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Investigation of lead concentrations in whole blood, plasma and urine as biomarkers for biological monitoring of lead exposure.  


Lead in blood is a major concept in biomonitoring of exposure but investigations of its alternatives are scarce. The aim of the study was to describe different lead biomarkers' variances, day-to-day and between individuals, estimating their fraction of the total variance. Repeated sampling of whole blood, plasma and urine were conducted for 48 lead-exposed men and 20 individuals under normal environmental lead exposure, in total 603 measurements. For lead workers, the fraction of the total variance attributed to differences between individuals was 91% for whole-blood lead (geometric mean 227??g/l; geometric standard deviation (GSD): 1.55??g/l); plasma 78% (0.57??g/l; GSD: 1.84??g/l); density-adjusted urine 82%; and unadjusted urine 75% (23.7??g/l; GSD: 2.48??g/l). For the individuals under normal lead exposure, the corresponding fractions were 95% of the total variance for whole blood (20.7??g/l; GSD: 8.6??g/l), 15% for plasma (0.09??g/l; GSD: 0.04??g/l), 87% for creatinine-adjusted urine and 34% for unadjusted (10.8??g/l; GSD: 6.7??g/l). Lead concentration in whole blood is the biomarker with the best ability to discriminate between individuals with different mean concentration. Urinary and plasma lead also performed acceptably in lead workers, but at low exposures plasma lead was too imprecise. Urinary adjustments appear not to increase the between-individual fraction of the total variance among lead workers but among those with normal lead exposure. PMID:23443239

Sommar, Johan Nilsson; Hedmer, Maria; Lundh, Thomas; Nilsson, Leif; Skerfving, Staffan; Bergdahl, Ingvar A



Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children with asthma-relation between lead and cadmium, and cotinine concentrations in urine.  


Exposure to heavy metals from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was investigated in 23 children with asthma (8.4+/-3.7 yr). ETS exposure was assessed by an inquiry data-based exposure index, the urinary concentration of cotinine (U-cotinine; a major nicotine metabolite) and the house dust (fine and coarse fractions) concentrations of nicotine at home. The corresponding concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium and lead in dust and urine (U-Cd; U-Pb) were determined in the same samples. There were strong associations between the ETS exposure index and U-cotinine (r(s)=0.62; P<0.002) and nicotine in house dust (r(s)=0.77; P<0.001). There was a strong positive correlation between lead and cadmium concentrations in both fine (r(s)=0.86; P<0.001) and coarse dust (r(s)=0.57; P=0.02). Although, there was a tendency for a relation between nicotine and lead concentrations in fine dust (r(s)=0.52; P=0.06), no other significant associations were found between house dust metals and nicotine concentrations. U-Cd correlated well with U-cotinine (r(s)=0.50; P=0.02). Further, U-Pb were associated with U-cotinine, however not statistically significant (r(s)=0.41; P=0.06). A probable explanation is a direct inhalation of side-stream smoke containing heavy metals and/ or an increased pulmonary uptake, due to a small airways disease in children with asthma. PMID:16291074

Willers, Stefan; Gerhardsson, Lars; Lundh, Thomas



Determination of Lead in Urine by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry1  

PubMed Central

A method for the determination of lead in urine by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is described. A combination of wet ashing and extraction with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate into isobutylmethylketone was used. The sensitivity was about 0·02 ?g./ml. for 1% absorption, and the detection limit was about 0·02 ?g./ml. with an instrumental setting convenient for routine analyses of urines. Using the scale expansion technique, the detection limit was below 0·01 ?g./ml., but it was found easier to determine urinary lead concentrations below 0·05 ?g./ml. by concentrating the lead in the organic solvent by increasing the volume of urine or decreasing that of the solvent. The method was applied to fresh urines, stored urines, and to urines, obtained during treatment with chelating agents, of patients with lead poisoning. Urines with added inorganic lead were not used. The results agreed well with those obtained with a colorimetric dithizone extraction method (r = 0·989). The AAS method is somewhat more simple and allows the determination of smaller lead concentrations.

Selander, Stig; Crame, Kim



Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine  

SciTech Connect

Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe



Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.  


Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1mL/min/1.73m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo



Uranium associations with kidney outcomes vary by urine concentration adjustment method.  


Uranium is a ubiquitous metal that is nephrotoxic at high doses. Few epidemiologic studies have examined the kidney filtration impact of chronic environmental exposure. In 684 lead workers environmentally exposed to uranium, multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of uranium measured in a 4-h urine collection with measured creatinine clearance, serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated glomerular filtration rates, and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). Three methods were utilized, in separate models, to adjust uranium levels for urine concentration--?g uranium/g creatinine; ?g uranium/l and urine creatinine as separate covariates; and ?g uranium/4?h. Median urine uranium levels were 0.07??g/g creatinine and 0.02??g/4?h and were highly correlated (rs=0.95). After adjustment, higher ln-urine uranium was associated with lower measured creatinine clearance and higher NAG in models that used urine creatinine to adjust for urine concentration but not in models that used total uranium excreted (?g/4?h). These results suggest that, in some instances, associations between urine toxicants and kidney outcomes may be statistical, due to the use of urine creatinine in both exposure and outcome metrics, rather than nephrotoxic. These findings support consideration of non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration in nephrotoxicant research. PMID:23591699

Shelley, Rebecca; Kim, Nam-Soo; Parsons, Patrick J; Lee, Byung-Kook; Agnew, Jacqueline; Jaar, Bernard G; Steuerwald, Amy J; Matanoski, Genevieve; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Brian S; Todd, Andrew C; Simon, David; Weaver, Virginia M



Prognostic Value of Plasma and Urine Paraquat Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 A non-exponential mathematical equation was used to extrapolate the 'predictive line' for plasma paraquat concentrations beyond 24 h. Plasma paraquat concentrations were measured in 30 patients who were admitted more than 24 h after overdose. The extrapolated line accurately predicted the outcome in 27 of these 30 patients.2 Urine paraquat concentrations were measured in 53 patients. All patients with

J. M. Scherrmann; P. Houze; C. Bismuth; R. Bourdon



Combined processing of lead concentrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined scheme of processing of lead concentrates with the production of pure metallic lead and the important components containing in these concentrates is considered. This scheme includes sulfating roasting of the lead concentrates and two-stage leaching of the formed cinder with the formation of a sulfate solution and lead sulfate. When transformed into a carbonate form, lead sulfate is used for the production of pure metallic lead. Silver, indium, copper, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, and other important components are separately extracted from a solution. At the last stage, zinc is extracted by either extraction followed by electrolytic extraction of a metal or the return of the forming solution of sulfuric acid to cinder leaching.

Kubasov, V. L.; Paretskii, V. M.; Sidorin, G. N.; Travkin, V. F.



Urine naloxone concentration at different phases of buprenorphine maintenance treatment.  


In spite of the benefits of buprenorphine-naloxone co-formulation (BNX) in opioid maintenance treatment, the naloxone component has not prevented parenteral use of BNX. Current laboratory methods are not sufficient to differentiate between therapeutic and illicit use of buprenorphine, and little is known about urine naloxone concentrations. Measurement of urine naloxone, together with buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, might help to determine the naloxone source and administration route. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for this purpose. Naloxone, buprenorphine, and norbuprenorphine total concentrations were measured in urine samples from opioid-dependent patients before and during stable and unstable phases of maintenance treatment with BNX. The limit of quantification in urine was 1.0?µg/L for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Before treatment, all samples contained buprenorphine but the median naloxone concentration was 0?µg/L. During the maintenance treatment with BNX all urine samples were positive for naloxone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. The naloxone concentration at a stable phase of treatment (median 60?µg/L, range 5-200?µg/L) was not different from the naloxone concentration at an unstable phase (70?µg/L, 10-1700?µg/L). Applying an upper limit of 200?µg/L to the sample, the median naloxone/buprenorphine ratio was higher in the high than in the low naloxone concentration group (0.9 vs 0.3, respectively). This study suggests that naloxone in urine can act as an indicator of compliance with BNX. Parenteral use of BNX was associated with a high naloxone/buprenorphine ratio. Negative naloxone with positive buprenorphine suggests the use/abuse of buprenorphine alone. PMID:23512803

Heikman, Pertti; Häkkinen, Margareeta; Gergov, Merja; Ojanperä, Ilkka



Serum and urine chromium concentrations in elderly diabetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serum and urine chromium concentrations of 57 diabetics and 55 normal fasting subjects were determined by atomic absorption\\u000a spectrometry (AAS). Our results indicate that the chromium concentration ranges of serum and urine for diabetics are 0.22–0.36\\u000a and 4.54–5.90 ?g\\/L, respectively, significantly lower than 0.66–0.84 7.80–9.68 ?g\\/L for the normal (P<0.001), which implies that the elderly diabetics probably lack chromium.

Wenjun Ding; Zhifang Chai; Peng Duan; Weiyue Feng; Qinfang Qian



An assessment of contemporary atomic spectroscopic techniques for the determination of lead in blood and urine matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation and validation of a number of clinical reference materials for the determination of lead in blood and urine is described. Four candidate blood lead reference materials (Lots, 047-050), and four candidate urine lead reference materials (Lots, 034, 035, 037 and 038), containing physiologically-bound lead at clinically relevant concentrations, were circulated to up to 21 selected laboratories specializing in this analysis. Results from two interlaboratory studies were used to establish certified values and uncertainty estimates for these reference materials. These data also provided an assessment of current laboratory techniques for the measurement of lead in blood and urine. For the blood lead measurements, four laboratories used electrothermal atomization AAS, three used anodic stripping voltammetry and one used both ETAAS and ICP-MS. For the urine lead measurements, 11 laboratories used ETAAS (most with Zeeman background correction) and 10 used ICP-MS. Certified blood lead concentrations, ±S.D., ranged from 5.9±0.4 ?g/dl (0.28±0.02 ?mol/l) to 76.0±2.2 ?g/dl (3.67±0.11 ?mol/l) and urine lead concentrations ranged from 98±5 ?g/l (0.47±0.02 ?mol/l) to 641±36 ?g/l (3.09±0.17 ?mol/l). The highest concentration blood lead material was subjected to multiple analyses using ETAAS over an extended time period. The data indicate that more stringent internal quality control practices are necessary to improve long-term precision. While the certification of blood lead materials was accomplished in a manner consistent with established practices, the urine lead materials proved more troublesome, particularly at concentrations above 600 ?g/l (2.90 ?mol/l).

Parsons, Patrick J.; Geraghty, Ciaran; Verostek, Mary Frances



Impact of diet on lead in blood and urine in female adults and relevance to mobilization of lead from bone stores.  

PubMed Central

We measured high precision lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations in blood, urine, and environmental samples to assess the significance of diet as a contributing factor to blood and urine lead levels in a cohort of 23 migrant women and 5 Australian-born women. We evaluated possible correlations between levels of dietary lead intake and changes observed in blood and urine lead levels and isotopic composition during pregnancy and postpartum. Mean blood lead concentrations for both groups were approximately 3 microg/dl. The concentration of lead in the diet was 5.8 +/- 3 microg Pb/kg [geometric mean (GM) 5.2] and mean daily dietary intake was 8.5 microg/kg/day (GM 7.4), with a range of 2-39 microg/kg/day. Analysis of 6-day duplicate dietary samples for individual subjects commonly showed major spikes in lead concentration and isotopic composition that were not reflected by associated changes in either blood lead concentration or isotopic composition. Changes in blood lead levels and isotopic composition observed during and after pregnancy could not be solely explained by dietary lead. These data are consistent with earlier conclusions that, in cases where levels of environmental lead exposure and dietary lead intake are low, skeletal contribution is the dominant contributor to blood lead, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Gulson, B L; Mahaffey, K R; Jameson, C W; Patison, N; Law, A J; Mizon, K J; Korsch, M J; Pederson, D



Flash Smelting of Lead Concentrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen-autogenous flash smelting of lead concentrates followed by slag reduction by injection coal in an electric furnace has been developed and is ready for commercial application. Pilot-plant studies demonstrate that the process works. Pilot studies have established process characteristics. The process is easily controlled. Process equipment and operation are based on the extensive experience with Outokumpu flash smelting technology in smelting copper and nickel. The process equipment is small, even for high capacities. Flash smelter and electric furnace equipment are designed for close fit in order to meet the environmental control requirements.

Nermes, Esko O.; Talonen, Timo T.



Mutagenicity studies with urine concentrates from coke plant workers  

SciTech Connect

Urine from coke plant workers, collected before and after work, were tested for the content of mutagenic substances in the Salmonella test system. Urine extracts from exposed smokers showed mutagenic activity, whereas urine from exposed nonsmokers did not. The mutagenicity of exposed smoker's urine was not significantly different from that of urine from nonexposed smokers. Mutagenicity of smokers' urine was only evident in the presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system. The addition of beta-glucuronidase did not enhance the mutagenic effect. The facts that coke plant workers are exposed to very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and that there is no observed enhanced mutagenicity of their urine indicate that the mutagenicity observed with urine from smokers is not due to conventional PAH.

Moeller, M.; Dybing, E.



Pneumococcal C and type polysaccharide detection in the concentrated urine of patients with bacteremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The C polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected in the concentrated urine of 23 of 33 patients with pneumococcal bacteremia using latex agglutination. Type-specific polysaccharides were detected in the urine of 17 of these 33 patients including 4 patients lacking C polysaccharide in their urine. These 4 with the 23 detected above gave a total sensitivity of 82% (27\\/33). The

Kenneth Bromberg; Gaylene Tannis; Alma Rodgers



Concentration of mutagens from urine by absorption with the nonpolar resin XAD-2: cigarette smokers have mutagenic urine.  

PubMed Central

A method is described for concentrating mutagens/carcinogens from human urine about 200-fold for subsequent assay in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. The method is also applicable for other aqueous liquids and for other in vitro tests for mutagens/carcinogens. The urine (up to 500 ml) is put through a column with a 1.5-cm3 bed volume of XAD-2 (styrene-divinylbenzene polymer) and the adsorbed material is then eluted with a few milliliters of acetone. The acetone is taken to dryness and the residue is dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. This is the urine concentrate that is assayed for mutagenicity. Various mutagens/carcinogens have been added to human urine and the recoveries have been measured after adsorption on XAD-2, XAD-4, and Tenax GC (diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide polymer). We propose that this method be used in monitoring the urine of human populations and of experimental animals in toxicological studies. It is shown with this procedure that cigarette smokers have mutagenic urine while nonsmokers do not.

Yamasaki, E; Ames, B N



Stress-induced changes in corticosteroid metabolism. [plasma and urine concentrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because plasma and urine corticosteroid concentrations are influenced by several factors in addition to adrenal cortex secretion, the effect of stress on all of these factors was determined in order to interpret the plasma and urine concentrations. Progress on the investigation is reported.

Tacker, M. M.



Vegetable consumption and blood lead concentrations.  

PubMed Central

Women resident in an area heavily contaminated by spoil from old lead mining have blood lead concentrations that are about 50% higher (p less than 0.001) than those of women living in a "control" area some distance away. Blood lead concentrations were related to the consumption of home grown produce. Those with the highest consumptions had blood lead concentrations that were 28% higher (p less than 0.001) than those of women who consumed no locally grown vegetables. Nevertheless, in the total population in the area this effect seemed likely to account for only about 5% of the population mean blood lead concentration. The data suggested that an increase in soil lead of 1000 micrograms/g is associated with an increase in blood lead of about 0.20 microM/1 (4.2 micrograms/dl).

Gallacher, J E; Elwood, P C; Phillips, K M; Davies, B E; Ginnever, R C; Toothill, C; Jones, D T



Associations of low-level urine cadmium with kidney function in lead workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives Low-level cadmium exposure, e.g., urinary cadmium < 2.0 ?g/g creatinine, is widespread; recent data suggest nephrotoxicity even at these lower levels. Few studies have examined the impact of low-level cadmium exposure in workers who are occupationally exposed to other nephrotoxicants such as lead. Methods We evaluated associations of urine cadmium, a measure of cumulative dose, with four glomerular filtration measures and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in lead workers. Recent and cumulative lead dose was assessed via blood and tibia lead, respectively. Results In 712 lead workers, mean (SD) blood and tibia lead, urine cadmium, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation were 23.1 (14.1) ?g/dl, 26.6 (28.9) ?g Pb/g bone mineral, 1.15 (0.66) ?g/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) ml/min/1.73m2, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, urine creatinine, smoking, alcohol, education, annual income, diastolic blood pressure, current or former lead worker job status, new or returning study participant, and blood and tibia lead, higher ln-urine cadmium was associated with higher calculated creatinine clearance, eGFR (? = 8.7 ml/min/1.73 m2; 95% CI = 5.4, 12.1) and ln-NAG but lower serum creatinine. Conclusions Potential explanations for these results include a normal physiologic response in which urine cadmium levels reflect renal filtration; the impact of adjustment for urine dilution with creatinine in models of kidney outcomes; and cadmium-related hyperfiltration.

Weaver, Virginia M.; Kim, Nam-Soo; Jaar, Bernard G.; Schwartz, Brian S.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Todd, Andrew C.; Simon, David; Lee, Byung-Kook



Elevated urine arsenic: un-speciated results lead to unnecessary concern and further evaluations.  


The consumption of seafood within two to three days of testing can increase total urine arsenic concentrations. Few clinicians are familiar with this fact and often misinterpret elevated results. A retrospective chart review of all cases with arsenic testing seen between 1991 and 2004 at an occupational and environmental medicine referral clinic was performed. Urine arsenic results were classified as follows: total arsenic levels; speciated results (inorganic, ionic arsenic); and whether the patient abstained from seafood prior to the collection. Laboratory detection limits for total and for ionic arsenic were < or = 2 microg/L. Fifty-four patients with urine arsenic testing were identified. The total urine arsenic concentration exceeded 40 microg/L for 28 patients. On paired, speciated testing (n = 21), mean total arsenic was 122 +/- 227 microg/L, and ionic arsenic was not detected in any of these same samples (p = 0.023). On paired testing, before and after seafood abstention (n = 12), total urine arsenic without abstention was 291 +/- 267 microg/L, and it was only 9 +/- 12 microg/L after seafood abstention (p = 0.004). The total urine arsenic elevations observed in our series were due to benign organic arsenic compounds commonly found in seafood. Laboratories should reflexively perform speciation on most samples with elevated total arsenic concentrations prior to reporting the results. Reflexive speciation could reduce unnecessary referrals, further testing, and patient anxiety. PMID:16620536

Kales, Stefanos N; Huyck, Karen L; Goldman, Rose H



The Silicon Concentration in Cat Urine and Its Relationship with Other Elements  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT To understand the effects of silicon (Si) in the urine with respect to the formation of urinary stones, the distribution of Si in urine was observed. Urine samples from cats with urolithiasis (n=10) and healthy cats (n=15) were used. The concentration of Si in the cats with urolithiasis was significantly higher (P<0.001). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between the concentration of Si and those of other elements, such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and iron, only in the urine of the healthy cats. The distribution of elements in the urine differed between the cats with urolithiasis and the healthy cats. The Si concentration and its relationship with other elements were suggested to be useful biomarkers for urolithiasis in cats.

TAKAHASHI, Fumihito; MOCHIZUKI, Mariko; YOGO, Takuya; ISHIOKA, Katsumi; YUMOTO, Norio; SAKO, Toshinori; UEDA, Fukiko; TAGAWA, Masahiro; TAZAKI, Hiroyuki



Uranium and Thorium in Urine of United States Residents: Reference Range Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured uranium and thorium in urine of 500 U. S. residents to establish reference range concentrations using a magnetic-sector inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). We found uranium at detectable concentrations in 96.6% of the urine specimens and thorium in 39.6% of the specimens. The 95th percentile concenetration for uranium was 34.5 ng\\/L (parts per trillion); concentrations ranged

Bill G. Ting; Daniel C. Paschal; Jeffery M. Jarrett; James L. Pirkle; Richard J. Jackson; Eric J. Sampson; Dayton T. Miller; Samuel P. Caudill



Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes.  


Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8?mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2?±?5.9?mL/min/kg (mean?±?SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8?mg oral salbutamol, subjects performed submaximal exercise for 15?min followed by two, 2-min exercise bouts at an intensity corresponding to 110% of VO2max and a bout to exhaustion at same intensity. Urine samples were collected 4, 8, and 12?h following administration of salbutamol. Samples were analyzed by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020?g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P?=?0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4?h after administration when samples were adjusted to a USG of 1.020?g/mL compared with no adjustment (3089?±?911 vs. 1918?±?1081?ng/mL). With the current urine decision limit of 1200?ng/mL for salbutamol on WADA's 2013 list of prohibited substances, fewer false negative urine samples were observed when adjusted to a USG of 1.020?g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020?g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol in doping cases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24166762

Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens; Backer, Vibeke



Silver nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of human urine-derived stem cells at noncytotoxic concentrations  

PubMed Central

In tissue engineering, urine-derived stem cells are ideal seed cells and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are perfect antimicrobial agents. Due to a distinct lack of information on the effects of AgNPs on urine-derived stem cells, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of silver ions and AgNPs upon the cytotoxicity and osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells. Initially, AgNPs or AgNO3 were exposed to urine-derived stem cells for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity was measured using the Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) test. The effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 at the maximum safety concentration determined by the CCK-8 test on osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells were assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin Red S staining, and the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Lastly, the effects of AgNPs or AgNO3 on “urine-derived stem cell actin cytoskeleton organization” and RhoA activity were assessed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining and Western blotting. Concentration-dependent toxicity was observed starting at an AgNO3 concentration of 2 ?g/mL and at an AgNP concentration of 4 ?g/mL. At these concentrations, AgNPs were observed to promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells, induce actin polymerization and increase cytoskeletal tension, and activate RhoA; AgNO3 had no such effects. In conclusion, AgNPs can promote osteogenic differentiation of urine-derived stem cells at a suitable concentration, independently of silver ions, and are suitable for incorporation into tissue-engineered scaffolds that utilize urine-derived stem cells as seed cells.

Qin, Hui; Zhu, Chen; An, Zhiquan; Jiang, Yao; Zhao, Yaochao; Wang, Jiaxin; Liu, Xin; Hui, Bing; Zhang, Xianlong; Wang, Yang



Blood, urine, and hair kinetic analysis following an acute lead intoxication.  


A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate sodium and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, blood lead levels of this 51-year-old patient were moderate (412.9 ?g/L) and no clinical symptoms were observed. Numerous blood and urine samples were collected for kinetic analysis of lead elimination. However, we report the first case in which hair samples were analyzed to determine the excretion level of lead after acute intoxication. PMID:21219705

Ho, G; Keutgens, A; Schoofs, R; Kotolenko, S; Denooz, R; Charlier, C



Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood  


Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood. The present invention includes the use of resonant laser ablation to analyze .ltoreq.1 .mu.L (or equivalent mass) samples of blood for lead content. A typical finger prick, for example, yields about 10 .mu.L. Solid samples may also readily be analyzed by resonant laser ablation. The sample is placed on a lead-free, electrically conducting substrate and irradiated with a single, focused laser beam which simultaneously vaporizes, atomizes, and resonantly ionizes an analyte of interest in a sample. The ions are then sorted, collected and detected using a mass spectrometer.

Nogar, Nicholas S. (Los Alamos, NM)



Effect of Hemodialysis and Renal Failure on Serum and Urine Concentrations of Cephapirin Sodium  

PubMed Central

Six patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis and 10 patients with chronic renal insufficiency hospitalized for nondialytic therapy received 1.0 g of cephapirin sodium by the intravenous route. The concentrations of cephapirin in arterial and venous plasma, dialysate, venous blood, and urine were measured during the ensuing 6 hr. The serum half-life of cephapirin was 105 to 108 min for the dialyzed patients and 95.9 min for the nondialyzed patients. Dialysis removed 22.8% of the administered dose. Nondialyzed patients excreted 19.5% of the administered dose in the urine. The concentration of cephapirin in the urine of all nondialyzed patients exceeded 50 ?g/ml. The recovery of cephapirin in the urine collected for 6 hr after injection was from 34 to 770 mg (mean 195 mg). To maintain a concentration of cephapirin in the blood and urine which exceeds the minimal inhibitory concentration for most gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, nondialyzed patients should receive 15 to 18 mg of cephapirin per kg every 12 hr. Dialyzed patients should receive the same dose just prior to dialysis and every 12 hr thereafter.

McCloskey, R. V.; Terry, E. E.; McCracken, A. W.; Sweeney, M. J.; Forland, M. F.



Determination of lead in urine and whole blood by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


A stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method is described for the determination of lead (Pb) in urine and whole blood. The use of lithium bis(trifluoroethyl)dithiocarbamate Pb(FDEDTC) as a chelating agent showed strong memory effect, restricting the range of Pb isotope ratios that can be measured in unknown samples. To overcome this carryover problem, we further derivatized the Pb(FDEDTC)2 chelate with 4-fluorophenyl magnesium bromide to form Pb(FC6H4)4. The sequential analyses of solutions of natural Pb and enriched 204Pb with Pb(FC6H4)4 chelate by GC-MS demonstrated no observable memory effect. Precision and accuracy of Pb isotope ratio measurements with Pb(FC6H4)4 were established, and the isotope dilution GC-MS method was validated by determining Pb concentrations in urine standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, urine and blood reference materials from the New York State Department of Health, and blood Pb survey samples from the College of American Pathologists. PMID:8044988

Aggarwal, S K; Kinter, M; Herold, D A



Tissue lead concentrations in Japanese quail ingesting lead pellets or shot with lead pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained from birds shot by hunters warrant the consideration that shooting with lead pellets may contribute to the quan~$ty of lead detected in tissues. Information on the effects of shooting avian species with lead shot on tissue concentrations of lead is, therefore, of considerable importance in assessing the value of birds shot by hunters as a source of samples

Ronald J. Kendall; Patrick F. Scanlon



Triazolothienopyrimidine Inhibitors of Urea Transporter UT-B Reduce Urine Concentration  

PubMed Central

Urea transport (UT) proteins facilitate the concentration of urine by the kidney, suggesting that inhibition of these proteins could have therapeutic use as a diuretic strategy. We screened 100,000 compounds for UT-B inhibition using an optical assay based on the hypotonic lysis of acetamide-loaded mouse erythrocytes. We identified a class of triazolothienopyrimidine UT-B inhibitors; the most potent compound, UTBinh-14, fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport with IC50 values of 10 nM and 25 nM for human and mouse UT-B, respectively. UTBinh-14 competed with urea binding at an intracellular site on the UT-B protein. UTBinh-14 exhibited low toxicity and high selectivity for UT-B over UT-A isoforms. After intraperitoneal administration of UTBinh-14 in mice to achieve predicted therapeutic concentrations in the kidney, urine osmolality after administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin was approximately 700 mosm/kg H2O lower in UTBinh-14–treated mice than vehicle-treated mice. UTBinh-14 also increased urine output and reduced urine osmolality in mice given free access to water. UTBinh-14 did not reduce urine osmolality in UT-B knockout mice. In summary, these data provide proof of concept for the potential utility of UT inhibitors to reduce urinary concentration in high-vasopressin, fluid-retaining conditions. The diuretic mechanism of UT inhibitors may complement the action of conventional diuretics, which target sodium transport.

Yao, Chenjuan; Anderson, Marc O.; Zhang, Jicheng; Yang, Baoxue; Phuan, Puay-Wah



Comparison of urine toxic metals concentrations in athletes and in sedentary subjects living in the same area of Extremadura (Spain).  


Cadmium (Cd), tungsten (W), tellurium (Te), beryllium (Be), and lead (Pb), are non-essential metals pervasive in the human environment. Studies on athletes during training periods compared to non-training control subjects, indicate increased loss of minerals through sweat and urine. The aim of this study was to compare the level of these trace elements, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in urine samples, between athletes and age-matched sedentary subjects living in the same geographical area, although anthropometric and cardiovascular measurements showed that athletes have significantly (P ? 0.001) lower BMI, body fat and heart rate, whereas the muscle and bone percentage was significantly (P ? 0.001) higher than in sedentary subjects. The validity of the methodology was checked by the biological certified reference material. Trace element analysis concentrations, expressed in ?g/mg creatinine, of five toxic elements in urine from athletes (n = 21) versus sedentary subjects, (n = 26) were as follows: Cd (0.123 ± 0.075 vs. 0.069 ± 0.041, P ? 0.05); W (0.082 ± 0.053 vs. < limit of detection); Te (0.244 ± 0.193 vs. 0.066 ± 0.045, P ? 0.001), Be (0.536 ± 0.244 vs. 0.066 ± 0.035, P ? 0.001); Pb (0.938 ± 0.664 vs. 2.162 ± 1.444 P ? 0.001). With the exception of Pb, urine toxic metal concentrations from athletes were higher than from sedentary subjects. This fact suggests that physical activity counteracts, at least in part, the cumulative effect of toxic environment by increasing the urine excretion of toxic metals in trained people. PMID:22179857

Llerena, F; Maynar, M; Barrientos, G; Palomo, R; Robles, M C; Caballero, M J



Role of thin descending limb urea transport in renal urea handling and the urine concentrating mechanism  

PubMed Central

Urea transporters UT-A2 and UT-B are expressed in epithelia of thin descending limb of Henle's loop and in descending vasa recta, respectively. To study their role and possible interaction in the context of the urine concentration mechanism, a UT-A2 and UT-B double knockout (UT-A2/B knockout) mouse model was generated by targeted deletion of the UT-A2 promoter in embryonic stem cells with UT-B gene knockout. The UT-A2/B knockout mice lacked detectable UT-A2 and UT-B transcripts and proteins and showed normal survival and growth. Daily urine output was significantly higher in UT-A2/B knockout mice than that in wild-type mice and lower than that in UT-B knockout mice. Urine osmolality in UT-A2/B knockout mice was intermediate between that in UT-B knockout and wild-type mice. The changes in urine osmolality and flow rate, plasma and urine urea concentration, as well as non-urea solute concentration after an acute urea load or chronic changes in protein intake suggested that UT-A2 plays a role in the progressive accumulation of urea in the inner medulla. These results suggest that in wild-type mice UT-A2 facilitates urea absorption by urea efflux from the thin descending limb of short loops of Henle. Moreover, UT-A2 deletion in UT-B knockout mice partially remedies the urine concentrating defect caused by UT-B deletion, by reducing urea loss from the descending limbs to the peripheral circulation; instead, urea is returned to the inner medulla through the loops of Henle and the collecting ducts.

Lei, Tianluo; Zhou, Lei; Layton, Anita T.; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Xuejian; Bankir, Lise



Correlations between cadmium concentration in urine and exposure variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the study 'UMWELT und GESUNDHEIT 1985/86', a representative samples of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany was examined for urinary Cd. A log-linear prediction model based on 2109 cases led to an explained variance portion of R2 equals .32. Strong associations were revealed between urinary cadmium and the smoking history and age of the subjects. This is evidence of the function urinary cadmium has as an indicator of the Cd body burden. However, there are also clear connections with physiological parameters (urinary creatinine and serum urea), which are taken to be a modification of Cd excretion by renal function. The association between urinary Cd and serum urea can also be interpreted as a cadmium-induced renal dysfunction. Urinary Cd concentrations tend to be lower in regions with low industrial nitrogen oxide emissions and high economic dynamics, as well as in non- urban residential structures.

Schwarz, Elmar; Chutsch, Martina; Krause, Christian M.; Schulz, Christine; Thefeld, Wolfgang




Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine is a psychoactive substance that is not legally regulated. Moreover, it is found in various forms of foodstuff. This study aimed to investigate caffeine intake and knowledge concerning caffeine health effects in a community of Thailand, Nakhonnayok province. A questionnaire was used to survey how people consumed caffeine-containing foodstuff daily. Urine caffeine concentrations analyzed by GC\\/NPD method were used


Concentration of urine in a central core model of the renal counterflow system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration of urine in a central core model of the renal counterflow system. In this model descending Henle's limbs (DHL), ascending Henle's limbs (AHL) and collecting ducts (CD) exchange with a central vascular core (VC) formed by vasa recta loops—assumed so highly permeable that the core functions as a single tube, open at the cortical end and closed at the

John L Stephenson



Seafood Intake and Urine Concentrations of Total Arsenic, Dimethylarsinate and Arsenobetaine in the US Population  

PubMed Central

Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ?6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ?2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake.

Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo



Concentrations and chemical species of arsenic in human urine and hair  

SciTech Connect

Because marine products are rich in arsenic, the concentration of arsenic in the human urine varies greatly with the state of ingestion of marine products. It has been revealed that inorganic arsenic is methylated in the human body to form MAA (methylarsonic acid) and DMAA (dimethylarsinic acid). It appears therefore that the arsenic present in the human urine is a mixture of the arsenic originating from marine products and the arsenic metabolized in vivo. Recent studies have shown that inorganic arsenic and methylarsenic compounds are quite different in toxicity and effect on the living body due to their difference in chemical species. Finding the chemical species of arsenic in the urine and hair of normal subjects will therefore provide valuable basal data for the biological monitoring of arsenic exposure and for toxicological studies of arsenic.

Yamato, Naohisa (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))



Concentrations versus amounts of biomarkers in urine: a comparison of approaches to assess pyrethroid exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Assessment of human exposure to non-persistent pesticides such as pyrethroids is often based on urinary biomarker measurements. Urinary metabolite levels of these pesticides are usually reported in volume-weighted concentrations or creatinine-adjusted concentrations measured in spot urine samples. It is known that these units are subject to intra- and inter-individual variations. This research aimed at studying the impact of these

Marie-Chantale Fortin; Gaétan Carrier; Michčle Bouchard



Comparative physiology and architecture associated with the mammalian urine concentrating mechanism: role of inner medullary water and urea transport pathways in the rodent medulla  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies of renal structure and function have potential to provide insights into the urine-concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney. This review focuses on the tubular transport pathways for water and urea that play key roles in fluid and solute movements between various compartments of the rodent renal inner medulla. Information on aquaporin water channel and urea transporter expression has increased our understanding of functional segmentation of medullary thin limbs of Henle's loops, collecting ducts, and vasa recta. A more complete understanding of membrane transporters and medullary architecture has identified new and potentially significant interactions between these structures and the interstitium. These interactions are now being introduced into our concept of how the inner medullary urine-concentrating mechanism works. A variety of regulatory pathways lead directly or indirectly to variable patterns of fluid and solute movements among the interstitial and tissue compartments. Animals with the ability to produce highly concentrated urine, such as desert species, are considered to exemplify tubular structure and function that optimize urine concentration. These species may provide unique insights into the urine-concentrating process.1



Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) gene deficiency impairs urine concentration in mice.  


The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is mainly expressed in liver and small intestine, where it plays an important role in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. The kidney also has a high FXR expression level, with its physiological function unknown. Here we demonstrate that FXR is ubiquitously distributed in renal tubules. FXR agonist treatment significantly lowered urine volume and increased urine osmolality, whereas FXR knockout mice exhibited an impaired urine concentrating ability, which led to a polyuria phenotype. We further found that treatment of C57BL/6 mice with chenodeoxycholic acid, an FXR endogenous ligand, significantly up-regulated renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression, whereas FXR gene deficiency markedly reduced AQP2 expression levels in the kidney. In vitro studies showed that the AQP2 gene promoter contained a putative FXR response element site, which can be bound and activated by FXR, resulting in a significant increase of AQP2 transcription in cultured primary inner medullary collecting duct cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that FXR plays a critical role in the regulation of urine volume, and its activation increases urinary concentrating capacity mainly via up-regulating its target gene AQP2 expression in the collecting ducts. PMID:24464484

Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shizheng; Gao, Min; Liu, Jia; Jia, Xiao; Han, Qifei; Zheng, Senfeng; Miao, Yifei; Li, Shuo; Weng, Haoyu; Xia, Xuan; Du, Shengnan; Wu, Wanfu; Gustafsson, Jan-Ĺke; Guan, Youfei



Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.  


Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45g oral poppy seed doses 8h apart, each containing 15.7mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300?g/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10?g/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300?g/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522?g/L with a median peak concentration of 5239?g/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000?g/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000?g/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300?g/L, with peak concentrations of 658?g/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300?g/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A



Mercury, lead and cadmium levels in the urine of 170 Spanish adults: a pilot human biomonitoring study.  


Human biomonitoring is a well-recognized tool for estimating the exposure of human populations to environmental pollutants. However, information regarding biomarker concentrations of many environmental chemicals in the general population is limited for many countries. The Spanish Environment Ministry has recently funded a human biomonitoring study on the Spanish general population. This study aims to determine reference levels for several biomarkers, especially heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and cotinine, in urine, whole blood, serum and hair, and will involve 2000 volunteers throughout Spain. Samples were taken during 2009-2010 and analyses are currently underway. The results presented herein were obtained in a pilot study carried out in the Madrid region. The study group comprised 170 volunteers, of which 79% were female and 21% male (age: 23-66 years). All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding diet and living habits and provides a morning urine sample. The geometric means for total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were 1.23, 1.11 and 0.25 ?g/g creatinine, respectively. Levels of Pb and Hg were higher than those reported for the general population in the USA and Germany, whereas Cd was in the same range (CDC, 2009; Becker et al., 2003). The values reported here are similar to those reported in other Spanish studies. PMID:21968334

Castańo, Argelia; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E; Cańas, Ana; Esteban, Marta; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez-García, Ana C; Arribas, Misericordia; Díaz, Gema; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A



Vitreous fluid and/or urine glucose concentrations in 1335 civil aviation accident pilot fatalities.  


During aviation accident investigations, vitreous fluid and urine samples from pilot fatalities are analyzed for glucose and blood for hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) to monitor diabetic pilots and to discover other pilots with undiagnosed/unreported diabetes. The prevalence of elevated glucose concentrations in fatally injured pilots was evaluated by searching the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's Toxicology Database for the period 1998-2005. Out of 1335 pilots involving 363 vitreous fluid, 365 urine, and 607 vitreous fluid and urine analyses, 43 pilots had elevated glucose in vitreous fluid (>125 mg/dL) and/or in urine (>100 mg/dL). Of the 20 pilots whose blood samples were analyzed, nine had >6% HbA(1c)--four were known diabetics, and five were unknown diabetics. Urinary glucose levels were elevated in all 13 known hyperglycemic pilots. A considerable number of pilots (30 of 43) had elevated glucose and HbA(1c) (5 of 20), suggesting undiagnosed/unreported diabetic conditions. PMID:19302385

Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Botch, Sabra R; Canfield, Dennis V; Forster, Estrella M



[Methodological study on the determination of oxiracetam concentration in serum and urine by HPLC].  


A method was developed for the determination of oxiracetam concentration in serum and urine by HPLC. Acyclovir was used as an internal standard. The analytical column was a stainless-steel column (30 mm x 4.6 mm ID) filled with 10 microns Bondapak NH2. A mixture of acetonitrile and water (80: 20) as mobile phase was used at a flow rate of 1 ml.min-1. Detection was performed at 210 nm. The retention times were 6.3 min for oxiracetam and 8.1 min for the internal standard. The lower detection limits were 1 for serum and 20 for urine. The precision and accuracy within-day and day-to-day for both serum and urine samples ranged from 5.0 to 10.7%. The mean recoveries were 99.7 +/- 5.9% and 99.0 +/- 5.6% for human serum and urine, respectively. The results showed that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive, reliable and good enough to be used in studying the clinical pharmacokinetics of oxiracetam. PMID:7985515

Jiao, X L; Yu, D H; Zou, A Q; Lou, Y Q



The mean concentration of uranium in drinking water, urine, and hair of the occupationally unexposed Finnish working population.  


Uranium concentrations in the household water, urine, and hair of the occupationally unexposed Finnish working population were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The age of the randomly selected participants ranged from 18 to 66 y. The mean concentrations of uranium in water, urine, and hair were 1.25 microg L(-1), 0.016 microg L(-1), and 0.216 microg g(-1), respectively. The mean uranium concentration in hair of the Finnish working population was from 3- to 15-fold higher than the values reported in the literature, while the mean uranium concentration in urine was similar to those measured elsewhere in Europe. The observed large variation in the uranium concentrations in hair and urine can be explained by the variation in the uranium concentration in drinking water. Exceptionally high concentrations have been measured in private drilled wells in the granite areas of Southern Finland. PMID:19430217

Muikku, Maarit; Puhakainen, Marketta; Heikkinen, Tarja; Ilus, Taina



HCG in urine  


Beta-HCG - urine; Human chorionic gonadotropin - urine ... urine is the most concentrated and has enough HCG to be detected. ... Urine HCG tests are a common method of determining if a woman is pregnant. The best time to test ...


Honey increased saliva, plasma, and urine content of total nitrite concentrations in normal individuals.  


This study investigated effects of oral honey solution on total nitrite, a stable nitric oxide metabolite, in saliva, plasma, and urine samples collected from normal subjects. Fourteen adult healthy volunteers, 25-50 years old, nine males and three females, were enrolled in the study. Total nitrite was estimated in saliva, plasma, and urine after 14 hours of food fasting. Each subject was then asked to drink honey solution (80 g of raw honey dissolved in 250 mL of water). Saliva and blood samples were collected at 1, 2, and 3 hours after ingestion of honey solution for total nitrite assay, while urine samples were collected after 3 hours for total nitrite assay. The mean total fasting nitrite in saliva was 108 +/- 61.3 micromol/L, which was increased to 130 +/- 62.9, 131.2 +/- 59, and 135.1 +/- 64.3 micromol/L at 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively. Plasma total nitrite was 22.41 +/- 16.22 micromol/L before drinking honey, which was increased to 34.71 +/- 18.13, 29.38 +/- 14.29, and 33 +/- 13.09 micromol/L at 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively, after drinking honey. Urine total nitrite before drinking honey was 75.8 +/- 54.79 micromol/L, which was increased to 107.8 +/- 70.83 micromol/L 3 hours after ingestion of honey solution. Although not statistically significant, honey solution showed a tendency to increase total nitrite concentration in different biological fluids from humans, including saliva, plasma, and urine. PMID:15383235

Al-Waili, Noori S; Boni, Nadir S



The effect of the use of mouthwash on ethylglucuronide concentrations in urine.  


