28 paints from major brands in India decreased from high concentrations to 90 ppm or lower. Since lead concentrations in golden yellow paints from these brands were found to decrease to ? 90 ppm, it is possible that all 28 of these paints now contain ? 90 ppm since yellow paints usually have the highest lead concentrations. Other brands in Brazil and India that have been analyzed only one time had lead concentrations up to 59,000 ppm and 134,000 ppm, respectively. Less than one-third of the paints had notations on their labels with information about lead content and these were sometimes inaccurate. The label from one brand indicating "no added lead" contained paint with 134,000 ppm lead, the highest found in this study. Three percent (3 of 98) of the paints with surface lead loading that did not exceed 2 g/cm(2), the limit established by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for small areas on toys, contained greater than 90 ppm lead and thus were false negatives. Of the new paint samples that contained ? 600 ppm, 88% contained ? 90 ppm. Of the samples that contained ? 90 ppm, 97% contained ? 45 ppm and 92% contained ? 15 ppm. Based on these data it appears to be technically feasible to manufacture paints containing ? 90 ppm and in many cases to produce paints that have lead concentrations that do not exceed 15 ppm. PMID:24819125

  8. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePLUS

    ... volumes of urine), such as is seen in diabetes insipidus . ... the conditions that cause increased urine volume include: Diabetes insipidus - renal Diabetes insipidus - central Diabetes High fluid intake ...

  9. Factors controlling elevated lead concentrations in water samples from aquifer systems in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Bullen, M.P.; Bullen, T.D.; Hansard, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of total lead (Pb) and dissolved Pb exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level of 15 micrograms per liter (mg/L) in approximately 19 percent and 1.3 percent, respectively, of ground-water samples collected during 1991-96 from a statewide network of monitoring wells designed to delineate background water quality of Florida's major aquifer systems. Differences in total Pb concentrations among aquifer systems reflect the combined influence of anthropogenic sources and chemical conditions in each system. A highly significant (p<0.001) difference in median total Pb concentrations was found for water samples from wells with water-level recording devices that contain Pb-counterweights (14 mg/L) compared to non-recorder wells (2 mg/L). Differences between total Pb concentrations for recorder and non-recorder wells are even more pronounced when compared for each aquifer system. The largest differences for recorder status are found for the surficial aquifer system, where median total Pb concentrations are 44 and 2.4 mg/L for recorder wells and non-recorder wells, respectively. Leaching of Pb from metal casing materials is another potential source of Pb in ground water samples. Median total Pb concentrations in water samples from the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems are higher from recorder wells cased with black iron than for recorder wells with steel and PVC casing material. Stable isotopes of Pb were used in this study to distinguish between anthropogenic and natural sources of Pb in ground water, as Pb retains the isotopic signature of the source from which it is derived. Based on similarities between slopes and intercepts of trend lines for various sample types (plots of 206Pb/204Pb versus 208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb versus 208Pb/204Pb) the predominant source of total Pb in water samples from the surficial aquifer system is corrosion of Pb counterweights. It is likely that only ground-water samples, not the aquifer, were contaminated with elevated Pb concentations. Pb-isotopic ratios of water from the Floridan aquifer system plot between trend lines connecting the isotopic composition of Pb counterweights and the composition of acid leachates of material from the Floridan aquifer system, indicating that Pb in these waters most likely is a mixture of Pb derived from aquifer material and corrosion of Pb counterweights.

  10. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  11. Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7 ?g/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (p<0.001). Males were higher than in females (p<0.001). Current smokers and drinkers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers (p<0.001) and nondrinkers (p<0.001), respectively. People who took herbal medication and drug consumption were higher than those who did not (p<0.001). Education level was negatively associated with blood lead concentration (p<0.001). People living in or around industrial areas had elevated blood lead concentration (p<0.001). Family income was also negatively associated with lead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (p<0.034): the highest was in laborer and Agricultural-Fishery-Forestry and the lowest in office workers. In women, blood lead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the general adult population in Korea has decreased over time from 45.8 ?g/l (1999) to 19.7 ?g/l (2008). Although it is still higher than in other countries such as the United States and Canada, it is rapidly decreasing. Gender, age, smoking and alcohol drinking status, herbal medication and drug consumption, education level, living area and occupation were significantly related to the blood lead concentrations in Korea. PMID:25043456

  12. An integrated temperature-compensated flexible shear-stress sensor microarray with concentrated leading-wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jian; Liu, Wu; Zhang, Weiping; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Honghai

    2016-02-01

    Flexible shear stress sensor is quite important for characterizing curved surface flows. In this work, a novel integrated shear stress sensor microarray is designed with twenty parallel channels, which share the concentrated leading-wire to transmit the ground signal. Electrical pads in rows are easily connected to the circuits with two separate Wheatstone bridges and constant-temperature-difference mode operation is provided for the hot-wires. Temperature crosstalk between adjacent hot-wires is prevented well and the effectiveness of the temperature compensated circuits is verified. Relatively large output response is obtained as the shear stress varies and the sensitivity of the sensors is measured about 0.086 V2/Pa1/3 with nonlinearity lower than 1%, revealing high performance characteristic of the sensors.

  13. An integrated temperature-compensated flexible shear-stress sensor microarray with concentrated leading-wire.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Liu, Wu; Zhang, Weiping; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Honghai

    2016-02-01

    Flexible shear stress sensor is quite important for characterizing curved surface flows. In this work, a novel integrated shear stress sensor microarray is designed with twenty parallel channels, which share the concentrated leading-wire to transmit the ground signal. Electrical pads in rows are easily connected to the circuits with two separate Wheatstone bridges and constant-temperature-difference mode operation is provided for the hot-wires. Temperature crosstalk between adjacent hot-wires is prevented well and the effectiveness of the temperature compensated circuits is verified. Relatively large output response is obtained as the shear stress varies and the sensitivity of the sensors is measured about 0.086 V(2)/Pa(1/3) with nonlinearity lower than 1%, revealing high performance characteristic of the sensors. PMID:26931882

  14. Photometric and spectrochemical determination of gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates.

    PubMed

    Jordanov, N; Mareva, S; Krasnobaeva, N; Nedyalkova, N

    1968-09-01

    A photometric and a spectrochemical method have been developed for determining gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates. In both, the sample is dissolved and gold is extracted from 1M hydrochloric add solution with a mixture of ethyl methyl ketone and chloroform (1:1). Gold was determined photometrically with N,N'-tetramethyl-o-tolidine. Conditions have been found for satisfactorily sensitive and reproducible spectral determination of gold. For this purpose the effect of various collectors and buffers on the evaporation curves of gold has been studied, as well as excitation conditions, form of the electrodes, optimum slit-width, and photographic variables. The sensitivity and precision of both methods have been evaluated. PMID:18960389

  15. Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a >/= 6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative meth...

  16. Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nageotte, S M; Day, J P

    1998-01-01

    A major source of environmental lead, particularly in urban areas, has been from the combustion of leaded petrol. Street dust has previously been used to assess urban lead contamination, and the dust itself can also be a potential source of lead ingestion, particularly to children. The progressive reduction of lead in petrol, in recent years, would be expected to have been reflected in a reduction of lead in urban dust. We have tested this hypothesis by repeating an earlier survey of Manchester street dust and carrying out a comparable survey in Paris. Samples were collected from streets and parks, lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid and determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead isotope ratios were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Manchester show that lead concentrations have fallen by about 40% (street dust averages, 941 micrograms g-1 (ppm) in 1975 down to 569 ppm in 1997). In Paris, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between types of street (not seen in Manchester). Additionally, lead levels in parks were much lower than in Manchester. Samples collected under the Eiffel Tower had very high concentrations and lead isotope ratios showed that this was unlikely to be fallout from motor vehicles but could be due to the paint used on the tower. Isotope ratios measurements also revealed that lead additives used in France and the UK come from different sources. PMID:9581021

  17. Lead concentration and isotope chronology in two coastal environments in Western and South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, G. G.; Chen, M.; Boyle, E. A.; Zhao, N.; Nurhati, I. S.; Gevao, B.; al Ghadban, A.; Switzer, A.; Lee, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Lead is a trace metal that is closely related to anthropogenic activity, mainly via leaded gasoline and coal combustion. The study of lead concentrations and isotopes in seawater, sediments, corals and aerosols allows for a systematic look at its sources and their time evolution in a natural environment. We will discuss results from two projects in Western and South East Asia, regions that have seen dramatic socio-economical changes over the past half-century that may have left environmental signals. These results highlight the usefulness of the method, indicate the degree of complexity of these systems, and point to the need for a continuous monitoring of anthropogenic trace metals in the small-medium coastal scale to be able to asses the larger scale effects of human activity. On the one hand, coastal Kuwait is heavily influenced by the Shat al-Arab river and shows a clear anthropogenic signature from Kuwait city. A mix of two sources can be tracked through the coral and sediment chronological records, with Pb206/Pb207 ratios (1.202 and 1.151) that approach the suspected source values (1.21 and 1.12) and eliminate the possibility of other sources. Through a wide sediment geographic distribution, the strength of the anthropogenic signature is modulated. On the other hand, Singapore offers a more complex system, where an apparent mix of two sources (extreme isotope ratios 1.215 and ~1.14) occurs also, but where either an unresolved potentially important third source (isotope ratio ~1.18), or an isotope exchange process should be invoked. The sediment and coral records allows us to track the changes through time; however, there seems to be incongruence with the aerosol isotope record. Further potential sources are being explored currently and will be discussed.

  18. Intra-individual variation in urinary iodine concentration: effect of statistical correction on population distribution using seasonal three-consecutive-day spot urine in children

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaohong; Liu, Peng; Sun, Zhenqi; Su, Xiaohui; Wang, Wei; Gao, Yanhui; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of statistical correction for intra-individual variation on estimated urinary iodine concentration (UIC) by sampling on 3 consecutive days in four seasons in children. Setting School-aged children from urban and rural primary schools in Harbin, Heilongjiang, China. Participants 748 and 640 children aged 8–11 years were recruited from urban and rural schools, respectively, in Harbin. Primary and secondary outcome measures The spot urine samples were collected once a day for 3 consecutive days in each season over 1 year. The UIC of the first day was corrected by two statistical correction methods: the average correction method (average of days 1, 2; average of days 1, 2 and 3) and the variance correction method (UIC of day 1 corrected by two replicates and by three replicates). The variance correction method determined the SD between subjects (Sb) and within subjects (Sw), and calculated the correction coefficient (Fi), Fi=Sb/(Sb+Sw/di), where di was the number of observations. The UIC of day 1 was then corrected using the following equation: Results The variance correction methods showed the overall Fi was 0.742 for 2 days’ correction and 0.829 for 3 days’ correction; the values for the seasons spring, summer, autumn and winter were 0.730, 0.684, 0.706 and 0.703 for 2 days’ correction and 0.809, 0.742, 0.796 and 0.804 for 3 days’ correction, respectively. After removal of the individual effect, the correlation coefficient between consecutive days was 0.224, and between non-consecutive days 0.050. Conclusions The variance correction method is effective for correcting intra-individual variation in estimated UIC following sampling on 3 consecutive days in four seasons in children. The method varies little between ages, sexes and urban or rural setting, but does vary between seasons. PMID:26920442

  19. Differences in trace metal concentrations (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, And Ni) in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children.

    PubMed

    B?a?ewicz, Anna; Klatka, Maria; Astel, Aleksander; Partyka, Ma?gorzata; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2013-11-01

    High-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods have been applied to estimate the content of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Ni in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children. The study was conducted on a group of 81 Polish children of age 6-17 years (37 males, 44 females). Obese children were defined as those with body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile in each age-gender-specific group. Statistical testing was done by the use of nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis's and Mann-Whitney's U) and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Significant correlations appeared for control group in plasma (Mn-Cd, Ni-Co), urine (Cu-Co), and blood (Fe-Cu), while for obese patients in plasma (Cd-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Zn) and urine (Fe-Cd, Co-Mn). Sex criteria did not influence correlations between metals' content in plasma and urine of obese patients. Metals' abundance was correlated in non-corresponding combinations of body fluids. Rare significant differences between content of metals according to sex and the type of body fluids were discovered: Zn in plasma from obese patients of both sexes, and Zn, Co, and Mn in blood, Mn in plasma from healthy subjects. Negative correlations between BMI and Zn in blood, Cu in plasma, and Fe in urine were discovered for girls (control group). Positive correlation between Co content in plasma and BMI was discovered for obese boys. The changes in metals' content in body fluids may be indicators of obesity. Content of zinc, copper, and cobalt should be monitored in children with elevated BMI to avoid deficiency problems. PMID:23975578

  20. Evaluating a Mineralogical Control on Arsenic and Lead Concentrations in California Gold Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neptune, C. K.; De Graff, J.

    2012-12-01

    Abandoned gold mining operations in California often host tailings piles, which are a source of various heavy metal contaminants including arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Based on internal USDA Forest Service studies, it has been determined that some tailings are a concern due to high As and Pb while others are only a concern for high As. The research hypothesis is that this difference reflects a mineralogical control on the presence and concentration of As and Pb. This information would be valuable in the prioritization of mining sites for mitigation, as identifying whether both As and Pb are a concern or only As is key in determining the level of risk posed by the tailings. Ore from two mines (Bright Star and May-Lundy) in the Sierra Nevada provided a preliminary test of this hypothesis. Samples were collected from presumed ore found in proximity to mine adits or milling sites. A biased sampling method, based on the presence of clearly visible concentrations of metal sulfide minerals, served as a selection approach. Prior to lab processing, the samples were evaluated for their proportion of metal sulfide minerals to non-metallic minerals, to establish the range of variability at each mine site. A Gyral grinder was used to reduce samples to particles of less than 149 microns in size. The samples were then analyzed with a Niton XL3t model X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device for a one-minute interval. Based on this initial sampling, it is suggestive that the ratio of Pb/As, in the ore material reflects the concentration ratios within the tailings at the respective mine sites. This method assumes that a whole rock analysis is indicative of the proportion of As to Pb bearing minerals present.

  1. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  2. Contamination of houses by workers occupationally exposed in a lead-zinc-copper mine and impact on blood lead concentrations in the families.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaradia, M; Gulson, B L; MacDonald, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathway of leaded dust from a lead-zinc-copper mine to houses of employees, and the impact on blood lead concentrations (PbB) of children. METHODS: High precision lead isotope and lead concentration data were obtained on venous blood and environmental samples (vacuum cleaner dust, interior dustfall accumulation, water, paint) for eight children of six employees (and the employees) from a lead-zinc-copper mine. These data were compared with results for 11 children from occupationally unexposed control families living in the same city. RESULTS: The median (range) concentrations of lead in vacuum cleaner dust was 470 (21-1300) ppm. In the houses of the mine employees, vacuum cleaner dust contained varying higher proportions of mine lead than did airborne particulate matter measured as dustfall accumulated over a three month period. The median (range) concentrations of lead in soil were 30 (5-407) ppm and these showed no evidence of any mine lead. Lead in blood of the mine employees varied from 7 to 25 micrograms/dl and was generally dominated by mine lead (> 60%). The mean (SD) PbB in the children of the mine employees was 5.7 (1.7) micrograms/dl compared with 4.1 (1.4) micrograms/dl for the control children (P = 0.02). The PbB of all children was always < 10 micrograms/dl, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal for all Australians. Some of the control children had higher PbB than the children of mine employees, probably from exposure to leaded paint as six of the eight houses of the control children were > 50 years old. In five of the eight children of mine employees > 20% of PbB was from the lead mine. However, in the other three cases of children of mine employees, their PbB was from sources other than mine lead (paint, petrol, background sources). CONCLUSIONS: Houses of employees from a lead mine can be contaminated by mine lead even if they are not situated in the same place as the mine. Delineation of the mine to house pathway indicates that lead is probably transported into the houses on the clothes, shoes, hair, skin, and in some cases, motor vehicles of the workers. In one case, dust shaken from clothes of a mine employee contained 3000 ppm lead which was 100% mine lead. The variable contamination of the houses was not expected given the precautions taken by mine employees to minimise transportation of lead into their houses. Although five out of the eight children of mine employees had > 20% mine lead in their blood, in no case did the PbB of a child exceed the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal of 10 micrograms/dl. In fact, some children in the control families had higher PbB than children of mine employees. In two cases, this was attributed to a pica habit for paint. The PbB in the children of mine employees and controls was independent of the source of lead. The low PbB in the children of mine employees may reflect the relatively low solubility (bioavailability) of the mine dust in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (< 40 %), behaviour--for example, limited mouthing activity--or diet. PMID:9072019

  3. Evaluation of lead concentration by one-box type multimedia model in Lake Biwa-Yodo River basin of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Akira; Yamamoto, Megumi; Inoue, Yoshio; Ariyadasa, B H A K T

    2013-07-01

    A one box type multimedia model was developed and applied for Lake Biwa-Yodo River basin in Japan to assess the distribution of lead in the environment. This model is based on mass balance and includes four environmental media; the atmosphere, the soil, the water body, and the sediment. The mass balance of lead is represented by the summation of mass transfer flux at equilibrium, emission flux, advection flux, and deposition flux or sedimentation flux. In the case of metallic compounds, dissolution rate and exchange equilibrium have also been taken into consideration. Pollutant Release and Transfer Registry (PRTR) in Japan was used as one of the major data source for this study. The emission of lead in Lake Biwa-Yodo River basin is calculated based on five sources of registered emission in PRTR, unregistered emission in PRTR, incinerators, leaded gasoline, and landfills. In this study, we estimated lead emission from 1957 to 2007 to observe the temporal accumulation of lead. Calculated lead concentrations were compared with the measured/observed concentrations. It was found out that the model could closely predict lead concentration in the soil and the water body. The concentration in the atmosphere was underestimated by the calculated concentrations. The reason was attributed to the underestimation of the amount of lead emission from incinerators. PMID:23538092

  4. The relationship between bone health and plasma zinc, copper lead and cadmium concentration in osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behzad, Masoomeh; Behfar, Abdolazim; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Saadatmand, Sahereh

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a multi factorial disease with dimension of genetic and nutritional considerations. The aim of this study was to present data from the association of plasma zinc, copper and toxic elements of lead and cadmium levels with bone mineral density in Iranian women. 135 women gave their information and enrolled. Fasting plasma was used for measurement of trace elements and heavy metals by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Control group (n = 51) were normal in both lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck density (T-score ? -1), but just femoral neck T-score was considered as criterion in selection of patient group (n = 49, Tscore < -1). No differences were found in the nutritional status, number of diseases, drugs and functional activities between these groups. Plasma Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd levels were analyzed by, a method of voltammetry. Mean SD levels of copper and zinc was 1.168 0.115, 1.097 0.091 ?g/ml in control group, 1.394 0.133, 1.266 0.11 ?g/ml in total patient (TP) and 1.237 0.182, 1.127 0.176 ?g/ml in Mild patients(-1 > T-score > -1.7), 1.463 0.174, 1.327 0.147 ?g/ml in Severe patient group (T-score < -1.7); respectively. Mean SD plasma level of lead and cadmium was 168.42 9.61 ng/l, 2.91 0.18 ng/ml in control group, 176.13 8.64 ng/l, 2.97 0.21 ng/ml in TP, 176.43 13.2 ng/l, 2.99 0.1 ng/ml in mild patients, 221.44 20 ng/l and 3.80 0.70 ng/ml in severe patient group, respectively. In this study plasma zinc, copper, lead & cadmium concentrations were higher in the patients than in the control, though differences were not significant. However, differences were higher between the controls and patients with severe disease (T-score < -1.7). In addition adjusted T-score of femur with age and BMI showed negative significant correlation with plasma levels of zinc and lead in total participants (p < 0.05, r = -0.201, p = 0.044, r = -0.201). It seems that more extensive study with larger ample size might supply definite results about this association for copper and cadmium. PMID:25469307

  5. Enhancing Potentially Plant-Available Lead Concentrations in Contaminated Residential Soils Using a Biodegradable Chelating Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andra, S.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S.

    2007-12-01

    Chelation of heavy metals is an important factor in enhancing metal solubility and, hence, metal availability to plants to promote phytoremediation. In the present study, we compared the effects of application of a biodegradable chelating agent, namely, ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) on enhancing plant available form of lead (Pb) in Pb-based paint contaminated residential soils compared to that of a more commonly used, but non-biodegradable chelate, i.e., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Development of a successful phytoremediation model for metals such as Pb depends on a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the soil, along with the optimization of a chelate treatment to mobilize Pb from `unavailable' pools to potentially plant available fraction. In this context, we set out to perform batch incubation experiments to investigate the effectiveness of the two aforementioned chelates in enhancing plant available Pb at four different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 mM/kg soil) and three treatment durations (0, 10 and 30 days). We selected 12 contaminated residential soils from two major metropolitan areas (San Antonio, TX and Baltimore, MD) with varying soil physico-chemical properties - the soils from San Antonio were primarily alkaline and those from Baltimore were typically acidic. Total soil Pb concentrations ranged between 256 mg/kg and 4,182 mg/kg. Our results show that both chelates increased the solubility of Pb, otherwise occluded in the complex soil matrix. For both EDTA and EDDS, the exchangeable concentrations of soil Pb also increased with increase in chelate concentration and incubation time. The most effective treatment was 15 mM chelate kg-1 soil incubated for 30 days, which caused many fold increase in potentially plant available Pb (a combination of the soluble and exchangeable fractions) relative to the unamended controls. Step wise multiple linear regression analysis using chelate-extractable Pb and soil properties showed that plant available Pb fraction could be assessed from the two inter-related soil parameters: soil organic matter and soil pH. Although EDTA was more effective in Pb solubilization than EDDS, the rapid kinetics of the Pb-EDTA complexation process and the prolonged persistence of EDTA in soils pose a potential groundwater contamination problem via metal leaching. In contrast to EDTA, EDDS addition caused relatively slow release of Pb from the soil matrix. The biodegradable nature (and short half life) of EDDS in soils makes it a promising chelating agent for use as soil amendment to enhance Pb solubilization and hence, potential plant uptake.

  6. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePLUS

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  7. Sodium urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urinary 24 hours sodium; Urine Na+ ... your kidneys are able to maintain or remove sodium from the urine. It may be used to ... For adults, normal urine sodium values are generally 20 mEq/L in a random urine sample and 40 to 220 mEq/L per day (mEq/ ...

