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Correlation between concentration in urine and in blood of cadmium and lead among women in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the present study are to examine if there exists a quantitative relationship between lead in urine (Pb-U) and that in blood (Pb-B), and also between cadmium in urine (Cd-U) and that in blood (Cd-B) among the general populations who are environmentally (and not occupationally) exposed to these elements at various levels. For this purpose, peripheral blood and

Kae Higashikawa; Zuo-Wen Zhang; Shinichiro Shimbo; Chan-Seok Moon; Takao Watanabe; Haruo Nakatsuka; Naoko Matsuda-Inoguchi; Masayuki Ikeda



COX-2 disruption leads to increased central vasopressin stores and impaired urine concentrating ability in mice.  


It was hypothesized that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes urine concentrating ability through stimulation of vasopressin (AVP) release after water deprivation (WD). COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-), C57BL/6) and wild-type (WT) mice were water deprived for 24 h, and water balance, central AVP mRNA and peptide level, AVP plasma concentration, and AVP-regulated renal transport protein abundances were measured. In male COX-2(-/-), basal urine output and water intake were elevated while urine osmolality was decreased compared with WT. Water deprivation resulted in lower urine osmolality, higher plasma osmolality in COX-2(-/-) mice irrespective of gender. Hypothalamic AVP mRNA level increased and was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. AVP peptide content was higher in COX-2(-/-) compared with WT. At baseline, plasma AVP concentration was elevated in conscious chronically catheterized COX-2(-/-) mice, but after WD plasma AVP was unchanged between COX-2(-/-) and WT mice (43 ± 11 vs. 70 ± 16 pg/ml). Renal V2 receptor abundance was downregulated in COX-2(-/-) mice. Medullary interstitial osmolality increased and did not differ between COX-2(-/-) and WT after WD. Aquaporin-2 (AQP2; cortex-outer medulla), AQP3 (all regions), and UT-A1 (inner medulla) protein abundances were elevated in COX-2(-/-) at baseline and further increased after WD. COX-2(-/-) mice had elevated plasma urea and creatinine and accumulation of small subcapsular glomeruli. In conclusion, hypothalamic COX-2 activity is not necessary for enhanced AVP expression and secretion in response to water deprivation. Renal medullary COX-2 activity negatively regulates AQP2 and -3. The urine concentrating defect in COX-2(-/-) is likely caused by developmental glomerular injury and not dysregulation of AVP or collecting duct aquaporins. PMID:21880835

Nørregaard, Rikke; Madsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Pernille B L; Bie, Peter; Thavalingam, Sugarna; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Jensen, Boye L



Correlation between urine and blood concentrations, and dietary intake of cadmium and lead among women in the general population of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether lead (Pb) in urine and cadmium (Cd) in blood, especially the former, can be used as markers of environmental\\u000a exposure of general populations to these metals. Methods: Between 1991 and 1998, spot urine and peripheral blood samples, together with 24?h duplicates of food intake were collected\\u000a from 607?non-smoking adult women in 30?survey sites (SS) in seven

S. Shimbo; Z.-W. Zhang; C.-S. Moon; T. Watanabe; H. Nakatsuka; N. Matsuda-Inoguchi; K. Higashikawa; M. Ikeda



[Determination of lead in urine by differential potentiometric stripping analysis].  


In the determination of lead in urine by differential potentiometric stripping analysis (DPSA) urine samples are acidified with hydrochloric acid to a total concentration equal to 0.2 mol/L without prior digestion with mineral acids. The sample is pre-electrolyzed at -1.2V (Vs SCE) for 80 seconds by glassy-carbon electrode coated with mercury. The lead concentrations are evaluated by means of standard addition. Detection limit of the method is 2ppb. The linear relationship occurs in the range of 0-150ppb. The relative standard deviations are 1.6% and the recovery of lead in urine samples is 89.5-110.0%. Compared with dithizone method, this method shows no significant difference in the results obtained. PMID:2625342

Sun, X X; Zhang, M Y; Guo, S J



Lack of protein kinase C-? leads to impaired urine concentrating ability and decreased aquaporin-2 in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.  


Regulation of water and urea transport in the inner medullary collecting duct is essential for urine concentration. Aquaporin (AQP)2 water channels and urea transporter (UT)-A1 are inserted into the apical membrane upon phosphorylation of the channels to allow the transcellular movement of water and urea. Since ANG II activates PKC in many cell types, we tested the hypothesis that ANG II-induced regulation of water and urea transport is mediated by PKC. Osmotic minipumps delivered ANG II to wild-type (WT) or PKC-?(-/-) mice for 7 days. Inner medullas were harvested, and protein abundance was determined by immunoblot. ANG II increased systolic blood pressure to a similar degree in WT and PKC-?(-/-) mice. ANG II had no effect on the urine output of WT mice but increased that of PKC-?(-/-) mice. In accordance with observed differences in urine output, AQP2 abundance was unchanged in ANG II-treated WT animals but was decreased in PKC-?(-/-) mice. No change in membrane accumulation was seen. Phosphorylation of the cAMP-induced transcription factor CREB was decreased in PKC-?(-/-) mice in response to ANG II with no change in overall CREB abundance. ANG II did not alter the abundance of UT-A1 protein in WT or PKC-?(-/-) mice. Phosphorylation and overall abundance of tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein, a transcription factor that regulates UT-A1, were also unaltered by ANG II in either group. We conclude that PKC-? protects against ANG II-induced decreases in urine concentrating ability by maintaining AQP2 levels through CREB phosphorylation. PMID:22492943

Thai, Tiffany L; Blount, Mitsi A; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M



Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.  


Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo



Urine concentrations in the spaces of the sheep renal pelvis  

E-print Network

Short note Urine concentrations in the spaces of the sheep renal pelvis S Faix M Szanyiova L Leng / renal pelvis / urine concentration R�sum� ― Les concentrations urinaires dans les espaces du pelvis r�nal chez le mouton. Les concentrations urinaires ont �t� mesur�es dans des �chantillons pr

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Concentration of urine by the hibernating marmot.  


Studies wer performed with marmots (Marmota flaviventris) of both sexes that had chronic arterial, venous, and bladder catheters. Urine collection was performed during hibernation and urine osmolalities (611.6 not equal to 166.1 SD) were found to be lower than those of aroused animals (1264 not equal to 472.9 SD), but hypertonic to plasma. Peak osmolality of meduallary slices was found to be in the range of osmotic pressures of urine obtained from hibernating or aroused animals. After single injections of a mixture of rho-aminohippurate and inulin, or during constant infusion of inulin, steady-state excretion by hibernators was not achieved for several days. Indirect evidence indicateds that the hibernating marmot is capable of PAH secretion. PMID:1130537

Zatzman, M L; South, F E



Urine concentration and avian aquaporin water channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although birds and mammals have evolved from primitive tetrapods and advanced divergently, both can conserve water by producing\\u000a hyperosmotic urine. Unique aspects in the avian system include the presence of loopless and looped nephrons, lack of the thin\\u000a ascending limb of Henle’s loop, a corticomedullary osmotic gradient primarily consisting of NaCl without contribution of urea,\\u000a and significant postrenal modification of

Hiroko Nishimura



Low concentrations of methamphetamine detectable in urine in the presence of high concentrations of amphetamine.  


Twenty-two urine specimens reported by military drug-testing laboratories for the presence of high concentrations of amphetamine only were subject to further analysis for the presence of methamphetamine. The 22 urine specimens had concentrations of amphetamine in the range of 28,028 to 241,142 ng/mL. The specimens were also assayed for the respective isomeric ratio of d (S) and l (R) amphetamine and methamphetamine. The results suggest that urine specimens containing high concentrations of amphetamine in which the urine concentration ratio of methamphetamine to amphetamine is less than 0.5% with similar isomeric distribution of d-(S) and l-(R) amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, may not necessarily indicate polydrug use. PMID:19371467

Jemionek, John F; Addison, Joseph; Past, Marilyn R



Elevated urine zinc concentration reduces the detection of methamphetamine, cocaine, THC and opiates in urine by EMIT.  


Methods for circumventing positive drug tests continue to evolve and are often spread through internet websites reporting on the proposed effectiveness of various adulteration methods. Recent claims of the use of zinc added directly to urine or ingested prior to urine collection have prompted investigation into the vulnerability of ELISA-based testing, providing interesting but inconclusive results. We investigated the potential interference of zinc used as a direct adulterant and after zinc self-administration for enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT)-based drug abuse testing in urine. Negative urine samples and samples collected before and after zinc self-administration were fortified with d-methamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, morphine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol prior to analysis by the EMIT. Our data indicate that zinc added directly to urine in concentrations 5,000 times higher than a typical random urine total zinc concentration is capable of producing false-negative results; however, self-administration of oral zinc was unable to generate random urine total zinc concentrations in the required range. Further, no evidence of a secondary interfering substance was observed as a result of oral zinc self-administration. Our results indicate that the total zinc concentrations required to directly interfere with EMIT-based testing are easily distinguishable from routine random urine total zinc concentrations, and that alleged oral ingestion of zinc does not produce total zinc concentrations capable of direct interference. PMID:23843421

Lin, Chia-Ni; Strathmann, Frederick G



Adult polycystic kidney disease: Studies of the defect in urine concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult polycystic kidney disease: Studies of the defect in urine concentration. Patients with adult polycystic kidney disease with and without renal insufficiency and some of their family members in whom cysts were not demonstrable by radiography underwent tests of maximal urine concentrating ability (Umax). Ten of the twelve family members without demonstrable cysts (Group I) had Umax exceeding 900 mOsm\\/kg.

Manuel Martinez-Maldonado; Jackson J Yium; Garabed Eknoyan; Wadi N Suki



Concentrations versus amounts of biomarkers in urine: a comparison of approaches to assess pyrethroid exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of human exposure to non-persistent pesticides such as pyrethroids is often based on urinary biomarker measurements. Urinary metabolite levels of these pesticides are usually reported in volume-weighted concentrations or creatinine-adjusted concentrations measured in spot urine samples. It is known that these units are subject to intra- and inter-individual variations. This research aimed at studying the impact of these variations on the assessment of pyrethroid absorbed doses at individual and population levels. Methods Using data obtained from various adult and infantile populations, the intra and inter-individual variability in the urinary flow rate and creatinine excretion rate was first estimated. Individual absorbed doses were then calculated using volume-weighted or creatinine-adjusted concentrations according to published approaches and compared to those estimated from the amounts of biomarkers excreted in 15- or 24-h urine collections, the latter serving as a benchmark unit. The effect of the units of measurements (volume-weighted or creatinine adjusted concentrations or 24-h amounts) on results of the comparison of pyrethroid biomarker levels between two populations was also evaluated. Results Estimation of daily absorbed doses of permethrin from volume-weighted or creatinine-adjusted concentrations of biomarkers was found to potentially lead to substantial under or overestimation when compared to doses reconstructed directly from amounts excreted in urine during a given period of time (-70 to +573% and -83 to +167%, respectively). It was also shown that the variability in creatinine excretion rate and urinary flow rate may introduce a bias in the case of between population comparisons. Conclusion The unit chosen to express biomonitoring data may influence the validity of estimated individual absorbed dose as well as the outcome of between population comparisons. PMID:18983658

Fortin, Marie-Chantale; Carrier, Gaetan; Bouchard, Michele



The Silicon Concentration in Cat Urine and Its Relationship with Other Elements  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT To understand the effects of silicon (Si) in the urine with respect to the formation of urinary stones, the distribution of Si in urine was observed. Urine samples from cats with urolithiasis (n=10) and healthy cats (n=15) were used. The concentration of Si in the cats with urolithiasis was significantly higher (P<0.001). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between the concentration of Si and those of other elements, such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and iron, only in the urine of the healthy cats. The distribution of elements in the urine differed between the cats with urolithiasis and the healthy cats. The Si concentration and its relationship with other elements were suggested to be useful biomarkers for urolithiasis in cats. PMID:24334829

TAKAHASHI, Fumihito; MOCHIZUKI, Mariko; YOGO, Takuya; ISHIOKA, Katsumi; YUMOTO, Norio; SAKO, Toshinori; UEDA, Fukiko; TAGAWA, Masahiro; TAZAKI, Hiroyuki



Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment

John E Bassett



Lead and cadmium levels in daily foods, blood and urine in children and their mothers in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The present study was initiated to examine the dietary intake, blood level and urinary concentration of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) among children in Korea, in comparison with the findings in their mothers.Methods. Peripheral blood, spot urine and 24-h food duplicate samples were collected in Busan, Korea, from 38 pairs of children (4–10 years of age) and their mothers

Chan-Seok Moon; Jong-Min Paik; Chang-Soo Choi; Do-Hoon Kim; Masayuki Ikeda



Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a sorbent material for the solid phase extraction of lead from urine and subsequent determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of lead in urine is a way of monitoring the chemical exposure to this metal. In the present paper, a new method for the Pb determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) in urine at low levels has been developed. Lead was separated from the undesirable urine matrix by means of a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been used as a sorbent material. Lead from urine was retained at pH 4.0 and was quantitatively eluted using a 0.7 M nitric acid solution and was subsequently measured by ETAAS. The effects of parameters that influence the adsorption-elution process (such as pH, eluent volume and concentration, sampling and elution flow rates) and the atomic spectrometry conditions have been studied by means of different factorial design strategies. Under the optimized conditions, the detection and quantification limits obtained were 0.08 and 0.26 ?g Pb L- 1, respectively. The results demonstrate the absence of a urine matrix effect and this is the consequence of the SPE process carried out. Therefore, the developed method is useful for the analysis of Pb at low levels in real samples without the influence of other urine components. The proposed method was applied to the determination of lead in urine samples of unexposed healthy people and satisfactory results were obtained (in the range 3.64-22.9 ?g Pb L- 1).

Peña Crecente, Rosa M.; Lovera, Carlha Gutiérrez; García, Julia Barciela; Méndez, Jennifer Álvarez; Martín, Sagrario García; Latorre, Carlos Herrero



Measurement of Sterigmatocystin Concentrations in Urine for Monitoring the Contamination of Cattle Feed  

PubMed Central

This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15–0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01–0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna



Measurement of sterigmatocystin concentrations in urine for monitoring the contamination of cattle feed.  


This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15-0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01-0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna



Triazolothienopyrimidine Inhibitors of Urea Transporter UT-B Reduce Urine Concentration  

PubMed Central

Urea transport (UT) proteins facilitate the concentration of urine by the kidney, suggesting that inhibition of these proteins could have therapeutic use as a diuretic strategy. We screened 100,000 compounds for UT-B inhibition using an optical assay based on the hypotonic lysis of acetamide-loaded mouse erythrocytes. We identified a class of triazolothienopyrimidine UT-B inhibitors; the most potent compound, UTBinh-14, fully and reversibly inhibited urea transport with IC50 values of 10 nM and 25 nM for human and mouse UT-B, respectively. UTBinh-14 competed with urea binding at an intracellular site on the UT-B protein. UTBinh-14 exhibited low toxicity and high selectivity for UT-B over UT-A isoforms. After intraperitoneal administration of UTBinh-14 in mice to achieve predicted therapeutic concentrations in the kidney, urine osmolality after administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin was approximately 700 mosm/kg H2O lower in UTBinh-14–treated mice than vehicle-treated mice. UTBinh-14 also increased urine output and reduced urine osmolality in mice given free access to water. UTBinh-14 did not reduce urine osmolality in UT-B knockout mice. In summary, these data provide proof of concept for the potential utility of UT inhibitors to reduce urinary concentration in high-vasopressin, fluid-retaining conditions. The diuretic mechanism of UT inhibitors may complement the action of conventional diuretics, which target sodium transport. PMID:22491419

Yao, Chenjuan; Anderson, Marc O.; Zhang, Jicheng; Yang, Baoxue; Phuan, Puay-Wah



Associations of low-level urine cadmium with kidney function in lead workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesLow-level cadmium exposure, resulting in, for example, urinary cadmium <2.0 ?g\\/g creatinine, is widespread; recent data suggest nephrotoxicity even at these low levels. Few studies have examined the impact of low-level cadmium exposure in workers who are occupationally exposed to other nephrotoxicants such as lead.MethodsWe evaluated associations of urine cadmium, a measure of cumulative dose, with four glomerular filtration measures

Virginia M Weaver; Nam-Soo Kim; Bernard G Jaar; Brian S Schwartz; Patrick J Parsons; Amy J Steuerwald; Andrew C Todd; David Simon; Byung-Kook Lee



Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.  


Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful. PMID:15123201

Bassett, John E



A Magnetic Bead-Based Method for Concentrating DNA from Human Urine for Downstream Detection  

PubMed Central

Due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, PCR cannot be used directly on most clinical samples, including human urine, without pre-treatment. A magnetic bead-based strategy is one potential method to collect biomarkers from urine samples and separate the biomarkers from PCR inhibitors. In this report, a 1 mL urine sample was mixed within the bulb of a transfer pipette containing lyophilized nucleic acid-silica adsorption buffer and silica-coated magnetic beads. After mixing, the sample was transferred from the pipette bulb to a small diameter tube, and captured biomarkers were concentrated using magnetic entrainment of beads through pre-arrayed wash solutions separated by small air gaps. Feasibility was tested using synthetic segments of the 140 bp tuberculosis IS6110 DNA sequence spiked into pooled human urine samples. DNA recovery was evaluated by qPCR. Despite the presence of spiked DNA, no DNA was detectable in unextracted urine samples, presumably due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. However, following extraction with the magnetic bead-based method, we found that ?50% of spiked TB DNA was recovered from human urine containing roughly 5×103 to 5×108 copies of IS6110 DNA. In addition, the DNA was concentrated approximately ten-fold into water. The final concentration of DNA in the eluate was 5×106, 14×106, and 8×106 copies/µL for 1, 3, and 5 mL urine samples, respectively. Lyophilized and freshly prepared reagents within the transfer pipette produced similar results, suggesting that long-term storage without refrigeration is possible. DNA recovery increased with the length of the spiked DNA segments from 10±0.9% for a 75 bp DNA sequence to 42±4% for a 100 bp segment and 58±9% for a 140 bp segment. The estimated LOD was 77 copies of DNA/µL of urine. The strategy presented here provides a simple means to achieve high nucleic acid recovery from easily obtained urine samples, which does not contain inhibitors of PCR. PMID:23861895

Bordelon, Hali; Russ, Patricia K.; Wright, David W.; Haselton, Frederick R.



Concentrations and chemical species of arsenic in human urine and hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because marine products are rich in arsenic, the concentration of arsenic in the human urine varies greatly with the state of ingestion of marine products. It has been reported that the analysis of foods for chemica! species of arsenic detects 4 chemical species: inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid (MAA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) and trimethylarsenic compound (TMA) (Yamauchi and Yamamura 1980). It

Naohisa Yamato; Naohisa



Maple syrup urine disease: Branchedchain amino acid concentrations and metabolism in cultured human lymphoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular concentration of free leucine, isoleucine, and valine and their metabolism were studied in lymphoblast cultures established from peripheral blood of an individual with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and a control subject. Branched-chain a-keto acid decarboxylase activity in the MSUD cells was 10% or less of the control value as measured by the ability of the cells to

Stephen D. Skaper; Daniel P. Molden; J. Edwin Seegmiller



Seafood Intake and Urine Concentrations of Total Arsenic, Dimethylarsinate and Arsenobetaine in the US Population  

PubMed Central

Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ?6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ?2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake. PMID:21093857

Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo



Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood  


Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood. The present invention includes the use of resonant laser ablation to analyze .ltoreq.1 .mu.L (or equivalent mass) samples of blood for lead content. A typical finger prick, for example, yields about 10 .mu.L. Solid samples may also readily be analyzed by resonant laser ablation. The sample is placed on a lead-free, electrically conducting substrate and irradiated with a single, focused laser beam which simultaneously vaporizes, atomizes, and resonantly ionizes an analyte of interest in a sample. The ions are then sorted, collected and detected using a mass spectrometer.