Two studies were performed to evaluate the effect of alcohol containing mouthwash on the appearance of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine. In the first study, 9 volunteers were given a 4-oz bottle of mouthwash, which contained 12% ethanol. They gargled with all 4 oz. of the mouthwash at intervals over a 15-min period. All urine samples were collected over the next 24 h. Of 39 provided urine samples, there were 20 > 50 ng/mL, 12 > 100 ng/mL, 5 > 200 ng/mL, 3 > 250 ng/mL, and 1 > 300 ng/mL. The peak concentrations were all within 12 h after the exposure. In the second study, 11 participants gargled 3 times daily for 5 days. The first morning void was collected. Sixteen of the 55 submitted samples contained EtG concentrations of greater than 50 ng/mL. All of them were less than 120 ng/mL. These studies show that incidental exposure to mouthwash containing 12% ethanol, when gargling according to the manufacturer's instructions, can result in urinary EtG values greater than 50 ng/mL. All specimens were negative for ethanol. The limits of detection and quantitation for the EtG testing were 50 ng/mL. PMID:17137525

Costantino, Anthony; Digregorio, E John; Korn, Warren; Spayd, Stephanie; Rieders, Frederic



A urine-concentrating defect in 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 null mice  

PubMed Central

In aldosterone target tissues, 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?HSD2) is coexpressed with mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and protects the receptor from activation by glucocorticoids. Null mutations in the encoding gene, HSD11B2, cause apparent mineralocorticoid excess, in which hypertension is thought to reflect volume expansion secondary to sodium retention. Hsd11b2?/? mice are indeed hypertensive, but impaired natriuretic capacity is associated with significant volume contraction, suggestive of a urine concentrating defect. Water turnover and the urine concentrating response to a 24-h water deprivation challenge were therefore assessed in Hsd11b2?/? mice and controls. Hsd11b2?/? mice have a severe and progressive polyuric/polydipsic phenotype. In younger mice (?2 mo of age), polyuria was associated with decreased abundance of aqp2 and aqp3 mRNA. The expression of other genes involved in water transport (aqp4, slc14a2, and slc12a2) was not changed. The kidney was structurally normal, and the concentrating response to water deprivation was intact. In older Hsd11b2?/? mice (>6 mo), polyuria was associated with a severe atrophy of the renal medulla and downregulation of aqp2, aqp3, aqp4, slc14a2, and slc12a2. The concentrating response to water deprivation was impaired, and the natriuretic effect of the loop diuretic bumetanide was lost. In older Hsd11b2?/? mice, the V2 receptor agonist desmopressin did not restore full urine concentrating capacity. We find that Hsd11b2?/? mice develop nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Gross changes to renal structure are observed, but these were probably secondary to sustained polyuria, rather than of developmental origin.

Evans, Louise C.; Livingstone, Dawn E.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Jansen, Maurits A.; Dear, James W.; Mullins, John J.



Lead Concentrations in Inner-City Soils as a Factor in the Child Lead Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Excess lead concentration (resulting primarily from vehicular emissions) in Baltimore's inner city soils probably has a bearing on that city's child lead poisoning problem. Soil lead concentrations were lower outside the inner city. (GC)

Mielke, Howard W.; And Others



Urine Concentrating Ability in Infants with Sickle Cell Disease: Baseline Data from the Phase III Trial of Hydroxyurea (BABY HUG)  

PubMed Central

Background A urine concentrating defect is quite common in sickle cell anemia, has its onset in early childhood, and may be reversible with transfusion. The Pediatric Hydroxyurea Phase III Clinical Trial (BABY HUG) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess efficacy of hydroxyurea in preventing organ damage in young children with sickle cell anemia. Procedures Enrolled infants were subjected to parent-supervised fluid deprivation and urine and serum osmolality were determined. Results Of 185 infants age 7.5 – 17.9 months (mean 13.0+/-2.7) and fluid-deprived 7.4+/-2.4 hours (range 4-13), 178 had concurrent determinations of urine and serum osmolality. Mean serum osmolality was 286+/-6 mOsm/kg H2O (range 275-312) and independent of age, height, weight, or duration of fluid deprivation. Urine osmolality (mean 407+/-151, range 58-794 mOsm/ kg H2O) was greater than serum (p<0.0001) and correlated with duration of fluid deprivation (p=0.001). Of 142 (77.2%) who concentrated urine, 54 (29.4%) had urine osmolality > 500 mOsm/kg H2O. Urine osmolality correlated with 99mTc-DTPA clearance (p=0.02) and serum urea nitrogen (p<0.0001), but not with serum osmolality, gender, age, height, weight or serum creatinine. Infants able to produce urine with osmolality > 500 mOsm/kg H2O had higher mean fetal hemoglobin concentrations than did those who could not (p=0.014). Conclusions Even with often limited fluid deprivation, 77.2 percent of young infants with sickle cell anemia were able to concentrate urine. Preservation of concentrating ability was associated with higher fetal hemoglobin concentration. Assessment will be repeated after two years of hydroxyurea or placebo treatment. ( number, NCT00006400.)

Miller, Scott T.; Wang, Winfred C.; Iyer, Rathi; Rana, Sohail; Lane, Peter; Ware, Russell E.; Li, Daner; Rees, Renee C.



Normative concentrations of urine thiocyanate in cassava eating communities in Nigeria.  


Exposure to cyanide is a major public health problem where highly cyanogenic cassava foods are consumed. Thiocyanate (SCN), the biomarker of exposure to cyanide is present in several foods, and produced endogenously. Concentrations of urine SCN were measured in endemic and non-endemic areas of ataxic polyneuropathy in Nigeria. Cassava food consumption in the endemic area was twice that of non-endemic areas. Geometrical mean (95% CI) urine SCN was 20?µmol/l (18-24) for no consumption of cassava foods, 56?µmol/l (49-64) for daily consumption, 56?µmol/l (48-65) for twice daily consumption and 85?µmol/l (62-117) for thrice daily consumption. 95th percentile reference limit was 125?µmol/l for no consumption of cassava food, but 360?µmol/l for thrice daily consumption. Urine SCN is a useful biomarker of exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. There is strong ecological association of exposure to cyanide and endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy. PMID:23944969

Oluwole, O S A; Oludiran, A O



Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex—a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units ?-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x2 weighting with linear ranges (r2>0.990) of 2.5–100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5–500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7–105.3 %, imprecision 1.4–6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5–92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3–47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration.

Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H. C.; Hurd, Yasmin L.



Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in two successive urinary voids from drinking drivers: relationship to creatinine content and blood and urine ethanol concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of alcohol in blood (BAC) and two successive urine voids (UAC) from 100 drunk drivers were compared with the concentration of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol in urine, and the urinary creatinine content as an indicator of dilution. The subjects consisted of 87 men with mean age 42.2±14.2 years (±standard deviation, S.D.) and 13 women

J Bergström; A Helander; A. W Jones



Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.  


The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. PMID:23867847

Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsćter, A L



A systematic review of the ability of urine concentration to distinguish antipsychotic- from psychosis-induced hyponatremia.  


Life-threatening hyponatremia in psychotic patients is common and typically is attributable to either antipsychotic medication or to acute psychosis in those with the polydipsia-hyponatremia syndrome. The preferred treatment for one situation may worsen the hyponatremia if caused by the other situation. Hence it is critical to distinguish between these two possibilities. Case reports and series were identified through electronic databases. Fifty-four cases of hyponatremia without recognized causes in psychotic patients were divided into those with dilute (concentrated (>plasma osmolality) urine. The distribution of urine concentration and measures likely to be associated with psychotic illness and its treatment were compared in both groups. Naranjo?s scale was utilized to determine the probability hyponatremia was drug-induced. Urine osmolality fit a bimodal distribution (intersection 219mOsm/kg) better than a unimodal distribution. 'Probable' drug-induced cases occurred 6.8 (95%CI=1.6-28.9) times more often in those with concentrated urine. Acute psychotic exacerbations occurred 4.5 (95%CI=0.4-54.1) times more often in those with dilute urine. These findings, as well as several other trends in the data, indicate that measures of urine concentration can help distinguish between antipsychotic-induced and psychosis-induced hyponatremia. PMID:24726819

Atsariyasing, Wanlop; Goldman, Morris B



Acute changes in arginine vasopressin, sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations in exercising humans: does a coordinated homeostatic relationship exist?  

PubMed Central

The parallel response of sweat rate and urine production to changes in plasma osmolality and volume support a role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) as the main endocrine regulator of both excretions. A maximal test to exhaustion and a steady-state run on a motorised treadmill were both completed by 10 moderately trained runners, 1 week apart. Sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations ([Na+]) were evaluated in association with the plasma concentrations of cytokines, neurohypophyseal and natriuretic peptides, and adrenal steroid hormones. When data from both the high-intensity and steady-state runs were combined, significant linear correlations were noted between: sweat [Na+] versus postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.80; p<0.001), postexercise serum [Na+] versus both postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.56; p<0.05) and sweat [Na+] (r = 0.64; p<0.01) and postexercise urine [Na+] versus postexercise plasma arginine vasopressin concentration ([AVP]P) (r = 0.48; p<0.05). A significant positive correlation was noted between postexercise [AVP]P and sweat [Na+] during the steady-state condition only (r = 0.66; p<0.05). These correlations suggest that changes in serum [Na+] during exercise may evoke corresponding changes in sweat and urine [Na+], which are likely regulated coordinately by changes in [AVP]P to preserve body fluid homeostasis.

Hew-Butler, T; Noakes, T D; Soldin, S J; Verbalis, J G



Plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin following single subcutaneous administration to cats.  


The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofoxacin, a third generation fluoroquinolone, were investigated in 12 healthy adult cats after single subcutaneous (SC) administration of 2 mg/kg BW (Part I, n=8 cats) and 4 mg/kg BW (Part II, n=4 cats). In each part of the study blood and urine samples were collected before treatment and thereafter for 5 days. The plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin were determined by HPLC with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed for each treated animal using an open one-compartment-model with first-order elimination after SC dosing. Marbofloxacin in plasma (means): Maximum concentrations (Cmax) of about 1.2 and 3.0 microg/ml were measured 2.3 and 4 hours (tmax) after dosing of 2 and 4 mg/kg BW, respectively. Elimination from the body was low with a total clearance (Cl/F) of approximately 0.1 l/h/kg for both dosages. The half-life (t 1/2) for this process was calculated with 8-10 hours. AUC increased almost proportional when doubling the dose, i.e., 19.77 +/- 6.25 microg * h/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 51.26 +/- 11.83 microg * h/ml (4 mg/kg BW). Plasma kinetics measured were in accordance with data from literature. Marbofloxacin in urine (means): Maximum drug concentrations were detected 4 and 8 hours after dosing with 70 microg/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 160 microg/ml (4 mg/kg BW), respectively. Inhibitory effects of the urinary matrix on the antimicrobial activity of the drug were taken into account when performing PK/PD calculations. However, a concentration-dependent bactericidal activity (Cmax/MIC > 8-10) which is claimed for fluoroquinolones was sufficiently met with focus on Escherichia (E.) coli (MIC90 0.5 microg/ml). In the same matrix a threshold value of 1.0 microg/ml was undercut 82 and 116 hours after SC dosing, respectively. Hence, a time-dependent bacteria killing kinetic (T > MIC) which may be of relevance for some Gram-positive germs like Staphylococcus spp. (MIC90 1.0 microg/ml) should be covered, too. PMID:21306059

Kietzmann, Manfred; Niedorf, Frank; Kramer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Marina; Schneider, Marc; Vallé, Marc; Pankow, Rüdiger



Catecholamines - urine  


Dopamine-urine test; Epinephrine-urine test; Adrenalin-urine test; Urine metanephrine; Normetanephrine; Norepinephrine-urine test; Urine catecholamines; VMA; HVA; Metanephrine; Homovanillic acid (HVA)


The use of hydrogel microparticles to sequester and concentrate bacterial antigens in a urine test for Lyme disease.  


Hydrogel biomarker capturing microparticles were evaluated as a biomaterial to amplify the sensitivity of urine testing for infectious disease proteins. Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by ticks. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of Lyme disease reduces complications including arthritis and cardiac involvement. While a urine test is highly desirable for Lyme disease screening, this has been difficult to accomplish because the antigen is present at extremely low concentrations, below the detection limit of clinical immunoassays. N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm)-acrylic acid (AAc) microparticles were covalently functionalized with amine containing dyes via amidation of carboxylic groups present in the microparticles. The dyes act as affinity baits towards protein analytes in solution. NIPAm/AAc microparticles functionalized with acid black 48 (AB48) mixed with human urine, achieved close to one hundred percent capture and 100 percent extraction yield of the target antigen. In urine, microparticles sequestered and concentrated Lyme disease antigens 100 fold, compared to the absence of microparticles, achieving an immunoassay detection sensitivity of 700 pg/mL in 10 mL urine. Antigen present in a single infected tick could be readily detected following microparticle sequestration. Hydrogel microparticles functionalized with high affinity baits can dramatically increase the sensitivity of urinary antigen tests for infectious diseases such as Lyme disease. These findings justify controlled clinical studies evaluating the sensitivity and precision of Lyme antigen testing in urine. PMID:21035184

Douglas, Temple A; Tamburro, Davide; Fredolini, Claudia; Espina, Benjamin H; Lepene, Benjamin S; Ilag, Leopold; Espina, Virginia; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra



Mice with targeted disruption of the acyl-CoA binding protein display attenuated urine concentrating ability and diminished renal aquaporin-3 abundance.  


The acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is a small intracellular protein that specifically binds and transports medium to long-chain acyl-CoA esters. Previous studies have shown that ACBP is ubiquitously expressed but found at particularly high levels in lipogenic cell types as well as in many epithelial cells. Here we show that ACBP is widely expressed in human and mouse kidney epithelium, with the highest expression in the proximal convoluted tubules. To elucidate the role of ACBP in the renal epithelium, mice with targeted disruption of the ACBP gene (ACBP(-/-)) were used to study water and NaCl balance as well as urine concentrating ability in metabolic cages. Food intake and urinary excretion of Na(+) and K(+) did not differ between ACBP(-/-) and (+/+) mice. Interestingly, however, water intake and diuresis were significantly higher at baseline in ACBP(-/-) mice compared with that of (+/+) mice. Subsequent to 20-h water deprivation, ACBP(-/-) mice exhibited increased diuresis, reduced urine osmolality, elevated hematocrit, and higher relative weight loss compared with (+/+) mice. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of renin, corticosterone, and aldosterone between mice of the two genotypes. After water deprivation, renal medullary interstitial fluid osmolality and concentrations of Na(+), K(+), and urea did not differ between genotypes and cAMP excretion was similar. Renal aquaporin-1 (AQP1), -2, and -4 protein abundances did not differ between water-deprived (+/+) and ACBP(-/-) mice; however, ACBP(-/-) mice displayed increased apical targeting of pS256-AQP2. AQP3 abundance was lower in ACBP(-/-) mice than in (+/+) control animals. Thus we conclude that ACBP is necessary for intact urine concentrating ability. Our data suggest that the deficiency in urine concentrating ability in the ACBP(-/-) may be caused by reduced AQP3, leading to impaired efflux over the basolateral membrane of the collecting duct. PMID:22237802

Langaa, Stine; Bloksgaard, Maria; Bek, Signe; Neess, Ditte; Nřrregaard, Rikke; Hansen, Pernille B L; Marcher, Ann Britt; Frřkićr, Jřrgen; Mandrup, Susanne; Jensen, Boye L



AT1a receptor knockout in mice impairs urine concentration by reducing basal vasopressin levels and its receptor signaling proteins in the inner medulla  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiotensin II plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, body salt and fluid balance, and urine concentration. Mice with deletion of the AT1a receptor develop polyuria and urine concentration defects. We studied the mechanisms of these urine concentration defects by treating wild-type and AT1a-knockout mice with arginine vasopressin (AVP) for 2 weeks, controlling their water intake, or

Xiao C Li; Yuan Shao; Jia L Zhuo



Relationship between the lead concentration in hair and occupational exposure.  

PubMed Central

The lead content of hair in workers occupationally exposed was correlated with the blood lead concentration. Determinations of lead in blood and hair were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in two exposed groups and a control group. A significant correlation was observed between the blood lead and hair lead concentrations, and a regression analysis showed an exponential accumulation of the lead content in hair, simultaneously with the increase of the values in blood. The colour of the hair and the age of the subject did not influence the lead accumulation in hair in the occupationally exposed subjects. The assessment of lead in hair is considered a useful screening test in estimating occupational exposure. Images

Niculescu, T; Dumitru, R; Botha, V; Alexandrescu, R; Manolescu, N



Ultrasonic energy as a tool to overcome some drawbacks in the determination of lead in brain tissue and urine of rats.  


An ultrasonic assisted solid-liquid extraction method was developed to determine the level of lead in the brain and urine of rats. Lead was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal-Zeeman background correction. Several analytical drawbacks were addressed and overcome, namely small brain sample mass and the formation of precipitate in the urine samples. Utrasonication provided by an ultrasonic probe succeeded in extracting lead from brain samples. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the formation of a precipitate lowered the lead content in the liquid phase of the urine. Lead was back extracted from the precipitate to the liquid phase with the aid of ultrasonic energy and acidifying the urine with 10% v/v nitric acid. A microwave-assisted acid digestion protocol was used to check the completeness of the lead extraction. The within bath and between bath precision was 5% (n=9) and 7% (n=3) respectively. The limit of quantification was 1.05 ?g g(-1) for brain samples and 2.1 ?g L(-1) for urine samples. A total of 6 samples of urine and 12 samples of brain from control rats and another 6 samples of urine and 12 samples of brain from rats fed with tap water rich in lead acetate were used in this research. Lead levels in brain and urine from exposed rats ranged from 1.9 ± 0.2 ?g g(-1) to 3.5 ± 0.2 ?g g(-1) and from 752 ± 56 ?g L(-1) to 60.9 ± 1.2 mg L(-1) respectively. Statistically significant differences of levels of lead in brain and urine were found between exposed and non exposed rats. PMID:22063564

Guimarăes, D; Santos, J P; Carvalho, M L; Vale, G; Santos, H M; Geraldes, V; Rocha, I; Capelo, J L



New insights into urea and glucose handling by the kidney, and the urine concentrating mechanism.  


The mechanism by which urine is concentrated in the mammalian kidney remains incompletely understood. Urea is the dominant urinary osmole in most mammals and may be concentrated a 100-fold above its plasma level in humans and even more in rodents. Several facilitated urea transporters have been cloned. The phenotypes of mice with deletion of the transporters expressed in the kidney have challenged two previously well-accepted paradigms regarding urea and sodium handling in the renal medulla but have provided no alternative explanation for the accumulation of solutes that occurs in the inner medulla. In this review, we present evidence supporting the existence of an active urea secretion in the pars recta of the proximal tubule and explain how it changes our views regarding intrarenal urea handling and UT-A2 function. The transporter responsible for this secretion could be SGLT1, a sodium-glucose cotransporter that also transports urea. Glucagon may have a role in the regulation of this secretion. Further, we describe a possible transfer of osmotic energy from the outer to the inner medulla via an intrarenal Cori cycle converting glucose to lactate and back. Finally, we propose that an active urea transporter, expressed in the urothelium, may continuously reclaim urea that diffuses out of the ureter and bladder. These hypotheses are all based on published findings. They may not all be confirmed later on, but we hope they will stimulate further research in new directions. PMID:22456603

Bankir, Lise; Yang, Baoxue



Concentration of marijuana metabolites in the urine after ingestion of hemp seed tea.  


To determine whether ingestion of hemp seed tea could result in positive urine drug screens for cannabinoids, volunteers were recruited to donate urine after consuming hemp seed or placebo tea. Among the 22 participants, 10 ingested 12 ounces of hemp seed tea, 10 ingested 24 ounces, and 2 ingested 12 ounces of placebo tea. Urine cannabinoid specimens were obtained at baseline and at 4, 8, and 24 hours after ingestion. A total of 10 specimens had trace quantities of cannabinoids detected in 7 subjects on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry testing, all below the Department of Transportation cutoff level of 15 ng/mL. These results demonstrate that under the conditions of this study, hemp seed tea consumption can result in detectable urine cannabinoids but would not trigger a positive EMIT or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry urine drug test for cannabinoids. PMID:10390703

Steinagle, G C; Upfal, M



Bioinspired optical sensing of picomolar concentrations of lead in solution.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead poisoning is a life threatening medical condition, which can cause irreversible neurological, cardiovascular and reproductive damage. Despite of an extensive research, the minimum amount of lead to be considered hazardous is not yet known. The biophysical interactions of minute quantities of lead with blood are also poorly understood. Albumin being the most important binder and transporter in blood, is known to interact with lead ions in solution. In this report, we present the first experimental evidence that picomolar concentrations of lead strongly affect albumin properties in solution. High precision difference Raman and excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopies are employed to identify the effect of lead ions on albumin. Both spectroscopies proved to be very effective in detecting lead poisoning at a very early stage, setting a new course for bio-inspired inexpensive platform of lead sensing

Saha, Anushree; Yakovlev, Vladislav



Blood lead concentrations in a remote Himalayan population  

SciTech Connect

The lead content in the air at the foothills of the Himalayas in Nepal was found to be negligible. The concentration of lead in the blood of 103 children and adults living in this region was found to average 3.4 micrograms per deciliter, a level substantially lower than that found in industrialized populations.

Piomelli, S.; Corash, L.; Corash, M.B.; Seaman, C.; Mushak, P.; Glover, B.; Padgett, R.



Plasma and urine dimercaptopropanesulfonate concentrations after dermal application of transdermal DMPS (TD-DMPS).  


2,3-Dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) is a metal chelator approved in Europe for oral or intravenous use for heavy metal poisoning. Transdermally applied DMPS (TD-DMPS) is used by some alternative practitioners to treat autism, despite the absence of evidence for its efficacy. We found no literature evaluating the pharmacokinetics of the transdermal route of delivery or the ability of TD-DMPS to enhance urinary mercury elimination. We hypothesized that TD-DMPS is not absorbed. Eight adult volunteers underwent application of 1.5-3 drops/kg of TD-DMPS. Subjects provided 12-h urine collections the day before and day of application. Subjects underwent blood draws at 0, 30, 60,90, 120, and 240 min after TD-DMPS application. Plasma and urine were assayed for the presence of DMPS. Urine was assayed for any change in urinary mercury excretion after DMPS. One control subject ingested 250 mg of oral DMPS and underwent the same urine and blood collections and analyses. No subject had detectable urine DMPS or increased urine mercury excretion after TD-DMPS. One subject had detectable levels of DMPS in the 30-min plasma sample, suspected to be contamination. All other samples for that subject and the other seven subjects showed no detectable plasma DMPS. The control subject had detectable urine and plasma DMPS levels and increased urine mercury excretion. These results indicate that TD-DMPS is not absorbed. There was no increase in urine mercury excretion after TD-DMPS. Our results argue that TD-DMPS is an ineffective metal chelator. PMID:23143832

Cohen, Jennifer P; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Curry, Steven C; Biswas, Kallol; Westenberger, Benjamin; Ye, Wei; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Lovecchio, Frank; Burkhart, Keith; Samia, Nasr



Stable lead isotopes reveal a natural source of high lead concentrations to gasoline-contaminated groundwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of total lead as high as 1,600 ??g/L were detected in gasoline-contaminated and uncontaminated groundwater at three gasoline-release sites in South Carolina. Total lead concentrations were highest in turbid groundwater samples from gasoline-contaminated and uncontaminated wells, whereas lower turbidity groundwater samples (collected using low-flow methods) had lower total lead concentrations. Dissolved lead concentrations in all wells sampled, however, were less than 15 ??g total lead/L, the current United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL). Because many total lead concentrations exceeded the MCL, the source of lead to the groundwater system at two of the three sites was investigated using a stable lead isotope ratio approach. Plots of the stable isotope ratios of lead (Pb) in groundwater as 207Pb/206Pb versus 208Pb/206Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb versus 206Pb/204Pb were similar to ratios characteristic of lead-based minerals in local rocks of the southeastern US, and were not similar to the stable lead isotopes ratios characteristic of distant lead ore deposits such as Broken Hill, Australia, used to produce tetraethyl lead in gasoline products prior to its phase-out and ban in the United States. Moreover, the isotopic composition of dissolved lead was equivalent to the isotopic composition of total lead in turbid samples collected from the same well, suggesting that the majority of the lead detected in the groundwater samples was associated with sediment particulates of indigenous aquifer material, rather than lead associated with spilled leaded gasoline. The results of this investigation indicate that (1) lead detected at some gasoline-release sites may be derived from the local aquifer material, rather than the gasoline release, and consequently may affect site-specific remediation goals; (2) non-low flow groundwater sampling methods, such as a disposable bailer, may result in turbid groundwater samples and high total lead concentrations, and; (3) stable lead isotopes can be used to clarify the source of lead detected above permissible levels in gasoline-contaminated groundwater systems.

Landmeyer, J. E.; Bradley, P. M.; Bullen, T. D.



Lead concentrations in birds of prey in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on lead (Pb) concentrations in the livers of 424 individuals of 16 raptor species found dead and sent for analysis to the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Monkswood, from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. Elevated Pb concentrations in liver (>20 ppm dry wt), within the range associated with Pb poisoning mortality in raptors, were recorded in

I. Newton



Morphine to codeine concentration ratio in blood and urine as a marker of illicit heroin use in forensic autopsy samples.  


A morphine to codeine ratio greater than unity (M/C>1) has been suggested as an indicator of heroin use in living individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the morphine to codeine ratio in a large population (N=2438) of forensically examined autopsy cases positive for 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and/or morphine in blood and/or urine. Blood and urine concentrations of 6-MAM, morphine and codeine were examined using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS methods. In 6-MAM positive samples, the M/C ratio was greater than unity in 98% (N=917) of the blood samples and 96% (N=665) of the urine samples. Stratification of 6-MAM negative cases by M/C above or below unity revealed similarities in morphine and codeine concentrations in cases where M/C>1 and 6-MAM positive cases. Median blood and urine morphine concentrations were 8-10 times greater than codeine for both groups. Similarly to 6-MAM positive cases, 25-44 year-old men prevailed in the M/C>1 group. In comparison to cases where M/C ? 1, the M/C ratio was a hundred times higher in both 6-MAM positive and M/C>1 cases. The range of morphine concentration between the lowest and the highest quintile of codeine in M/C>1 cases was similar to that in 6-MAM positive cases. This range was much higher than for M/C ? 1 cases. Moreover, linear regression analyses, adjusted for age and gender, revealed a strong positive association between morphine and codeine in 6-MAM positive and M/C>1 cases. The M/C ratio appeared to be a good marker of heroin use in post-mortem cases. Both blood and urine M/C>1 can be used to separate heroin users from other cases positive for morphine and codeine. PMID:22137531

Konstantinova, Svetlana V; Normann, Per T; Arnestad, Marianne; Karinen, Ritva; Christophersen, Asbjřrg S; Mřrland, Jřrg



Lead concentrations of herbs used in Van Herby cheese.  


Van Herby Cheese is a traditional milk product including local herb species in eastern Turkey. This special milk product was previously produced only for the local market, but industrial scale production and marketing have recently started in the region. However, some quality characteristics such as microbial flora and heavy metal concentrations of this novel product need to be investigated. In this study, lead concentrations of 28 different herbs mostly used in Van Herby Cheese were analyzed by AAS. The highest lead concentration of 1.69 mg kg(-1) of the analyzed herbs was found in Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia. PMID:22164786

Tuncturk, Murat; Tuncturk, Ruveyde; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Ertus, Mehmet M; Ozgokce, Fevzi



Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff.  


This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0-15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15-60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990 s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters. PMID:22035941

Kayhanian, Masoud



Stable isotope labeling of lead compartments in rats with ultralow lead concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The role of the mammalian skeleton as an endogenous lead source is unclear. This is due in part to difficulties in distinguishing mobilized skeletal lead from other endogenous and exogenous lead sources. Therefore, the authors have applied ultraclean stable lead isotope techniques to label skeletal and soft tissue lead compartments within the rat with distinguishable lead isotopic signatures. Female Wistar rats were fed {sup 206}Pd-enriched drinking water and sacrificed after durations of 2, 4, 7, and 14 days. Blood, kidney, vertebra, and tibia tissues were analyzed for lead concentrations and stable isotopic compositions. The resulting isotopic ratios in soft and skeletal tissues differed by {approximately}40% after 2 days exposure to the {sup 206}Pb tracer. More than 90% of the tracer isotopic signature was contained in the soft tissues after 10 days exposure, while skeletal tissues acquired only {approximately}50% of the tracer by the end of the study. Because these animals were maintained under trace metal-clean conditions, they contained lead concentrations in whole blood, kidney, and bone tissues that are the lowest known reported for contemporary terrestrial mammals, and they are comparable to levels in preindustrial mammals. The elevated concentrations of lead in kidney relative to levels in blood are consistent with the presence of specific lead-binding sites in the kidney at very low levels of exposure.

Smith, D.R.; Flegal, A.R. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (United States)); Osterloh, J.D. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States)); Niemeyer, S. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))



Low blood lead concentrations and thyroid function of American adults.  


Lead is often present in our environment, but its effect on thyroid function is still unclear. In this study, multiple linear regressions were performed between log-transformed blood lead levels and thyroid function parameters of 4652 adults from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The models were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, iodine intake, medications, and bone mineral density. Blood lead concentrations (mean: 1.52 ± 1.20 ?g/dL [range 0.18-33.12]) were inversely associated with total thyroxine (regression coefficients [?]: -0.22 [95% CI: -0.34, -0.09] in the general population, but were not correlated with thyroid stimulating hormone, total or free triiodothyronine, nor free thyroxine. Blood lead may have no effect on the thyroid function; however, it could be associated with decreased concentrations in thyroid-binding proteins. PMID:23323812

Mendy, Angelico; Gasana, Janvier; Vieira, Edgar Ramos



Cobalt and Nickel Recovery from Missouri Lead Belt Chalcopyrite Concentrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) concentrates produced on the Lead Belt of Missouri typically contain 28 pct Cu and from 0.5 to 1.5 pct each of nickel and cobalt. Almost none of the nickel and cobalt is recovered presently. The U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau...

R. K. Clifford L. W. Higley



Effect of sodium chloride intake on urine volume, urinary urea excretion, and milk urea concentration in lactating dairy cattle.  


Milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) has been shown to be related to excretion of urinary urea N (UUN; g of N/d) and total excretion of urinary N (UN; g of N/d) in dairy cows. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that MUN and the relationship between MUN and UUN or UN is affected by urine volume as a result of dietary sodium chloride intake. Twelve lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (mean ± SD: milk production 28.1±3.23 kg/d and 190±41 d in milk), of which 4 were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein, were randomly assigned to 4 dietary levels of sodium chloride (3, 9, 14, and 19 g of Na/kg of DM) according to a triple 4×4 Latin square design. Cows were fed at 95% of ad libitum intake, excluding salt addition. Milk was analyzed for MUN and protein content; urine was analyzed for total N, urea, and creatinine content; feces were analyzed for total N and DM content; and blood plasma was analyzed for urea and creatinine content. Creatinine clearance rate (CCR; L/min) and renal urea reabsorption ratio were estimated based on plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, and total excretion of urea and creatinine in urine. Intake of DM and N, milk production, and milk protein content were (mean ± SD), on average, 21.4±1.24 kg/d, 522±32.0 g/d, 25.4±2.53 kg/d, and 3.64±0.186%, respectively. A linear relationship was found between Na intake and urine production [urine (kg/d; mean ± SE)=7.5±4.33+0.136±0.0143 × Na intake (g/d)] and between Na intake and MUN [MUN (mg/dL; mean ± SE)=13.5±0.35-0.0068±0.00104 × Na intake (g/d)]. Despite the decrease in MUN with increased Na intake, UN excretion increased linearly with Na intake. Excretion of UUN was not affected by dietary Na content. A linear plateau relationship was observed between CCR and renal urea reabsorption. An increase in CCR coincided with an increase in calculated renal urea reabsorption until a CCR breakpoint value (mean ± SD) of 1.56±0.063 L/min was reached. We conclude that Na intake is negatively related to MUN, whereas UUN is not affected. Variation in mineral intake levels that affect urine volume should, therefore, be taken into account when using MUN as an indicator of UUN in dairy cattle. PMID:23063155

Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J



Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected within the right-of-way of a major Maryland highway were greater than those found in Barn Swallows nesting within a rural area. Lead concentrations in the feathers of adults from the highway colony were also greater than Lead concentrations in the carcasses and stomach contents of adult and nestling Barn those of rural adults, but concentrations in the feathers of nestlings from the two locations were similar. Activity of u-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in red blood cells was lower in highway-nesting adults and their young than in their rural counterparts, although hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits did not differ. The number of eggs, nestlings, and body weights of the latter at 16-18 days of age were similar in the two colonies, as were body weights of adults from the two areas. These results suggest that contamination of roadside habitats by lead from automotive emissions does not pose a serious hazard to birds that are aerial feeders.

Grue, C.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Hoffman, D.J.



Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. [to combat orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To compensate for the reduced blood and fluid volumes that develop during weightlessness, the Space Shuttle crewmembers consume salt tablets and water equivalent to 1 l of normal saline, about 2 hrs before landing. This paper compares the effects on blood, urine, and cardiovascular variables of the ingestion of 1 l of normal (0.9 percent) saline with the effects of distilled water, 1 percent glucose, 0.74 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, 0.9 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, and 1.07 percent saline. It was found that the expansion of plasma volume and the concentration of urine were greater 4 hrs after ingestion of 1.07 percent saline solution than after ingestion of normal saline and that the solutions containig glucose did not enhance any variables as compared with normal saline.

Frey, Mary A.; Riddle, Jeanne; Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.



Isoniazid/acetylisoniazid urine concentrations: markers of adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy in children.  


The Arkansas colorimetric method monitors adherence to isoniazid (INH) by the detection of INH metabolites in urine. Urine samples 4 h after INH administration in 31 human immunodeficiency virus infected children receiving daily or thrice weekly INH preventive therapy were Arkansas test-positive for 29/31 (94%), while acetylisoniazid (AcINH) was detected in 30/31 (97%) using mass spectrometry. At 24, 48 and 72 h, only 78%, 23% and 0 samples, respectively, were Arkansas-positive, while INH or AcINH was detected in respectively 94%, 69% and 33%. The Arkansas test reliably predicted INH ingestion at a clinic visit 4 h after morning doses, but did not perform well at 24 h. PMID:24903787

Amlabu, V; Mulligan, C; Jele, N; Evans, A; Gray, D; Zar, H J; McIlleron, H; Smith, P



Serum creatinine concentrations SGOT and SGPT activities and lead exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In a group of workers exposed to lead and a group of people representing the general urban and rural population of Finland the serum creatinine (S-Great) concentrations of 1342 men and 377 women, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase (S-GOT) activities of 1464 men and 510 women, and glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase (S-GPT) activities of 377 men and 235 women were

Sakari Tola; Clae's-Henrik Nordman



Urine and Urination  


Your kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from your blood. The waste is called urea. Your blood carries it to the kidneys. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to ...


Baseline level of blood lead concentration among Japanese farmers.  


Lead concentrations were determined for more than 2500 blood samples (more than 2000 winter samples and approximately 500 summer samples) collected from farmers in various parts of Japan to establish reliable baselines for blood lead levels; the analysis was conducted in a single laboratory to avoid any inter-laboratory errors. Blood lead levels distributed log-normally with a geometric mean (i.e., a geometric standard deviation) of 48.6 micrograms/L (1.51) for males and 32.1 micrograms/L (1.50) for females. The levels observed were among the lowest in the industrialized countries of the world. The sex difference was significant (P less than .01) while the difference in Pb-B between winter and summer was essentially insignificant. Both drinking and smoking habits were associated with a dose-dependent increase in blood lead levels, especially in males; the increment was additive when the examinee was a drinker-smoker. The geographical difference in blood lead levels remained inconclusive. PMID:4026388

Watanabe, T; Fujita, H; Koizumi, A; Chiba, K; Miyasaka, M; Ikeda, M



Antioxidant-rich spice added to hamburger meat during cooking results in reduced meat, plasma, and urine malondialdehyde concentrations1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Emerging science has shown the effect of oxidation products and inflammation on atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. Cooking hamburger meat can promote the formation of malondialdehyde that can be absorbed after ingestion. Objective:We studied the effect of an antioxidant spice mixture on malondialdehyde formation while cooking hamburger meat and its effects on plasma and urinary malondialdehyde concentrations. Design: Eleven healthy volunteers consumed 2 kinds of burgers in a randomized order: one burger was seasoned with a spice blend, and one burger was not seasoned with the spice blend. The production of malondialdehyde in burgers and malondialdehyde concentrations in plasma and urine after ingestion were measured by HPLC. Results:Rosmarinic acid from oregano was monitored to assess the effect of cooking on spice antioxidant content. Forty percent (19 mg) of the added rosmarinic acid remained in the spiced burger (SB) after cooking. There was a 71% reduction in the malondialdehyde concentration (mean ± SD: 0.52 ± 0.02 ?mol/250 g) in the meat of the SBs compared with the malondialdehyde concentration (1.79 ± 0.17 ?mol/250 g) in the meat of the control burgers (CBs). The plasma malondialdehyde concentration increased significantly in the CB group as a change from baseline (P = 0.026). There was a significant time-trend difference (P = 0.013) between the 2 groups. Urinary malondialdehyde concentrations (?mol/g creatinine) decreased by 49% (P = 0.021) in subjects consuming the SBs compared with subjects consuming the CBs. Conclusions: The overall effect of adding the spice mixture to hamburger meat before cooking was a reduction in malondialdehyde concentrations in the meat, plasma, and urine after ingestion. Therefore, cooking hamburgers with a polyphenol-rich spice mixture can significantly decrease the concentration of malondialdehyde, which suggests potential health benefits for atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. This trial was registered at clinical as NCT01027052.

Li, Zhaoping; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Luyi; Gao, Kun; Lee, Ru-Po; Karp, Hannah; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan



Urine concentrating mechanism in the inner medulla of the mammalian kidney: role of three-dimensional architecture.  


The urine concentrating mechanism in the mammalian renal inner medulla (IM) is not understood, although it is generally considered to involve countercurrent flows in tubules and blood vessels. A possible role for the three-dimensional relationships of these tubules and vessels in the concentrating process is suggested by recent reconstructions from serial sections labelled with antibodies to tubular and vascular proteins and mathematical models based on these studies. The reconstructions revealed that the lower 60% of each descending thin limb (DTL) of Henle's loops lacks water channels (aquaporin-1) and osmotic water permeability and ascending thin limbs (ATLs) begin with a prebend segment of constant length. In the outer zone of the IM (i) clusters of coalescing collecting ducts (CDs) form organizing motif for loops of Henle and vasa recta; (ii) DTLs and descending vasa recta (DVR) are arrayed outside CD clusters, whereas ATLs and ascending vasa recta (AVR) are uniformly distributed inside and outside clusters; (iii) within CD clusters, interstitial nodal spaces are formed by a CD on one side, AVR on two sides, and an ATL on the fourth side. These spaces may function as mixing chambers for urea from CDs and NaCl from ATLs. In the inner zone of the IM, cluster organization disappears and half of Henle's loops have broad lateral bends wrapped around terminal CDs. Mathematical models based on these findings and involving solute mixing in the interstitial spaces can produce urine slightly more concentrated than that of a moderately antidiuretic rat but no higher. PMID:21054810

Dantzler, W H; Pannabecker, T L; Layton, A T; Layton, H E



A mathematical model of the urine concentrating mechanism in the rat renal medulla. I. Formulation and base-case results  

PubMed Central

A new, region-based mathematical model of the urine concentrating mechanism of the rat renal medulla was used to investigate the significance of transport and structural properties revealed in anatomic studies. The model simulates preferential interactions among tubules and vessels by representing concentric regions that are centered on a vascular bundle in the outer medulla (OM) and on a collecting duct cluster in the inner medulla (IM). Particularly noteworthy features of this model include highly urea-permeable and water-impermeable segments of the long descending limbs and highly urea-permeable ascending thin limbs. Indeed, this is the first detailed mathematical model of the rat urine concentrating mechanism that represents high long-loop urea permeabilities and that produces a substantial axial osmolality gradient in the IM. That axial osmolality gradient is attributable to the increasing urea concentration gradient. The model equations, which are based on conservation of solutes and water and on standard expressions for transmural transport, were solved to steady state. Model simulations predict that the interstitial NaCl and urea concentrations in adjoining regions differ substantially in the OM but not in the IM. In the OM, active NaCl transport from thick ascending limbs, at rates inferred from the physiological literature, resulted in a concentrating effect such that the intratubular fluid osmolality of the collecting duct increases ?2.5 times along the OM. As a result of the separation of urea from NaCl and the subsequent mixing of that urea and NaCl in the interstitium and vasculature of the IM, collecting duct fluid osmolality further increases by a factor of ?1.55 along the IM.



Control of oxygen concentration in liquid lead and lead–bismuth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions for control of the oxygen concentration in liquid lead alloys are described using the gas phase as a control medium. Calculation of the Gibbs energy of oxygen in liquid Pb45Bi55 is conducted using the data for the binary Pb–O and Bi–O systems. The data obtained are employed to estimate the solubility of oxygen in the Pb45Bi55 melt between 200

G. Muller; A. Heinzel; G. Schumacher; A. Weisenburger



Experience with the Method of Grabecki and Coworkers for the Determination of Urine delta-Aminolevulinic Acid in the Prevention of Lead Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for the rapid determination of delta-ALA in urine given by Grabecki and coworkers are described. Thxpensive than the method of Mauzerall and Granick and therefore available in screening of lead exposed workers. According to this method proposals ...

G. Holzapfel W. Mueller



Effective radium concentration of lead-contaminated topsoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the global amount of topsoil is decreasing and its importance for agricultural purposes is increasing, the detection and quantification of metallic pollutions in topsoils has become a topical concern of the utmost importance. Radium, which is generally concentrated in metal oxides and hydroxides and relatively easily leached from rock and soil, could potentially give precious information about the extent of the pollution at large spatial scales. In this study, the radon source term (effective radium concentration, ECRa) of more than 300 topsoils from a lead-contaminated site in the North of France has been measured using the accumulation technique. After placing the sample in a container, sampling of the air is done using a scintillation flask after some accumulation time. Radon concentration in the flask is inferred from counting in a photomultiplier 3.5 h after sampling, from which the effective radium concentration (ECRa) of the soil sample is calculated, expressed in Bq kg-1. This technique allows the measurement of large numbers of samples. The ECRa results of the topsoils, obtained over ca. 800 km2, show remarkable spatial organization and the values are compared with the results of their chemical analyses performed at ISA (Lille, France) and BRGM (Orléans, France). The highly lead-contaminated zone (with Pb concentrations larger than 250 ppm) is also relatively well circumscribed using ECRa apart. Indeed, ECRa values of topsoils are larger in the contaminated area than outside, compared with the average regional ECRa value. The mapping of ECRa of topsoils at large spatial scale appears therefore as an important asset to characterize this polluted area. Our ECRa data are also compared with the low-field specific magnetic susceptibility (?m) and other magnetic parameters to infer some insights from the magnetic fabrics in the soil and the ECRa-?m relations. Relations between ECRa and others metallic elements (Cr, Co, Hg, Ag) or others intrinsic characteristics (amount of sand, silt, organic matter) of the topsoils are also provided. ECRa appears as a powerful parameter to characterize the spatial structure of soils, and in addition provides clues on the susceptibility to heavy metal contamination. This study opens some interesting perspectives for the understanding of the relation between radium and heavy metals in the environment.

Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Douay, Francis; Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie; Bollinger, Laurent



An Investigation of Normal Urine with a Creatinine Concentration Under the Cutoff of 20 mg/dL for Specimen Validity Testing in a Toxicology Laboratory(.).  


In clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories, one commonly used method for urine specimen validity testing is creatinine concentration. In this study, workplace guidelines are examined to determine their relevance to forensic and clinical toxicology samples. Specifically, it investigates the occurrence of urine creatinine concentrations under 20 mg/dL and notes potential issues with factors influencing creatinine concentration by utilizing a simple, novel method consisting of cation-paring high-pressure liquid chromatography in tandem with ultraviolet detection to determine the creatinine concentration in 3019 donors. Of the 4227 sample population in this study, 209 (4.94%) were below the cutoff value of 20 mg/dL for dilute urine. Because there are many factors that can influence the urinary creatinine concentration, samples that have creatinine under the 20 mg/dL cutoff do not always implicate sample adulteration. PMID:24502684

Holden, Brad; Guice, Erica A



Frequent Urination  


... to urinate even more frequently. Many pregnant women leak some urine when coughing, laughing, sneezing or exercising. ... urinate. It may also force some urine to leak out, particularly if the muscles around the urethra ...


Bilirubin - urine  


Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...


Urine chemistry  


Chemistry - urine ... For this test, a clean-catch (midstream) urine sample is needed. For more information, see: Urine collection - clean catch . Some tests require that you collect all of your urine for 24 ...


Cloud point extraction for the determination of lead and cadmium in urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with multivariate optimization using Box Behnken design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Pb and Cd in undigested urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). Aliquots of 0.5 mL urine were acidified with HCl and the chelating agent ammonium O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (DDTP) was added along with the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 at the optimized concentrations. Phase separation was achieved by heating the mixture to 50 °C for 15 min. The surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by GF AAS, employing the optimized pyrolysis temperatures of 900 °C for Pb and 800 °C for Cd, using a graphite tube with a platform treated with 500 ?g Ru as permanent modifier. The reagent concentrations for CPE (HCl, DDTP and Triton X-114) were optimized using a Box Behnken design. The response surfaces and the optimum values were very similar for aqueous solutions and for the urine samples, demonstrating that aqueous standards submitted to CPE could be used for calibration. Detection limits of 40 and 2 ng L- 1 for Pb and Cd, respectively, were obtained along with an enhancement factor of 16 for both analytes. Three control urine samples were analyzed using this approach, and good agreement was obtained at a 95% statistical confidence level between the certified and determined values. Five real samples have also been analyzed before and after spiking with Pb and Cd, resulting in recoveries ranging from 97 to 118%.

Maranhăo, Tatiane De A.; Martendal, Edmar; Borges, Daniel L. G.; Carasek, Eduardo; Welz, Bernhard; Curtius, Adilson J.



An analysis of workers' tritium concentration in urine samples as a function of time after intake at Korean pressurised heavy water reactors.  


In general, internal exposure from tritium at pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) accounts for ?20-40 % of the total radiation dose. Tritium usually reaches the equilibrium concentration after a few hours inside the body and is then excreted from the body with an effective half-life in the order of 10 d. In this study, tritium metabolism was reviewed using its excretion rate in urine samples of workers at Korean PHWRs. The tritium concentration in workers' urine samples was also measured as a function of time after intake. On the basis of the monitoring results, changes in the tritium concentration inside the body were then analysed. PMID:22511731

Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young



Study on control of oxygen concentration in lead bismuth flow using lead oxide particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance of mass exchanger type oxygen control system for the control of oxygen concentration in a flowing lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) was investigated in a low temperature region of a Pb-Bi circulation loop. Oxygen dissolved and diffused from lead oxide (PbO) particles into the melt or oxide precipitated in the mass exchanger. The electromotive force (EMF) of an oxygen sensor installed in a high temperature region of the loop indicated the changes of oxygen concentration in the loop with the temperature changes of the PbO particles reasonably. The measured EMF agreed well with theoretical result obtained using ?GPb-Bi-O equation 0 in the Nernst equation. The expression of oxygen solubility in the melt in the mass exchanger, Cs, was derived from the data as log Cs = A + B/ T, where the constant A ranged from -4000 to -4600, and the constant B ranged from 1 to 3.5 depending on the temperature of the melt.

Kondo, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Minoru; Miura, Kuniaki; Onizawa, Tatsuya



Consumption of lead-shot cervid meat and blood lead concentrations in a group of adult Norwegians.  


Several recent investigations have reported high concentrations of lead in samples of minced cervid meat. This paper describes findings from a Norwegian study performed in 2012 among 147 adults with a wide range of cervid game consumption. The main aim was to assess whether high consumption of lead-shot cervid meat is associated with increased concentration of lead in blood. A second aim was to investigate to what extent factors apart from game consumption explain observed variability in blood lead levels. Median (5 and 95 percentile) blood concentration of lead was 16.6 µg/L (7.5 and 39 µg/L). An optimal multivariate linear regression model for log-transformed blood lead indicated that cervid game meat consumption once a month or more was associated with approximately 31% increase in blood lead concentrations. The increase seemed to be mostly associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. However, many participants with high and long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. Cervid meat together with number of bullet shots per year, years with game consumption, self-assembly of bullets, wine consumption and smoking jointly accounted for approximately 25% of the variation in blood lead concentrations, while age and sex accounted for 27% of the variance. Blood lead concentrations increased approximately 18% per decade of age, and men had on average 30% higher blood lead concentrations than women. Hunters who assembled their own ammunition had 52% higher blood lead concentrations than persons not making ammunition. In conjunction with minced cervid meat, wine intake was significantly associated with increased blood lead. Our results indicate that hunting practices such as use of lead-based ammunition, self-assembling of lead containing bullets and inclusion of lead-contaminated meat for mincing to a large extent determine the exposure to lead from cervid game consumption. PMID:24119336

Meltzer, H M; Dahl, H; Brantsćter, A L; Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Bernhoft, A; Oftedal, B; Lande, U S; Alexander, J; Haugen, M; Ydersbond, T A



Effect of cattle urine addition on the surface emissions and subsurface concentrations of greenhouse gases from a UK lowland peatland.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grazing systems represent a substantial percentage of the global anthropogenic flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) as a result of nitrogen addition to the soil. Cattle urine has been shown to stimulate N2O production due to the dual effect of a large pool of readily available N and C and increased soil water content. Studies indicate that even short-term grazing can cause a significant increase in N2O emissions, particularly when combined with compaction and seasonal water-table rise. Peat soils have different physical and chemical characteristics to mineral soils including higher organic carbon content, higher porosity and greater variation in hydraulic properties due to swell and shrink. Peat soils have been shown to have increased N2O emissions with respect to mineral soils as a result of a combination of these factors, particularly when amended with fertilisers or livestock excreta. Many lowland peatland environments in the UK are under seasonal grazing management and cattle are increasingly being introduced to manage fen vegetation in lowland peatland. In this study, we simulated small urination events on a conservation area of UK peat grassland that is intensively grazed for a short period of time during autumn seasonal water-table rise. We measured subsurface and surface emissions of N2O, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) alongside soil physical and chemical changes to determine the key mechanisms of greenhouse gas production and transport. CO2emission peaked at 5200 mg CO2 m-2 d-1 directly after application from a background value of 905 mg CO2 m-2 d-1. CH4 flux decreased to -2000 ?g CH4 m-2 d-1two days after application (control plots -580 ?g CH4 m-2 d-1); however, net CH4 flux was positive from urine treated plots and negative from control plots. N2O emission peaked at 37 mg N2O m-2 d-1 12 days after application (1.08 mg N2O m-2 d-1 in control plots). Subsurface CH4 and N2O concentrations were higher in the urine treated plots than the controls. There was no effect of treatment on subsurface CO2 concentrations. Subsurface N2O peaked at 500ppm 12 days after and 1200ppm 56 days after application. Subsurface NO3- concentration peaked at approximately 300 mg N kg dry soil-112 days after application. Results indicate that denitrification is the key driver for N2O release in peatlands and that production is strongly related to increased soil moisture. N2O production at depth continued long after emissions were detected at the surface. Increased study of the interaction between subsurface gas concentrations, surface emissions and soil hydrological conditions is required to successfully predict greenhouse gas production and emission.

Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Chadwick, David; Cardenas, Laura



Lead concentrations in white-tailed deer mandibles and teeth  

SciTech Connect

Mandibles and teeth of 48 white-tailed deer from 6 counties in Pennsylvania were analyzed for lead by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate little influence of age, sex, and county on lead levels. (JMT)

Witkowski, S.A.; Ault, S.R.; Field, R.W.



Placental and stillbirth tissue lead concentrations in occupationally exposed women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lead values in maternal and infant blood, in placental tissue, and in stillbirth liver, kidney, and rib- and skull-bones have been determined in samples from the Stoke-on-Trent area. The lead values in antenatal blood and placenta increase with occupational exposure; liver and kidney stillbirth lead values are lower than those of much older children and rib-bone lead values from

A K Khera; D G Wibberley; J G Dathan



In vivo XRF analysis of mercury: the relation between concentrations in the kidney and the urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of mercury in organs of occupationally exposed workers using in vivo X-ray fluorescence analysis. Twenty mercury exposed workers and twelve occupationally unexposed referents participated in the study. Their mercury levels in kidney, liver and thyroid were measured using a technique based on excitation with partly plane polarized photons. The mercury

J. Borjesson; L. Barregard; G. Sallsten; A. Schutz; R. Jonson; M. Alpsten; S. Mattsson



Iodine concentrations in porcine blood, urine, and tissues after a single dose of iodised oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental groups of pigs were treated orally with 120 mg (Group O 120), or 480 mg (Group O 480) of iodine per animal, or intramuscularly with 240 mg (Group I 240) of iodine per animal. Iodine was administered in the form of iodised fatty acid esters (IFAE). The treatment resulted in significantly increased iodine concentrations in tissues and a single




Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women.  


Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ?6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ?23 mg of oral ˛?Mg and ?11 mg of i.v. ˛?Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0-24 h urine MgA value alone (? = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0-24 h urine and the 3-h (? = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (? = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (-0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. PMID:24500940

Hansen, Karen E; Nabak, Andrea C; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M; Abrams, Steven A



Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVEThis study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.METHODSMaternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-xray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors

Mary Jean Brown; Howard Hu; Teresa Gonzales-Cossio; Karen E Peterson; Luz-Helena Sanin; Maria de Luz Kageyama; Eduardo Palazuelos; Antonio Aro; Lourdes Schnaas; Mauricio Hernandez-Avila



Routine clinical determination of lead, arsenic, cadmium, and thallium in urine and whole blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the measurement of As, Cd, Pb, and Tl in urine or whole blood, judicious choices of internal standard elements for matrix correction and the development of a refined isobaric arsenic correction are necessary to produce accurate ICP-MS results. Ga and Rh are chosen as internal standards for As and Cd respectively. Bi is better for the correction of Pb

David E. Nixon; Thomas P. Moyer



Urine arsenic concentration and obstructive pulmonary disease in the U.S. population.  


Arsenic (As) is a known carcinogen commonly found in drinking water. An emerging body of evidence suggests that exposure to inorganic As may be associated with nonmalignant respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between As exposure at levels seen in the United States and prevalence of asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and respiratory symptoms.Urinary As was collected from 5365 participants from the combined 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohorts. Two methods to adjust for organic As component were incorporated into the statistical model. Linear and logistic regression models compared urinary As adjusted for organic As with diagnoses of obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory symptoms.Geometric mean concentration of urinary As were not significantly different between participants with and those without asthma, chronic bronchitis,and emphysema. Odds of having asthma was 0.71 for participants with the highest quintile of urinary As (? 17.23 ?g/dl) when compared to the lowest quintile (? 3.52 ?g/dl). A significant association was found between increasing urinary As concentration and decreasing age, male gender, and non-"white" race.A significant association between urinary As and obstructive pulmonary disease and symptoms was not demonstrated in the U.S. population. PMID:21480046

Amster, Eric D; Cho, Jang Ik; Christiani, David




PubMed Central

Arsenic (As) is a known carcinogen commonly found in drinking water. An emerging body of evidence suggests that exposure to inorganic As may be associated with nonmalignant respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between As exposure at levels seen in the United States and prevalence of asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and respiratory symptoms.Urinary As was collected from 5365 participants from the combined 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohorts. Two methods to adjust for organic As component were incorporated into the statistical model. Linear and logistic regression models compared urinary As adjusted for organic As with diagnoses of obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory symptoms. Geometric mean concentration of urinary As were not significantly different between participants with and those without asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Odds of having asthma was 0.71 for participants with the highest quintile of urinary As (?17.23 ?g/dl) when compared to the lowest quintile (?3.52 ?g/dl). A significant association was found between increasing urinary As concentration and decreasing age, male gender, and non-“white” race. A significant association between urinary As and obstructive pulmonary disease and symptoms was not demonstrated in the U.S. population.

Amster, Eric D.; Cho, Jang Ik; Christiani, David



Airborne Lead Concentrations and the Effect of Reductions in the Lead Content of Petrol,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lead in petrol is the major source of airborne lead in the United Kingdom. On 1 January 1986 the maximum permissible lead content of petrol was reduced from 0.4 to 0.15 grams per litre. The report assesses the results available from 21 airborne lead monit...

G. McInnes



The use of hydrogel microparticles to sequester and concentrate bacterial antigens in a urine test for Lyme disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogel biomarker capturing microparticles were evaluated as a biomaterial to amplify the sensitivity of urine testing for infectious disease proteins. Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by ticks. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of Lyme disease reduces complications including arthritis and cardiac involvement. While a urine test is highly desirable for Lyme disease screening, this has been difficult to

Temple A. Douglas; Davide Tamburro; Claudia Fredolini; Benjamin H. Espina; Benjamin S. Lepene; Leopold Ilag; Virginia Espina; Emanuel F. Petricoin; Lance A. Liotta; Alessandra Luchini


Energy-conserving, pollution-free extraction process for the recovery of lead from lead sulfide concentrates. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research concerned with the development of a new process for the extraction of lead from lead sulfide concentrates is described. The process consists of smelting lead sulfide concentrates with lime and carbon to produce liquid lead. The sulfur in the concentrates is tied up as solid calcium sulfide residue which can be further processed to regenerate lime. No sulfur oxides are generated during the process. The off-gas consist of CO and CO/sub 2/. Coke, coal, coal-char or lignite-char may be used as reducing agents. The reduction process can be catalyzed to an appreciable degree by the addition of small concentrations of catalysts. For the most part, these catalytic substances are either pure or mixed alkali-metal salts. The present process can be applied for extracting zinc from zinc sulfide concentrates and also for the recovery of copper and nickel from their respective sulfide concentrates.

Rao, Y.K.



Energy-conserving, pollution-free extraction process for the recovery of lead from lead sulfide concentrates. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research concerned with the development of a new process for the extraction of lead from lead sulfide concentrates is described. The process consists of smelting lead sulfide concentrates with lime and carbon to produce liquid lead. The sulfur in the concentrates is tied up as solid calcium sulfide residue which can be further processed to regenerate lime. No sulfur oxides are generated during the process. The off-gases consist of CO and CO/sub 2/. Coke, coal, coal-char or lignite-char may be used as reducing agents. The reduction process can be catalyzed to an appreciable degree by the addition of small concentrations of catalysts. For the most part, these catalytic substances are either pure or mixed alkali-metal salts. The present process can be applied for extracting zinc from zinc sulfide concentrates and also for the recovery of copper and nickel from their respective sulfide concentrates.

Rao, Y.K.



Lead concentrations in livers of Maryland waterfowl with and without ingested lead shot present in gizzards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of lead poisoning in waterfowl caused by ingestion of spent lead shot has long been recognized (WETMORE, 1919) as has the adverse impact on waterfowl populations (BELLROSE, 1959). The majority of observations on lead shot ingestion by waterfowl have been with dabbling duck species. Much less work has been done on diving ducks and geese although the problem

Patrick F. Scanlon; Vernon D. Stotts; Richard G. Oderwald; Timothy J. Dietrick; Ronald J. Kendall



Association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (estimated from job category) with concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in urine from workers at a steel plant.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--Increased risk of lung cancer has been associated with employment in the steel industry. This association is thought to be due in part to increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air found in this work environment. Measurement of PAH metabolites in human urine provides a means of assessing individual internal dose of PAHs. This study examined the relative contribution of occupation and smoking to urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG) among a group of workers at a steel plant. METHODS--Concentrations of 1-OHPG in urine from 44 workers with jobs associated with increased air concentrations of PAHs and 40 workers with jobs with low or no exposure to PAHs were measured. 20 workers in each group were not current smokers. Urinary 1-OHPG was measured by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy after immunoaffinity chromatography specific for PAH metabolites. RESULTS--Mean (SEM) urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 2.16 (0.42) pmol/ml urine among the 44 occupationally exposed workers compared with 0.38 (0.05) among the 40 workers with no or low exposure (P < 0.0001). Mean urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 1.82 (0.41) pmol/ml urine among the 44 current smokers compared with 0.75 (0.20) among the 40 non-smokers (P < 0.005). Mean 1-OHPG concentrations in non-smokers were 0.26 (n = 20), 0.70 (n = 15), and 2.84 pmol/ml urine (n = 5) for strata of exposure to PAHs (no or low, mid, and high) based on job category; the corresponding values in smokers were 0.55 (n = 20), 0.94 (n = 12), and 4.91 pmol/ml (n = 12), respectively. Multiple linear regression showed significant differences between subjects in different PAH exposure with increased concentrations of 1-OHPG in urine. Amounts of foods containing PAHs ingested by this group of workers were relatively low and did not contribute significantly to urinary 1-OHPG concentrations. CONCLUSIONS--These results indicate that 1-OHPG is a common urinary metabolite in people with recent occupational exposure to PAHs and is associated with both job category and estimated stratum of PAH exposure.

Kang, D; Rothman, N; Cho, S H; Lim, H S; Kwon, H J; Kim, S M; Schwartz, B; Strickland, P T



Lead and cadmium concentrations in livestock bred in campania, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the various aspects of environmental pollution, special attention must be directed to heavy metals, which show a remarkable tendency to accumulate in tissues and organs of animals and humans. Particularly, lead and cadmium are of great concern when one considers that the variety of their uses has increased their level in the environment and that they have been identified

Renata Amodio-Cocchieri; Patrizio Fiore



Lead and cadmium concentrations in livestock bred in Campania, Italy  

SciTech Connect

Among the various aspects of environmental pollution, special attention must be directed to heavy metals, which show a remarkable tendency to accumulate in tissues and organs of animals and humans. Particularly, lead and cadmium are of great concern when one considers that the variety of their uses has increased their level in the environment and that they have been identified as the causes of several clinical problems. Since heavy metals may be used as indicators of industrial contamination, the Italian Ministry of Health started a research program concerning the lead and cadmium levels in meat, cow's milk and eggs produce by Italian livestock and in well water, and in local and industrial feeds tuffs employed in their breeding. This is the object of the present study carried out in the Campania province.

Amodio-Cocchieri, R.; Fiore, P.



Urine melanin  


Thormahlen's test; Melanin - urine ... A clean-catch urine sample is needed. ... this substance that it shows up in the urine. ... Normally, melanin is not present in urine. Normal value ranges may ... measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor ...


Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.



Lead Pellet Ingestion and Liver-Lead Concentrations in Upland Game Birds from Southern Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred twenty-three gizzards from upland game birds (chukar, Alectoris chukar; and common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) harvested by hunters in southern Ontario, Canada, were examined for lead pellet ingestion by manual examination of gizzard\\u000a contents and by radiography. Lead pellets were found to be ingested by chukars (6\\/76; 8%) and the common pheasant (16\\/47;\\u000a 34%). Further, 13% (17\\/129) of the bird

N. Kreager; B. C. Wainman; R. K. Jayasinghe; L. J. S. Tsuji



AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in AT1a receptor-deficient mice.  


It is well recognized that ANG II interacts with arginine vasopressin (AVP) to regulate water reabsorption and urine concentration in the kidney. The present study used ANG II type 1a (AT(1a)) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a(-/-)) mice to test the hypothesis that AT(1a) receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in the renal medulla. Eight groups of wild-type (WT) and Agtr1a(-/-) mice were treated with or without 24-h water deprivation and 1-desamino-8-d-AVP (DDAVP; 100 ng/h ip) for 2 wk or with losartan (10 mg/kg ip) during water deprivation. Under basal conditions, Agtr1a(-/-) mice had lower systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), greater than threefold higher 24-h urine excretion (WT mice: 1.3 ± 0.1 ml vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 5.9 ± 0.7 ml, P < 0.01), and markedly decreased urine osmolality (WT mice: 1,834 ± 86 mosM/kg vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 843 ± 170 mosM/kg, P < 0.01), without significant changes in 24-h urinary Na(+) excretion. These responses in Agtr1a(-/-) mice were associated with lower basal plasma AVP (WT mice: 105 ± 8 pg/ml vs. Agtr1a(-/-) mice: 67 ± 6 pg/ml, P < 0.01) and decreases in total lysate and membrane aquaporin-2 (AQP2; 48.6 ± 7% of WT mice, P < 0.001) and adenylyl cyclase isoform III (55.6 ± 8% of WT mice, P < 0.01) proteins. Although 24-h water deprivation increased plasma AVP to the same levels in both strains, 24-h urine excretion was still higher, whereas urine osmolality remained lower, in Agtr1a(-/-) mice (P < 0.01). Water deprivation increased total lysate AQP2 proteins in the inner medulla but had no effect on adenylyl cyclase III, phosphorylated MAPK ERK1/2, and membrane AQP2 proteins in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Furthermore, infusion of DDAVP for 2 wk was unable to correct the urine-concentrating defects in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that AT(1a) receptor-mediated ANG II signaling is required to maintain tonic AVP release and regulate V(2) receptor-mediated responses to water deprivation in the inner medulla. PMID:22739536

Li, Xiao C; Shao, Yuan; Zhuo, Jia L



AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in AT1a receptor-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

It is well recognized that ANG II interacts with arginine vasopressin (AVP) to regulate water reabsorption and urine concentration in the kidney. The present study used ANG II type 1a (AT1a) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a?/?) mice to test the hypothesis that AT1a receptor signaling is required for basal and water deprivation-induced urine concentration in the renal medulla. Eight groups of wild-type (WT) and Agtr1a?/? mice were treated with or without 24-h water deprivation and 1-desamino-8-d-AVP (DDAVP; 100 ng/h ip) for 2 wk or with losartan (10 mg/kg ip) during water deprivation. Under basal conditions, Agtr1a?/? mice had lower systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), greater than threefold higher 24-h urine excretion (WT mice: 1.3 ± 0.1 ml vs. Agtr1a?/? mice: 5.9 ± 0.7 ml, P < 0.01), and markedly decreased urine osmolality (WT mice: 1,834 ± 86 mosM/kg vs. Agtr1a?/? mice: 843 ± 170 mosM/kg, P < 0.01), without significant changes in 24-h urinary Na+ excretion. These responses in Agtr1a?/? mice were associated with lower basal plasma AVP (WT mice: 105 ± 8 pg/ml vs. Agtr1a?/? mice: 67 ± 6 pg/ml, P < 0.01) and decreases in total lysate and membrane aquaporin-2 (AQP2; 48.6 ± 7% of WT mice, P < 0.001) and adenylyl cyclase isoform III (55.6 ± 8% of WT mice, P < 0.01) proteins. Although 24-h water deprivation increased plasma AVP to the same levels in both strains, 24-h urine excretion was still higher, whereas urine osmolality remained lower, in Agtr1a?/? mice (P < 0.01). Water deprivation increased total lysate AQP2 proteins in the inner medulla but had no effect on adenylyl cyclase III, phosphorylated MAPK ERK1/2, and membrane AQP2 proteins in Agtr1a?/? mice. Furthermore, infusion of DDAVP for 2 wk was unable to correct the urine-concentrating defects in Agtr1a?/? mice. These results demonstrate that AT1a receptor-mediated ANG II signaling is required to maintain tonic AVP release and regulate V2 receptor-mediated responses to water deprivation in the inner medulla.

Li, Xiao C.; Shao, Yuan




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the process of elimination of creatinine (CRE), and the limitations presented when using it to express urine concentrations. This literature review leads to three conclusions: (1) CRE excretion is subject to wide fluctuations due to specific internal and external factors; (2) the use of CRE to correct chemical concentrations in urine will not necessarily improve the correlation

Mark Frederick Boeniger; Larry K. Lowry; Jon Rosenberg



Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.



Indices of potential lead hazard.  

PubMed Central

This review is concerned with the concentrations of lead in human whole blood, erythrocytes, plasma, serum, soft tissues, bone, and urine. The extent to which redistribution of some of the bound lead occurs is outlines. The effects of lead on enzyme activities and on the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in the blood and urine are described. A brief section deals with the range of signs and symptoms that can occur and differences seen between symptomatic children and adults.

Posner, H S



Lead concentrations in bullfrog Rana catesbeiana and green frog R. clamitans tadpoles inhabiting highway drainages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead concentrations were determined in sediment and tadpoles of bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana and green frogs R. clamitans from drainages along highways with different daily average traffic volumes (range, 4272 to I08,800 vehicles day-I) and from ponds >0.4 km from the nearest highway. Lead concentrations (mg kg--I dry weight) in sediment (7-8 to 940) were usually greater (4-5 times) than those in the tadpoles (bullfrog, 0,07 to 270; green frog, 0,90 to 240 mg kg-I). Lead concentrations in sediment (r =0.63) and in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = 0.69; green frog, r = 0.57) were positively correlated with average daily traffic volume. Lead concentrations in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = (). 76: green frog, r = 0.75) were also positively correlated with lead concentrations in sediment. At sites where both bullfrog and green frog tadpoles were collected. lead concentrations in the two species were closely related (r = 0.84). Lead concentrations in tadpoles living near highways may contribute to the elevated lead levels reported in wildlife that are potential tadpole predators. Dietary lead concentrations similar to those in our tadpoles have been associated with physiological and reproductive effects in some species of birds and mammals. However, additional data are needed to determine the hazards to predators of lead concentrations in tadpoles.

Birdsall, C.W.; Grue, C.E.; Anderson, A.



Lead Concentrations in Ruffed Grouse, Rock Ptarmigan, and Willow Ptarmiganin Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1996 and 1998, ruffed grouse, spruce grouse, willow ptarmigan, and rock ptarmigan harvested by hunters in Québec were examined for lead contamination. On examination of the gizzards of these birds, lead shot was found only in ruffed grouse (1.2%). The probability of ingestion of lead shot by grouse and ptarmigans is low. Analyses of the lead concentrations in the

J. Rodrigue; R. McNicoll; D. Leclair; J.-F Duchesne



Urinating more at night  


... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...


Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific evidenced by lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in surface waters and aerosols.  


Recent trends of atmospheric lead deposition to the North Pacific were investigated with analyses of lead in aerosols and surface waters collected on the fourth Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Contaminant Baseline Survey from May to June, 2002. Lead concentrations of the aerosols varied by 2 orders of magnitude (0.1-26.4 pmol/m(3)) due in part to variations in dust deposition during the cruise. The ranges in lead aerosol enrichment factors relative to iron (1-119) and aluminum (3-168) were similar, evidencing the transport of Asian industrial lead aerosols across the North Pacific. The oceanic deposition of some of those aerosols was substantiated by the gradient of lead concentrations of North Pacific waters, which varied 3-fold (32.7-103.5 pmol/kg), were highest along with the Asian margin of the basin, and decreased eastward. The hypothesized predominance of Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific was further corroborated by the lead isotopic composition of ocean surface waters ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.157-1.169; (208)Pb/(206)Pb = 2.093-2.118), which fell within the range of isotopic ratios reported in Asian aerosols that are primarily attributed to Chinese industrial lead emissions. PMID:22007971

Gallon, Céline; Ranville, Mara A; Conaway, Christopher H; Landing, William M; Buck, Clifton S; Morton, Peter L; Flegal, A Russell



Feather lead concentrations and (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus).  


Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only approximately 10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant of population health, our findings should increase the understanding of population-level effects from lead poisoning in condors; this information may also be helpful for other avian species potentially impacted by lead poisoning. PMID:20199067

Finkelstein, M E; George, D; Scherbinski, S; Gwiazda, R; Johnson, M; Burnett, J; Brandt, J; Lawrey, S; Pessier, A P; Clark, M; Wynne, J; Grantham, J; Smith, D R



Porphyrins - urine  


Porphyrins help form many important substances in the body including hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins can be found in urine. A urine porphyrins ...


Urine Metanephrines  


... Urine Metanephrines, Total and Fractionated Related tests: Catecholamines , Plasma Free Metanephrines , VMA At a Glance Test Sample ... be ordered by itself or along with a plasma metanephrines test . Plasma and urine catecholamines testing may ...


Vitreous Fluid and/or Urine Glucose Concentrations in 1,335 Civil Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For aviation accident investigations at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI), vitreous fluid and urine samples from pilot fatalities are analyzed for glucose, and in those cases wherein glucose levels are elevated, blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is ...

A. K. Chaturvedi D. V. Canfield E. M. Forster S. R. Botch



Intellectual Impairment in Children with Blood Lead Concentrations below 10 ug per Deciliter  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Despite dramatic declines in children’s blood lead concentrations and a lowering of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s level of concern to 10 µg per deciliter (0.483 µmol per liter), little is known about children’s neurobehavioral functioning at lead concentrations below this level. METHODS We measured blood lead concentrations in 172 children at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months of age and administered the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale at the ages of 3 and 5 years. The relation between IQ and blood lead concentration was estimated with the use of linear and nonlinear mixed models, with adjustment for maternal IQ, quality of the home environment, and other potential confounders. RESULTS The blood lead concentration was inversely and significantly associated with IQ. In the linear model, each increase of 10 µg per deciliter in the lifetime average blood lead concentration was associated with a 4.6-point decrease in IQ (P=0.004), whereas for the subsample of 101 children whose maximal lead concentrations remained below 10 µg per deciliter, the change in IQ associated with a given change in lead concentration was greater. When estimated in a nonlinear model with the full sample, IQ declined by 7.4 points as lifetime average blood lead concentrations increased from 1 to 10 µg per deciliter. CONCLUSIONS Blood lead concentrations, even those below 10 µg per deciliter, are inversely associated with children’s IQ scores at three and five years of age, and associated declines in IQ are greater at these concentrations than at higher concentrations. These findings suggest that more U.S. children may be adversely affected by environmental lead than previously estimated.

Canfield, Richard L.; Henderson, Charles R.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Cox, Christopher; Jusko, Todd A.; Lanphear, Bruce P.



Effect of pH, Temperature, and Lead Concentration on the Bioremoval of Lead from Water Using Lemna Minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the ability of the aquatic plant Lemna minor (duckweed) to remove soluble lead under various laboratory conditions. In a batch process L. minor was exposed to different pH values (4.5–8.0) and temperature (15–35°C) in presence of different lead concentrations (0.1–10.0 mg L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period on a dry

Ya?mur Uysal; Fadime Taner



Concentrations of phenol, o-cresol, and 2,5-xylenol in the urine of workers employed in the distillation of the phenolic fraction of tar.  

PubMed Central

Phenol (87.3 mg/l), p-cresol (58.6 mg/l), o-cresol (76.9 mg/l), and 2,5-xylenol (36.7 mg/l) were detected in the urine of workers employed in the distillation of the high temperature phenolic fraction of tar (carbolic oil). The concentrations of these compounds in the urine of non-exposed male workers was 11.7 mg/l, 25.7 mg/l, 68.1 micrograms/l, and 69 micrograms/l respectively. The excretion rates were 4.20 mg/h for phenol, 2.4 mg/h for p-cresol, 3.3 mg/h for o-cresol; and 1.5 mg/h for 2,5-xylenol. The highest concentrations of the mentioned compounds were detected in urine collected between eight and 10 hours from the beginning of exposure. The kinetics of excretion are considered.

Bieniek, G



Effect of a satiating meal on the concentrations of procolipase propeptide in the serum and urine of normal and morbidly obese subjects.  

PubMed Central

The effect of a satiating meal on the serum and urinary concentrations of procolipase propeptide (Ala-Pro-Gly-Pro-Arg, APGPR) immunoreactivity, as measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for free APGPR, has been studied in normal and morbidly obese human subjects. The normal subjects displayed a biphasic response with coordinate increases in both serum and urine APGPR immunoreactivity both occurring within the first two hours after the meal. In two of three of the morbidly obese subjects, this early rise in APGPR concentration in urine was not seen but was followed by a slow rise in urinary APGPR immunoreactivity at four to six hours. In both the normal and obese groups, the urinary immunoreactive signal was found to coelute with synthetic APGPR on gel chromatography. In rats, procolipase propeptide (Val-Pro-Asp-Pro-Arg, VPDPR) specifically inhibits fat intake early in the postprandial period when given peripherally or centrally. This study suggests that in humans APGPR reaches the circulation shortly after feeding and is excreted in the urine. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that human procolipase propeptide may also act as a satiety signal. In addition the late appearance of the peptide in some of the morbidly obese patients could be associated with perturbation of appetite control in these subjects.

Bowyer, R C; Rowston, W M; Jehanli, A M; Lacey, J H; Hermon-Taylor, J



Feather lead concentrations and207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ???10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

Finkelstein, M. E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gwiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, A. P.; Clark, M.; Wynne, J.; Grantham, And, J.; Smith, D. R.



Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices  

SciTech Connect

Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Lead and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.

Umoren, J.; Kies, C.



Urine Pretreat Injection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.



Association of Prenatal and Childhood Blood Lead Concentrations with Criminal Arrests in Early Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChildhood lead exposure is a purported risk factor for antisocial behavior, but prior studies either relied on indirect measures of exposure or did not follow participants into adulthood to examine the relationship between lead exposure and criminal activity in young adults. The objective of this study was to determine if prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations are associated with arrests

John Paul Wright; Kim N. Dietrich; M. Douglas Ris; Richard W. Hornung; Stephanie D. Wessel; Bruce P. Lanphear; Mona Ho; Mary N. Rae



Lead concentration in breast milk of lactating women who were living in Tehran, Iran.  


It is obvious that lead intake is of concern not for its beneficial/essential effects on metabolism, but rather for its toxic actions, which can be especially damaging to children. The objective of this study was to analyze the concentration of lead in milk of mothers during prolonged lactation. Milk samples from 43 mothers were collected at 2 months postpartum. Lead was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The value of lead in human milk was 23.66±22.43 ?g/l. Lead concentration in human milk of mothers was higher than other countries and no significant relationship was found between levels of human milk lead and mother's education, age, parity, height and weight. The concentrations of lead in the milk samples were high, which makes a major public health hazard for the inhabitants, especially neonatal and children, of the industrial locations. PMID:24658989

Soleimani, Sedigheh; Shahverdy, Mohammad Reza; Mazhari, Najmeh; Abdi, Khosrou; Gerayesh Nejad, Siavash; Shams, Sedigheh; Alebooyeh, Elham; Khaghani, Shahnaz



Tissue Lead Concentration During Chronic Exposure of Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow) to Lead Nitrate in Aquarium Water  

PubMed Central

The fathead minnow is a useful species for evaluating the toxicity of wastewater effluents. While this fish is widely used for “survival” studies of metal toxicity, little or no work has been done on the tissue distribution of metals in fathead minnows. To determine the distribution of tissue lead, aquarium studies were conducted for several weeks with fish maintained in soft synthetic freshwater. Lead II nitrate was added to 3 aquaria attaining concentrations of 20 - 30 ppb (aquarium B); 100 - 140 ppb (aquarium C); and roughly 200 ppb (aquarium D). Results were compared to controls (aquarium A). During the initial week, the majority of aquarium D fish died, whereas few deaths occurred in the other groups. Lead accumulation was dose- and tissue-dependent, with highest uptake by the gills. Gill concentrations of aquarium D fish averaged about four-fold higher than in skeleton or skin and muscle. In vitro, lead (2.5 to 25 ppm) caused dose-dependent reductions in the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in gills incubated in physiological buffer. These findings demonstrate that fathead minnow gills bind and accumulate waterborne lead rapidly and preferentially, and raise the possibility that gill lipid peroxidation contributes to lead toxicity at low water hardness.

Spokas, Eric G.; Spur, Bernd W.; Smith, Holly; Kemp, Francis W.; Bogden, John D.



The Soluble Receptor for Vitamin B12 Uptake (sCD320) Increases during Pregnancy and Occurs in Higher Concentration in Urine than in Serum  

PubMed Central

Background Cellular uptake of vitamin B12 (B12) demands binding of the vitamin to transcobalamin (TC) and recognition of TC-B12 (holoTC) by the receptor CD320, a receptor expressed in high quantities on human placenta. We have identified a soluble form of CD320 (sCD320) in serum and here we present data on the occurrence of this soluble receptor in both serum and urine during pregnancy. Methods We examined serum from twenty-seven pregnant women (cohort 1) at gestational weeks 13, 24 and 36 and serum and urine samples from forty pregnant women (cohort 2) tested up to 8 times during gestational weeks 17-41. sCD320, holoTC, total TC and complex formation between holoTC and sCD320 were measured by in-house ELISA methods, while creatinine was measured on the automatic platform Cobas 6000. Size exclusion chromatography was performed on a Superdex 200 column. Results Median (range) of serum sCD320 increased from 125 (87-839) pmol/L (week 15) to reach a peak value of 199 (72-672) pmol/L (week 35) then dropped back to its baseline level just before birth (week 40). Around one third of sCD320 was precipitated with holoTC at all-time points studied. The urinary concentration of sCD320 was around two fold higher than in serum. Urinary sCD320/creatinine ratio correlated with serum sCD320 and reached a peak median level of 53 (30–101) pmol/mmol creatinine (week 35). sCD320 present in serum and urine showed the same elution pattern upon size exclusion chromatography. Conclusion We report for the first time that sCD320 is present in urine and in a higher concentration than in serum and that serum and urine sCD320 increase during pregnancy. The high urinary concentration and the strong correlation between urinary and serum sCD320 suggests that sCD320 is filtered in the kidney.

Abuyaman, Omar; Andreasen, Birgitte H.; Kronborg, Camilla; Vittinghus, Erik; Nexo, Ebba



Lead concentrations and isotopic signatures in vintages of French wine between 1950 and 1991  

SciTech Connect

Vintages of French wine from 1950 to 1991 were analyzed for lead isotopes and concentration to investigate whether they might be used to archive the isotopic composition of the anthropogenic lead in aerosols to which the vineyard was exposed. Early vintages (1950--1980) contained 78--227 ng/g of lead with {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios between 1.152 and 1.173, while the later vintages displayed significantly lower concentrations and a smaller range of isotopic ratios. The concentration of trimethyl lead, which is associated with automobile emissions, was found to be poorly correlated with total lead in the wines, suggesting that automobile aerosols were not a significant source of the lead. This result was supported by lead isotope data which showed a poor correlation with the available petrol and aerosol data. To identify its origin lead isotopes were measured in vineyard aerosols, soil particles, bottle caps, corks, and brass components used to dispense the wine. Although a dominant source could not be identified there was some evidence to suggest that brass which had a high lead concentration was a significant contributor. Because the lead contribution from the processing of wine was probably relatively high in the past it is unlikely that old vintages of wine will be a suitable archive for lead isotopes in aerosols.

Rosman, K.J.R.; Chisholm, W.; Jimi, S. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)] [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Candelone, J.P. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)] [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); [Domaine Univ., Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l`Environnement; Boutron, C.F. [Domaine Univ., Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l`Environnement] [Domaine Univ., Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l`Environnement; [Univ. Joseph Fourier de Grenoble (France); Teissedre, P.L. [Univ. Montpellier (France). Centre de Formation et de Recherche] [Univ. Montpellier (France). Centre de Formation et de Recherche; Adams, F.C. [Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry



Lead concentrations and isotopic signatures in vintages of French wine between 1950 and 1991.  


Vintages of French wine from 1950 to 1991 were analyzed for lead isotopes and concentrations to investigate whether they might be used to archive the isotopic composition of the anthropogenic lead in aerosols to which the vineyard was exposed. Early vintages (1950-1980) contained 78-227 ng/g of lead with 206Pb/207Pb ratios between 1.152 and 1.173, while the later vintages displayed significantly lower concentrations and a smaller range of isotopic ratios. The concentration of trimethyl lead, which is associated with automobile emissions, was found to be poorly correlated with total lead in the wines, suggesting that automobile aerosols were not a significant source of the lead. This result was supported by lead isotope data which showed a poor correlation with the available petrol and aerosol data. To identify its origin lead isotopes were measured in vineyard aerosols, soil particles, bottle caps, corks, and brass components used to dispense the wine. Although a dominant source could not be identified there was some evidence to suggest that brass which had a high lead concentration was a significant contributor. Because the lead contribution from the processing of wine was probably relatively high in the past it is unlikely that old vintages of wine will be a suitable archive for lead isotopes in aerosols. PMID:9719620

Rosman, K J; Chisholm, W; Jimi, S; Candelone, J P; Boutron, C F; Teissedre, P L; Adams, F C



Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio.  


The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The 206Pb/207Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level. PMID:16165188

Wang, Wan; Liu, Xiande; Zhao, Liwei; Guo, Dongfa; Tian, Xiaodan; Adams, Freddy



Elevated soil lead concentrations in residential yards in Appleton, WI, a small Midwestern city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated soil lead concentrations are well documented in large urban areas, having been attributed to a combination of leaded-paint, leaded-gasoline, and industrial emissions. Fewer studies, however, have been conducted in smaller communities. We analyzed 200 surface soils in the neighborhood near Lawrence University’s campus in Appleton, WI (population ~70,000). Like many larger cities Appleton has a historic city-center. However, it is has no high-density housing or commercial districts and has not seen heavy traffic. The socioeconomic pressures that lead to disrepair of inner city neighborhoods have been less prevalent here as well. At each property 3 integrated samples were taken, one adjacent to the front of the house, one in the front lawn, and one between the road and sidewalk. We correlated building and property traits (e.g. structure age, distance from road, exterior type, exterior condition, direction of exposure, and assessed home value) with soil lead concentrations determined by XRF and subsequently, mapped these data for geospatial patterns. Soil lead concentrations in the city park and campus greens were typically less than 100 ppm. The highest lead concentrations are close to campus, which has a number of civil war era buildings and homes. High lead concentrations (averaging over 1,000 ppm near the home, with concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm) were associated with aging, poorly maintained structures as expected. However, a number of well-maintained structures also show substantially elevated concentrations. These soil lead concentrations are not dissimilar to those found in much larger cities such as New Orleans, Milwaukee, and Chicago. Lead levels dropped quickly as distance from the house increased suggesting that the contamination is from lead paint and not from gasoline exhaust. Furthermore, samples taken adjacent to the main arterial through town exhibited relatively low, but slightly elevated lead levels (~250 ppm). Not surprisingly, these concentrations are in line with those typically found in suburban settings, rather than urban settings. Studying the nature and distribution of soil lead contamination in a smaller city such as Appleton will allow for a better understanding of the public health risks in this and similar cities. Additionally, with fewer likely contributors to soil lead contamination, this study allows a clearer connection to be drawn between one primary factor, paint, and the distribution of soil lead.