  8. Aging-related impairment of urine-concentrating mechanisms correlates with dysregulation of adrenocortical angiotensin type 1 receptors in male Fischer rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Xie; Speth, Robert C; Verbalis, Joseph G; Stein, Lauren M; Yosten, Gina L C; Samson, Willis K; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2016-03-15

    To investigate age-associated impairments in fluid homeostasis, 4-mo (young) and 32-mo (old) Fischer 344/BN male rats were studied before and after a dietary sodium load. Transferring young rats from a low-sodium (LS) to a high-sodium (HS) diet increased water intake and urine volume by 1.9- and 3.0-fold, respectively, while urine osmolality and plasma aldosterone decreased by 33 and 98%. Concomitantly, adrenocortical angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) density decreased by 35%, and AT1bR mRNA decreased by 39%; no changes were observed in AT1aR mRNA. In contrast, the increase in water intake (1.4-fold) was lower in the old rats, and there was no effect of the HS diet on urine volume or urine osmolality. AT1R densities were 29% less in the old rats before transferring to the HS diet, and AT1R densities were not reduced as rapidly in response to a HS diet compared with the young animals. After 6 days on the HS diet, plasma potassium was lowered by 26% in the old rats, whereas no change was detected in the young rats. Furthermore, while plasma aldosterone was substantially decreased after 2 days on the HS diet in both young and old rats, plasma aldosterone was significantly lower in the old compared with the young animals after 2 wk on the LS diet. These findings suggest that aging attenuates the responsiveness of the adrenocortical AT1R to a sodium load through impaired regulation of AT1bR mRNA, and that this dysregulation contributes to the defects in water and electrolyte homeostasis observed in aging. PMID:26702152

  9. Cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations in water, sediment and oyster (Crassostrea virginica) of San Andres Lagoon, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vzquez-Sauceda, Mara de la Luz; Aguirre-Guzmn, G; Snchez-Martnez, J G; Prez-Castaeda, R

    2011-04-01

    The spatial distribution of cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations in water, sediment and oysters from San Andres Lagoon was evaluated. Significantly higher cadmium (0.33mg L(-1)) and lead (0.70mg L(-1)) concentrations in water were observed in front of the mouth of Tigre river, whereas, zinc concentration (5.0mg L(-1)) was significantly higher in the south part of the lagoon. Similarly, lead and zinc values in sediment (1.01 and 9.29 ?g g(-1), respectively) and oyster tissue (0.86 and 3.19 ?g g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher in the south part of the lagoon. Levels of cadmium and lead in oyster tissue were positively related to those found in sediment. However, concerning zinc no evident relationship was found. Such differences in regression analyses may be explained by differential bioaccumulation of xenobiotic (cadmium, lead) and essential (zinc) metals. PMID:21336861

  10. Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in San Francisco MUNI bus drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    San Francisco MUNI bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration (Pb-B) and blood pressure (BP) in 342 drivers. Two groups of subjects were identified. These subjects treated for hypertension (n = 54) and untreated subjects (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic BPs varied from 102-173 mmHg and from 61-105 mm Hg respectively in untreated subjects. They varied from 110-206 mmHg and from 73-127 mmHg respectively in treated subjects. The Pb-B varied from 2-15 {mu}g/dl in untreated subjects, and 2-25 {mu}g/dl in treated drivers. The relationship between BP and the logarithm of Pb-B was examined in each group separately using multiple regression techniques. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The regression coefficient relating systolic BP and In(Pb-B) was 1-2 mmHg/ln({mu}g/Dl) (90% C.I.: {minus}2,5) in untreated subjects. The relationship in treated subjects was too unstable to be accurately determined. The coefficients for diastolic BP were 2.0-2.5 mmHg/ln({mu}g/dl) (90% C.I.: 0.1,4.5) and 6 mmHg/ln({mu}g/dl) (90% C.I.: 2,11) in untreated and treated subjects respectively.

  11. Impairment of renal function with increasing blood lead concentrations in the general population. The Cadmibel Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Staessen, J.A.; Lauwerys, R.R.; Buchet, J.P.; Bulpitt, C.J.; Rondia, D.; Vanrenterghem, Y.; Amery, A. )

    1992-07-16

    Nephropathy is known to occur in persons with heavy exposure to lead. Whether exposure to lead in the general population leads to impaired renal function is not known. We studied renal function and indexes of lead exposure in a random population sample of 965 men and 1016 women (age range, 20 to 88 years). In all the subjects we measured creatinine clearance and blood concentrations of lead and zinc protoporphyrin (an indirect measure of blood lead level). The mean (+/- SD) creatinine clearance rate was 99 +/- 30 ml per minute in the men and 80 +/- 25 ml per minute in the women. In the men the geometric mean blood lead concentration was 114 micrograms per liter (0.55 mumol per liter) (range, 23 to 725 micrograms per liter (0.11 to 3.5 mumol per liter)), and in the women 75 micrograms per liter (0.36 mumol per liter) (range, 17 to 603 micrograms per liter (0.08 to 2.9 mumol per liter)); the zinc protoporphyrin values in blood averaged 1.0 and 1.1 micrograms per gram of hemoglobin, respectively. The creatinine clearance rate was inversely correlated with blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin values in the men and the women both before and after adjustments for age, bodymass index, and diuretic treatment. A 10-fold increase in blood lead concentration was associated with a reduction of 10 to 13 ml per minute in creatinine clearance. We also found a positive correlation between serum beta 2-microglobulin (which is inversely related to the glomerular filtration rate) and blood lead in men, between serum beta 2-microglobulin and zinc protoporphyrin in both sexes, and between serum creatinine and zinc protoporphyrin in men. Exposure to lead may impair renal function in the general population. The alternative hypothesis that renal impairment may lead to an increase in the blood lead concentration cannot be excluded, however.

  12. Determinants of blood lead concentrations to age 5 years in a birth cohort study of children living in the lead smelting city of Port Pirie and surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Baghurst, P A; Tong, S L; McMichael, A J; Robertson, E F; Wigg, N R; Vimpani, G V

    1992-01-01

    Sources of variation and some principal determinants of blood lead concentration (PbB) were investigated in a cohort of children, followed to age 5 y, who were born near a lead smelter in Port Pirie, South Australia. The child's age and place of residence were the two variables most strongly predictive of PbB. A sharp increase in PbB occurred between 6 and 15 mo of age and was followed by a peak concentration that occurred at approximately 2 y of age, after which PbB steadily and consistently declined. Irrespective of age, the PbBs in children who lived in Port Pirie were significantly higher than levels identified in children who resided outside the city. There was no significant difference in PbB between boys and girls. Elevated PbB at each specific age was associated mainly with increased lead concentrations in the topsoil of the local residential area, employment of the father in the lead industry, parental smoking, and behaviors likely to cause ingestion of dirt. Blood samples taken from children at certain ages and during the warmer months contained more lead than samples obtained during the cooler months. The effects of these determinants on PbB during early childhood were basically consistent in both single and multivariable analyses. PMID:1596103

  13. Analysis of lead concentration in forager stingless bees Trigona sp. (hymenoptera: Apidae) and propolis at Cilutung and Maribaya, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safira, Nabila; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Several studies had shown that lead (Pb) in the environment could accumulate in bees, which in turn could affect the quality of the resulting product. In this study, forager stingless bees (Trigona sp.) and its product (propolis) collected from a stingless bees apiculture. This apiculture had two apiary sites which were distinguished by its environmental setting. Apiary site in Cilutung had a forest region environmental setting, while apiary site in Maribaya was located beside the main road. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead concentration in propolis originated from both apiary sites and establish the correlation between lead concentration in propolis and lead level in forager stingless bees. Forager bees and propolis samples were originated from 50 bees colonies (Cilutung) and 44 bees colonies (Maribaya). They were analyzed using AAS-GF (Atomic Absorption Spectrometre-Graphite Furnace) to determine the level of lead concentration. The results showed that the average level of lead in propolis originated from Cilutung (298.08±73.71 ppb) was lower than the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Maribaya (330.64±156.34 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the average level of lead in forager bees which originated from Cilutung (118.08±30.46 ppb) and Maribaya (128.82±39.66 ppb). However, these values did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the average level of lead concentration in propolis in both sites had passed the maximum permission standard of lead for food in Indonesia. There was no correlation between lead concentration in propolis and forager stingless bees.

  14. A Greenhouse Study on Lead Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) as a Function of Lead Concentration and Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S. K.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic non-essential metal that can cause permanent learning disabilities, retardation, mental and behavioral problems in children. Lead accumulation in soils result from weathering, chipping, scraping, sanding and sand blasting of housing structures constructed prior to 1978, bearing lead-based paint. The primary objective of this study is to develop a cost-effective, chelate-assisted phytoremediation for cleaning up lead contaminated soils. Soils are a unique environment of diverse physical and chemical characteristics that influence the extent of phytoavailable (labile) Pb forms. The success of phytoremediation strategy depends on the physiological/ biochemical tolerance of the plants to lipid peroxidation induced by Pb at sub-lethal levels. Oxidative challenge is alleviated by antioxidant compounds, but more importantly by the induction of antioxidant enzymes, which are crucial for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and terminating lipid peroxidation chain reaction. A column study was conducted in a temperature and humidity-controlled greenhouse setting to assess the extent of Pb phytoextraction and antioxidant response in a lead accumulator, vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Treatments consisted of a randomized block arrangement of 4 soil types (Immokalee, Pahokee Muck, Tobosa, and Millhopper) and 3 soil Pb concentrations [normal - 400 mg/kg lead (following federal soil standards for lead), moderate - 800 mg/kg lead, and excessive - 1200 mg/kg lead] in 4 replicates. At the end of 6 months, selected columns were amended with a biodegradable chelating agent, ethylenediamene disuccinate (10 mmol/ kg EDDS), to mobilize Pb and enhance Pb uptake by vetiver. Total and exchangeable (labile) Pb were correlated with phytoextracted Pb, and levels of antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. Results indicate that Pb uptake and antioxidant enzymes activity in vetiver grass is dependent on soil physico-chemical properties and phytoavailable Pb concentrations.

  15. Determination of t,t-muconic acid in urine samples using a molecular imprinted polymer combined with simultaneous ethyl chloroformate derivatization and pre-concentration by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Chauhan, Abhishek; Singh, Krishna P; Gupta, Shailendra K; Jain, Rajeev; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Murthy, R C

    2013-01-01

    The present communication describes the preparation and evaluation of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent and simultaneous ethyl chloroformate (ECF) derivatization and pre-concentration by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the analysis of t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The imprinting polymer was prepared using methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator and t,t-MA as a template molecule. The imprinted polymer was evaluated for its use as a SPE sorbent by comparing both imprinted and non-imprinted polymers in terms of the recovery of t,t-MA from urine samples. Molecular modelling studies were performed in order to estimate the binding energy and efficiency of the MIP complex formed between the monomer and the t,t-MA. Various factors that can affect the extraction efficiency of MIP, such as the loading, washing and eluting conditions, were optimized; other factors that can affect the derivatization and DLLME pre-concentration were also optimized. MIP in combination with ECF derivatization and DLLME pre-concentration for t,t-MA exhibits good linearity, ranging from 0.125 to 2 μg mL(-1) (R(2) = 0.9971), with limit of detection of 0.037 μg mL(-1) and limit of quantification of 0.109 μg mL(-1). Intra- and inter-day precision was found to be <6%. The proposed method has been proven to be effective and sensitive for the selective pre-concentration and determination of t,t-MA in urine samples of cigarette smokers. PMID:23079953

  16. Examination of lead concentrations in new decorative enamel paints in four countries with different histories of activity in lead paint regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C. Scott; Kumar, Abhay; Mohapatra, Piyush; Rajankar, Prashant; Nycz, Zuleica; Hambartsumyan, Amalia; Astanina, Lydia; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline; Menrath, William; Peng, Hongying

    2014-07-15

    Paints with high lead concentrations (ppm) continue to be sold around the world in many developing countries and those with economies in transition representing a major preventable environmental health hazard that is being increased as the economies expand and paint consumption is increasing. Prior lead paint testing had been performed in Brazil and India and these countries were selected to examine the impact of a new regulatory limit in Brazil and the impact of efforts of non-governmental organizations and others to stop the use of lead compounds in manufacturing paints. Armenia and Kazakhstan, in Central Asia, were selected because no information on lead concentration in those regions was available, no regulatory activities were evident and non-governmental organizations in the IPEN network were available to participate. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the lead loading (µg/cm{sup 2}) limit determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for areas on toys that are too small to obtain a sample of sufficient size for laboratory analysis. The lead concentrations in more than three-fourths of the paints from Armenia and Kazakhstan exceeded 90 ppm, the limit in the United States, and 600 ppm, the limit in Brazil. The percentages were about one-half as high in Brazil and India. The average concentration in paints purchased in Armenia, 25,000 ppm, is among the highest that has been previously reported, that in Kazakhstan, 15,700 ppm, and India, 16,600, about median. The average concentration in Brazil, 5600 ppm, is among the lowest observed. Paints in Brazil that contained an average of 36,000 ppm before the regulatory limit became effective were below detection (<9 ppm) in samples collected in the current study. The lack of any apparent public monitoring of paint lead content as part of regulatory enforcement makes it difficult to determine whether the regulation was a major factor contributing to the decline in lead use in these paints. Using data from the current study and those available from other studies 24 of 28 paints from major brands in India decreased from high concentrations to 90 ppm or lower. Since lead concentrations in golden yellow paints from these brands were found to decrease to ≤90 ppm, it is possible that all 28 of these paints now contain ≤90 ppm since yellow paints usually have the highest lead concentrations. Other brands in Brazil and India that have been analyzed only one time had lead concentrations up to 59,000 ppm and 134,000 ppm, respectively. Less than one-third of the paints had notations on their labels with information about lead content and these were sometimes inaccurate. The label from one brand indicating “no added lead” contained paint with 134,000 ppm lead, the highest found in this study. Three percent (3 of 98) of the paints with surface lead loading that did not exceed 2 µg/cm{sup 2}, the limit established by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for small areas on toys, contained greater than 90 ppm lead and thus were false negatives. Of the new paint samples that contained ≤600 ppm, 88% contained ≤90 ppm. Of the samples that contained ≤90 ppm, 97% contained ≤45 ppm and 92% contained ≤15 ppm. Based on these data it appears to be technically feasible to manufacture paints containing ≤90 ppm and in many cases to produce paints that have lead concentrations that do not exceed 15 ppm. - Highlights: • Brazilian paints with high lead (avg. 36,000 ppm) contained <9 ppm after regulation. • Lead in major Indian paint brands decreased to low levels by efforts of NGOs/others. • Most paints with lead ≤600 ppm also are ≤90 ppm and many also ≤15 ppm. • At the CPSIA limit of 2 µg Pb/cm{sup 2} for small areas on toys, 3% exceeded 90 ppm lead. • Most paint brands in Armenia and Kazakhstan based/manufactured outside the country.

  17. Placental transfer and concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium in mothers, newborns, and young children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Myers, Robert; Wei, Taiyin; Bind, Eric; Kassim, Prince; Wang, Guoying; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Bartell, Tami; Gong, Yiwei; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    There is an emerging hypothesis that exposure to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in utero and early childhood could have long-term health consequences. However, there are sparse data on early life exposures to these elements in US populations, particularly in urban minority samples. This study measured levels of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se in 50 paired maternal, umbilical cord, and postnatal blood samples from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). Maternal exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se was 100% detectable in red blood cells (RBCs), and there was a high degree of maternal-fetal transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se. In particular, we found that Hg levels in cord RBCs were 1.5 times higher than those found in the mothers. This study also investigated changes in concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se during the first few years of life. We found decreased levels of Hg and Se but elevated Pb levels in early childhood. Finally, this study investigated the association between metal burden and preterm birth and low birthweight. We found significantly higher levels of Hg in maternal and cord plasma and RBCs in preterm or low birthweight births, compared with term or normal birthweight births. In conclusion, this study showed that maternal exposure to these elements was widespread in the BBC, and maternal-fetal transfer was a major source of early life exposure to Hg, Pb, and Se. Our results also suggest that RBCs are better than plasma at reflecting the trans-placental transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se from the mother to the fetus. Our study findings remain to be confirmed in larger studies, and the implications for early screening and interventions of preconception and pregnant mothers and newborns warrant further investigation. PMID:24756102

  18. Placental transfer and concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium in mothers, newborns, and young children

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Myers, Robert; Wei, Taiyin; Bind, Eric; Kassim, Prince; Wang, Guoying; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Bartell, Tami; Gong, Yiwei; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Wang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging hypothesis that exposure to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in utero and early childhood could have long-term health consequences. However, there are sparse data on early life exposures to these elements in US populations, particularly in urban minority samples. This study measured levels of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se in 50 paired maternal, umbilical cord, and postnatal blood samples from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). Maternal exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se was 100% detectable in red blood cells (RBCs), and there was a high degree of maternal–fetal transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se. In particular, we found that Hg levels in cord RBCs were 1.5 times higher than those found in the mothers. This study also investigated changes in concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se during the first few years of life. We found decreased levels of Hg and Se but elevated Pb levels in early childhood. Finally, this study investigated the association between metal burden and preterm birth and low birthweight. We found significantly higher levels of Hg in maternal and cord plasma and RBCs in preterm or low birthweight births, compared with term or normal birthweight births. In conclusion, this study showed that maternal exposure to these elements was widespread in the BBC, and maternal–fetal transfer was a major source of early life exposure to Hg, Pb, and Se. Our results also suggest that RBCs are better than plasma at reflecting the trans-placental transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se from the mother to the fetus. Our study findings remain to be confirmed in larger studies, and the implications for early screening and interventions of preconception and pregnant mothers and newborns warrant further investigation. PMID:24756102

  19. Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.

    1981-01-01

    Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

  20. New sorbent materials for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Bujak, Renata; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowaczyk, Alicja; Raczak-Gutknecht, Joanna; Kordalewska, Marta; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Waszczuk-Jankowska, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Ewa; Kaliszan, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław; Markuszewski, Michał J

    2016-02-20

    An increase in cocaine consumption has been observed in Europe during the last decade. Benzoylecgonine, as a main urinary metabolite of cocaine in human, is so far the most reliable marker of cocaine consumption. Determination of cocaine and its metabolite in complex biological samples as urine or blood, requires efficient and selective sample pretreatment. In this preliminary study, the newly synthesized sorbent materials were proposed for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from urine samples. Application of these sorbent media allowed to determine cocaine and benzoylecgonine in urine samples at the concentration level of 100ng/ml with good recovery values as 81.7%±6.6 and 73.8%±4.2, respectively. The newly synthesized materials provided efficient, inexpensive and selective extraction of both cocaine and benzoylecgonine from urine samples, which can consequently lead to an increase of the sensitivity of the current available screening diagnostic tests. PMID:26689741

  1. Characteristics of lead isotope ratios and elemental concentrations in PM 10 fraction of airborne particulate matter in Shanghai after the phase-out of leaded gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jian; Tan, Mingguang; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Guilin; Zhang, Yuanmao; Shan, Zuci

    The stable lead (Pb) isotope ratios and the concentrations of 23 elements, including heavy metals and toxic elements, were measured in the PM 10 airborne particle samples collected at seven monitoring sites in Shanghai, China, to evaluate the current elemental compositions and local airborne Pb isotope ratio characteristics. Some source-related samples, such as cement, coal and oil combustion dust, metallurgic dust, vehicle exhaust particles derived from leaded gasoline and unleaded gasoline, and polluted soils were analyzed for their Pb content and isotope ratio and compared to those observed in PM 10 samples. Airborne Pb concentration ranged from 167 to 854 ng/m 3 in the seven monitored sites with an average of 515 ng/m 3 in Shanghai, indicating that a high concentration of Pb remains in the air after the phasing out of leaded gasoline. Lead isotopic compositions in airborne particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.86080.0018; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.1050.005) are clearly distinct from the vehicle exhaust particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.88540.0075; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.1450.006), suggesting that the automotive lead is not currently the major component of Pb in the air. By using a binary mixing equation, a source apportionment based on 207Pb/ 206Pb ratios, indicates that the contribution from automotive emission to the airborne Pb is around 20%. The Pb isotope ratios obtained in the source-related samples confirmed that the major emission sources are metallurgic dust, coal combustion, and cement.

  2. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePLUS

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  3. Total body burdens and tissue concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and ash in 55 human cadavers

    SciTech Connect

    Saltzman, B.E.; Gross, S.B.; Yeager, D.W.; Meiners, B.G.; Gartside, P.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Trace metal contents of human tissues and total body burdens are useful for studies of nutrition and certain diseases. Data are summarized and analyzed for individuals exposed to the normal Cincinnati environment, for 29 tissues from 55 cadavers for lead and ash concentrations, and from 26 cadavers for cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations. Total body burdens also were calculated and correlated against each other and age. The distributions for ash, copper, and zinc were close to normal, but those for lead and cadmium were closer to lognormal. Bone lead increased with age, whereas soft tissue lead did not. The calculated mean percentage of total body lead in the bones ranged from 78% at age 20 to 96% at age 80. Correlations of blood concentrations with total body burdens were negligible for cadmium and zinc. For copper the correlation coefficient was a poor 0.54. For lead in blood vs soft tissue burden it was a very poor 0.37, and vs total body lead it was negligible. Thus the use of blood samples as a convenient clinical measure of body burdens for these metals may be of limited value. These and other findings provide a useful bank of information for health studies.

  4. Effect of ash circulation in gasification melting system on concentration and leachability of lead in melting furnace fly ash.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Suzuki, Masaru

    2013-11-30

    In some gasification-melting plants, generated melting furnace fly ash is returned back to the melting furnace for converting the ash to slag. This study investigated the effect of such ash circulation in the gasification-melting system on the concentration and leachability of lead in the melting furnace fly ash. The ash circulation in the melting process was simulated by a thermodynamic calculation, and an elemental analysis and leaching tests were performed on a melting furnace fly ash sample collected from the gasification-melting plant with the ash circulation. It was found that by the ash circulation in the gasification-melting, lead was highly concentrated in the melting furnace fly ash to the level equal to the fly ash from the ash-melting process. The thermodynamic calculation predicted that the lead volatilization by the chlorination is promoted by the ash circulation resulting in the high lead concentration. In addition, the lead extraction from the melting furnace fly ash into a NaOH solution was also enhanced by the ash circulation, and over 90% of lead in the fly ash was extracted in 5min when using 0.5moll(-1) NaOH solution with L/S ratio of 10 at 100C. Based on the results, a combination of the gasification-melting with the ash circulation and the NaOH leaching method is proposed for the high efficient lead recovery. PMID:24121545

  5. Urine bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli isolates exhibiting different resistance phenotypes/genotypes in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model simulating urine concentrations obtained after oral administration of a 400-milligram single dose of cefditoren-pivoxil.

    PubMed

    Sevillano, David; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Alou, Luis; Gimnez, Mara-Jos; Torrico, Martha; Gonzlez, Natalia; Cafini, Fabio; Relao, Mara-Teresa; Coronel, Pilar; Prieto, Jos

    2008-03-01

    Activity of simulated cefditoren urinary concentrations was determined against seven Escherichia coli isolates. Bactericidal activity was obtained from 4 to 24 h against TEM-1 (penicillinase production/hyperproduction), TEM-34 (IRT-6), and TEM-116 (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL]) and from 6 to 8 h against SHV/TEM-116 (ESBL) but never against SHV/TEM-1 (ESBL). Extension of bactericidal activity depended on the resistance genotype/phenotype tested. PMID:18160517

  6. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Urine Tests KidsHealth > For Parents > Urine Tests Print A A A Text Size What's ... Urinalysis How a Urinalysis Is Done Doctors order urine tests for kids to make sure that the ...

  7. Getting a Urine Test

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size en ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  8. Getting a Urine Test

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the Body Works Main Page Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size It ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  9. 24-hour urine copper test

    MedlinePLUS

    The 24-hour urine copper test measures the amount of copper in a urine sample. ... A 24-hour urine sample is needed. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in the morning. Afterwards, collect ...