Nogar, Nicholas S. (Los Alamos, NM)



Comparative physiology and architecture associated with the mammalian urine concentrating mechanism: role of inner medullary water and urea transport pathways in the rodent medulla  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies of renal structure and function have potential to provide insights into the urine-concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney. This review focuses on the tubular transport pathways for water and urea that play key roles in fluid and solute movements between various compartments of the rodent renal inner medulla. Information on aquaporin water channel and urea transporter expression has increased our understanding of functional segmentation of medullary thin limbs of Henle's loops, collecting ducts, and vasa recta. A more complete understanding of membrane transporters and medullary architecture has identified new and potentially significant interactions between these structures and the interstitium. These interactions are now being introduced into our concept of how the inner medullary urine-concentrating mechanism works. A variety of regulatory pathways lead directly or indirectly to variable patterns of fluid and solute movements among the interstitial and tissue compartments. Animals with the ability to produce highly concentrated urine, such as desert species, are considered to exemplify tubular structure and function that optimize urine concentration. These species may provide unique insights into the urine-concentrating process.1 PMID:23364530



Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) gene deficiency impairs urine concentration in mice  

PubMed Central

The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is mainly expressed in liver and small intestine, where it plays an important role in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. The kidney also has a high FXR expression level, with its physiological function unknown. Here we demonstrate that FXR is ubiquitously distributed in renal tubules. FXR agonist treatment significantly lowered urine volume and increased urine osmolality, whereas FXR knockout mice exhibited an impaired urine concentrating ability, which led to a polyuria phenotype. We further found that treatment of C57BL/6 mice with chenodeoxycholic acid, an FXR endogenous ligand, significantly up-regulated renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression, whereas FXR gene deficiency markedly reduced AQP2 expression levels in the kidney. In vitro studies showed that the AQP2 gene promoter contained a putative FXR response element site, which can be bound and activated by FXR, resulting in a significant increase of AQP2 transcription in cultured primary inner medullary collecting duct cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that FXR plays a critical role in the regulation of urine volume, and its activation increases urinary concentrating capacity mainly via up-regulating its target gene AQP2 expression in the collecting ducts. PMID:24464484

Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shizheng; Gao, Min; Liu, Jia; Jia, Xiao; Han, Qifei; Zheng, Senfeng; Miao, Yifei; Li, Shuo; Weng, Haoyu; Xia, Xuan; Du, Shengnan; Wu, Wanfu; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Guan, Youfei



Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.  


Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 ?g/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 ?g/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 ?g/L with a median peak concentration of 5239 ?g/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2000 ?g/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6 h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18 h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 ?g/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 ?g/L, with peak concentrations of 658 ?g/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 ?g/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A



The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers  

SciTech Connect

The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur [PTNBR BATAN, Jl. Tamansari no. 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)



Methamphetamine and amphetamine isomer concentrations in human urine following controlled vicks vapoinhaler administration.  


Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2. Every urine specimen was collected as an individual void for 32 h after the first dose and assayed for d- and l-amphetamines specific isomers with a GC-MS method with >99% purity of R-(-)-?-methoxy-?-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl derivatives and 10 µg/L lower limits of quantification. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any urine specimen by GC-MS. The median l-methamphetamine maximum concentration was 62.8 µg/L (range: 11.0-1,440). Only two subjects had detectable l-amphetamine, with maximum concentrations coinciding with l-methamphetamine peak levels, and always ? 4% of the parent's maximum. Three commercial immunoassays for amphetamines EMIT(®) II Plus, KIMS(®) II and DRI(®) had sensitivities, specificities and efficiencies of 100, 97.8, 97.8; 100, 99.6, 99.6 and 100, 100, 100%, respectively. The immunoassays had high efficiencies, but our first hypothesis was not affirmed. The EMIT(®) II Plus assay produced 2.2% false-positive results, requiring an enantiomer-specific confirmation. PMID:25217541

Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A



A urine-concentrating defect in 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 null mice  

PubMed Central

In aldosterone target tissues, 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?HSD2) is coexpressed with mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and protects the receptor from activation by glucocorticoids. Null mutations in the encoding gene, HSD11B2, cause apparent mineralocorticoid excess, in which hypertension is thought to reflect volume expansion secondary to sodium retention. Hsd11b2?/? mice are indeed hypertensive, but impaired natriuretic capacity is associated with significant volume contraction, suggestive of a urine concentrating defect. Water turnover and the urine concentrating response to a 24-h water deprivation challenge were therefore assessed in Hsd11b2?/? mice and controls. Hsd11b2?/? mice have a severe and progressive polyuric/polydipsic phenotype. In younger mice (?2 mo of age), polyuria was associated with decreased abundance of aqp2 and aqp3 mRNA. The expression of other genes involved in water transport (aqp4, slc14a2, and slc12a2) was not changed. The kidney was structurally normal, and the concentrating response to water deprivation was intact. In older Hsd11b2?/? mice (>6 mo), polyuria was associated with a severe atrophy of the renal medulla and downregulation of aqp2, aqp3, aqp4, slc14a2, and slc12a2. The concentrating response to water deprivation was impaired, and the natriuretic effect of the loop diuretic bumetanide was lost. In older Hsd11b2?/? mice, the V2 receptor agonist desmopressin did not restore full urine concentrating capacity. We find that Hsd11b2?/? mice develop nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Gross changes to renal structure are observed, but these were probably secondary to sustained polyuria, rather than of developmental origin. PMID:22622456

Evans, Louise C.; Livingstone, Dawn E.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Jansen, Maurits A.; Dear, James W.; Mullins, John J.



Urine Concentrating Ability in Infants with Sickle Cell Disease: Baseline Data from the Phase III Trial of Hydroxyurea (BABY HUG)  

PubMed Central

Background A urine concentrating defect is quite common in sickle cell anemia, has its onset in early childhood, and may be reversible with transfusion. The Pediatric Hydroxyurea Phase III Clinical Trial (BABY HUG) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess efficacy of hydroxyurea in preventing organ damage in young children with sickle cell anemia. Procedures Enrolled infants were subjected to parent-supervised fluid deprivation and urine and serum osmolality were determined. Results Of 185 infants age 7.5 – 17.9 months (mean 13.0+/-2.7) and fluid-deprived 7.4+/-2.4 hours (range 4-13), 178 had concurrent determinations of urine and serum osmolality. Mean serum osmolality was 286+/-6 mOsm/kg H2O (range 275-312) and independent of age, height, weight, or duration of fluid deprivation. Urine osmolality (mean 407+/-151, range 58-794 mOsm/ kg H2O) was greater than serum (p<0.0001) and correlated with duration of fluid deprivation (p=0.001). Of 142 (77.2%) who concentrated urine, 54 (29.4%) had urine osmolality > 500 mOsm/kg H2O. Urine osmolality correlated with 99mTc-DTPA clearance (p=0.02) and serum urea nitrogen (p<0.0001), but not with serum osmolality, gender, age, height, weight or serum creatinine. Infants able to produce urine with osmolality > 500 mOsm/kg H2O had higher mean fetal hemoglobin concentrations than did those who could not (p=0.014). Conclusions Even with often limited fluid deprivation, 77.2 percent of young infants with sickle cell anemia were able to concentrate urine. Preservation of concentrating ability was associated with higher fetal hemoglobin concentration. Assessment will be repeated after two years of hydroxyurea or placebo treatment. ( number, NCT00006400.) PMID:19621454

Miller, Scott T.; Wang, Winfred C.; Iyer, Rathi; Rana, Sohail; Lane, Peter; Ware, Russell E.; Li, Daner; Rees, Renee C.



Normative concentrations of urine thiocyanate in cassava eating communities in Nigeria.  


Exposure to cyanide is a major public health problem where highly cyanogenic cassava foods are consumed. Thiocyanate (SCN), the biomarker of exposure to cyanide is present in several foods, and produced endogenously. Concentrations of urine SCN were measured in endemic and non-endemic areas of ataxic polyneuropathy in Nigeria. Cassava food consumption in the endemic area was twice that of non-endemic areas. Geometrical mean (95% CI) urine SCN was 20?µmol/l (18-24) for no consumption of cassava foods, 56?µmol/l (49-64) for daily consumption, 56?µmol/l (48-65) for twice daily consumption and 85?µmol/l (62-117) for thrice daily consumption. 95th percentile reference limit was 125?µmol/l for no consumption of cassava food, but 360?µmol/l for thrice daily consumption. Urine SCN is a useful biomarker of exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. There is strong ecological association of exposure to cyanide and endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy. PMID:23944969

Oluwole, O S A; Oludiran, A O



Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.  


The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. PMID:23867847

Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L



How to calculate lead concentration and concentration uncertainty in XRF in vivo bone lead analysis.  


The authors provide a substantial correction for calculating estimates of lead concentration and uncertainty for in vivo X-ray fluorescent bone analysis with Cd-109 source. Based on general principles, they provide mathematical techniques for propagation of uncertainties in XRF analysis. They give additional considerations for lowering the detection limit and improving spectral data quality. PMID:11761103

Kondrashov, V S; Rothenberg, S J



A simple pharmacokinetic model of alendronate developed using plasma concentration and urine excretion data from healthy men.  


The study of pharmacokinetics of alendronate has been hampered by difficulties in accurately and reproducibly determining their concentrations in serum and urine. Thus, pharmacokinetic characteristics of alendronate have been described in many reports based on urinary excretion data; and plasma pharmacokinetics and the simultaneous pharmacokinetic models of alendronate in plasma and urine are not available. The aims of this study were to measure alendronate concentration in plasma and excretion in urine concurrently and to develop compartmental pharmacokinetic model using urine data. In open-label, single-dose pharmacokinetic study, 10 healthy male volunteers received oral dose of alendronate (70?mg tablet). Blood and urine alendronate concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Non-compartmental analysis was performed using WinNonlin program (Pharsight Inc., Apex, NC). A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model was applied to describe pharmacokinetics of alendronate. A peak plasma alendronate concentration of 33.10?±?14.32?ng/mL was attained after 1.00?±?0.16?h. The cumulative amount of alendronate excreted in urine and peak excretion rate were 731.28?±?654.57??g and 314.68?±?395.43??g/h, respectively. The model, which included first-order absorption rate for oral dosing, showed good fit to alendronate data obtained from plasma and urine. The absorption rate constant was 2.68?±?0.95?h(-1). The elimination rate constants Kurine and Knon-ur were 0.005?±?0.004?h(-1) and 0.42?±?0.08?h(-1), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of alendronate in plasma and urine of healthy men can be predicted using one-compartment model, and thus the behavior of drug in plasma can be estimated from urinary excretion data. PMID:23886303

Chae, Jung-Woo; Seo, Jeong-Won; Mahat, Bimit; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Baek, In-Hwan; Lee, Byung-Yo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Kwang-Il



Acute changes in arginine vasopressin, sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations in exercising humans: does a coordinated homeostatic relationship exist?  

PubMed Central

The parallel response of sweat rate and urine production to changes in plasma osmolality and volume support a role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) as the main endocrine regulator of both excretions. A maximal test to exhaustion and a steady-state run on a motorised treadmill were both completed by 10 moderately trained runners, 1 week apart. Sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations ([Na+]) were evaluated in association with the plasma concentrations of cytokines, neurohypophyseal and natriuretic peptides, and adrenal steroid hormones. When data from both the high-intensity and steady-state runs were combined, significant linear correlations were noted between: sweat [Na+] versus postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.80; p<0.001), postexercise serum [Na+] versus both postexercise urine [Na+] (r = 0.56; p<0.05) and sweat [Na+] (r = 0.64; p<0.01) and postexercise urine [Na+] versus postexercise plasma arginine vasopressin concentration ([AVP]P) (r = 0.48; p<0.05). A significant positive correlation was noted between postexercise [AVP]P and sweat [Na+] during the steady-state condition only (r = 0.66; p<0.05). These correlations suggest that changes in serum [Na+] during exercise may evoke corresponding changes in sweat and urine [Na+], which are likely regulated coordinately by changes in [AVP]P to preserve body fluid homeostasis. PMID:18801773

Hew-Butler, T; Noakes, T D; Soldin, S J; Verbalis, J G



Catecholamines - urine  


Dopamine-urine test; Epinephrine-urine test; Adrenalin-urine test; Urine metanephrine; Normetanephrine; Norepinephrine-urine test; Urine catecholamines; VMA; HVA; Metanephrine; Homovanillic acid (HVA)


The Use of Hydrogel Microparticles to Sequester and Concentrate Bacterial Antigens in a Urine Test for Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

Hydrogel biomarker capturing microparticles were evaluated as a biomaterial to amplify the sensitivity of urine testing for infectious disease proteins. Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by ticks. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of Lyme disease reduces complications including arthritis and cardiac involvement. While a urine test is highly desirable for Lyme disease screening, this has been difficult to accomplish because the antigen is present at extremely low concentrations, below the detection limit of clinical immunoassays. N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) – acrylic acid (AAc) microparticles were covalently functionalized with amine containing dyes via amidation of carboxylic groups present in the microparticles. The dyes act as affinity baits towards protein analytes in solution. NIPAm/AAc microparticles functionalized with acid black 48 (AB48) mixed with human urine, achieved close to one hundred percent capture and 100 percent extraction yield of the target antigen. In urine, microparticles sequestered and concentrated Lyme disease antigens 100 fold, compared to the absence of microparticles, achieving an immunoassay detection sensitivity of 700 pg/mL in 10mL urine. Antigen present in a single infected tick could be readily detected following microparticle sequestration. Hydrogel microparticles functionalized with high affinity baits can dramatically increase the sensitivity of urinary antigen tests for infectious diseases such as Lyme disease. These findings justify controlled clinical studies evaluating the sensitivity and precision of Lyme antigen testing in urine. PMID:21035184

Douglas, Temple; Tamburro, Davide; Fredolini, Claudia; Espina, Benjamin; Lepene, Benjamin S.; Ilag, Leopold; Espina, Virginia; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Luchini, Alessandra



Concentration Dependent Interdiffusion in the Lead Chalcogenides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The depth of p-n junctions in the lead chalcogenides has been calculated by using different diffusion coefficients for the n and p-type material in solving the interdiffusion problem. The solutions to the diffusion equation using a step-function model hav...

R. W. Brodersen



Food sources of arsenic in pregnant Mediterranean women with high urine concentrations of this metalloid.  


Seafood consumption provides a significant amount of arsenic, although in its organic, nontoxic forms. Mediterranean populations may incorporate high levels of this metalloid as a consequence of seafood consumption. In the present study, the significance of this input among pregnant women from a Mediterranean city (Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain) is assessed. Total urinary arsenic was analyzed in 489 pairs of urine samples, corresponding to the 12th and 32th weeks of pregnancy. Association of arsenic content with seafood and other dietary items were studied. Geometric mean concentrations were 34 and 37 ?g/g creatinine during the first and third trimesters, respectively. The observed concentrations were similar to those reported in studies from other Mediterranean countries. The differences between both periods were not statistically significant. The only dietary factor significantly and positively associated with total urinary arsenic in both series of samples was seafood, particularly lean fish. Moreover, lean fish consumption during both periods was found to be the main determinant for differences in levels of arsenic between the first and third trimesters, which confirms the association between high levels of total urinary arsenic and seafood consumption. PMID:24557803

Fort, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi



Reduction of large neutral amino acid concentrations in plasma and CSF of patients with maple syrup urine disease during crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurological dysfunction is common in patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of this disorder are poorly understood. We determined the concentrations of all amino acids in plasma of patients with MSUD during crises (with severe CNS symptoms) and after recovery in the hope of detecting possible alterations of these levels during metabolic decompensation.

M. Wajner; D. M. Coelho; A. G. Barschak; P. R. Araújo; R. F. Pires; F. L. G. Lulhier; C. R. Vargas



An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.  


In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead concentrations in hot sauces. PMID:23581685

Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L



Cathepsin D serum and urine concentration in superficial and invasive transitional bladder cancer as determined by surface plasmon resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Determination of cathepsin D (Cat D) concentration in serum and urine may be useful in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The present study included 54 healthy patients and 68 patients with bladder cancer, confirmed by transurethral resection or cystectomy. Cat D concentration was determined using a surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensor. Cat D concentration in the serum of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.3–5.59 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.28–0.52 ng/ml. In urine, the Cat D concentration of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.35–7.14 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.32–0.68 ng/ml. Cat D concentration may represent an efficient tumor marker, as its concentration in the serum and urine of transitional cell carcinoma patients is extremely high when compared with healthy subjects. PMID:25120717




Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.  


Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20°C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido



The concentration of bisphenol A in urine is affected by specimen collection, a preservative, and handling  

PubMed Central

In urine specimens that were collected from pregnant women in a large cohort, 24% contained more than 10 ng/ml of total bisphenol A (BPA), suggesting external contamination. Therefore, we conducted an investigation of the source(s) of extraneous BPA in the specimens. We found that under the conditions used to collect urine specimens in the epidemiologic study, contamination with BPA occurred, and by two separate mechanisms. PMID:23899777

Longnecker, M.P.; Harbak, K.; Kissling, G.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Eggesbo, M.; Jusko, T.A.; Eide, J.; Koch, H.M.



Lead concentrations in blood among the general population of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this survey was to obtain information on the overall blood lead concentrations of the Korean population due to environmental exposure. Five hundred and twenty-five Korean adults from four provinces who had no previous occupational exposure to lead were chosen by random sampling to represent the general (normal) population. Blood lead determinations were performed by atomic absorption spectrometry

Jeong Sun Yang; Seong Kyu Kang; In Jeong Park; Kyung Yong Rhee; Young Hahn Moon; Dong Hwan Sohn



Blood and urine fluoride concentrations associated with topical fluoride applications on dog gingiva  

SciTech Connect

The circulatory uptake and urinary excretion of topical fluoride were investigated by applying a sodium fluoride solution containing /sub 18/F for six min to healthy gingiva of four adult dogs. Blood and urine samples were taken a regular intervals. Maximal fluoride in blood represented 0.02-0.05% of the applied dose and occurred four min after completion of the application. By 6.0 h, 0.02-0.06% of the applied dose had been excreted in urine. Preliminary data showed that this represented about 8.8% of the fluoride absorbed through the gingiva.

Hock, J.; Gerber, C.; Rheaume, M.; Hellden, L.



A statistical analysis of lead concentrations in human lung samples  

E-print Network

A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LEAD CONCENTRATIONS IN HUMAN LUNG SAMPLES A Thesis by CLAUDE ALLEN STRINGER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Chemistry A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LEAD CONCENTRATIONS IN HUMAN LUNG SAMPLES A Thesis CLAUDE ALLEN STRINGER, JR. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commi e) (Head of Department) C Member (Memb...

Stringer, Claude Allen



Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in bus drivers  

SciTech Connect

San Francisco bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in 342 drivers. The analysis reported in this study was limited to subjects not on treatment for hypertension (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic pressure varied from 102 to 173 mm Hg and from 61 to 105 mm Hg, respectively. The blood lead concentration varied from 2 to 15 The relationship between blood pressure and the logarithm of blood lead concentration was examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The largest regression coefficient relating systolic blood pressure and blood lead concentration was 1.8 mm Hg/ln ( The coefficient for diastolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg/ln ( These findings suggest effects of lead exposure at lower blood lead concentrations than those concentrations that have previously been linked with increases in blood pressure.

Sharp, D.S.; Osterloh, J.; Becker, C.E.; Bernard, B.; Smith, A.H.; Fisher, J.M.; Syme, S.L.; Holman, B.L.; Johnston, T.



Blood lead concentrations in a remote Himalayan population  

SciTech Connect

The lead content in the air at the foothills of the Himalayas in Nepal was found to be negligible. The concentration of lead in the blood of 103 children and adults living in this region was found to average 3.4 micrograms per deciliter, a level substantially lower than that found in industrialized populations.

Piomelli, S.; Corash, L.; Corash, M.B.; Seaman, C.; Mushak, P.; Glover, B.; Padgett, R.



Isoniazid/acetylisoniazid urine concentrations: markers of adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy in children  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The Arkansas colorimetric method monitors adherence to isoniazid (INH) by the detection of INH metabolites in urine. Urine samples 4 h after INH administration in 31 human immunodeficiency virus infected children receiving daily or thrice weekly INH preventive therapy were Arkansas test-positive for 29/31 (94%), while acetylisoniazid (AcINH) was detected in 30/31 (97%) using mass spectrometry. At 24, 48 and 72 h, only 78%, 23% and 0 samples, respectively, were Arkansas-positive, while INH or AcINH was detected in respectively 94%, 69% and 33%. The Arkansas test reliably predicted INH ingestion at a clinic visit 4 h after morning doses, but did not perform well at 24 h. PMID:24903787

Amlabu, V.; Mulligan, C.; Jele, N.; Evans, A.; Gray, D.; Zar, H. J.; McIlleron, H.; Smith, P.