Clark, J. J.; Knudsen, A. C.



Urine Tests (For Parents)  


... If either the urine dipstick test or the microscopic test shows white blood cells, red blood cells, ... ON THIS TOPIC Urine Test: Calcium Urine Test: Protein Urine Test: Routine Culture Urine Test: Creatinine Urine ...


Seasonal variations of lead concentration and loading rates in residential house dust in northern Idaho.  


Although lead hazards to humans have been known since ancient times and many regulatory actions and lead risk reductions have been achieved over the past century, lead contamination and exposure remain significant problems worldwide. The focus of this study was to investigate whether residential house dust lead concentrations and lead and dust loading rates in non-contaminated or "background" communities in northern Idaho are significantly affected by seasonal variations. House dust samples were obtained from 34 houses in five towns of northern Idaho from March to November 1999. There was evidence of significant seasonality of lead concentration in house dust in some towns, but no evidence in other towns. Because of the high variability between the towns and small sample sizes, it was difficult to make firm conclusions about seasonal patterns observed in house dust lead levels. A linear relationship between precipitation rates and dust loading rates was detected. PMID:16442226

Petrosyan, Varduhi; von Braun, Margrit C; Spalinger, Susan M; von Lindern, Ian H



The behaviour of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during struvite precipitation in urine.  


Separating urine from wastewater at the source reduces the costs of extensive wastewater treatment. Recovering the nutrients from urine and reusing them for agricultural purposes adds resource saving to the benefits. Phosphate can be recovered in the form of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate). In this paper, the behaviour of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during the precipitation of struvite in urine is studied. When precipitating struvite in urine spiked with hormones and non-ionic, acidic and basic pharmaceuticals, the hormones and pharmaceuticals remain in solution for more than 98%. For heavy metals, initial experiments were performed to study metal solubility in urine. Solubility is shown to be affected by the chemical conditions of stored and therefore hydrolysed urine. Thermodynamic modelling reveals low or very low equilibrium solute concentrations for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). Experiments confirmed Cd, Cu and Pb carbonate and hydroxide precipitation upon metal addition in stored urine with a reaction half-life of ca. 7 days. For all metals considered, the maximum specific metal concentrations per gram phosphate or nitrogen showed to be typically several orders of magnitudes lower in urine than in commercially available fertilizers and manure. Heavy metals in struvite precipitated from normal stored urine could not be detected. Phosphate recovery from urine over struvite precipitation is shown to render a product free from most organic micropollutants and containing only a fraction of the already low amounts of heavy metals in urine. PMID:17368503

Ronteltap, Mariska; Maurer, Max; Gujer, Willi



An evaluation of the DRI-ETG EIA method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide concentrations in clinical and post-mortem urine.  


A commercial enzyme immunoassay for the qualitative and semi-quantitative measurement of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine was evaluated. Post-mortem (n=800), and clinical urine (n=200) samples were assayed using a Hitachi 902 analyzer. The determined concentrations were compared with those obtained using a previously published liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of EtG and ethyl sulfate. Using a cut-off of 0.5?µg/ml and LC-MS/MS limit of reporting of 0.1?µg/ml, there was a sensitivity of 60.8% and a specificity of 100% for clinical samples. For post-mortem samples, sensitivity and specificity were 82.4% and 97.1%, respectively. When reducing the cut-off to 0.1?µg/ml, the sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 100% for clinical samples whereas for post-mortem samples the sensitivity and specificity were 90.3 % and 88.3 %, respectively. The best trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity for LC-MS/MS limits of reporting of 0.5 and 0.1?µg/ml were achieved when using immunoassay cut-offs of 0.3 and 0.092?µg/ml, respectively. There was good correlation between quantitative results obtained by both methods but analysis of samples by LC-MS/MS gave higher concentrations than by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), with a statistically significant proportional bias (P<0.0001, Deming regression) for both sample types. The immunoassay is reliable for the qualitative and semi-quantitative presumptive detection of ethyl glucuronide in urine. PMID:22374825

Turfus, Sophie C; Vo, Tu; Niehaus, Nadia; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Beyer, Jochen



Monitoring of lead acid batteries Continuous measurement of the acid concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new sensor will be presented, detecting concentration and temperature inside of lead acid batteries. Inserted into battery-management-systems like for example badicheq, the unit is able to indicate the state of charge under almost any circumstances. It is important to know the state of charge of a lead acid battery and it is easy to detect by measuring the acid

Martina Morbel; Hans-Joachim Kohnke; Joachim Helmke



Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element.

Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen



Lead Concentration in Human Bone Measured via X-Ray Fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead is a naturally occurring element found throughout our environment. Once ingested, lead can present itself in our blood and bone. Lead has been known to cause health problems for quite some time. The standard way to diagnose lead poisoning has been through serum blood levels. The advantage to bone lead measurements is that it gives information about long term exposure, since lead remains in the bone for a longer period of time than in the blood. The technique of x-ray fluorescence can be used to non-invasively measure bone lead levels in humans. By using a high energy photon one can excite a lead atom. When the atom de-excites it emits x-rays. These emitted x-rays are of specific energies linked to lead. Using a HPGe scintillator detector we can look for these energies to determine the presence and concentration of lead in bone. By comparing the coherent peak amplitude with the lead peak amplitudes we can determine the lead levels in parts per million (ppm) of bone mass. Our goal is to collect data from a wide variety of patient volunteers to get a common standard of the Ogden Valley. This standard can be used for comparison for possible future measurements of individuals with suspected lead poisoning. Preliminary results will be discussed in this presentation.

Smith, Ryan; Arnold, M.



Cotinine concentrations in amniotic fluid and urine of smoking, passive smoking and non-smoking pregnant women at term and in the urine of their neonates on 1st day of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotinine was measured in the amniotic fluid and urine of 31 pregnant women and in the urine of their offspring. Amniotic fluid cotinine was 8 times higher in active and 2.5 times higher in passive smokers than in non-smokers. In general, amniotic fluid cotinine was considerably higher than urinary cotinine both in active and in passive smokers. Estimation of cotinine

J. S. Jordanov; Dimiter Nestorov



Aviator's Urine Collection Devices: Preliminary Laboratory Trials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Female aircrew personnel identified a lack of adequate, gender- specific urine relief facilities and gender-specific urine collection devices in a previous naval aviation survey effort, Aircrew Modified Equipment Leading to Increased Accommodation (AMELIA...

B. E. Ortel D. G. Erickson J. L. Saxton T. L. Pokorski



Time-integrated blood lead concentration is a valid surrogate for estimating the cumulative lead dose assessed by tibial lead measurement  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of lead in tibia (Pb-T) was measured in vivo by a {sup 109}Cd K-shell X-ray fluorescence technique in 123 workers from a primary lead smelter (age: mean, 45 years; range, 30-61; duration of employment: mean, 20 years; range, 7-45). Their cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) was also calculated on the basis of the blood lead (Pb-B) records available from the company`s medical files. Geometric mean for Pb-T was 49 {mu}g Pb/g bone mineral (range, 15-167). The company`s health surveillance programs, implemented since 1945, resulted in Pb-B values which rarely exceeded 70 {mu}g Pb/dl whole blood. Pb-B at the time of Pb-T measurement averaged 31 {mu}g Pb/dl (range, 6-62) and the geometric mean for CBLI amounted to 803 {mu}g Pb/dl x year (range, 220-2130). Despite various assumptions and uncertainties inherent in the assessment of the cumulative lead dose through Pb-T measurement or CBLI calculation, the relation between both variables in the present lead smelter population is very strong (r{sub pearson}= 0.80, P <0.0001; age explained at the most 9.5% of the variance). The slope of the regression equation of log Pb-T vs log CBLI showed that a doubling of CBLI also corresponds to a doubling of Pb-t. It may be concluded that a sound calculation of CBLI represents a valid surrogate for estimating the life time integrated dose of lead as assessed by the measurement of cortical bone lead (e.g., in tibia). 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Roels, H.; Konings, J.; Lauwerys, R. [Medical School of the Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others] [Medical School of the Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); and others



Use of albumin creatinine ratio and urine albumin concentration as a screening test for albuminuria in an Indo-Asian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Albuminuria (>30 mg\\/day) based on 24 h urine albumin excretion is one of the criteria for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Differences in urine albumin concentra- tion and creatinine excretion rates between Indo-Asians and other populations may require different threshold values for detection of albuminuria. We compared the use of spot urine albumin

Tazeen H. Jafar; Nish Chaturvedi; Juanita Hatcher; Andrew S. Levey



Novel DFO-functionalized mesoporous silica for iron sensing. Part 2. Experimental detection of free iron concentration (pFe) in urine samples.  


Successful in vivo chelation treatment of iron(iii) overload pathologies requires that a significant fraction of the administered drug actually chelates the toxic metal. Increased mobilization of the iron(iii) in experiments on animals or humans, most often evaluated from urinary output, is usually used as an assessment tool for chelation therapy. Alternatively, the efficiency of a drug is estimated by calculating the complexing ability of a chelating agent towards Fe(iii). The latter is calculated by the pFe value, defined as the negative logarithm of the concentration of the free metal ion in a solution containing 10 ?M total ligand and 1 ?M total metal at a physiological pH of 7.4. In theory, pFe has to be calculated taking into account all the complexation equilibria involving the metal and the possible ligands. Nevertheless, complexation reactions in complex systems such as serum and urine may hardly be accurately modelled by computer software. The experimental determination of the bioavailable fraction of iron(iii) in biological fluids would therefore be of the utmost relevance in the clinical practice. The efficiency of the therapy could be more easily estimated as well as the course of overload pathologies. In this context, the aim of the present work was the development of a sensor to assess the free iron directly in biological fluids (urine) of patients under treatment with chelating agents. In the proposed device (DFO-MS), the strong iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) is immobilized on the MCM-41 mesoporous silica. The characterization of the iron(iii) sorption on DFO-MS was undertaken, firstly in 0.1 M KNO3, then directly in urine samples, in order to identify the sorption mechanism. The stoichiometry of the reaction in the solid phase was found to be: with an exchange constant (average value) of log??ex = 40(1). The application of DFO-MS to assess pFe in SPU (Simulating Pathology Urine) samples was also considered. The results obtained were very promising for a future validation and subsequent application of the sensor in samples of patients undergoing chelation therapy. PMID:24883429

Alberti, Giancarla; Emma, Giovanni; Colleoni, Roberta; Pesavento, Maria; Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Biesuz, Raffaela



Effects of lead chloride on human erythrocyte membranes and on kinetic anion sulphate and glutathione concentrations.  


Our study concerns the effects of exposure to lead chloride on the morphology, K(+) efflux, SO(4)(-) influx and GSH levels of the human erythrocyte. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes and washed three times. The cells were suspended at 3% hematocrit and incubated for 1 h at 25°C in a medium containing increasing concentrations of lead chloride (0, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 ?M). After incubation, the suspensions were centrifuged and the erythrocyte pellets were divided into three aliquots for testing. The results show: an increase in the permeability of erythrocytes treated with lead chloride with consequent damage and cellular death, especially in the presence of high concentrations; an increase in potassium ion efflux; alterations in the morphology and membrane structure of the red blood cells; and a decrease in sulphate uptake, due either to the oxidative effect of this compound on the band 3 protein, which loses its biological valence as a carrier of sulphate ions, or to a decrease in the ATP erythrocyte concentration. In conclusion, the exposure of erythrocytes to Pb(2+) ions leads to a reduction in the average lifetime of the erythrocytes and the subsequent development of anemia. These data are discussed in terms of the possible effect of lead on the reduction-oxidation systems of the cell. Oxidant agents, such as lead, are known to cross-link integral membrane proteins, leading to K/Cl-cotransport. The increased K(+) efflux affects the altered redox state. PMID:22941203

Gugliotta, Tiziana; De Luca, Grazia; Romano, Pietro; Rigano, Caterina; Scuteri, Adriana; Romano, Leonardo



Urine Preservative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)



Trends in lead concentrations in major U.S. rivers and their relation to historical changes in gasoline-lead consumption  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Declines in concentrations of dissolved lead occurred at nearly two-thirds of 306 locations on major U.S. rivers from 1974 to 1985. Declines in dissolved lead concentrations are statistically significant (p < 0.10) at approximately one-third of the sampling locations. Statistically significant increases in dissolved lead concentrations occurred at only 6 percent of the sites, but are clustered in the Texas-Gulf and Lower Mississippi region. Possible explanations for the observed trends in lead concentrations are tested through comparisons with (1) records of lead discharges from major sources including leaded-gasoline consumption and municipal- and industrial-point source discharges, (2) trends in various water-quality constituents such as pH and total alkalinity, and (3) basin characteristics such as drainage area. Statistically significant declines in lead concentrations in streams and gasoline lead (i.e., the largest source of lead at these sites) are highly coincident for the 1979 to 1980 period at most sampling locations. The greatest amount of decline in gasoline lead occurred at sites showing statistically significant downtrends in stream concentrations of lead from 1974 to 1985. No more than 5 percent of the trends in stream lead are influenced by municipal- and industrial-point sources of lead. Factors that affect the transport of dissolved lead, including lead solubility, suspended sediment, and basin characteristics such as drainage basin size, are not significantly related to trends in dissolved lead. Trends in streamflow explain no more than 7 percent of the downtrends in concentrations of lead and may partly explain the frequent increases in lead concentrations in the Texas-Gulf and Lower Mississippi regions.Declines in concentrations of dissolved lead occurred at nearly two-thirds of 306 locations on major US rivers from 1974 to 1985. Declines in dissolved lead concentrations are statistically significant at approximately one-third of the sampling locations. Statistically significant increases in dissolved lead concentrations occurred at only 6 percent of the sites, but are clustered in the Texas-Gulf and Lower Mississippi regions. Possible explanations for the observed trends in lead concentrations are tested through comparisons with records of lead discharges from major sources including leaded-gasoline consumption and municipal- and industrial-point source discharges, trends in various water-quality constituents such as pH and total alkalinity, and basin characteristics such as drainage area. Study results are discussed.

Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.



Trends in lead concentrations in major US rivers and their relation to historical changes in gasoline-lead consumption, by Richard B. Alexander and Richard A. Smith  

SciTech Connect

The sequential development of trace metal clean techniques has resulted in a systematic decrease in reported lead concentrations in the ocean. Similar decreases have been observed in reports of lead concentrations in fresh water. This was illustrated by the changes in reported baseline concentrations of lead in Lake Huron. However, even the latest (1980) of those concentrations (19 ng/L) appears to be erroneously high based on recent measurements of lead concentrations in the Great Lakes. Lead concentrations in surface waters in the center of Lake Ontario are < 2 ng/L or one order of magnitude lower than the reported baseline concentration of Lake Huron in 1980. Corresponding concentrations of lead in surface waters of Lake Huron should be equal to or less than those in Lake Ontario. Anthropogenic lead fluxes to Lake Huron (621 metric tons per year) and Lake Ontario (592 metric tons per year) are comparable, while the assimilative capacity of Lake Huron is two-fold greater than that of Lake Ontario. Moreover, the atmospheric flux of industrial lead aerosols to surface waters in Lake Huron is approximately one half of the flux in Lake Ontario. Therefore, if removal rates are similar in these two lakes, the authors expect the baseline concentration of lead in Lake Huron to be {le} 2 ng/L or one order of magnitude lower than the 1980 baseline concentration. Concentrations in remote fresh water systems in North America, where inputs of industrial lead aerosols are orders of magnitude lower should also be < 2 ng/L. The preceding measurements and projected concentrations of lead in fresh water systems in North America are of note in light of some recent reports on the decrease of lead in natural waters within the US. Those reports are questionable, in spite of other reports of decreasing lead concentrations in the Mississippi River and North Atlantic.

Flegal, A.R. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (United States)); Coale, K.H. (Moss Landing Marine Lab., CA (United States))



Variability of urine albumin excretion in normal and diabetic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of urine albumin excretion (UAE) was studied in normal and diabetic children and, in addition, the best method of expressing the data was investigated. In 39 timed overnight urine samples from diabetic children, the urine albumin creatinine clearance ratio (CA\\/CC) was compared with the urine albumin creatinine concentration ratio (UA\\/UC), the urine albumin excretion rate (UAER) and the

Diana M. Gibb; Vanita Shah; Michael Preece; T. Martin Barratt



Application of lead and strontium isotope ratio measurements for the origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates.  


Lead and strontium isotope ratios were used for the origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates (yellow cakes) for nuclear forensic purposes. A simple and low-background sample preparation method was developed for the simultaneous separation of the analytes followed by the measurement of the isotope ratios by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The lead isotopic composition of the ore concentrates suggests applicability for the verification of the source of the nuclear material and by the use of the radiogenic (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratio the age of the raw ore material can be calculated. However, during data interpretation, the relatively high variation of the lead isotopic composition within the mine site and the generally high contribution of natural lead as technological contamination have to be carefully taken into account. The (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratio is less prone to the variation within one mine site and less affected by the production process, thus it was found to be a more purposeful indicator for the origin assessment and source verification than the lead. The lead and strontium isotope ratios measured and the methodology developed provide information on the initial raw uranium ore used, and thus they can be used for source attribution of the uranium ore concentrates. PMID:19824713

Varga, Zsolt; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus; Keegan, Elizabeth; Millet, Sylvain



Unique pattern of molt leads to low intraindividual variation in feather mercury concentrations in penguins.  


The authors hypothesized that the catastrophic annual molt of penguins (Sphenisciformes) would lead to reduced intraindividual variation of mercury concentrations in body feathers. While mean mercury concentrations varied significantly among 8 penguin species, intraindividual variability did not differ among species and was 3 times lower than values observed in other seabirds. The findings of the present study suggest that a single body feather collected at random per individual can be adequate to estimate mercury exposure at the population level in penguins. PMID:23761066

Brasso, Rebecka L; Drummond, Bridgette E; Borrett, Stuart R; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J; Rey, Andrea Raya



75 FR 76336 - Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General Aviation Airport AGENCY: Environmental...revisions, EPA proposed requiring monitoring near general aviation airports estimated to...a study of ambient lead concentrations near a general aviation airport which may...



Development of a method for the determination of bisphenol A at trace concentrations in human blood and urine and elucidation of factors influencing method accuracy and sensitivity.  


Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used to make polymers including some used in food contact applications. Virtually complete presystemic clearance of orally administered BPA occurs in humans by metabolism to BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G), but some biomonitoring studies report low concentrations of free (parent) BPA in human blood and urine. Trace contamination of BPA from exogenous sources or hydrolysis of BPA-G to free BPA, either during or after biomonitoring specimen collection, may have contributed to the reported concentrations of free BPA. An analytical method for the determination of free BPA in human blood and urine was developed and validated in two independent laboratories, using the latest generation of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation to ensure the desired high sensitivity and selectivity. The method was designed to account for and/or eliminate background contamination from all sources and demonstrated that contamination could occur from devices used for specimen collection or storage, as well as other sources. The method employed an internal standard (BPA-d(8)) and demonstrated accuracy and reproducibility in both matrices fortified with BPA or a surrogate analyte ((13)C-BPA) at a low quantitation limit (0.1-0.2 ng/mL). For validation, five replicate samples were analyzed to evaluate reproducibility. Importantly, it was demonstrated that the conditions of the method did not result in the hydrolysis of BPA-G to free BPA, another possible source of error in BPA analysis. Application of the principles defined by this method will be critical to assure valid analytical results in any future biomonitoring studies. PMID:20663281

Markham, Dan Alan; Waechter, John M; Wimber, Martina; Rao, Narayana; Connolly, Paul; Chuang, Jane Chen; Hentges, Steven; Shiotsuka, Ronald N; Dimond, Stephen; Chappelle, Anne H



Significance of concentrations of lead, cadmium, and iron in the plumage of the feral pigeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead, cadmium, and iron contamination was examined in the plumage of feral pigeons. Metal contamination in pigeons from different regions in Bratislava or in different seasons did not differ significantly; seasonal type of food did not significantly influence the concentrations. The blood of birds was examined for the presence of complement fixing antibodies toChlamydia psittaci. Birds with antibodies did not

Marifin Janiga; Blanka Mafikovskfi; Monika Bobal'ová; Gabriela ?ur?ová



Aflatoxin B1 albumin adducts in plasma and aflatoxin M1 in urine are associated with plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E  

PubMed Central

Background Although aflatoxin exposure has been shown to be associated with micronutrient deficiency in animals, there are few investigations on the effects of aflatoxin exposure on micronutrient metabolism in humans. Objective To examine the relationship between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in plasma and the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) metabolite in urine and plasma concentrations of retinol (vitamin A) and ?-tocopherol (vitamin E) in Ghanaians. Methods A cross-sectional study of 147 adult participants was conducted. Blood and urine samples were tested for aflatoxin and vitamins A and E levels. Results Multivariable analysis showed that participants with high AF-ALB (? 0.80 pmol/mg albumin) had increased odds of having vitamin A deficiency compared to those with lower AF-ALB [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61; CI = 1.03 – 6.58; p=0.04]. Participants with high AF-ALB also showed increased odds of having vitamin E deficiency but this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.4; CI = 0.96–6.05; p = 0.06). Conversely, those with higher AFM1 values had a statistically nonsignificant reduced odds of having vitamin A deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 1.15–0.09; p=0.05) and statistically significant reduced odds of having vitamin E deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 0.10 – 0.97; p = 0.04). Participants with high AF-ALB or high AFM1 (? 437.95 pg/dL creatinine) were almost 6 times more likely to be hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)- positive (OR = 5.88; CI = 1.71–20.14; p = 0.005) and (OR = 5.84; CI = 1.15–29.54; p = 0.03) respectively. Conclusions These data indicate that aflatoxin may modify plasma micronutrient status. Thus, preventing aflatoxin exposure may greatly reduce vitamins A and E deficiencies.

Obuseh, Francis A.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Jiang, Yi; Shuaib, Faisal M. B.; Waterbor, John; Ellis, William O.; Piyathilake, Chandrika J.; Desmond, Renee A.; Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans; Phillips, Timothy D.



Multiple Sclerosis Incidence Associated with the Soil Lead and Arsenic Concentrations in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies in the world have assessed the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) with soil heavy metal concentrations. We explored the association of soil heavy metal factors and the MS incidence in Taiwan. Methods There were 1240 new MS cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database and were verified with serious disabling disease certificates, 1997–2008. Soil heavy metal factors records included arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in Taiwan from 1986 to 2002. Spatial regression was used to reveal the association of soil heavy metals and age- and gender-standardized incidence ratios for townships by controlling sunlight exposure hours, smoking prevalence and spatial autocorrelation. Results The lead (Pb) concentration in the soil positively correlated with the township incidence; on the other hand, the arsenic (As) concentration in soil negatively correlated with the township incidence and when found together controlled each other. The positive correlation of lead (Pb) predominated in males, whereas the negative correlation of arsenic (As) in soil predominated in females. Conclusions We conclude that exposure to lead (Pb) in soil positive associated with incidence of MS in Taiwan, especially in males. Exposure to arsenic (As) in soil negative associated with MS in Taiwan, especially in females.



Relationship between blood lead concentrations and dietary lead intake in infants: The glasgow duplicate diet study 1979–1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979–1980 a duplicate diet study of 131 infants was carried out in Glasgow where the water was plumbosolvent and water lead levels were known to be often above 100 ?g\\/l. The main aim of the study was to establish the form of the relationship between water lead, dietary lead and blood lead in infants. The study was designed so

J. C. Sherlock; M. J. Quinn



Extremely high urine arsenic level after remote seafood ingestion.  


Urine testing for heavy metal concentrations is increasingly performed in the outpatient setting as a part of laboratory evaluation for neuropathy. Abnormal urine arsenic levels due to dietary intake of organic arsenic can lead to unnecessary chelation therapy. A 54-year-old man underwent a 24-hour urine collection for heavy metal concentrations in evaluation of paresthesia of the right foot. The total arsenic level was 8880 ?g/d with concentrations of 4749 ?g/L and 3769 ?g/g creatinine. He was urgently referred to the toxicology clinic for consideration of chelation therapy. History revealed consumption of 2 lobster tails 5 days before the testing. Speciation was then performed on the original urine specimen and revealed an organic arsenic concentration of 4332 ?g/L. No inorganic or methylated arsenic was detected. Repeat testing after abstaining from seafood demonstrated a total arsenic level of 50 ?g/d with concentrations of 30 ?g/L and 21 ?g/g creatinine. Our patient demonstrates the highest level of arsenobetaine reported in the literature, and this level is higher than expected for a person who had not consumed seafood for 5 days before testing. The high levels may be due to consumption of food that he did not recognize as containing arsenobetaine or that his clearance of arsenobetaine from the ingested lobster is slower than published ranges. This case demonstrates the importance of speciation when measuring urine arsenic levels to avoid unnecessary chelation therapy. PMID:22407195

Nańagas, Kristine A; Tormoehlen, Laura M



Investigation of Higher Than Standard Lead Concentrations in Drinking Water From Washington, D.C.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over two years, the Washington, D.C. area has been plagued by the incidence of alarming concentrations of lead found in local drinking water. During this period, water with lead concentration levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) action limit of 15 ppb has been found in approximately 66% of the homes tested. Because of the problems with lead in drinking water in the D.C. area, the EPA has begun the process of trying to determine whether or not this problem occurs nationwide by obtaining as much lead data as possible. However, it recently reported that no current information exists on lead levels from 78 percent of the nation's public drinking water systems, and that it has no data from as many as 20 states. In an effort to generate information that contributes to a greater understanding of the scope and nature of this real-world environmental health problem, we have begun collecting and performing lead analysis of drinking water samples from different parts of the country. As San Francisco Bay Area - based participants in the NSF-sponsored Environmental Science Information Technology Activities (ESITA) project, we began by establishing E-mail correspondence with children who attend elementary schools in the Washington, D.C. area two years ago, during the first year of the lead crisis. Since that time the elementary school children have sent over 150 water samples from their homes and schools, along with information on the locations from which the water samples were collected to the Bay Area. Upon receipt, we prepare and analyze these samples at UC Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science. Following analysis results are compiled, statistically analyzed, and used to create maps that aid in the interpretation of our data. The majority of samples collected from the D.C. area were obtained from schools and homes located in the central north-northeast section of the District. Of these samples, 72% contained lead in excess of the EPA action limit. Despite reports that lead levels have fallen significantly over the past year, 63% of all homes tested during the second year of our study still contained lead levels that exceed the EPA limit. In addition, drinking water collected from a well-used fountain at an elementary school site that a local government reported as lead free contained lead concentrations greater than 5 times the EPA action limit two years in a row. During the first year of our study, waters collected from this same fountain yielded values as high as 20 times the action limit! Our work over the past two years clearly shows that by working with students who attend schools in different parts of the country, we can contribute in a major way to the EPA's monitoring of lead levels in the country's drinking water. As a result, we intend to continue this work in the future, as well as continuing an investigation that includes the use of water delivery system models that enable us to assess how much water mains, service mains, and home piping systems contribute to the total lead concentrations measured in drinking water samples.

Adarkwah, N. E.; Ararso, I.; Garcia, N.; Goldman, A.; Lieu, C.; Mondragon, J.; Swamy, V.; Unigarro, M.; Cuff, K.





... Services U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ... for lead (Update). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Public Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. LEAD CAS # ...


Observations on the effect of parathyroid hormone on environmental blood lead concentrations in humans  

SciTech Connect

The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on blood lead (Pb) concentrations was observed preliminarily in three different situations. Of 342 healthy bus drivers with no unusual exposure to Pb, 25 drivers with the highest and 25 with the lowest blood Pb were compared for serum PTH concentrations. There was no association between blood Pb and serum PTH concentrations. Eight women with postmenopausal osteoporosis enrolled in an experimental protocol to increase bone mass received daily PTH (1-34 fragment) for 1 week, calcitonin for the next 2 weeks, and oral calcium for the subsequent 10 weeks. This cycle was repeated four times during the year. Initial blood Pb concentrations averaged 6.0 micrograms/dl (range 2.1-8.9). Mean blood Pb concentrations decreased by 1.7 micrograms/dl over 1 year of therapy. The confidence interval for this change excluded zero, the mean change was significantly different from the mean change for comparative population (P less than 0.050), and paired changes were statistically significant (P = 0.045). Lastly, a single subject with hyperparathyroid disease and no unusual exposures to lead demonstrated stabilized blood Pb concentrations that were 50% lower after removal of his hyperplastic parathyroid glands. These observations suggest that the effect of PTH on increasing bone turnover and releasing Pb into blood is not easily detected at low physiologic amounts of PTH, but that with pathologic increases of PTH in hyperparathyroid disease, elevation of blood Pb from bone or increased gastrointestinal absorption may be possible. Likewise, either bone building therapies (PTH + calcitonin + calcium) may move Pb from blood into bone or supplemental calcium may decrease Pb gastrointestinal absorption, thereby explaining the observed lower blood Pb concentrations.

Osterloh, J.D. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))



Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.  


A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies. PMID:3170866

Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H



Chloride - urine test  


The urine chloride test measures the amount of chloride in urine. ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested in the lab. If needed, the health care provider may ask you to collect your urine ...


Urine concentrating mechanism: impact of vascular and tubular architecture and a proposed descending limb urea-Na+ cotransporter  

PubMed Central

We extended a region-based mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney, previously developed by us, to represent new anatomic findings on the vascular architecture in the rat inner medulla (IM). In the outer medulla (OM), tubules and vessels are organized around tightly packed vascular bundles; in the IM, the organization is centered around collecting duct clusters. In particular, the model represents the separation of descending vasa recta from the descending limbs of loops of Henle, and the model represents a papillary segment of the descending thin limb that is water impermeable and highly urea permeable. Model results suggest that, despite the compartmentalization of IM blood flow, IM interstitial fluid composition is substantially more homogeneous compared with OM. We used the model to study medullary blood flow in antidiuresis and the effects of vascular countercurrent exchange. We also hypothesize that the terminal aquaporin-1 null segment of the long descending thin limbs may express a urea-Na+ or urea-Cl? cotransporter. As urea diffuses from the urea-rich papillary interstitium into the descending thin limb luminal fluid, NaCl is secreted via the cotransporter against its concentration gradient. That NaCl is then reabsorbed near the loop bend, raising the interstitial fluid osmolality and promoting water reabsorption from the IM collecting ducts. Indeed, the model predicts that the presence of the urea-Na+ or urea- Cl? cotransporter facilitates the cycling of NaCl within the IM and yields a loop-bend fluid composition consistent with experimental data.

Dantzler, William H.; Pannabecker, Thomas L.



Blood Lead Concentrations in 1-3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ? 100 ?g/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ? 100 ?g/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 ?g/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 ?g/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ? 100 ?g/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children.

Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd



Degradation of TAB outer lead contacts due to the Au-concentration in eutectic tin\\/lead solder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the Au-concentration in OLB solder fillets on the contact reliability is shown. Quantitative analysis of the Au content shows a good accordance with the estimated concentrations using the geometrical data. The Au-concentration is the major influence factor on the thermal aging behavior of OLB contacts. A change in the failure mechanism due to Kirkendall porosity is observed

Elke Zakel; Ghassem Azdasht; Herbert Reichl



Fluoroquinolone levels in healthy dog urine following a 20-mg/kg oral dose of enrofloxacin exceed mutant prevention concentration targets against Escherichia coli isolated from canine urinary tract infections.  


A 3-day course of oral enrofloxacin is effective for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs when administered 20 mg/kg Q24H. However, emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of uropathogens is a concern. Urine concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were measured in six healthy dogs following dose of enrofloxacin 20 mg/kg. Mutant prevention concentrations of Escherichia coli isolated from canine UTI were also determined against ciprofloxacin. Urine AUC(24)/MPC ratios considering ciprofloxacin concentrations ranged 3819-7767, indicating that selection of resistant E. coli mutants in dogs with uncomplicated UTIs is unlikely in the bladder given that an AUC(24)/MPC = 39 is considered to be protective against mutant selection for ciprofloxacin. However, additional studies are required to evaluate the effects of this enrofloxacin treatment protocol on bacteria that colonize anatomic sites where fluoroquinolones achieve lower concentrations compared to the urinary bladder. PMID:23859001

Daniels, J B; Tracy, G; Irom, S J; Lakritz, J



Blood Lead Levels and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Concentrations in Peripubertal Boys  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood lead exposure has been associated with growth delay. However, the association between blood lead levels (BLLs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has not been characterized in a large cohort with low-level lead exposure. Methods: We recruited 394 boys 8–9 years of age from an industrial Russian town in 2003–2005 and followed them annually thereafter. We used linear regression models to estimate the association of baseline BLLs with serum IGF-1 concentration at two follow-up visits (ages 10–11 and 12–13 years), adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic covariates. Results: At study entry, median BLL was 3 ?g/dL (range, < 0.5–31 ?g/dL), most boys (86%) were prepubertal, and mean ± SD height and BMI z-scores were 0.14 ± 1.0 and –0.2 ± 1.3, respectively. After adjustment for covariates, the mean follow-up IGF-1 concentration was 29.2 ng/mL lower (95% CI: –43.8, –14.5) for boys with high versus low BLL (? 5 ?g/dL or < 5 ?g/dL); this difference persisted after further adjustment for pubertal status. The association of BLL with IGF-1 was stronger for mid-pubertal than prepubertal boys (p = 0.04). Relative to boys with BLLs < 2 ?g/dL, adjusted mean IGF-1 concentrations decreased by 12.8 ng/mL (95% CI: –29.9, 4.4) for boys with BLLs of 3–4 ?g/dL; 34.5 ng/mL (95% CI: –53.1, –16.0) for BLLs 5–9 ?g/dL; and 60.4 ng/mL (95% CI: –90.9, –29.9) for BLLs ? 10 ?g/dL. Conclusions: In peripubertal boys with low-level lead exposure, higher BLLs were associated with lower serum IGF-1. Inhibition of the hypothalamic–pituitary–growth axis may be one possible pathway by which lead exposure leads to growth delay.

Fleisch, Abby F.; Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan A.



Penicillin concentrations in serum, milk, and urine following intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of increasing doses of procaine penicillin G in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed Central

Eight healthy, non-pregnant, crossbred Holstein dairy cows (557-682 kg) within their first 3 months of lactation (13-21.5 kg of milk/day) were used. Cows were kept in tie stalls for the whole experiment. The 8 cows were randomly assigned to 2 (IM and SC) 4 x 4 balanced Latin square design experiments. Doses of procaine penicillin G (PPG) (300000 IU/mL) in each square were 7000, 14000, 21000 and 28000 IU/kg and were injected IM or SC once daily for 5 consecutive days. Volumes of PPG per site of injection never exceeded 20 mL. Blood was collected to determine the Cmax, Tmax, and AUC; urine and milk were also taken to measure the persistence of PPG in these fluids. Results show that serum Cmax and Tmax were only slightly affected by increasing the doses or the route of administration, whereas the AUC was linearly increased in relation to the dose injected in both modes of injection. In the urine, Cmax varied from 160 to 388 IU/mL and Tmax from 72-120 h during 5 consecutive days of PPG injection. A dose effect in Cmax was observed only for the IM route of administration and no variation (P > 0.05) was found between the IM and SC routes. Milk Cmax concentrations were only increased by the dose regimen in the IM group. At doses of 21000 and 28000 IU/kg, the IM group had a higher (P > 0.05) Cmax when compared with the SC groups. Milk PPG residues were not detectable over 96 h following the last IM injection, independently of the dose injected. However milk PPG residues were detected for up to 132 h following the last SC injection. These results show that when PPG is injected IM once daily in volumes not exceeding 20 mL/site at doses as high as 28000 IU/kg, the withdrawal period should be at least 96 h. Therefore, in the present model, there was no advantage to inject PPG by SC route to improve PPG kinetic parameters as the AUC, Cmax, or Tmax.

Dubreuil, P; Daigneault, J; Couture, Y; Guay, P; Landry, D



Temporal variability of atmospheric lead concentrations and fluxes over the northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1985, daily 24-hour aerosol samples were collected on 0.4-{mu}m pore size filters at a coastal location in northwestern Corsica. Total atmospheric deposition (wet + dry) were sampled between February 1985 and October 1987 with a collection period of about 15 days. As indicated by three-dimensional air mass trajectories, lead aerosol particles collected at this site are primarily derived from European continental source regions. The variability of lead aerosol concentrations on both daily and seasonal time scales is primarily due to the scavenging of lead aerosol particles by rain rather than to changes in source regions. The results suggest that the ratio between the total atmospheric deposition of Pb and the corresponding mean daily precipitation (mdp) rate is not constant. This ratio reaches a maximum during the Mediterranean summer. The authors attribute this difference to wet scavenging processes which wash a more loaded atmosphere during the dry season than during the wet season. The precipitation frequency (F{sub p}) is a major factor influencing seasonal variability of the total atmospheric deposition of lead over the western Mediterranean. An intermediate value of F{sub p} allows sufficient reloading of the atmosphere with long-range transported Pb aerosol particles as well as efficient scavenging by precipitation events.

Remoudaki, E.; Bergametti, G. (Universite Paris (France)); Buat-Menard, P. (Centre des Faibles Radioactivites, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))



Concentration and spatial distribution of lead in soil used for ammunition destruction.  


Studies on heavy metal contamination in soils used for ammunition disposal and destruction are still emerging. The present study aimed to evaluate the contamination level and spatial distribution of lead in disposal and destruction areas. This site was used for ammunition disposal and destruction activities for 20 years. The ammunition destruction site (1,296 ha), a sampling system that followed a sampling grid (5 m × 5 m) with 30 points was adopted and samples were collected at the following five depths with a total of 150 samples. During the collection procedure, each sampling grid point was georeferenced using a topographic global positioning system. Data were validated through semivariogram and kriging models using Geostat software. The results demonstrated that the average lead value was 163 mg kg(-1), which was close to the investigation limit and the contamination levels were higher downstream than upstream. The results showed that there was lead contamination at the destruction site and that the contamination existed mainly at the surface layer depth. However, high lead concentrations were also found at deeper soil depths in the destruction area due to frequent detonations. According to the planimetry data, the areas that require intervention significantly decreased with increasing depths in the following order: 582.7 m(2) in the 0-20 cm layer; 194.6 m(2) in the 20-40 cm layer; 101.6 m(2) in the 40-60 cm layer; and 45.3 m(2) in the 60-80 cm layer. PMID:22903201

do Nascimento Guedes, Jair; do Amaral Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil; Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Vilella, André Luis Oliveira; Tolón-Becerra, Alfredo; Lastra-Bravo, Xavier Bolívar



Degradation Of Tab Outer Lead Contacts Due To The Au Concentration In Eutectic Tin\\/lead Solder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the Au-concentration in OLB-solder fillets on the contact reliability is shown. The quantitative analysis of the AUcontent is in accordance with the estimated concentrations using the geometrical data. The Au-concentration is the major influence factor on the thermal aging behaviour of OLB-contacts. A change in the failure mechanism due to Kirkendall porosity is observed if a AUconcentration

E. Zakel; G. Azdasht; H. Reich



Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.  


Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84mg of NH3-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058±0.001kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9±2.02 + 0.069±0.004kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4g/L. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by K addition, but allantoin excretion increased linearly by 27% from LO to HI, suggesting increased rumen microbial growth. Rumen pH, acetate proportion of total volatile fatty acids, and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with increasing potassium intake. We concluded that increased ration K concentration lowers milk urea concentration with a magnitude significant for the interpretation of milk urea values, but other sources of variation, such as sampling time relative to feeding, may be even more important. PMID:24835966

Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O



Updating about reductions of air and blood lead concentrations in Turin, Italy, following reductions in the lead content of gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Considering its well known toxicity and the chronic human exposure to lead, international lawmakers enforced some directives or laws calling for the reduction of lead content in gasoline. All of these legislative acts aimed to reduce health risks for the general population. The aim of this study was to consider the effectiveness of these laws on air lead levels and consequently on blood lead levels in a randomly selected urban Italian population. In particular, these markers were analyzed over the course of several years, corresponding to the periods just before and after enforcements of the reductions of lead in petrol. Data presented point out some considerations: (1) enforcement of legislative measures concerning the reduction of lead in petrol has reduced atmospheric levels of lead. This result demonstrates a major environmental success in primary prevention efforts. (2) This success is clear especially considering that the actual Pb-B levels can be extended to the urbanized populations. Pb-B levels were consistently higher for drinkers, for older adults and for males. The mean of Pb-B level for the present urbanized population is higher than the U.S. overall population (6.4 vs 3 {mu}g/dl). This difference can be also explained considering the different historical period of enforcement of the restriction laws. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Bono, R.; Pignata, C.; Gilli, G. [Univ. of Turin (Italy)] [and others] [Univ. of Turin (Italy); and others



DDE, PCBs, cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in rhinoceros auklets from Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In July 1981, 5 adult rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) were captured on the ground near nesting areas on each of Protection and Destruction Islands, Washington. The birds were euthanized, and their livers and kidneys removed and analyzed. Levels (I?g / g wet weight) of DDE (0.11 to 0.95), polychlorinated biphenyls (no residue detected [ND] to 1.1), mercury (0.60 to 1.8), and lead (ND to 0.85) in livers and cadmium (9.1 to 21.9) in kidneys were similar in each colony. All concentrations were less than known effect levels.

Blus, L. J.; Fitzner, R. E.; Leschner, L. L.; Wilson, U. W.





... Safety and Health (ABLES/ NIOSH) Lead in the environment Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) More Click ...


Impact of unleaded gasoline introduction on the concentration of lead in the air of Dhaka, Bangladesh.  


Airborne particulate matter (APM) samples collected at a semiresidential area in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the periods of 1994 and 1997-2000 have been studied to assess the impact of the use of unleaded gasoline in Bangladesh. According to scanning electron microscopy/ energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyzer studies, lead (Pb) was found as Pb sulfates and Pb halides in motor-vehicle exhaust particles, whose diameters were some hundreds of nanometers. No significant changes in the annual averages of APM mass and black carbon concentrations have been observed over the period. The yearly average Pb concentration reached a maximum value of 370 ng/m3 in the particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm fraction in 1998. In 2000, the concentration decreased to approximately one-third (106 ng/m3) of the high earlier values after the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1999. A significant lowering of the blood Pb level of the population over next few years is expected as a result of this great decrease in Pb concentration. PMID:14649755

Biswas, Swapan K; Tarafdar, Solaiman A; Islam, Ashraful; Khaliquzzaman, Mohammed; Tervahattu, Heikki; Kupiainen, Kaarle



Maternal blood lead concentration, diet during pregnancy, and anthropometry predict neonatal blood lead in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population.  