  10. Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

  11. Joint Toxicity of Lead, Chromium, Cobalt and Nickel to Photobacterium phosphoreum at No Observed Effect Concentration.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yaling; Wang, Lan; Jiang, Long; Cai, Xiaoyu; Li, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Joint toxicity of Pb2+, Cr3+, Co2+ and Ni2+ toward Photobacterium phosphoreum (Ph. phosphoreum) at the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was determined through a factorial experiment. A neural network model was designed according to experimental results and employed for toxicity prediction of unary, binary, ternary and quaternary combinations. The mechanism and trends of joint toxicity were interpreted by quantitative structure-activity relationship, Michaelis-Menten kinetic model, and concentration addition (CA) theory. Toxicity was directly related to the covalent index (Xm2r), covalent binding reaction presented a first and zero order reaction at low and high concentration, respectively, and CA accurately predicted toxicity. Additionally, the results showed that low concentrations of heavy metals should be considered when conducting environment risk assessment. PMID:26032300

  12. Concentrations, isotopic compositions, and sources of lead in the surface waters of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, R.; Zurbrick, C. M.; Flegal, A. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions were measured in surface and subsurface waters across the Eastern Tropical South Pacific as part of the 2013 US GEOTRACES Zonal Transect from Peru to Tahiti. Surface waters were collected throughout the transect, and subsurface waters were collected to a depth of 1,000 m at 36 vertical profile stations. Aliquots of some of those samples, as well as samples from greater depths, were used in intercalibrations with Ed Boyle's group, which focused on lead fluxes from hydrothermal vents and at the benthic boundary layer. In contrast, our group focused on aeolian lead fluxes to surface waters from natural and industrial sources. Preliminary data indicate that lead concentrations in those South Pacific surface waters are low compared to the more contaminated North Pacific. Moreover, complementary lead isotopic compositions indicate distinguishing between natural and industrial lead fluxes in the South Pacific will be more difficult now that the use of gasoline with lead alkyls from Australia have been eliminated.

  13. Arsenic, Iron, Lead, Manganese and Uranium Concentrations in Private Bedrock Wells in Southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the t...

  14. ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY AT A MERCURY FILM ELECTRODE: BASELINE CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM, LEAD, AND COPPER IN SELECTED NATURAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive anodic stripping voltammetric method with a mercury thin film electrode is reported for the establishment of baseline concentrations of cadmium, lead, and copper in natural waters. The procedure for routine surface preparation of wax-impregnated g...

  15. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  16. Organic and inorganic amendments affect soil concentration and accumulation of cadmium and lead in wheat in calcareous alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation with untreated effluent in periurban agriculture could result in accumulation and bioconcentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Different amendments were used to investigate their effect on availability, concentration, and uptake of metals by wheat in texturally different soils. Crop w...

  17. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Murray B.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Ferenz, Gretchen S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. PMID:25163429

  18. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables.

    PubMed

    McBride, Murray B; Shayler, Hannah A; Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-11-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. PMID:25163429

  19. Deer exposed to exceptionally high concentrations of lead near the continental mine in Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Gaston, G.; Brazzle, R.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Audet, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat surrounding the inactive Continental Mine in northern Idaho, USA, supports bear (Ursus arctos, Ursus americanus), moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus elaphus), woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), and abundant mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Tailings on the mining site were capped and remediated in 2003 to reduce environmental exposure of surrounding soil and sediments of Blue Joe Creek, downslope of the mine. Before capping, the mean Pb concentration in deer pellets collected on-site was 920 mg/kg of Pb (dry wt). This exposure, if chronic, would be comparable to an exposure that could be lethal to cattle or horses. Surprisingly, the mean pellet Pb concentration of 950 mg/kg in 2004 was as high as it was before remediation, and it was related to a high rate of soil ingestion. Mean soil content of the pellets collected from the capped site in 2004 was 22% dry weight, estimated from the acid-insoluble ash, a marker of soil ingestion. Clumps of sand and bits of rock were observed inside some of the pellets, and Pb concentrations in the pellets were correlated (p < 0.05) with soil content. Although terrestrial risk assessments generally estimate exposure from diets and from incidentally ingested soil, the deer at this site were directly ingesting contaminated soil or mining waste. The mean Pb concentration of this ingested soil was estimated as 6,700 mg/kg and the maximum as 25,000 mg/kg, well above the Pb concentrations measured in the remediated cap. The deer seemed to be ingesting soil or mining waste from one or more small but highly contaminated sources located beyond the remediated cap.

  20. Deer exposed to exceptionally high concentrations of lead near the Continental Mine in Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W Nelson; Gaston, Greg; Brazzle, Roy; O'Connell, Allan F; Audet, Dan J

    2007-05-01

    Habitat surrounding the inactive Continental Mine in northern Idaho, USA, supports bear (Ursus arctos, Ursus americanus), moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus elaphus), woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), and abundant mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Tailings on the mining site were capped and remediated in 2003 to reduce environmental exposure of surrounding soil and sediments of Blue Joe Creek, downslope of the mine. Before capping, the mean Pb concentration in deer pellets collected on-site was 920 mg/kg of Pb (dry wt). This exposure, if chronic, would be comparable to an exposure that could be lethal to cattle or horses. Surprisingly, the mean pellet Pb concentration of 950 mg/kg in 2004 was as high as it was before remediation, and it was related to a high rate of soil ingestion. Mean soil content of the pellets collected from the capped site in 2004 was 22% dry weight, estimated from the acid-insoluble ash, a marker of soil ingestion. Clumps of sand and bits of rock were observed inside some of the pellets, and Pb concentrations in the pellets were correlated (p < 0.05) with soil content. Although terrestrial risk assessments generally estimate exposure from diets and from incidentally ingested soil. the deer at this site were directly ingesting contaminated soil or mining waste. The mean Pb concentration of this ingested soil was estimated as 6,700 mg/kg and the maximum as 25,000 mg/kg, well above the Pb concentrations measured in the remediated cap. The deer seemed to be ingesting soil or mining waste from one or more small but highly contaminated sources located beyond the remediated cap. PMID:17521153

  1. Lead concentration and isotopic composition in five peridotite inclusions of probable mantle origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Tera, F.

    1973-01-01

    The lead content of five whole-rock peridotite inclusions (four lherzolites and one harzburgite) in alkali basalt ranges from 82 to 570 ppb (parts per billion). Approximately 30-60 ppb of this amount can be accounted for by analyzed major silicate minerals (olivine ??? 10 ppb; enstatite 5-28 ppb; chrome diopside ???400 ppb). Through a series of acid leaching experiments, the remainder of the lead is shown to be quite labile and to reside in either glassy or microcrystalline veinlets or accessory mineral phases, such as apatite and mica. The lead isotopic composition of the peridotites (206Pb/204Pb = 18.01-18.90; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.52-15.61; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.80-38.86) lies within the range of values defined by many modern volcanic rocks and, in particular, is essentially coextensive with the abyssal tholeiite field. In all but one instance, isotopic differences were found between the peridotite and its host alkali basalt. Two of the peridotites clearly demonstrated internal isotopic heterogeneity between leachable and residual fractions that could not simply be due to contamination by the host basalt. However, there is no evidence that these ultramafic rocks form some layer in the mantle with isotopic characteristics fundamentally different from those of the magma sources of volcanic rocks. ?? 1973.

  2. Relationship between blood lead concentration and nutritional status among Malay primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Elias, S M; Hashim, Z; Marjan, Z M; Abdullah, A S; Hashim, J H

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the relationship between blood lead concentration and nutritional status among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 225 Malay students, 113 male and 112 female, aged 6.3 to 9.8 were selected through a stratified random sampling method. The random blood samples were collected and blood lead concentration was measured by a Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The nutrient intake was determined by the 24-hour Dietary Recall method and Food Frequency Questionnaire. An anthropometric assessment was reported according to growth indices (z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height). The mean blood lead concentration was low (3.4 +/- 1.91 ug/dL) and was significantly different between gender. Only 14.7% of the respondents fulfilled the daily energy requirement. The protein and iron intakes were adequate for a majority of the children. However, 34.7% of the total children showed inadequate intake of calcium. The energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate intakes were significantly different by gender, that is, males had better intake than females. Majority of respondents had normal mean z-score of growth indices. Ten percent of the respondents were underweight, 2.8% wasted and 5.4% stunted. Multiple linear regression showed inverse significant relationships between blood lead concentration with children's age (beta = -0.647, p < 0.001) and per capita income (beta = -0.001, p = 0.018). There were inverse significant relationships between blood lead concentration with children's age (beta = -0.877, p = 0.001) and calcium intake (beta = -0.011, p = 0.014) and positive significant relationship with weight-for-height (beta = 0.326, p = 0.041) among those with inadequate calcium intake. Among children with inadequate energy intake, children's age (beta = -0.621, p < 0.001), per capita income (beta = -0.001, p = 0.025) and protein intake (beta = -0.019, p = 0.027) were inversely and significantly related with blood lead concentration. In conclusion, nutritional status might affect the children's absorption of lead and further investigation is required for confirmation. PMID:18330402

  3. The displacement of calcium from osteocalcin at submicromolar concentrations of free lead.

    PubMed

    Dowd, T L; Rosen, J F; Gundberg, C M; Gupta, R K

    1994-05-25

    Lead, an environmental toxin, is known to impair some of the functional properties of osteocalcin, a small protein (MW, 5700) active in bone mineralization and resorption. To investigate a possible mechanism of lead toxicity at the molecular level, we have studied the interaction of lead with osteocalcin using 43Ca and 1H NMR. The measured 43Ca NMR linewidth as well as longitudinal relaxation rate (1/T1) of 43CaCl2 progressively increased with increasing amounts of added osteocalcin. A titration measuring 43Ca linewidth as a function of [Ca2+]/[Osteocalcin] ratio could be fitted to a single metal binding site with a dissociation constant of 7 microM. The 43Ca 1/T1 of Ca-osteocalcin decreased in the presence of Pb2+ due to competitive displacement of Ca2+ by Pb2+. The magnitude of decrease in the effect of osteocalcin on 43Ca 1/T1 in the presence of Pb2+ was consistent with the existence of only one tight divalent cation binding site. An analysis of the NMR T1 data in osteocalcin solutions containing both Pb2+ and Ca2+ yielded a Pb-osteocalcin dissociation constant of about 2 nM. The 1H NMR spectra showed Pb-induced changes in the same aliphatic and aromatic resonances of osteocalcin that are also affected by Ca(2+)-binding, supporting interaction of Pb2+ at the Ca2+ site. However, the existence of significant differences between the Pb-osteocalcin and Ca-osteocalcin NMR spectra indicates some differences in the structures of the two complexes. Since Pb2+ inhibits the binding of osteocalcin to hydroxyapatite, the high affinity of Pb2+ for osteocalcin would indicate significant inactivation of osteocalcin even at submicromolar free lead levels. Pb(2+)-induced inactivation of osteocalcin could affect bone mineral dynamics and may be related to the observed inverse correlation between blood Pb(2+)-levels and stature and chest circumference observed in growing children. PMID:8204659

  4. Effects of pH and carbonate concentration on dissolution rates of the lead corrosion product PbO(2).

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjiao; Wang, Yin; Singhal, Vidhi; Giammar, Daniel E

    2010-02-01

    Lead(IV) oxide is a corrosion product that can develop on lead pipes and affect lead concentrations in drinking water. Continuously stirred flow-though reactors were used to quantify the dissolution rates of plattnerite (beta-PbO(2)) at different pH values and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations. Organic pH buffers were not used, because several were found to be reductants for PbO(2) that accelerated its dissolution. Most plattnerite dissolution rates were on the order of 10(-10) mol/min-m(2). The rate of dissolution increased with decreasing pH and with increasing DIC. The effect of DIC is consistent with a reductive dissolution mechanism that involves the reduction of Pb(IV) to Pb(II) at the plattnerite surface followed by the formation of soluble Pb(II)-carbonate complexes that accelerate Pb(II) release from the surface. Under the experimental conditions, dissolved lead concentrations were controlled by the dissolution rate of plattnerite and not by its equilibrium solubility. A dissolution rate model was developed and can be used to predict dissolution rates of plattnerite as a function of pH and DIC. PMID:20063875

  5. Effect of lead ion concentration on the structural and optical properties of nano-crystalline PbS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, S.; Mehmood, S. K.; Mansoor, M.; Asim, M. M.

    2014-06-01

    PbS thin films have received considerable attention because of their potential applications in opto-electronics applications. Spontaneous reaction of lead acetate and thiourea in aqueous hydrazine hydrate has been used for depositing PbS thin films on glass substrates. Structural and optical properties of PbS thin films are greatly influenced by the morality of the reactants and crystal defects in the lattice. Our work focuses on the variation in lead ion concentration and its effect on the structural and optical properties of PbS thin films. The deposited films were analyzed using XRD, SEM, spectrophotometer and dark resistance measurement. XRD patterns indicated the formation of major phase of nano crystalline PbS with minor presence of lead oxide phase. We also noticed that peak intensity ratio of I111/I200 varied by changing the Pb ion concentration. The film thickness and dark resistance increased whereas optical band gap decreased with the decreasing Pb ion concentration. SEM scans showed that the grain size is less than 100 nm and is not affected by varying Pb ion concentration.

  6. Measurement of Fuel Concentration Profile at Leading Edge of Lifted Flame with Acetone Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Mitsutomo; Sekine, Kazushi; Hashimoto, Kouta; Saiki, Atsushi; Takahashi, Hidemi; Masuya, Goro

    This is a study of the leading-edge characteristics of a methane-air triple flame. Few experiment results are available for physical examination of such characteristics, so further experimental investigations are strongly needed to understand the stability mechanism in a mixture with a steep concentration gradient. To this end, we measured concentration profiles at the leading edge of a flame using acetone laser-induced fluorescence (acetone LIF). The results demonstrated that the lifted height of the flame changed when acetone was added to the mixture and correlated well with increased C2 radical behind the flame edge. However, the OH radical luminous intensity, measured with a spectroscope, did not change with addition of acetone. Moreover, the burning velocity obtained by the Bunsen-burner method remained constant when acetone was added to the mixture. Therefore, acetone had little influence on burning intensity. Acetone LIF can thus be employed to measure the local concentration gradient at the leading edge of a flame. The acetone LIF signals could be corrected to consider the thermal effect by using silicone oil vanishing-plane data. From the corrected acetone LIF data, the width between the lean and rich flammability limits (flammability limit width) in the flow upstream of the flame with a steep concentration gradient was clearly observed and could be quantitatively compared with the recent numerical results.

  7. Effects of lead on Na+, K+-ATPase and hemolymph ion concentrations in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W. Gregory; Weber, Frank X.; Shea, Damian; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants such as lead (Pb) and studies are urgently needed to assess their health and condition to guide conservation efforts. A 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern elliptio mussels (Elliptio complanata) was conducted to determine uptake kinetics and to assess the toxicological effects of Pb exposure. Test mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a water-only control and five concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 245 mu g/L in a static renewal test with a water hardness of 42 mg/L. Endpoints included tissue Pb concentrations, hemolymph Pb and ion (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) concentrations, and Na+, K+-ATPase enzyme activity in gill tissue. Mussels accumulated Pb rapidly, with tissue concentrations increasing at an exposure-dependent rate for the first 2 weeks, but with no significant increase from 2 to 4 weeks. Mussel tissue Pb concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 898 mu g/g dry weight, were strongly related to Pb in test water at every time interval (7, 14, 21, and 28 days), and did not significantly increase after day 14. Hemolymph Pb concentration was variable, dependent on exposure concentration, and showed no appreciable change with time beyond day 7, except for mussels in the greatest exposure concentration (245 mu g/L), which showed a significant reduction in Pb by 28 days, suggesting a threshold for Pb binding or elimination in hemolymph at concentrations near 1000 mu g/g. The Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the gill tissue of mussels was significantly reduced by Pb on day 28 and was highly correlated with tissue Pb concentration (R2 = 0.92; P = 0.013). The Na+, K+-ATPase activity was correlated with reduced hemolymph Na+ concentration at the greatest Pb exposure when enzyme activity was at 30% of controls. Hemolymph Ca2+ concentration increased significantly in mussels from the greatest Pb exposure and may be due to remobilization from the shell in an attempt to buffer the hemolymph against Pb uptake and toxicity. We conclude that Na+, K+-ATPase activity in mussels was adversely affected by Pb exposure, however, because the effects on activity were variable at the lower test concentrations, additional research is warranted over this range of exposures. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.

  8. Surveillance of workers exposed to mercury vapor:validation of a previously proposed biological threshold limit value for mercury concentration in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Roels, H.; Gennart, J.P.; Lauwerys, R.; Buchet, J.P.; Malchaire, J.; Bernard, A.

    1985-01-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out among subjects exposed to mercury (Hg) vapor, ie, a group of 131 male workers (mean age: 30.9 yr; average duration of exposure, 4.8 yr) and a group of 54 female workers (mean age, 29.9 yr; average duration of exposure 7 yr). The results were compared with those obtained in well-matched control groups comprising 114 and 48 male and female workers, respectively. The intensity of current Hg vapor exposure was rather moderate as reflected by the levels of mercury in urine (HgU) (mean and 95th percentile: males 52 and 147 micrograms/g creatinine; females 37 and 63 micrograms/g creatinine) and of mercury in blood (mean and 95th percentile: males 1.4 and 3.7 micrograms/dl; females 0.9 and 1.4 microgram/dl). Several symptoms mainly related to the central nervous system (memory disturbances, depressive feelings, fatigue, irritability) were more prevalent in the Hg-exposed subjects. They were, however, not related to exposure parameters. In both male and female Hg-exposed workers no significant disturbances were found in short-term memory (audioverbal), simple reaction time (visual), critical flicker fusion, and color discrimination ability. Only slight renal tubular effects were detected in Hg-exposed males and females, ie, an increased urinary beta-galactosidase activity and an increased urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein. The prevalence of these preclinical renal effects was more related to the current exposure intensity (HgU) than to the duration of exposure and was detected mainly when HgU exceeds 50 micrograms/g creatinine. Changes in hand tremor spectrum recorded with an accelerometer were found in the Hg-exposed males only.

  9. Natural lead concentrations in pristine boreal forest soils and past pollution trends: A reference for critical load models

    SciTech Connect

    Bindler, R.; Braennvall, M.L.; Renberg, I.; Emteryd, O.; Grip, H.

    1999-10-01

    Knowledge of natural, prepollution concentrations of heavy metals in forest soils and temporal trends of soil pollution are essential for understanding present-day pollution and for establishing realistic goals for reductions of atmospheric pollution deposition. Soils not exposed to deposition of atmospheric pollution no longer exist and, for example, present lead (Pb) pollution conditions in northern European soils are a consequence of nearly 4,000 years of atmospheric pollution. The authors use analyses of Pb concentrations and stable Pb isotopes ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios) of ombrotrophic peat and forest soils from southern Sweden and a model for Pb cycling in forest soils to derive an estimate for the prepollution concentration of Pb in the mor layer of boreal forest soils and to back-calculate Pb concentrations for the last 5,500 years. While the present-day concentrations of the mor layer are typically 40--100 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} (0.25--1.0 g m{sup {minus}2}), Pb concentrations of pristine forest mor layers in Sweden were quite low, {le}0.1 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} ({le}1 mg m{sup {minus}2}). Large-scale atmospheric pollution from the Greek and Roman cultures increased Pb concentrations to about 1 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1}. Lead (Pb) concentrations increased to about 4 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} following the increase of metal production and atmospheric pollution in Medieval Europe.

  10. [A study of the literature on the concentrations of arsenic, lead, cadmium and mercury in body fluids and tissues to define normal values and detection of overload. 1. Description of analytical methods and arsenic].

    PubMed

    Baron, P; Schweinsberg, F

    1988-07-01

    The present review covers 208 papers dealing with determination of the metals arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in human biologic material. A comprehensive data bank survey of the literature from January 1980 to April 1984 was conducted and supplemented by review of some earlier publications. As shown by comparison of the results from a number of papers, the various state-of-the-art methods for determining metal content in biologic materials (e.g., atomic absorption spectrophotometry, neutron activation analysis, and x-ray fluorescent analysis) appear to be equally sensitive and reliable. These detection methods are suited to determination of the above metals in the following media: arsenic in urine, hair; cadmium in blood, urine, hair, renal cortex; lead in blood, hair; mercury in blood, urine, hair. To permit better comparison of the results presented in various publications, agreement must be reached on use of uniform concentration units and participation in quality control programs. Safe levels of chronic biological exposure overlap with concentrations which cause health effects or measurable impairment of body function over a wide range. Individual sensitivity to biological exposure varies. In a number of studies, metal concentrations are measured in symptom-free persons which cause symptoms in persons examined in other studies. Due to differences in the sensitivity of detection of symptoms, the range of minimum levels of biological exposure considered to be associated with deleterious health effects (levels of critical exposure) is unacceptably broad. Minimum levels of critical exposure should protect against development of early symptoms of toxicity. If the lowest published critical levels of biological exposure are taken as a cutoff, then a sizable portion of the persons currently revealing metal exposure in any of the reported media exceeds such levels. Symptoms of detrimental effects should be detectable in such persons and should be investigated. In establishing and evaluating current minimum levels of critical chronic metal exposure, there is a general need for a quantitative increase in determinations and for a qualitative increase in the sensitivity of detection of symptoms and other health effects--in order to avoid dependence on reports of acute toxicity. When detected levels of a given metal are in a range held to be normal, exclusion of toxic effects and poisoning requires additional consideration of clinical findings. PMID:3140534

  11. Assessment of Elemental Concentrations in Streams of the New Lead Belt in Southeastern Missouri, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; May, Thomas W.; Besser, John M.; Allert, Ann L.; Schmitt, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about possible effects of lead-mining activities on the water quality of federally protected streams located in southeastern Missouri prompted a suite of multidisciplinary studies to be conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. As part of this investigation, a series of biological studies were initiated in 2001 for streams in the current mining region and the prospecting area. In this report, results are examined for trace elements and other selected chemical measurements in sediment, surface water, and sediment interstitial (pore) water sampled between 2002 and 2005 in association with these biological studies. Compared to reference sites, fine sediments collected downstream from mining areas were enriched in metals by factors as large as 75 for cadmium, 62 for cobalt, 171 for nickel, 95 for lead, and 150 for zinc. Greatest metal concentrations in sediments collected in 2002 were from sites downstream from mines on Strother Creek, Courtois Creek, and the West Fork Black River. Sediments from sites on Bee Fork, Logan Creek, and Sweetwater Creek also were noticeably enriched in lead. Sediments in Clearwater Lake, at least 75 kilometers downstream from mining activity, had metal concentrations that were 1.5 to 2.1 times greater than sediments in an area of the lake with no upstream mining activity. Longitudinal sampling along three streams in 2004 indicated that sediment metal concentrations decreased considerably a few kilometers downstream from mining activities; however, in Strother Creek some metals were still enriched by a factor of five or more as far as 13 kilometers downstream from the Buick tailings impoundment. Compared with 2002 samples, metals concentrations were dramatically lower in sediments collected in 2004 at an upper West Fork Black River site, presumably because beneficiation operations at the West Fork mill ceased in 2000. Concentrations of metals and sulfate in sediment interstitial (pore) waters generally tracked closely with metal concentrations in sediments. Metals, including cobalt, nickel, lead, and zinc, were elevated substantially in laboratory-produced pore waters of fine sediments collected near mining operations in 2002 and 2004. Passive diffusion samplers (peepers) buried 4 to 6 centimeters deep in riffle-run stream sediments during 2003 and 2005 had much lower pore-water metal concentrations than the laboratory-produced pore waters of fine sediments collected in 2002 and 2004, but each sampling method produced similar patterns among sites. The combined mean concentration of lead in peeper samples from selected sites located downstream from mining activities for six streams was about 10-fold greater than the mean of the reference sites. In most instances, metals concentrations in surface water and peeper water were not greatly different, indicating considerable exchange between the surface water and pore water at the depths and locations where peepers were situated. Passive sampling probes used to assess metal lability in pore waters of selected samples during 2004 sediment toxicity tests indicated that most of the filterable lead in the laboratory-prepared pore water was relatively non-labile, presumably because lead was complexed by organic matter, or was present as colloidal species. In contrast, large percentages of cobalt and nickel in pore water appeared to be labile. Passive integrative samplers deployed in surface water for up to 3 weeks at three sites in July 2005 confirmed the presence of elevated concentrations of labile metals downstream from mining operations on Strother Creek and, to a lesser extent, Bee Fork. These samplers also indicated a considerable increase in metal loadings occurred for a few days at the Strother Creek site, which coincided with moderate increases in stream discharges in the area.