Antioxidant-rich spice added to hamburger meat during cooking results in reduced meat, plasma, and urine malondialdehyde concentrations1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Emerging science has shown the effect of oxidation products and inflammation on atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. Cooking hamburger meat can promote the formation of malondialdehyde that can be absorbed after ingestion. Objective:We studied the effect of an antioxidant spice mixture on malondialdehyde formation while cooking hamburger meat and its effects on plasma and urinary malondialdehyde concentrations. Design: Eleven healthy volunteers consumed 2 kinds of burgers in a randomized order: one burger was seasoned with a spice blend, and one burger was not seasoned with the spice blend. The production of malondialdehyde in burgers and malondialdehyde concentrations in plasma and urine after ingestion were measured by HPLC. Results:Rosmarinic acid from oregano was monitored to assess the effect of cooking on spice antioxidant content. Forty percent (19 mg) of the added rosmarinic acid remained in the spiced burger (SB) after cooking. There was a 71% reduction in the malondialdehyde concentration (mean ± SD: 0.52 ± 0.02 ?mol/250 g) in the meat of the SBs compared with the malondialdehyde concentration (1.79 ± 0.17 ?mol/250 g) in the meat of the control burgers (CBs). The plasma malondialdehyde concentration increased significantly in the CB group as a change from baseline (P = 0.026). There was a significant time-trend difference (P = 0.013) between the 2 groups. Urinary malondialdehyde concentrations (?mol/g creatinine) decreased by 49% (P = 0.021) in subjects consuming the SBs compared with subjects consuming the CBs. Conclusions: The overall effect of adding the spice mixture to hamburger meat before cooking was a reduction in malondialdehyde concentrations in the meat, plasma, and urine after ingestion. Therefore, cooking hamburgers with a polyphenol-rich spice mixture can significantly decrease the concentration of malondialdehyde, which suggests potential health benefits for atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. This trial was registered at clinical as NCT01027052. PMID:20335545

Li, Zhaoping; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Luyi; Gao, Kun; Lee, Ru-Po; Karp, Hannah; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan



Analysis of nutrient concentrations in the diet, serum, and urine of giraffe from surveyed North American zoological institutions.  


The objectives of the present research were to conduct a survey to investigate the health history and feeding practices of giraffe in captivity in North America and to obtain samples of hay, concentrate, browse, urine, and serum to compare across zoos, possible factors relating to the development of urolithiasis. Forty-one out of 98 institutions contacted responded, representing 218 giraffe. All responding zoos fed concentrate and alfalfa hay was the primary forage. Sixty-five percent of zoos fed browse and 43 different species of browse were listed. Six zoos reported a history of urolithiasis, seven reported wasting syndrome, and 10 reported sudden death. The median daily amount (as fed) of concentrate and hay offered were 5.45 kg (range of 2.73-9.55 kg) and 6.82 kg (range of 2.53-12.50 kg), respectively. The concentrate:hay ratio of the offered diet ranged from 0.22 to 3.47 with a median value of 0.79. Forty-three percent of the institutions offered a ratio greater than 1:1. Samples of concentrate and hay (six zoos), serum (five zoos), and urine (seven zoos) were obtained for chemical analyses. Analyzed nutrient content of the consumed diet, measured by weighing feed and orts for three consecutive days, met recommendations for giraffe, but was excessive for crude protein and P. Concentrate:hay and serum P were positively correlated (r=0.72; P<0.05). High dietary P content and a high level of concentrate relative to hay may be contributing factors to urolith formation and warrant further investigation. PMID:19816905

Sullivan, Kathleen; van Heugten, Eric; Ange-van Heugten, Kimberly; Poore, Matthew H; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Wolfe, Barbara



Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.  


The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species. PMID:19416182

Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W



Urine-Concentrating Mechanism in the Inner Medulla: Function of the Thin Limbs of the Loops of Henle  

PubMed Central

Summary The ability of mammals to produce urine hyperosmotic to plasma requires the generation of a gradient of increasing osmolality along the medulla from the corticomedullary junction to the papilla tip. Countercurrent multiplication apparently establishes this gradient in the outer medulla, where there is substantial transepithelial reabsorption of NaCl from the water-impermeable thick ascending limbs of the loops of Henle. However, this process does not establish the much steeper osmotic gradient in the inner medulla, where there are no thick ascending limbs of the loops of Henle and the water-impermeable ascending thin limbs lack active transepithelial transport of NaCl or any other solute. The mechanism generating the osmotic gradient in the inner medulla remains an unsolved mystery, although it is generally considered to involve countercurrent flows in the tubules and vessels. A possible role for the three-dimensional interactions between these inner medullary tubules and vessels in the concentrating process is suggested by creation of physiologic models that depict the three-dimensional relationships of tubules and vessels and their solute and water permeabilities in rat kidneys and by creation of mathematical models based on biologic phenomena. The current mathematical model, which incorporates experimentally determined or estimated solute and water flows through clearly defined tubular and interstitial compartments, predicts a urine osmolality in good agreement with that observed in moderately antidiuretic rats. The current model provides substantially better predictions than previous models; however, the current model still fails to predict urine osmolalities of maximally concentrating rats. PMID:23908457

Layton, Anita T.; Layton, Harold E.; Pannabecker, Thomas L.



Identifying sources of lead exposure for children, with lead concentrations and isotope ratios.  


Despite a dramatic decrease in children's blood lead levels (BLL), lead exposure remains a public health concern because increasing evidence shows effects at very low doses. Lowering BLL still further requires the identification of lead sources and, therefore, new tools to investigate and thus prevent exposure. We describe a procedure that uses both lead concentrations and isotope ratios (IRs) to identify sources of overexposure in homes. Water, dust, and paint chips were sampled from the homes of 21 children with elevated BLL from Aubervilliers (Paris metropolitan area). Lead concentrations of concern were calculated from reverse physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling for water and dust. Isotope ratio matching of blood and environmental samples (with a lead content above the concentration of concern) was performed by computation of the distance between their IRs. When the IR of the source did not match that of the blood, the source was eliminated as a source of lead intoxication. The number of sources eliminated (per child) due to lead concentration ranged from 14% to 86% (mean 66%) for dust, and 100% for water samples. The number of remaining potential sources eliminated by IR interpretation varied from 0% to 100% for both dust and paint chips (mean 63% and 58%, respectively). IRs made it possible to eliminate at least one source in 20 of 21 cases and identified a single source in 11 of 21. The number of dust and paint sources not eliminated by concentration or IR varied from 8% to 45% (median 18%). The pilot study supports the usefulness of these procedures and the added value of IRs for identifying sources of lead poisoning. However, systematic use should be supported by cost-effectiveness analysis on a larger and more representative population of elevated BLL. PMID:20182944

Glorennec, P; Peyr, C; Poupon, J; Oulhote, Y; Le Bot, B



Interleukin-6 concentrations in the urine and dipstick analyses were related to bacteriuria but not symptoms in the elderly: a cross sectional study of 421 nursing home residents  

PubMed Central

Background Up to half the residents of nursing homes for the elderly have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which should not be treated with antibiotics. A complementary test to discriminate between symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) and ABU is needed, as diagnostic uncertainty is likely to generate significant antibiotic overtreatment. Previous studies indicate that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the urine might be suitable as such a test. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between laboratory findings of bacteriuria, IL-6 in the urine, dipstick urinalysis and newly onset symptoms among residents of nursing homes. Methods In this cross sectional study, voided urine specimens for culture, urine dipstick and IL-6 analyses were collected from all residents capable of providing a voided urine sample, regardless of the presence of symptoms. Urine specimens and symptom forms were provided from 421 residents of 22 nursing homes. The following new or increased nonspecific symptoms occurring during the previous month were registered; fatigue, restlessness, confusion, aggressiveness, loss of appetite, frequent falls and not being herself/himself, as well as symptoms from the urinary tract; dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency. Results Recent onset of nonspecific symptoms was common among elderly residents of nursing homes (85/421). Urine cultures were positive in 32% (135/421), Escherichia coli was by far the most common bacterial finding. Residents without nonspecific symptoms had positive urine cultures as often as those with nonspecific symptoms with a duration of up to one month. Residents with positive urine cultures had higher concentrations of IL-6 in the urine (p?urine cultures there were no differences in IL-6 concentrations or dipstick findings between those with or without nonspecific symptoms. Conclusions Nonspecific symptoms among elderly residents of nursing homes are unlikely to be caused by bacteria in the urine. This study could not establish any clinical value of using dipstick urinalysis or IL-6 in the urine to verify if bacteriuria was linked to nonspecific symptoms. PMID:25117748



Breathing zone particle size and lead concentration from sanding operations to remove lead based paints.  


The relationship between lead concentration in the dry film of lead based paints applied to steel bulkheads aboard ship, the lead concentration found in the air when the paint is removed by mechanical means, and blood lead concentrations of workers involved in lead based paint removal has not been well characterized. Intuitively a direct relationship must exist but confounding factors confuse the issue. Simultaneous sampling procedures from the same paint removal operation may differ by several orders of magnitude. The process from dried film to aerosol (airborne dust) exposure, and on to dose can be separated into two major phases; (1) generation of the dust and its transport through the air to the worker and (2) uptake and dose related factors within the body. Both phases involve complex interactions and there are a number of factors within each phase that significantly affect the potential lead dose for the worker. This study attempts to clarify the mechanisms involved in the generation and transportation of the dust to the worker by evaluating the relationship of a number of key factors on particle size and lead distribution within the aerosol dust generated when lead based paint is removed by sanding. The study examined the relationship between particle size in the dust and grit size of the abrasive. It also examined the distribution of lead within selected particle sizes. The Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) was used as an indicator of change in the particle size distribution. Particle size distributions were evaluated using a TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, a five stage cyclone and scanning electron microscopy. Lead distribution was determined using the five stage cyclone, and personal or area samples analyzed using inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Mass concentrations were evaluated using a MIE Mass Concentration Analyzer and gravimetric analysis of filter samples collected in the breathing zone. Student's t-tests were used to evaluate changes in MMADs, mass concentrations and other indices for inter and intra-grit size samples. Correlation coefficients (Pearson's r) were used to determine the relationship between factors. Findings of the research indicated that the particle size distribution in the dust is directly related to the grit size of the abrasive (i.e. inversely related to the abrasive grit number). Particulate mass concentrations of dust varied directly with abrasive grit number. The distribution of lead did not appear to be affected by grit size of the abrasive in that the lead distribution within the particle size ranges remained homogeneous and consistent with the lead concentration in the dried film. Mass concentrations of lead in air samples varied directly with lead concentration in the bulk coating. Results of this project, coordinated with deposition modeling and bioavailability studies will be useful in the development of a model to characterize lead dose to workers based on known parameters within the work specifications. PMID:10189570

Alexander, W K; Carpenter, R L; Kimmel, E C



Cadmium blood and urine concentrations as measures of exposure: NHANES 1999-2010.  


Exposure to cadmium, a heavy metal present in cigarettes, can be assessed in both urine and blood. Few studies have compared the properties of concurrent measurements of urine cadmium (uCd) and blood cadmium (bCd) in relation to the duration and timing of a known exposure. In this study, bCd and uCd were modeled with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2010). Adjusted geometric mean bCd and uCd were estimated from regression results. Each 1% higher geometric mean uCd was associated with 0.50% (95% confidence interval: 0.47%-0.54%; R(2)=0.30) higher bCd. In male never-smokers, bCd was 69% (59%-81%) and uCd was 200% (166%-234%) higher at age ?70 years versus 20-29 years. Ten pack-years (py) of smoking were associated with 13.7% (10.0%-17.4%) higher bCd and 16.8% (12.6%-21.1%) higher uCd in male smokers. The first year after smoking cessation was associated with 53% (48%-58%) lower bCd and 23% (14%-33%) lower uCd in representative males aged 55 years with 20?py smoking. Smoking in the previous 5 days was associated with 55% (40%-71%) higher bCd and 7% (-3%-18%) higher uCd. Results were similar for women. uCd mainly measures long-term exposure and bCd recent exposure, but with noticeable overlap. Epidemiological studies should base the choice of uCd or bCd on the timing of cadmium exposure relevant to the disease under study. PMID:24002489

Adams, Scott V; Newcomb, Polly A



Bilirubin - urine  


Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...


Influence of CYP2B6 genetic variants on plasma and urine concentrations of bupropion and metabolites at steady state  

PubMed Central

Background Bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation medication, is metabolized to hydroxybupropion (HB), an active metabolite, primarily by CYP2B6. Objectives To compare plasma concentrations of bupropion and metabolites at steady state in healthy volunteers with and without CYP2B6 genetic variants. Methods In a genotype-guided study of 42 healthy subjects we measured plasma and urine concentrations of bupropion and its metabolites, HB, threohydrobupropion (TB) and erythrohydrobupropion (EB) after 7 days of sustained release bupropion dosing. Results CYP2B6*6 and *18 gene variants were associated with approximately 33% reduced concentrations of HB, with no effects on concentrations of bupropion or other metabolites. We could account for 50% of the variation in HB concentrations in a model including genotype and sex. Conclusions Since HB is active and steady state concentrations of HB are more than 10 times higher than bupropion, CYP2B6 variants are likely to affect pharmacological activity. Due to the large individual variation within genotype group, the use of therapeutic drug monitoring for dose optimization may be necessary. PMID:23344581

Benowitz, Neal L.; Zhu, Andy Z. X.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton



Analysis of tapwater lead concentration in homes of children with undue body lead burden  

SciTech Connect

Lead concentrations in household tapwater were analyzed in 49 homes inhabited by children with known elevations of blood lead (greater than or equal to 30 +- 3/dl) in Columbus, Ohio to assess the contribution to body lead burden of household tapwater intake. Average Pb concentration for all water samples tested was 4, well below the EPA maximum allowable 50 standard. Level of Pb in blood and Pb water concentration for households showed no correlation nor were there significant differences in water Pb concentrations for water supplies in homes with lead compared to copper service pipes. The consistently low levels of Pb in Columbus water (< 10 probably is the result of the alkaline pH (10.0) reducing the solubility of Pb in water. In contrast, water in Boston, Massachusetts has a more acid pH (6.5) resulting in a more frequent incidence of water Pb concentrations greater than 50 Based on an estimated steady state normal intake in a preschool child of approx. 130 of Pb per day from all sources, Pb intake from consumption of tapwater is unlikely to add significantly to a child's totl body burden of Pb in cities whose water supplies comply with EPA drinking water standards.

Lubin, A.H.; Signs, S.A.; Caffo, A.L.



Urine concentrating mechanism in the inner medulla of the mammalian kidney: role of three-dimensional architecture  

PubMed Central

The urine concentrating mechanism in the mammalian renal inner medulla (IM) is not understood, although it is generally considered to involve countercurrent flows in tubules and blood vessels. A possible role for the three-dimensional relationships of these tubules and vessels in the concentrating process is suggested by recent reconstructions from serial sections labelled with antibodies to tubular and vascular proteins and mathematical models based on these studies. The reconstructions revealed that the lower 60% of each descending thin limb (DTL) of Henle’s loops lacks water channels (aquaporin-1) and osmotic water permeability and ascending thin limbs (ATLs) begin with a prebend segment of constant length. In the outer zone of the IM (i) clusters of coalescing collecting ducts (CDs) form organizing motif for loops of Henle and vasa recta; (ii) DTLs and descending vasa recta (DVR) are arrayed outside CD clusters, whereas ATLs and ascending vasa recta (AVR) are uniformly distributed inside and outside clusters; (iii) within CD clusters, interstitial nodal spaces are formed by a CD on one side, AVR on two sides, and an ATL on the fourth side. These spaces may function as mixing chambers for urea from CDs and NaCl from ATLs. In the inner zone of the IM, cluster organization disappears and half of Henle’s loops have broad lateral bends wrapped around terminal CDs. Mathematical models based on these findings and involving solute mixing in the interstitial spaces can produce urine slightly more concentrated than that of a moderately antidiuretic rat but no higher. PMID:21054810

Dantzler, W. H.; Pannabecker, T. L.; Layton, A. T.; Layton, H. E.



Lead pellet ingestion and liver-lead concentrations in upland game birds from southern Ontario, Canada.  


One-hundred twenty-three gizzards from upland game birds (chukar, Alectoris chukar; and common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) harvested by hunters in southern Ontario, Canada, were examined for lead pellet ingestion by manual examination of gizzard contents and by radiography. Lead pellets were found to be ingested by chukars (6/76; 8%) and the common pheasant (16/47; 34%). Further, 13% (17/129) of the bird (wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo; Hungarian partridge, Perdix perdix; chukar; and common pheasant) livers analyzed had elevated lead concentrations (> or =6 microg/g wet weight [ww]). Liver-lead concentrations above Health Canada's guideline for human consumption of fish protein (<0.5 microg/g ww) were found in 40% (51/129) of livers analyzed. Data indicate that the ingestion of lead pellets in upland game birds and the potential consumption of lead-contaminated meat by humans are concerns related to the continued use of lead shotshell for hunting. PMID:17763885

Kreager, N; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; Tsuji, L J S



Concentration distribution of the marijuana metabolite Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine in the department of defense urine drug-testing program.  


Urine drug testing has been employed for punitive purposes by the Department of Defense since December 1981 (Memorandum 62884, Deputy Secretary of Defense Frank C. Carlucci). Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs were initiated in response to Executive Order 12564 issued on September 15, 1986, that required Drug-Free Federal Workplaces be established. In their respective programs, a positive urine drug test may be referred to a military court martial or to an administrative board. To address safety and insurance requirements, the testing of civilians has expanded beyond Federal Programs to include pre-employment and post-accident urine drug testing. During adjudication, an Expert Toxicologist may be asked to opine what can be discerned from the concentration of drug or drug metabolite found in the urine. Little can be opined with certainty from a positive urine drug test as to the amount of drug ingested, when the drug was ingested, and in most instances, whether the individual felt the effects of the drug, or was under the influence of the drug found in the urine. What may be useful to both the Expert and to the Trier-of-Facts is the frequency that a particular urine drug concentration is encountered in positive drug tests. The finding that 50% of all positive marijuana and cocaine urine metabolite concentrations in the military testing program over the three-year period of October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007, are below a median value of 65 and 968 ng/mL, respectively, provide reference points. A median drug concentration combined with the percentile or frequency that a particular urine drug concentration occurs may provide evaluative information for a determination of the facts and the outcome of judicial or administrative proceedings. This may be especially useful to jurors when the concentration of marijuana or cocaine metabolite is perceptibly low. The information would also be applicable to medical review officers, medical examiners, drug treatment professionals, probation officers, and program analysts coordinating drug policy decisions. PMID:18652746

Jemionek, John F; Copley, Curtis L; Smith, Michael L; Past, Marilyn R



Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on osmoregulation and urine concentration mechanisms of the semi-desert rodent Meriones shawi.  


Contamination by cadmium in the environment is of great concern because of its toxicity and threats to human and animal health. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of a cadmium contaminated diet on the osmoregulation and urine concentration mechanisms of the semi-desert rodent Meriones shawi and eventual accumulation of this metal in vital organs such as the kidneys, which are directly implicated in water regulation. Originally, we used Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV) to avoid the matrix interference due to the highly organic content in the biological samples. Our results show that Meriones shawi successfully maintained a homeostasis state and presented a special adaptation to regulate urine volume during cadmium exposure by decreasing diuresis and increasing urinary osmolality. The plasma osmolality and hematocrit remained constant throughout the experiment. The stripping signals of cadmium are linear up to 0.3-100 ?g L(-1) range, with a detection limit of 0.28 ?g L(-1). The DPASV technique was useful for easy, fast, selective and sensitive determination of Cd, which permits working at cellular concentration. This gives us more information about the chemical form in which Cd is introduced into the organ, as well as the intracellular Cd quantities. This study has potential importance if this valuable novel animal model, imitating human and animal environmental chronic exposure to Cd, could serve as an appropriate terrestrial biomonitor for Cd contaminated sites. These results are encouraging in the context of developing a low-cost and fast technology for the detection of pollutants and for studying the impairment caused by their effects. PMID:22696068

Mbarek, Sihem; Saidi, Tounes; González-Costas, Javier M; González-Romero, Elisa; Ben Chaouacha Chekir, Rafika



Oxygen concentration measurement in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic  

SciTech Connect

Liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) eutectic (LBE) may see extensive use as a coolant fluid, and perhaps also as a spallation target, in next generation nuclear energy systems. While it is not as reactive as alkali metal liquids, it does present a long term corrosion problem with some materials, notably stainless steels. Mitigation of the corrosion problem may be achieved by producing and maintaining a protective oxide on exposed surfaces, through control of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the LBE. We have developed an oxygen sensor based on available zirconia-based solid electrolytes used in the automotive industry, which represents a relatively inexpensive source of reproducible and reliable components. We will present the design considerations and characteristics of our sensor unit, and describe its use in the LBE test loop at Los Alamos for measurement and control of dissolved oxygen concentration.