PubMed Central

To determine the influences of maternal diet and nutrition during pregnancy on the blood lead level of neonates, we conducted a study of mother-infant pairs from lower socioeconomic circumstances living in Albany County, New York. Maternal blood lead (MBPb), anthropometry, and diet were assessed in each trimester. Neonates' blood lead (NBPb) levels were low (geometric mean = 1.58 micro g/dL), and none had elevated blood lead. More than 50% of the mothers had intakes below the recommended dietary allowances for zinc, calcium, iron, vitamin D, and kilocalories. As expected, MBPb was strongly and positively related to NBPb. Among the anthropometric measures of maternal nutritional status, variables measuring gain in weight and arm circumference were negatively related to NBPb. In multivariable models reflecting different analytic strageties and including MBPb, anthropometry, and sociodemographic characteristics, dietary intakes of iron and vitamin D were negatively related to NBPb. The effect of zinc varied substantially depending on model covariates. Effects of dietary constituents are difficult to distinguish, given the intercorrelated nature of nutrients in the diet. Nevertheless, the influences of maternal anthropometric variables, iron, and vitamin D on neonatal lead levels are clear in our analyses.

Schell, Lawrence M; Denham, Melinda; Stark, Alice D; Gomez, Marta; Ravenscroft, Julia; Parsons, Patrick J; Aydermir, Aida; Samelson, Renee



Cadmium concentrations in blood of children living near a lead smelter in Bahia, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

A prevalence study of cadmium absorption was carried out among 396 children aged 1 to 9 years living at less than 900 m from a primary lead smelter in Santo Amaro City, northeast Brazil. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of cadmium concentrations in blood (CdB) were 0.087 and 2.5 mumole/liter, respectively, ranging from 0.004 to 0.511 units. Ninety-six per cent of these children presented CdB higher than 0.0089 mumole/liter (or 1.0 microgram/liter) which is usually taken as a reference level. Higher CdB levels were significantly associated with shorter distance from child's home to smelter chimney, residence time in the area greater than 7 months, racial groups Light and Medium, and heavy infection by hookworm. The variation in CdB levels was not associated with child's age, nutritional status, iron status, family per capita income, blood lead level, being a child of a lead worker, the habit of pica, and contamination of child's peridomiciliar environment by smelter dross.

Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima, M.E.; Alt, F.




SciTech Connect

Should coolant accidentally be lost to the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) blanket and target, and the decay heat in the target be deposited in the surrounding blanket by thermal radiation, temperatures in the blanket modules could exceed structural limits and cause a physical collapse of the blanket modules into a non-coolable geometry. Such a sequence of unmitigated events could result in some melting of the APT blanket and create the potential for the release of mercury into the target-blanket cavity air space. Experiments were conducted which simulate such hypothetical accident conditions in order to measure the rate of vaporization of elemental mercury from pools of molten lead to quantify the possible severe accident source term for the APT blanket region. Molten pools of from 0.01% to 0.10% mercury in lead were prepared under inert conditions. Experiments were conducted, which varied in duration from several hours to as long as a month, to measure the mercury vaporization from the lead pools. The melt pools and gas atmospheres were held fixed at 340 C during the tests. Parameters which were varied in the tests included the mercury concentration, gas flow rate over the melt and agitation of the melt, gas atmosphere composition and the addition of aluminum to the melt. The vaporization of mercury was found to scale roughly linearly with the concentration of mercury in the pool. Variations in the gas flow rates were not found to have any effect on the mass transfer, however agitation of the melt by a submerged stirrer did enhance the mercury vaporization rate. The rate of mercury vaporization with an argon (inert) atmosphere was found to exceed that for an air (oxidizing) atmosphere by as much as a factor of from ten to 20; the causal factor in this variation was the formation of an oxide layer over the melt pool with the air atmosphere which served to retard mass transfer across the melt-atmosphere interface. Aluminum was introduced into the melt to investigate its effect upon the mercury vaporization rate in simulation of the aluminum structure in the APT blanket. No effect at all was observed for a case with an argon atmosphere. This suggests that there are no chemical effects of the aluminum on the vaporization kinetics. With an air atmosphere, the presence of aluminum in the melt reduced the mercury vaporization by a factor of six in comparison to the identical test but without aluminum present. This suggests that aluminum in the lead/mercury .melt retards the vaporization of mercury by creating a surface oxide layer in addition to the lead-oxide layer which increases the mass transfer resistance.




Urine collection pads: are samples reliable for urine biochemistry and microscopy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to validate the reliability of samples obtained with urine collection pads (UCP) for selected laboratory biochemical analyses, urine cell microscopy, and bedside semi-quantitative stick urinalysis. A series of laboratory experiments was performed to test agreement between urine concentrations, or results, before and after passage through a UCP (incubated for 37°C for 15 min). The following

Peter I. Macfarlane; Robert Ellis; Christopher Hughes; Christine Houghton; Robert Lord



Clean catch urine sample  


Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... If possible, collect the sample when urine has been in your bladder for 2 to 3 hours. You will use a special kit to collect the urine. It will ...


Lead concentrations in zooplankton, water, and particulate matter of a southwestern Atlantic temperate estuary (Argentina).  


This study presents for the first time valuable results of lead (Pb) accumulation in zooplankton from a southwestern Atlantic temperate estuary, the Bahía Blanca estuary, one of the most important and industrialized coastal environments of Argentina. It considers Pb concentrations in zooplankton organisms as well as in the dissolved and particulate phases. These fractions were analyzed on account of their important role in the biogeochemical cycles of trace elements in estuarine environments. In addition, the major physicochemical variables, i.e., nutrients, and pigment concentrations, and zooplankton composition and abundance, were also considered to understand Pb levels in the above-mentioned fractions. Samplings were performed from March to December 2005 with a bimonthly frequency and comprised a study area with stations located near industrial settlements and other stations a few kilometers far from these points. The results of the physicochemical variables and nutrients and pigments agreed with historic values for the estuary and did not present any evidence of abnormalities. Dissolved Pb presented a mean concentration of 2.15 ± 0.46 ?g L(-1), whereas particulate Pb presented a mean concentration of 13.52 ± 3.07 ?g g(-1) dry weight (dw). In the mesozooplankton, represented by copepods, the mean concentration was similar to the particulate fraction (13.38 ± 4.41 ?g g(-1) dw), whereas in the macrozooplankton, represented by mysids, it was lower (9.81 ± 1.89 ?g g(-1) dw). Thus, Pb concentrations were relatively high in the dissolved and particulate phases. Moreover, zooplankton accumulated important concentrations of this metal, which was mainly incorporated through suspended particulate matter (SPM). The source of Pb in all of these fractions is related to the industry discharges as well domestic sewage located near the sampling stations. Finally, through these results, it was possible to show the importance of zooplankton and SPM in the biogeochemical cycle of Pb as well as the interaction between these fractions in an estuarine and anthropogenic environment, such as the Bahía Blanca estuary. PMID:20978885

Fernández Severini, Melisa Daiana; Botté, Sandra Elizabeth; Hoffmeyer, Mónica Susana; Marcovecchio, Jorge Eduardo



Examination of lead concentrations in new decorative enamel paints in four countries with different histories of activity in lead paint regulation.  


Paints with high lead concentrations (ppm) continue to be sold around the world in many developing countries and those with economies in transition representing a major preventable environmental health hazard that is being increased as the economies expand and paint consumption is increasing. Prior lead paint testing had been performed in Brazil and India and these countries were selected to examine the impact of a new regulatory limit in Brazil and the impact of efforts of non-governmental organizations and others to stop the use of lead compounds in manufacturing paints. Armenia and Kazakhstan, in Central Asia, were selected because no information on lead concentration in those regions was available, no regulatory activities were evident and non-governmental organizations in the IPEN network were available to participate. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the lead loading (µg/cm(2)) limit determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for areas on toys that are too small to obtain a sample of sufficient size for laboratory analysis. The lead concentrations in more than three-fourths of the paints from Armenia and Kazakhstan exceeded 90ppm, the limit in the United States, and 600ppm, the limit in Brazil. The percentages were about one-half as high in Brazil and India. The average concentration in paints purchased in Armenia, 25,000ppm, is among the highest that has been previously reported, that in Kazakhstan, 15,700ppm, and India, 16,600, about median. The average concentration in Brazil, 5600ppm, is among the lowest observed. Paints in Brazil that contained an average of 36,000ppm before the regulatory limit became effective were below detection (<9ppm) in samples collected in the current study. The lack of any apparent public monitoring of paint lead content as part of regulatory enforcement makes it difficult to determine whether the regulation was a major factor contributing to the decline in lead use in these paints. Using data from the current study and those available from other studies 24 of 28 paints from major brands in India decreased from high concentrations to 90ppm or lower. Since lead concentrations in golden yellow paints from these brands were found to decrease to ?90ppm, it is possible that all 28 of these paints now contain ?90ppm since yellow paints usually have the highest lead concentrations. Other brands in Brazil and India that have been analyzed only one time had lead concentrations up to 59,000ppm and 134,000ppm, respectively. Less than one-third of the paints had notations on their labels with information about lead content and these were sometimes inaccurate. The label from one brand indicating "no added lead" contained paint with 134,000ppm lead, the highest found in this study. Three percent (3 of 98) of the paints with surface lead loading that did not exceed 2µg/cm(2), the limit established by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for small areas on toys, contained greater than 90ppm lead and thus were false negatives. Of the new paint samples that contained ?600ppm, 88% contained ?90ppm. Of the samples that contained ?90ppm, 97% contained ?45ppm and 92% contained ?15ppm. Based on these data it appears to be technically feasible to manufacture paints containing ?90ppm and in many cases to produce paints that have lead concentrations that do not exceed 15ppm. PMID:24819125

Clark, C Scott; Kumar, Abhay; Mohapatra, Piyush; Rajankar, Prashant; Nycz, Zuleica; Hambartsumyan, Amalia; Astanina, Lydia; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline; Menrath, William; Peng, Hongying



Alteration of saliva and serum concentrations of manganese, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead among career welders  

PubMed Central

Human saliva offers a unique noninvasive approach for populational study. Purposes of this study were to investigate the feasibility of using saliva manganese (Mn) concentration as a biomarker of Mn exposure among career welders and to study the variations of Mn, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in saliva as affected by the welding profession. Forty-nine male welders, of whom 28 were in the low exposed group and 21 in the high exposed group, were recruited. Control subjects were 33 military soldiers without metal exposure. Ambient Mn levels in breathing zones were 0.01, 0.24 and 2.21 mg/m3for control, low, and high exposed groups, respectively. Saliva samples were collected to quantify metals by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Saliva concentrations of Mn and Cu were significantly higher in welders than in controls (p < 0.01); the variation in saliva levels appeared likely to be associated with airborne Mn levels among study populations. Saliva levels of Zn were significantly lower in welders than in controls (p < 0.05), while Cd and Pb levels in saliva were unchanged. Significant associations were observed between saliva and serum for Mn (r = 0.575, p < 0.05) and Cu (r = 0.50, p < 0.05). Moreover, saliva Mn concentrations were higher among welders with 5–10 years of employment than those with less than 5 years of employment. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between saliva Mn and Cu and between saliva Mn and Zn. Taken together, these data suggest that Mn concentrations in saliva appear reflective of welders’ exposure to airborne Mn and their years of welding experience. respectively. Elevated Mn levels among welders may alter the homeostasis of Cu and Zn.

Wang, Dixin; Du, Xuqin; Zheng, Wei



Factors controlling elevated lead concentrations in water samples from aquifer systems in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of total lead (Pb) and dissolved Pb exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level of 15 micrograms per liter (mg/L) in approximately 19 percent and 1.3 percent, respectively, of ground-water samples collected during 1991-96 from a statewide network of monitoring wells designed to delineate background water quality of Florida's major aquifer systems. Differences in total Pb concentrations among aquifer systems reflect the combined influence of anthropogenic sources and chemical conditions in each system. A highly significant (p<0.001) difference in median total Pb concentrations was found for water samples from wells with water-level recording devices that contain Pb-counterweights (14 mg/L) compared to non-recorder wells (2 mg/L). Differences between total Pb concentrations for recorder and non-recorder wells are even more pronounced when compared for each aquifer system. The largest differences for recorder status are found for the surficial aquifer system, where median total Pb concentrations are 44 and 2.4 mg/L for recorder wells and non-recorder wells, respectively. Leaching of Pb from metal casing materials is another potential source of Pb in ground water samples. Median total Pb concentrations in water samples from the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems are higher from recorder wells cased with black iron than for recorder wells with steel and PVC casing material. Stable isotopes of Pb were used in this study to distinguish between anthropogenic and natural sources of Pb in ground water, as Pb retains the isotopic signature of the source from which it is derived. Based on similarities between slopes and intercepts of trend lines for various sample types (plots of 206Pb/204Pb versus 208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb versus 208Pb/204Pb) the predominant source of total Pb in water samples from the surficial aquifer system is corrosion of Pb counterweights. It is likely that only ground-water samples, not the aquifer, were contaminated with elevated Pb concentations. Pb-isotopic ratios of water from the Floridan aquifer system plot between trend lines connecting the isotopic composition of Pb counterweights and the composition of acid leachates of material from the Floridan aquifer system, indicating that Pb in these waters most likely is a mixture of Pb derived from aquifer material and corrosion of Pb counterweights.

Katz, B. G.; Bullen, M. P.; Bullen, T. D.; Hansard, Paul



Glucose urine test  


Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...


Combining poly (methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith microextraction and on-line pre-concentration-capillary electrophoresis for analysis of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in human plasma and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method based on poly (methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (MAA-EGDMA) monolith microextraction (PMME) and field-enhanced sample injection (FESI) pre-concentration technique was proposed for sensitive capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet (CE-UV) analysis of ephedrine (E) and pseudoephedrine (PE) in human plasma and urine. The PMME device consisted of a regular plastic syringe (1mL), a poly (MAA-EGDMA) monolithic capillary (2cm×530?m I.D.) and a plastic pinhead

Fang Wei; Min Zhang; Yu-Qi Feng



Evaluation of on-line desalter-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry system for determination of Cr(III), Cr(VI), and total chromium concentrations in natural water and urine samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a simple and convenient method for the determination of Cr(III), Cr(VI), and the total chromium concentrations in natural water and urine samples that use a flow injection on-line desalter-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry system. When using aqueous ammonium chloride (pH 8) as the stripping solution, the severe interference from sodium in the matrix can be eliminated prior to

Y. C. Sun; C. Y. Lin; S. F. Wu; Y. T. Chung



Evaluation of lead concentration by one-box type multimedia model in Lake Biwa-Yodo River basin of Japan.  


A one box type multimedia model was developed and applied for Lake Biwa-Yodo River basin in Japan to assess the distribution of lead in the environment. This model is based on mass balance and includes four environmental media; the atmosphere, the soil, the water body, and the sediment. The mass balance of lead is represented by the summation of mass transfer flux at equilibrium, emission flux, advection flux, and deposition flux or sedimentation flux. In the case of metallic compounds, dissolution rate and exchange equilibrium have also been taken into consideration. Pollutant Release and Transfer Registry (PRTR) in Japan was used as one of the major data source for this study. The emission of lead in Lake Biwa-Yodo River basin is calculated based on five sources of registered emission in PRTR, unregistered emission in PRTR, incinerators, leaded gasoline, and landfills. In this study, we estimated lead emission from 1957 to 2007 to observe the temporal accumulation of lead. Calculated lead concentrations were compared with the measured/observed concentrations. It was found out that the model could closely predict lead concentration in the soil and the water body. The concentration in the atmosphere was underestimated by the calculated concentrations. The reason was attributed to the underestimation of the amount of lead emission from incinerators. PMID:23538092

Kondo, Akira; Yamamoto, Megumi; Inoue, Yoshio; Ariyadasa, B H A K T



Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula  

PubMed Central

Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid.

Viswanathan, Stalin



Effect of intravenous taurine supplementation on plasma, blood cell, and urine taurine concentrations in adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-four adults undergoing long-term par- enteral nutrition (TPN) were treated either with or without in- travenous taurine for ? 24 mo. Statistical comparisons were carried out in eight patients randomly assigned to receive intra- venous taurine, usually 10 mg. kg ? . d ', and 10 patients not receiving taurine. Compared with normal adults, baseline plasma taunne and urine taurine-creatinine

Joel D Kopple; Nancy E Vinton; Stewart A Laidlaw; Marvin E Ament


Investigation of Immobilized Enzymes for Hydrolysis of Glucuronides in Urine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metabolism of certain drugs leads to the formation of conjugation products with glucuronic acid prior to excretion in urine. Thus, heroin is converted to morphine, which after conjugation with glucuronic acid, appears in the urine as morphine glucuronide....

D. J. Fink M. K. Bean R. D. Falb



Basic mechanism leading to stimulation of glycogenolysis by isoproterenol, EGF, elevated extracellular K+ concentrations, or GABA.  


Glycogenolysis, in brain parenchyma an astrocyte-specific process, has changed from being envisaged as an emergency procedure to playing central roles during brain response to whisker stimulation, memory formation, astrocytic K(+) uptake and stimulated release of ATP. It is activated by several transmitters and by even very small increases in extracellular K(+) concentration, and to be critically dependent upon an increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), whereas cAMP plays only a facilitatory role together with increased [Ca(2+)]i. Detailed knowledge about the signaling pathways eliciting glycogenolysis is therefore of interest and was investigated in the present study in well differentiated cultures of mouse astrocytes. The ?-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol stimulated glycogenolysis by a ?1-adrenergic effect, which initiated a pathway in which cAMP/protein kinase A activated a Gi/Gs shift, leading to Ca(2+)-activated glycogenolysis. Inhibition of this pathway downstream of cAMP but upstream of the Gi/Gs shift abolished the glycogenolysis. However, inhibitors operating downstream of the Ca(2+)-sensitive step, but preventing transactivation-mediated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor stimulation, a later step in the activated pathway, also caused inhibition of glycogenolysis. For this reason the effect of EGF was investigated and it was found to be glycogenolytic. Large increases in extracellular K(+) activated glycogenolysis by a nifedipine-inhibited L-channel opening allowing influx of Ca(2+), known to be glycogenolysis-dependent. Small increases (addition of 5 mM KCl) caused a smaller effect by a similarly glycogenolysis-reliant opening of an IP3 receptor-dependent ouabain signaling pathway. The same pathway could be activated by GABA (also in brain slices) due to its depolarizing effect in astrocytes. PMID:24500447

Xu, Junnan; Song, Dan; Bai, Qiufang; Cai, Liping; Hertz, Leif; Peng, Liang



High accuracy (stable isotope dilution) measurements of lead in serum and cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of lead in blood, serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine was measured in patients with neurological disease and in control subjects including cases of plumbism. A plot of blood lead versus serum lead resembles the familiar curves of blood lead versus either free erythrocyte porphyrin or urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid in that serum lead is constant up to a blood

W I Manton; J D Cook



Characteristics of lead isotope ratios and elemental concentrations in PM 10 fraction of airborne particulate matter in Shanghai after the phase-out of leaded gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable lead (Pb) isotope ratios and the concentrations of 23 elements, including heavy metals and toxic elements, were measured in the PM10 airborne particle samples collected at seven monitoring sites in Shanghai, China, to evaluate the current elemental compositions and local airborne Pb isotope ratio characteristics. Some source-related samples, such as cement, coal and oil combustion dust, metallurgic dust,

Jian Zheng; Mingguang Tan; Yasuyuki Shibata; Atsushi Tanaka; Yan Li; Guilin Zhang; Yuanmao Zhang; Zuci Shan



Determination of sub-nanomolar concentrations of lead in sea water by adsorptive stripping voltammetry with xylenol orange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly sensitive procedures are presented for the determination of sub-nanomolar concentrations of total dissolved lead and labile lead in sea water by adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry with ligand competition using xylenol orange (XO). Optimal analytical conditions were found to be an XO concentration of 1 × 10?5 M, a pH of 5, and an adsorption potential at ?1.2 V vs.

Qingguo Wu; Graeme E. Batley



Melanin-concentrating hormone overexpression in transgenic mice leads to obesity and insulin resistance  

PubMed Central

Several lines of investigation suggest that the hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) regulates body weight in mammals. Obese mice lacking functional leptin overexpress the MCH message in the fed or fasted state. Acute intracerebroventricular injection of MCH increases energy intake in rats. Mice lacking the MCH gene are lean. To test the hypothesis that chronic overexpression of MCH in mice causes obesity, we produced transgenic mice that overexpress MCH (MCH-OE) in the lateral hypothalamus at approximately twofold higher levels than normal mice. On the FVB genetic background, homozygous transgenic animals fed a high-fat diet ate 10% more and were 12% heavier at 13 weeks of age than wild-type animals, and they had higher systemic leptin levels. Blood glucose levels were higher both preprandially and after an intraperitoneal glucose injection. MCH-OE animals were insulin-resistant, as demonstrated by markedly higher plasma insulin levels and a blunted response to insulin; MCH-OE animals had only a 5% decrease in blood glucose after insulin administration, compared with a 31% decrease in wild-type animals. MCH-OE animals also exhibited a twofold increase in islet size. To evaluate the contribution of genetic background to the predisposition to obesity seen in MCH-OE mice, the transgene was bred onto the C57BL/6J background. Heterozygote C57BL/6J mice expressing the transgene showed increased body weight on a standard diet, confirming that MCH overexpression can lead to obesity.

Ludwig, David S.; Tritos, Nicholas A.; Mastaitis, Jason W.; Kulkarni, Rohit; Kokkotou, Efi; Elmquist, Joel; Lowell, Bradford; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria



The association between spatial distribution of common malignancies and soil lead concentration in Isfahan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Malignancies are primarily environmental diseases mostly attributed to environmental factors. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences can be observed in detail. This study aimed to determine the association between map distribution of malignancies and the geological phenomena of lead (Pb) accumulation in soil in the province of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Spatial distribution maps of malignant diseases were plotted by using data recorded during 2007 to 2009 in the Isfahan Cancer Registry Program. Data on Pb accumulation in soil was obtained from the National Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration. Pb concentrations were documented in three parts of agricultural, non-agricultural, urban, and industrial land. The geographical mapping of cancers and soil Pb were then incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to create a spatial distribution model. Results: The spatial distributions of ten common malignant diseases in the province, i.e. skin cancers, hematological malignancies, and breast cancers, followed by other malignancies were scattered based on Pb distribution. In fact, common cancers were more prevalent in the parts of the province where soil Pb was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study underscore the importance of preventing Pb exposure and controlling industrial production of Pb. The data is also important to establish further effects modeling for cancers. Moreover, physicians and health professionals should consider the impact of environmental factors on their patients’ health.

Rashidi, Masoumeh; Rameshat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharib, Hadi; Rouzbahani, Reza; Ghias, Majid; Poursafa, Parinaz



Spatial variation of copper and lead concentrations of water hyacinth plants in a wetland receiving urban run-off  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper and lead concentrations of roots of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, in an urban wetland in Sydney, Australia ranged between 145 ± 15 and 1100 ± 145 ?g g?1 dry mass for lead; and between 14.7 ± 7.0 and 303 ± 108 ?g g?1 dry mass for copper, (mean ± sd, n = 6). Considerable variation at the

Peter A. Vesk; William G. Allaway



Urine output - decreased  


Decreased urine output means that you produce less than 500 milliliters of urine in 24 hours. ... A large decrease in urine output may be a sign of a serious, or even life-threatening, condition. However, urine output can usually be restored ...


Urine - abnormal color  


The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...


Abrupt decrease of lead concentration in the Mediterranean sea: A response to antipollution policy  

SciTech Connect

The authors present data from water samples from the northwestern Mediterranean which show a marked decline in the density of lead in surface waters over the past 10 years. This decrease follows the establishments of limits on leaded gasoline usage in western European countries beginning in 1976. This study indicates that the major lead pollutant source was lead based fuels, and that antipollution efforts clearly are successful.

Nicolas, E.; Ruiz-Pino, D. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Villefranche (France)] [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Villefranche (France); Buat-Menard, P. [Universite de Bordeaux I (France)] [Universite de Bordeaux I (France)



On-site testing of saliva and sweat with Drugwipe and determination of concentrations of drugs of abuse in saliva, plasma and urine of suspected users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential drug users participated voluntarily in a Belgian study on the usefulness of the non-instrumental immunoassay Drugwipe\\u000a (Securetec, Germany) for the screening of cocaine, opiates, amphetamine and cannabinoids in saliva and sweat. If one of the\\u000a screening assays (urine, oral fluid, sweat) showed a positive result, blood and saliva were collected. The on-site Drugwipe\\u000a results were correlated with the Drugwipe

N. Samyn; C. van Haeren



Separation\\/preconcentration of trace heavy metals in urine, sediment and dialysis concentrates by coprecipitation with samarium hydroxide for atomic absorption spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-element determination of trace elements in urine and dialysis solutions by atomic absorption spectrometry has been investigated. Coprecipitation with samarium hydroxide was used for preconcentration of trace elements and elimination of matrix elements. To 10 ml of each sample was added 500 ?l of 2 mgml?1 samarium solutions; the pH was then adjusted to 12.2 in order to collect trace

Sibel Saracoglu; Mustafa Soylak; Latif Elci



Serum insulin and serum lipid profiles of a selected group of Southern Ontario tannery workers with elevated serum and urine chromium concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the serum insulin and lipid profiles of a group of Southern Ontario tannery workers, with elevated serum\\u000a and urine Cr levels, with those of men not exposed to industrial chromium (III) oxide. Fasting blood samples were obtained\\u000a from 72 male tannery workers (TW) (mean age±SD=36±12 y) and from 52 control subjects (CS) (mean age±SD=41±13 y), matched by

Janis A. Randall; Rosalind S. Gibson



Determination of t,t-muconic acid in urine samples using a molecular imprinted polymer combined with simultaneous ethyl chloroformate derivatization and pre-concentration by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.  


The present communication describes the preparation and evaluation of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent and simultaneous ethyl chloroformate (ECF) derivatization and pre-concentration by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the analysis of t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The imprinting polymer was prepared using methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator and t,t-MA as a template molecule. The imprinted polymer was evaluated for its use as a SPE sorbent by comparing both imprinted and non-imprinted polymers in terms of the recovery of t,t-MA from urine samples. Molecular modelling studies were performed in order to estimate the binding energy and efficiency of the MIP complex formed between the monomer and the t,t-MA. Various factors that can affect the extraction efficiency of MIP, such as the loading, washing and eluting conditions, were optimized; other factors that can affect the derivatization and DLLME pre-concentration were also optimized. MIP in combination with ECF derivatization and DLLME pre-concentration for t,t-MA exhibits good linearity, ranging from 0.125 to 2 ?g mL(-1) (R(2) = 0.9971), with limit of detection of 0.037 ?g mL(-1) and limit of quantification of 0.109 ?g mL(-1). Intra- and inter-day precision was found to be <6%. The proposed method has been proven to be effective and sensitive for the selective pre-concentration and determination of t,t-MA in urine samples of cigarette smokers. PMID:23079953

Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Chauhan, Abhishek; Singh, Krishna P; Gupta, Shailendra K; Jain, Rajeev; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Murthy, R C



Genotypic and environmental variation in cadmium, chromium, arsenic, nickel, and lead concentrations in rice grains*  

PubMed Central

Genotypic and environmental variation in Cd, Cr, As, Ni and Pb concentrations of grains, and the relationships between these heavy metals and Fe, Zn were investigated using 9 rice genotypes grown in 6 locations for two successive years. Significant genotypic variation was detected in the five heavy metal concentrations in grains, indicating the possibility to reduce the concentration of these heavy metals in grains through breeding approach. The environmental effect varied with metal, with Pb and Ni having greater variation than the other three metals. There was significant genotype-environment (location) interaction of the concentrations of all five heavy metals in grains, suggesting the importance of cultivar choice in producing rice with low heavy metal concentrations in grains for a given location. Correlation analysis showed that Cd and As, Cr and Ni, and As and Pb concentrations in rice grains were closely associated, and that Ni concentration in grains was negatively correlated with Zn concentration.

Cheng, Wang-da; Zhang, Guo-ping; Yao, Hai-gen; Wu, Wei; Xu, Min



Purple urine bag syndrome with acidic urine.  


Purple discoloration of a urinary catheter bag is very rare. This phenomenon is known as the purple urine bag syndrome. It is associated with urinary tract infections occurring in catheterized patients, generally elderly females with significant co-morbidities and constipation. The urine is usually alkaline. We present a unique case of this rare and interesting phenomenon occurring in acidic urine and discuss the pathophysiology. PMID:18514009

Chung, Shiu-Dong; Liao, Chun-Hou; Sun, Hsu-Dong




Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the nerve microenvironment in experimental lead neuropathy permits an evaluation of the role that blood-nerve barrier disruption plays in the development of segmental demyelination observed during chronic lead intoxication. Endoneurial fractions from the sciatic nerves of 60-day- old rats maintained on 4% lead carbonate for 3 to 24 weeks and their corresponding pair-fed controls were evaluated for protein



Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation.

I. A. Porter; J. Brodie



Microbial ethanol production in postmortem urine sample.  


We present a case in which postmortem blood ethanol concentration was 0.02?g/kg and acetone concentration was 0.51?g/kg, while urine ethanol concentration was 6.0?g/kg and acetone concentration was 0.63?g/kg. In the urine sample, sodium fluoride was not added. The urinary ethanol concentration continued to increase without any remarkable increase of isopropanol concentration and external contamination was excluded. Species of bacteria and yeasts, including Candida glabrata, were isolated from urine and blood samples. A few days after the collection of samples, we received the information that the patient was diabetic and did not receive insulin therapy regularly. To prevent postmortem microbial ethanol production and incorrect diagnosis of the cause of death, it is necessary to add sodium fluoride to blood and urine samples collected from diabetic patients. PMID:23812407

Sutlovic, Davorka; Nestic, Marina; Kovacic, Zdravko; Gusic, Stjepan; Mlinarek, Tajana; Salamunic, Ilza; Sardelic, Sanda



Effect of ash circulation in gasification melting system on concentration and leachability of lead in melting furnace fly ash.  


In some gasification-melting plants, generated melting furnace fly ash is returned back to the melting furnace for converting the ash to slag. This study investigated the effect of such ash circulation in the gasification-melting system on the concentration and leachability of lead in the melting furnace fly ash. The ash circulation in the melting process was simulated by a thermodynamic calculation, and an elemental analysis and leaching tests were performed on a melting furnace fly ash sample collected from the gasification-melting plant with the ash circulation. It was found that by the ash circulation in the gasification-melting, lead was highly concentrated in the melting furnace fly ash to the level equal to the fly ash from the ash-melting process. The thermodynamic calculation predicted that the lead volatilization by the chlorination is promoted by the ash circulation resulting in the high lead concentration. In addition, the lead extraction from the melting furnace fly ash into a NaOH solution was also enhanced by the ash circulation, and over 90% of lead in the fly ash was extracted in 5 min when using 0.5 mol l(-1) NaOH solution with L/S ratio of 10 at 100 °C. Based on the results, a combination of the gasification-melting with the ash circulation and the NaOH leaching method is proposed for the high efficient lead recovery. PMID:24121545

Okada, Takashi; Suzuki, Masaru



Toxicological Appraisal of Lead in Relation to the Tolerable Concentration in the Ambient Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue to be considered is that of the significance of lead in the air, but not that alone, since lead in the food and beverages consumed by people generally must also be taken into account. The magnitude of one of these sources must, of necessity, be adjusted to that of the other.After a consideration of certain general toxicological principles

Robert A. Kehoe



Oxidative damage increases intracellular free calcium [Ca2+]i concentration in human erythrocytes incubated with lead.  


One important effect of lead toxicity in erythrocytes consists of increasing [Ca(2+)](i) which in turn may cause alterations in cell shape and volume and it is associated with cellular rigidity, hemolysis, senescence and apoptosis. In this work, we proposed the use of erythrocytes incubated with Pb(2+) to assess association of the mechanisms of lead erythrocyte oxidative damage and calcium homeostasis. Lead incubation produced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) dose- and time-dependent, which mainly involved Ca(2+) entry mechanism. Additionally, in this in vitro model alterations similar to erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers were produced: Increase in Ca(2+) influx, decrease in (Ca(2+)-Mg(2+))-ATPase activity and GSH/GSGG ratio; increase in lipoperoxidation, protein carbonylation and osmotic fragility accompanied of dramatic morphological changes. Co-incubation with trolox, a soluble vitamin-E analog is able to prevent these alterations indicating that lead damage mechanism is strongly associated with oxidative damage with an intermediate toxic effect via [Ca(2+)](i) increase. Furthermore, erythrocytes oxidation induced with a free radical generator (APPH) showed effects in [Ca(2+)](i) and oxidative damage similar to those found in erythrocytes incubated with lead. Co-incubation with trolox prevents the oxidative effects induced by AAPH in erythrocytes. These results suggest that increase of [Ca(2+)](i) depends on the oxidative status of the erythrocytes incubated with lead. We consider that this model contributes in the understanding of the relation between oxidative damage induced by lead exposure and Ca(2+) homeostasis, the consequences related to these phenomena and the molecular basis of lead toxicity in no excitable cells. PMID:20460147

Quintanar-Escorza, M A; González-Martínez, M T; del Pilar, Intriago-Ortega Ma; Calderón-Salinas, J V



Direct electrowinning of lead from suspension galena concentrate anode in different electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical extraction of lead from galena by suspension electrolysis has been examined. Galvanostatic studies with slurry electrode as well as voltametric studies with carbon paste electrode in various electrolytes have been made in order to evaluate bath performance. Sodium hydroxide has been found to result in poor dissolution whereas ionic conduction through the electrolyte as well as oxide formation at the anode hinders lead dissolution in perchlorate media. Acetate bath results in substantial amount of oxide formation at anode even though solid bed conduction dominates. Sodium chloride bath has been found to have good prospects for producing lead ions and elemental sulfur with good current efficiencies.

Paramguru, R. K.; Küzeci, E.; Kammel, R.



Effects of Eutrophication on Concentrations and Speciation of Copper, Zinc, and Lead in West Falmouth Harbor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have increased the delivery of heavy metals, many of which are toxic, to estuaries. The concentrations and bioavailability of heavy metals in estuarine sediments depends upon their chemical partitioning, which is partly determined by redox potential and sediment composition, such as concentrations of Fe and Mn compounds, sulfur, and carbon. Submerged vegetation may affect heavy metals in sediments by

Rose A. Phillips


Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis



Protein urine test  


... diseased, proteins appear in the urine, even if blood protein levels are normal. ... not a cause for concern. Larger amounts of protein in the urine may be ... caused by pregnancy ( preeclampsia ) Urinary tract problems, ...


Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils.  


Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd>Hg>Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. PMID:18400348

Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan; Christie, Peter; Frey, Beat



Urine sample (image)  


A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head ... water and rinse well. A small amount of urine should initially fall into the toilet bowl before ...



EPA Science Inventory

A simple, rapid, and inexpensive anodic stripping voltammetric method with a mercury thin film electrode is reported for the establishment of baseline concentrations of cadmium, lead, and copper in natural waters. The procedure for routine surface preparation of wax-impregnated g...


Airborne concentrations of toxic metals resulting from the use of low melting point lead alloys to construct radiotherapy shielding.  


Determinations of airborne concentrations of lead, cadmium, bismuth, and tin were made above vessels containing a "fusible" lead alloy (158 degrees F melting point) commonly used for construction of radiotherapy blocks. Fume concentrations were determined by collection on a membrane filter and analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Samples were obtained for alloy temperatures of 200 degrees, 400 degrees, and 600 degrees F. In all instances, concentrations were much lower than the applicable occupational limits for continuous exposure. The results of this study indicate that the use of a vented hood as a means of reducing air concentrations of toxic metals above and near vessels containing low temperature melting point lead allows commonly used in construction of radiotherapy shields appears unjustifiable. However, proper handling procedures should be observed to avoid entry into the body via alternate pathways (e.g., ingestion or skin absorption). Transmission data of a non-cadmium containing lead alloy with a melting point of 203 degrees F was ascertained and is reported on. PMID:7207418

McCullough, E C; Senjem, D H



Natural lead concentrations in pristine boreal forest soils and past pollution trends: A reference for critical load models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of natural, prepollution concentrations of heavy metals in forest soils and temporal trends of soil pollution are essential for understanding present-day pollution and for establishing realistic goals for reductions of atmospheric pollution deposition. Soils not exposed to deposition of atmospheric pollution no longer exist and, for example, present lead (Pb) pollution conditions in northern European soils are a consequence

Richard Bindler; M. L. Braennvall; Ingemar Renberg; Ove Emteryd; Harald Grip



Concentrations of cadmium, lead and zinc in livestock feed and organs around a metal production centre in eastern Kazakhstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of analysis of animal feed and meat (cattle, horse and sheep) products from a metal processing region (Oskemen) in east Kazakhstan. Samples were collected from a range of districts of differing distances from the main source of anthropogenic pollution and with differing underlying metal-containing geologies. Analyses for cadmium, lead and zinc revealed high concentrations in many

Alma A. Farmer; Andrew M. Farmer



24-hour urine copper test  


The 24-hour urine copper test measures the amount of copper in a urine sample. ... A 24-hour urine sample is needed. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in the morning. Afterwards, collect ...


Distribution of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc concentrations in soils around Kabwe town in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of pollution of the environment as a result of mining activities in Kabwe, the provincial capital of Central province in Zambia has not yet been evaluated. Mining of lead and zinc were the core activities of Kabwe mine while cadmium and silver were produced as by-products. The smelting processes produced a significant amount of copper. The spatial distribution

Backsion D. Tembo; Kwenga Sichilongo; Joseph Cernak



Variation in Lead Concentration along Single Hairs as Measured by Non-Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEASUREMENT of trace elements in human hair has been used to give, indirectly, answers to several important problems. The detection of clinical poisoning is often indicated by heavy metal buildup, such as Pb, Se, Hg and Tl, in the growing hair1. Kopito et al.2 have shown that the detection of lead in hair is a particularly useful diagnostic aid for

G. D. Renshaw; C. A. Pounds; E. F. Pearson



Lead concentration in farmlands in southern Spain: Influence of the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead content in soils is closely linked to the nature of the parent materials, although this relation can change or even disappear due to other factors involved in soil formation. In addition, soil Pb content is also affected by biogeochemical cycles. Soil pH is another factor that influences Pb levels; in general, this element is more mobile in acid than

C. Cabrera; E. Ortega; C. Gallego; M. L. Lorenzo; C. Asensio; M. C. López



[Does the average dust concentration modify the critical dust dose leading to silicosis?].  


This article is based on the established fact that there is a relationship between the probability of the occurrence of silicosis and the inhaled amount of dust, the latter being represented by the concept of "dust dose" which is a product of dust concentration multiplied by the period of exposure. On investigating the "dust dose" values in 179 former coal miners in the East German town of Zwickau, however, we found that the "dust dose" principle does not apply to low to medium dust concentrations. We can now outline our idea of the origin and development of silicosis as follows: Below an initial threshold value of the "dust dose" it is improbable that silicosis will develop. Beyond that value, i.e. at medium dust concentrations, the time that elapses between the beginning of exposure and the onset of the disease is constant, namely, 20 years. However, the "dust dose" values that trigger the disease vary greatly. For dust concentrations beyond a second threshold value matters are as originally expected: the dust dose being constant, the disease will set in the earlier, the higher the dust concentration. To visualize these effects, a smoothing mathematical evaluation method was combined with a variant of the t test. PMID:1946255

Pangert, R; Ludwig, V; Güntner, S



Country-specific correlations across Europe between modelled atmospheric cadmium and lead deposition and concentrations in mosses.  


Previous analyses at the European scale have shown that cadmium and lead concentrations in mosses are primarily determined by the total deposition of these metals. Further analyses in the current study show that Spearman rank correlations between the concentration in mosses and the deposition modelled by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) are country and metal-specific. Significant positive correlations were found for about two thirds or more of the participating countries in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 (except for Cd in 1990). Correlations were often not significant and sometimes negative in countries where mosses were only sampled in a relatively small number of EMEP grids. Correlations frequently improved when only data for EMEP grids with at least three moss sampling sites per grid were included. It was concluded that spatial patterns and temporal trends agree reasonably well between lead and cadmium concentrations in mosses and modelled atmospheric deposition. PMID:22459708

Harmens, H; Ilyin, I; Mills, G; Aboal, J R; Alber, R; Blum, O; Co?kun, M; De Temmerman, L; Fernández, J Á; Figueira, R; Frontasyeva, M; Godzik, B; Goltsova, N; Jeran, Z; Korzekwa, S; Kubin, E; Kvietkus, K; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Magnússon, S H; Ma?kovská, B; Nikodemus, O; Pesch, R; Poikolainen, J; Radnovi?, D; Rühling, A; Santamaria, J M; Schröder, W; Spiric, Z; Stafilov, T; Steinnes, E; Suchara, I; Tabors, G; Thöni, L; Turcsányi, G; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G



Modeling the Lead(Pb) concentrations in corals in the Singapore Straits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The leaded gasoline has dominated the global Pb emission and has imposed serious health problems in the past 50 years. While countries in North America and Western Europe phased out leaded gasoline in 1970s and early 1980s, many fast developing Asian countries have been using it until recently. In order to monitor anthropogenic Pb variations in marine environments, the history of seawater Pb in the Singapore Strait -- one of the world's busiest shipping lanes has been reconstructed from a 50 year-long coral core (Lee et al., unpublished record). A 50-year-long coral Pb/Ca record from the Singapore Strait was measured using isotope dilution ICPMS (for Pb) and FAAS (for Ca). Here, we propose a statistical model to correlate lead measured in the Singapore coral (Pb/Ca) and the possible Pb sources in the region. The measurement reveals that the Pb in coral is only weakly correlated with Pb the gasoline emission from the neighboring countries (i.e. Singapore, Malaysia, and Batam Indonesia). Such weak correlation implies that either the gasoline may not be a dominating source to Singapore Strait or the transport process of the Pb (either atmospheric or oceanographic) in this region complicates the interpretation. In this case, we tested a number of statistical correlations to understand the possible roles of leaded gasoline emission, rainfall, sediment flux and the residence time of the Pb inferred by the Pb210 data. From our current tests, a relatively high correlation appeared between the Pb in coral and the local annual precipitation, with a lag time of 2 years. The 2 year lag is somewhat surprising and we expect to elaborate further by correlating the Pb in coral with the Pb isotope signatures in an attempt to identify possible sources.;

Chen, M.; Lee, J.; Nurhati, I. S.; Switzer, A. D.; Boyle, E. A.



Factors affecting the concentrations of lead in British wheat and barley grain.  