  12. Meteorological and Topographic Conditions in the Wintertime Uintah Basin Leading to High Ozone Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Martin, R. S.; Schnell, R. C.; Johnson, B.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Helmig, D.; Stephens, C. R.; Evans, J.; Senff, C. J.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Roberts, J. M.; Conley, S. A.; Zamora, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    High concentrations of O3 in the Uintah Basin, Utah, during winter have been observed during periods of snow cover in the basin. Low sun angles and the high albedo of snow contribute to very cold surface temperatures and strong static stability, which inhibit vertical mixing and trap pollutants within a very shallow layer near the ground. The pollutants are emitted from a variety of sources related to petroleum extraction in the western part of the basin and natural gas ';fracking' and extraction in the eastern half. These unevenly distributed sources also include several point and area NOX sources distributed around the basin as well. Despite the weakness of the daytime shortwave radiative heating of the snow surface and the daytime heat fluxes, a shallow unstable mixed layer is observed to form, in which pollutants and potential temperature are often observed to be nearly constant with height. Also often observed is an upslope or upvalley daytime flow by NOAA's High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which was located in the eastern portion of the basin. At this location, the weak (1-3 m/s) upslope flow was from a westerly direction during daytime. At night, a shallow, weak (1-3 m/s) easterly drainage flow was routinely observed by the lidar. The sloshing of air by the alternating daytime and nighttime flows, along with other weak oscillatory flows in the basin cold pool, had the effect of mingling the pollutants from the various sources, which may have contributed to the highest O3 concentrations.

  13. Characterization of perchlorate in a new frozen human urine standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lee L; Jarrett, Jeffery M; Davis, W Clay; Kilpatrick, Eric L; Oflaz, Rabia; Turk, Gregory C; Leber, Dennis D; Valentin, Liza; Morel-Espinosa, Maria; Blount, Benjamin C

    2012-10-01

    Perchlorate, an inorganic anion, has recently been recognized as an environmental contaminant by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Urine is the preferred matrix for assessment of human exposure to perchlorate. Although the measurement technique for perchlorate in urine was developed in 2005, the calibration and quality assurance aspects of the metrology infrastructure for perchlorate are still lacking in that there is no certified reference material (CRM) traceable to the International System of Units. To meet the quality assurance needs in biomonitoring measurements of perchlorate and the related anions that affect thyroid health, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3668 Mercury, Perchlorate, and Iodide in Frozen Human Urine. SRM 3668 consists of perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate, iodine, and mercury in urine at two levels that represent the 50th and 95th percentiles, respectively, of the concentrations (with some adjustments) in the US population. It is the first CRM being certified for perchlorate. Measurements leading to the certification of perchlorate were made collaboratively at NIST and CDC using three methods based on liquid or ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Potential sources of bias were analyzed, and results were compared for the three methods. Perchlorate in SRM 3668 Level I urine was certified to be 2.70 0.21 ?g L(-1), and for SRM 3668 Level II urine, the certified value is 13.47 0.96 ?g L(-1). PMID:22850897

  14. Influence of blood lead concentration on the nerve conduction velocity in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeng Soo; Park, Jae Ho; Hong, Joong Rock; Gil, Hyo Wook; Yang, Jong Oh; Lee, Eun Young; Hong, Sae Yong

    2006-04-01

    Diseases of the peripheral nervous system are the most prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although increased blood levels of lead in ESRD have been reported, the role of lead remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine the connection of blood lead concentration with peripheral nerve conduction velocity. One hundred ninety-eight healthy subjects (control group) and 68 patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis (ESRD group) were enrolled. Nerve conduction was measured within two hours after hemodialysis. Orthodromic sensory nerve action potentials and compound muscle action potentials were recorded on the median, ulnar, and radial nerves. Hemoglobin-corrected blood lead was significantly higher in ESRD patients than in controls (9.1+/-2.8 microgram/dL vs. 5.9+/-2.3 microgram/dL, p<0.001). 32.4% of 68 ESRD patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly related to poorer motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity (p<0.001). However, blood lead was not a significant predictor of the nerve conduction velocity (p>0.05). Our result suggested that even though the blood lead levels were high in ESRD, they were not associated with the decline of peripheral nerve function. Diabetes mellitus is a primary independent risk of neuropathy in ESRD patients. PMID:16614516

  15. Influence of Blood Lead Concentration on the Nerve Conduction Velocity in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeng-Soo; Park, Jae-Ho; Hong, Joong-Rock; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2006-01-01

    Diseases of the peripheral nervous system are the most prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although increased blood levels of lead in ESRD have been reported, the role of lead remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine the connection of blood lead concentration with peripheral nerve conduction velocity. One hundred ninety-eight healthy subjects (control group) and 68 patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis (ESRD group) were enrolled. Nerve conduction was measured within two hours after hemodialysis. Orthodromic sensory nerve action potentials and compound muscle action potentials were recorded on the median, ulnar, and radial nerves. Hemoglobin-corrected blood lead was significantly higher in ESRD patients than in controls (9.12.8 g/dL vs. 5.92.3 g/dL, p<0.001). 32.4% of 68 ESRD patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly related to poorer motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity (p<0.001). However, blood lead was not a significant predictor of the nerve conduction velocity (p>0.05). Our result suggested that even though the blood lead levels were high in ESRD, they were not associated with the decline of peripheral nerve function. Diabetes mellitus is a primary independent risk of neuropathy in ESRD patients. PMID:16614516

  16. High concentrations of NaCl induce cell swelling leading to senescence in human cells.

    PubMed

    Yamakami, Yoshimi; Yonekura, Ryuzo; Matsumoto, Yuko; Takauji, Yuki; Miki, Kensuke; Fujii, Michihiko; Ayusawa, Dai

    2016-01-01

    Cell swelling and retardation in DNA replication are always observed in senescent cells. When DNA replication is slowed down with RNA and protein syntheses unchanged in proliferating cells, it causes a phenomenon known as unbalanced growth. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of cell swelling in unbalanced growth in terms of senescence and investigate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We tried to induce cell swelling with minimum damage to cells in this study. We perturbed the osmoregulatory functions to induce cell swelling under hypotonic and hypertonic conditions in normal human fibroblasts. Addition of excess NaCl was found to induce significant cell and nuclear swelling in dose- and time-dependent manners. Excess NaCl immediately retarded DNA replication, accumulated cells at G1 phase of the cell cycle, and eventually deprived division potential of the cells. Such cells showed typical senescent cell shape followed by expression of the typical senescence-associated genes. Excess NaCl also activated ERK1/2, p38, and JNK of the mitogen activated protein kinase family. Addition of U0126, an inhibitor of ERK1/2, prevented appearance of senescent features induced by excess NaCl. These results suggest that hypertonic conditions induce cell swelling due to unbalanced growth, thereby leading to cellular senescence. PMID:26463993

  17. Cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc concentrations in human infant tissues: their relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of an excess of the toxic elements, cadmium and lead, or a deficiency of any of the essential elements, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, in the tissues of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as compared to those of infants who died of other causes. The literature was reviewed for SIDS, mineral metabolism, and mineral interactions. Lung, liver, kidney, and rib specimens were obtained at autopsy from 130 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. There were 85 SIDS cases ranging in age from 2 to 64 weeks and 45, aged 1 to 92 weeks, who died of other causes. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc in each tissue were determined by electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis of the data showed that liver and rib lead concentrations and liver magnesium concentrations were significantly higher in SIDS tissues in the 4 to 26 week age group than in non-SIDS tissues in the same age group. There was no evidence of a deficiency of the essential minerals measured.

  18. When are fetuses and young children most susceptible to soil metal concentrations of arsenic, lead and mercury?

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Weichao; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze when, during pregnancy and early childhood, the association between soil metal concentrations of arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) and the outcome of intellectual disability (ID) is statistically significant. Using cluster analysis, we identified ten areas of land that contained a cluster of ID and areas of average risk for ID. We analyzed soil for As, Pb, and Hg and estimated the soil metal concentration at the residential sites where the woman and children lived during pregnancy and early childhood using a Bayesian Kriging model. Arsenic concentrations were associated with ID during the first trimester of pregnancy and Hg was associated with ID early in pregnancy and the first two years of childhood. The covariates that remained in the final models were also temporally associated with ID. PMID:22749212

  19. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  20. Determination of Lead, Cations, and Anions Concentration in Indoor and Outdoor Air at the Primary Schools in Kuala Lumpur

    PubMed Central

    Awang, Normah; Jamaluddin, Farhana

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08 μg/g–7.01 ± 0.08 μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca2+ (39.51 ± 5.01 mg/g–65.13 ± 9.42 mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3− and SO42− were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3− (29.72 ± 0.31 μg/g–32.00 ± 0.75 μg/g) was slightly higher than SO42−. The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3−, SO42−, and Pb2+, were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations. PMID:25136371

  1. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  2. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  3. Urine pH test

    MedlinePLUS

    pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... provider may order this test to check for changes in your body's ... stones can form, depending on the acidity level of your urine.

  4. Liver and kidney concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in cats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to provide new knowledge on the storage of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the feline organism, we measured the concentrations of these elements in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla, evaluating also the impact of age, sex or the occurrence of a chronic kidney disease (CKD). The element concentrations in the tissues of 47 cats (22 male; 25 female; aged between 2months and 18years) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Cu, Zn and Mn were the highest in the liver, followed by the renal cortex and the renal medulla. The Cd concentrations were lower in the renal medulla compared to the renal cortex and the liver, and Sr was higher in the renal medulla compared to the liver. The Se concentrations in the cortex of the kidneys were higher than in the medulla of the kidneys and in the liver. Higher Cd concentrations were measured in the renal cortex of female cats, while no further gender-related differences were observed. Except for Cr, Sb and Se, age-dependencies were detected for the storage of all elements. The occurrence of a CKD also affected the storage of the elements, with lower concentrations of Ba (renal medulla), Zn (renal cortex; renal medulla) and Mn (liver; renal medulla), but higher Cd concentrations (liver; renal cortex) in diseased cats. Conclusions In conclusion, the present results provide new information on the accumulation of specific elements in the feline liver and kidneys, demonstrating a dependency on age and an impaired kidney function, but not on the sex of the animals. PMID:25030305

  5. Associations between proteins and heavy metals in urine at low environmental exposures: evidence of reverse causality.

    PubMed

    Chaumont, Agns; Nickmilder, Marc; Dumont, Xavier; Lundh, Thomas; Skerfving, Staffan; Bernard, Alfred

    2012-05-01

    Heavy metals can cause renal effects on vulnerable populations but it is uncertain whether these metals still pose health risks at the low exposure levels now prevailing in most industrialized countries. In a cross-sectional study performed on 736 adolescents, we assessed the associations between the concentrations of cadmium and lead in blood and urine and the urinary concentrations of albumin and of low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteins, retinol-binding protein (RBP) and ?(2)-microglobulin. Multiple regression analyses were tested using urinary markers normalized to urinary creatinine or specific gravity. Median metal concentrations were in blood (?g/L): lead, 15.1, cadmium, 0.18 and in urine (?g/g creatinine): cadmium, 0.09 and lead, 0.82. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations in urine between RBP and cadmium as well as between ?(2)-microglobulin and lead whereas no associations were seen with metals in blood. These associations were completely abolished in subjects with increased urinary albumin, which may be explained by the competitive inhibition of LMW protein reabsorption by albumin. Given the evidence that cadmium and lead circulate mainly bound to LMW proteins, these associations observed at low exposure might simply reflect the interindividual variations in the renal uptake of proteins sharing the same affinity for tubular binding sites. PMID:22353377

  6. Derivation of a target level of lead in soil at residential sites corresponding to a de minimis contribution to blood lead concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, A.H. )

    1994-12-01

    Inability to define either a clear toxicologic threshold or a stochastic all-or-nothing (cancer-type) response model for the noncarcinogenic effects of lead (Pb) in young children has posed difficulties for derivation of risk-based target levels of Pb in residential soil. Approaches based on empirical relationships between Pb levels in blood (PbB) and Pb in soil suffer from inability to specify the numerous variables which mediate between these two quantities. Approaches based on achieving a toxicologically de minimis target PbB level (e.g., 10 [mu]g/dl) are subject to large uncertainty in estimating the distribution of existing PbB levels in a specific exposed population and in estimating the relative contribution from nonsoil sources of Pb. The multisource contribution to the distribution of PbB makes this approach unsuited for determination of a target Pb level in a single medium. An alternative approach is presented based on achieving a de minimis contribution to PbB ([Delta]PbB) from soil. Contributions to Pb exposure from outdoor soil and indoor soil-derived dust (ISDD) are modeled and appropriate values are suggested for input parameters. This analysis predicts that chronic exposure of young children to 200 [mu]g Pb/g (ppm) in residential soil will result in a [Delta]PbB of 2 [mu]g Pb/dl blood. This concentration of Pb in soil may provide an appropriate target level for residential soil when other significant sources of Pb exposure are present. In other cases, this approach can be used to predict a soil concentration of Pb corresponding to an appropriate non-de minimis [Delta]PbB. 39 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Measurement of mercury in human urine

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, D. M.; Clarke, A. D.

    1970-01-01

    Four methods of determining the concentration of mercury in human urine have been studied. A simple method suitable for general laboratory use is recommended and the requirements for accurate results are defined. The method employs mild oxidation with permanganate and HS2O4 followed by dithizone extraction and measurement of absorbance at 485 nm and 620 nm. No mercury was detected in any of 74 urines from unexposed laboratory controls and hospital patients. A random urine sample seems adequate for the investigation of clinical or industrial mercury poisoning. Two individuals, free of symptoms, but subjected to moderate exposure, excreted 30-97 ?g of mercury per 100 ml of urine. After the administration of an organic mercurial to two volunteers, urinary excretion was rapid and virtually complete within 48 hours. PMID:5423951

  8. Evidence of the particle concentration effect for lead and other metals in fresh waters based on ultraclean technique analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Gaboury

    1995-07-01

    Ultraclean methods were used to produce reliable concentration data for the trace metals Pb, Ag, and Cd in fresh waters and for Ph, Ag, Cu, and Zn in estuarine waters. Partitioning of metals between filter-retained and filtrate fractions exhibited a dependence on total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. This phenomenon, the particle concentration effect (PCE), has been previously documented almost exclusively in marine and estuarine systems and lab simulations, and mainly for radionuclides. The partition coefficient, Kd, was independent of major ion chemistry and pH, supporting the hypothesis that the PCE is caused by metals associated with colloidal particles but counted with the filtrate ("dissolved") fraction. Partition coefficients of the measured metals in fresh waters are predictable across the full range of TSS measured, spanning more than two orders of magnitude. The inferred true partition coefficient for Pb (between solution and particles of all size classes) is greater than 107.4, suggesting that truly dissolved Pb concentrations are extraordinarily low. Previously published data are reinterpreted to show that naturally occurring 210Pb also exhibits the PCE. Freshly precipitated Fe oxyhydroxides partition metals exactly like organic detritus and clays in spite of the great difference in their surface chemistry. The same data rule out the possibility that the PCE could be caused by a decrease in surface area (and surface complexation sites) due to resuspension of larger particles under high TSS conditions. A surprising result is that, while the slope of a log (Kd) - log (TSS) plot for 210Pb is the same as for stable lead, absolute Kd values for 210Pb are uniformly lower by a factor of 4. This suggests that 210Pb and stable lead behave differently from each other in the surface waters studied. One possible explanation is that this dissimilarity may be attributable to differences in speciation that are persistent on a time scale of months, corresponding to the water residence time or Pb removal rate.

  9. Concentrations of lead and mercury in multimedia samples from homes near the former Clark Air Base, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Anne M; Shine, James P; Danan, Lieza M; Ford, Timothy E

    2005-04-01

    We measured lead and mercury in samples collected from 31 homes in communities near the former Clark Air Base, Philippines during May and October 2002. Sample media included water used for drinking and cooking, house dust and entryway soil. Composite samples of 15 food items purchased at local markets were also collected. Samples were analyzed for total lead (Pb) and total mercury (Hg) to evaluate the relative importance of each media to residential exposure concentrations in the community adjacent to Clark (Community A) versus a control community 5 km away (Community B). In general, we measured low (e.g. background) to undetectable levels of the target analytes in all media sampled with two important exceptions. First, the Hg concentrations we measured in canned mackerel composites, which were within the range reported for mackerel from other locations worldwide, may pose a risk to pregnant women who are frequent consumers (e.g. one or more cans per day). Second, we measured Pb above the USEPA residential screening concentration (400 mug/g) in dust and soil from two homes, illustrating the need for periodic residential lead monitoring in these and other communities in the Philippines. We found no significant difference between Communities A and B with respect to Pb and Hg concentrations in water or food, although we were not able to detect very low levels of Pb in most of the foods we sampled because of trace Pb contamination added during sample homogenization. Although the Pb levels we measured in dust and soil from Community A homes were higher on average than Community B homes, the levels in both communities were low (e.g. background) thus we did not investigate the difference further. To our knowledge, these are the first reported measurements of Pb in house dust in the Philippines. The concentrations of Pb we measured in house dust were significantly higher than those in entryway soil from both communities, adding empirical support to the assertion that yard soil should not be considered a proxy for house dust in exposure studies in the Philippines or elsewhere. PMID:15833241

  10. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering capacity of urine, and to lower the pH to levels that fix ammoniacal nitrogen in the non-volatile and highly water soluble NH4 + form. Citric acid, a highly soluble, solid tricarboxylic acid essential to cellular metabolism, and typically used as a food preservative, has also been shown to efficiently acidify urine in conjunction with non-oxidizing biocides to provide effective stabilization with respect to both microbial growth and ammonia volatilization.

  11. Lead Concentration Levels in Waters from Public Drinking Fountains in the East San Francisco Bay Area, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, B.; Lawrence, D.; Lawrence, T.; Lewis-Velasco, W.; Lockett, N.; Swamy, S.; Tyner, N.; Quach, C.

    2008-12-01

    Many East San Francisco Bay Area public parks are heavily populated by parents and their children and generally experience high levels of pedestrian traffic during the day, particularly during summer months. Consequently, if ever any of these visitors become thirsty they are likely to drink from the many public water fountains that exist. As most of the parks were established long before lead-related legislation was put in place, and their associated plumbing systems are very old, we decided to collect samples from a variety of locations to determine their lead concentration levels. Our rationale was that the public is generally not well informed about possible lead contamination related to a seemingly innocent source, namely drinking water fountains at parks, or about and the potential hazards related to lead consumption, and that our research could serve as a means of helping to increase public understanding of this important issue. This is especially important given that many young children populate parks during summer months and, according to the EPA, lead consumption in infants and young children is known to cause physical and mental development problems. With this situation in mind, our team collected multiple samples from water fountains in five different East Bay parks: Piedmont, San Antonio, Dracena, Mosswood, and Lake Merritt. Later these samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. Preliminary results indicate that lead concentration levels in waters issuing from fountains in all of the parks we collected samples from exceed the 15 ppb action limit set by the EPA for in-home tap water. Samples collected from the park in Piedmont yielded values as high as 35 ppb, greater than twice the EPA limit. Given these results, it is with most pressing urgency that we continue this study, and that we publicize our results as soon as possible so that the communities using these parks can decide for themselves whether or not to take the risks associated with drinking water from these fountains, and what steps they can take to improve current conditions.

  12. Association of Geography and Ambient Air Pollution with Urine Metal Concentrations in Six US Cities: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yuanjie; Jones, Miranda R; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Post, Wendy S; Kaufman, Joel D; Delaney, Joseph A; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the associations of urinary concentrations of antimony, cadmium, tungsten and uranium with geographic locations and with ambient air pollution in 304 adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis from six US cities. After adjustment for sociodemographics, body mass index, and smoking status, urinary cadmium was the highest in Winston-Salem among all study sites (the geometric mean [GM] in Winston-Salem was 0.84 µg/L [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-1.22]). The adjusted GMs of urinary tungsten and uranium were highest in Los Angeles (0.11 µg/L [95% CI 0.08-0.16] and 0.019 µg/L [95% CI 0.016-0.023], respectively). The adjusted GM ratio comparing fine particulate matter (PM2.5) tertiles 2 and 3 with the lowest tertile were 1.64 (95% CI 1.05-2.56) and 3.55 (95% CI 2.24-5.63) for tungsten, and 1.18 (95% CI 0.94-1.48) and 1.70 (95% CI 1.34-2.14) for uranium. The results for tungsten remained similar after adjustment for study site. Urinary cadmium, tungsten and uranium concentrations differed by geographic locations in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) communities. PM2.5 levels could contribute to geographic differences in tungsten exposure. These findings highlight the need to implement preventive strategies to decrease toxic metal exposure and to evaluate the health effects of chronic exposure to those metals. PMID:26999173

  13. Historical changes in lead concentrations in tree-rings of sycamore, oak and Scots pine in north-west England.

    PubMed

    Watmough, Shaun A; Hutchinson, Thomas C

    2002-07-01

    Lead concentrations in tree rings of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), oak (Quercus robur L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sampled at a parkland in north-west England were measured in wood formed since the mid-1800s. Concentrations of Pb in Scots pine and oak peaked in wood formed between 1900 and 1940, most likely because of Pb accumulation in heartwood, indicating that oak and Scots pine are unsuitable for monitoring temporal changes in Pb deposition at the study site. In contrast, Pb concentrations in sycamore, a species that has similar heartwood and sapwood chemistry, were relatively constant in wood formed between the mid-1800s and 1950. Lead concentrations decreased steadily in sycamore tree rings formed after the 1950s, and decreased more abruptly in wood formed after 1985. This sharp decrease in wood Pb cannot be due to decreases in soil Pb concentration. Stable Pb isotope analysis was used to further investigate Pb patterns in sycamore wood. Excess 206Pb/207Pb ratios in tree-rings of sycamore were relatively constant, approximately 1.17, in wood formed prior to the 1930s, but decreased steadily thereafter reaching a minimum value of approximately 1.16 in wood formed between 1975 and 1985 after which time 206Pb/207Pb ratios increased. This pattern is consistent with changes in Pb isotope ratios measured in peat, sediment and aerosol samples in the UK. However, the magnitude of the decrease in 206Pb/207Pb (largely due to gasoline Pb) is considerably lower than in other studies and our estimates indicate that less than 20% of the total Pb in sycamore wood measured since the mid-1800s is derived from gasoline emissions. A more likely explanation for the pattern of Pb observed in sycamore tree rings is that soil Pb accumulates within rings of the diffuse porous wood over a number of years. Such uptake patterns would result in lower Pb concentrations in the outer (more recently formed) tree rings, which coincide with recent reductions in Pb deposition in the UK. Overall, this study indicates that tree ring chemistry is unsuitable for monitoring historical changes in Pb deposition at the study site. PMID:12109483

  14. A comparison of portable XRF and ICP-OES analysis for lead on air filter samples from a lead ore concentrator mill and a lead-acid battery recycler.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    Personal and area samples for airborne lead were taken at a lead mine concentrator mill, and at a lead-acid battery recycler. Lead is mined as its sulfidic ore, galena, which is often associated with zinc and silver. The ore typically is concentrated, and partially separated, on site by crushing and differential froth flotation of the ore minerals before being sent to a primary smelter. Besides lead, zinc and iron are also present in the airborne dusts, together with insignificant levels of copper and silver, and, in one area, manganese. The disposal of used lead-acid batteries presents environmental issues, and is also a waste of recoverable materials. Recycling operations allow for the recovery of lead, which can then be sold back to battery manufacturers to form a closed loop. At the recycling facility lead is the chief airborne metal, together with minor antimony and tin, but several other metals are generally present in much smaller quantities, including copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Samplers used in these studies included the closed-face 37 mm filter cassette (the current US standard method for lead sampling), the 37 mm GSP or "cone" sampler, the 25 mm Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable sampler, the 25 mm Button sampler, and the open-face 25 mm cassette. Mixed cellulose-ester filters were used in all samplers. The filters were analyzed after sampling for their content of the various metals, particularly lead, that could be analyzed by the specific portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer under study, and then were extracted with acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The 25 mm filters were analyzed using a single XRF reading, while three readings on different parts of the filter were taken from the 37 mm filters. For lead at the mine concentrate mill, all five samplers gave good correlations (r2 > 0.96) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass, which encompassed the permissible exposure limit of 150 mg m(-3) enforced in the USA by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Linear regression on the results from most samplers gave almost 1 ratio 1 correlations without additional correction, indicating an absence of matrix effects from the presence of iron and zinc in the samples. An approximately 10% negative bias was found for the slope of the Button sampler regression, in line with other studies, but it did not significantly affect the accuracy as all XRF results from this sampler were within 20% of the corresponding ICP values. As in previous studies, the best results were obtained with the GSP sampler using the average of three readings, with all XRF results within 20% of the corresponding ICP values and a slope close to 1 (0.99). Greater than 95% of XRF results were within 20% of the corresponding ICP values for the closed-face 37 mm cassette using the OSHA algorithm, and the IOM sampler using a sample area of 3.46 cm2. As in previous studies, considerable material was found on the interior walls of all samplers that possess an internal surface for deposition, at approximately the same proportion for all samplers. At the lead-acid battery recycler all five samplers in their optimal configurations gave good correlations (r2 > 0.92) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass, which included the permissible exposure limit enforced in the USA by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Linear regression on the results from most samplers gave almost 1 ratio 1 correlations (except for the Button sampler), indicating an absence of matrix effects from the presence of the smaller quantities of the other metals in the samples. A negative bias was found for the slope of the button sampler regression, in line with other studies. Even though very high concentrations of lead were encountered (up to almost 6 mg m(-3)) no saturation of the detector was observed. Most samplers performed well, with >90% of XRF results within +/- 25% of the corresponding ICP results for the optimum configurations. The OSHA algorithm for the CFC worked best without including the back-up pad with the filter. PMID:16528423

  15. Urination - excessive amount

    MedlinePLUS

    ... calcium level in the body Drinking alcohol and caffeine Sickle cell anemia Also, your urine production may ... do you eat? Do you drink alcohol and caffeine? Tests that may be done include: Blood sugar ( ...