Darling, T. W. (Timothy W.); Li, N. (Ning)



Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women.  


Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ?6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ?23 mg of oral ²?Mg and ?11 mg of i.v. ²?Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0-24 h urine MgA value alone (? = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0-24 h urine and the 3-h (? = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (? = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (-0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. PMID:24500940

Hansen, Karen E; Nabak, Andrea C; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M; Abrams, Steven A



Effective radium concentration of lead-contaminated topsoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the global amount of topsoil is decreasing and its importance for agricultural purposes is increasing, the detection and quantification of metallic pollutions in topsoils has become a topical concern of the utmost importance. Radium, which is generally concentrated in metal oxides and hydroxides and relatively easily leached from rock and soil, could potentially give precious information about the extent of the pollution at large spatial scales. In this study, the radon source term (effective radium concentration, ECRa) of more than 300 topsoils from a lead-contaminated site in the North of France has been measured using the accumulation technique. After placing the sample in a container, sampling of the air is done using a scintillation flask after some accumulation time. Radon concentration in the flask is inferred from counting in a photomultiplier 3.5 h after sampling, from which the effective radium concentration (ECRa) of the soil sample is calculated, expressed in Bq kg-1. This technique allows the measurement of large numbers of samples. The ECRa results of the topsoils, obtained over ca. 800 km2, show remarkable spatial organization and the values are compared with the results of their chemical analyses performed at ISA (Lille, France) and BRGM (Orléans, France). The highly lead-contaminated zone (with Pb concentrations larger than 250 ppm) is also relatively well circumscribed using ECRa apart. Indeed, ECRa values of topsoils are larger in the contaminated area than outside, compared with the average regional ECRa value. The mapping of ECRa of topsoils at large spatial scale appears therefore as an important asset to characterize this polluted area. Our ECRa data are also compared with the low-field specific magnetic susceptibility (?m) and other magnetic parameters to infer some insights from the magnetic fabrics in the soil and the ECRa-?m relations. Relations between ECRa and others metallic elements (Cr, Co, Hg, Ag) or others intrinsic characteristics (amount of sand, silt, organic matter) of the topsoils are also provided. ECRa appears as a powerful parameter to characterize the spatial structure of soils, and in addition provides clues on the susceptibility to heavy metal contamination. This study opens some interesting perspectives for the understanding of the relation between radium and heavy metals in the environment.

Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Poitou, Charles; Douay, Francis; Théveniaut, Hervé; Laperche, Valérie; Bollinger, Laurent



Dry matter intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and concentration of minerals in the blood and urine of steers fed rice straw treated with wood ash extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to evaluate the effects of feeding rice straw treated with wood ash extract (WAE) on dry matter (DM) intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and mineral concentrations in the blood and urine were conducted using 12 Boran steers. The steers were randomly assigned to three treatments consisting of untreated, urea treated and WAE treated rice straws in a completely randomised

G. H. Laswai; J. D. Mtamakaya; A. E. Kimambo; A. A. Aboud; P. W. Mtakwa



Acute changes in arginine vasopressin, sweat, urine and serum sodium concentrations in exercising humans: does a coordinated homeostatic relationship exist?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parallel response of sweat rate and urine production to changes in plasma osmolality and volume support a role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) as the main endocrine regulator of both excretions. A maximal test to exhaustion and a steady-state run on a motorised treadmill were both completed by 10 moderately trained runners, 1 week apart. Sweat, urine and serum sodium

T. Hew-Butler; T. D. Noakes; S. J. Soldin; J. G. Verbalis



Simultaneous Determination of Urinary Cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, and Nickel Concentrations in Steel Production Workers by Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening for metals in urine is important because toxic levels of these elements are linked to disease. In the current study, the authors used differential pulse stripping voltammetry on a hanging mercury drop electrode for the simultaneous determination of cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel in the urine of 63 production and 63 quality control workers in a steel production plant,

Ching-Jyi Horng; Ping-Hua Horng; John W. Hsu; Jin-Lian Tsai



Elimination of matrix and spectral interferences in the measurement of lead and cadmium in urine and blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction  

SciTech Connect

Direct measurement of lead and cadmium in blood and urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction (D2-AAS) is prone to severe matrix and spectral interferences. The authors overcame these effects by coating the L'vov platform with ammonium molybdate, reducing the atomization time, introducing a post-atomization cooling step, carefully selecting ashing and atomization temperatures, and using an appropriate procedure for matrix modification. To determine Pb and Cd in blood and urine, they used matrix-matched calibration curves. With the proposed procedure for sample preparation, both Pb and Cd in whole blood can be determined in the same diluted sample. Results obtained by D2-AAS correlate closely with those by Zeeman-corrected AAS. Detection limits (mean blank + 3 SDblank) for Pb in urine and blood were 4 micrograms/L. For cadmium, the detection limits were 0.4 and 0.1 micrograms/L for urine and blood analysis, respectively. Between-run CVs were less than 5.0%.

D'Haese, P.C.; Lamberts, L.V.; Liang, L.; Van de Vyver, F.L.; De Broe, M.E. (University of Antwerp, Department of Nephrology-Hypertension (Belgium))



Environmental and physiological factors contributing to tissue lead concentrations in freshwater molluscs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental and physiological factors contibuting to lead concentrations in selected freshwater molluscs were examined. Field investigation demonstrated that lead concentrations in Physa integra, Pseudosuccinea columella and Campeloma decisum reflected the lead levels at the two study sites. However, molluscs sharing a common habitat displayed widely differing lead levels. Lead concentrations in P. integra, P. columella and Helisoma trivolvis were correlated



Consumption of lead-shot cervid meat and blood lead concentrations in a group of adult Norwegians.  


Several recent investigations have reported high concentrations of lead in samples of minced cervid meat. This paper describes findings from a Norwegian study performed in 2012 among 147 adults with a wide range of cervid game consumption. The main aim was to assess whether high consumption of lead-shot cervid meat is associated with increased concentration of lead in blood. A second aim was to investigate to what extent factors apart from game consumption explain observed variability in blood lead levels. Median (5 and 95 percentile) blood concentration of lead was 16.6 µg/L (7.5 and 39 µg/L). An optimal multivariate linear regression model for log-transformed blood lead indicated that cervid game meat consumption once a month or more was associated with approximately 31% increase in blood lead concentrations. The increase seemed to be mostly associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. However, many participants with high and long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. Cervid meat together with number of bullet shots per year, years with game consumption, self-assembly of bullets, wine consumption and smoking jointly accounted for approximately 25% of the variation in blood lead concentrations, while age and sex accounted for 27% of the variance. Blood lead concentrations increased approximately 18% per decade of age, and men had on average 30% higher blood lead concentrations than women. Hunters who assembled their own ammunition had 52% higher blood lead concentrations than persons not making ammunition. In conjunction with minced cervid meat, wine intake was significantly associated with increased blood lead. Our results indicate that hunting practices such as use of lead-based ammunition, self-assembling of lead containing bullets and inclusion of lead-contaminated meat for mincing to a large extent determine the exposure to lead from cervid game consumption. PMID:24119336

Meltzer, H M; Dahl, H; Brantsæter, A L; Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Bernhoft, A; Oftedal, B; Lande, U S; Alexander, J; Haugen, M; Ydersbond, T A



Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.



Lead Concentrations, Isotope Ratios, and Source Apportionment in Road Deposited Sediments, Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic contributions of lead to the urban environment havebeen dominated by combustion of leaded gasoline. A number of studies have used lead concentrations in road deposited sediments(RDSs) to infer automobile contributions. However, few studies have combined concentration data, enrichment ratios, and lead isotope ratio data into a comprehensive picture of lead contamination of road sediments. An urban, non-industrialized basin, in

R. A. Sutherland; J. P. Day; J. O. Bussen



Phenolic acid concentrations in plasma and urine from men consuming green or black tea and potential chemopreventive properties for colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Scope Tea polyphenols are metabolized by the colonic microflora yielding phenolic metabolites, which may contribute to the health benefits of tea. We determined the serum and urine concentrations of phenolic acids, hippuric acid and polyhydroxyphenyl-?-valerolactones during green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) administration. The effects of (?)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4-DHPAA) alone and in combination on bioavailability, intracellular metabolism, and antiproliferative activity was determined in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Methods and Results The concentration of phenolic metabolites was quantified by HPLC with electrochemical detection and MS. Urine concentrations of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA) and polyhydroxy-?-valerolactones were increased significantly in men drinking GT compared to control. Urine concentration of 3-O-methylgallic acid (3OMGA) was significantly increased in men drinking BT compared to control. Serum 3,4-DHPAA was significantly increased after consumption of GT and BT and 4-HPAA after GT consumption. In vitro treatment of HCT-116 colon cancer cells with 3,4-DHPAA and EGCG exhibited an additive antiproliferative effect, while methylation of 3,4-DHPAA was significantly decreased. 3OMGA exhibited the strongest antiproliferative activity among the phenolic acids. Conclusions The consumption of both, GT and BT, was associated with a significant increase in urinary and serum phenolic acids. PMID:23319439

Henning, Susanne M.; Wang, Piwen; Abgaryan, Narine; Vicinanza, Roberto; de Oliveira, Daniela Moura; Zhang, Yanjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Carpenter, Catherine L.; Aronson, William J.; Heber, David



Concentrations of lead in cosmetics commonly used in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present evidence of lead in lip liner, oil absorbent powder, mascara, concealer, lipsticks, lip gloss, and foundation. The samples were analyzed for lead by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The levels of lead in concealer, mascara, lip liner, and oil absorbent powder were found to be 7.4?±?1.3?µg?g, 15.8?±?0.2?µg?g, 29.0?±?9.2?µg?g, and 17.3?±?2.9?µg?g, respectively. The levels of lead in

J. D. O. Brandão; O. J. Okonkwo; M. Sehkula; R. M. Raseleka



Concentrations of lead in cosmetics commonly used in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present evidence of lead in lip liner, oil absorbent powder, mascara, concealer, lipsticks, lip gloss, and foundation. The samples were analyzed for lead by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The levels of lead in concealer, mascara, lip liner, and oil absorbent powder were found to be 7.4?±?1.3?µg?g, 15.8?±?0.2?µg?g, 29.0?±?9.2?µg?g, and 17.3?±?2.9?µg?g, respectively. The levels of lead in

J. D. O. Brandão; O. J. Okonkwo; M. Sehkula; R. M. Raseleka



A study of blood and urine alcohol concentrations in cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the alcohol concentrations found in a selection of 1014 cases of claimed drug-facilitated sexual assault analysed at The Forensic Science Service, London Laboratory between January 2000 and December 2002. Where appropriate, either a whole blood sample and\\/or a urine sample was analysed for alcohol, common drugs of abuse and potentially stupefying drugs.The samples were collected from a

Michael Scott-Ham; Fiona C. Burton



Urinating more at night  


... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...


Intellectual Impairment in Children with Blood Lead Concentrations below 10 ?g per Deciliter  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Despite dramatic declines in children's blood lead concentrations and a lowering of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's level of concern to 10 µg per deciliter (0.483 µmol per liter), little is known about children's neurobehavioral functioning at lead concentrations below this level. methods We measured blood lead concentrations in 172 children at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36,

Richard L. Canfield; Deborah A. Cory-Slechta; Christopher Cox; Todd A. Jusko; Bruce P. Lanphear



Environmental and physiological factors contributing to tissue lead concentrations in freshwater molluscs  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and physiological factors contibuting to lead concentrations in selected freshwater molluscs were examined. Field investigation demonstrated that lead concentrations in Physa integra, Pseudosuccinea columella and Campeloma decisum reflected the lead levels at the two study sites. However, molluscs sharing a common habitat displayed widely differing lead levels. Lead concentrations in P. integra, P. columella and Helisoma trivolvis were correlated with dissolved lead in the water. Lead concentrations in P. integra were also correlated with those in the dominant macrophyte at the study sites. The lead levels in these gastropods were not correlated with concentrations of Aufwuchs-associated lead. Lead levels in C. decisum were not correlated with the lead concentrations in any of the measured potential sources. Lead contributions in P. integra were independent of size. Lead levels in C. decisum were greatest in small snails. In laboratory experiments, P. integra accumulated lead rapidly from plant tissue and more slowly from the Aufwuchs. This species also eliminated lead rapidly. C. decisum neither accumulated lead rapidly from sediments nor eliminated lead rapidly from its body when exposed to a lead-free environment.

Newman, M.C.



Lead concentrations in livers of Maryland waterfowl with and without ingested lead shot present in gizzards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of lead poisoning in waterfowl caused by ingestion of spent lead shot has long been recognized (WETMORE, 1919) as has the adverse impact on waterfowl populations (BELLROSE, 1959). The majority of observations on lead shot ingestion by waterfowl have been with dabbling duck species. Much less work has been done on diving ducks and geese although the problem

Patrick F. Scanlon; Vernon D. Stotts; Richard G. Oderwald; Timothy J. Dietrick; Ronald J. Kendall



Determination of K + in diluted and undiluted urine with ion-selective electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Polyvinylchloride liquid membrane electrodes based on valinomycin lead to low readings in the determination of K+ in undiluted urine because of anion interference. This interference is eliminated by instead incorporating valinomycin into silicone rubber. When K+-concentrations, as determined in undiluted urine by ion selective electrodes, are correlated with those obtained for the same samples by flame photometry, the residual

H.-B. Jenny; C. Riess; D. Ammann; B. Magyar; R. Asper; W. Simon



Magnesium, Calcium, and Trace Elements Excretion in 24-h Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine is a clinical specimen often used in medical diagnostics for monitoring of elements concentrations and kidneys function.\\u000a We determined the contents of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd)\\u000a in 74 samples of 24-h urine (from 46 women and 28 men). The measurements were realized by the atomic absorption spectrometry\\u000a (AAS)

Maria D?ugaszek; Miros?awa Kaszczuk; Monika Mularczyk-Oliwa



On-Demand Urine Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan



Lead concentrations in bullfrog Rana catesbeiana and green frog R. clamitans tadpoles inhabiting highway drainages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead concentrations were determined in sediment and tadpoles of bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana and green frogs R. clamitans from drainages along highways with different daily average traffic volumes (range, 4272 to I08,800 vehicles day-I) and from ponds >0.4 km from the nearest highway. Lead concentrations (mg kg--I dry weight) in sediment (7-8 to 940) were usually greater (4-5 times) than those in the tadpoles (bullfrog, 0,07 to 270; green frog, 0,90 to 240 mg kg-I). Lead concentrations in sediment (r =0.63) and in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = 0.69; green frog, r = 0.57) were positively correlated with average daily traffic volume. Lead concentrations in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = (). 76: green frog, r = 0.75) were also positively correlated with lead concentrations in sediment. At sites where both bullfrog and green frog tadpoles were collected. lead concentrations in the two species were closely related (r = 0.84). Lead concentrations in tadpoles living near highways may contribute to the elevated lead levels reported in wildlife that are potential tadpole predators. Dietary lead concentrations similar to those in our tadpoles have been associated with physiological and reproductive effects in some species of birds and mammals. However, additional data are needed to determine the hazards to predators of lead concentrations in tadpoles.

Birdsall, C.W.; Grue, C.E.; Anderson, A.



Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—This study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.?METHODS—Maternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-x ray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors related to exposure to lead were collected by questionnaire. Linear regression was used to examine the relations between bone and blood lead, demographics, and environmental exposure variables.?RESULTS—Mean (SD) blood, tibial, and patellar lead concentrations were 9.5 (4.5) µg/dl, 10.2 (10.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral, and 15.2 (15.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral respectively. These values are considerably higher than values for women in the United States. Older age, the cumulative use of lead glazed pottery, and higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City were powerful predictors of higher bone lead concentrations. Use of lead glazed ceramics to cook food in the past week and increased patellar lead concentrations were significant predictors of increased blood lead. Patellar lead concentrations explained one third of the variance accounted for by the final blood lead model. Women in the 90th percentile for patella lead had an untransformed predicted mean blood lead concentration 3.6 µg/dl higher than those in the 10th percentile.?CONCLUSIONS—This study identified the use of lead glazed ceramics as a major source of cumulative exposure to lead, as reflected by bone lead concentrations, as well as current exposure, reflected by blood lead, in Mexico. A higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City, a proxy for exposure to leaded gasoline emissions, was identified as the other major source of cumulative lead exposure. The influence of bone lead on blood lead coupled with the long half life of lead in bone has implications for other populations and suggests that bone stores may pose a threat to women of reproductive age long after exposure has declined.???Keywords: postpartum; blood lead; bone lead PMID:10896960

Brown, M. J.; Hu, H.; Gonzales-Cossio, T.; Peterson, K.; Sanin, L.; Kageyama, M. d.; Palazuelos, E.; Aro, A.; Schnaas, L.; Hernandez-Avila, M.



Lead Pellet Ingestion and Liver-Lead Concentrations in Upland Game Birds from Southern Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred twenty-three gizzards from upland game birds (chukar, Alectoris chukar; and common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) harvested by hunters in southern Ontario, Canada, were examined for lead pellet ingestion by manual examination of gizzard\\u000a contents and by radiography. Lead pellets were found to be ingested by chukars (6\\/76; 8%) and the common pheasant (16\\/47;\\u000a 34%). Further, 13% (17\\/129) of the bird

N. Kreager; B. C. Wainman; R. K. Jayasinghe; L. J. S. Tsuji



High-throughput chemical screening identifies AG-490 as a stimulator of aquaporin 2 membrane expression and urine concentration.  


A reduction or loss of plasma membrane aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in kidney principal cells due to defective vasopressin (VP) signaling through the VP receptor causes excessive urine production, i.e., diabetes insipidus. The amount of AQP2 on the plasma membrane is regulated by a balance of exocytosis and endocytosis and is the rate limiting step for water reabsorption in the collecting duct. We describe here a systematic approach using high-throughput screening (HTS) followed by in vitro and in vivo assays to discover novel compounds that enhance vasopressin-independent AQP2 membrane expression. We performed initial chemical library screening with a high-throughput exocytosis fluorescence assay using LLC-PK1 cells expressing soluble secreted yellow fluorescent protein and AQP2. Thirty-six candidate exocytosis enhancers were identified. These compounds were then rescreened in AQP2-expressing cells to determine their ability to increase AQP2 membrane accumulation. Effective drugs were then applied to kidney slices in vitro. Three compounds, AG-490, ?-lapachone, and HA14-1 increased AQP2 membrane accumulation in LLC-PK1 cells, and both AG-490 and ?-lapachone were also effective in MDCK cells and principal cells in rat kidney slices. Finally, one compound, AG-490 (an EGF receptor and JAK-2 kinase inhibitor), decreased urine volume and increased urine osmolality significantly in the first 2-4 h after a single injection into VP-deficient Brattleboro rats. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic procedure for identifying new compounds that modulate AQP2 trafficking using initial HTS followed by in vitro assays in cells and kidney slices, and concluding with in vivo testing in an animal model. PMID:24944200

Nomura, Naohiro; Nunes, Paula; Bouley, Richard; Nair, Anil V; Shaw, Stanley; Ueda, Erica; Pathomthongtaweechai, Nutthapoom; Lu, Hua A Jenny; Brown, Dennis



Urine Eggs  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: In spring, a young man's fancy turns to thoughts of urine-soaked eggs. You heard that right. Here in Dongyang, China, eggs boiled in the urine of 10-year-old boys are a considered a delicacy of spring. ...