The entry of Pb into the food chain is of concern as it can cause chronic health problems. The concentration of Pb was determined in cereal grain samples collected representatively from British Cereal Quality Surveys in 1982 and 1998 (n = 176, 250 and 233 for wheat collected in 1982 and 1998, and barley in 1998, respectively). In addition, paired soil and grain samples were collected from 377 sites harvested across Britain in 1998-2000. Wheat grain Pb ranged from below the analytical detection limit (0.02 mg kg(-1) dry weight, DW) to 1.63 mg kg(-1) DW, and barley grain Pb from <0.02 to 0.48 mg kg(-1) DW. The vast majority of samples (>99% for both wheat and barley, excluding Scottish barley samples collected in 2000) were well below the newly introduced EU limit for the maximum permissible concentration of Pb in cereals (0.2 mg kg(-1) fresh weight, equivalent to 0.235 mg kg(-1) DW). There was a significant reduction in wheat grain Pb in the 1998 survey compared with the 1982 survey. However, 40 barley samples collected from Scotland in 2000 in the paired soil and crop survey showed anomalously high concentrations of Pb, with 10 samples exceeding the EU limit. Washing experiments demonstrated that surface contamination, introduced during grain harvest and/or storage, was the main reason for the high concentrations in these samples. In the paired soil and crop surveys, there were no significant correlations between grain Pb concentrations with total soil Pb and other soil properties, indicating low bioavailability of Pb in the soils and limited uptake and transport of Pb to grain. The Pb in cereal grain is likely to originate mainly from atmospheric deposition and other routes of surface contamination during harvest and storage. PMID:15261410

Zhao, F J; Adams, M L; Dumont, C; McGrath, S P; Chaudri, A M; Nicholson, F A; Chambers, B J; Sinclair, A H



Deer exposed to exceptionally high concentrations of lead near the continental mine in Idaho, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat surrounding the inactive Continental Mine in northern Idaho, USA, supports bear (Ursus arctos, Ursus americanus), moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus elaphus), woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), and abundant mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Tailings on the mining site were capped and remediated in 2003 to reduce environmental exposure of surrounding soil and sediments of Blue Joe Creek, downslope of the mine. Before capping, the mean Pb concentration in deer pellets collected on-site was 920 mg/kg of Pb (dry wt). This exposure, if chronic, would be comparable to an exposure that could be lethal to cattle or horses. Surprisingly, the mean pellet Pb concentration of 950 mg/kg in 2004 was as high as it was before remediation, and it was related to a high rate of soil ingestion. Mean soil content of the pellets collected from the capped site in 2004 was 22% dry weight, estimated from the acid-insoluble ash, a marker of soil ingestion. Clumps of sand and bits of rock were observed inside some of the pellets, and Pb concentrations in the pellets were correlated (p < 0.05) with soil content. Although terrestrial risk assessments generally estimate exposure from diets and from incidentally ingested soil, the deer at this site were directly ingesting contaminated soil or mining waste. The mean Pb concentration of this ingested soil was estimated as 6,700 mg/kg and the maximum as 25,000 mg/kg, well above the Pb concentrations measured in the remediated cap. The deer seemed to be ingesting soil or mining waste from one or more small but highly contaminated sources located beyond the remediated cap.

Beyer, W.N.; Gaston, G.; Brazzle, R.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Audet, D.J.



Effects of pH and carbonate concentration on dissolution rates of the lead corrosion product PbO(2).  


Lead(IV) oxide is a corrosion product that can develop on lead pipes and affect lead concentrations in drinking water. Continuously stirred flow-though reactors were used to quantify the dissolution rates of plattnerite (beta-PbO(2)) at different pH values and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations. Organic pH buffers were not used, because several were found to be reductants for PbO(2) that accelerated its dissolution. Most plattnerite dissolution rates were on the order of 10(-10) mol/min-m(2). The rate of dissolution increased with decreasing pH and with increasing DIC. The effect of DIC is consistent with a reductive dissolution mechanism that involves the reduction of Pb(IV) to Pb(II) at the plattnerite surface followed by the formation of soluble Pb(II)-carbonate complexes that accelerate Pb(II) release from the surface. Under the experimental conditions, dissolved lead concentrations were controlled by the dissolution rate of plattnerite and not by its equilibrium solubility. A dissolution rate model was developed and can be used to predict dissolution rates of plattnerite as a function of pH and DIC. PMID:20063875

Xie, Yanjiao; Wang, Yin; Singhal, Vidhi; Giammar, Daniel E



Coyote estrous urine volatiles.  


Samples of female coyote urine were taken once or twice each week during the winter and spring for two years. Headspace analysis was employed with Tenax GC trapping and GC-MS. Tenax trapping was started in less than 1 hr after sampling, and mild conditions were used to minimize losses of highly volatile and labile compounds. Thirty-four compounds were identified. They include sulfur compounds, aldehydes and ketones, hydrocarbons, and one alcohol. The principal constituent is methyl 3-methylbut-3-enyl sulfide, which usually comprised 50% or more of the total volatiles observed. The concentration of many constituents varied widely. This appeared to be quasiperiodic for five of the constituents, with a period of a few weeks, and with pronounced maxima at the peak of estrus. Apparently these compounds are 3-methyltetrahydrothiophene, methyl 3-methylbutyl sulfide, octanal, dodecanal, and bis(3-methylbut-3-enyl) disulfide. One or more of these compounds may have pheromonal activity in coyote relationships. PMID:24276012

Schultz, T H; Flath, R A; Stern, D J; Mon, T R; Teranishi, R; Kruse, S M; Butler, B; Howard, W E



The influence of environmental exposure on lead concentrations in scalp hair of children in Pakistan.  


In the present study the environmental and occupational exposure of Pb has been assessed by analyzing the scalp hair (SH) of children (both genders), residing in the vicinity of industrial area of Hyderabad, Pakistan. A total of 339 children attending primary schools situated in the industrial area, age ranged 5-10 years, while for comparative purpose children of the same age group from schools located in an area devoid of industries, were selected. The scalp hair was oxidized by acid mixture in a microwave oven prior to determination of Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration profile of Pb in SH of children showed that the level changed significantly (44-64%) with changes of living habits or environmental exposure. The influence of age, sex, and family occupation on the children's hair Pb concentration was also evaluated. Significant differences in SH-Pb levels were observed between the exposed (EXC) and non-exposed (NEC) children (p<0.01). The concentration of Pb in boys of exposed (EX) and non-exposed (NEX) area was more than in girls of the corresponding localities. The boys and girls of NEX and EX areas have SH-Pb in the range of 3.97-5.4 and 6.06-13.7 ?g g(-1) and 3.41-7.4 and 5.56-11.5 ?g g(-1), respectively. The Pb levels increased with age in both study groups. PMID:21071086

Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Baig, Jameel Ahmed



Assessment of Elemental Concentrations in Streams of the New Lead Belt in Southeastern Missouri, 2002-05  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concerns about possible effects of lead-mining activities on the water quality of federally protected streams located in southeastern Missouri prompted a suite of multidisciplinary studies to be conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. As part of this investigation, a series of biological studies were initiated in 2001 for streams in the current mining region and the prospecting area. In this report, results are examined for trace elements and other selected chemical measurements in sediment, surface water, and sediment interstitial (pore) water sampled between 2002 and 2005 in association with these biological studies. Compared to reference sites, fine sediments collected downstream from mining areas were enriched in metals by factors as large as 75 for cadmium, 62 for cobalt, 171 for nickel, 95 for lead, and 150 for zinc. Greatest metal concentrations in sediments collected in 2002 were from sites downstream from mines on Strother Creek, Courtois Creek, and the West Fork Black River. Sediments from sites on Bee Fork, Logan Creek, and Sweetwater Creek also were noticeably enriched in lead. Sediments in Clearwater Lake, at least 75 kilometers downstream from mining activity, had metal concentrations that were 1.5 to 2.1 times greater than sediments in an area of the lake with no upstream mining activity. Longitudinal sampling along three streams in 2004 indicated that sediment metal concentrations decreased considerably a few kilometers downstream from mining activities; however, in Strother Creek some metals were still enriched by a factor of five or more as far as 13 kilometers downstream from the Buick tailings impoundment. Compared with 2002 samples, metals concentrations were dramatically lower in sediments collected in 2004 at an upper West Fork Black River site, presumably because beneficiation operations at the West Fork mill ceased in 2000. Concentrations of metals and sulfate in sediment interstitial (pore) waters generally tracked closely with metal concentrations in sediments. Metals, including cobalt, nickel, lead, and zinc, were elevated substantially in laboratory-produced pore waters of fine sediments collected near mining operations in 2002 and 2004. Passive diffusion samplers (peepers) buried 4 to 6 centimeters deep in riffle-run stream sediments during 2003 and 2005 had much lower pore-water metal concentrations than the laboratory-produced pore waters of fine sediments collected in 2002 and 2004, but each sampling method produced similar patterns among sites. The combined mean concentration of lead in peeper samples from selected sites located downstream from mining activities for six streams was about 10-fold greater than the mean of the reference sites. In most instances, metals concentrations in surface water and peeper water were not greatly different, indicating considerable exchange between the surface water and pore water at the depths and locations where peepers were situated. Passive sampling probes used to assess metal lability in pore waters of selected samples during 2004 sediment toxicity tests indicated that most of the filterable lead in the laboratory-prepared pore water was relatively non-labile, presumably because lead was complexed by organic matter, or was present as colloidal species. In contrast, large percentages of cobalt and nickel in pore water appeared to be labile. Passive integrative samplers deployed in surface water for up to 3 weeks at three sites in July 2005 confirmed the presence of elevated concentrations of labile metals downstream from mining operations on Strother Creek and, to a lesser extent, Bee Fork. These samplers also indicated a considerable increase in metal loadings occurred for a few days at the Strother Creek site, which coincided with moderate increases in stream discharges in the area.

Brumbaugh, William G.; May, Thomas W.; Besser, John M.; Allert, Ann L.; Schmitt, Christopher J.



Are cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations in mosses across Europe primarily determined by atmospheric deposition of these metals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study aimed at investigating correlations between heavy metal concentrations in mosses and modelled deposition values\\u000a as well as other site-specific and regional characteristics to determine which factors primarily affect cadmium, lead and\\u000a mercury concentrations in mosses. The resulting relationships could potentially be used to enhance the spatial resolution\\u000a of heavy metal deposition maps across Europe.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Modelled heavy

Winfried Schröder; Marcel Holy; Roland Pesch; Harry Harmens; Ilia Ilyin; Eiliv Steinnes; Renate Alber; Yuliya Aleksiayenak; Oleg Blum; Mahmut Co?kun; Maria Dam; Ludwig De Temmerman; Marina Frolova; Marina Frontasyeva; Laura Gonzalez Miqueo; Krystyna Grodzi?ska; Zvonka Jeran; Szymon Korzekwa; Miodrag Krmar; Eero Kubin; Kestutis Kvietkus; Sébastien Leblond; Siiri Liiv; Sigurđur Magnússon; Blanka Ma?kovská; Juha Piispanen; Ĺke Rühling; Jesus Santamaria; Zdravko Spiric; Ivan Suchara; Lotti Thöni; Viktor Urumov; Lilyana Yurukova; Harald G. Zechmeister



Toxic effects of lead on biochemical and histological alterations in green mussel (Perna viridis) induced by environmentally relevant concentrations.  


Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted on green mussel (Perna viridis) to determine the adverse effects of lead (Pb). Exposure of organisms to acute toxicity test for 96 h and lethal concentration (LC(50)) was the endpoint of the test. Acute toxicity for 96-h LC(50) and 95% confidence intervals of P. viridis was 2.62 ± 0.12 (2.62-3.24) mg/L Pb. Chronic toxicity tests revealed that survival of exposed organisms decreased with elevated exposure concentrations. No-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) were calculated based on survival of test organisms. Results of this study demonstrated an increase in toxicity in test organisms with rise in exposure time and concentration. In this study, histology and biochemical enzymes, namely, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, and lipid peroxides, were correlated with chronic value and survival endpoints of P. viridis after chronic exposure to Pb. Biochemical and histological responses to different concentrations of Pb were assessed and significant differences were observed between control and increasing exposure concentrations. Biomarker studies in internal organs confirmed that the observed changes are due to adverse effects of Pb. This assessment of toxicity was the first step to determining the seawater quality criteria for marine organisms. PMID:24588225

Hariharan, G; Purvaja, R; Ramesh, R



Seasonal concentrations of lead in outdoor and indoor dust and blood of children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  


Because detrimental effects of exposure to lead (Pb) on human health have been observed, we previously investigated concentrations of Pb in water supplies and blood of adult residents of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The objectives of the present study were to: (1) examine seasonal rates of deposition of Pb in dust in several areas of Riyadh city, (2) measure concentrations of Pb in both outdoor and indoor dust, (3) compare concentrations of Pb in dust in Riyadh with those reported for other cities, and (4) quantify Pb in blood of children living in Riyadh. Mean, monthly deposition of PB in outdoor dust was 4.7 × 10(1) ± 3.6 tons km(-2), with a mean Pb concentration of 2.4 × 10(2) ± 4.4 × 10(1) ?g/g. Mean, monthly deposition of Pb in indoor dust was 2.7 ± 0.70 tons km(-2), with a mean concentration of 2.9 × 10(1) ± 1.5 × 10(1) ?g Pb/g. There was a significant (P < 0.01) correlation between concentrations of Pb in outdoor and indoor dust. There was no correlation between concentrations of Pb in indoor dust and that in blood of children of Riyadh, whereas there was a weakly significant (P < 0.05) correlation between concentrations of Pb in outdoor dust and that in blood of children. The mean (±SD) concentration of Pb in blood of children in Riyadh was 5.2 ± 1.7, with a range of 1.7-1.6 × 10(1) ?g/dl. Concentrations of Pb in blood of 17.8 % of children in Riyadh were greater than 10 ?g/dl, which is the CDC's level of concern. PMID:24213703

El-Desoky, Gaber E; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Habila, Mohamed; Giesy, John P



Urinary albumin to osmolality ratio predicts 24-hour urine albumin excretion in diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in a single urine sample has been proposed to provide an estimate of microalbuminuria by adjusting for variability in urine concentrations. We hypothesized that adjusting the urine albumin concentration of single-void specimens for actual urine osmolality (urinary albumin to osmolality ratio [AOR]) may provide a more accurate estimate of 24-hour urine albumin excretion rates

Geeta G. Gyamlani; Erik J. Bergstralh; Jeffrey M. Slezak; Timothy S. Larson



Meteorological and Topographic Conditions in the Wintertime Uintah Basin Leading to High Ozone Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High concentrations of O3 in the Uintah Basin, Utah, during winter have been observed during periods of snow cover in the basin. Low sun angles and the high albedo of snow contribute to very cold surface temperatures and strong static stability, which inhibit vertical mixing and trap pollutants within a very shallow layer near the ground. The pollutants are emitted from a variety of sources related to petroleum extraction in the western part of the basin and natural gas ';fracking' and extraction in the eastern half. These unevenly distributed sources also include several point and area NOX sources distributed around the basin as well. Despite the weakness of the daytime shortwave radiative heating of the snow surface and the daytime heat fluxes, a shallow unstable mixed layer is observed to form, in which pollutants and potential temperature are often observed to be nearly constant with height. Also often observed is an upslope or upvalley daytime flow by NOAA's High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which was located in the eastern portion of the basin. At this location, the weak (1-3 m/s) upslope flow was from a westerly direction during daytime. At night, a shallow, weak (1-3 m/s) easterly drainage flow was routinely observed by the lidar. The sloshing of air by the alternating daytime and nighttime flows, along with other weak oscillatory flows in the basin cold pool, had the effect of mingling the pollutants from the various sources, which may have contributed to the highest O3 concentrations.

Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Martin, R. S.; Schnell, R. C.; Johnson, B.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Helmig, D.; Stephens, C. R.; Evans, J.; Senff, C. J.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Roberts, J. M.; Conley, S. A.; Zamora, R. J.



Cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc concentrations in human infant tissues: their relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of an excess of the toxic elements, cadmium and lead, or a deficiency of any of the essential elements, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, in the tissues of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as compared to those of infants who died of other causes. The literature was reviewed for SIDS, mineral metabolism, and mineral interactions. Lung, liver, kidney, and rib specimens were obtained at autopsy from 130 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. There were 85 SIDS cases ranging in age from 2 to 64 weeks and 45, aged 1 to 92 weeks, who died of other causes. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc in each tissue were determined by electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis of the data showed that liver and rib lead concentrations and liver magnesium concentrations were significantly higher in SIDS tissues in the 4 to 26 week age group than in non-SIDS tissues in the same age group. There was no evidence of a deficiency of the essential minerals measured.

Erickson, M.M.



Blood concentration of copper, cadmium, zinc and lead in horses and its relation to hematological and biochemical parameters.  


Environmental pollution results in serious health hazards to animals and blood analysis serves as a good alternative for health status assessment. The target of this study was to analyze the concentration of selected metals in equine blood, to analyze the blood parameters and to find possible correlations. Blood samples were collected from the vena jugularis of healthy adult horses. The highest concentration of all elements was found in whole blood (Cu 3.84 ± 0.90 mg L(-1); Cd = 0.81 ± 0.90 mg L(-1); Zn 26.67 ± 14.12 mg L(-1); Pb 9.33 ± 5.76 mg L(-1)). Higher concentrations of copper, cadmium, zinc and lead were detected in blood clots compared to blood sera (44.04%). A similar tendency was found for cadmium (50%), zinc (13.08%) and lead (46.02%), which showed generally higher concentrations in blood clots (cells). Correlation analysis proved some relations between analyzed elements. In blood clots there is a strong positive correlation between Cd - Pb (r = 0.93) and Zn - Pb (r = 0.71) was detected. For biochemical and hematological parameters mainly medium correlations were detected. Obtained results prove different correlations of analyzed elements in blood components as well as the effect on parameters of blood biochemical and hematological profiles. PMID:24766599

Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Halo, Marko; Formicki, Grzegorz; Lukac, Norbert; Cupka, Peter; Schwarcz, Pavol; Kovacik, Anton; Tusimova, Eva; Kovacik, Jaroslav



Urine the Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners compare water with artificial urine to see how urinalysis works. Learners use urinalysis test strips to test for glucose and protein in the fake urine. Use this activity to demonstrate why doctors examine urine samples to determine a person's health. Safety notes: Follow the safety notes described in the activity as well as Milli's safety tips on page 2.

Society, American C.



Purple urine bag syndrome.  


The purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare condition associated with chronic urinary catheterization. It is characterized by the purple discoloration of the urine, collecting bag, and tubing. A number of factors are involved, but not always present, in its development including female sex, urinary tract infection, constipation, indicanuria, and alkaline urine. Despite multiple theories that involve the complex tryptophan metabolism to the tubing dye, the cause remains elusive. The syndrome resolves usually after treatment of urinary tract infection or changing of the collecting bag. We present a case of a patient with purple urine bag syndrome and a pertinent literature review. PMID:16032624

Vallejo-Manzur, Federico; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo; Varon, Joseph



Maternal and neonatal scalp hair concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead: relationship to some lifestyle factors.  


Postpartum scalp hair samples from 82 term-pregnancy mother/ neonate pairs were analyzed for their concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Maternal and neonatal Zn concentrations had geometric means (and 99% confidence intervals) of 122.5 microg/g (117.9--131.5 microg/g) and 146.9 microg (141.5--156.7 microg/g) respectively. Corresponding Cu values were 18.4 microg/g (17.6--23.8 microg/g) and 6.7 microg/g (6.3--7.6 microg/g). Those of Cd were 0.49 microg/g (0.47--0.69 microg/g) in the mothers and 0.57 microg/g (0.55--0.86 microg/g) in the neonates. For Pb, they were 7.95 microg/g (7.60--9.32 microg/g) and 4.56 microg/g (4.39--5.56 microg/g). Cigarette smoking, despite its relatively low prevalence (19.5%), was associated with lower Zn and higher Cd and Pb concentrations and in lower Zn/Cd and Zn/Pb molar concentration ratios. Smoking also altered interelemental relationships, particularly those of Zn with Cd and Pb and those between Cd and Pb. Smoking frequency appeared to show negative dose-response effects on maternal and neonatal Zn concentrations, Zn/Pb molar concentration ratios, and birth weight. Mothers with a history of oral contraceptive (OC) usage had significantly higher Cu concentrations and lower Zn/Cu molar concentration ratios than non users, with the highest Cu concentrations and lowest Zn/Cu values being associated with third-generation OCs. No similar effects were elicited in the respective neonatal Cu concentrations. Neither alcohol consumption nor prenatal supplementation with iron and/or folic acid had discernible effects on the maternal or neonatal elemental concentrations. The data from this study suggest that in a given population of term-pregnancy mothers and neonates, significant interindividual variations in hair trace element concentrations can occur, irrespective of commonality of general environment, and that lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and OC usage history, can be significant contributory factors to such variations. The data are discussed in relation to the effects of smoking-associated exposure to Cd and Pb exposure on Zn availability for placental transfer, as well as on the quantitative maternal Zn supply levels to the fetus resulting from the known tendency of smokers to have lower dietary intakes of Zn. PMID:16037607

Razagui, Ibrahim B-A; Ghribi, Ibrahim



Radioimmunologische Bestimmung von Digoxin im Urin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary When separating free and antibody bound digoxin, dextrancoated charcoal suspensions in protein-free urine dilutions develop an improves sieve effect which improves with aging of the suspensions. On addition of albumin to the dilution medium (buffer), the adsorptive capacities become stabilized. In urine dilutions < of 1:50, false positive digoxin concentrations were measured. Determinations of 0–5 ng digoxin\\/ml in the

K. Maertin; N. Rietbrock



Liver and kidney concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in cats  

PubMed Central

Background In order to provide new knowledge on the storage of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the feline organism, we measured the concentrations of these elements in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla, evaluating also the impact of age, sex or the occurrence of a chronic kidney disease (CKD). The element concentrations in the tissues of 47 cats (22 male; 25 female; aged between 2 months and 18 years) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Cu, Zn and Mn were the highest in the liver, followed by the renal cortex and the renal medulla. The Cd concentrations were lower in the renal medulla compared to the renal cortex and the liver, and Sr was higher in the renal medulla compared to the liver. The Se concentrations in the cortex of the kidneys were higher than in the medulla of the kidneys and in the liver. Higher Cd concentrations were measured in the renal cortex of female cats, while no further gender-related differences were observed. Except for Cr, Sb and Se, age-dependencies were detected for the storage of all elements. The occurrence of a CKD also affected the storage of the elements, with lower concentrations of Ba (renal medulla), Zn (renal cortex; renal medulla) and Mn (liver; renal medulla), but higher Cd concentrations (liver; renal cortex) in diseased cats. Conclusions In conclusion, the present results provide new information on the accumulation of specific elements in the feline liver and kidneys, demonstrating a dependency on age and an impaired kidney function, but not on the sex of the animals.



Urine Pretreat Injection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for p...



Leukocyte esterase urine test  


Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs associated with infection. ... A clean-catch urine sample is preferred. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting ...


Citric acid urine test  


Urine - citric acid test ... to discontinue drugs that may interfere with the test. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. However, the ... performed while you are eating regularly. Ask your health care ...


RBC urine test  


Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...


Urine collection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)



Urine Monitoring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.



Concentrations of lead and mercury in multimedia samples from homes near the former Clark Air Base, Philippines.  


We measured lead and mercury in samples collected from 31 homes in communities near the former Clark Air Base, Philippines during May and October 2002. Sample media included water used for drinking and cooking, house dust and entryway soil. Composite samples of 15 food items purchased at local markets were also collected. Samples were analyzed for total lead (Pb) and total mercury (Hg) to evaluate the relative importance of each media to residential exposure concentrations in the community adjacent to Clark (Community A) versus a control community 5 km away (Community B). In general, we measured low (e.g. background) to undetectable levels of the target analytes in all media sampled with two important exceptions. First, the Hg concentrations we measured in canned mackerel composites, which were within the range reported for mackerel from other locations worldwide, may pose a risk to pregnant women who are frequent consumers (e.g. one or more cans per day). Second, we measured Pb above the USEPA residential screening concentration (400 mug/g) in dust and soil from two homes, illustrating the need for periodic residential lead monitoring in these and other communities in the Philippines. We found no significant difference between Communities A and B with respect to Pb and Hg concentrations in water or food, although we were not able to detect very low levels of Pb in most of the foods we sampled because of trace Pb contamination added during sample homogenization. Although the Pb levels we measured in dust and soil from Community A homes were higher on average than Community B homes, the levels in both communities were low (e.g. background) thus we did not investigate the difference further. To our knowledge, these are the first reported measurements of Pb in house dust in the Philippines. The concentrations of Pb we measured in house dust were significantly higher than those in entryway soil from both communities, adding empirical support to the assertion that yard soil should not be considered a proxy for house dust in exposure studies in the Philippines or elsewhere. PMID:15833241

Riederer, Anne M; Shine, James P; Danan, Lieza M; Ford, Timothy E



Lead Concentration Levels in Waters from Public Drinking Fountains in the East San Francisco Bay Area, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many East San Francisco Bay Area public parks are heavily populated by parents and their children and generally experience high levels of pedestrian traffic during the day, particularly during summer months. Consequently, if ever any of these visitors become thirsty they are likely to drink from the many public water fountains that exist. As most of the parks were established long before lead-related legislation was put in place, and their associated plumbing systems are very old, we decided to collect samples from a variety of locations to determine their lead concentration levels. Our rationale was that the public is generally not well informed about possible lead contamination related to a seemingly innocent source, namely drinking water fountains at parks, or about and the potential hazards related to lead consumption, and that our research could serve as a means of helping to increase public understanding of this important issue. This is especially important given that many young children populate parks during summer months and, according to the EPA, lead consumption in infants and young children is known to cause physical and mental development problems. With this situation in mind, our team collected multiple samples from water fountains in five different East Bay parks: Piedmont, San Antonio, Dracena, Mosswood, and Lake Merritt. Later these samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. Preliminary results indicate that lead concentration levels in waters issuing from fountains in all of the parks we collected samples from exceed the 15 ppb action limit set by the EPA for in-home tap water. Samples collected from the park in Piedmont yielded values as high as 35 ppb, greater than twice the EPA limit. Given these results, it is with most pressing urgency that we continue this study, and that we publicize our results as soon as possible so that the communities using these parks can decide for themselves whether or not to take the risks associated with drinking water from these fountains, and what steps they can take to improve current conditions.

Buford, B.; Lawrence, D.; Lawrence, T.; Lewis-Velasco, W.; Lockett, N.; Swamy, S.; Tyner, N.; Quach, C.



Chronic effects of environmentally-relevant concentrations of lead in Pelophylax nigromaculata tadpoles: Threshold dose and adverse effects.  


Lead (Pb) is a common heavy metal in the natural environment, but its concentration has been increasing alongside widespread industrial and agricultural development in China. The dark-spotted frog Pelophylax (formerly Rana) nigromaculata (Anura: Ranidae) is distributed across East Asia and inhabits anthropogenic habitats such as farmland. Here, P. nigromaculata tadpoles (Gosner stage 19-46) were exposed to Pb at different concentrations (0, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640 and 1280µg/L) and Pb-induced survival, metamorphosis time, development, malformations, mobility and gonad structure were monitored. The results showed that above the threshold concentration of Pb, adverse effects were obvious. As the concentration of Pb increased, the adverse effects on different traits followed different patterns: the effects on hindlimb length, survival rate, metamorphosis rate, total malformation rate, swimming speed and jumping speed largely exhibited a linear pattern; the effects on snout-vent length, body mass and forelimb length largely exhibited a bimodal pattern. Sex ratio and gonadal histology were not affected by Pb, suggesting that Pb is not strongly estrogenic in P. nigromaculata. PMID:24726944

Huang, Min-Yi; Duan, Ren-Yan; Ji, Xiang



Placental concentrations of mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic and the risk of neural tube defects in a Chinese population.  


To examine whether in utero exposure to mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) is associated with an elevated neural tube defects (NTDs) risk, placental concentrations of total Hg, Cd, Pb and As were measured with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) in 36 anencephaly and 44 spina bifida cases as well as in 50 healthy controls. The median Hg concentration in the NTD cases (2.25 ng/g) was higher than that of the controls (1.16 ng/g). The odds ratio (OR) for an Hg concentration above the median was 8.80 (95% CI 3.80-20.36) for the NTD cases. NTD risks increased for the second and third high levels of the concentrations, with ORs of 2.70 (95% CI 1.13-6.43) and 18.20 (95% CI 5.45-60.73), respectively. Therefore, higher placental levels of Hg are associated with an elevated risk of NTDs. PMID:23164984

Jin, Lei; Zhang, Le; Li, Zhiwen; Liu, Jian-meng; Ye, Rrongwei; Ren, Aiguo




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Watch your solution change color as you mix chemicals with water. Then check molarity with the concentration meter. What are all the ways you can change the concentration of your solution? Switch solutes to compare different chemicals and find out how concentrated you can go before you hit saturation!

Simulations, Phet I.; Chamberlain, Julia; Malley, Chris; Lancaster, Kelly; Moore, Emily B.; Perkins, Kathy



Lead Poison Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.



Effect of pH on the concentrations of lead and trace contaminants in drinking water: a combined batch, pipe loop and sentinel home study.  


High lead levels in drinking water are still a concern for households serviced by lead pipes in many parts of North America and Europe. This contribution focuses on the effect of pH on lead concentrations in drinking water delivered through lead pipes. Though this has been addressed in the past, we have conducted a combined batch, pipe loop and sentinel study aiming at filling some of the gaps present in the literature. Exhumed lead pipes and water quality data from the City of London's water distribution system were used in this study. As expected, the lead solubility of corrosion scale generally decreased as pH increased; whereas dissolution of other accumulated metals present in the corrosion scale followed a variety of trends. Moreover, dissolved arsenic and aluminum concentrations showed a strong correlation, indicating that the aluminosilicate phase present in the scale accumulates arsenic. A significant fraction of the total lead concentration in water was traced to particulate lead. Our results indicate that particulate lead is the primary contributor to total lead concentration in flowing systems, whereas particulate lead contribution to total lead concentrations for stagnated systems becomes significant only at high water pH values. PMID:21458838

Kim, Eun Jung; Herrera, Jose E; Huggins, Dan; Braam, John; Koshowski, Scott



Measurement control program 092: Mercury in urine: Artificial urine versus natural urine external control solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was conducted to determine if any significant differences exist between the use of artificial urine vs. natural urine in the preparation of external control samples for Measurement Control Program Number 092, Mercury in Urine. Artificial ...

A. F. Volesky



Effects of abomasal infusion of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) oil on microbial ?-glucuronidase activity and concentration of the mammalian lignan enterolactone in ruminal fluid, plasma, urine and milk of dairy cows.  


Ruminal microbiota plays an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into mammalian lignans. The main mammalian lignan present in the milk of dairy cows fed flax products is enterolactone (EL). The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of abomasal infusion of flax oil on the metabolism of flax lignans and concentrations of EL in biological fluids of dairy cows. A total of six rumen-cannulated dairy cows were assigned within a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of six treatments utilising flax hulls (0 and 15·9 % of DM) and abomasal infusion of flax oil (0, 250 and 500 g/d). There were six periods of 21 d each. Samples were collected during the last 7 d of each period and subjected to chemical analysis. Flax hull supplementation increased concentrations of EL in ruminal fluid, plasma, urine and milk, while flax oil infusion had no effect. Post-feeding, ?-glucuronidase activity in the ruminal fluid of cows infused with 250 g flax oil was significantly lower for cows fed hulls than for those fed the control diet. The present study demonstrated that the presence of a rich source of n-3 fatty acids such as flax oil in the small intestine does not interfere with the absorption of the mammalian lignan EL and that lower ruminal ?-glucuronidase activity had no effect on the conversion of flax lignans into EL in the rumen of dairy cows. PMID:22717302

Côrtes, Cristiano; da Silva-Kazama, Daniele; Kazama, Ricardo; Benchaar, Chaouki; dos Santos, Geraldo; Zeoula, Lucia M; Gagnon, N; Petit, Hélčne V



Lead concentrations in sediments and blue-winged teals (Anas discors) from El Palmar State Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico.  


Reserve regulations at El Palmar State Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico, prohibit the use of lead (Pb) shot, but hunters continue to use it, and no enforcement is implemented. Pb was quantified in sediments and in blue-winged teal Anas discors. No shot pellets were found in the sediment samples, nor were differences in sediment Pb concentrations observed within the reserve between popular hunting sites and those no longer used for hunting. However, there were differences between the hunting sites and sediments from an adjacent area where hunting is prohibited. Average Pb concentrations were highest at hunting entrances (15.69 ± 18.69 mg/kg) and lowest at decoy locations (5.24 ± 4.84 mg/kg). These averages are lower than the lowest effects level (31 mg/kg), although 10 samples exceeded this level. Pb-shot prevalence in gizzards was 4.88% (n = 41). Pb levels exceeded 5.0 mg/kg dry weight in one or more of the tested tissues (liver, gizzard, and bone) in 14 (34.14%; 7 female, 7 male; 11 adult, 3 juvenile) of the total birds. Bird weight, sex, and age had no effect on Pb concentration. Hunting using Pb shot in the reserve clearly affects Pb levels in sediments and in A. discors that winter there. PMID:23775175

Adán, Echeverría-García; Gerardo, Gold-Bouchot



Spatial Distribution of Lead Isotope Ratios and Inorganic Element Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled studies of inorganic element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios have been conducted on Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada in 2002, 2008, and 2011. To investigate the spatial extent of air emissions, the lichens were collected from sites as far as 160 km from the mining and processing operations. 30 milligram sub-samples of the lichens were microwave digested, and the extracts were analyzed using DRC-ICPMS to determine elemental concentrations, and sector field ICPMS to measure Pb isotope ratios. Concentrations of elements in the lichens were found to reflect proximity to mining and oil processing sites as well as topography, ecosystem differences, and the metabolic biogeochemistry of the lichens. An exponential decrease in concentration of metals associated with fugitive dust (aluminum and others) versus distance from the mining sites, suggests elevated coarse particle emissions associated with mining operations. Near source concentrations of metals with an oil signature (vanadium and others) are less enhanced and more homogeneous than the metals in the fugitive dust, reflecting emission and deposition of smaller diameter particles at greater distances from oil processing sources. The mining and oil processing signatures are superimposed over elemental concentrations that reflect the nutrient needs of the lichens. These findings are being confirmed through ongoing studies using dichot samplers to collect coarse and fine particulate aerosol samples. The lichen samples collected beyond 50 km from the mining and processing sites cluster into a Pb isotope grouping with a 207Pb / 206Pb ratio of 0.8650 and a 208Pb / 206Pb ratio near 2.095. This grouping likely reflects the regional background Pb isotope ratio signature. 207Pb / 206Pb and 208Pb / 206Pb ratios decrease as one nears the mining and processing operations. This indicates that other Pb source(s), (e.g. Pb in the bitumen from the oil sands), are contributing to the Pb accumulated by the lichens. The Pb isotope ratios are a better indicator of the spatial distribution resulting from atmospheric deposition than the Pb concentrations because the Pb isotope ratios are not affected by the potential for canopy interactions or preferential metabolic processing of elements by the lichens.

Graney, J. R.; Landis, M. S.; Puckett, K.; Edgerton, E.; Krupa, S.; Percy, K.



Changes in urine composition after trauma facilitate bacterial growth  

PubMed Central

Background Critically ill patients including trauma patients are at high risk of urinary tract infection (UTI). The composition of urine in trauma patients may be modified due to inflammation, systemic stress, rhabdomyolysis, life support treatment and/or urinary catheter insertion. Methods Prospective, single-centre, observational study conducted in patients with severe trauma and without a history of UTIs or recent antibiotic treatment. The 24-hour urine samples were collected on the first and the fifth days and the growth of Escherichia coli in urine from patients and healthy volunteers was compared. Biochemical and hormonal modifications in urine that could potentially influence bacterial growth were explored. Results Growth of E. coli in urine from trauma patients was significantly higher on days 1 and 5 than in urine of healthy volunteers. Several significant modifications of urine composition could explain these findings. On days 1 and 5, trauma patients had an increase in glycosuria, in urine iron concentration, and in the concentrations of several amino acids compared to healthy volunteers. On day 1, the urinary osmotic pressure was significantly lower than for healthy volunteers. Conclusion We showed that urine of trauma patients facilitated growth of E. coli when compared to urine from healthy volunteers. This effect was present in the first 24 hours and until at least the fifth day after trauma. This phenomenon may be involved in the pathophysiology of UTIs in trauma patients. Further studies are required to define the exact causes of such modifications.



Production of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer from urine.  


Human excreta, especially urine is rich in nitrogen that can be utilized for agricultural purposes, while the slow-release fertilizer allows effective utilization of nutrients in agricultural production. The direct formation of slow-release fertilizer--methylene urea--from urine was being proposed in this study. The experiments were tried to prove formation of methylene urea from human urine, and to investigate the effect of pH and salt concentration on the reaction rate. The synthetic urine and real urine were used for the urea source of the reaction. As a result, the precipitates were prepared from synthetic urine, while the small molecule fractions generated then they grew into precipitate. The nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, element analyses showed the precipitates in synthetic urine were the same compound found in the urea solution, which was methylene urea. The reaction rate was high at low pH value. The reaction rate in the buffer solution was lower than the synthetic urine at the same pH, because some salts may work as a catalyst. The urea concentration reduction rate in real urine showed the same trend with synthetic urine at the same pH, while the precipitation was quite similar to methylene urea. PMID:24527645

Ito, Ryusei; Takahashi, Eri; Funamizu, Naoyuki



Effects of soil type and genotype on lead concentration in rootstalk vegetables and the selection of cultivars for food safety.  


Lead (Pb) contamination of soil poses severe health risks to humans through vegetable consumption. The variations of Pb concentration in different parts of rootstalk vegetables (radish, carrot and potato) were investigated by using twelve cultivars grown in acidic Ferralsols and neutral Cambisols under two Pb treatments (125 mg kg(-1) and 250 mg kg(-1) for Ferralsols; 150 mg kg(-1) and 300 mg kg(-1) for Cambisols) in a pot experiment. The Pb concentration in edible parts was higher in Ferralsols under two Pb treatments, with range from 0.28 to 4.14, 0.42-10.66 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) respectively, and all of them exceeded the food safety standard (0.1 mg kg(-1)) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO and WHO. The Pb concentration in edible parts was significantly affected by genotype, soil type and the interaction between these two factors. The variation of Pb concentration in different cultivars was partially governed by Pb absorption and the transfer of Pb from aerial to edible part. The results revealed that caution should be paid to the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables in Pb-contaminated Ferralsols without any agronomic management to reduce Pb availability and plant uptake. For Cambisols with slight to moderate Pb contamination, growing potato cultivar Shandong No.1 and Chongqing No.1 was effective in reducing the risk of Pb entering human food chain. The results suggest the possibility of developing cultivar- and soil-specific planting and monitoring guidelines for the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables on slight to moderate Pb-contaminated soils. PMID:23542226

Ding, Changfeng; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Fen; Yang, Yiru; Yin, Yunlong



Effect of complexans (EDTA, NTA and DTPA) on the exposure to high concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead  

SciTech Connect

The effects of complexans on the toxicity of short exposures to high chemical concentrations of heavy meals were examined. The heavy metals used were cadmium, zinc, lead and copper. Mortality every 24-h and the content of metal in each of three areas of fish - viscera, gills and other parts - were detemined both in the groups kept in water containing metal alone and in those whose aqueous environments contained complexan in mole concentrations three time that of the heavy metal. The carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) 8.0 + 0.5 cm were kept in groups of 8 to 10. There were altogether 49 such groups: 12 kept in three relatively high concentrations of each of the metals, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, alone; 36 groups in environments each containing only one of the three complexans, the tetrasodium salt of ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the trisodium salt of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and the pentasodium salt of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) were used. Results indicate that the addition of the complexans resulted in the decrease of the tissue concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. It is considered that the heavy metals were not present merely as metal ions but formed complexes with the complexans, since the complexans were added at three times mole of the metal and therefore complex formation occurred in preference to the binding of the metals with the tissue proteins of the fish. It is furthermore assumed that the heavy metals can pass through the fish as metal-complexes, and so are not retained.

Muramoto, S.



Electrolytic Pretreatment of Urine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum all...



Urine Biochemistry in the Early Postoperative Period after Cardiac Surgery: Role in Acute Kidney Injury Monitoring  

PubMed Central

We have recently suggested that sequential urine electrolyte measurement in critically ill patients may be useful in monitoring kidney function. Cardiac surgery is one of the leading causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU). In this paper, we describe the sequential behavior of urine electrolytes in three patients in the early (first 60?hours) postoperative period after cardiac surgery according to AKI status: no AKI, transient AKI, and persistent AKI. We have found that the patient with no AKI had stable and high concentrations of sodium (NaU) and chloride (ClU) in sequential spot samples of urine. AKI development was characterized in the other two patients by decreases in NaU and ClU, which have started early after ICU admission. Transient AKI was marked by also transient and less severe decreases in NaU and ClU. Persistent AKI was marked by the less favorable clinical course with abrupt and prolonged declines in NaU and ClU values. These electrolytes in urine had a behavior like a “mirror image” in comparison with that of serum creatinine. We suggest that sequential urine electrolytes are useful in monitoring acute kidney injury development in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery.

Maciel, Alexandre Toledo; Vitorio, Daniel



[Activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters].  


The human body is constantly exposed to xenobiotics. This will include exogenous substances from environmental pollution such as heavy metals and lifestyle such as smoking, which may lead to impaired functioning of many organs. The liver and kidney are the critical organs in the case of a long-term occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke. In diagnostics of liver and kidney damage useful are the methods which determine the activity of enzymes such as alanine aminopeptidase (AAP). AAP is a marker for early detection of acute kidney damage, and presence of AAP derive mainly from proximal tubular brush-border. Activity of AAP in urine allows to assess the damage resulting from the nephrotoxic exposure to heavy metals. In the serum AAP is mainly from hepatic. Activity of AAP may be useful to identify liver cancer. The investigation was shown, that AAP activity in the blood is used to detect hepatic cholestasis and congestive jaundice. The aim of present study was to assess the influence of occupational exposure of copper-foundry workers to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead) on activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and urine. The investigations were performed in blood and urine of 166 subjects: 101 male copper smelters and 65 non-exposed male subjects. The study protocol was approved by Local Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (KB No: 469/2008). The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material collected from the control group and smelters was divided into subgroups of nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined in whole blood, whilst the level of arsenic and cadmium were determined in urine using FAAS method (Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) in the acetylate flame on the SOLAAR M6. The activity of AA was determined in blood and in urine. The results showed a 9-fold increase in the concentration of lead and 10-fold elevation of arsenic level in all groups of smelters in comparison to the control group. The highest cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations were observed in blood and urine of smoking smelters. We have observed a significant increase in the concentrations of lead and cadmium in blood of smoking persons from control group in comparison to the non-smoking persons from this group, which suggest, that tobacco smoking increase the heavy metals concentrations in the organisms. Occupational exposure to heavy metals resulted in an increase of AAP activity in blood and urine of all groups of smelters in comparison to corresponding control groups. The highest value of AAP was observed in serum and urine of smoking smelters. Tobacco smoke also increases the AAP activity the blood and urine of smoking smelters and control group compared to the non-smoking smelters and nonsmoking control group, appropriate. The study was shown that occupational exposure to heavy metals and tobacco. PMID:21360924

Bizo?, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina; Milnerowicz, Halina



Detection of a reactive metabolite of misonidazole in human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical studies have indicated that, following reduction of misonidazole to the hydroxylamine derivative, reaction with guanosine leads to the formation of a 2-carbon addition product of guanosine. In this study, the formation of the guanosine product is used to detect the presence of a reactive metabolite of misonidazole in the urine of patients treated with misonidazole. Urine samples were incubated

A. J. Varghese; G. F. Whitmore



Use of urine in snow to indicate condition of wolves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urine deposited in snow by wild gray wolves (Canis lupus) and by fed and fasted captive wolves was analyzed for urea nitrogen, calcium, sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Ratios of the elements with creatinine were considerably higher for fed than for fasted animals, and ratios for fed wolves compared favorably with ratios from wolf urine in snow along trails leading from kills. Thus, wolf urine in the snow can indicate whether wolves have fed recently, and a series of such urine collections from any given pack can indicate relative nutritional state.

Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; DelGiudice, G.D.



Effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation and virulence factors of Escherichia coli planktonic and biofilm forms isolated from human urine  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation, motility, curli fimbriae formation by planktonic and biofilm cells of E. coli strains isolated from the urine of patients with various urinary system infections. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. Bacterial enumeration was used to assess the viability of bacteria in the biofilm. Curli expression was determined by using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Using motility agar the ability to move was examined. All the antibiotics used at sub-MICs reduced biofilm formation in vitro, decreased the survival of bacteria, but had no effect on the motility of planktonic as well as biofilm cells. The inhibitory effect of sub-MICs of antimicrobial agents on curli fimbriae formation was dependent on the form in which the bacteria occurred, incubation time and antibiotic used. Our results clearly show that all the three antibiotics tested reduce biofilm production, interfere with curli expression but do not influence motility. This study suggests that ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin may be useful in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections caused by E. coli strains.

Wojnicz, Dorota; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota



Class I transplantation antigens in solution in body fluids and in the urine. Individuality signals to the environment.  


Classical class I transplantation antigens present in solution in the body fluids have been studied. These antigens have been found in a monomeric, soluble form in blood, lymph, and urine, and a major source is the hemopoietic system which gives rise to cells that secrete these molecules into the blood. The cell types most probably involved in their secretion are of the macrophage/dendritic cell lineage. The serum molecule is a heterodimer with a heavy chain of 39,000 mol wt associated noncovalently with beta 2-microglobulin and is present in serum at a concentration between 350 and 390 ng/ml. These molecules have a short half-life of 2.7 h and are excreted into the environment via the kidneys in the urine. In the urine, greater than 90% of the molecules are degraded into smaller fragments. This finding that normal metabolic processes lead to the excretion of classical highly polymorphic class I molecules in the urine provides a direct explanation in molecular terms of the ability of animals to identify individuals on the basis of urinary odor. Since intact class I molecules are unlikely to be the odoriferous component in the urine, two hypotheses have been suggested. Either small fragments of class I molecules are detected or the molecule acts as a carrier that transports volatiles from the serum into the urine where they are released, giving rise to the class I-associated odor. PMID:3294330

Singh, P B; Brown, R E; Roser, B



Diet effects on urine composition of cattle and N2O emissions.  


Ruminant production contributes to emissions of nitrogen (N) to the environment, principally ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and di-nitrogen (N2) to air, nitrate (NO3 -) to groundwater and particulate N to surface waters. Variation in dietary N intake will particularly affect excretion of urinary N, which is much more vulnerable to losses than is faecal N. Our objective is to review dietary effects on the level and form of N excreted in cattle urine, as well as its consequences for emissions of N2O. The quantity of N excreted in urine varies widely. Urinary N excretion, in particular that of urea N, is decreased upon reduction of dietary N intake or an increase in the supply of energy to the rumen microorganisms and to the host animal itself. Most of the N in urine (from 50% to well over 90%) is present in the form of urea. Other nitrogenous components include purine derivatives (PD), hippuric acid, creatine and creatinine. Excretion of PD is related to rumen microbial protein synthesis, and that of hippuric acid to dietary concentration of degradable phenolic acids. The N concentration of cattle urine ranges from 3 to 20 g/l. High-dietary mineral levels increase urine volume and lead to reduced urinary N concentration as well as reduced urea concentration in plasma and milk. In lactating dairy cattle, variation in urine volume affects the relationship between milk urea and urinary N excretion, which hampers the use of milk urea as an accurate indicator of urinary N excretion. Following its deposition in pastures or in animal houses, ubiquitous microorganisms in soil and waters transform urinary N components into ammonium (NH4 +), and thereafter into NO3 - and ultimately in N2 accompanied with the release of N2O. Urinary hippuric acid, creatine and creatinine decompose more slowly than urea. Hippuric acid may act as a natural inhibitor of N2O emissions, but inhibition conditions have not been defined properly yet. Environmental and soil conditions at the site of urine deposition or manure application strongly influence N2O release. Major dietary strategies to mitigating N2O emission from cattle operations include reducing dietary N content or increasing energy content, and increasing dietary mineral content to increase urine volume. For further reduction of N2O emission, an integrated animal nutrition and excreta management approach is required. PMID:23739471

Dijkstra, J; Oenema, O; van Groenigen, J W; Spek, J W; van Vuuren, A M; Bannink, A




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NCTM iOS app of the familiar online Illuminations game, "Concentration" (cataloged separately) challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the NCTM Android app of their familiar on line Illuminations game, "Concentration" ( cataloged separately ) which challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.



Lack of mutagens in urines of operating room personnel.  


Mutagenic activity of urines obtained from operating room personnel was assayed in the Ames Salmonella/mammalian microsome system using three strains of histidine-dependent S. typhimurium, TA1535, TA1538, and TA100. Two procedures were employed. In the first, 100- and 200-microliter aliquots of urine obtained from 28 subjects working in either scavenged or unscavenged operating rooms were tested. In the second, urine samples obtained from 13 physicians before and after starting an anesthesia residency, as well as 250-fold concentrates of these samples, were assayed. There was no statistically significant difference in urinary mutagenic activities between individuals working in scavenged and those working in unscavenged operating rooms. Furthermore, urines of anesthesiologists collected before and after beginning training had similar mutagenic activities. Only heavy smokers had mutagenic urine. It was concluded that the majority of operating room workers do not excrete mutagens in the urine. PMID:7425332

Baden, J M; Kelley, M; Cheung, A; Mortelmans, K



Magnesium, aluminum and lead in various brain areas  

SciTech Connect

Whereas the lead concentrations were increased in brain tissue of patients with chronic alcoholism, the aluminum concentrations remained within the normal range. The magnesium concentrations were found decreased in patients with chronic alcoholism compared to normal controls. The sources for the elevated lead levels seem to be the increased intake of alcohol. The decreased magnesium levels are probably caused by an increased loss of magnesium with the urine, malnutrition, malabsorption, hormonal factors and drugs. Various neurological disorders which often accompanied chronic alcoholism may be caused or aggravated by lead encephalopathy and hypomagnesemia. Therapeutical implications may be the early substitution of magnesium deficiency in chronic alcoholism. 10 references, 5 figures.

Zumkley, H.; Bertram, H.P.; Brandt, M.; Roedig, M.; Spieker, C.



Laboratory issues in measuring and reporting urine albumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine albumin is an important biomarker for kidney dam- age, and its measurement is recommended by clinical prac- tice guidelines in many countries for identifying and man- aging patients with kidney disease. A recent publication reviewed current practices in measurement and reporting of urine albumin concentrations and made recommenda- tions for improvement (1). The paper reflected the work of the

W. Greg Miller; David E. Bruns



Lead distribution in rats repeatedly treated with low doses of lead acetate  

SciTech Connect

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ip injections of lead acetate (10 and 20 mg/kg) at intervals 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks. Eight rats from each specified injection group were sacrificed 48 hr after the end of each treatment. Lead was determined in whole blood, plasma, plasma filtrate, saliva, urine, feces, brain, salivary glands, liver, kidney, testes, femur, and fur. In the liver, the concentrations of lead fluctuated; in the salivary glands and testes, lead levels were low. In the bone, the kidney, and the brain, lead accumulated steadily and reached high levels in bone and renal tissues, but remained low in the brain. Correlation analysis showed a reciprocal relationship between blood-lead and kidney-lead in the rats treated with 10 mg lead acetate/kg. In the rats treated with 20 mg lead acetate/kg, urine-lead was correlated to kidney-lead. In both groups of treated rats, fur-lead was correlated to kidney-lead.

P'an, A.Y.S.; Kennedy, C. (Univ. de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))



Automatic on-line pre-concentration system using a knotted reactor for the FAAS determination of lead in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic on-line pre-concentration system is proposed for lead determination in drinking water using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Lead(II) ions are retained as the 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) complex in the walls of a knotted reactor, followed by an elution step using 0.50molL?1 hydrochloric acid solution.Optimisation involving the sampling flow rate, pH and buffer concentration factors was performed using a Box–Behnken

Anderson S. Souza; Geovani C. Brandăo; Walter N. L. dos Santos; Valfredo A. Lemos; Edgard M. Ganzarolli; Roy E. Bruns; Sérgio L. C. Ferreira



Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium.  


Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n=60) and Coot (n=50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006-2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n=5) and high concentrations (Mallards n=18 and Coots n=17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions. PMID:23500832

Binkowski, ?ukasz J; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna; Szarek, Józef; Strzy?ewska, Emilia; Felsmann, Mariusz



Purple urine bag syndrome.  


Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare disorder where the plastic urinary catheter bag and tubing turn purple. The discolouration is due to the presence of indigo and indirubin pigments which are metabolites of tryptophan. It is associated with urinary tract infection. Bacteria that produce sulphatase and phosphatase are involved in the formation of these pigments. Purple urine bag syndrome is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, compared to urinary tract infection without this phenomenon. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in a 68-year-old woman. PMID:19495508

Pillai, B P; Chong, V H; Yong, A M



Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine  

SciTech Connect

Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.



[Purple urine bag syndrome: a case report].  


The authors report a case of dark purple urine in a woman with bowel obstruction and bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy urinary diversion for 30 years. This colour was due to the presence of high urinary concentrations of 3-indoxyl sulphate due to the enzymatic activity of Providencia rettgeri. A favourable course was observed in response to antibiotics. PMID:17634003

Lazimy, Yaël; Delotte, Jérôme; Machiavello, Jean-Christophe; Lallement, Michel; Imbenotte, Michel; Bongain, André



Arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium concentrations in private bedrock wells in southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the trace metal arsenic have been identified in drinking water from groundwater sources in southeastern New Hampshire, a rapidly growing region of the State (Montgomery and others, 2003). During the past decade (2000–10), southeastern New Hampshire, which is composed of Hillsborough, Rockingham, and Strafford Counties, has grown in population by nearly 48,700 (or 6.4 percent) to 819,100. These three counties contain 62 percent of the State’s population but encompass only about 22 percent of the land area (New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning, 2011). According to a 2005 water-use study (Hayes and Horn, 2009), about 39 percent of the population in these three counties in southeastern New Hampshire uses private wells as sources of drinking water, and these wells are not required by the State to be routinely tested for trace metals or other contaminants. Some trace metals have associated human-health benchmarks or nonhealth guidelines that have been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate public water supplies. The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for arsenic (As) and a MCL of 30 ?g/L for uranium (U) because of associated health risks (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are essential for human health, but Mn at high doses may have adverse cognitive effects in children (Bouchard and others, 2011; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2012); therefore, the EPA has issued a lifetime health advisory (LHA) of 300 ?g/L for Mn. Recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for Fe (300 ?g/L) and Mn (50 ?g/L) were established primarily as nonhealth guidelines—based on aesthetic considerations, such as taste or the staining of laundry and plumbing fixtures—because these contaminants, at the SMCLs, are not considered to present risks to human health. Because lead (Pb) contamination of drinking water typically results from corrosion of plumbing materials belonging to water-system customers but still poses a risk to human health, the EPA established an action level (AL) of 15 ?g/L for Pb instead of an MCL or SMCL (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). The 15-?g/L AL for Pb has been adopted by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services for public water systems, and if exceeded, the public water system must inform their customers and undertake additional actions to control corrosion in the pipes of the distribution system (New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, 2013). Unlike the quality of drinking water provided by public water suppliers, the quality of drinking water obtained from private wells in New Hampshire is not regulated; consequently, private wells are sampled only when individual well owners voluntarily choose to sample them. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA New England, conducted an assessment in 2012–13 to provide private well owners and State and Federal health officials with information on the distribution of trace-metal (As, Fe, Pb, Mn, and U) concentrations in groundwater from bedrock aquifers in the three counties of southeastern New Hampshire. This fact sheet analyzes data from water samples collected by a randomly selected group of private well owners from the three-county study area and describes the major findings for trace-metal concentrations.

Flanagan, Sarah M.; Belaval, Marcel; Ayotte, Joseph D.



Simple method of determination of copper, mercury and lead in potable water with preliminary pre-concentration by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and chemical pre-concentration procedures have been applied for the analysis of trace concentrations of copper, mercury, and lead in drinking water samples. A simple total reflection module has been used in X-ray measurements. The elements under investigation were pre-concentrated by complexation using a mixture of carbamates followed by solvent extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone. The

B. Ho?y?ska; B. Ostachowicz; D. W?grzynek



Quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine by metalized nanostructured parylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly accurate, real-time multisensor agent monitor for biomarker detection is required for early detection of kidney diseases. Urine creatinine level can provide useful information on the status of the kidney. We prepare nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates without template or lithography, which provides controllable, well-organized nanostructures on the surface, for the quantitative analysis of creatinine concentration in urine. We present our work on sensitivity of the SERS substrate to urine samples collected from diabetic patients and healthy persons. We report the preparation of a new type of SERS substrate, which provides fast (<10 s), highly sensitive (creatinine concentration <0.5 ?g/mL) and reproducible (<5% variation) detection of urine. Our method to analyze the creatinine level in urine is in good agreement with the enzymatic method.

Wang, Hui; Malvadkar, Niranjan; Koytek, S.; Bylander, J.; Reeves, W. Brian; Demirel, Melik C.



Urine drug screen  


... have no access to your personal items or water. In this environment, you cannot dilute the sample, nor can you use someone else's urine for the test. This test ... hands with soap and water. Dry your hands with a clean towel. Men ...


Urine Blockage in Newborns  


... 10 to 12 weeks after conception. However, the mother’s placenta continues to do most of the work until the last few weeks of the pregnancy. Wastes and extra water are removed from the baby’s body through the umbilical cord. The ... womb [ Top ] What causes urine blockage in newborns? ...


Purple urine bag syndrome.  


Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman. PMID:24479059

Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed



Determination of catecholamines in plasma and urine.  


For more than 20 years, measurement of catecholamines in plasma and urine in clinical chemistry laboratories has been the cornerstone of the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors deriving from the neural crest such as pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and neuroblastoma (NB), and is still used to assess sympathetic stress function in man and animals. Although assay of catecholamines in urine are still considered the biochemical standard for the diagnosis of NB, they have been progressively abandoned for excluding/confirming PHEOs to the advantage of metanephrines (MNs). Nevertheless, catecholamine determinations are still of interest to improve the biochemical diagnosis of PHEO in difficult cases that usually require a clonidine-suppression test, or to establish whether a patient with PHEO secretes high concentrations of catecholamines in addition to metanephrines. The aim of this chapter is to provide an update about the catecholamine assays in plasma and urine and to show the most common pre-analytical and analytical pitfalls associated with their determination. PMID:24094641

Grouzmann, Eric; Lamine, Faiza



Inhibitory effects of urine on the polymerase chain reaction for cytomegalovirus DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effects of urine samples taken from neonates and older children, some of which were known to be infected with cytomegalovirus, on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were investigated. Urea was the major inhibitory component of urine and inhibited the PCR at a concentration of more than 50 mM. Urine samples from older children were more inhibitory than those

G Khan; H O Kangro; P J Coates; R B Heath



The Medicinal Use of Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral intake of freshly voided morning urine has been recommended for many diseases such as viral or bacterial infections. Symptoms reported during the first days of oral intake of urine include nausea, vomiting, headache, palpitations, diarrhea or fever. Several substances in the urine are believed to be important for oral intake such as urea, uric acid, cytokines, hormones or urokinase.

Walter H. Hörl



Concentrations and loads of cadmium, zinc, and lead in the main stem Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho—March, June, September, and October 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

of the effects of different river discharges and lake levels of Coeur d'Alene Lake on the transport of cadmium, zinc, and lead within the main stem Coeur d'Alene River. In particular, water-quality data and loads during a broad range of hydrologic conditions were examined to determine if the river channel, flood plain, and associated ground water along the main stem Coeur d'Alene River acted as sources or sinks of trace elements. Water-quality samples were collected at six riverine stations and one lake station along a 35-mile reach during March, June, September, and October of 1999. Samples were analyzed for whole-water recoverable, filtered (0.45 micrometer), and dissolved (0.01 micrometer) concentrations of cadmium, zinc, and lead. Concentrations and loads of cadmium and zinc measured during the four sampling trips were predominately in the filtered and dissolved fraction ,rather than particulate. The smallest concentrations were measured during the June sampling trip when flows were high and snowmelt runoff diluted riverine concentrations. Conversely, the largest concentrations were measured during the latter two sampling trips when flows were low because a larger proportion of the river's discharge was contributed by ground-water inflow. During each sampling trip, cadmium and zinc concentrations generally decreased in a downstream directioeven as discharge increased in a downstream direction. Spatial and temporal trends exhibited by lead concentrations and loads during the four sampling trips were different from those of cadmium and zinc because of the propensity for lead to adsorb to sediment particles. Whole-water recoverable lead concentrations and loads during the four sampling trips were predominantly in the particulate fraction, with filtered and dissolved concentrations and loads composing a much smaller proportion of the recoverable fraction compared to cadmium and zinc. Filtered lead concentrations generally increased at a faster rate in the downstream direction than dissolved lead concentrations; thus, colloidallead either was being formed by complexation reactions or being added by sediment erosion in the downstream direction.

Woods, P. F.



A prospective study of bone lead concentration and death from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in the VA Normative Aging Study  

PubMed Central

Background Blood lead concentration has been associated with mortality from different causes in several studies. Many effects of lead exposure that might increase risk of death are likely to result from cumulative exposure, for which bone lead is a better biomarker than blood lead. The association between bone lead levels and mortality has not been explored. Methods and Results We prospectively assessed the association between both blood lead and bone lead—analyzed using K-x-ray fluorescence—and mortality among 868 men in the Normative Aging Study. We identified 241 deaths over an average of 8.9 (sd=3.9) years of follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards. Compared to the lowest tertile of patella bone lead, the fully adjusted HR in the highest tertile for all cause and cardiovascular mortality (n=137 deaths) were 2.52 (95% CI: 1.17–5.41) and 5.63 (95% CI: 1.73–18.3), respectively. The age, smoking, and race-adjusted HR for ischemic heart disease mortality (n=62 deaths) in the highest tertile was 8.37 (95% CI: 1.29–54.4). Results were similar for tibia lead. Bone lead was not associated with cancer, and blood lead was not associated with any mortality category. Conclusions We found bone lead to be associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in an environmentally-exposed population with low blood lead levels. This study suggests that cumulative lead exposure from prior decades of high environmental exposures continues to significantly impact risk of death despite recent declines in environmental lead exposure.

Weisskopf, Marc G.; Jain, Nitin; Nie, Huiling; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard




Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work, synthetic urine was used as a readily available proxy for real urine for determining the factors which affect the recovery of struvite from urine. Based on these findings with synthetic urine, we recovered struvite from real urine and, thus, showed that a) the synthetic urine served as an adequate model for determining the processes which affect struvite

E. Tilley; J. Atwater; D. Mavinic



Electrolytic pretreatment of urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.



Malondialdehyde in exhaled breath condensate and urine as a biomarker of air pollution induced oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Underlying mechanisms by which air pollutants adversely affect human health remain poorly understood. Oxidative stress has been considered as a potential mechanism that may promote lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) that is excreted in biofluids (e.g., urine and exhaled breath condensate (EBC)). A panel study was conducted to examine whether concentrations of MDA in EBC and urine were associated, respectively, with changes in air pollution levels brought by the Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures. EBC and urine samples from 125 healthy adults were collected twice in each of the pre-, during-, and post-Olympic periods. Period-specific means of MDA and changes in MDA levels associated with increases in 24-h average pollutant concentrations were estimated using linear mixed-effects models. From the pre- to the during-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants decreased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA significantly decreased by 24% (P < 0.0001) and 28% (P = 0.0002), respectively. From the during-Olympic to the post-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants increased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA increased by 28% (P = 0.094) and 55% (P = 0.046), respectively. Furthermore, the largest increases in EBC MDA associated with one interquartile range (IQR) increases in all pollutants but ozone ranged from 10% (95% CI: 2%, 18%) to 19% (95% CI: 14%, 25%). The largest increases in urinary MDA associated with IQR increases in pollutant concentration ranged from 9% (95%: 0.3%, 19%) to 15% (95% CI: 3%, 28%). These findings support the utility of EBC MDA as a biomarker of oxidative stress in the respiratory tract and urinary MDA as a biomarker of systemic oxidative stress in relation to air pollution exposure in healthy young adults. Both EBC and urine samples can be collected noninvasively in the general population.

Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Wang, Guangfa; Hu, Min; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Lu, Shou-En; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Rich, David Q.; Diehl, Scott R.; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)



Blood lead concentration and children’s anthropometric dimensions in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the association between lead exposure and children’s physical growth. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Participants: A total of 4391 non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American children age 1 to 7 years. Measurements and Results: We investigated the association between blood lead concentration and stature, head circumference, weight,

Carol Ballew; Laura Kettel Khan; Rachel Kaufmann; Ali Mokdad; Dayton T. Miller; Elaine W. Gunter



Multivariate optimization and validation studies in on-line pre-concentration system for lead determination in drinking water and saline waste from oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper proposes an on-line pre-concentration procedure for lead determination in drinking water and saline waste from oil refinery by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). It is based on the sorption of lead (II) ions in a minicolumn of polyurethane foam loaded with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) reagent. The optimization step was performed using Doehlert matrix involving the variables: sampling flow

Walter L dos Santos; Carla M. M dos Santos; Jorge L. O Costa; Heloysa M. C Andrade; Sérgio L. C Ferreira



Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.  


The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. PMID:23557676

Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook



Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine  

PubMed Central

The route of transmission of most naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infections remains speculative. To investigate urine as a potential source of TSE exposure, we used a sensitive method for detection and quantitation of TSE infectivity. Pooled urine collected from 22 hamsters showing clinical signs of 263K scrapie contained 3.8 ± 0.9 infectious doses/mL of infectivity. Titration of homogenates of kidneys and urinary bladders from the same animals gave concentrations 20,000-fold greater. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of these same tissues showed no indications of inflammatory or other pathologic changes except for occasional deposits of disease-associated prion protein in kidneys. Although the source of TSE infectivity in urine remains unresolved, these results establish that TSE infectivity is excreted in urine and may thereby play a role in the horizontal transmission of natural TSEs. The results also indicate potential risk for TSE transmission from human urine–derived hormones and other medicines.

Gregori, Luisa; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Alexeeva, Irina; Budka, Herbert



Analyzing lead concentration in the sycamore tree species in high- and low-traffic areas of Rasht, Iran.  


Important heavy metals such as lead and cadmium are part of the pollutants produced by cars and are spread in the urban environment by traffic flow. In order to study the amount of contamination in the trees along the streets and to determine the traffic parameters that affect the lead content in sycamore leaves in Rasht, four stations on the margins of the city streets were selected for this case study in terms of traffic volume (low or high). Traffic parameters including three high-traffic stations considering daily and monthly traffic volumes and one low-traffic station were selected. First, 32 sycamore bases were randomly chosen at the intervals of 10-15 m from the whole range of tree canopy in order to determine the absorption of lead; and then, 20 g of each sample were tested to determine the amount of lead absorption. The results of this study, on the amount of lead absorption by the sycamore tree species at three high-traffic and one control station, showed that Takhti station had the highest amount of lead absorption (37.19 ppm) compared with other three stations. Therefore, the sycamore tree species can be an appropriate one for the margins of urban streets. PMID:23406961

Hashemi, Seyed Armin; Alinejad, Farzaneh; Fallahchay, Mozaffar



Cadmium and lead concentrations in acid food simulants: the values of validation parameters are predominantly aŚected by interspeci® c diŚerences of utensils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The obvious toxicity of cadmium and lead is at the basis of compulsory concentration determinations for lixivia- tion solutions of ceramic and earthenware household receptacles such as cups, plates, bowls and others. Concentrations in the food simulant which exceed 0.100 § 0.005mg Cd dmˇ2 and 1.00 § 0.05mg Pb dmˇ2 forat receptacles, 0.500§ 0.025mg Cd lˇ1 and 5.00§ 0.25mg Pb

F. Bolle; K. Parmentier; W. Baeyens; J. De Beer; L. Goeyens


Concentration of four heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic) in organs of two cyprinid fish ( Cyprinus carpio and Capoeta sp.) from the Kor River (Iran)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration of heavy metals in aquatic animals mainly occurs due to industrial contamination. In this study, the concentrations\\u000a of four heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic) in organs of two cyprinid fish and in water collected from three\\u000a sections of the Kor River, Iran were determined using the inductively coupled plasma method. Pathological and hormonal changes\\u000a due to metal

Mansour Ebrahimi; Mahnaz Taherianfard



Associations between land cover categories, soil concentrations of arsenic, lead and barium, and population race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.  


The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between Anderson land cover category percentages and soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were investigated. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent. PMID:24914533

Davis, Harley T; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne



Profiles of phytoestrogens in human urine from several Asian countries.  


Intake of a diet rich in phytoestrogens has been associated with a decreased risk for hormone-dependent cancers in humans. Biomonitoring of phytoestrogens in human urine has been used to assess the intake of phytoestrogens. Although studies have reported phytoestrogen levels in urine specimens from the United States and Japan, little is known of human intake of phytoestrogens in other Asian countries. In this study we determined the concentrations of seven phytoestrogens, namely, enterolactone, enterodiol, daidzein, equol, O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), genistein, and coumestrol, in 199 human urine samples from three Asian countries, Vietnam (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh), Cambodia (Phnom Penh), and India (Chennai and Kolkata), using a simple, sensitive, and reliable liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method. The residue levels of phytoestrogens in urine samples from the three Asian countries were compared with the concentrations in 26 urine samples from Japan (Ehime) and 16 urine samples from the United States (Albany), analyzed in this study. Among the phytoestrogens analyzed, isoflavones such as daidzein and genistein were predominant in urine samples from Vietnam; samples from Cambodia and India contained higher concentrations of enterolactone than isoflavones. Urinary concentrations of isoflavones in samples from Hanoi, Vietnam, were notably higher than the concentrations in samples from Cambodia, India, and the United States and similar to the concentrations in samples from Japan. The lowest concentrations of daidzein and the highest concentrations of enterolactone were found in urine samples from India. Concentrations of equol and O-DMA, which are microbial transformation products of daidzein (produced by gut microflora), were notably high in urine samples from Hanoi, Vietnam. The ratios of the concentration of equol or O-DMA to that of daidzein were significantly higher in samples from Hanoi than from Japan, indicating high biotransformation efficiency of daidzein by the population in Hanoi. High concentrations of equol, in addition to isoflavones, in urine have been linked to reduced breast cancer risk in previous studies, and, thus, the Vietnamese population may have potential protective effect against breast cancer. This study suggests that the dietary intake and profiles of phytoestrogens vary considerably, even among Asian countries. PMID:20707345

Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Isobe, Tomohiko; Aldous, Kenneth M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam




SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B



Prenatal Exposure to Lead and Cognitive Deficit in 7- and 14-Year-Old Children in the Presence of Concomitant Exposure to Similar Molar Concentration of Methylmercury  

PubMed Central

Few studies have examined the effects of mixed metal exposures in humans. We have evaluated the effect of prenatal lead exposure in a Faroese birth cohort in the presence of similar molar-level exposure to methylmercury. A cohort of 1022 singleton births was assembled in the Faroe Islands during 1986–1987 from whom lead was measured in cord blood. A total of 896 cohort subjects participated in a clinical examination at age 7 and 808 subjects in a second examination at age 14. We evaluated the association between cord-blood lead concentrations and cognitive deficits (attention/working memory, language, visuospatial, and memory) using multiple regression models. Overall, the lead concentration showed no clear pattern of association. However, in subjects with a low methylmercury exposure, after inclusion of statistical interaction terms, lead-associated adverse effects on cognitive functions were observed. In particular, higher cord-blood lead was associated with a lower digit span forward score on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) [beta=?1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): ?3.12 to ?0.28] at age 7 and a lower digit span backward score on the WISC-R (beta=?2.73, 95%CI: ?4.32 to ?1.14) at age 14. Some interaction terms between lead and methylmercury suggested that the combined effect of the exposures was less than additive. The present study indicates that adverse effects of exposure may be overlooked if the effects of a co-pollutant are ignored. The present study supports the existence of adverse effects on cognitive functions at prenatal lead exposures corresponding to an average cord-blood concentration of 16 ?g/L.

Yorifuji, Takashi; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe



Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...


Water-quality data collected to determine the presence, source, and concentration of lead in the drinking water supply at Pipe Spring National Monument, northern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pipe Spring National Monument in northern Arizona contains historically significant springs. The groundwater source of these springs is the same aquifer that presently is an important source of drinking water for the Pipe Spring National Monument facilities, the Kaibab Paiute Tribe, and the community of Moccasin. The Kaibab Paiute Tribe monitored lead concentrations from 2004 to 2009; some of the analytical results exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique for lead of 15 parts per billion. The National Park Service and the Kaibab Paiute Tribe were concerned that the local groundwater system that provides the domestic water supply might be contaminated with lead. Lead concentrations in water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from three springs, five wells, two water storage tanks, and one faucet were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique. Lead concentrations of rock samples representative of the rock units in which the local groundwater resides were less than 22 parts per million.

Macy, Jamie P.; Sharrow, David; Unema, Joel



Application of the quartz crystal microbalance to measurement of the concentration of electrolyte in lead\\/acid batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density of the electrolyte in a lead\\/acid battery may change by 10 to 20% during the discharge\\/charge cycle and the value within this range can be used as an indication of the fraction of available energy stored in the battery. We describe the application of a quartz crystal microbalance to the determination of the density of sulfuric acid solutions

W. Neil C. Garrard; John M. Charlesworth



A comparison of mass, lead, sulfate, and nitrate concentrations in a field study using dichotomous, size-selective, and standard hi-vol samplers  

SciTech Connect

Air was sampled in El Monte, CA, about 600 feet south of the San Bernardino Freeway (147,000 vehicles/day). Dichotomous/Conventional Hi-Vol; Size-Selective Inlet (SSI)/Conventional Hi-Vol; and Dichotomous/SSI samplers were used to determine the mass of the air, and the lead, sulfate, and nitrate concentrations. The dichotomous sampler recorded a lower mass than did the SSI. Lead concentrations of the dichotomous and SSI were equivalent and averaged 92% of the lead as determined by the standard hi-vol. The dichotomous nitrate was substantially lower than SSI nitrate, which, in turn, was lower than the standard hi-vol. Sulfates for the SSI and standard hi-vol were comparable, but the dichotomous sampler recorded considerably lower values for sulfate. (JMT)

Witz, S.; Smith, M.; Shu, M.; Moore, A.B.



Effect of lead and cadmium upon the calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus concentration in young corn plants  

SciTech Connect

In a greenhouse experiment corn plants were harvested 24 and 31 days following emergence from pots containing Bloomfield loamy sand. The soil CEC was 2.3 meq/100 g. It had 140 kg/ha of P, and 220 kg/ha of 1N neutral ammonium acetate extractable K. Calcium, Mg, K, and P concentrations in plant tissue were determined. Treatment combinations were a factorial arrangement of 0, 2.5, and 5 of Cd and 0, 125, and 250 of Pb. At 24 days following emergence, there were significant main effects of Cd and Pb upon the Ca, Mg, K, and P concentration in corn plants. The Cd linear x Pb linear interaction significantly (..cap alpha.. = .05) affected P concentration and uptake of each element. At 31 days following emergence, Cd and Pb main effects influenced the Ca, Mg, and K status of the plant, but had no significant effect upon P content. At this stage of development, there were three significant Cd-Pb interactions that affected nutrient concentration and four interactions that affected nutrient uptake. Results observed in this study suggest that the statistical significance of various effects depends upon stage of development of the corn plant, and that certain Cd-Pb interactions influenced nutrient concentration in the plant. 20 references, 4 tables.

Walker, W.M.; Miller, J.E.; Hassett, J.J.



Effects of lead on anatomy, ultrastructure and concentration of nutrients in plants Oxycaryum cubense (Poep. & Kunth) Palla: a species with phytoremediator potential in contaminated watersheds.  


Lead (Pb) has been highlighted as a major pollutant of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, causing negative impacts to these environments. The concentration of Pb in plants has increased in recent decades, mainly due to anthropogenic activities. This study has as a hypothesis that the species Oxycaryum cubense (Poep. & Kunth) Palla, abundant in aquatic environments, has the potential to be used a phytoremediator. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system with Pb in increasing concentrations (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg l(-1)) for 15 days. Inductively coupled mass spectrometer (ICP OES) was used to determine the concentration of mineral nutrients and lead. Optical and transmission electron microscopy were used for the analysis of cellular damage induced by lead in roots and leaves. Ultrastructural alterations were observed as disorganization of thylakoids in the chloroplast and disruption of mitochondrial membranes in cells of leaf tissues of plants subjected to increasing Pb concentrations. There was accumulation of Pb, especially in the root system, affecting the absorption and translocation of some mineral nutrients analysed. In roots, there was reduction in the thickness of the epidermis in plants treated with Pb. This species was shown to be tolerant to the Pb concentrations evaluated, compartmentalizing and accumulating Pb mainly in roots. Due to these results, it may be considered a species with phytoremediation capacity for Pb, with potential rizofiltration of this metallic element in contaminated watersheds. PMID:24499985

Alves, Laize Queiroz; de Jesus, Raildo Mota; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Souza, Vânia Lima; Mangabeira, Pedro Antônio Oliveira



Single drop microextraction as a concentrating probe for rapid screening of low molecular weight drugs from human urine in atmospheric-pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.  


The present work reports the development of a new analytical procedure for simple and rapid screening of low molecular weight drugs (<500 Da) from human urine samples by atmospheric-pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (AP-MALDI-MS) combined with single drop microextraction (SDME). The success of the proposed method is due to the use of methyltrioctylammonium chloride (MTOAC) as additive to avoid the noise arising from the matrix ions (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA)). SDME also aided in alleviating the interferences arising from other matrix ions present in the urine samples prior to AP-MALDI-MS analysis. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency of drugs, such as selection of solvent, stirring speed, extraction time, exposure volume of extraction phase and salt addition, have been optimized. The optimum molar ratio of CHCA/MTOAC that gave the minimum background noise of CHCA ions was 700:1. The limit of detection (LOD) and relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method were in the ranges 0.3-1.6 microM and 7.8-11.4%, respectively. The SDME method was compared with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) to evaluate the compatibility of the present method in the extraction of drugs from urine samples. The role of MTOAC as matrix ion signal suppressor and SDME as analyte-separating device in the rapid screening of low molecular weight drugs from human urine samples using AP-MALDI/MS has been reported. PMID:17708597

Shrivas, Kamlesh; Wu, Hui-Fen



Simple method of determination of copper, mercury and lead in potable water with preliminary pre-concentration by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and chemical pre-concentration procedures have been applied for the analysis of trace concentrations of copper, mercury, and lead in drinking water samples. A simple total reflection module has been used in X-ray measurements. The elements under investigation were pre-concentrated by complexation using a mixture of carbamates followed by solvent extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone. The preconcentration procedure was tested with the use of twice-distilled water samples and samples of mineral and tap water spiked with known additions of copper, mercury, and lead. The obtained recovery and precision values are presented. The minimum detection limits for the determination of these elements in mineral and tap water samples were found to be 40 ng l -1, 60 ng l -1, and 60 ng l -1, respectively.

Ho?y?ska, B.; Ostachowicz, B.; W?grzynek, D.



Excretion of Trichloroethylene Metabolites in Human Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five healthy subjects were exposed to known concentrations of trichloroethylene (T.R.I.) for five hours. The amount retained was calculated. The excretion of the metabolites monochloroacetic acid (M.C.A.), trichloroacetic acid (T.C.A.), and trichloroethanol (T.C.E.) in the urine was measured over the next seven to 14 days. Metabolites excreted represented an average of 73% of the dose of T.R.I. retained (M.C.A. 4%,

B. Sou?ek; D. Vlachová



Effect of liming and seasonal variation on lead concentration of tea plant ( Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tea is a widely consumed beverage. However, recent studies revealed that there were an increasing number of cases of tea products exceeding the former maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in China for Pb (2mgkg?1). Tea Pb contamination is an issue affecting trade and consumer confidence. Root uptake of Pb could contribute significantly to Pb accumulation in tea leaves due to the

Wen-Yan Han; Yuan-Zhi Shi; Li-Feng Ma; Jiang-Yun Ruan; Fang-Jie Zhao



Chemical composition of rainbow trout urine following acute hypoxic stress  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) were anesthetized with MS-222, catheterized, and introduced into urine collecting chambers. Twenty-four hours after introduction, a 4-hour accumulation of urine was collected to serve as the control. Water flow to the chambers was then discontinued for 30 minutes during which the oxygen content of the water exiting in the chamber dropped from 4.9 to 2.8 mg/l. Following this hypoxic stress fresh water was restored and accumulated urine samples were taken for analysis at 1, 4, and 20 hours post-hypoxic stress. Rainbow trout excrete abnormally high concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Cl, and inorganic PO4 following hypoxia.

Hunn, Joseph B.



Effect of liming and seasonal variation on lead concentration of tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).  


Tea is a widely consumed beverage. However, recent studies revealed that there were an increasing number of cases of tea products exceeding the former maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in China for Pb (2 mg kg(-1)). Tea Pb contamination is an issue affecting trade and consumer confidence. Root uptake of Pb could contribute significantly to Pb accumulation in tea leaves due to the strong acidity of many tea garden soils. We conducted pot and field experiments to evaluate the effect of liming on Pb uptake by tea plants on two highly acidic soils (pH3.6). Additions of CaCO(3) significantly increased soil pH by up to 1 unit and decreased soil extractable Pb by up to 32%. Liming resulted in a decrease in the proportion of Pb in the exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions, with a concurrent increase in the fractions bound to Fe/Mn oxides and residues. Liming significantly decreased Pb concentrations of fine roots, stems and new shoots of tea plants in the pot experiment. In the field experiments, the effect of liming was not significant during the first year following CaCO(3) application, but became significant during the second and third years and Pb concentration in the new shoots was decreased by approximately 20-50%, indicating that liming of acidic tea garden soils is an effective way to reduce Pb contamination of tea. The study also reveals a distinct seasonal variation, with Pb concentration in the new shoots following the order of spring>autumn>summer. PMID:16844190

Han, Wen-Yan; Shi, Yuan-Zhi; Ma, Li-Feng; Ruan, Jiang-Yun; Zhao, Fang-Jie



Excretion of arsenic in urine as a function of exposure to arsenic in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Urinary arsenic (As) concentrations were evaluated as a biomarker of exposure in a U.S. population chronically exposed to inorganic As (InAs) in their drinking water. Ninety-six individuals who consumed drinking water with As concentrations of 8-620 microg/L provided first morning urine voids for up to 5 consecutive days. The study population was 56% male, and 44% was younger than 18 years of age. On one day of the study period, all voided urines were collected over a 24-hr period. Arsenic intake from drinking water was estimated from daily food diaries. Comparison between the concentration of As in individual urine voids with that in the 24-hr urine collection indicated that the concentration of As in urine was stable throughout the day. Comparison of the concentration of As in each first morning urine void over the 5-day study period indicated that there was little day-to-day variation in the concentration of As in urine. The concentration of As in drinking water was a better predictor of the concentration of As in urine than was the estimated intake of As from drinking water. The concentration of As in urine did not vary by gender. An age-dependent difference in the concentration of As in urine may be attributed to the higher As dosage rate per unit body weight in children than in adults. These findings suggest that the analysis of a small number of urine samples may be adequate to estimate an individual's exposure to InAs from drinking water and that the determination of the concentration of InAs in a drinking water supply may be a useful surrogate for estimating exposure to this metalloid. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Calderon, R L; Hudgens, E; Le, X C; Schreinemachers, D; Thomas, D J



Nitrification and autotrophic denitrification of source-separated urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory experiments, source-separated urine was stabilised with nitrification and denitrified via nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. The highest total ammonia concentration in the influent was 7,300 gN\\/m3, the maximum pH 9.2. In a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with Kaldnes® biofilm carriers, we stabilised urine as a 1:1 ammonium nitrate solution. The maximum nitrification rate was 380 gN\\/m3\\/d corresponding

K. M. Udert; C. Fux; M. Münster; T. A. Larsen; H. Siegrist; W. Gujer



Anomalous concentrations of several metals in iron-formation of the Blue Lead Mountain area, Pennington County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical sampling of bedrock has revealed anomalous copper, silver, molybdenum, gold, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and cobalt in meta-iron-formation in the Blue Lead Mountain area 5 miles (8 kilometres) north-northwest of Keystone, S. Dak. The anomalies are in complexly folded and faulted iron-formation. Metal content decreases sharply in the surrounding rocks. The extent and intensity of the anomalous areas, despite evidence that previous mining had little success, are sufficient to make this area an interesting target for exploration.

Raymond, William H.; King, Robert Ugstad; Norton, James Jennings



The Value of Mobilization of Lead by Calcium Ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetate in the Diagnosis of Lead Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Traditional laboratory tests for lead poisoning tend to fail in cases where a considerable interval has elapsed since exposure. We have used calcium ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetate (CaNa2EDTA) for the quantitative mobilization of lead for diagnostic purposes. In a control group of 50 individuals who had never worked with lead it was found that the average urinary excretion of lead in 24 hours amounted to 0·031 to 0·043 mg. The maximum value did not exceed 0·100 mg. After intravenous injection of CaNa2EDTA the amount of excreted lead rose considerably, but did not exceed 0·350 mg./24 hr. In a group of 47 individuals who had formerly worked with lead or who were still engaged in this work but did not show any symptoms of poisoning, the urinary lead levels before injection were higher than in the control group. After injection of CaNa2EDTA the lead excretion in 24 hours increased considerably. After injection of CaNa2EDTA, patients suffering from chronic lead poisoning showed a considerable increase of urinary lead excretion, which attained the order of milligrams in 24 hours. The fractionated examination of the urine of 10 unexposed individuals, undertaken at intervals of three hours, showed after injection of CaNa2EDTA no higher lead concentration than 0·500 mg./litre, the highest concentrations being observed six hours after injection. In the urine of individuals exposed to lead or suffering from lead poisoning a higher urinary lead concentration was found than in the control group, and the maximum was in these cases found at various time intervals. It is concluded that the mobilization of lead may be of considerable value in the diagnosis of atypical cases of chronic lead poisoning, but the results can be evaluated only in association with the general clinical picture.