  16. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePLUS

    ... type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid ... ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk ...

  17. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs of infection. ... Leukocyte esterase is a screening test used to detect a substance that suggests there are white blood ...

  18. HCG in urine

    MedlinePLUS

    This type of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test measures the specific level of HCG in the urine. HCG is a hormone produced in the body during pregnancy. Other HCG tests include: HCG in blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - ...

  19. Potassium urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... normal urine potassium level may be due to: Diabetic acidosis and other forms of metabolic acidosis Eating ... of the urologic patient: history, physical examination, and urinalysis. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ...

  20. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC A to Z: Cystitis Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) ... purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  1. Maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for this disorder: Plasma amino acid test Urine organic acid test Genetic testing There will be signs ... GM, Cowan TM, Klein O, Packman S. Aminoacidemias and organic acidemias. In: Swaiman K, Ashwal S, Ferriero DM, Ferriero ...

  2. PBG urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  3. Whole blood lead concentration and erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in selected canine populations in Greece.

    PubMed

    Polizopoulou, Z S; Kontos, V S; Koutinas, A F; Papasteriades, A

    1994-12-01

    In a total number of 275 dogs of various ages, sex and breed, blood lead concentrations (BLC) and erythrocyte ALAD activity were measured. Sixty-six of the dogs were living in lead mining areas (Group A), 157 in urban areas (Group B) and 52 in rural areas (Group C) of Greece. Mean BLC differed significantly (P < 0.05) between locations and were 326,97 and 68 micrograms/L, respectively. Mean ALAD activity was significantly different (P < 0.05) only between Groups A and B as between groups A and C. A significant (P < 0.05) negative correlation existed between BLC and ALAD activity. A normal range of erythrocyte ALAD activity of 807-992 mumol/PBG/LRBC/h was established for dogs. None of the 33 Group A dogs and 2 of the Group B dogs that had a BLC of 350 micrograms/L presented clinical signs indicating acute or chronic lead intoxication. No erythrocyte basophilic stippling or large number of nucleated red blood cells were seen in the 30 dogs of Group A with BLC > 350 micrograms/L. PMID:7599513

  4. Changes in urine composition after trauma facilitate bacterial growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Critically ill patients including trauma patients are at high risk of urinary tract infection (UTI). The composition of urine in trauma patients may be modified due to inflammation, systemic stress, rhabdomyolysis, life support treatment and/or urinary catheter insertion. Methods Prospective, single-centre, observational study conducted in patients with severe trauma and without a history of UTIs or recent antibiotic treatment. The 24-hour urine samples were collected on the first and the fifth days and the growth of Escherichia coli in urine from patients and healthy volunteers was compared. Biochemical and hormonal modifications in urine that could potentially influence bacterial growth were explored. Results Growth of E. coli in urine from trauma patients was significantly higher on days 1 and 5 than in urine of healthy volunteers. Several significant modifications of urine composition could explain these findings. On days 1 and 5, trauma patients had an increase in glycosuria, in urine iron concentration, and in the concentrations of several amino acids compared to healthy volunteers. On day 1, the urinary osmotic pressure was significantly lower than for healthy volunteers. Conclusion We showed that urine of trauma patients facilitated growth of E. coli when compared to urine from healthy volunteers. This effect was present in the first 24 hours and until at least the fifth day after trauma. This phenomenon may be involved in the pathophysiology of UTIs in trauma patients. Further studies are required to define the exact causes of such modifications. PMID:23194649

  5. Production of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer from urine.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryusei; Takahashi, Eri; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Human excreta, especially urine is rich in nitrogen that can be utilized for agricultural purposes, while the slow-release fertilizer allows effective utilization of nutrients in agricultural production. The direct formation of slow-release fertilizer--methylene urea--from urine was being proposed in this study. The experiments were tried to prove formation of methylene urea from human urine, and to investigate the effect of pH and salt concentration on the reaction rate. The synthetic urine and real urine were used for the urea source of the reaction. As a result, the precipitates were prepared from synthetic urine, while the small molecule fractions generated then they grew into precipitate. The nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, element analyses showed the precipitates in synthetic urine were the same compound found in the urea solution, which was methylene urea. The reaction rate was high at low pH value. The reaction rate in the buffer solution was lower than the synthetic urine at the same pH, because some salts may work as a catalyst. The urea concentration reduction rate in real urine showed the same trend with synthetic urine at the same pH, while the precipitation was quite similar to methylene urea. PMID:24527645

  6. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  7. Spatial Distribution of Lead Isotope Ratios and Inorganic Element Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, J. R.; Landis, M. S.; Puckett, K.; Edgerton, E.; Krupa, S.; Percy, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coupled studies of inorganic element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios have been conducted on Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada in 2002, 2008, and 2011. To investigate the spatial extent of air emissions, the lichens were collected from sites as far as 160 km from the mining and processing operations. 30 milligram sub-samples of the lichens were microwave digested, and the extracts were analyzed using DRC-ICPMS to determine elemental concentrations, and sector field ICPMS to measure Pb isotope ratios. Concentrations of elements in the lichens were found to reflect proximity to mining and oil processing sites as well as topography, ecosystem differences, and the metabolic biogeochemistry of the lichens. An exponential decrease in concentration of metals associated with fugitive dust (aluminum and others) versus distance from the mining sites, suggests elevated coarse particle emissions associated with mining operations. Near source concentrations of metals with an oil signature (vanadium and others) are less enhanced and more homogeneous than the metals in the fugitive dust, reflecting emission and deposition of smaller diameter particles at greater distances from oil processing sources. The mining and oil processing signatures are superimposed over elemental concentrations that reflect the nutrient needs of the lichens. These findings are being confirmed through ongoing studies using dichot samplers to collect coarse and fine particulate aerosol samples. The lichen samples collected beyond 50 km from the mining and processing sites cluster into a Pb isotope grouping with a 207Pb / 206Pb ratio of 0.8650 and a 208Pb / 206Pb ratio near 2.095. This grouping likely reflects the regional background Pb isotope ratio signature. 207Pb / 206Pb and 208Pb / 206Pb ratios decrease as one nears the mining and processing operations. This indicates that other Pb source(s), (e.g. Pb in the bitumen from the oil sands), are contributing to the Pb accumulated by the lichens. The Pb isotope ratios are a better indicator of the spatial distribution resulting from atmospheric deposition than the Pb concentrations because the Pb isotope ratios are not affected by the potential for canopy interactions or preferential metabolic processing of elements by the lichens.

  8. Effect of complexans (EDTA, NTA and DTPA) on the exposure to high concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead

    SciTech Connect

    Muramoto, S.

    1980-12-01

    The effects of complexans on the toxicity of short exposures to high chemical concentrations of heavy meals were examined. The heavy metals used were cadmium, zinc, lead and copper. Mortality every 24-h and the content of metal in each of three areas of fish - viscera, gills and other parts - were detemined both in the groups kept in water containing metal alone and in those whose aqueous environments contained complexan in mole concentrations three time that of the heavy metal. The carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) 8.0 + 0.5 cm were kept in groups of 8 to 10. There were altogether 49 such groups: 12 kept in three relatively high concentrations of each of the metals, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, alone; 36 groups in environments each containing only one of the three complexans, the tetrasodium salt of ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the trisodium salt of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and the pentasodium salt of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) were used. Results indicate that the addition of the complexans resulted in the decrease of the tissue concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. It is considered that the heavy metals were not present merely as metal ions but formed complexes with the complexans, since the complexans were added at three times mole of the metal and therefore complex formation occurred in preference to the binding of the metals with the tissue proteins of the fish. It is furthermore assumed that the heavy metals can pass through the fish as metal-complexes, and so are not retained.

  9. Effects of soil type and genotype on lead concentration in rootstalk vegetables and the selection of cultivars for food safety.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changfeng; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Fen; Yang, Yiru; Yin, Yunlong

    2013-06-15

    Lead (Pb) contamination of soil poses severe health risks to humans through vegetable consumption. The variations of Pb concentration in different parts of rootstalk vegetables (radish, carrot and potato) were investigated by using twelve cultivars grown in acidic Ferralsols and neutral Cambisols under two Pb treatments (125 mg kg(-1) and 250 mg kg(-1) for Ferralsols; 150 mg kg(-1) and 300 mg kg(-1) for Cambisols) in a pot experiment. The Pb concentration in edible parts was higher in Ferralsols under two Pb treatments, with range from 0.28 to 4.14, 0.42-10.66 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) respectively, and all of them exceeded the food safety standard (0.1 mg kg(-1)) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO and WHO. The Pb concentration in edible parts was significantly affected by genotype, soil type and the interaction between these two factors. The variation of Pb concentration in different cultivars was partially governed by Pb absorption and the transfer of Pb from aerial to edible part. The results revealed that caution should be paid to the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables in Pb-contaminated Ferralsols without any agronomic management to reduce Pb availability and plant uptake. For Cambisols with slight to moderate Pb contamination, growing potato cultivar Shandong No.1 and Chongqing No.1 was effective in reducing the risk of Pb entering human food chain. The results suggest the possibility of developing cultivar- and soil-specific planting and monitoring guidelines for the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables on slight to moderate Pb-contaminated soils. PMID:23542226

  10. Influence of PbF2 concentration on thermal, structural and spectroscopic properties of Eu3+-doped lead phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ur, Lidia; So?tys, Marta; Goryczka, Tomasz; Pisarska, Joanna; Pisarski, Wojciech A.

    2014-10-01

    Effects of PbF2 content on the local structure, thermal and spectroscopic properties of Eu3+ ions in lead phosphate glass systems have been studied. The glass samples, where PbO was partially or totally replaced by PbF2, were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and luminescence spectroscopy. Based on DSC curves, characteristic temperatures and the thermal stability parameters useful for glass fiber drawing were determined. In order to confirm glass structure, XRD measurements were used. Luminescence spectra and their decays were analyzed in details. Especially, the changes of red-to-orange luminescence intensity ratios R/O (Eu3+) and measured lifetimes for 5D0 excited state of Eu3+ are presented and discussed as a function of PbF2 concentration.

  11. Use of urine in snow to indicate condition of wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; DelGiudice, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Urine deposited in snow by wild gray wolves (Canis lupus) and by fed and fasted captive wolves was analyzed for urea nitrogen, calcium, sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Ratios of the elements with creatinine were considerably higher for fed than for fasted animals, and ratios for fed wolves compared favorably with ratios from wolf urine in snow along trails leading from kills. Thus, wolf urine in the snow can indicate whether wolves have fed recently, and a series of such urine collections from any given pack can indicate relative nutritional state.

  12. Evidence that cognitive deficit in children is associated not only with iron deficiency, but also with blood lead concentration: a preliminary study.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Jeong KS; Park H; Ha E; Hong YC; Ha M; Park H; Kim BN; Lee SJ; Lee KY; Kim JH; Kim Y

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether blood lead concentrations are elevated in iron-deficient children, and to examine the association between iron deficiency and/or elevated blood lead concentration and cognitive deficits in children.METHOD: The present study is a component of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 194 children who underwent testing of blood lead and serum C-reactive proteins (CRPs) and ferritin concentrations, and the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R), at 60 months of age. In addition, the mothers' blood lead concentrations during pregnancy were included in the analyses. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between high blood lead and low serum ferritin concentrations, after adjustment for covariates, in children, as well as to analyze the association of verbal IQ with serum ferritin and blood lead concentrations.RESULTS: Lead and ferritin concentrations were inversely and significantly associated in children after adjustment for covariates. Moreover, both concentrations were associated with verbal IQ, after adjustment for covariates, and each was associated with cognitive deficits after adjustment for the other. Sobel test statistics showed that blood lead concentration was a significant partial mediator for the relationship between iron deficiency and verbal IQ.CONCLUSION: Due to the results discussed in the present study, cognitive deficit in children seems to be associated not only with iron deficiency, but also with blood lead concentration.

  13. An Efficient Technology for Smelting Low Grade Bismuth-Lead Concentrate: Oxygen-Rich Side Blow Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Hao, Zhandong; Yang, Tianzu; Xiao, Hui; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Bin, Shu; Bin, Wanda

    2015-09-01

    An efficient technology for low-grade bismuth-lead concentrate smelting is reported. In the process, two oxygen-rich side blow furnaces (OSBF) are used for oxidative smelting of the concentrate and reductive smelting of the oxidized slag from the upstream furnace, respectively. Slags are collected from the OSBFs by certain intervals during an operation period and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrum, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Analysis for the oxidized slag revealed that spherical or oval metallic inclusions with sizes range from submicron to 40 ?m in diameter are randomly embedded in the glassy matrix. On the one hand, the metal content of the inclusions is close to that of the bottom metal alloy, indicating metal inclusions are physically entrained in the oxidized slag. On the other hand, metal inclusions are not identified in the reduced slag, disclosing the strong metal-slag separation ability of the OSBF. The bismuth content of the reduced slag is about 0.05 wt.%, which is 6-10 times lower than that of the traditional pyrometallurgical processes.

  14. Diet effects on urine composition of cattle and N2O emissions.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, J; Oenema, O; van Groenigen, J W; Spek, J W; van Vuuren, A M; Bannink, A

    2013-06-01

    Ruminant production contributes to emissions of nitrogen (N) to the environment, principally ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and di-nitrogen (N2) to air, nitrate (NO3 -) to groundwater and particulate N to surface waters. Variation in dietary N intake will particularly affect excretion of urinary N, which is much more vulnerable to losses than is faecal N. Our objective is to review dietary effects on the level and form of N excreted in cattle urine, as well as its consequences for emissions of N2O. The quantity of N excreted in urine varies widely. Urinary N excretion, in particular that of urea N, is decreased upon reduction of dietary N intake or an increase in the supply of energy to the rumen microorganisms and to the host animal itself. Most of the N in urine (from 50% to well over 90%) is present in the form of urea. Other nitrogenous components include purine derivatives (PD), hippuric acid, creatine and creatinine. Excretion of PD is related to rumen microbial protein synthesis, and that of hippuric acid to dietary concentration of degradable phenolic acids. The N concentration of cattle urine ranges from 3 to 20 g/l. High-dietary mineral levels increase urine volume and lead to reduced urinary N concentration as well as reduced urea concentration in plasma and milk. In lactating dairy cattle, variation in urine volume affects the relationship between milk urea and urinary N excretion, which hampers the use of milk urea as an accurate indicator of urinary N excretion. Following its deposition in pastures or in animal houses, ubiquitous microorganisms in soil and waters transform urinary N components into ammonium (NH4 +), and thereafter into NO3 - and ultimately in N2 accompanied with the release of N2O. Urinary hippuric acid, creatine and creatinine decompose more slowly than urea. Hippuric acid may act as a natural inhibitor of N2O emissions, but inhibition conditions have not been defined properly yet. Environmental and soil conditions at the site of urine deposition or manure application strongly influence N2O release. Major dietary strategies to mitigating N2O emission from cattle operations include reducing dietary N content or increasing energy content, and increasing dietary mineral content to increase urine volume. For further reduction of N2O emission, an integrated animal nutrition and excreta management approach is required. PMID:23739471

  15. [Urine levels of fenethylline and amphetamine after administration of Captagon].

    PubMed

    Iffland, R

    1982-01-01

    The limit for detecting fenethylline and its metabolite amphetamine in GLC with N-FID is in the range of nanograms. The elimination of these substances in urine was measured after giving different quantities of Captagon to six volunteers. The concentrations of fenethylline and amphetamine in urine allow to estimate with some limitations time and amount of consuming Captagon for forensic purposes. PMID:7082126

  16. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  17. Stimulation of TRPC5 cationic channels by low micromolar concentrations of lead ions (Pb{sup 2+})

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Piruthivi; Beech, David J.

    2010-02-26

    Lead toxicity is long-recognised but continues to be a major public health problem. Its effects are wide-ranging and include induction of hyper-anxiety states. In general it is thought to act by interfering with Ca{sup 2+} signalling but specific targets are not clearly identified. Transient receptor potential canonical 5 (TRPC5) is a Ca{sup 2+}-permeable ion channel that is linked positively to innate fear responses and unusual amongst ion channels in being stimulated by trivalent lanthanides, which include gadolinium. Here we show investigation of the effect of lead, which is a divalent ion (Pb{sup 2+}). Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on HEK 293 cells conditionally over-expressing TRPC5 or other TRP channels. Extracellular application of Pb{sup 2+} stimulated TRPC5 at concentrations greater than 1 {mu}M. Control cells without TRPC5 showed little or no response to Pb{sup 2+} and expression of other TRP channels (TRPM2 or TRPM3) revealed partial inhibition by 10 {mu}M Pb{sup 2+}. The stimulatory effect on TRPC5 depended on an extracellular residue (E543) near the ion pore: similar to gadolinium action, E543Q TRPC5 was resistant to Pb{sup 2+} but showed normal stimulation by the receptor agonist sphingosine-1-phosphate. The study shows that Pb{sup 2+} is a relatively potent stimulator of the TRPC5 channel, generating the hypothesis that a function of the channel is to sense metal ion poisoning.

  18. Urine Blockage in Newborns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 10 to 12 weeks after conception. However, the mother’s placenta continues to do most of the work until the last few weeks of the pregnancy. Wastes and extra water are removed from the baby’s body through the umbilical cord. The ... womb [ Top ] What causes urine blockage in newborns? ...

  19. RBC urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tell you how to do this. A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the ... care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile ...

  20. Myoglobin urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina ... care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile ...

  1. Protein electrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina ... care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile ...

  2. Arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium concentrations in private bedrock wells in southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, Sarah M.; Belaval, Marcel; Ayotte, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the trace metal arsenic have been identified in drinking water from groundwater sources in southeastern New Hampshire, a rapidly growing region of the State (Montgomery and others, 2003). During the past decade (2000–10), southeastern New Hampshire, which is composed of Hillsborough, Rockingham, and Strafford Counties, has grown in population by nearly 48,700 (or 6.4 percent) to 819,100. These three counties contain 62 percent of the State’s population but encompass only about 22 percent of the land area (New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning, 2011). According to a 2005 water-use study (Hayes and Horn, 2009), about 39 percent of the population in these three counties in southeastern New Hampshire uses private wells as sources of drinking water, and these wells are not required by the State to be routinely tested for trace metals or other contaminants. Some trace metals have associated human-health benchmarks or nonhealth guidelines that have been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate public water supplies. The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (μg/L) for arsenic (As) and a MCL of 30 μg/L for uranium (U) because of associated health risks (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are essential for human health, but Mn at high doses may have adverse cognitive effects in children (Bouchard and others, 2011; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2012); therefore, the EPA has issued a lifetime health advisory (LHA) of 300 μg/L for Mn. Recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for Fe (300 μg/L) and Mn (50 μg/L) were established primarily as nonhealth guidelines—based on aesthetic considerations, such as taste or the staining of laundry and plumbing fixtures—because these contaminants, at the SMCLs, are not considered to present risks to human health. Because lead (Pb) contamination of drinking water typically results from corrosion of plumbing materials belonging to water-system customers but still poses a risk to human health, the EPA established an action level (AL) of 15 μg/L for Pb instead of an MCL or SMCL (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). The 15-μg/L AL for Pb has been adopted by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services for public water systems, and if exceeded, the public water system must inform their customers and undertake additional actions to control corrosion in the pipes of the distribution system (New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, 2013). Unlike the quality of drinking water provided by public water suppliers, the quality of drinking water obtained from private wells in New Hampshire is not regulated; consequently, private wells are sampled only when individual well owners voluntarily choose to sample them. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA New England, conducted an assessment in 2012–13 to provide private well owners and State and Federal health officials with information on the distribution of trace-metal (As, Fe, Pb, Mn, and U) concentrations in groundwater from bedrock aquifers in the three counties of southeastern New Hampshire. This fact sheet analyzes data from water samples collected by a randomly selected group of private well owners from the three-county study area and describes the major findings for trace-metal concentrations.

  3. Quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine by metalized nanostructured parylene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Malvadkar, Niranjan; Koytek, S; Bylander, J; Reeves, W Brian; Demirel, Melik C

    2010-01-01

    A highly accurate, real-time multisensor agent monitor for biomarker detection is required for early detection of kidney diseases. Urine creatinine level can provide useful information on the status of the kidney. We prepare nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates without template or lithography, which provides controllable, well-organized nanostructures on the surface, for the quantitative analysis of creatinine concentration in urine. We present our work on sensitivity of the SERS substrate to urine samples collected from diabetic patients and healthy persons. We report the preparation of a new type of SERS substrate, which provides fast (<10 s), highly sensitive (creatinine concentration <0.5 microg/mL) and reproducible (<5% variation) detection of urine. Our method to analyze the creatinine level in urine is in good agreement with the enzymatic method. PMID:20459278

  4. Quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine by metalized nanostructured parylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Malvadkar, Niranjan; Koytek, S.; Bylander, J.; Reeves, W. Brian; Demirel, Melik C.