Hacker, Randi



Lead concentrations in liver and kidneys of snow geese during an avian cholera epizootic in California.  


During an avian cholera epornitic, between December 1982 and January 1983, 58 dead, 23 sick, and 106 hunter-killed lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) were collected at Delevan National Wildlife Refuge, Colusa County, California, USA. Fifty-one of the dead and sick geese were infected with Pasteurella multocida. Lead concentrations in the livers ranged from < 1 to 253 parts per million (ppm) (dry weight). Lead concentrations in the kidneys ranged from < 1 ppm to 547 ppm (dry weight). Snow geese with > 30 ppm lead, considered diagnostic of acute lead poisoning, had significantly (P < 0.05) lower heart weights and a smaller band of heart fat, compared to geese with tissue lead concentrations of < 30 ppm. Tissue lead concentrations in geese dying from avian cholera generally were lower than concentrations in hunter-killed geese, but the differences were not significant for either kidney (P = 0.08) or liver (P = 0.30) tissue. PMID:8258858

Gordus, A G



Magnesium, calcium, and trace elements excretion in 24-h urine.  


Urine is a clinical specimen often used in medical diagnostics for monitoring of elements concentrations and kidneys function. We determined the contents of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in 74 samples of 24-h urine (from 46 women and 28 men). The measurements were realized by the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with atomization in the flame (FAAS) and in the graphite furnace (GFAAS). The received results were the subject of statistical analysis including the sex and age of volunteers. Moreover, correlations between the elements and the relationships between age and amounts of excreted elements with urine were tested. We found the statistically significant higher content of Zn in men's urine than in women(')s one. Moreover, both adult women and men (>18 years) excreted much more Ca in urine in comparison to young subjects. Only in case of Pb the significant positive correlation between its amount in 24-h urine of all donors and age was stated. The correlation analysis has shown the significant positive relationships between Ca-Mg, Ca-Fe, Mg-Fe, Cu-Fe, Cu-Cd, Fe-Cd, and Pb-Cd in total samples of urine. Basing on our results, we concluded that the gender and age of donors may impact on the elemental status of 24-h urine. PMID:20549400

D?ugaszek, Maria; Kaszczuk, Miros?awa; Mularczyk-Oliwa, Monika



The Effects of Different Concentrations of Lead Salts on a Variety of Crop Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation is described that would be suitable for A-level or first year degree Biology or Environmental Science students. Crop plants were grown in different concentrations of lead chloride and lead nitrate. French beans, carrots and Brussels sprouts were all inhibited at concentrations over 0.01 mol dm[superscript -3] showing stunted root…

Whiteley, Liz; Gibbon, Jamie; Hofgartner, Jon; Mason, Craig; Willmetts, Helen



Evaluation of lead concentrations in 18th-century Omaha Indian skeletons using ICP-MS.  


The analysis of skeletal remains of Omaha Indians buried between AD 1780 and 1820 indicated that lead was incorporated in cortical bone. The diagenetic or biogenetic origin of the lead was evaluated by examination of lead isotope ratios of the bones and artifacts, and comparison of lead concentrations in burial soils with those of the bones. The isotopic values of the lead artifacts demonstrate that the lead was mined in the Missouri region. Although the isotope ratios in the bones are not identical with that from the lead artifacts, there is a strong relationship between them. This finding indicates that the lead in the bone was at least partly derived from the artifacts. Because lead artifacts rarely accompanied the burials but lead was ubiquitous in the bones, we suggest a biogenetic origin for the lead. There is also the possibility that some of the lead may have been derived from pigments applied to the corpse during mortuary ritual. PMID:1443093

Reinhard, K J; Ghazi, A M



Copper, lead and zinc concentrations of human breast milk as affected by maternal dietary practices  

SciTech Connect

Maternal dietary practices have been found to affect the concentrations of some nutrients in human breast milk. Lead toxicity is a concern in young children. Lead, copper and zinc are thought to compete for intestinal absorption sites. The objective of the current project was to compare copper, lead and zinc contents of breast milk from practicing lacto-vegetarian and omnivore, lactating women at approximately four months post-partum. Analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a carbon rod attachment. Copper concentrations were higher in milk samples from lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Milk samples from the omnivores had the highest lead and zinc concentrations. Lead and copper concentrations in milk were negatively correlated. The higher zinc concentrations in the milk of the omnivore women may have been related to better utilization of zinc from meat than from plant food sources.

Umoren, J.; Kies, C.



Feather lead concentrations and207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ???10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

Finkelstein, M.E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gwiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, A.P.; Clark, M.; Wynne, J.; Grantham, And J.; Smith, D.R.



Urination - painful  


... atrophic vaginitis ) Herpes infection in the genital area Irritation of the vaginal tissue caused by bubble bath, perfumes, or lotions Vulvovaginitis , such as yeast or other infections of the vulva and vagina Other causes of painful urination include: ...


Amylase - urine  


... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .


Urine Preservative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)



Urination Pain  


... Trouble "Down There" Getting a Urine Test (Video) Movie: Urinary System Quiz: Urinary System Your Kidneys Your ... site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...


Tissue lead concentrations and shot ingestion in nine species of waterbirds from the Camargue (France).  


This study investigates the relationship among lead exposure (shot ingestion), current lead impregnation (liver lead values), current and previous lead impregnation (bone lead values), and lead excretion (feather lead) in nine species of waterbird from the Camargue (Rhone river delta), France. Results indicate that for individuals there is no readily predictable relationship between ingested shot and liver or bone lead concentrations. However, at the "population" level, and interspecifically, significant positive relationships exist between the susceptibility to shot ingestion and the degree of lead impregnation. Shoveler (Anas clypeata) proved to be an exception, with a high level of shot ingestion and no elevated tissue lead values. This is probably related to dietary factors. Species with a high degree of current lead contamination tended to be those that had also previously absorbed elevated levels of lead. Feather lead concentrations were not clearly related to the vulnerability of a species to shot ingestion or lead poisoning. There was no significant absorption of arsenic and antimony from gunshot associated with lead absorption. PMID:1280587

Pain, D J; Amiard-Triquet, C; Sylvestre, C



Blood lead concentrations of spectacled eiders near the Kashunuk River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected, 342 blood samples from spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) on their breeding grounds in western Alaska from late May through to early August 1993a??1995. Lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. wet weight were found in the blood of 20% of the adult female eiders, 2% of the adult males and 6% of the ducklings. Lead was detected (a?Y0.02 p.p.m.) more frequently in the blood of adult females than in adult males or ducklings and the maximum concentrations were 14.37, 0.50 and 4.28 p.p.m. wet weight, respectively. In adult females, there was a significant difference in the proportion of detectable blood lead concentrations between three collection times (arrival/nesting, hatch and brood rearing), with the highest proportion (92%) occurring at hatch. Nine hens with blood lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. were captured a second time several weeks to 1 year later. In the hens sampled twice at intervals of several weeks, the blood lead concentrations increased and declined at mean daily rates of 1.10 and 0.94, respectively. The lead concentrations in the blood of adults were not correlated with body weights. Radiographs were taken of 119 eiders and corresponding blood samples from 98 of these birds were analysed for lead. Ingested shot was seen in X-rays of 12 adults and three ducklings and, of the 13 blood samples tested, all had detectable lead concentrations. Of the birds without radiographic evidence of ingested shot, 84% of the adult females, 19% of the adult males and 17% of the ducklings had detectable lead concentrations in their blood. Breeding ground exposure of waterfowl to lead shot is unusual and is of particular concern in spectacled eiders because of their threatened status and declining numbers in western Alaska.

Franson, J. C.; Petersen, M. R.; Creekmore, L. H.; Flint, P.; Smith, M. R.



Elevated soil lead concentrations in residential yards in Appleton, WI, a small Midwestern city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated soil lead concentrations are well documented in large urban areas, having been attributed to a combination of leaded-paint, leaded-gasoline, and industrial emissions. Fewer studies, however, have been conducted in smaller communities. We analyzed 200 surface soils in the neighborhood near Lawrence University’s campus in Appleton, WI (population ~70,000). Like many larger cities Appleton has a historic city-center. However, it is has no high-density housing or commercial districts and has not seen heavy traffic. The socioeconomic pressures that lead to disrepair of inner city neighborhoods have been less prevalent here as well. At each property 3 integrated samples were taken, one adjacent to the front of the house, one in the front lawn, and one between the road and sidewalk. We correlated building and property traits (e.g. structure age, distance from road, exterior type, exterior condition, direction of exposure, and assessed home value) with soil lead concentrations determined by XRF and subsequently, mapped these data for geospatial patterns. Soil lead concentrations in the city park and campus greens were typically less than 100 ppm. The highest lead concentrations are close to campus, which has a number of civil war era buildings and homes. High lead concentrations (averaging over 1,000 ppm near the home, with concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm) were associated with aging, poorly maintained structures as expected. However, a number of well-maintained structures also show substantially elevated concentrations. These soil lead concentrations are not dissimilar to those found in much larger cities such as New Orleans, Milwaukee, and Chicago. Lead levels dropped quickly as distance from the house increased suggesting that the contamination is from lead paint and not from gasoline exhaust. Furthermore, samples taken adjacent to the main arterial through town exhibited relatively low, but slightly elevated lead levels (~250 ppm). Not surprisingly, these concentrations are in line with those typically found in suburban settings, rather than urban settings. Studying the nature and distribution of soil lead contamination in a smaller city such as Appleton will allow for a better understanding of the public health risks in this and similar cities. Additionally, with fewer likely contributors to soil lead contamination, this study allows a clearer connection to be drawn between one primary factor, paint, and the distribution of soil lead.

Clark, J. J.; Knudsen, A. C.



Association of Prenatal and Childhood Blood Lead Concentrations with Criminal Arrests in Early Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood lead exposure is a purported risk factor for antisocial behavior, but prior studies either relied on indirect measures of exposure or did not follow participants into adulthood to examine the relationship between lead exposure and criminal activity in young adults. The objective of this study was to determine if prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations are associated with arrests for criminal offenses. Methods and Findings Pregnant women were recruited from four prenatal clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio if they resided in areas of the city with a high concentration of older, lead-contaminated housing. We studied 250 individuals, 19 to 24 y of age, out of 376 children who were recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984. Prenatal maternal blood lead concentrations were measured during the first or early second trimester of pregnancy. Childhood blood lead concentrations were measured on a quarterly and biannual basis through 6.5 y. Study participants were examined at an inner-city pediatric clinic and the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. Total arrests and arrests for offenses involving violence were collected from official Hamilton County, Ohio criminal justice records. Main outcomes were the covariate-adjusted rate ratios (RR) for total arrests and arrests for violent crimes associated with each 5 ?g/dl (0.24 ?mol/l) increase in blood lead concentration. Adjusted total arrest rates were greater for each 5 ?g/dl (0.24 ?mol/l) increase in blood lead concentration: RR = 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.85) for prenatal blood lead, 1.07 (95% CI 0.88–1.29) for average childhood blood lead, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.03–1.57) for 6-year blood lead. Adjusted arrest rates for violent crimes were also greater for each 5 ?g/dl increase in blood lead: RR = 1.34 (95% CI 0.88–2.03) for prenatal blood lead, 1.30 (95% CI 1.03–1.64) for average childhood blood lead, and 1.48 (95% CI 1.15–1.89) for 6-year blood lead. Conclusions Prenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations are associated with higher rates of total arrests and/or arrests for offenses involving violence. This is the first prospective study to demonstrate an association between developmental exposure to lead and adult criminal behavior. PMID:18507497

Wright, John Paul; Dietrich, Kim N; Ris, M. Douglas; Hornung, Richard W; Wessel, Stephanie D; Lanphear, Bruce P; Ho, Mona; Rae, Mary N



Lead concentrations in ruffed grouse, rock ptarmigan, and willow ptarmigan in Québec.  


Between 1996 and 1998, ruffed grouse, spruce grouse, willow ptarmigan, and rock ptarmigan harvested by hunters in Québec were examined for lead contamination. On examination of the gizzards of these birds, lead shot was found only in ruffed grouse (1.2%). The probability of ingestion of lead shot by grouse and ptarmigans is low. Analyses of the lead concentrations in the wing bones of grouse and ptarmigans and in the muscle tissue of ptarmigans were conducted. Although differences were observed between individuals based on age and sex, the mean concentrations measured were in the range of those that occur naturally at background levels (<6 microg/g dw). Lead concentrations in muscle tissue were low, often at the limit of detection. However, the few high concentrations detected were probably related to a lead pellet or bullet fragment. Based on an analysis of the health risk associated with consumption of ptarmigan muscle, we conclude that the use of lead ammunition for hunting gallinaceous birds may pose an unnecessary risk of lead poisoning because of the possible ingestion of lead shot, bullets, fragments or embedded shot. PMID:15959706

Rodrigue, J; McNicoll, R; Leclair, D; Duchesne, J-F



Lead Concentrations and Isotopes in Corals and Water near Bermuda, 1780-2000 A.D.  

E-print Network

The history of the oceanic anthropogenic lead (Pb) transient in the North Atlantic Ocean for the past 220 yr is documented here from measurements of Pb concentration and isotope ratios from annually-banded corals that grew ...

Kelly, Amy E.


Cadmium and lead concentrations in Gallegoides arfaai (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) and Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) from Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on parasites of vertebrates living in terrestrial ecosystems as sentinels for heavy metal environmental pollution is scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the concentration of cadmium and lead using the model Apodemus sylvaticus\\/ Gallegoides arfaai in order to test the potential suitability of G. arfaai as a sentinel organism for lead and cadmium under natural

J. Torres; J. de Lapuente; C. Eira; J. Nadal



Monitoring of lead acid batteries Continuous measurement of the acid concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new sensor will be presented, detecting concentration and temperature inside of lead acid batteries. Inserted into battery-management-systems like for example badicheq, the unit is able to indicate the state of charge under almost any circumstances. It is important to know the state of charge of a lead acid battery and it is easy to detect by measuring the acid

Martina Morbel; Hans-Joachim Kohnke; Joachim Helmke



Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element. PMID:12471396

Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen



Tissue lead concentrations and blood characteristics of mourning doves from Southwestern Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted on the feasibility of sampling the blood from live mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) as a technique for evaluating lead exposure in this species. Measurements of the blood enzyme, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), were essentially the same in blood from the brachial vein or trunk blood. The ALAD activity decreased as liver lead concentration increased in mourning doves.

Ronald J. Kendall; Patrick F. Scanlon



Relation of Waterfowl Poisoning to Sediment Lead Concentrations in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, waterfowl have been poisoned by lead after ingesting contaminated sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, in Idaho. Results of studies on waterfowl experimentally fed this sediment were combined with results from field studies conducted in the Basin to relate sediment lead concentration to injury to waterfowl. The first step in the model estimated exposure as the

W. Nelson Beyer; Daniel J. Audet; Gary H. Heinz; David J. Hoffman; Daniel Day



Pink urine.  


Abstract A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P



Urine culture - catheterized specimen  


Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...


Extremely high urine arsenic level after remote seafood ingestion.  


Urine testing for heavy metal concentrations is increasingly performed in the outpatient setting as a part of laboratory evaluation for neuropathy. Abnormal urine arsenic levels due to dietary intake of organic arsenic can lead to unnecessary chelation therapy. A 54-year-old man underwent a 24-hour urine collection for heavy metal concentrations in evaluation of paresthesia of the right foot. The total arsenic level was 8880 ?g/d with concentrations of 4749 ?g/L and 3769 ?g/g creatinine. He was urgently referred to the toxicology clinic for consideration of chelation therapy. History revealed consumption of 2 lobster tails 5 days before the testing. Speciation was then performed on the original urine specimen and revealed an organic arsenic concentration of 4332 ?g/L. No inorganic or methylated arsenic was detected. Repeat testing after abstaining from seafood demonstrated a total arsenic level of 50 ?g/d with concentrations of 30 ?g/L and 21 ?g/g creatinine. Our patient demonstrates the highest level of arsenobetaine reported in the literature, and this level is higher than expected for a person who had not consumed seafood for 5 days before testing. The high levels may be due to consumption of food that he did not recognize as containing arsenobetaine or that his clearance of arsenobetaine from the ingested lobster is slower than published ranges. This case demonstrates the importance of speciation when measuring urine arsenic levels to avoid unnecessary chelation therapy. PMID:22407195

Nañagas, Kristine A; Tormoehlen, Laura M



Lead concentrations: Bats vs. terrestrial small mammals collected near a major highway  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wholebody lead concentrations of two species of bats (big brown and little brown) and three species of terrestrial mammals (meadow voles, white-footed mice, and short-tailed shrews) trapped along the Baltimore-Washington Parkway in 1976 are compared, including embryo lead concentration. These data are also compared to those of previous studies conducted in Illinois and Virginia within 20 miles of highways with high traffic volumes. Minimum dosages of various lead compounds that cause mortality or reproductive impairment in six species of domestic mammals (horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, rats, and mice) are noted.

Clark, D.R., Jr.



Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers  

SciTech Connect

Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples were taken from 15 workers exposed to lead (blood lead concentration 74.4 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/dl) and 15 non-exposed workers (9.9 {+-} 2 {mu}g/dl). In erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers, the intracellular free calcium was 79 {+-} 13 nM, a significantly higher concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.01) than the one detected in control (30 {+-} 9 nM). The enhanced intracellular free calcium was associated with a higher osmotic fragility and with important modifications in erythrocytes shape. The high intracellular free calcium in lead-exposed workers was also related to a 100% increase in calcium incorporation and to 50% reduction of (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity. Lipid peroxidation was 1.7-fold higher in erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers as compared with control. The alteration on calcium equilibrium in erythrocytes is discussed in light of the toxicological effects in lead-exposed workers.

Quintanar-Escorza, M.A. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Martinez, M.T. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Navarro, L. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Maldonado, M. [CIATEC, A.C. (Mexico); Arevalo, B. [Medical Center Medic Unit 1 Bajio, IMSS, Leon Gto. (Mexico); Calderon-Salinas, J.V. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico)]. E-mail:



Use of REMEDi HS in emergency toxicology for a rapid estimate of drug concentrations in urine, serum, and gastric samples.  


The REMEDi HS is a broad spectrum drug identification system, designed for emergency toxicology screening and forensic applications. The total analysis time is about 20 min. The current library has 555 drugs and metabolites. The system has a software routine that uses an internal standard (IS) to perform quantitative analysis for target compounds when calibrators are available; further, response factors (RF) are supplied for a rapid estimate of drug concentrations when calibrators are unavailable. In the present study, The concentrations of six drugs (bromisovalum, ephedrine, hydroxyzine, diphenhydramine, ranitidine, and lidocaine) and a metabolite of lidocaine (glycinexylidide) were determined using both methods. The slopes of the regression lines between the rapid estimate method and the IS method were generally within 20% of unity, in agreement with the manufacturer's claim. Semiquantitative estimates based on RF also showed good agreement with results obtained using multipoint calibration. These estimates were sufficient for clinical differentiation of routine and toxic levels. Our study demonstrated that the REMEDi HS is particularly useful for a rapid estimate of drug concentrations in the samples from emergency cases when calibrators are not readily available. Our study also showed that this system can be used for the therapeutic monitoring of ranitidine, bromisovalum, lidocaine, and diphenhydrmine. PMID:8789851

Ohtsuji, M; Lai, J S; Binder, S R; Kondo, T; Takayasu, T; Ohshima, T



A study of blood and urine alcohol concentrations in cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period.  