Teisinger, J.; Srbova, J.



Metabolic alkalosis from unsuspected ingestion: use of urine pH and anion gap.  


Underlying causes of metabolic alkalosis may be evident from history, evaluation of effective circulatory volume, and measurement of urine chloride concentration. However, identification of causes may be difficult for certain conditions associated with clandestine behaviors, such as surreptitious vomiting, use of drugs or herbal supplements with mineralocorticoid activity, abuse of laxatives or diuretics, and long-term use of alkalis. In these circumstances, clinicians often are bewildered by unexplained metabolic alkalosis from an incomplete history or persistent deception by the patient, leading to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. We present a case of severe metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia with a borderline urine chloride concentration in an alcoholic patient treated with a thiazide. The cause of the patient's metabolic alkalosis eventually was linked to surreptitious ingestion of baking soda. This case highlights the necessity of a high index of suspicion for the diverse clandestine behaviors that can cause metabolic alkalosis and the usefulness of urine pH and anion gap in its differential diagnosis. PMID:22265393

Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Song, June-Seok; Kim, Ho-Jung



Lead concentrations in feathers and blood of common blackbirds (Turdus merula) and in earthworms inhabiting unpolluted and moderately polluted urban areas.  


Despite the dramatic decrease of atmospheric lead (Pb) concentrations in urban areas of most industrialised countries, we hypothesised that urban common blackbirds (Turdus merula) may still be contaminated by Pb concentrations of toxicological concern due to transfer from soil through the food chain. We sampled blackbirds and earthworms, one of their main preys, in Besançon, a middle-size city of Eastern France (where atmospheric Pb concentrations decreased from 0.5 microg/m(3) in 1987 to nearly 0 in 2002) and in a rural reference site. Lead concentrations were determined in the tissues of the different functional groups of earthworms (anecic, epigeous and endogeous) and in blood, washed and unwashed outermost tail feathers and breast feathers of blackbirds. Fresh masses and an index of individual body condition were measured in the two blackbird populations as biomarkers of possible toxic effects. Lead concentrations in earthworms did not differ among functional groups but were significantly higher in urban individuals than in rural ones. Concentrations in outermost tail feathers, breast feathers and blood were significantly higher in urban blackbirds (7.75+/-4.50, 3.15+/-1.77 and 0.15+/-0.09 microg/g, respectively) than in rural individuals. In urban blackbirds, concentrations in washed and unwashed outermost tail feathers allowed estimating the external contamination (probably due to deposition of dusts and/or to excretion of the uropygial gland) at 37% of the total Pb concentration of the unwashed feathers. Remaining 63% should be linked to food chain transfer of persistent Pb from urban soils. Among the 23 sampled blackbirds, 4 of them (3 in the urban site and 1 in the rural site) exhibited blood Pb concentrations higher than the benchmark value (0.20 microg/g) related to subclinical and physiological effects in birds. Variations in body condition index were not correlated to Pb concentrations in blackbird tissues. Present results suggest that Pb may still be of environmental concern for blackbirds in urban areas because of the persistence of Pb in soils and its transfer through the food chain. PMID:17055037

Scheifler, R; Coeurdassier, M; Morilhat, C; Bernard, N; Faivre, B; Flicoteaux, P; Giraudoux, P; Noël, M; Piotte, P; Rieffel, D; de Vaufleury, A; Badot, P-M



Alkylresorcinol Metabolite Concentrations in Spot Urine Samples Correlated with Whole Grain and Cereal Fiber Intake but Showed Low to Modest Reproducibility over One to Three Years in U.S. Women123  

PubMed Central

Two alkylresorcinol (AR) metabolites, 3, 5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA), in urine have been suggested as biomarkers of whole grain (WG) and cereal fiber intake but the long-term reproducibility and correlation with habitual intake has not been determined. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term reproducibility of AR metabolites in spot urine samples and investigated their correlation with habitual WG and cereal fiber intake in U.S. women. AR metabolites were analyzed in 104 women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study II and WG and fiber intakes were assessed using a FFQ. Long-term reproducibility was assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) using samples taken 1–3 y (mean 1.8 y) apart. The observed Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) and rs adjusted for within-participant variation in the biomarker were calculated between WG and fiber intake and biomarkers. The long-term reproducibility was poor for DHBA [ICC = 0.17 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.43)] and modest for DHPPA [ICC = 0.31 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.51)]. The correlation between WG intake in 1995 and DHPPA measured 2 y later was 0.37 (P < 0.0001); the adjusted correlation was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.76). Cereal fiber and WG intake were similarly correlated to the biomarkers. DHPPA in spot urine samples reflected WG intake despite relatively low intake of food sources of AR. The poor to modest reproducibility may limit the use of single measurements of these biomarkers in cohort studies in the US, where WG intake is relatively low and has changed over time. But DHPPA in repeated samples may be useful for validating WG intake and assessing compliance in WG intervention studies.

Landberg, Rikard; Townsend, Mary K.; Neelakantan, Nithya; Sun, Qi; Sampson, Laura; Spiegelman, Donna; van Dam, Rob M.



Relationships between thiamine content of eggs and concentrations of lead and other heavy metals in water and survival of Atlantic salmon fry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were extirpated in much of New York state by the late 1800s. Currently, Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond (Saranac Lake, NY) are stocked in Cayuga Lake (Ithaca, NY) and Lake Ontario to support a fishery, but reproduction is severely impaired by thiamine deficiency in Cayuga Lake and probably in Lake Ontario--apparently caused by adults feeding on prey fish high in thiaminase. One study suggested that survival of these fry may be reduced by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, copper, or lead in water. Thiamine deficiency is known to increase lead toxicity. Bringing gravid Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond and Cayuga Inlet into the laboratory, we examined the effect of exposing their fertilized eggs during water-hardening to water with and without added lead (0.1 to 100 mg lead·liter-1) and to other contaminated waters (from New York State) on the survival of their eggs and fry. Our results showed no significant influence of our water-hardening treatments on survival of eggs or fry; therefore, it appears that exposure of eggs (during water-hardening) to lead in water (concentrations up to 100 mg lead·liter-1) or to several contaminated waters was not detrimental to the survival of eggs or fry of Atlantic salmon. We also determined the mineral and heavy metal content of dried eggs and found that eggs from Cayuga Lake salmon had significantly higher concentrations of copper (1.9 vs. 0.5 mg·g-1) than did eggs from salmon from Little Clear Pond. All concentrations of copper appeared to be within the range observed in other normal salmon. There were no other significant differences in concentrations of other minerals tested. Concentrations of copper in Cayuga Lake water (mean, 1.16 mg·liter-1) were significantly higher than in Little Clear Pond water (mean, 0.17 mg·liter-1). The effect of copper in eggs of thiamine-deficient salmon is not known.

Ketola, H. George; Wedge, Leslie R.; Lary, Sandra J.; Grant, Edward C.; Rutzke, Michael A.



Influence of pre-, post-, and simultaneous perfusion of elevated calcium on the effect of ascending concentrations of lead on digoxin-induced cardiac arrest in isolated frog heart  

SciTech Connect

Cardiotoxicity of lead, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has already been documented as a potentially lethal, although rarely recognized, complication of lead intoxication. Further, it has already been reported from this laboratory that lead acetate (LA) preperfusion potentiated cardiotoxicity of digoxin (DGN) in isolated frog heart preparation and that exposure to elevated calcium (elev. Ca{sup 2+}) prior to, and simultaneously with LA at 10{sup {minus}7} M concentration, attenuated this potentiation. As an extension of this work, it was considered of interest to study the effect of perfusion of elev. Ca{sup 2+} (6.5 mM) prior to, after and simultaneously with ascending concentrations of lead (10{sup {minus}9}, 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}5}M) on DGN induced cardiac arrest (CA) in isolated frog heart, since Pb{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions are known to compete with each other for the same target sites at the cellular level, an instance of competitive mass action effect. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Krishnamoorthy, M.S.; Muthu, P.; Parthiban, N. [Univ. of Madras (Indonesia)



Bilateral increase in expression and concentration of tachykinin in a unilateral rabbit muscle overuse model that leads to myositis  

PubMed Central

Background Tachykinins can have pro-inflammatory as well as healing effects during tissue reorganization and inflammation. Recent studies report an up-regulation in the expression of the substance P (SP)-preferred receptor, the neurokinin-1 receptor, in marked muscle inflammation (myositis). There is, however, only very little information on the expression patterns and levels of tachykinins in this situation. Methods The tachykinin system was analyzed using a rabbit experimental model of muscle overuse, whereby unilateral muscle exercise in combination with electrical stimulation led to muscle derangement and myositis in the triceps surae muscle (experimental length 1–6 weeks). Evaluations were made for both parts of the muscle (soleus and gastrocnemius muscles) in experimental and non-experimental (contralateral) sides. Morphologic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analyses were applied. Results Myositis and muscle derangement occurred focally not only in the experimental side but also in the non-experimental side. In the inflammatory areas (focal myositis areas), there were frequent nerve fibers showing tachykinin-like immunoreactivity and which were parts of nerve fascicles and which were freely dispersed in the tissue. Cells in the inflammatory infiltrates showed tachykinin-like immunoreactivity and tachykinin mRNA expression. Specific immunoreactivity and mRNA expression were noted in blood vessel walls of both sides, especially in focally affected areas. With increasing experimental length, we observed an increase in the degree of immunoreactivity in the vessel walls. The EIA analyses showed that the concentration of tachykinin in the tissue on both sides increased in a time-dependent manner. There was a statistical correlation in the concentration of tachykinin and the level of tachykinin immunoreactivity in the blood vessel walls between experimental and non-experimental sides. Conclusions The observations show an up-regulation of the tachykinin system bilaterally during muscle derangement/myositis in response to pronounced unilateral muscle overuse. This up-regulation occurred in inflammatory areas and was related not only to increased tachykinin innervation but also to tachykinin expression in blood vessel walls and inflammatory cells. Importantly, the tachykinin system appears to be an important factor not only ipsilaterally but also contralaterally in these processes.



[Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) associated with strong alkaline urine].  


Mechanisms for purple discoloration of the plastic urine bag in purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) were investigated. Activities of bacterial indoxyl sulfatase catalyzing the conversion of indoxyl sulfate to indigo (or indirubin) were detected in strong alkaline liquid media but not in normal ones. These enzyme activities were particularly high in simple and combined cultures of Proteus mirabilis and/or Klebsiella pneumoniae. These results suggest that occurrence of PUBS is associated with strong alkaline urine as well as urinary tract infections induced by some species of bacteria with indoxyl sulfatase. PMID:8294766

Umeki, S



Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.



Toenail, Blood and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers. Methods Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a workshift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n=49), as well as blood and urine before (n=27) and after (urine, n=26; blood, n=24) a workshift were collected. Results Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in months 7-9, 10-12, and 7-12 before toenail clipping date, but not months 1-6. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese. Conclusions Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical workshift.

Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.



[Pastel in the urine bag].  


Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. PMID:22414392

Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessičre, Sophie; Rolland, Yves



Fluoride in the urine, hair, and nails of phosphate fertiliser workers.  

PubMed Central

The fluoride content in the urine, hair, and nails of 106 workers employed in a phosphate fertiliser plant was significantly raised above the control level. Positive correlations were found between the group means for concentrations of fluorides in urine and hair (r = 0.77), urine and nails (r = 0.99), and hair and nails (r = 0.70). Individual values in the whole population gave significant correlations between concentrations in urine and nails (r = 0.73). The obtained results indicate that the fluoride content in hair and nails may be used as an indicator of occupational exposure to fluorides.

Czarnowski, W; Krechniak, J



Immunodetection of pneumolysin in human urine by ELISA.  


An ELISA test has been employed for the detection of pneumolysin (PLY) in urine from 14 pneumococcal pneumonia patients and from 11 healthy adult volunteers. The urines of all the 11 healthy adult volunteers developed signals around the mean of the blanks, whereas all the pneumococcal pneumonia patient urines rendered signals at least five times this mean. Chemiluminescent Western blot analyses of these urines, carried out with the PLY-specific rabbit polyclonal IgG preparation used in ELISA, were negative. The 30-kDa filtrates of three high-signal urines were ELISA negative, suggesting that this ELISA test mainly detected high molecular weight forms in urine rather than free PLY-derived antigenic fragments. The urine sample, which rendered the highest ELISA signal, was then concentrated by filtration through a 10-kDa filter. When this concentrate was subjected to Western blot with the ELISA-capture monoclonal antibody, a major band was developed. Its relative molecular mass was similar to that of recombinant PLY and its peptide mass fingerprinting showed peptides corresponding to amino acid stretches from the four domains of the PLY molecule. When the pool of PLY-negative urines was sham-contaminated with purified recombinant pneumolysin, a conspicuous matrix effect was observed; nevertheless, this ELISA test was still reproducible and highly sensitive, detecting pneumolysin in the order of picograms per milliliter. A comparison was also made between this PLY-ELISA and the Binax NOW Streptococcus pneumoniae Urinary Antigen Test in analysing bacterial isolates. On the basis of the minimum number of pneumococci examined, both tests were shown to have similar potency, but strain-dependent discrepancies were observed. This ELISA could provide an alternative to the Binax NOW Streptococcus pneumoniae Urinary Antigen Test in the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia. PMID:12732421

Cima-Cabal, María Dolores; Méndez, Francisco J; Vázquez, Fernando; Aranaz, Carlos; Rodríguez-Alvarez, Javier; García-García, José María; Fleites, Ana; Martínez González-Río, Jaime; Molinos, Luis; de Miguel, Dolores; de los Toyos, Juan R



Effect of hydrochlorothiazide on urine saturation with brushite, in vitro collagen calcification by urine, and urinary inhibitors of collagen calcification  

PubMed Central

To clarify further the beneficial effect of thiazide diuretics on recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis, the effect of short-term hydrochlorothiazide therapy on urine saturation with brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O), in vitro collagen calcification by urine, and urinary inhibitors of calcification was studied. In 22 patients with idiopathic calcium oxalate/phosphate stones the urine calcium excretion decreased, the urine magnesium excretion increased and the urine magnesium/calcium ratio increased significantly (P < 0.001) during hydrochlorothiazide therapy. Supersaturation of the urine with brushite, which was present in 19 of the 22 patients, was reduced significantly (P < 0.001) in all during thiazide therapy, and to the undersaturated range in 16. The ability of urine to calcify collagen in vitro also decreased significantly (P < 0.001) during thiazide therapy, a change that correlated significantly (r = 0.4513, P < 0.05) with the decrease in brushite saturation. The concentration of urinary inhibitors of calcification, as determined with an in vitro collagen calcification system, was decreased significantly (P < 0.01) by thiazide therapy. It was concluded that, in addition to decreasing urine calcium excretion and increasing urine magnesium excretion, thiazide diuretics decrease the urinary brushite saturation and thus may prevent spontaneous nucleation or crystal growth, or both, of calcium phosphate. The ability of thiazides to decrease collagen calcification in vitro suggests that they may also prevent crystal growth on a nidus of organic matrix. Thiazides do not appear to act by increasing the excretion of urinary inhibitors of calcification.

Pylypchuk, G.; Ehrig, U.; Wilson, D.R.



Absence of mutagenicity in the urine of autopsy service workers exposed to formaldehyde: factors influencing mutagenicity testing of urine.  


Hospital autopsy service workers and a matched control group were studied using a battery of genetic monitoring tests performed on samples of blood, semen and urine. The results of the analysis of urine for mutagens are described in this report. The participants in the study were matched with the controls for sex, age and their use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. Information was collected on general health, usage of medications and any exposure which might affect the outcome of the study. Individuals were sampled three times at approximately two month intervals. Time weighed average exposures to formaldehyde in the work areas were estimated at 0.61 to 1.32 ppm. Additionally, studies were carried out which examined various parameters affecting the testing of human urine samples for mutagenicity. No increase in mutagenicity was seen in the autopsy workers as compared to the control group. One individual who was receiving metronidazole and one control who smoked two packs of cigarettes per day had significantly mutagenic urine. A large proportion of the exposed individuals had toxic urine while only two of the control individuals had similar toxic urine. The material responsible for the toxicity has been isolated and purified but does not appear to be related to the formaldehyde exposure. Studies on the parameters affecting mutagenicity testing of urine with Salmonella typhimurium suggest that in the plate incorporation assay, TA100, but not TA98, can be affected by exogenous histidine. Furthermore, with the conditions employed in this study, 3 to 4% of labeled histidine added to urine samples was retained by the XAD-2 and subsequently eluted in the urine concentrate. Urinary histidine levels of unconcentrated samples ranged from 112 to 2614 nmol per ml (mean 994 nmol per ml) and the amount of histidine present correlated with the corresponding increases in histidine revertants with strain TA100. PMID:4066051

Connor, T H; Ward, J B; Legator, M S



Analysis of the human urine endogenous peptides by nanoparticle extraction and mass spectrometry identification.  


Peptides in urine are excreted by kidney from the blood and tissues, which are composed of a large amount of hormones, cytokines, regulatory factors and the metabolized fragments of proteins. The peptide distribution in urine will reflect the physiological and pathophysiological processes in body. In past, limited information was reported about the composition of the peptides in urine. One possible reason is that the peptides in urine are fairly low abundant and there are high concentrations of salts and organic metabolites in the urine. In this report, we extracted the peptides from human urine by highly ordered mesoporous silica particles with the pore size of 2nm, which will exclude the high molecular weight proteins over 12kDa. The extracted peptides were then separated into fractions according to their molecular weight by size exclusion chromatography. Each of the fractions was further analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and ?RPLC-MS/MS. Totally, 193 peptides were identified by two-dimensional SEC/?RPLC-MS/MS analysis. By analyzing the progenitor protein of the peptides; we found that two-thirds of the proteins differed from the reported urine proteome database, and the high abundant proteins in urine proteome were less detected in the urine peptidome. The developed extraction and separation methods were efficient for the profiling of the endogenous peptides in human urine. The peptidome in human urine was complementary to the human urinary proteome and may provide an emerging field for biomarker discovery. PMID:24856401

Yang, Xiaomin; Hu, Lianghai; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa



Implications of urine-to-feces ratio in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion of swine waste.  


Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure represents a potential waste treatment technology to address environmental concerns, such as odor emissions and removal of pathogenic microorganisms. However, there are concerns relative to the stability of this process when swine manure is the sole substrate. In this study, the potential of biogas production from swine manure as the sole substrate under thermophilic (50 degrees C) conditions was investigated in the laboratory, to determine whether separation of urine and feces as part of the waste collection process would benefit anaerobic digestion. Effluent from a continuously stirred tank reactor was used as the inoculum for batch tests, in which the substrate contained three different concentrations of urine (urine-free, as-excreted urine-to-feces ratio and double the as-excreted urine-to-feces ratio). Inocula were acclimated to these same urine-to-feces ratios to determine methane production. Results show that both urine-free and as-excreted substrates were not inhibitory to anaerobic inocula. Anaerobic microorganisms can be readily acclimated to substrate with double the as-excreted urine concentration, which contained nitrogen concentrations up to 7.20 g/L. Cumulative methane production reached similar levels in the batch tests, regardless of the substrate urine concentration. PMID:18419015

Creamer, K S; Williams, C M; Chen, Y; Cheng, J J



Development and validation of a capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of phenothiazines in human urine in the low nanogram per milliliter concentration range using field-amplified sample injection.  


A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with ultraviolet-visible detection has been established and validated for the determination of five phenothiazines: thiazinamium methylsulfate, promazine hydrochloride, chlorpromazine hydrochloride, thioridazine hydrochloride, and promethazine hydrochloride in human urine. Optimum separation was obtained on a 64.5 cm x 75 microm bubble cell capillary using a buffer containing 150 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and 25% acetonitrile at pH 8.2, with temperature and voltage of 25 degrees C and 20 kV, respectively. Naphazoline hydrochloride was used as an internal standard. Field-amplified sample injection (FASI) has been applied to improve the sensitivity of the detection. Considering the influence of parameters affecting the on-line preconcentration (nature of preinjection plug, sample solvent composition, injection times, and injection voltage) and due to the significant interactions among them, in this paper we propose for the first time the application of a multivariate approach to carry out the study. The optimized conditions were as follows: preinjection plug of water for 7 s at 50 mbar, electrokinetic injection for 40 s at 6.2 kV, and 32 microm of H3PO4 in the sample solvent. Also, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure is developed to obtain low detection limits and an adequate selectivity for urine samples. The combination of SPE and FASI-CZE-UV allows adequate linearities and recoveries, low detection limits (from 2 to 5 ng/mL), and satisfactory precisions (3.0-7.2% for an intermediate RSD %). PMID:15924366

Lara, Francisco J; García-Campańa, Ana M; Alés-Barrero, Fermín; Bosque-Sendra, Juan M



Clinical, toxicological, biochemical, and hematologic parameters in lead exposed workers of a car battery industry.  


Background: Lead is a toxic element which causes acute, subacute or chronic poisoning through environmental and occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and laboratory abnormalities of chronic lead poisoning among workers of a car battery industry. Methods: Questionnaires and forms were designed and used to record demographic data, past medical histories and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. Blood samples were taken to determine biochemical (using Auto Analyzer; Model BT3000) and hematologic (using Cell Counter Sysmex; Model KX21N) parameters. An atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer, Model 3030, USA) was used to determine lead concentration in blood and urine by heated graphite atomization technique. Results: A total of 112 men mean age 28.78±5.17 years, who worked in a car battery industry were recruited in the present study. The most common signs/symptoms of lead poisoning included increased excitability 41.9%, arthralgia 41.0%, fatigue 40.1%, dental grey discoloration 44.6%, lead line 24.1%, increased deep tendon reflexes (DTR) 22.3%, and decreased DTR (18.7%). Blood lead concentration (BLC) was 398.95 µg/L±177.40, which was significantly correlated with duration of work (P=0.044) but not with the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. However, BLC was significantly correlated with urine lead concentration (83.67 µg/L±49.78; r(2)=0.711; P<0.001), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r=-0.280; P=0.011), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (r=-0.304; P=0.006) and fasting blood sugar or FBS (r=-0.258; P=0.010). Conclusion: Neuropsychiatric and skeletal findings were common manifestations of chronic occupational lead poisoning. BLC was significantly correlated with duration of work, urine lead concentration, two hemoglobin indices and FBS. PMID:23645955

Kianoush, Sina; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Dadpour, Bita; Moradi, Valiollah; Sadeghi, Mahmoud



Treating urine by Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich


Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)



A urine volume measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.



Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis in human urine.  


Tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease that mainly causes respiratory infection. However, it can also infect other organs such as the kidneys and bladder, which can lead to high counts of the organisms in the urine. Introducing urine diversion systems and reuse of the urine in agriculture may introduce new transmission routes for infection, increasing the risk of spread. This study evaluated the inactivation rate of mycobacteria in human urine for ensuring safe reuse in agriculture and examined whether current World Health Organization recommendations on storage time are sufficient for inactivating Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. In this study, a decimal reduction in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis in human urine containing 7 and 3 g NH(3)-N L(-1), respectively, was obtained in just over 10 days at 4°C and below three days at 22°C. This is considerably faster than previously reported reduction rates of mycobacteria in animal slurry at similar temperatures. Based on the present results, a storage time of five weeks at temperatures below 20°C or of two weeks at temperatures above 20°C is sufficient to prevent transmission of mycobacteria when recycling human urine. These values lie within the WHO recommended storage period. PMID:21436541

Vinnerĺs, Björn; Bölske, Göran; Wahlström, Helene; Albihn, Ann



Determination of manganese in blood and urine by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.  


A method for the determination of manganese in blood and urine is described. A chelate fo manganese with cupferron is extracted with methylisobutylketone and determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The method is directly applicable to urine but the determination of manganese in blood required a preliminary digestion step. With the use of internal standards, this technique allows the determination of manganese concentrations of the order of 1 mug/1 of urine or 1 mug/100 ml whole blood. PMID:1000867

Buchet, J P; Lauwerys, R; Roels, H; De Vos, C



Freeze-dried powder of cow urine reduces the viability of the snail Lymnaea acuminata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molluscicidal activity of cow urine alone and with different additives was studied against Lymnaea acuminata. The toxicity of cow urine kept for 15 days in sunlight (8 h\\/day) or ambient laboratory conditions against the snail was time- and concentration-dependent. The pH of fresh cow urine is 7.4 which changes to 10.9 when kept for 15 days in laboratory; exposure to sunlight for the

Ruchi Tripathi; V. K. Singh; D. K. Singh



Determination of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg in urine using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the large-bore direct injection high efficiency nebulizer (LB-DIHEN) for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is described. The LB-DIHEN is compared with the standard method using a concentric pneumatic nebulizer and cyclonic spray chamber. In addition to the toxicological significance of As,

Michael G. Minnich; Derek C. Miller; Patrick J. Parsons



28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550...MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine...



28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550...MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine...



The Relevance of Hyperuricemia and Metabolic Syndrome and the Effect of Blood Lead Level on Uric Acid Concentration in Steelmaking Workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives Uric acid concentration is known to increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by affecting its components, resulting in increased risk of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and long-term lead exposure is known to affect this serum uric acid level. In this study, we aimed to examine the association between the causes of hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome, and to determine whether an increased blood lead level affects hyperuricemia. Method Anthropometric measurements, surveys, and blood tests were conducted between May and June 2012 in 759 men working in the steelmaking process at a domestic steel company. Workers were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of hyperuricemia, and an analysis was performed to examine its association with metabolic syndrome. In addition, the workers were divided into 3 groups according to the blood lead level to analyze the association between blood lead and hyperuricemia. Results The geometric mean (standard deviation) of the blood lead levels in the hyperuricemia group was significantly higher than that of the healthy group (3.8 [1.8] vs. 3.3 [1.8] ?g/dL). The adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome of the hyperuricemia group increased significantly to 1.787 (1.125–2.839) compared with the healthy group. In addition, the adjusted odds ratios for the occurrence of hyperuricemia in the tertile 2 (2.61–4.50 ?g/dL) and tertile 3 groups (>4.50 ?g/dL) according to blood lead level significantly increased to 1.763 (1.116–2.784) and 1.982 (1.254–3.132), respectively, compared with the tertile 1 group (< 2.61 ?g/dL). Conclusion Hyperuricemia is believed to function as an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome, while lead seems to increase the serum uric acid level even at a considerably low blood level. Therefore, attention should be given to patients with hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome who are prone to lead exposure, and a prospective study should be conducted to identify their causal relationship.



Canadian House Dust Study: population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes.  


The Canadian House Dust Study was designed to obtain nationally representative urban house dust metal concentrations (?g g(-1)) and metal loadings (?g m(-2)) for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Consistent sampling of active dust of known age and provenance (area sampled) also permitted the calculation of indoor loading rates (mg m(-2) day(-1) for dust and ?g m(-2) day(-1) for metals) for the winter season (from 2007 to 2010) when houses are most tightly sealed. Geomean/median indoor dust loading rates in homes located more than 2 km away from industry of any kind (9.6/9.1 mg m(-2) day(-1); n=580) were significantly lower (p<.001) than geomean (median) dust loading rates in homes located within 2 km of industry (13.5/13.4 mg m(-2) day(-1); n=421). Proximity to industry was characterized by higher indoor metal loading rates (p<.003), but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.29?p?.97). Comparisons of non-smokers' and smokers' homes in non-industrial zones showed higher metal loading rates (.005?p?.038) in smokers' homes, but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.15?p?.97). Relationships between house age and dust metal concentrations were significant for Pb, Cd and Zn (p<.001) but not for the other four metals (.14?p?.87). All seven metals, however, displayed a significant increase in metal loading rates with house age (p<.001) due to the influence of higher dust loading rates in older homes (p<.001). Relationships between three measures of metals in house dust - concentration, load, and loading rate - in the context of house age, smoking behavior and urban setting consistently show that concentration data is a useful indicator of the presence of metal sources in the home, whereas dust mass is the overriding influence on metal loadings and loading rates. PMID:23220142

Rasmussen, Pat E; Levesque, Christine; Chénier, Marc; Gardner, H David; Jones-Otazo, Heather; Petrovic, Sanya



Determination of eight elements in animal chow, urine and wastewater. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Analytical procedures are described for the analysis of arsenic, calcium, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in animal feed. Mercury is determined by digesting the feed sample with concentrated HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ plus V2O5 as an oxidation catalyst, reducing the stannous chloride, and sweeping the elemental mercury into an absorption tube for measurement by atomic absorption (AA) spectrophotometry. Arsenic and selenium are determined simultaneously by digesting the sample with concentrated HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and HClO/sub 4/; forming their respective hybrides with the addition of sodium borohybride, which are swept into an argon-hydrogen flame for analysis by AA. A low temperature ash is prepared and dissolved in 1 N HNO/sub 3/ for the analysis of calcium, copper, and zinc, by emission spectroscopy using the inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) source. The same solution is used for the determination of cadmium and lead by flameless AA. Animal feed spiked with three levels of each of the eight elements yielded recoveries of between 80 and 107%. Development of specific methods for the recovery of these elements for wastewater and human urine was suspended due to overriding priorities within the Analytical Methods Branch. However, a method was developed for mercury in urine and blood to address the safety surveillance requirement for NCTR workers potentially exposed to methyl mercury chloride while dosing test animals with this chemical.

Blakemore, W.M.



Electrokinetic supercharging in CE for the separation and preconcentration of barbiturate drugs in urine samples.  


Three barbiturate drugs, barbital, phenobarbital, and secobarbital were separated and analyzed by electrokinetic supercharging. The influence of different parameters on electrokinetic supercharging performance was evaluated using both univariated and multivariated optimization processes. The parameters studied were sample pH, concentration, and length of the leading and terminating electrolytes, electrokinetic injection of the sample and composition and hydrodynamic injection of the solvent plug. The leading electrolyte (50 mM NaCl) was hydrodynamically injected (50 mbar × 120 s) prior to the sample that was adjusted to pH 9.6 and electrokinetically injected at -8.5 kV for 300 s. The terminating electrolyte (100 mM of 2-(cyclohexylamino) ethanesulphonic acid) was then hydrodynamically injected (50 mbar × 140 s). The results showed that this strategy enhanced detection sensitivity around 1050-fold compared with normal hydrodynamic injection, providing detection limits ranging between 1.5 and 2.1 ng/mL for standard samples with good repeatability in terms of peak area (values of relative standard deviation, %RSD < 3). The applicability of the optimized method was demonstrated by the analysis of human urine samples spiked with the studied compounds at different concentration levels and further liquid-liquid extraction step. The estimated detection limits obtained in the urine samples extract ranged between 8 and 15 ng/mL. PMID:23303599

Botello, Igor; Borrull, Francesc; Calull, Marta; Aguilar, Carme



Lead in blood and eggs of the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, from the Eastern Pacific: concentration, isotopic composition and maternal transfer.  


Concentrations of lead were assessed in the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, from a nesting colony of the Eastern Pacific. Twenty-five female turtles were sampled and a total of 250 eggs were collected during the "arribada" event of the 2005-2006 season. Considering the nesting season, the maternal transfer of lead (Pb) via egg-laying, in terms of metal burden in whole body, was 0.5%. Pb concentrations (in dry weight) in blood (0.95+/-0.18microgg(-1)) and egg samples (yolk, 0.80+/-0.10microg g(-1); albumen, 1.08+/-0.20microg g(-1); eggshell, 1.05+/-0.20microg g(-1)) were comparable or even lower than those found in other sea turtles. The isotope ratios ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(208)Pb) in blood (1.183+/-0.0006 and 2.452+/-0.0006, respectively) were comparable to that of natural Pb-bearing bedrock in Mexico (1.188+/-0.005 and 2.455+/-0.008, respectively). According to international norms of Pb, the health of this population and its habitats is acceptable for Pb and corresponds to basic levels of a nearly pristine environment. PMID:19897213

Páez-Osuna, F; Calderón-Campuzano, M F; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Ruelas-Inzunza, J R



Metals in Urine and Peripheral Arterial Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants ?40 years of age in NHANES 1999–2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 ?g/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population.

Navas-Acien, Ana; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Calderon-Aranda, Emma; Selvin, Elizabeth; Guallar, Eliseo



Levels of lead, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc in deciduous teeth of children living in Irbid, Jordan by ICP-OES: some factors affecting their concentrations.  


The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in deciduous teeth from children living in Jordan and to investigate the affecting factors. Deciduous teeth samples (n = 320, without fillings) were collected from 5- to 12-year-old children and analyzed for Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. A questionnaire was used to gather information on each child, such as sex, age, tooth type (incisors, canines, and molars), tooth position within the mouth (upper or lower jaw), caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, type of drinking water (tap water, home purified water, and plant purified water), and zone of residence (close to or far from heavy traffic roads). The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn were 30.26, 0.55, 6.23, 34.72, and 128.21 ?g/g, respectively. Our results indicate that there is a clear relation between the concentrations of the metals analyzed in this study and tooth type, tooth position within the mouth, caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and type of drinking water. No significant differences in the concentrations of the five metals analyzed were observed due to sex. Our results also show that no significant difference among Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations and age among the ages of 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12, except for Pb, which decreases at age 11-12. PMID:22851195

Alomary, A; Al-Momani, I F; Obeidat, S M; Massadeh, A M



Urine Cultures among Hospitalized Veterans: Casting Too Broad a Net?  


Since detection of asymptomatic bacteriuria among inpatients often leads to inappropriate antimicrobial treatment, we studied why urine cultures were ordered and correlates of treatment. Most cultures were obtained from patients without urinary complaints and a minority from asymptomatic patients. High-count bacteriuria, not clinical manifestations, appeared to trigger most antimicrobial use. PMID:24709728

Drekonja, Dimitri M; Gnadt, Christina; Kuskowski, Michael A; Johnson, James R



SERS quantitative urine creatinine measurement of human subject  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SERS method for biomolecular analysis has several potentials and advantages over traditional biochemical approaches, including less specimen contact, non-destructive to specimen, and multiple components analysis. Urine is an easily available body fluid for monitoring the metabolites and renal function of human body. We developed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique using 50nm size gold colloidal particles for quantitative human urine creatinine measurements. This paper shows that SERS shifts of creatinine (104mg/dl) in artificial urine is from 1400cm-1 to 1500cm-1 which was analyzed for quantitative creatinine measurement. Ten human urine samples were obtained from ten healthy persons and analyzed by the SERS technique. Partial least square cross-validation (PLSCV) method was utilized to obtain the estimated creatinine concentration in clinically relevant (55.9mg/dl to 208mg/dl) concentration range. The root-mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) is 26.1mg/dl. This research demonstrates the feasibility of using SERS for human subject urine creatinine detection, and establishes the SERS platform technique for bodily fluids measurement.

Wang, Tsuei Lian; Chiang, Hui-hua K.; Lu, Hui-hsin; Hung, Yung-da



The inŁuence of synthetic sheep urine on ammonia oxidizing bacterial communities in grassland soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In grazed, grassland soils, sheep urine generates heterogeneity in ammonia concentrations, with potential impact on ammonia oxidizer community structure and soil N cycling. The influence of different levels of synthetic sheep urine on ammonia oxidizers was studied in grassland soil microcosms. 'Total' and active ammonia oxidizers were distinguished by comparing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles following PCR and RT-PCR

Shahid Mahmood; James I. Prosser



EPA Science Inventory

Blood, hair, urine and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-water selenium levels. Bloo...


An Antiserum for the Specific Detection of HCG in Human Urine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates generally to a method for in vitro determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentration in urine wherein the determination from urine is specific for hCG and excludes human luteinizing hormone (hLH). More particularly th...

G. D. Hodgen H. C. Chen S. Matsuura



High-resolution determination of {sup 147}Pm in urine using dynamic ion-exchange chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange preconcentration followed by HPLC purification prior to scintillation counting was used to measure the concentration of {sup 147}Pm in urine. the detection limit for this method was found to be 0.1 Bq (3 fg) of {sup 147}Pm in 500 ml of urine.

Elchuk, S.; Lucy, C.A.; Burns, K.I. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)



Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Dual Catalyst Ammonia Removal System for a Urine Vcd Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A three-man capacity catalytic system for the recovery of water from urine was designed, constructed, and tested, it was designed to operate with feed streams containing high concentrations of urine vapor and only 5 to 7% of oxygen for the oxidation of am...

P. Budinikas



Decreased Oxidative Stress Index of Urine in Patients with Urinary Tract Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To investigate the oxidative and antioxidative status of urine and serum of patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) and to compare them with those of controls. Materials and Methods: The antioxidative status of urine and serum were evaluated by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and plasma vitamin C concentration. The oxidative status of the samples was assessed by measuring

Halil Ciftci; Ayhan Verit; Ercan Yeni; Murat Savas



Ruminal fermentation patterns and parameters of the acid base metabolism in the urine as influenced by the proportion of concentrate in the ration of dairy cows with and without Fusarium toxin-contaminated triticale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding a total mixed ration with 50% concentrate and a mean deoxynivalenol (DON) concentration of 5.3 mg\\/kg DM to 13 German Holstein cows in early lactation (Myco group) resulted in alterations in the ruminal fermentation patterns (lower molar percentage of acetate and isobutyrate, higher molar percentage of valerate) compared to the 14 control cows (Period 1, 11 weeks). In the

Christina Keese; Ulrich Meyer; Jürgen Rehage; Joachim Spilke; Jeannette Boguhn; Gerhard Breves; Sven Dänicke



Absorbing and diffusive properties of blood plasma and urine proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of absorbing and scattering properties of blood and urine plasma proteins is presented. Assessment methods of their spectroscopic parameters, such as extinction, absorption and scattering coefficients, are described. Possibilities for a separate assessment of the albumin and globulin concentrations in biological media are considered.

Guminetsky, S. G.; Pishak, Olga V.; Pishak, Vasyl P.; Grigorishin, P. M.



Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women  

SciTech Connect

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia)] [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)] [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia)] [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ř. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsř, N-9037 Tromsř (Norway)] [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsř, N-9037 Tromsř (Norway)



Trace element concentrations (mercury, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, aluminium, nickel, arsenic, and selenium) in some aquatic birds of the southwest Atlantic coast of France.  


Trace elements (mercury [Hg], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], zinc [Zn], lead [Pb], aluminium [Al], nickel [Ni], arsenic [As], and selenium [Se]) were investigated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in liver, kidney, muscle, and feather of aquatic birds wintering or inhabiting the wetlands situated on the Southwest Atlantic coast of France. A majority of greylag geese, red knots, and grey plovers were collected from among hunter-shot animals. The relation between residue concentrations, age (juvenile vs. adult), and sex was investigated. Trace elements were lower than threshold levels of toxicity, except for Pb. Greylag geese sampled could be considered Pb-poisoned. These consequential levels of contamination could be the result of the ingestion of Pb-shot from ammunition used in hunting areas they crossed during migration. Cd accumulation increased with age, whereas Pb levels in feathers were lower in adult birds in connection with moulting. As was influenced by sex. Female birds displayed higher concentrations in liver and feathers than did male birds. PMID:19763676

Lucia, Magali; André, Jean-Marc; Gontier, Karine; Diot, Nicolas; Veiga, Jesus; Davail, Stéphane



A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.



Chemical measurement of urine volume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

Sauer, R. L.



Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)  


... without causing any problems. In fact, people might never know they have it unless they get a urine test . Gross hematuria may sound nasty, but it's usually not — in medicine, "gross" is just a word that describes when something is large or happens in bigger amounts. Gross hematuria just means that ...


Determination of Radium-226 in Urine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method for determining radium-226 in urine that is currently being used by the Bioassay Laboratory has been tested and documented. Radium-226 is coprecipitated from urine by alkaline calcium phosphate. This precipitate is redissolved in hydrochloric a...

G. H. Kramer P. C. Beaulieu



Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio  


... may also vary. Creatinine, a byproduct of muscle metabolism, is normally excreted into the urine at a ... exercise, blood in the urine, urinary tract infection , dehydration , and some drugs. ^ Back to top Ask a ...


Excretion of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in urine.  


The route of transmission of most naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infections remains speculative. To investigate urine as a potential source of TSE exposure, we used a sensitive method for detection and quantitation of TSE infectivity. Pooled urine collected from 22 hamsters showing clinical signs of 263K scrapie contained 3.8 +/- 0.9 infectious doses/mL of infectivity. Titration of homogenates of kidneys and urinary bladders from the same animals gave concentrations 20,000-fold greater. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of these same tissues showed no indications of inflammatory or other pathologic changes except for occasional deposits of disease-associated prion protein in kidneys. Although the source of TSE infectivity in urine remains unresolved, these results establish that TSE infectivity is excreted in urine and may thereby play a role in the horizontal transmission of natural TSEs. The results also indicate potential risk for TSE transmission from human urine-derived hormones and other medicines. PMID:18760007

Gregori, Luisa; Kovacs, Gabor G; Alexeeva, Irina; Budka, Herbert; Rohwer, Robert G



Improved Buprenorphine Immunoassay Performance After Urine Treatment with ?-Glucuronidase.  


Buprenorphine (BUP), a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, is increasingly prescribed for the treatment of chronic pain and opioid dependence. Urine immunoassay screening methods are available for monitoring BUP compliance and misuse; however, these screens may have poor sensitivity or specificity. We evaluated whether the pretreatment of urine with ?-glucuronidase (BG) improves the sensitivity and overall accuracy of three BUP enzyme immunoassays when compared with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Urine samples sent to our laboratories for BUP testing (n = 114) were analyzed before and after BG pretreatment by cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA), enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and homogenous EIA (HEIA) immunoassays using a common 5 ng/mL cutoff. Total BUP and norbuprenorphine (NBUP) concentrations were measured by LC-MS-MS as the reference method. Urine BG pretreatment improved EIA, HEIA and CEDIA sensitivities from 70, 82 and 94%, respectively, to 97% for each of the three methods, when compared with LC-MS-MS. While the specificity of the EIA and HEIA remained 100% after BG pretreatment, the specificity of the CEDIA decreased from 74 to 67%. Urine pretreatment with BG is recommended to improve sensitivity of the EIA and HEIA BUP screening methods. PMID:24802159

Snyder, Marion L; Darragh, Alicia; Flood, James G; Jones, Jenny; Ropar, Kaitlin; Jarolim, Petr; Melanson, Stacy E F