    2010-03-01

    A highly accurate, real-time multisensor agent monitor for biomarker detection is required for early detection of kidney diseases. Urine creatinine level can provide useful information on the status of the kidney. We prepare nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates without template or lithography, which provides controllable, well-organized nanostructures on the surface, for the quantitative analysis of creatinine concentration in urine. We present our work on sensitivity of the SERS substrate to urine samples collected from diabetic patients and healthy persons. We report the preparation of a new type of SERS substrate, which provides fast (<10 s), highly sensitive (creatinine concentration <0.5 ?g/mL) and reproducible (<5% variation) detection of urine. Our method to analyze the creatinine level in urine is in good agreement with the enzymatic method.

  5. Magnesium, aluminum and lead in various brain areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zumkley, H.; Bertram, H.P.; Brandt, M.; Roedig, M.; Spieker, C.

    1986-01-01

    Whereas the lead concentrations were increased in brain tissue of patients with chronic alcoholism, the aluminum concentrations remained within the normal range. The magnesium concentrations were found decreased in patients with chronic alcoholism compared to normal controls. The sources for the elevated lead levels seem to be the increased intake of alcohol. The decreased magnesium levels are probably caused by an increased loss of magnesium with the urine, malnutrition, malabsorption, hormonal factors and drugs. Various neurological disorders which often accompanied chronic alcoholism may be caused or aggravated by lead encephalopathy and hypomagnesemia. Therapeutical implications may be the early substitution of magnesium deficiency in chronic alcoholism. 10 references, 5 figures.

  6. Ethanol production in a postmortem urine sample.

    PubMed

    Antonides, Heather; Marinetti, Laureen

    2011-09-01

    Significant ethanol production in a urine sample is not a common phenomenon that occurs in postmortem volatile anaylsis. Here, a 66-year-old female decedent with a history of renal failure and diabetes originally presented at the hospital as "acting funny". After expiring at the hospital, the toxicology section received both hospital and postmortem samples for analysis. Initially, only hospital blood and urine were analyzed for volatiles. The hospital blood was only positive for acetone. As a second matrix confirmation, the autopsy urine was also analyzed and found to be positive for acetone and ethanol. Upon initial examination, the urine sample had an ethanol value of 0.10 g%, which continued to increase to a peak concentration of 0.28 g%. This case study focuses on the production of ethanol in a urine sample that was analyzed over a three-month period. Also presented is a vitreous humor metabolic panel that contains glucose, creatinine, and urea nitrogen data for this case. PMID:21871162

  7. Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Urine Test: Dipstick KidsHealth > For Parents > Urine Test: Dipstick Print A A A Text Size en espaol Anlisis de la orina: tiras reactivas What It Is A urine dipstick test is often done as ...

  8. Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Urine Test: Dipstick KidsHealth > For Parents > Urine Test: Dipstick Print A A A Text Size ... la orina: tiras reactivas What It Is A urine dipstick test is often done as part of ...

  9. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Print A A A Text Size What's ... Is Hematuria? When blood gets into a person's urine, doctors call it hematuria (hee-ma-TUR-ee- ...

  10. Measurements of Arsenic in the Urine and Nails of Individuals Exposed to Low Concentrations of Arsenic in Drinking Water From Private Wells in a Rural Region of Qubec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Fabien; Lampron-Goulet, Eric; Normandin, Louise; Langlois, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic leads to an increased risk of cancer. A biological measurement was conducted in 153 private well owners and their families consuming water contaminated by inorganic arsenic at concentrations that straddle 10 ?g/L. The relationship between the external dose indicators (concentration of inorganic arsenic in wells and daily well water inorganic arsenic intake) and the internal doses (urinary arsenic--sum of As(III), DMA, and MMA, adjusted for creatinine--and total arsenic in toenails) was evaluated using multiple linear regressions, controlling for age, gender, dietary sources of arsenic, and number of cigarettes smoked. It showed that urinary arsenic was associated with concentration of inorganic arsenic in wells (p < .001) and daily well water inorganic arsenic intake (p < .001) in adults, and with daily well water inorganic arsenic intake (p = .017) and rice consumption (p = .022) in children (n = 43). The authors' study reinforces the drinking-water quality guidelines for inorganic arsenic. PMID:26867295

  11. Quantitative urine confirmatory testing for synthetic cannabinoids in randomly collected urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Gandhi, Adarsh; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid intake is an ongoing health issue worldwide, with new compounds continually emerging, making drug testing complex. Parent synthetic cannabinoids are rarely detected in urine, the most common matrix employed in workplace drug testing. Optimal identification of synthetic cannabinoid markers in authentic urine specimens and correlation of metabolite concentrations and toxicities would improve synthetic cannabinoid result interpretation. We screened 20?017 randomly collected US military urine specimens between July 2011 and June 2012 with a synthetic cannabinoid immunoassay yielding 1432 presumptive positive specimens. We analyzed all presumptive positive and 1069 negative specimens with our qualitative synthetic cannabinoid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which confirmed 290 positive specimens. All 290 positive and 487 randomly selected negative specimens were quantified with the most comprehensive urine quantitative LC-MS/MS method published to date; 290 specimens confirmed positive for 22 metabolites from 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids. The five most predominant metabolites were JWH-018 pentanoic acid (93%), JWH-N-hydroxypentyl (84%), AM2201 N-hydroxypentyl (69%), JWH-073 butanoic acid (69%), and JWH-122?N-hydroxypentyl (45%) with 11.1 (0.1-2,434), 5.1 (0.1-1,239), 2.0 (0.1-321), 1.1 (0.1-48.6), and 1.1 (0.1-250) g/L median (range) concentrations, respectively. Alkyl hydroxy and carboxy metabolites provided suitable biomarkers for 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids; although hydroxyindoles were also observed. This is by far the largest data set of synthetic cannabinoid metabolites urine concentrations from randomly collected workplace drug testing specimens rather than acute intoxications or driving under the influence of drugs. These data improve the interpretation of synthetic cannabinoid urine test results and suggest suitable urine markers of synthetic cannabinoid intake. PMID:25231213

  12. Postmortem blood cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations: comparisons with regard to sampling location and reference ranges for living persons.

    PubMed

    Schier, Joshua G; Heninger, Michael; Wolkin, Amy; Kieszak, Stephanie; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Fajardo, Geroncio C; Jones, Robert; Rubin, Carol; Hanzlick, Randy; Osterloh, John D; McGeehin, Michael A

    2010-04-01

    This study's goal was to determine cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), total mercury (THg), and inorganic mercury (IHg) levels in human cadavers to compare measured levels with established reference ranges for living persons and to determine whether blood levels varied with time from death to sample collection or by body collection site. Subjects (n = 66) recruited from the Fulton County Medical Examiner's Office in Atlanta, GA, were 20 years of age or older, had no penetrating trauma, no obvious source of environmental contamination of the vasculature, and had whole blood accessible from the femoral (F) site, the cardiac (C) site, or both. Geometric mean results were as follows: 2.59 microg/L F-Cd; 11.81 microg/L C-Cd; 1.03 microg/L F-THg; 2.01 microg/L C-THg; 0.29 microg/L F-IHg; 0.49 microg/L C-IHg; 1.78 microg/dL F-Pb; and 1.87 microg/dL C-Pb. Both F- and C-Cd levels as well as C-THg levels were significantly higher than reference values among living persons (C- and F-Cd, p < 0.0001 and C-THg, p = 0.0001, respectively). Based on regression modeling, as the postmortem interval increased, blood Cd levels increased (p < 0.006). Postmortem blood Cd concentrations were elevated compared to population values and varied with respect to sampling location and postmortem interval. PMID:20406536

  13. Concentration, pH, and surface charge effects on cadmium and lead sorption in three tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Appel, Chip; Ma, Lena

    2002-01-01

    Reactions of heavy metals with soil are important in determining metal fates in the environment. Sorption characteristics of two heavy metals, Cd and Pb, in three tropical soils (Mollisol, Oxisol, and Ultisol) from Puerto Rico were assessed at varying metal concentrations (0 to 1.2 mM) and pH values (approximately 2 to 7). All soils sorbed more Pb than Cd. Sorption maxima were obtained for each metal for the Oxisol and Ultisol soils, but not the Mollisol. Sorption appeared to depend more on soil mineralogy than organic matter content. Sorption isotherms were linear within the sorption envelope with similar slopes for each soil-metal curve, when plotting metal sorption as a function of pH. Cadmium and Pb isotherms yielded average slopes of approximately 36+/-1 and 28+/-1 units (percent increase in metal sorption per 1-unit increase in pH), respectively. Metal sorption depended more on metal type than soil composition. Cadmium sorption displayed a greater pH dependence than Pb. Cadmium sorption was less than or equal to the amount of negative surface charge except at pH values greater than the point of zero net charge (PZNC). This suggests that Cd was probably sorbed via electrostatic surface reactions and/or possible inner-sphere complexation at pH > 3.7. However, the amount of Pb sorbed by the Oxisol was greater than the amount of negative surface charge, suggesting that Pb participates in inner-sphere surface reactions. Lead was sorbed more strongly than Cd in our soils and poses less of a threat to underlying ground water systems due to its lower mobility and availability. PMID:11931450

  14. Microdetermination of urea in urine using p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde /PDAB/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Adaptation of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde method for determining urea concentration in urine is an improved micromechanical method. Accuracy and precision are satisfactory. This method avoids extra steps of deproteinizing or removing normal urinary chromogens.

  15. Characterization of Perchlorate in a New Frozen Human Urine Standard Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lee L.; Jarrett, Jeffery M.; Davis, W. Clay; Kilpatrick, Eric L.; Oflaz, Rabia; Turk, Gregory C.; Leber, Dennis D.; Valentin, Liza; Morel-Espinosa, Maria; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate, an inorganic anion, has recently been recognized as an environmental contaminant by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Urine is the preferred matrix for assessment of human exposure to perchlorate. Although the measurement technique for perchlorate in urine was developed in 2005, the calibration and quality assurance aspects of the metrology infrastructure for perchlorate are still lacking in that there is no certified reference material (CRM) traceable to the International System of Units (SI). To meet the quality assurance needs in biomonitoring measurements of perchlorate and the related anions that affect thyroid health, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3668 Mercury, Perchlorate, and Iodide in Frozen Human Urine. SRM 3668 consists of perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate, iodine, and mercury in urine at two levels that represent the 50th and 95th percentiles, respectively, of the concentrations (with some adjustments) in the U.S. population. It is the first CRM being certified for perchlorate. Measurements leading to the certification of perchlorate were made collaboratively at NIST and CDC using three methods based on liquid or ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS or IC-MS/MS). Potential sources of bias were analyzed and results were compared for the three methods. Perchlorate in SRM 3668 Level I urine was certified to be 2.70 ?g L?1 0.21 ?g L?1, and for SRM 3668 Level II urine, the certified value is 13.47 ?g L?1 0.96 ?g L?1. PMID:22850897

  16. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  17. Trichloroethylene in urine as biological exposure index.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Imbriani M; Niu Q; Negri S; Ghittori S

    2001-07-01

    Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TRI) was studied by analysis of environmental air and urine from 49 workers operating in a special printing house on glass. For the measurement of environmental concentration of TRI (Cenv), the ambient air was sampled using personal passive dosimeters. The activated charcoal was desorbed with carbon disulfide and injected into a gas-cromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MSD). The biological monitoring of exposed workers was conducted by determining the concentration of TRI in urine (Curine) Urine concentration of TRI was determined by headspace analysis using GC-MSD. Significant correlation was found between the environmental TRI concentration and urinary TRI concentration. The use of a regression equation between Curine (microg/l) and Cenv (mg/m3) (Curine = 0.081 x Cenv + 4.27) resulted in a value of Curine corresponding to Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) exposure value (269 mg/m3) of 26.0 microg/L.

  18. Trichloroethylene in urine as biological exposure index.

    PubMed

    Imbriani, M; Niu, Q; Negri, S; Ghittori, S

    2001-07-01

    Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TRI) was studied by analysis of environmental air and urine from 49 workers operating in a special printing house on glass. For the measurement of environmental concentration of TRI (Cenv), the ambient air was sampled using personal passive dosimeters. The activated charcoal was desorbed with carbon disulfide and injected into a gas-cromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MSD). The biological monitoring of exposed workers was conducted by determining the concentration of TRI in urine (Curine) Urine concentration of TRI was determined by headspace analysis using GC-MSD. Significant correlation was found between the environmental TRI concentration and urinary TRI concentration. The use of a regression equation between Curine (microg/l) and Cenv (mg/m3) (Curine = 0.081 x Cenv + 4.27) resulted in a value of Curine corresponding to Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) exposure value (269 mg/m3) of 26.0 microg/L. PMID:11499997

  19. Concentration, isotopic composition, and sources of lead in Southern Ocean air during 1999/2000, measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollhöfer, A. F.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Dick, A. L.; Chisholm, W.; Burton, G. R.; Loss, R. D.; Zahorowski, W.

    2005-10-01

    Southern Ocean aerosols were collected at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station from onshore air under baseline conditions between February 1999 and April 2000. Thermal ionization techniques (TIMS) and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) were used to measure the isotopic composition and concentration of lead in the air giving concentrations as low as 0.6 ± 0.1 pg · m -3. Air collected under baseline conditions for 12 months (May 1999-April 2000) yielded an overall lead concentration of 11.0 ± 0.2 pg · m -3 and isotopic composition of 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.154, 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.387 and 206Pb/ 204Pb = 17.93. The range in isotopic ratios was consistent with the mixing of lead from major population centers in the Southern Hemisphere in the mid to high latitudes, except for the presence of highly radiogenic lead in some samples. Contributions from radiogenic lead of up to ˜0.8% were observed. Three periods with the highest percentage contribution of radiogenic lead (>0.5%) were investigated in more detail, and 4-d back-trajectories and radon concentrations were used to help identify the sources. The sources are probably associated with the mining and processing of uranium rich ores in southern Africa and possibly South Australia.

  20. Concentrations and loads of cadmium, zinc, and lead in the main stem Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho—March, June, September, and October 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woods, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    of the effects of different river discharges and lake levels of Coeur d'Alene Lake on the transport of cadmium, zinc, and lead within the main stem Coeur d'Alene River. In particular, water-quality data and loads during a broad range of hydrologic conditions were examined to determine if the river channel, flood plain, and associated ground water along the main stem Coeur d'Alene River acted as sources or sinks of trace elements. Water-quality samples were collected at six riverine stations and one lake station along a 35-mile reach during March, June, September, and October of 1999. Samples were analyzed for whole-water recoverable, filtered (0.45 micrometer), and dissolved (0.01 micrometer) concentrations of cadmium, zinc, and lead. Concentrations and loads of cadmium and zinc measured during the four sampling trips were predominately in the filtered and dissolved fraction ,rather than particulate. The smallest concentrations were measured during the June sampling trip when flows were high and snowmelt runoff diluted riverine concentrations. Conversely, the largest concentrations were measured during the latter two sampling trips when flows were low because a larger proportion of the river's discharge was contributed by ground-water inflow. During each sampling trip, cadmium and zinc concentrations generally decreased in a downstream directioeven as discharge increased in a downstream direction. Spatial and temporal trends exhibited by lead concentrations and loads during the four sampling trips were different from those of cadmium and zinc because of the propensity for lead to adsorb to sediment particles. Whole-water recoverable lead concentrations and loads during the four sampling trips were predominantly in the particulate fraction, with filtered and dissolved concentrations and loads composing a much smaller proportion of the recoverable fraction compared to cadmium and zinc. Filtered lead concentrations generally increased at a faster rate in the downstream direction than dissolved lead concentrations; thus, colloidallead either was being formed by complexation reactions or being added by sediment erosion in the downstream direction.

  1. Malondialdehyde in exhaled breath condensate and urine as a biomarker of air pollution induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Wang, Guangfa; Hu, Min; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Lu, Shou-En; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Rich, David Q.; Diehl, Scott R.; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

    2014-01-01

    Underlying mechanisms by which air pollutants adversely affect human health remain poorly understood. Oxidative stress has been considered as a potential mechanism that may promote lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) that is excreted in biofluids (e.g., urine and exhaled breath condensate (EBC)). A panel study was conducted to examine whether concentrations of MDA in EBC and urine were associated, respectively, with changes in air pollution levels brought by the Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures. EBC and urine samples from 125 healthy adults were collected twice in each of the pre-, during-, and post-Olympic periods. Period-specific means of MDA and changes in MDA levels associated with increases in 24-h average pollutant concentrations were estimated using linear mixed-effects models. From the pre- to the during-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants decreased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA significantly decreased by 24% (P < 0.0001) and 28% (P = 0.0002), respectively. From the during-Olympic to the post-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants increased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA increased by 28% (P = 0.094) and 55% (P = 0.046), respectively. Furthermore, the largest increases in EBC MDA associated with one interquartile range (IQR) increases in all pollutants but ozone ranged from 10% (95% CI: 2%, 18%) to 19% (95% CI: 14%, 25%). The largest increases in urinary MDA associated with IQR increases in pollutant concentration ranged from 9% (95%: 0.3%, 19%) to 15% (95% CI: 3%, 28%). These findings support the utility of EBC MDA as a biomarker of oxidative stress in the respiratory tract and urinary MDA as a biomarker of systemic oxidative stress in relation to air pollution exposure in healthy young adults. Both EBC and urine samples can be collected noninvasively in the general population. PMID:23321859

  2. Lead concentration in the blood of children and its association with lead in soil and ambient air--trends between 1983 and 2000 in Duisburg.

    PubMed

    Ranft, Ulrich; Delschen, Thomas; Machtolf, Monika; Sugiri, Dorothee; Wilhelm, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Children are known to be at greater risk of exposure to lead (Pb). As Pb levels in ambient air have decreased during the last decades, the relative contribution of soil ingestion to ambient Pb exposure has increased. Using data from five cross-sectional studies conducted during 1983 to 2000 in the industrial city of Duisburg and comprising 843 children, 6-11 yr old, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of Pb in soil to Pb blood levels of children in comparison to the contribution of Pb in air. Based on measurements of soil samples, the spatial distribution of Pb in soil (0-10 cm depth) was estimated for the study area. Pb exposure in ambient air was calculated using routinely monitored air quality data and Lagrange dispersion modeling. Individual exposure data were assigned using geo-coded home addresses. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to estimate adjusted association measures. Median (95th percentile) level of Pb in soil was 206 (877) mg/kg. A simultaneous decrease in air Pb and blood Pb was observed (air: from 0.47 (0.47) to 0.03 (0.16) microg/m(3); blood: from 86 (163) to 31 (68) microg/L). Significant associations between Pb in blood and Pb in the two exposure media were found. An increase of 0.44 microg/m(3) Pb in air led to an rise in blood Pb by 155%, whereas blood Pb changed by about 63% if Pb in soil increased by 800 mg/kg. The results of the study were used for a local risk assessment and the definition of action values for Pb in soil. PMID:18569568

  3. Normalization strategies for metabonomic analysis of urine samples.

    PubMed

    Warrack, Bethanne M; Hnatyshyn, Serhiy; Ott, Karl-Heinz; Reily, Michael D; Sanders, Mark; Zhang, Haiying; Drexler, Dieter M

    2009-02-15

    Unlike plasma and most biological fluids which have solute concentrations that are tightly controlled, urine volume can vary widely based upon water consumption and other physiological factors. As a result, the concentrations of endogenous metabolites in urine vary widely and normalizing for these effects is necessary. Normalization approaches that utilized urine volume, osmolality, creatinine concentration, and components that are common to all samples ("total useful MS signal") were compared in order to determine which strategies could be successfully used to differentiate between dose groups based upon the complete endogenous metabolite profile. Variability observed in LC/MS results obtained from targeted and non-targeted metabonomic analyses was highly dependent on the strategy used for normalization. We therefore recommend the use of two different normalization techniques in order to facilitate detection of statistically significant changes in the endogenous metabolite profile when working with urine samples. PMID:19185549

  4. Concentrations and origins of atmospheric lead and other trace species at a rural site in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Wen, Tianxue; Li, Zhanqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; Yang, Yongjie; Zhao, Yanan; Wang, Yuesi; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2010-04-01

    In this study we analyze the ambient levels of lead and other trace species in the bulk aerosol samples from a rural site 70 km ESE of Beijing in spring 2005. Lead (0.28 0.24 ?g/m3, average standard deviation), along with several pollution-related trace elements, was enriched by over 100 fold relative to the Earth's crust. The ambient lead levels showing large synoptic variations were well-correlated with other anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., CO and SO2). The Unmix receptor model resolved four factors in the aerosol composition data: a biomass burning source, an industrial and coal combustion source, a secondary aerosol source, and a dust source. The first three sources were strongest in weak southerly winds ahead of cold fronts, while the dust source peaked in strong northerly winds behind cold fronts. The second source, primarily representing emissions from industrial processes and relatively small-scale coal burning such as in home and institutional heating, was identified as the main source of ambient lead in this study. Mobile sources might also contribute to this factor, but there was no distinct evidence of emissions due to combustion of leaded gasoline, despite a correlation between lead and CO. Potential source contribution function, calculated from backward trajectories and aerosol composition, further reveals that lead observed in this study was predominantly from the populated and industrialized areas to the south and SW of Xianghe, rather than Beijing to the west. Our results and several recent studies show that the lead levels in suburban areas near big cities in China, although generally lower than those in industrial districts and urban areas, are substantial (near or above 0.15 ?g/m3). More extensive studies on airborne lead and its emission sources in China are called for.

  5. Concentrations and Origins of Atmospheric Lead and Other Trace Species at a Rural Site in Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Wen, Tianxue; Li, Zhanqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; Yang, Yongjie; Zhao, Yanan; Wang, Yuesi; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2010-01-01

    In this study we analyze the ambient levels of lead and other trace species in the bulk aerosol samples from a rural site approx.70 km ESE of Beijing in spring 2005. Lead (0.28+/-0.24 micro-g/cu m, average +/- standard deviation), along with several pollution \\related trace elements, was enriched by over 100 fold relative to the Earth's crust. The ambient lead levels showing large synoptic variations were well-correlated with other anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., CO and SO2). The Unmix receptor model resolved four factors in the aerosol composition data: a biomass burning source, an industrial and coal combustion source, a secondary aerosol source, and a dust source. The first three sources were strongest in weak southerly winds ahead of cold fronts, while the dust source peaked in strong northerly winds behind cold fronts. The second source, primarily representing emissions from industrial processes and relatively small \\scale coal burning such as in home and institutional heating, was identified as the main source of ambient lead in this study. Mobile sources might also contribute to this factor, but there was no distinct evidence of emissions due to combustion of leaded gasoline, despite a correlation between lead and CO. Potential source contribution function, calculated from backward trajectories and aerosol composition, further reveals that lead observed in this study was predominantly from the populated and industrialized areas to the south and SW of Xianghe, rather than Beijing to the west. Our results and several recent studies show that the lead levels in suburban areas near big cities in China, although generally lower than those in industrial districts and urban areas, are substantial (near or above 0.15 micro-g/cu m). More extensive studies on airborne lead and its emission sources in China are called for.

  6. NEW COLUMN SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B

    2007-08-28

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

  7. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: Time for Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Reginald; Manjunath, Krishna; Srinivasan, Rajan; Basu, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome occurs commonly in long-term catheterized patients causing significant stress for patients, care takers, and health care providers. This may lead to unwarranted investigation as well as treatment when not identified early. Demographic changes in Indian population with increasing geriatric care make it a case to increase awareness of this condition among health care providers in primary and secondary care settings. PMID:25811004

  8. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. PMID:25617855

  9. Validation of Bayesian kriging of arsenic, chromium, lead and mercury surface soil concentrations based on internode sampling

    PubMed Central

    Aelion, C.M.; Davis, H.T.; Liu, Y.; Lawson, A.B.; McDermott, S.