This paper details the alcohol concentrations found in a selection of 1,014 cases of claimed drug-facilitated sexual assault analysed at The Forensic Science Service, London Laboratory between January 2000 and December 2002. Where appropriate, either a whole blood sample and/or a urine sample was analysed for alcohol, common drugs of abuse and potentially stupefying drugs. The samples were collected from a complainant within 12 h of an alleged incident in 391 of the 1014 cases analysed. Of these, the majority (81%) contained alcohol. The presence of alcohol itself was not surprising as most of the alleged incidents were associated with social situations such as at a public house, bar, night-club or party, where it is expected that alcohol would have been consumed. However, 233 (60%) of the 391 cases had a high back-calculated figure, where high is defined as greater than 150 milligrams per 100 millilitres (150 mg%). Some of these samples were also found to contain illicit drugs. This is the first paper to our knowledge which discusses in detail the significance of the alcohol concentrations found in cases of this type. PMID:16356751

Scott-Ham, Michael; Burton, Fiona C



Lead Concentration Levels in Drinking Water from Schools in Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead was often used in plumbing during the past century because of its malleability and ability to ensure water tight pipe connections. However, when this element was discovered to be poisonous, the use of lead pipes was outlawed. In spite of this, lead solder continued to be used until the late 1980's. In 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) passed an act that established a lead concentration limit of 15 ppb (parts per billion) in drinking water. Still, any trace of this heavy metal has been determined to be a health risk. Several schools in the Oakland Unified School District have been built close to one century ago. Many schools were built during the time in which lead pipes or lead solder were allowed. As a result, drinking water at these schools is a cause for concern. In an effort to begin assessing the drinking water quality in Oakland schools, five water samples were collected from each of thirteen schools between mid March and early May 2006. Schools were specifically chosen because of their age and location. The samples were taken to the Lawrence Hall of Science for analysis, and the results were tabulated and analyzed. Preliminary analysis of our data suggests that drinking water in schools built after the 1950's contain average lead concentrations above 15 ppb. Furthermore, out of the thirteen schools from which samples were collected, all but two issued water with lead concentrations that exceed the EPA action limit of 15 ppb. Overall, our work thus far indicates that greater attention should be devoted to investigating lead concentrations in Oakland schools' drinking water, and that in some cases immediate intervention strategies must be devised. To aid in such efforts, we plan to continue our study and further investigate water quality in Oakland Schools by collecting additional samples from a wider range of school sites.

Araraso, I.; Huang, J.; Lau, S.; Le, A.



Changes in concentrations of lysergol in urine and prolactin in plasma, rectal temperature and respiration rate in sheep selected for resistance or susceptibility to ryegrass staggers and fed ergovaline  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To determine the effects of feeding ryegrass seed containing ergovaline to sheep selected for resistance or susceptibility to ryegrass staggers on concentration of lysergol (a metabolite of ergovaline) in urine, prolactin in plasma, rectal temperature and respiration rate.METHODS: Two experiments were carried out using 12 Romney crossbred ewe lambs aged 9 months, comprising animals resistant (n=4), susceptible (n=4) or

SR Gooneratne; M Scannell; M Wellby; L Fletcher



[Influencing factors of high-concentration lead removal using the phosphorus-accumulating sludge].  


Phosphorus-accumulating activated sludge was used to remove lead [rho(Cu2+) = 150.0 mg x L(-1)] in wastewater in this experiment. The efficiency ratio and stability of Pb removal were studied at different dissolved oxygen concentration and different initial pH. The result showed that under anaerobic condition and pH 6, the Ph removal efficiency ratio increased with time elapsing, the value reached 99.8% after 32 days. Lead in form of organic and sulfide-bound lead and residual lead in residual sludge accounted for 41.8% and 52.6%, respectively, and the lead in the sludge showed a good stability. While under aerobic condition, the lead removal efficiency ratio increased with the increase of pH within the first 2 hours, the values reached 99.9%, 96.9% and 30.3% at pH 6, pH 4 and pH 2, respectively. In contrast, the residual lead was 3 072.3, 4 726.8 and 2 359.1 mg x kg(-1) under aerobic condition after 32 days, accounting for 41.8%, 65.8% and 88.8% of total lead in the sludge. Taking the lead removal efficiency ratio and lead stability into account, aerobic condition at pH 4 is the best for removing lead with phosphorus-accumulating sludge in theory. PMID:23947049

Yang, Min; Lu, Long; Feng, Yong; Fang, Chao; Li, Xiong-Qing



Blood Lead Concentration and Thyroid Function during Pregnancy: Results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background: Although maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk of adverse neonatal and obstetric outcomes as well as lower IQ in children, the environmental determinants of maternal thyroid dysfunction have yet to be fully explored. Objectives: We aimed to examine associations between mid-pregnancy blood lead (BPb) and concomitant measures of thyroid function among participants in the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Methods: As part of a population-based prospective study of two towns in Kosovo—one with high levels of environmental lead and one with low—women were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy, at which time blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. We measured concentrations of BPb, free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in archived serum samples. Results: Compared with women from the unexposed town, women from the exposed town had lower mean FT4 (0.91 ± 0.17 vs. 1.03 ± 0.16 ng/dL), higher mean TPOAb (15.45 ± 33.08 vs. 5.12 ± 6.38 IU/mL), and higher mean BPb (20.00 ± 6.99 vs. 5.57 ± 2.01 ?g/dL). No differences in TSH levels were found. After adjustment for potential confounders, for each natural log unit increase in BPb, FT4 decreased by 0.074 ng/dL (95% CI: –0.10, –0.046 ng/dL), and the odds ratio for testing positive to TPOAb was 2.41 (95% CI: 1.53, 3.82). We found no association between BPb and TSH. Conclusions: Prolonged lead exposure may contribute to maternal thyroid dysfunction by stimulating autoimmunity to the thyroid gland. Citation: Kahn LG, Liu X, Rajovic B, Popovac D, Oberfield S, Graziano JH, Factor-Litvak P. 2014. Blood lead concentration and thyroid function during pregnancy: results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:1134–1140;? PMID:24866691

Kahn, Linda G.; Liu, Xinhua; Rajovic, Biljana; Popovac, Dusan; Oberfield, Sharon; Graziano, Joseph H.



Corrections to "How to calculate lead concentration and concentration uncertainty in XRF in vivo bone lead analysis" by Kondrashov and Rothenberg.  


Kondrashov and Rothenberg (Appl. Radiat. Isot. 55 (2001) 799) have published "a substantial correction for calculating estimates of lead concentration and uncertainty for in vivo X-ray fluorescent bone analysis with Cd-109 source" (sic). Our paper shows that their correction fails to consider two important points that render it (i) a correction to a superseded method and (ii) of limited effect. Also, their approach to a "crude" estimate produces measurement uncertainties that are implausibly small. In order that they not be propagated in the literature, our paper also corrects several misstatements and errors in Kondrashov and Rothenberg. PMID:12485662

Todd, Andrew C; Moshier, Erin L; Arnold, Michelle; Aro, Antonio; Chettle, David R; McNeill, Fiona E; Nie, Huiling; Flemming, David E B; Stronach, Ian M



Speciation analysis of triethyl-lead and tributyl-tin compounds in human urine by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography microwave-induced plasma atomic emission detection.  


This work describes the development of a fast method for speciation analysis of triethyl-lead and tributyl-tin species in urine samples after in situ derivatization by tetraethyl- or tetrapropyl-borate reagents. The alkylation reaction is done in the aqueous and urine medium and the less-polar derivatives are extracted in hexane by liquid-liquid extraction. The species were extracted and the extract was efficiently collected from the aqueous phase after centrifugation. Finally, the organometallic species are separated by gas chromatography and determined from the emission signals of elemental lead and tin. Atomic lead and tin are formed from the organolead and organotin compounds during atomization of the column eluate in a microwave-induced helium plasma source. The simultaneous measurement of lead (Pb) at 405.780 nm and tin (Sn) at 303.419 nm was achieved by an atomic emission detector. Finally, the analytes were determined with satisfactory precision (<5%) and detection limits of 0.05 ?g Pb/L and 0.48 ?g Sn/L, respectively, when 10 mL of urine is extracted with 1 mL of hexane and 1 ?L of extract is injected. PMID:22689489

Zachariadis, George A; Rosenberg, Erwin



Application of lead and strontium isotope ratio measurements for the origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates.  


Lead and strontium isotope ratios were used for the origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates (yellow cakes) for nuclear forensic purposes. A simple and low-background sample preparation method was developed for the simultaneous separation of the analytes followed by the measurement of the isotope ratios by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The lead isotopic composition of the ore concentrates suggests applicability for the verification of the source of the nuclear material and by the use of the radiogenic (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratio the age of the raw ore material can be calculated. However, during data interpretation, the relatively high variation of the lead isotopic composition within the mine site and the generally high contribution of natural lead as technological contamination have to be carefully taken into account. The (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratio is less prone to the variation within one mine site and less affected by the production process, thus it was found to be a more purposeful indicator for the origin assessment and source verification than the lead. The lead and strontium isotope ratios measured and the methodology developed provide information on the initial raw uranium ore used, and thus they can be used for source attribution of the uranium ore concentrates. PMID:19824713

Varga, Zsolt; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus; Keegan, Elizabeth; Millet, Sylvain




E-print Network

COMPARISON OF LEAD CONCENTRATION IN SURFACE SOIL BY INDUCTED COUPLED PLASMA/OPTICAL EMISSION-en-Halatte, France Keywords : soil lead concentration, soil samples, in situ measurements, X-ray fluorescence, ICP/OES ABSTRACT The lead concentration in the surface soil of a French village

Boyer, Edmond


The Relationship Between the Dust Lead Concentration and the Particle Sizes of Household Dusts Collected in Jersey City Residences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead concentrations measured in total dust samples collected from various environmental surfaces have been used as a surrogate for the lead concentration found in hand dust and subsequently in calculations of lead exposure due to ingestion. However, since the relationship between the characteristics of environmental dust samples and hand dusts is not yet well established, conclusions derived from lead measurements

Eugene Y. Wang; Robert D. Willis; Timothy J. Buckley; George G. Rhoads; Paul J. Lioy




Microsoft Academic Search

During an avian cholera epornitic, between December 1982 and January 1983, 58 dead, 23 sick, and 106 hunter-killed lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) were collected at Delevan National Wildlife Refuge, Colusa County, California, USA. Fifty-one of the dead and sick geese were infected with Pasteurella multocida. Lead concentrations in the livers ranged from

Andrew G. Gordus



Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukona??Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid-June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

Franson, J. C.; Schmutz, J. A.; Creekmore, L. H.; Fowler, A. C.



Significance of concentrations of lead, cadmium, and iron in the plumage of the feral pigeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead, cadmium, and iron contamination was examined in the plumage of feral pigeons. Metal contamination in pigeons from different regions in Bratislava or in different seasons did not differ significantly; seasonal type of food did not significantly influence the concentrations. The blood of birds was examined for the presence of complement fixing antibodies toChlamydia psittaci. Birds with antibodies did not

Marifin Janiga; Blanka Mafikovskfi; Monika Bobal'ová; Gabriela ?ur?ová



Lead and cadmium concentrations in goat, cow, sheep, and buffalo milks from different regions of Iran.  


In total, 137 goat, cow, sheep, and buffalo milk samples were collected in different regions of Iran and analysed to determine concentrations of lead and cadmium by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric method. The mean recovery of the analytical method was 96.3% and 104% for cadmium and lead, respectively. The mean lead and cadmium contents obtained from 137 samples were 1.93 ± 1.48 (range: 0.18-6.11 ng/ml) and 9.51 ± 4.93 ng/ml (range: 1.84 ng/ml-30.50 ng/ml), respectively. Lead concentration in 8.1% of sheep and 1.9% of cow milk samples was higher than the newly established Codex standard. The mean concentrations of cadmium and lead in animals aged ? 3 years (n=80; 1.40 ± 1.05 ng/ml and 7.91 ± 3.60 ng/ml, respectively) were lower than in animals aged >3 years (n=58; 2.69 ± 1.67 ng/ml and 11.8 ± 5.71 ng/ml, respectively). PMID:23122075

Rahimi, Ebrahim



Lead concentrations and reproductive success in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within highway roadside verges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1981, the authors studied lead concentrations and reproductive success in free-living European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within the verges of two Maryland highways with different traffic volumes, Route 197(average daily traffic volume[ADT] = 10,800 vehicles) and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (ADT=52,500 vehicles) and a nearby control area. Concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight) of lead in the ingesta (84-94 mg kg-1), carcasses (4.0-9.6 mg kg-1)and feathers (6.8-52 mg kg-1) of Parkway nestlings and adults were 3 to 13 times those found in starlings from the control area, whereas lead concentrations in the ingesta and tissues of starlings from the verge of Route 197 were similar to those of controls. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells (RBCs) of adult and nestling starlings from the Parkway was depressed from 43 to 60% compared to controls. RBC ALAD activity in adults from nests along Route 197 was similar to that of adult starlings from the control area, but that of their young was depressed 17%. Haemoglobin concentrations (-16%) and haematocrits (-10%) in Parkway nestlings were depressed compared with those of nestlings from the other two study areas, whereas those of adults were not affected. Clutch size, number of young hatched and the number of young in nests 1 to 3 days before fledging were similar among sites, as were body weights of adults and prefledging weights of their young. However, brain weights of Parkway nestlings were lower (P < 0.05) than those of nestlings from the other study areas. Results suggests that lead within verges of major highways probably does not pose a serious hazard to adult ground-foraging songbirds. However, the effects of lead-induced reductions in haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, RBC ALAD activity and brain weight on the postfledging survival of their young are not known.

Grue, C.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beyer, W.N.; Franson, L.P.



Multiple Sclerosis Incidence Associated with the Soil Lead and Arsenic Concentrations in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies in the world have assessed the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) with soil heavy metal concentrations. We explored the association of soil heavy metal factors and the MS incidence in Taiwan. Methods There were 1240 new MS cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database and were verified with serious disabling disease certificates, 1997–2008. Soil heavy metal factors records included arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in Taiwan from 1986 to 2002. Spatial regression was used to reveal the association of soil heavy metals and age- and gender-standardized incidence ratios for townships by controlling sunlight exposure hours, smoking prevalence and spatial autocorrelation. Results The lead (Pb) concentration in the soil positively correlated with the township incidence; on the other hand, the arsenic (As) concentration in soil negatively correlated with the township incidence and when found together controlled each other. The positive correlation of lead (Pb) predominated in males, whereas the negative correlation of arsenic (As) in soil predominated in females. Conclusions We conclude that exposure to lead (Pb) in soil positive associated with incidence of MS in Taiwan, especially in males. Exposure to arsenic (As) in soil negative associated with MS in Taiwan, especially in females. PMID:23799061



Observations on the effect of parathyroid hormone on environmental blood lead concentrations in humans  

SciTech Connect

The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on blood lead (Pb) concentrations was observed preliminarily in three different situations. Of 342 healthy bus drivers with no unusual exposure to Pb, 25 drivers with the highest and 25 with the lowest blood Pb were compared for serum PTH concentrations. There was no association between blood Pb and serum PTH concentrations. Eight women with postmenopausal osteoporosis enrolled in an experimental protocol to increase bone mass received daily PTH (1-34 fragment) for 1 week, calcitonin for the next 2 weeks, and oral calcium for the subsequent 10 weeks. This cycle was repeated four times during the year. Initial blood Pb concentrations averaged 6.0 micrograms/dl (range 2.1-8.9). Mean blood Pb concentrations decreased by 1.7 micrograms/dl over 1 year of therapy. The confidence interval for this change excluded zero, the mean change was significantly different from the mean change for comparative population (P less than 0.050), and paired changes were statistically significant (P = 0.045). Lastly, a single subject with hyperparathyroid disease and no unusual exposures to lead demonstrated stabilized blood Pb concentrations that were 50% lower after removal of his hyperplastic parathyroid glands. These observations suggest that the effect of PTH on increasing bone turnover and releasing Pb into blood is not easily detected at low physiologic amounts of PTH, but that with pathologic increases of PTH in hyperparathyroid disease, elevation of blood Pb from bone or increased gastrointestinal absorption may be possible. Likewise, either bone building therapies (PTH + calcitonin + calcium) may move Pb from blood into bone or supplemental calcium may decrease Pb gastrointestinal absorption, thereby explaining the observed lower blood Pb concentrations.

Osterloh, J.D. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))




Microsoft Academic Search

Blood lead concentrations of juvenile American black ducks (Anas rubrz'pes) sampled in unhunted sanctuaries of Nova Scotia (NS) and Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, usually were <30 parts per billion (ppb). Based on gizzard content analyses of juvenile American black ducks from hunted areas, eight (24%) of 33 flightless birds contained ingested lead shot. Blood lead concentrations were ?100 ppb

Richard W. Daury; Francis E. Schwab; Myrtle C. Bateman


Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine Supplementation at Different Concentrations on Lead Toxicity in Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (vitamin C (VC)) on liver damage param- eters in the lead-exposed mice, when given in combination with thiamine (vitamin B1 (VB1)) at different concentrations. Methods: Sixty-six male mice were randomly assigned into 11 groups (n 5 6). Mice in Group I were supplied with only the tap water as the drinking water;




Urine drainage bags  


Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach to a catheter (tube) that is inside your bladder. You may have a catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary ...


Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula  

PubMed Central

Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

Viswanathan, Stalin



Blood concentration of essential trace elements and heavy metals in workers exposed to lead and cadmium.  


The aim of the study was to determine blood concentration of essential trace elements (Se, Zn, Cu) and toxic metals (Pb, Cd), markers of antioxidant (activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxidase dismutase and ceruloplasmin) and prooxidant processes (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in workers exposed to Pb and Cd. Forty three male workers of the lead-acid batteries department, aged 25-52 years, and twenty two workers, including 15 women, aged 36-51 years, exposed to Cd in the alkaline batteries department were examined. The reference group consisted of 52 healthy inhabitants of the same region. It was found that Se concentration and GPx activity in both erythrocytes and plasma of Cd exposed workers were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in the reference group. We found an inverse linear correlation between blood Se and Cd concentrations in the workers exposed to Cd (r = -0.449; p < 0.01). Moreover, the activity of erythrocyte and plasma GPx was shown to be significantly lower in the study group of workers (p < 0.001). It was observed that TBARS concentration in plasma was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the lead exposed workers than in the group without contact with Pb. Our results indicate that exposure to Pb and Cd affects the antioxidant potential of blood in workers exposed to heavy metals. PMID:11764849

Wasowicz, W; Gromadzi?ska, J; Rydzy?ski, K



Blood lead concentrations of waterfowl from unhunted and heavily hunted marshes of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Canada.  


Blood lead concentrations of juvenile American black ducks (Anas rubripes) sampled in unhunted sanctuaries of Nova Scotia (NS) and Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, usually were < 30 parts per billion (ppb). Based on gizzard content analyses of juvenile American black ducks from hunted areas, eight (24%) of 33 flightless birds contained ingested lead shot. Blood lead concentrations were > or = 100 ppb in seven of eight juveniles with ingested shot; thus we adopted blood lead concentrations 100 ppb as our threshold indicating exposure to non-background lead. The proportion of both American black ducks and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) with elevated blood lead concentrations (> 100 ppb) exceeded 5% in hunted areas sampled in NS and PEI combined. The Canadian Wildlife Service draft policy is to consider replacing lead shot with non-toxic shot for waterfowl and snipe hunting if 5% of American black ducks exceed a blood lead concentration of 200 ppb. American black ducks significantly (P < 0.05) exceeded this threshold but ring-necked ducks did not. The source of lead in hunted areas may have been lead shot; we recommend that it be eliminated and replaced by an acceptable non-toxic shot for waterfowl hunting. Twenty four (96%) of 25 of American black ducks overwintering in Sullivans Pond, Dartmouth, NS, contained elevated (> 100 ppb) blood lead concentrations and 19 (76%) had detrimental concentrations (> 200 ppb). We believe that the source of lead at Sullivans Pond was automobile emissions. PMID:8258857

Daury, R W; Schwab, F E; Bateman, M C



Study of the effect of lactational bone loss on blood lead concentrations in humans.  