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian kriging is a useful tool for estimating spatial distributions of metals; however, estimates are generally only verified statistically. In this study surface soil samples were collected on a uniform grid and analyzed for As, Cr, Pb, and Hg. The data were interpolated at individual locations by Bayesian kriging. Estimates were validated using a leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) statistical method which compared the measured and LOOCV predicted values. Validation also was carried out using additional field sampling of soil metal concentrations at points between original sampling locations, which were compared to kriging prediction distributions. LOOCV results suggest that Bayesian kriging was a good predictor of metal concentrations. When measured internode metal concentrations and estimated kriged values were compared, the measured values were located within the 5th 95th percentile prediction distributions in over half of the internode locations. Estimated and measured internode concentrations were most similar for As and Pb. Kriged estimates did not compare as well to measured values for concentrations below the analytical minimum detection limit, or for internode samples that were very close to the original sampling node. Despite inherent variability in metal concentrations in soils, the kriged estimates were validated statistically and by in situ measurement. PMID:19603658

  10. Validation of Bayesian kriging of arsenic, chromium, lead, and mercury surface soil concentrations based on internode sampling.

    PubMed

    Aelion, C M; Davis, H T; Liu, Y; Lawson, A B; McDermott, S

    2009-06-15

    Bayesian kriging is a useful tool for estimating spatial distributions of metals; however, estimates are generally only verified statistically. In this study surface soil samples were collected on a uniform grid and analyzed for As, Cr, Pb, and Hg. The data were interpolated at individual locations by Bayesian kriging. Estimates were validated using a leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) statistical method which compared the measured and LOOCV predicted values. Validation also was carried out using additional field sampling of soil metal concentrations at points between original sampling locations, which were compared to kriging prediction distributions. LOOCV results suggest that Bayesian kriging was a good predictor of metal concentrations. When measured internode metal concentrations and estimated kriged values were compared, the measured values were located within the 5th-95th percentile prediction distributions in over half of the internode locations. Estimated and measured internode concentrations were most similar for As and Pb. Kriged estimates did not compare as well to measured values for concentrations below the analytical minimum detection limit, or for internode samples that were very close to the original sampling node. Despite inherent variability in, metal concentrations in soils, the kriged estimates were validated statistically and by in situ measurement. PMID:19603658

  11. Biological Fractionation of Lead Isotopes in Sprague-Dawley Rats Lead Poisoned via the Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Duojian; Xie, Qing; Wang, Jingyu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems. Methods 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces) were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance) and the low-lead animal feed (diet) administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results There are significant differences (p<0.05) in lead isotope ratios between blood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of 204Pb/206Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when 204Pb/206Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group. Conclusions The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for 204Pb/206Pb ratio under high-dose exposure. PMID:23300678

  12. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Jeuland, Marc; Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown ("u") cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples - from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) - contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. PMID:25782025

  13. Voltammetric assay of methadone in urine.

    PubMed

    Barreira Rodrguez, J R; Costa Garca, A; Tun Blanco, P

    1989-08-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive voltammetric method for the determination of methadone in human urine is proposed, which permits the detection of concentrations of methadone as low as 0.3-0.4 microgram ml-1. The proposed method was compared with methods normally used in clinical trials, such as the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique, and was found to be superior with regard to cost and to possess high sensitivity. PMID:2802169

  14. Determination of 226Ra in urine samples by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kehagia, K; Potiriadis, C; Bratakos, S; Koukouliou, V; Drikos, G

    2007-01-01

    A radiation protection system to assess the internal contamination of workers during decontamination activities in an abounded fertilizer industry in the region of Attika, Greece, has been implemented. This system concerns, among other radionuclides, 226Ra. Because of the low 226Ra activities in urine, alpha spectrometry was used as the determination method after radiochemical separation. Radium was co precipitated with lead sulphate and purified using anion and cation exchange techniques. The source for the alpha spectrometric measurement was prepared by the electrodeposition of radium, from an aqueous/ethanol solution, onto stainless steel. The tracer used was 229Th. The chemical yield and the activity concentration were calculated via its daughter radionuclide 217At. Using the time-evolution formulas to calculate the 217At growth from its parent radionuclide 225Ra, a computer software was developed. This software was incorporated in a database, which automatically calculates and stores the results. PMID:17827131

  15. Urine Purine Metabolite Determination by UPLC-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Inborn errors of purine metabolism, either deficiencies of synthesis or catabolism pathways, lead to a wide spectrum of clinical presentations: urolithiasis (adenine phosphoribosyltransferase), primary immune deficiency (adenosine deaminase deficiency and purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency), severe intellectual disability, and other neurological symptoms (Lesch-Nyhan disease, adenylosuccinase deficiency, and molybdenum cofactor deficiency). A rapid quantitative purine assay was developed using UPLC-MS/MS to determine purine nucleoside and base concentrations in urine. Taking advantages of ultra performance liquid chromatography, we achieved satisfactory analyte separation and recovery with a polar T3 column in a short run time with no requirement of time-consuming sample preparation or derivatization. This targeted assay is intended for diagnosis and management of purine diseases, newborn screening follow-up of SCID, and evaluation of autism spectrum disorders. PMID:26602134

  16. Chemical composition of rainbow trout urine following acute hypoxic stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, Joseph B.

    1969-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) were anesthetized with MS-222, catheterized, and introduced into urine collecting chambers. Twenty-four hours after introduction, a 4-hour accumulation of urine was collected to serve as the control. Water flow to the chambers was then discontinued for 30 minutes during which the oxygen content of the water exiting in the chamber dropped from 4.9 to 2.8 mg/l. Following this hypoxic stress fresh water was restored and accumulated urine samples were taken for analysis at 1, 4, and 20 hours post-hypoxic stress. Rainbow trout excrete abnormally high concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Cl, and inorganic PO4 following hypoxia.

  17. Prenatal exposure to lead and cognitive deficit in 7- and 14-year-old children in the presence of concomitant exposure to similar molar concentration of methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of mixed metal exposures in humans. We have evaluated the effect of prenatal lead exposure in a Faroese birth cohort in the presence of similar molar-level exposure to methylmercury. A cohort of 1022 singleton births was assembled in the Faroe Islands during 1986-1987 from whom lead was measured in cord-blood. A total of 896 cohort subjects participated in a clinical examination at age 7 and 808 subjects in a second examination at age 14. We evaluated the association between cord-blood lead concentrations and cognitive deficits (attention/working memory, language, visuospatial, and memory) using multiple regression models. Overall, the lead concentration showed no clear pattern of association. However, in subjects with a low methylmercury exposure, after inclusion of statistical interaction terms, lead-associated adverse effects on cognitive functions were observed. In particular, higher cord-blood lead was associated with a lower digit span forward score on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) [beta=-1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.12 to -0.28] at age 7 and a lower digit span backward score on the WISC-R (beta=-2.73, 95%CI: -4.32 to -1.14) at age 14. Some interaction terms between lead and methylmercury suggested that the combined effect of the exposures was less than additive. The present study indicates that adverse effects of exposure may be overlooked if the effects of a co-pollutant are ignored. The present study supports the existence of adverse effects on cognitive functions at prenatal lead exposures corresponding to an average cord-blood concentration of 16 ?g/L. PMID:20868742

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Lead and Cognitive Deficit in 7- and 14-Year-Old Children in the Presence of Concomitant Exposure to Similar Molar Concentration of Methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of mixed metal exposures in humans. We have evaluated the effect of prenatal lead exposure in a Faroese birth cohort in the presence of similar molar-level exposure to methylmercury. A cohort of 1022 singleton births was assembled in the Faroe Islands during 19861987 from whom lead was measured in cord blood. A total of 896 cohort subjects participated in a clinical examination at age 7 and 808 subjects in a second examination at age 14. We evaluated the association between cord-blood lead concentrations and cognitive deficits (attention/working memory, language, visuospatial, and memory) using multiple regression models. Overall, the lead concentration showed no clear pattern of association. However, in subjects with a low methylmercury exposure, after inclusion of statistical interaction terms, lead-associated adverse effects on cognitive functions were observed. In particular, higher cord-blood lead was associated with a lower digit span forward score on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) [beta=?1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): ?3.12 to ?0.28] at age 7 and a lower digit span backward score on the WISC-R (beta=?2.73, 95%CI: ?4.32 to ?1.14) at age 14. Some interaction terms between lead and methylmercury suggested that the combined effect of the exposures was less than additive. The present study indicates that adverse effects of exposure may be overlooked if the effects of a co-pollutant are ignored. The present study supports the existence of adverse effects on cognitive functions at prenatal lead exposures corresponding to an average cord-blood concentration of 16 ?g/L. PMID:20868742

  19. Urine and Urination - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of All Topics All Urine and Urination - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali ( ...

  20. Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

  1. High concentration of blood lead levels among young children in Bagega community, Zamfara Nigeria and the potential risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Ajumobi, Olufemi Olamide; Tsofo, Ahmed; Yango, Matthias; Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Anagbogu, Ifeoma Nkiruka; Mohammed, Abdulazeez; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir; Mohammed, Suleiman; Abdullahi, Muhammad; Davis, Lora; Idris, Suleiman; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Gitta, Sheba; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In May 2010, lead poisoning (LP) was confirmed among children <5years (U5) in two communities in Zamfara state, northwest Nigeria. Following reports of increased childhood deaths in Bagega, another community in Zamfara, we conducted a survey to investigate the outbreak and recommend appropriate control measures. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Bagega community from 23rd August to 6th September, 2010. We administered structured questionnaires to parents of U5 to collect information on household participation in ore processing activities. We collected and analysed venous blood samples from 185 U5 with LeadCare II machine. Soil samples were analysed with X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for lead contamination. We defined blood lead levels (BLL) of >10ug/dL as elevated BLL, and BLL ?45ug/dL as the criterion for chelation therapy. We defined soil lead levels (SLL) of ?400 parts per million (ppm) as elevated SLL. Results The median age of U5 was 36 months (Inter-quartile range: 17-48 months). The median BLL was 71g/dL (range: 8-332g/dL). Of the 185 U5, 184 (99.5%) had elevated BLL, 169 (91.4%) met criterion for CT. The median SLL in tested households (n = 37) of U5 was 1,237ppm (range: 53-45,270ppm). Households breaking ore rocks within the compound were associated with convulsion related-children's death (OR: 5.80, 95% CI: 1.08 - 27.85). Conclusion There was an LP outbreak in U5 in Bagega community possibly due to heavy contamination of the environment as a result of increased ore processing activities. Community-driven remediation activities are ongoing. We recommended support for sustained environmental remediation, health education, intensified surveillance, and case management. PMID:25328633

  2. Water-quality data collected to determine the presence, source, and concentration of lead in the drinking water supply at Pipe Spring National Monument, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Sharrow, David; Unema, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Pipe Spring National Monument in northern Arizona contains historically significant springs. The groundwater source of these springs is the same aquifer that presently is an important source of drinking water for the Pipe Spring National Monument facilities, the Kaibab Paiute Tribe, and the community of Moccasin. The Kaibab Paiute Tribe monitored lead concentrations from 2004 to 2009; some of the analytical results exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique for lead of 15 parts per billion. The National Park Service and the Kaibab Paiute Tribe were concerned that the local groundwater system that provides the domestic water supply might be contaminated with lead. Lead concentrations in water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from three springs, five wells, two water storage tanks, and one faucet were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique. Lead concentrations of rock samples representative of the rock units in which the local groundwater resides were less than 22 parts per million.

  3. Nitrification of human urine for its stabilization and nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Daolun; Wu, Zucheng; Xu, Shihong

    2008-09-01

    Nitrification of human urine performed for its stabilization, and culture of Spirulina platensis in the nitrified human urine were investigated for nutrient recovery. With daily adjusting to pH 8 and keeping high dissolved oxygen concentration, mean 95.0% of NH(4)-N in human urine can be finally stabilized and oxidized to NO(3)-N. Furthermore, this nitrified human urine seems to be an ideal culture medium for S. platensis. Without pH adjustment, only about 50.0% NH(4)-N could be converted, i.e. NH(4)NO(3) would be formed. Under low dissolved oxygen concentration, mainly short nitrification (from NH(4)-N to NO(2)-N) occurred. PMID:18194861

  4. Re-evaluation of blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Qubec): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Julie; Dewailly, ric; Benedetti, Jean-Louis; Pereg, Daria; Ayotte, Pierre; Dry, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Background Arctic populations are exposed to mercury, lead and cadmium through their traditional diet. Studies have however shown that cadmium exposure is most often attributable to tobacco smoking. The aim of this study is to examine the trends in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure between 1992 and 2004 in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Qubec, Canada) using the data obtained from two broad scale health surveys, and to identify sources of exposure in 2004. Methods In 2004, 917 adults aged between 18 and 74 were recruited in the 14 communities of Nunavik to participate to a broad scale health survey. Blood samples were collected and analysed for metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and dietary and life-style characteristics were documented by questionnaires. Results were compared with data obtained in 1992, where 492 people were recruited for a similar survey in the same population. Results Mean blood concentration of mercury was 51.2 nmol/L, which represent a 32% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Mercury blood concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20; p < 0.0001), and the most important source of exposure to mercury was marine mammal meat consumption (partial r2 = 0.04; p < 0.0001). In 2004, mean blood concentration of lead was 0.19 ?mol/L and showed a 55% decrease since 1992. No strong associations were observed with any dietary source, and lead concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20.; p < 0.001). Blood cadmium concentrations showed a 22% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Once stratified according to tobacco use, means varied between 5.3 nmol/L in never-smokers and 40.4 nmol/L in smokers. Blood cadmium concentrations were mainly associated with tobacco smoking (partial r2 = 0.56; p < 0.0001), while consumption of caribou liver and kidney remain a minor source of cadmium exposure among never-smokers. Conclusion Important decreases in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure were observed. Mercury decrease could be explained by dietary changes and the ban of lead cartridges use likely contributed to the decrease in lead exposure. Blood cadmium concentrations remain high and, underscoring the need for intensive tobacco smoking prevention campaigns in the Nunavik population. PMID:18518986

  5. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.

    PubMed

    Mattelaer, J J

    1999-06-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects. PMID:10418087

  6. Simple method of determination of copper, mercury and lead in potable water with preliminary pre-concentration by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho?y?ska, B.; Ostachowicz, B.; W?grzynek, D.

    1996-06-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and chemical pre-concentration procedures have been applied for the analysis of trace concentrations of copper, mercury, and lead in drinking water samples. A simple total reflection module has been used in X-ray measurements. The elements under investigation were pre-concentrated by complexation using a mixture of carbamates followed by solvent extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone. The preconcentration procedure was tested with the use of twice-distilled water samples and samples of mineral and tap water spiked with known additions of copper, mercury, and lead. The obtained recovery and precision values are presented. The minimum detection limits for the determination of these elements in mineral and tap water samples were found to be 40 ng l -1, 60 ng l -1, and 60 ng l -1, respectively.

  7. Anthocyanin metabolites in human urine and serum.

    PubMed

    Kay, Colin D; Mazza, G; Holub, Bruce J; Wang, Jian

    2004-06-01

    In the present study we investigated the metabolic conversion of cyanidin glycosides in human subjects using solid-phase extraction,HPLC-diode array detector, MS, GC, and enzymic techniques. Volunteers consumed approximately 20 g chokeberry extract containing 1.3 g cyanidin 3-glycosides (899 mg cyanidin 3-galactoside, 321 mg cyanidin 3-arabinoside, 51 mg cyanidin 3-xyloside and 50 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 h post-consumption of the extract. Urine samples were also collected at 0, 4-5,and 22-24h. We have confirmed that human subjects have the capacity to metabolise cyanidin 3-glycosides, as we observed at least ten individual anthocyanin metabolites in the urine and serum. Average concentrations of anthocyanins and anthocyanin metabolites in the urine reached levels of 17.9 (range 14.9-20.9) l.mol/l within 5 h post-consumption and persisted in 24h urine samples at levels of 12.1 (range 11.1-13.0) nmol/l. In addition, average total levels of anthocyanins and anthocyanin metabolites detected in the serum were observed at 5917 (range 197.3-986.1) nmol/ within 2h post-consumption. Cyanidin 3-galactoside accounted for 55.4% (9.9(range 7-2-12-6) l.mol/) and 66.0% (390.6 (range 119.4-661-9) nmol V) of the detected anthocyanins in the urine and serum samples,respectively. The metabolites were identified as glucuronide conjugates, as well as methylated and oxidised derivatives of cyanidin 3-galactoside and cyanidin glucuronide. Conjugation probably affects the biological activity of anthocyanins and these metabolic products are likely in part responsible for the reported health benefits associated with the consumption of anthocyanins. PMID:15228048

  8. Elevated urine uranium excretion by soldiers with retained uranium shrapnel.

    PubMed

    Hooper, F J; Squibb, K S; Siegel, E L; McPhaul, K; Keogh, J P

    1999-11-01

    The use of depleted uranium in munitions has given rise to a new exposure route for this chemically and radioactively hazardous metal. A cohort of U.S. soldiers wounded while on or in vehicles struck by depleted uranium penetrators during the Persian Gulf War was identified. Thirty-three members of this cohort were clinically evaluated, with particular attention to renal abnormalities, approximately 3 y after their injury. The presence of retained shrapnel was identified by x ray, and urine uranium concentrations were measured on two occasions. The absorption of uranium from embedded shrapnel was strongly suggested by measurements of urine uranium excretion at two time intervals: one in 1993/1994 and one in 1995. Mean urine uranium excretion was significantly higher in soldiers with retained shrapnel compared to those without shrapnel at both time points (4.47 vs. 0.03 microg g(-1) creatinine in 1993/1994 and 6.40 vs. 0.01 microg g(-1) creatinine in 1995, respectively). Urine uranium concentrations measured in 1995 were consistent with those measured in 1994/1993, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9. Spot urine measurements of uranium excretion were also well correlated with 24-h urine collections (r = 0.95), indicating that spot urine samples can be reliably used to monitor depleted uranium excretion in the surveillance program for this cohort of soldiers. The presence of uranium in the urine can be used to determine the rate at which embedded depleted uranium fragments are releasing biologically active uranium ions. No evidence of a relationship between urine uranium excretion and renal function could be demonstrated. Evaluation of this cohort continues. PMID:10524504

  9. Alkylresorcinol Metabolite Concentrations in Spot Urine Samples Correlated with Whole Grain and Cereal Fiber Intake but Showed Low to Modest Reproducibility over One to Three Years in U.S. Women123

    PubMed Central

    Landberg, Rikard; Townsend, Mary K.; Neelakantan, Nithya; Sun, Qi; Sampson, Laura; Spiegelman, Donna; van Dam, Rob M.

    2012-01-01

    Two alkylresorcinol (AR) metabolites, 3, 5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA), in urine have been suggested as biomarkers of whole grain (WG) and cereal fiber intake but the long-term reproducibility and correlation with habitual intake has not been determined. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term reproducibility of AR metabolites in spot urine samples and investigated their correlation with habitual WG and cereal fiber intake in U.S. women. AR metabolites were analyzed in 104 women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study II and WG and fiber intakes were assessed using a FFQ. Long-term reproducibility was assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) using samples taken 1–3 y (mean 1.8 y) apart. The observed Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) and rs adjusted for within-participant variation in the biomarker were calculated between WG and fiber intake and biomarkers. The long-term reproducibility was poor for DHBA [ICC = 0.17 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.43)] and modest for DHPPA [ICC = 0.31 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.51)]. The correlation between WG intake in 1995 and DHPPA measured 2 y later was 0.37 (P < 0.0001); the adjusted correlation was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.76). Cereal fiber and WG intake were similarly correlated to the biomarkers. DHPPA in spot urine samples reflected WG intake despite relatively low intake of food sources of AR. The poor to modest reproducibility may limit the use of single measurements of these biomarkers in cohort studies in the US, where WG intake is relatively low and has changed over time. But DHPPA in repeated samples may be useful for validating WG intake and assessing compliance in WG intervention studies. PMID:22437553

  10. Body burdens of lead in hypertensive nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Osterloh, J.D.; Selby, J.V.; Bernard, B.P.; Becker, C.E.; Menke, D.J.; Tepper, E.; Ordonez, J.D.; Behrens, B. )

    1989-09-01

    Chronic lead exposure resulting in blood lead concentrations that exceed 1.93 mumol/l (40 micrograms/dl) or chelatable urinary lead excretion greater than 3.14 mumol (650 micrograms) per 72 h has been associated with renal disease. A previous study had found greater chelatable urine lead excretion in subjects with hypertension and renal failure than in controls with renal failure due to other causes, although mean blood lead concentrations averaged 0.92 mumol/l (19 micrograms/dl). To determine if chelatable urinary lead, blood lead, or the hematologic effect of lead (zinc protoporphyrin) were greater in hypertensive nephropathy (when hypertension precedes elevation of serum creatinine) than in other forms of mild renal failure, we compared 40 study subjects with hypertensive nephropathy to 24 controls having a similar degree of renal dysfunction due to causes other than hypertension. Lead burdens were similar in both the study and control groups as assessed by 72-h chelatable urinary lead excretion after intramuscular injection of calcium disodium EDTA (0.74 +/- 0.63 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.40 mumol per 72 h, respectively), and by blood lead (0.35 +/- 0.23 vs. 0.35 +/- 0.20 mumol/l). We conclude that subjects from a general population with hypertensive nephropathy do not have greater body burdens of lead than renal failure controls.

  11. Anomalous concentrations of several metals in iron-formation of the Blue Lead Mountain area, Pennington County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, William H.; King, Robert Ugstad; Norton, James Jennings

    1975-01-01

    Geochemical sampling of bedrock has revealed anomalous copper, silver, molybdenum, gold, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and cobalt in meta-iron-formation in the Blue Lead Mountain area 5 miles (8 kilometres) north-northwest of Keystone, S. Dak. The anomalies are in complexly folded and faulted iron-formation. Metal content decreases sharply in the surrounding rocks. The extent and intensity of the anomalous areas, despite evidence that previous mining had little success, are sufficient to make this area an interesting target for exploration.

  12. Metabolic alkalosis from unsuspected ingestion: use of urine pH and anion gap.

    PubMed

    Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Song, June-Seok; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2012-04-01

    Underlying causes of metabolic alkalosis may be evident from history, evaluation of effective circulatory volume, and measurement of urine chloride concentration. However, identification of causes may be difficult for certain conditions associated with clandestine behaviors, such as surreptitious vomiting, use of drugs or herbal supplements with mineralocorticoid activity, abuse of laxatives or diuretics, and long-term use of alkalis. In these circumstances, clinicians often are bewildered by unexplained metabolic alkalosis from an incomplete history or persistent deception by the patient, leading to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. We present a case of severe metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia with a borderline urine chloride concentration in an alcoholic patient treated with a thiazide. The cause of the patient's metabolic alkalosis eventually was linked to surreptitious ingestion of baking soda. This case highlights the necessity of a high index of suspicion for the diverse clandestine behaviors that can cause metabolic alkalosis and the usefulness of urine pH and anion gap in its differential diagnosis. PMID:22265393

  13. Effects of lead on Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase and hemolymph ion concentrations in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W Gregory; Weber, Frank X; Shea, Damian; Kwak, Thomas J

    2012-05-01

    Freshwater mussels are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants such as lead (Pb) and studies are urgently needed to assess their health and condition to guide conservation efforts. A 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern elliptio mussels (Elliptio complanata) was conducted to determine uptake kinetics and to assess the toxicological effects of Pb exposure. Test mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a water-only control and five concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 245 μg/L in a static renewal test with a water hardness of 42 mg/L. Endpoints included tissue Pb concentrations, hemolymph Pb and ion (Na⁺, K⁺, Cl⁻, Ca²⁺) concentrations, and Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase enzyme activity in gill tissue. Mussels accumulated Pb rapidly, with tissue concentrations increasing at an exposure-dependent rate for the first 2 weeks, but with no significant increase from 2 to 4 weeks. Mussel tissue Pb concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 898 μg/g dry weight, were strongly related to Pb in test water at every time interval (7, 14, 21, and 28 days), and did not significantly increase after day 14. Hemolymph Pb concentration was variable, dependent on exposure concentration, and showed no appreciable change with time beyond day 7, except for mussels in the greatest exposure concentration (245 μg/L), which showed a significant reduction in Pb by 28 days, suggesting a threshold for Pb binding or elimination in hemolymph at concentrations near 1000 μg/g. The Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase activity in the gill tissue of mussels was significantly reduced by Pb on day 28 and was highly correlated with tissue Pb concentration (R² = 0.92; P = 0.013). The Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase activity was correlated with reduced hemolymph Na⁺ concentration at the greatest Pb exposure when enzyme activity was at 30% of controls. Hemolymph Ca²⁺ concentration increased significantly in mussels from the greatest Pb exposure and may be due to remobilization from the shell in an attempt to buffer the hemolymph against Pb uptake and toxicity. We conclude that Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase activity in mussels was adversely affected by Pb exposure, however, because the effects on activity were variable at the lower test concentrations, additional research is warranted over this range of exposures. PMID:20725939

  14. Urine citrate and renal stone disease.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, H; Grass, L; Vogl, R; Rapoport, A; Oreopoulos, D G

    1989-01-01

    Calcium stone disease is attributable to supersaturation of the urine with calcium and other salts, the presence of substances that promote crystallization and a deficiency of inhibitors of crystallization. Citrate is a potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stone formation whose excretion is diminished in some patients with stone disease owing to idiopathic causes or secondary factors such as bowel disease and use of thiazides. The pH within the proximal tubule cells is an important determinant of citrate excretion. Multivariate analysis has shown that the urine concentrations of calcium and citrate are the most important factors in stone formation. In uncontrolled studies potassium citrate, which increases urinary citrate excretion, appears to be promising as a therapeutic agent for patients with stone disease and hypocitraturia refractory to other treatment. On the other hand, there are potential drawbacks to sodium alkali therapy, such as the precipitation of calcium phosphates. PMID:2665909

  15. Using human urine as food for cyanobacteria in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, Galina; Gribovskaya, Iliada; Kolmakova, Angela

    In biological LSS: human, higher plants, algae, united by common cycle of matter, native human urine is the most problematic substance for using in inter-link exchange. It contains urea, ammonium compounds and up to 10 g/l of NaCl. Each of the mentioned components is toxic for growing higher plants. As for inferior plants, experiments showed that cyanobacteria of genus Spirulina platensis and similar genus Oscillatoria deflexa can grow at NaCl concentrations up to 20 g/l and NH4Cl concentrations up to 800 mg/l. These cyanobacteria can be used in LSS as a photosynthesizing link. Besides, S. platensis is edible for humans and fish. To use urine as food for algae, it is necessary to remove urea and organics. All previously used methods for urine treatment aimed at urea destruction: heating to 300oC, ultraviolet exposure, freezing, oxidation on reactor with hydrogen peroxide, had no effect. We used the following method of urine treatment: urine evaporation till dry residue, subsequent combustion in muffle furnace at 450-500oC and creation of ash water extract of the same volume as the initial urine. Comparison of standard Zarrouk's solution for S. platensis and O. deflexa with the water extract of urine ash showed that the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, S were similar. Successful experiments were made with O. deflexa that were grown on nutrient solution made of the water extract of urine ash with 10 g/l of NaHCO3 and 2 g/l of NaNO3. The sources of intersystem production of HCO3 and NO3 were shown, and the biochemical composition of the investigated algae species, including mineral composition, protein, carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid and vitamin content were studied.

  16. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard of ingesting dangerous levels of copper, lead and arsenic if dishes are prepared with poorly washed foliage.

  17. Lead concentrations in Hymenolepis diminuta adults and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae compared to their rat hosts (Rattus norvegicus) sampled from the city of Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sures, B; Scheible, T; Bashtar, A R; Taraschewski, H

    2003-11-01

    Concentrations of lead, determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, were compared between the cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and its host rat (Rattus norvegicus). Rats were sampled at 2 sites, which differed in respect to lead pollution as quantified from road dust, adjacent to the city of Cairo, Egypt. Comparing lead levels among host tissues and the parasites the significantly highest accumulation was found in H. diminuta, followed by rat kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Calculation of bioconcentration factors showed that H. diminuta contained 36-, 29-, 6- and 6-fold higher lead levels than intestinal wall, liver, kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis, at the more polluted site. At the less contaminated site lead bioconcentration factors for H. diminuta were found to be 87, 87 and 11 referred to intestine, liver and kidney of the host. Due to a high variability of the lead concentrations in H. diminuta it was not possible to indicate differences in metal pollution between both sampling sites. This variability may be influenced by different age structures of cestode infrapopulations. It is likely that younger worms contain lower metal levels than older worms due to a shorter exposure period. Thus, it is necessary to standardize the sampling of worms which should be used for indication purposes. Due to a lack of adequate sentinel species in terrestrial habitats more studies are required to validate and standardize the use of helminths as accumulation bioindicators in order to obtain mean values with low standard deviations. The host-parasite system rat-H. diminuta appears to be a useful and promising bioindication system at least for lead in urban ecosystems as rats as well as the tapeworm are globally distributed and easily accessible. PMID:14653537

  18. Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Hofer, Martin; Rewald, Boris; Zaller, Johann G

    2015-01-01

    Herbicide use is increasing worldwide both in agriculture and private gardens. However, our knowledge of potential side-effects on non-target soil organisms, even on such eminent ones as earthworms, is still very scarce. In a greenhouse experiment, we assessed the impact of the most widely used glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup on two earthworm species with different feeding strategies. We demonstrate, that the surface casting activity of vertically burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) almost ceased three weeks after herbicide application, while the activity of soil dwelling earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) was not affected. Reproduction of the soil dwellers was reduced by 56% within three months after herbicide application. Herbicide application led to increased soil concentrations of nitrate by 1592% and phosphate by 127%, pointing to potential risks for nutrient leaching into streams, lakes, or groundwater aquifers. These sizeable herbicide-induced impacts on agroecosystems are particularly worrisome because these herbicides have been globally used for decades. PMID:26243044

  19. Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Hofer, Martin; Rewald, Boris; Zaller, Johann G.

    2015-01-01

    Herbicide use is increasing worldwide both in agriculture and private gardens. However, our knowledge of potential side-effects on non-target soil organisms, even on such eminent ones as earthworms, is still very scarce. In a greenhouse experiment, we assessed the impact of the most widely used glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup on two earthworm species with different feeding strategies. We demonstrate, that the surface casting activity of vertically burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) almost ceased three weeks after herbicide application, while the activity of soil dwelling earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) was not affected. Reproduction of the soil dwellers was reduced by 56% within three months after herbicide application. Herbicide application led to increased soil concentrations of nitrate by 1592% and phosphate by 127%, pointing to potential risks for nutrient leaching into streams, lakes, or groundwater aquifers. These sizeable herbicide-induced impacts on agroecosystems are particularly worrisome because these herbicides have been globally used for decades. PMID:26243044

  20. Buccal mucosal delivery of a potent peptide leads to therapeutically-relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; White, Paul J; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-02-10

    Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) is an immunomodulatory peptide currently under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis by parenteral administration. To overcome the low patient compliance of conventional self-injections, we have investigated the potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative delivery route for ShK both in vitro and in vivo. After application of fluorescent 5-Fam-ShK to untreated porcine buccal mucosa, there was no detectable peptide in the receptor chamber using an in vitro Ussing chamber model. However, the addition of the surfactants sodium taurodeoxycholate hydrate or cetrimide, and formulation of ShK in a chitosan mucoadhesive gel, led to 0.05-0.13% and 1.1% of the applied dose, respectively, appearing in the receptor chamber over 5h. Moreover, confocal microscopic studies demonstrated significantly enhanced buccal mucosal retention of the peptide (measured by mucosal fluorescence associated with 5-Fam-ShK) when enhancement strategies were employed. Administration of 5-Fam-ShK to mice (10mg/kg in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w)) resulted in average plasma concentrations of 2.6-16.2nM between 2 and 6h, which were substantially higher than the pM concentrations required for therapeutic activity. This study demonstrated that the buccal mucosa is a promising administration route for the systemic delivery of ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25482338

  1. Relationships between thiamine content of eggs and concentrations of lead and other heavy metals in water and survival of Atlantic salmon fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketola, H. George; Wedge, Leslie R.; Lary, Sandra J.; Grant, Edward C.; Rutzke, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were extirpated in much of New York state by the late 1800s. Currently, Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond (Saranac Lake, NY) are stocked in Cayuga Lake (Ithaca, NY) and Lake Ontario to support a fishery, but reproduction is severely impaired by thiamine deficiency in Cayuga Lake and probably in Lake Ontario--apparently caused by adults feeding on prey fish high in thiaminase. One study suggested that survival of these fry may be reduced by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, copper, or lead in water. Thiamine deficiency is known to increase lead toxicity. Bringing gravid Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond and Cayuga Inlet into the laboratory, we examined the effect of exposing their fertilized eggs during water-hardening to water with and without added lead (0.1 to 100 mg lead·liter-1) and to other contaminated waters (from New York State) on the survival of their eggs and fry. Our results showed no significant influence of our water-hardening treatments on survival of eggs or fry; therefore, it appears that exposure of eggs (during water-hardening) to lead in water (concentrations up to 100 mg lead·liter-1) or to several contaminated waters was not detrimental to the survival of eggs or fry of Atlantic salmon. We also determined the mineral and heavy metal content of dried eggs and found that eggs from Cayuga Lake salmon had significantly higher concentrations of copper (1.9 vs. 0.5 mg·g-1) than did eggs from salmon from Little Clear Pond. All concentrations of copper appeared to be within the range observed in other normal salmon. There were no other significant differences in concentrations of other minerals tested. Concentrations of copper in Cayuga Lake water (mean, 1.16 mg·liter-1) were significantly higher than in Little Clear Pond water (mean, 0.17 mg·liter-1). The effect of copper in eggs of thiamine-deficient salmon is not known.

  2. Association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in community dwelling women: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20102012)

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Se Young; Kim, Suyeon; Lee, Kiheon; Kim, Ju Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Keehyuck; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in women in South Korea. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V). Participants 1490 non-smoking women who took part in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20102012), in which blood levels of lead and cadmium were measured. Primary outcome measures The primary outcome was blood levels of lead and cadmium in accordance with the duration of secondhand smoke exposure. Results The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium in women who were never exposed to secondhand smoke was 1.21 (0.02) g/L. Among women who were exposed less than 1?h/day, the mean cadmium level was 1.13 (0.03) g/L, and for those exposed for more than 1?h, the mean level was 1.46 (0.06) g/L. In particular, there was a significant association between duration of secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace and blood cadmium concentration. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium concentration in the never exposed women's group was less than that in the 1?h and more exposed group, and the 1?h and more at workplace exposed group: 1.20, 1.24 and 1.50?g/L, respectively. We could not find any association between lead concentration in the blood and secondhand smoke exposure status. Conclusions This study showed that exposure to secondhand smoke and blood cadmium levels are associated. Especially, there was a significant association at the workplace. Therefore, social and political efforts for reducing the exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace are needed in order to promote a healthier working environment for women. PMID:26185180

  3. Screening test battery for pharmaceuticals in urine and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; Bramaz, Nadine; Maurer, Max; Richter, Manuela; Sutter, Daniel; von Känel, Christoph; Zschokke, Mischa

    2005-03-01

    A test battery for identifying ecotoxicological hazards was applied to six pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac, ethinylestradiol, ibuprofen, propranolol, and sulfamethoxazole), to their mixtures, and to urine spiked with pharmaceuticals to test the suitability of biotests for screening urine and wastewater and for monitoring the efficiency of wastewater treatment. The test battery comprised the bioluminescence inhibition test with Vibrio fischeri, the yeast estrogen screen, and a photosynthesis inhibition assay in algae based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Mixture and additional experiments with a cocktail of pharmaceuticals added to urine confirmed the applicability of the test systems as an integrated measure of the overall micropollutant burden. Because the concentration of pharmaceuticals in wastewater is low and the nutrients and salts may have a negative impact on the bioassays, urine and wastewater samples were cleaned and concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The compounds of interest ranged from polar to nonpolar and from positively charged to neutral and negatively charged. Consequently, the SPE method was optimized for universality rather than for specificity. Results of preliminary experiments with raw and treated urine and wastewater indicate the suitability of the proposed test battery for screening urine and wastewater. PMID:15779777

  4. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  5. Toenail, Blood and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers. Methods Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a workshift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n=49), as well as blood and urine before (n=27) and after (urine, n=26; blood, n=24) a workshift were collected. Results Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in months 7-9, 10-12, and 7-12 before toenail clipping date, but not months 1-6. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese. Conclusions Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical workshift. PMID:21494156

  6. Bilateral increase in expression and concentration of tachykinin in a unilateral rabbit muscle overuse model that leads to myositis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tachykinins can have pro-inflammatory as well as healing effects during tissue reorganization and inflammation. Recent studies report an up-regulation in the expression of the substance P (SP)-preferred receptor, the neurokinin-1 receptor, in marked muscle inflammation (myositis). There is, however, only very little information on the expression patterns and levels of tachykinins in this situation. Methods The tachykinin system was analyzed using a rabbit experimental model of muscle overuse, whereby unilateral muscle exercise in combination with electrical stimulation led to muscle derangement and myositis in the triceps surae muscle (experimental length 16weeks). Evaluations were made for both parts of the muscle (soleus and gastrocnemius muscles) in experimental and non-experimental (contralateral) sides. Morphologic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analyses were applied. Results Myositis and muscle derangement occurred focally not only in the experimental side but also in the non-experimental side. In the inflammatory areas (focal myositis areas), there were frequent nerve fibers showing tachykinin-like immunoreactivity and which were parts of nerve fascicles and which were freely dispersed in the tissue. Cells in the inflammatory infiltrates showed tachykinin-like immunoreactivity and tachykinin mRNA expression. Specific immunoreactivity and mRNA expression were noted in blood vessel walls of both sides, especially in focally affected areas. With increasing experimental length, we observed an increase in the degree of immunoreactivity in the vessel walls. The EIA analyses showed that the concentration of tachykinin in the tissue on both sides increased in a time-dependent manner. There was a statistical correlation in the concentration of tachykinin and the level of tachykinin immunoreactivity in the blood vessel walls between experimental and non-experimental sides. Conclusions The observations show an up-regulation of the tachykinin system bilaterally during muscle derangement/myositis in response to pronounced unilateral muscle overuse. This up-regulation occurred in inflammatory areas and was related not only to increased tachykinin innervation but also to tachykinin expression in blood vessel walls and inflammatory cells. Importantly, the tachykinin system appears to be an important factor not only ipsilaterally but also contralaterally in these processes. PMID:23587295

  7. Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, eastern Kentucky coal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Ruppert, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation (Westphalian B) Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds are the 2 largest producing coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Single channel samples from 22 localities in the Pond Creek coal bed were obtained from active coal mines in Pike and Martin Countries, Kentucky, and a total of 18 Fire Clay coal bed channel samples were collected from localities in the central portion of the coal field. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution of potentially hazardous elements in the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal beds, with particular emphasis on As and Pb, 2 elements that are included in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as potential air toxics. The 2 coals are discussed individually as the depositional histories are distinct, the Fire Clay coal bed having more sites where relatively high-S lithologies are encountered. In an effort to characterize these coals, 40 whole channel samples, excluding 1-cm partings, were analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Previously analyzed samples were added to provide additional geographic coverage and lithotype samples from one site were analyzed in order to provide detail of vertical elemental trends. The As and Pb levels in the Fire Clay coal bed tend to be higher than in the Pond Creek coal bed. One whole channel sample of the Fire Clay coal bed contains 1156 ppm As (ash basis), with a single lithotype containing 4000 ppm As (ash basis). Most of the As and Pb appears to be associated with pyrite, which potentially can be removed in beneficiation (particularly coarser pyrite). Disseminated finer pyrite may not be completely removable by cleaning. In the examination of pyrite conducted in this study, it does not appear that significant concentration of As or Pb occurs in the finer pyrite forms. The biggest potential problem of As- or Pb-enriched pyrite is, therefore, one of refuse disposal.

  8. Urine sediment from a Chihuahua.

    PubMed

    Pallatto, Valarie; Wood, Michael; Grindem, Carol

    2005-12-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Chihuahua was presented with stranguria and painful urination of 5 days duration. Cystine crystals were observed in low numbers in unstained urine sediment preparations, and a diagnosis of cystinuria was made. Uroliths were removed surgically from the urethra and the bladder, and mineral analysis indicated the stones were composed of 100% cystine. Cystinuria results from an inherited defect in renal tubular transport of cystine that affects many breeds and has been found as an autosomal recessive trait in Newfoundlands. Accurate identification of cystine crystals in urine is an important means of diagnosing cystinuria. PMID:16270274

  9. High Concentrations of the Antibiotic Spiramycin in Wastewater Lead to High Abundance of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Nitrifying Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Tian, Zhe; Liu, Miaomiao; Shi, Zhou Jason; Hale, Lauren; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Min

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the potential effects of antibiotics on ammonia-oxidizing microbes, multiple tools including quantitative PCR (qPCR), 454-pyrosequencing, and a high-throughput functional gene array (GeoChip) were used to reveal the distribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and archaeal amoA (Arch-amoA) genes in three wastewater treatment systems receiving spiramycin or oxytetracycline production wastewaters. The qPCR results revealed that the copy number ratios of Arch-amoA to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA genes were the highest in the spiramycin full-scale (5.30) and pilot-scale systems (1.49 × 10(-1)), followed by the oxytetracycline system (4.90 × 10(-4)), with no Arch-amoA genes detected in the control systems treating sewage or inosine production wastewater. The pyrosequencing result showed that the relative abundance of AOA affiliated with Thaumarchaeota accounted for 78.5-99.6% of total archaea in the two spiramycin systems, which was in accordance with the qPCR results. Mantel test based on GeoChip data showed that Arch-amoA gene signal intensity correlated with the presence of spiramycin (P < 0.05). Antibiotics explained 25.8% of variations in amoA functional gene structures by variance partitioning analysis. This study revealed the selection of AOA in the presence of high concentrations of spiramycin in activated sludge systems. PMID:26125322

  10. Heavy metal and metalloid concentrations in components of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Weiqin; Zhang, Hongyi; Scheckel, Kirk G; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Soil contamination and human impacts have been reported in the vicinity of lead (Pb) smelters in Henan, China. However, no information is available on crop uptake of soil contaminants near these smelters. Grains, glume, rachis, and stem/leaf samples of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were collected from a small, smelter-impacted agricultural area of Beishe Village, Henan Province, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), Pb, and zinc (Zn) concentrations. The study aim was to evaluate the level of contaminant uptake in wheat and ostensibly observe if specific varieties of wheat were more susceptible to uptake. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in whole grain flour were 0.0915, 0.192, 3.22, 0.280, and 32.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. Grain concentrations of all 25 varieties for Cd as well as 16 varieties for Pb exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for consumption. Mean pollution indexes (MPI) (element concentration of wheat grain/MPC for As, Cd or Pb) of the grains varied 0.562-2.15. As, Pb, and Cd contributed 5.22, 40.0, and 54.8 % to the MPI for all 25 varieties, respectively. This survey highlights Cd and Pb contamination of wheat grains in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan Province, and likely other farm villages in the area. Further work is needed to examine uptake and contamination of other crops and vegetables impacted from the lead smelters in Henan Province and the absorption of toxic elements from food sources by local inhabitants. PMID:26661959

  11. Influence of pre-, post-, and simultaneous perfusion of elevated calcium on the effect of ascending concentrations of lead on digoxin-induced cardiac arrest in isolated frog heart

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, M.S.; Muthu, P.; Parthiban, N.

    1995-10-01

    Cardiotoxicity of lead, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has already been documented as a potentially lethal, although rarely recognized, complication of lead intoxication. Further, it has already been reported from this laboratory that lead acetate (LA) preperfusion potentiated cardiotoxicity of digoxin (DGN) in isolated frog heart preparation and that exposure to elevated calcium (elev. Ca{sup 2+}) prior to, and simultaneously with LA at 10{sup {minus}7} M concentration, attenuated this potentiation. As an extension of this work, it was considered of interest to study the effect of perfusion of elev. Ca{sup 2+} (6.5 mM) prior to, after and simultaneously with ascending concentrations of lead (10{sup {minus}9}, 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}5}M) on DGN induced cardiac arrest (CA) in isolated frog heart, since Pb{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions are known to compete with each other for the same target sites at the cellular level, an instance of competitive mass action effect. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. High fat diet leads to changes in metabolite patterns in pig plasma, fecal, and urine samples detected by a ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem with high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-targeted metabolite profiling can identify robust biological markers of dietary exposure that can lead to a better understanding of causal interactions between diet and health. In this study, pigs were used as an animal model to develop an efficient procedure to discover metabolites in biolog...

  13. Use of human urine in phytoplankton production as a tool for ecological sanitation.

    PubMed

    Jana, B B; Rana, S; Bag, S K

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of primary productivity of phytoplankton and enumeration of the counts of coliform and heterotrophic bacteria (HB) were made in the water of 12 experimental tanks used for 3 treatments and control in triplicate as follows: (a) fresh human urine (0.02%), (b) stored human urine (0.02%), (c) mixed urine of fresh and stored human urine (0.02%) and (d) control without input of urine. The gross primary productivity of phytoplankton was highest in the stored urine treated tanks (508 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) followed by fresh urine (353 mg C m(-2) h(-1)), mixed urine (303 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and control (215 mg C m(-2) h(-1)). Similar was the response of net primary production of phytoplankton. The mean count of HB observed in stored urine fed tanks was significantly higher (59-184%) than the remaining urine fed treatments. The mean count of Escherichia coli did not differ from urine treated tanks to control implying the good quality of water. The concentration of dissolved oxygen of water (7.6 to 12.8 mg L(-1)) in these tanks remained satisfactory for aquaculture. The mean concentration of ammonium-N observed in fresh urine treated tanks was more than 10 times higher than the remaining treatments employed. In contrast, the level of phosphate and electrical conductivity in the stored urine treated tanks were significantly higher than the remaining treatments. It is proposed that stored urine with a significantly reduced load of E. coli might be an effective low cost liquid fertilizer for algal biomass production. PMID:22466579

  14. Atmospheric trace metals over the Atlantic and South Indian Oceans: Investigation of metal concentrations and lead isotope ratios in coastal and remote marine aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Melanie; Baker, Alex R.; Jickells, Tim D.

    Atmospheric concentrations of trace metals over the oceans are investigated through analysis of aerosol samples collected during cruises from the UK to the Falkland Islands and from South Africa to Australia. The readily soluble concentrations of Cu (4-256 pmol m -3), Ni (0.1-54 pmol m -3