PubMed Central

Lactation and other clinical states of high bone turnover have been suggested to release lead (Pb) stored in bone into blood and tissues. Previous observations on the influences of lactation have been anecdotal, or at high blood Pb concentrations with varying past exposures, or complicated by postpartum fluid changes. A prospective observational study was performed to investigate possible changes in blood lead concentrations at multiple intervals during lactation for 6 months postpartum and to relate changes in blood lead concentrations to changes in bone density and other variables. Volunteer pregnant subjects (n = 58) were enrolled from a midwifery service at an academic public health hospital. Subjects were mostly Hispanic, recently immigrated, of low economic status, not receiving supplemental calcium, and had low blood Pb concentrations (2.35 +/- 2.05 microg/dl at enrollment). Bone density losses over 6 months for the group averaged -2.46 +/- 6.33% at the vertebral spine and -0.67 +/- 5.21% at the femoral neck. In predicting final bone density, apart from initial bone density only the total number of breast-feedings was a significant independent variable of the variables tested, accounting for an additional 12% of the variability. No changes in blood Pb concentrations were seen over the interval beyond 2 weeks postpartum (minimum detectable change was 0.4 microg/dl). There was no relation between the changes in bone density and changes in blood Pb or the integrated blood Pb over the 2-week to 6-month period. Normal (nonlactating) bone resorption rates contribute a large fraction of the Pb in blood during low-exposure circumstances. However, during lactation the increase in bone resorptive processes is probably relatively small with a larger decrease in deposition accounting for net bone loss, as suggested by other investigations. Thus, concomitant release of Pb from bones of lactating subjects with low blood lead concentrations on this background of high normal resorption was not large enough for detection. Images Figure 1 PMID:10064547

Osterloh, J D; Kelly, T J



Venerupis decussata under environmentally relevant lead concentrations: Bioconcentration, tolerance, and biochemical alterations.  


The edible clam Venerupis decussata is widely distributed in European aquatic systems, some of which are under strong anthropogenic pressure, which can contribute to trophic transfer of xenobiotics to humans. Accordingly, the present study focused on the tolerance, bioconcentration, and biochemical responses of V. decussata after exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of lead. Health risks to humans after consumption of clams was also explored. An acute toxicity assay (96?h) was conducted with wild clams, using Pb exposure concentrations ranging from 0?mg L(-1) to 1.80?mg?L(-1) . Lethality, bioconcentration factor (BCF), intracellular partitioning, and a relevant set of biomarkers were used as endpoints. Clams, interstitial water, water column, and sediment samples were collected to analyze Pb concentration. The Pb concentration in wild clams was below international consumption guidelines. Under laboratory conditions, clams revealed high sensitivity to Pb (median lethal concentration of 0.65?mg?L(-1) ), with a high bioconcentration ability (bioconcentration factor?>?1) during exposure. The intracellular partitioning data showed that most of the Pb had accumulated in the insoluble fraction (>80%). Several significant biochemical changes were observed, namely on catalase and glutathione-S-tranferase activities and metalothionein content. Overall, it was demonstrated that the European clam has a reduced tolerance to Pb, compared with other bivalves. However, consumption of clams from the Ria de Aveiro lagoon (Portugal) does not raise public health concerns in terms of Pb. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2786-2794. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25196236

Freitas, Rosa; Martins, Roberto; Antunes, Sara; Velez, Cátia; Moreira, Anthony; Cardoso, Paulo; Pires, Adília; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina



On the seasonal variability of urban air particulate lead concentration under tropical monsoon atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

Hochiminh city has two distinct - dry and rainy - seasons with the seasonal transitions taking place during 1-2 weeks in May and November when the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) passes over the area during its annual north-south migration around the equator. The prevailing wind direction and rainfall change sharply following the seasonal transitions. Air particulate lead concentrations measured during 1993-1994 exhibit a temporal variability reflecting the seasonal changes of relevant atmospheric factors typical of Southeast Asia tropical monsoon conditions.

Hien, P.D.; Binh, N.T.; Truong, Y.; Ngo, N.T. [Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (Viet Nam)





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75 FR 76336 - Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations...November 12, 2008, (effective date January 12, 2009...published, EPA completed a study of ambient lead concentrations...information on the approach, methods, and results of the study. III. How can I...



Effects of various cooking processes on the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in foods.  


The effects of cooking processes commonly used by the population of Catalonia (Spain) on total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) concentrations in various foodstuffs were investigated. All food samples were randomly acquired in local markets, big supermarkets, and grocery stores of Reus (Catalonia). Foods included fish (sardine, hake, and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, two composite samples were prepared for metal analyses, whose levels in raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, and boiled) samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As, Hg, and Pb (raw and cooked samples) were mainly found in fish, with a clear tendency, in general, to increase metal concentrations after cooking. However, in these samples, Cd levels were very close to their detection limit. In turn, the concentrations of metals in raw and cooked meat samples were detected in all samples (As) or only in a very few samples (Cd, Hg, and Pb). A similar finding corresponded to string beans, rice, and olive oil, while in potatoes, Hg could not be detected and Pb only was detected in the raw samples. In summary, the results of the present study show that, in general terms, the cooking process is only of a very limited value as a means of reducing metal concentrations. This hypothetical reduction depends upon cooking conditions (time, temperature, and medium of cooking). PMID:18986150

Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L



An early diagnosis leads to a good prognosis: a patient with maple syrup urine disease--screened by tandem mass spectrometry.  


Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), or branched-chain ketoaciduria, is an autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The classic MSUD is the most severe form. The prognosis is usually guarded. The acute metabolic decompensation and neurological deterioration attribute to severe sequelae. The age of diagnosis and subsequent metabolic control are the most important determinants of long-term prognosis. We report one classic MSUD case with good outcome. The early diagnosis was achieved by tandem mass spectrometry screening. Since most MSUD patients in Taiwan are native Taiwanese, we strongly suggest routine tandem mass screening of MSUD is necessary, especially in the high-risk groups, to minimize morbidity and mortality. PMID:15868812

Lin, Jeng-Feng; Chiu, Pao-Chin; Hsu, Hui-Ya; Lin, Shu-Ming; Chen, Ying-Yao; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng



Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.  


This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7?g/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (p<0.001). Males were higher than in females (p<0.001). Current smokers and drinkers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers (p<0.001) and nondrinkers (p<0.001), respectively. People who took herbal medication and drug consumption were higher than those who did not (p<0.001). Education level was negatively associated with blood lead concentration (p<0.001). People living in or around industrial areas had elevated blood lead concentration (p<0.001). Family income was also negatively associated with lead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (p<0.034): the highest was in laborer and Agricultural-Fishery-Forestry and the lowest in office workers. In women, blood lead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the general adult population in Korea has decreased over time from 45.8?g/l (1999) to 19.7?g/l (2008). Although it is still higher than in other countries such as the United States and Canada, it is rapidly decreasing. Gender, age, smoking and alcohol drinking status, herbal medication and drug consumption, education level, living area and occupation were significantly related to the blood lead concentrations in Korea. PMID:25043456

Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon



Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation.

I. A. Porter; J. Brodie



Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

PubMed Central

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation. PMID:5768462

Porter, I. A.; Brodie, J.



Lead concentration in the bones of the feral pigeons (Columba livia): sources of variation relating to body condition and death.  


This paper reports on lead concentrations in the tarsometatarsi of 84 individuals of adult feral pigeons Columba livia found dead or experimentally captured in Bratislava, Slovakia. The interrelationships between lead concentrations and time of death, place of death, body measurements, sex, condition, and plumage phenotype were investigated. Size and shape of pigeons was not correlated with bone lead contamination. Sex and plumage color and pattern were slightly associated with variation in bone lead levels, females and melanic (urban) phenotypes tending to have higher bone lead concentrations than males and blue-bar (wild) individuals. Birds with antibodies to chlamydiae did not contain significantly higher lead concentrations in the tarsometatarsi than birds without antibodies. Concentration of lead in tarsi was significantly higher in birds dying in winter, compared to birds dying at the end of summer. Chronic lead poisoning probably causes mortality in pigeons in winter. The natural stressor, cold weather, has the capability of exacerbating the effects of lead poisoning, and the mortality is due to lead exposure coupled with cold stress. PMID:9601922

Janiga, M; Zemberyová, M



Examination of lead concentrations in new decorative enamel paints in four countries with different histories of activity in lead paint regulation.  


Paints with high lead concentrations (ppm) continue to be sold around the world in many developing countries and those with economies in transition representing a major preventable environmental health hazard that is being increased as the economies expand and paint consumption is increasing. Prior lead paint testing had been performed in Brazil and India and these countries were selected to examine the impact of a new regulatory limit in Brazil and the impact of efforts of non-governmental organizations and others to stop the use of lead compounds in manufacturing paints. Armenia and Kazakhstan, in Central Asia, were selected because no information on lead concentration in those regions was available, no regulatory activities were evident and non-governmental organizations in the IPEN network were available to participate. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the lead loading (µg/cm(2)) limit determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for areas on toys that are too small to obtain a sample of sufficient size for laboratory analysis. The lead concentrations in more than three-fourths of the paints from Armenia and Kazakhstan exceeded 90 ppm, the limit in the United States, and 600 ppm, the limit in Brazil. The percentages were about one-half as high in Brazil and India. The average concentration in paints purchased in Armenia, 25,000 ppm, is among the highest that has been previously reported, that in Kazakhstan, 15,700 ppm, and India, 16,600, about median. The average concentration in Brazil, 5600 ppm, is among the lowest observed. Paints in Brazil that contained an average of 36,000 ppm before the regulatory limit became effective were below detection (< 9 ppm) in samples collected in the current study. The lack of any apparent public monitoring of paint lead content as part of regulatory enforcement makes it difficult to determine whether the regulation was a major factor contributing to the decline in lead use in these paints. Using data from the current study and those available from other studies 24 of 28 paints from major brands in India decreased from high concentrations to 90 ppm or lower. Since lead concentrations in golden yellow paints from these brands were found to decrease to ? 90 ppm, it is possible that all 28 of these paints now contain ? 90 ppm since yellow paints usually have the highest lead concentrations. Other brands in Brazil and India that have been analyzed only one time had lead concentrations up to 59,000 ppm and 134,000 ppm, respectively. Less than one-third of the paints had notations on their labels with information about lead content and these were sometimes inaccurate. The label from one brand indicating "no added lead" contained paint with 134,000 ppm lead, the highest found in this study. Three percent (3 of 98) of the paints with surface lead loading that did not exceed 2 µg/cm(2), the limit established by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for small areas on toys, contained greater than 90 ppm lead and thus were false negatives. Of the new paint samples that contained ? 600 ppm, 88% contained ? 90 ppm. Of the samples that contained ? 90 ppm, 97% contained ? 45 ppm and 92% contained ? 15 ppm. Based on these data it appears to be technically feasible to manufacture paints containing ? 90 ppm and in many cases to produce paints that have lead concentrations that do not exceed 15 ppm. PMID:24819125

Clark, C Scott; Kumar, Abhay; Mohapatra, Piyush; Rajankar, Prashant; Nycz, Zuleica; Hambartsumyan, Amalia; Astanina, Lydia; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline; Menrath, William; Peng, Hongying



Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 ?g/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian



Alteration of saliva and serum concentrations of manganese, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead among career welders  

PubMed Central

Human saliva offers a unique noninvasive approach for populational study. Purposes of this study were to investigate the feasibility of using saliva manganese (Mn) concentration as a biomarker of Mn exposure among career welders and to study the variations of Mn, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in saliva as affected by the welding profession. Forty-nine male welders, of whom 28 were in the low exposed group and 21 in the high exposed group, were recruited. Control subjects were 33 military soldiers without metal exposure. Ambient Mn levels in breathing zones were 0.01, 0.24 and 2.21 mg/m3for control, low, and high exposed groups, respectively. Saliva samples were collected to quantify metals by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Saliva concentrations of Mn and Cu were significantly higher in welders than in controls (p < 0.01); the variation in saliva levels appeared likely to be associated with airborne Mn levels among study populations. Saliva levels of Zn were significantly lower in welders than in controls (p < 0.05), while Cd and Pb levels in saliva were unchanged. Significant associations were observed between saliva and serum for Mn (r = 0.575, p < 0.05) and Cu (r = 0.50, p < 0.05). Moreover, saliva Mn concentrations were higher among welders with 5–10 years of employment than those with less than 5 years of employment. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between saliva Mn and Cu and between saliva Mn and Zn. Taken together, these data suggest that Mn concentrations in saliva appear reflective of welders’ exposure to airborne Mn and their years of welding experience. respectively. Elevated Mn levels among welders may alter the homeostasis of Cu and Zn. PMID:18054180

Wang, Dixin; Du, Xuqin; Zheng, Wei



Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry.  


Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 ?g/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter. PMID:24468922

Ely, Craig R; Franson, J Christian



Biosynthesis of lead nanoparticles by the aquatic water fern, Salvinia minima Baker, when exposed to high lead concentration.  


Salvinia minima Baker is a small floating aquatic fern that is efficient for the removal and storage of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, we report that lead removal by S. minima causes large accumulation of lead inside the cells in the form of nanoparticles (PbNPs). The accumulation pattern of lead was analyzed in both, submerged root-like modified fronds (here named "roots"), and in its aerial leaf-like fronds ("leaves"). Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the biosynthesis of PbNPs by the plant. In both, roots and leaves, PbNPs were found to accumulate almost exclusively at the cell wall and closely associated to the cell membrane. Two types of PbNPs shapes were found in cells of both tissues, those associated to the cell wall were quasi-spherical with 17.2±4.2 nm of diameter, while those associated to the cell membrane/cytoplasm were elongated. Elongated particles were 53.7±29.6 nm in length and 11.1±2.4 nm wide. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) results indicate that cellulose, lignin and pectin are the major components that may be acting as the reducing agents for lead ions; these findings strongly suggest the potential use of this fern to further explore the bio-assisted synthesis of heavy metal nanostructures. PMID:24211828

Castro-Longoria, E; Trejo-Guillén, K; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Avalos-Borja, M; Andrade-Canto, S B; Leal-Alvarado, D A; Santamaría, J M



Maternal blood lead concentration, diet during pregnancy, and anthropometry predict neonatal blood lead in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population.  

PubMed Central

To determine the influences of maternal diet and nutrition during pregnancy on the blood lead level of neonates, we conducted a study of mother-infant pairs from lower socioeconomic circumstances living in Albany County, New York. Maternal blood lead (MBPb), anthropometry, and diet were assessed in each trimester. Neonates' blood lead (NBPb) levels were low (geometric mean = 1.58 micro g/dL), and none had elevated blood lead. More than 50% of the mothers had intakes below the recommended dietary allowances for zinc, calcium, iron, vitamin D, and kilocalories. As expected, MBPb was strongly and positively related to NBPb. Among the anthropometric measures of maternal nutritional status, variables measuring gain in weight and arm circumference were negatively related to NBPb. In multivariable models reflecting different analytic strageties and including MBPb, anthropometry, and sociodemographic characteristics, dietary intakes of iron and vitamin D were negatively related to NBPb. The effect of zinc varied substantially depending on model covariates. Effects of dietary constituents are difficult to distinguish, given the intercorrelated nature of nutrients in the diet. Nevertheless, the influences of maternal anthropometric variables, iron, and vitamin D on neonatal lead levels are clear in our analyses. PMID:12573905

Schell, Lawrence M; Denham, Melinda; Stark, Alice D; Gomez, Marta; Ravenscroft, Julia; Parsons, Patrick J; Aydermir, Aida; Samelson, Renee



Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Zinc Concentrations in Female and Embryonic Pacific Sharpnose Shark (Rhizoprionodon longurio) Tissues.  


In this work we compared the cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contents of muscle, liver and placenta of gestating females of the viviparous shark Rhizoprionodon longurio and of muscle, liver and umbilical cord of their respective embryos. The higher values of the essential Cu and Zn were in embryonic or embryo-related tissues (placenta and umbilical cord). Maternal muscle and liver had the highest values of Pb and Cd, respectively. There were significant direct correlations between the Zn and Cd concentrations of placenta and umbilical cord, as well as between maternal muscle and embryonic livers for Pb and Cd, but the relation between these tissues was inverse in the case of Zn. All correlations between the metal content of embryonic tissues and size of the embryos were negative, suggesting an inverse relation between the rate of mother-to-embryo metal transfer and embryonic growth. PMID:25151279

Frías-Espericueta, M G; Cardenas-Nava, N G; Márquez-Farías, J F; Osuna-López, J I; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Carrasco, W; Voltolina, D



Getting a Urine Test  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Page The Pink Locker Society Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size It ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...


Toxicity study of lead naphthenate  

PubMed Central

van Peteghem, Th., and de Vos, H. (1974).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,31, 233-238. Toxicity study of lead naphthenate. Lead naphthenate is added to oils and greases in order to increase their resistance to high pressures. Experiments on animals and humans showed the possibility of a small amount of percutaneous absorption. An investigation was performed on technicians regularly dealing with these lubricants in order to explore to what extent they had absorbed the lead naphthenate. The degree of absorption was evaluated by measuring the lead content of the blood and the ?-aminolevulinic acid concentration in the urine. Individual results did not permit clearcut conclusions whether an increase in lead absorption had occured or not. Therefore the group of technicians was compared with a group without any occupational contact with lead-containing lubricants but otherwise comparable in occupational and general exposure to lead. To test the significance of the difference between the means of the samples a one-sided t test not assuming equal standard deviations for both populations was used. For any of two compared populations the t test was repeated after rejection of the larger values which were 2·5 standard deviations from the mean value in the exposed population. It appeared that the lead concentration in the blood and the ?-aminolevulinic acid concentration in the urine of people exposed to lead naphthenate-containing lubricants were significantly higher than those concentrations observed in non-exposed persons. PMID:4416678

Peteghem, Th. Van; Devos, H.



The association between spatial distribution of common malignancies and soil lead concentration in Isfahan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Malignancies are primarily environmental diseases mostly attributed to environmental factors. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences can be observed in detail. This study aimed to determine the association between map distribution of malignancies and the geological phenomena of lead (Pb) accumulation in soil in the province of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Spatial distribution maps of malignant diseases were plotted by using data recorded during 2007 to 2009 in the Isfahan Cancer Registry Program. Data on Pb accumulation in soil was obtained from the National Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration. Pb concentrations were documented in three parts of agricultural, non-agricultural, urban, and industrial land. The geographical mapping of cancers and soil Pb were then incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to create a spatial distribution model. Results: The spatial distributions of ten common malignant diseases in the province, i.e. skin cancers, hematological malignancies, and breast cancers, followed by other malignancies were scattered based on Pb distribution. In fact, common cancers were more prevalent in the parts of the province where soil Pb was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study underscore the importance of preventing Pb exposure and controlling industrial production of Pb. The data is also important to establish further effects modeling for cancers. Moreover, physicians and health professionals should consider the impact of environmental factors on their patients’ health. PMID:23267396

Rashidi, Masoumeh; Rameshat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharib, Hadi; Rouzbahani, Reza; Ghias, Majid; Poursafa, Parinaz



Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in San Francisco MUNI bus drivers  

SciTech Connect

San Francisco MUNI bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration (Pb-B) and blood pressure (BP) in 342 drivers. Two groups of subjects were identified. These subjects treated for hypertension (n = 54) and untreated subjects (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic BPs varied from 102-173 mmHg and from 61-105 mm Hg respectively in untreated subjects. They varied from 110-206 mmHg and from 73-127 mmHg respectively in treated subjects. The Pb-B varied from 2-15 {mu}g/dl in untreated subjects, and 2-25 {mu}g/dl in treated drivers. The relationship between BP and the logarithm of Pb-B was examined in each group separately using multiple regression techniques. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The regression coefficient relating systolic BP and In(Pb-B) was 1-2 mmHg/ln({mu}g/Dl) (90% C.I.: {minus}2,5) in untreated subjects. The relationship in treated subjects was too unstable to be accurately determined. The coefficients for diastolic BP were 2.0-2.5 mmHg/ln({mu}g/dl) (90% C.I.: 0.1,4.5) and 6 mmHg/ln({mu}g/dl) (90% C.I.: 2,11) in untreated and treated subjects respectively.

Sharp, D.S.



A Greenhouse Study on Lead Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) as a Function of Lead Concentration and Soil Physico-Chemical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead (Pb) is a toxic non-essential metal that can cause permanent learning disabilities, retardation, mental and behavioral problems in children. Lead accumulation in soils result from weathering, chipping, scraping, sanding and sand blasting of housing structures constructed prior to 1978, bearing lead-based paint. The primary objective of this study is to develop a cost-effective, chelate-assisted phytoremediation for cleaning up lead contaminated soils. Soils are a unique environment of diverse physical and chemical characteristics that influence the extent of phytoavailable (labile) Pb forms. The success of phytoremediation strategy depends on the physiological/ biochemical tolerance of the plants to lipid peroxidation induced by Pb at sub-lethal levels. Oxidative challenge is alleviated by antioxidant compounds, but more importantly by the induction of antioxidant enzymes, which are crucial for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and terminating lipid peroxidation chain reaction. A column study was conducted in a temperature and humidity-controlled greenhouse setting to assess the extent of Pb phytoextraction and antioxidant response in a lead accumulator, vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Treatments consisted of a randomized block arrangement of 4 soil types (Immokalee, Pahokee Muck, Tobosa, and Millhopper) and 3 soil Pb concentrations [normal - 400 mg/kg lead (following federal soil standards for lead), moderate - 800 mg/kg lead, and excessive - 1200 mg/kg lead] in 4 replicates. At the end of 6 months, selected columns were amended with a biodegradable chelating agent, ethylenediamene disuccinate (10 mmol/ kg EDDS), to mobilize Pb and enhance Pb uptake by vetiver. Total and exchangeable (labile) Pb were correlated with phytoextracted Pb, and levels of antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. Results indicate that Pb uptake and antioxidant enzymes activity in vetiver grass is dependent on soil physico-chemical properties and phytoavailable Pb concentrations.

Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S. K.



Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, S.N.; Mulhern, B.



Hair as a noninvasive tool for risk assessment: do the concentrations of cadmium and lead in the hair of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) reflect internal concentrations?  


There is an increasing need for developing noninvasive markers of accumulation when studying the transfer of pollutants in wildlife, in response to problems caused by sacrifice of animals (disturbed population dynamics, respect of ethical protocols). Thus, the aim of this work was to determine whether trace metal (TM) concentrations in hair could be used as an accurate noninvasive estimator of internal and environmental concentrations. For that purpose, on a 40km² site surrounding an ancient smelter, 321 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were sampled on seven squares (500×500m) and 4 squares in fall 2010 and spring 2011, respectively. The relationships between the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations in hair and those in the liver, kidneys, and soils were described. The results indicated that hair concentration was a relatively good predictor of Pb concentrations in organs (p<0.001, 0.46concentrations in organs were only weakly predicted by hair concentrations in session 2010 (p<0.001, R²=0.10 for both organs), and no significant relationship was found in session 2011 (p=0.252 for liver and p=0.971 for kidneys). The Cd and Pb concentrations in the soil and in hair were not linearly related, but concentrations in hair increased with soil concentrations (Spearman's rank correlations). Linear relationships between internal and hair concentrations differed significantly between the sampling sessions, especially for Cd. When they were included in models analyzing the relationships between TM concentrations in organs and in hair, individual characteristics (gender and body mass as a non-lethal estimation of relative age) increased the explained variability of Cd in organs but not of Pb. In conclusion, hair should be used cautiously to predict internal Cd concentrations but can be considered as an accurate noninvasive estimator of internal Pb concentrations. Further studies should be performed to develop, generalize, and apply this useful possible tool for risk assessment in ecotoxicology. PMID:25090089

Tête, Nicolas; Afonso, Eve; Crini, Nadia; Drouhot, Séverine; Prudent, Anne-Sophie; Scheifler, Renaud



Placental transfer and concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium in mothers, newborns, and young children.  


There is an emerging hypothesis that exposure to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in utero and early childhood could have long-term health consequences. However, there are sparse data on early life exposures to these elements in US populations, particularly in urban minority samples. This study measured levels of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se in 50 paired maternal, umbilical cord, and postnatal blood samples from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). Maternal exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se was 100% detectable in red blood cells (RBCs), and there was a high degree of maternal-fetal transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se. In particular, we found that Hg levels in cord RBCs were 1.5 times higher than those found in the mothers. This study also investigated changes in concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se during the first few years of life. We found decreased levels of Hg and Se but elevated Pb levels in early childhood. Finally, this study investigated the association between metal burden and preterm birth and low birthweight. We found significantly higher levels of Hg in maternal and cord plasma and RBCs in preterm or low birthweight births, compared with term or normal birthweight births. In conclusion, this study showed that maternal exposure to these elements was widespread in the BBC, and maternal-fetal transfer was a major source of early life exposure to Hg, Pb, and Se. Our results also suggest that RBCs are better than plasma at reflecting the trans-placental transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se from the mother to the fetus. Our study findings remain to be confirmed in larger studies, and the implications for early screening and interventions of preconception and pregnant mothers and newborns warrant further investigation. PMID:24756102

Chen, Zhu; Myers, Robert; Wei, Taiyin; Bind, Eric; Kassim, Prince; Wang, Guoying; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Bartell, Tami; Gong, Yiwei; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Wang, Xiaobin



Seasonal variations in the concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in leaves of the horse chesnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.).  


The concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc have been measured in the leaves of a deciduous tree the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) over the period of their lifetime (7 months). The average concentrations for the total sample based on ash weight are: (microg g(-1)) cadmium, 0.197; copper, 129; lead, 294; and zinc, 299. The temporal trends in the concentrations of the metals can be related to their dominant source. Copper and zinc concentrations are highest in the new leaves and decrease with time, suggesting the main source of the elements are uptake from the soil. The decrease occurs partly because of dilution by leaf material as it increases over the growing period. In the case of zinc, however, aerial deposits appear to be also a significant source. Lead concentrations, on the other hand, show an increase with time, which can be related to increasing deposits from aerosol lead arising from the combustion of petrol lead. The increase is enough to offset the dilution effect. For cadmium there is no significant trend, but the tendency is a decrease with time. It is not possible, however, to distinguish between soil uptake and aerial deposit as both are small compared with increase in leaf material. PMID:15091650

Kim, N D; Fergusson, J E



Urine the Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners compare water with artificial urine to see how urinalysis works. Learners use urinalysis test strips to test for glucose and protein in the fake urine. Use this activity to demonstrate why doctors examine urine samples to determine a person's health. Safety notes: Follow the safety notes described in the activity as well as Milli's safety tips on page 2.

Society, American C.



Influence of H 2SO 4 concentration on the performance of lead-acid battery negative plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sulfuric acid concentration on negative plate performance has been studied on 12V\\/32Ah lead-acid batteries with three negative and four positive plates per cell, i.e. the negative active material limits battery capacity. Initial capacity tests, including C20 capacity, cold cranking ability and Peukert tests, have been carried out in a wide range of sulfuric acid concentrations (from 1.18

D. Pavlov; G. Petkova; T. Rogachev




Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was carried out on the effect of molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) using concentrations of 1×10, 1×10, and 1×10 mol dm, on the metabolism of nitrogen and proteins in young pea plants (Pisum sativum L. ‘NS Lim’). The highest concentrations of the investigated metals were noted to suppress the development of the aboveground

Slavko Kevresan; Novica Petrovic; Milan Popovic; Julijan Kandrac



Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis



Surveillance of workers exposed to mercury vapor:validation of a previously proposed biological threshold limit value for mercury concentration in urine  

SciTech Connect

A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out among subjects exposed to mercury (Hg) vapor, ie, a group of 131 male workers (mean age: 30.9 yr; average duration of exposure, 4.8 yr) and a group of 54 female workers (mean age, 29.9 yr; average duration of exposure 7 yr). The results were compared with those obtained in well-matched control groups comprising 114 and 48 male and female workers, respectively. The intensity of current Hg vapor exposure was rather moderate as reflected by the levels of mercury in urine (HgU) (mean and 95th percentile: males 52 and 147 micrograms/g creatinine; females 37 and 63 micrograms/g creatinine) and of mercury in blood (mean and 95th percentile: males 1.4 and 3.7 micrograms/dl; females 0.9 and 1.4 microgram/dl). Several symptoms mainly related to the central nervous system (memory disturbances, depressive feelings, fatigue, irritability) were more prevalent in the Hg-exposed subjects. They were, however, not related to exposure parameters. In both male and female Hg-exposed workers no significant disturbances were found in short-term memory (audioverbal), simple reaction time (visual), critical flicker fusion, and color discrimination ability. Only slight renal tubular effects were detected in Hg-exposed males and females, ie, an increased urinary beta-galactosidase activity and an increased urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein. The prevalence of these preclinical renal effects was more related to the current exposure intensity (HgU) than to the duration of exposure and was detected mainly when HgU exceeds 50 micrograms/g creatinine. Changes in hand tremor spectrum recorded with an accelerometer were found in the Hg-exposed males only.

Roels, H.; Gennart, J.P.; Lauwerys, R.; Buchet, J.P.; Malchaire, J.; Bernard, A.



Urine pH test  


A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your body's acid levels.It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).



EPA Science Inventory

A simple, rapid, and inexpensive anodic stripping voltammetric method with a mercury thin film electrode is reported for the establishment of baseline concentrations of cadmium, lead, and copper in natural waters. The procedure for routine surface preparation of wax-impregnated g...


Concentration, pH, and Surface Charge Effects on Cadmium and Lead Sorption in Three Tropical Soils  

E-print Network

Concentration, pH, and Surface Charge Effects on Cadmium and Lead Sorption in Three Tropical Soils situations death (Hrudey et al., 1995; USEPA,metal fates in the environment. Sorption characteristics of two in temperate soils more Pb than Cd. Sorption maxima were obtained for each metal for (Barbarick et al., 1998

Ma, Lena


Arsenic, Iron, Lead, Manganese and Uranium Concentrations in Private Bedrock Wells in Southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013  

EPA Science Inventory

Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the t...


Urine collection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)



Concentration of iron, zinc, copper and lead in the brain of wild and domestic geese.  


Concentration of Fe, Zn, Cu and Pb were determined in the brain tissue of wild (bean goose, Anser fabalis, n = 14, and white-fronted goose, A. albifrons, n = 3) and domestic (A. anser f. domestica, n = 13) geese. The results are referred to 1 g fresh weight (micrograms/g). Out of 17 wild geese, 4 individuals showed a very high Pb level. Statistically significant differences in concentrations of the metals studied were found between the white-fronted and domestic geese; for 3 metals (Fe, Zn, Cu), differences between the bean and white-fronted geese were statistically significant as well. The two bean goose types, tundra and taiga, were found to differ in terms of their brain Zn and Cu concentrations: the tundra type geese showed higher content of the metals than those in the taiga type. PMID:8590898

Kalisi?ska, E



Lead and cadmium concentrations in red crayfish ( Procambarus clarkii , G.) in the Guadalquivir River Marshes (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of contamination found in muscle and exoskeleton of red crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, G.) are compared and the interpretation of these results with relation to the level of contamination by lead and cadmium present in the aquatic environment are discussed. The development of the chelipeds in males is greater than those of females which distorts the total weight relationship.

F. Rincon-Leon; G. Zurera-Cosano; R. Pozo-Lora



Topsoil and Housedust Metal Concentrations in the Vicinity of a Lead Battery Manufacturing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the extent of heavy metal pollution in the vicinity of a lead battery manufacturing plant in the Czech Republic, both in the general environment and within homes. Topsoils (0–5 cm) were sampled from 100 sites along 4 transects which crossed the battery factory, the town centre and outlying rural areas. Housedust samples

John S. Rieuwerts; Margaret Farago; Vladimir Bencko



Deer exposed to exceptionally high concentrations of lead near the continental mine in Idaho, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat surrounding the inactive Continental Mine in northern Idaho, USA, supports bear (Ursus arctos, Ursus americanus), moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus elaphus), woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), and abundant mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Tailings on the mining site were capped and remediated in 2003 to reduce environmental exposure of surrounding soil and sediments of Blue Joe Creek, downslope of the mine. Before capping, the mean Pb concentration in deer pellets collected on-site was 920 mg/kg of Pb (dry wt). This exposure, if chronic, would be comparable to an exposure that could be lethal to cattle or horses. Surprisingly, the mean pellet Pb concentration of 950 mg/kg in 2004 was as high as it was before remediation, and it was related to a high rate of soil ingestion. Mean soil content of the pellets collected from the capped site in 2004 was 22% dry weight, estimated from the acid-insoluble ash, a marker of soil ingestion. Clumps of sand and bits of rock were observed inside some of the pellets, and Pb concentrations in the pellets were correlated (p < 0.05) with soil content. Although terrestrial risk assessments generally estimate exposure from diets and from incidentally ingested soil, the deer at this site were directly ingesting contaminated soil or mining waste. The mean Pb concentration of this ingested soil was estimated as 6,700 mg/kg and the maximum as 25,000 mg/kg, well above the Pb concentrations measured in the remediated cap. The deer seemed to be ingesting soil or mining waste from one or more small but highly contaminated sources located beyond the remediated cap.

Beyer, W.N.; Gaston, G.; Brazzle, R.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Audet, D.J.



Deer exposed to exceptionally high concentrations of lead near the Continental Mine in Idaho, USA.  


Habitat surrounding the inactive Continental Mine in northern Idaho, USA, supports bear (Ursus arctos, Ursus americanus), moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus elaphus), woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), and abundant mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Tailings on the mining site were capped and remediated in 2003 to reduce environmental exposure of surrounding soil and sediments of Blue Joe Creek, downslope of the mine. Before capping, the mean Pb concentration in deer pellets collected on-site was 920 mg/kg of Pb (dry wt). This exposure, if chronic, would be comparable to an exposure that could be lethal to cattle or horses. Surprisingly, the mean pellet Pb concentration of 950 mg/kg in 2004 was as high as it was before remediation, and it was related to a high rate of soil ingestion. Mean soil content of the pellets collected from the capped site in 2004 was 22% dry weight, estimated from the acid-insoluble ash, a marker of soil ingestion. Clumps of sand and bits of rock were observed inside some of the pellets, and Pb concentrations in the pellets were correlated (p < 0.05) with soil content. Although terrestrial risk assessments generally estimate exposure from diets and from incidentally ingested soil. the deer at this site were directly ingesting contaminated soil or mining waste. The mean Pb concentration of this ingested soil was estimated as 6,700 mg/kg and the maximum as 25,000 mg/kg, well above the Pb concentrations measured in the remediated cap. The deer seemed to be ingesting soil or mining waste from one or more small but highly contaminated sources located beyond the remediated cap. PMID:17521153

Beyer, W Nelson; Gaston, Greg; Brazzle, Roy; O'Connell, Allan F; Audet, Dan J



Effect of lead ion concentration on the structural and optical properties of nano-crystalline PbS thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PbS thin films have received considerable attention because of their potential applications in opto-electronics applications. Spontaneous reaction of lead acetate and thiourea in aqueous hydrazine hydrate has been used for depositing PbS thin films on glass substrates. Structural and optical properties of PbS thin films are greatly influenced by the morality of the reactants and crystal defects in the lattice. Our work focuses on the variation in lead ion concentration and its effect on the structural and optical properties of PbS thin films. The deposited films were analyzed using XRD, SEM, spectrophotometer and dark resistance measurement. XRD patterns indicated the formation of major phase of nano crystalline PbS with minor presence of lead oxide phase. We also noticed that peak intensity ratio of I111/I200 varied by changing the Pb ion concentration. The film thickness and dark resistance increased whereas optical band gap decreased with the decreasing Pb ion concentration. SEM scans showed that the grain size is less than 100 nm and is not affected by varying Pb ion concentration.

Zaman, S.; Mehmood, S. K.; Mansoor, M.; Asim, M. M.



Determination of Rh, Pd and Pt in urine samples using a pre-concentration sequential injection analysis system coupled to a quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer.  


The proposed flow system was developed in order to minimize the drawbacks related to the PGEs determination by quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS). It was intended not only to lower the limits of detection (LODs) but also to eliminate the interferences originating from some atomic and molecular ions produced in the argon plasma. This was accomplished by means of an on-line sample clean-up/pre-concentration step, using a chelating resin (Metalfixtrade mark Chelaminetrade mark) in which Rh, Pd and Pt were preferably retained when compared with the interfering species. The results obtained by using the developed flow system in the analysis of urine samples are presented. With a sampling rate of 9 samples h(-1) (i.e., 27 determinations) and a sample consumption of ca. 10 mL, the developed flow system allowed linear calibration plots up to 100 ngL(-1) with detection limits of 1.2 ngL(-1) (Rh), 0.4 ngL(-1) (Pd) and 0.9 ngL(-1) (Pt). Repeatability studies showed good precision (R.S.D.%, n=5): 3.7% (Rh); 2.6% (Pd) and 2.4% (Pt), for 10 ngL(-1); 2.4% (Rh); 1.4% (Pd) and 1.9% (Pt), for 50 ngL(-1); and 1.3% (Rh); 0.58% (Pd) and 0.62% (Pt), for 100 ngL(-1). By spiking human urine samples, recovery tests were performed, and the values obtained ranged between 89% and 105% (Rh); 90% and 104% (Pd); and 93% and 105% (Pt). PMID:17903489

Lopes, Cristina M P V; Almeida, Agostinho A; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S; Lima, José L F C



Variations of lead isotopes and airborne particulate concentrations from the Kozani basin, West Macedonia, Greece.  


The spread and variation in 206Pb/207Pb ratios make Pb isotopes a powerful tool when it comes to detecting trends in airborne particulates originating mainly from power plants. This study was conducted to determine the source of pollution in Kozani area, an affected industrial area. Lead isotopic ratios of air filters under certain meteorological conditions were compared to Pb isotope analyses sampled from lignite mines, but also to Pb isotope analyses of cultivations in soil originating from the reclamation of old abandoned lignite-mines. The particles taken into consideration have an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10). The measurements were carried out in a central part of the town of Kozani, West Macedonia, for one year observation period. The lead isotope values of air filters and of wheat in the Kozani area are between the values of lignite Pb and of Greek gasoline. PMID:12219988

Charalampides, G; Manoliadis, O; Triantafyllou, A



Lead concentration and isotopic composition in five peridotite inclusions of probable mantle origin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lead content of five whole-rock peridotite inclusions (four lherzolites and one harzburgite) in alkali basalt ranges from 82 to 570 ppb (parts per billion). Approximately 30-60 ppb of this amount can be accounted for by analyzed major silicate minerals (olivine ??? 10 ppb; enstatite 5-28 ppb; chrome diopside ???400 ppb). Through a series of acid leaching experiments, the remainder of the lead is shown to be quite labile and to reside in either glassy or microcrystalline veinlets or accessory mineral phases, such as apatite and mica. The lead isotopic composition of the peridotites (206Pb/204Pb = 18.01-18.90; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.52-15.61; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.80-38.86) lies within the range of values defined by many modern volcanic rocks and, in particular, is essentially coextensive with the abyssal tholeiite field. In all but one instance, isotopic differences were found between the peridotite and its host alkali basalt. Two of the peridotites clearly demonstrated internal isotopic heterogeneity between leachable and residual fractions that could not simply be due to contamination by the host basalt. However, there is no evidence that these ultramafic rocks form some layer in the mantle with isotopic characteristics fundamentally different from those of the magma sources of volcanic rocks. ?? 1973.

Zartman, R.E.; Tera, F.



Root growth of Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica collected from motorways at different concentrations of lead  

SciTech Connect

An ecological survey was conducted on the roadside vegetation at three different sites: Tai Po, a commercial and residential area (average annual daily traffic (AADT) = 23730; and Shek O and Wu Kai Sha, recreational areas (AADT = 1590 and 20, respectively). Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica were the two most dominant species recorded. The Tai Po site had higher Pb contents in both soil and plant, followed by Shek O, and then Wu Kai Sha. Tillers of C. dactylon and E. indica from the three sites were subjected to a series concentrations of Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/. By comparing their indexes of tolerance and values of 14-day EC/sub 50/ (effective concentration reducing the normal root growth by 50%), roadside populations of the two grasses collected from Tai Po and Shek O, especially the former one, were more tolerant to elevated levels of Pb compared with those collected from Wu Kai Sha.

Wong, M.H.; Lau, W.M.



Root growth of Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica collected from motorways at different concentrations of lead.  


An ecological survey was conducted on the roadside vegetation at three different sites: Tai Po, a commercial and residential area (average annual daily traffic (AADT) = 23730; and Shek O and Wu Kai Sha, recreational areas (AADT = 1590 and 20, respectively). Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica were the two most dominant species recorded. The Tai Po site had higher Pb contents in both soil and plant, followed by Shek O, and then Wu Kai Sha. Tillers of C. dactylon and E. indica from the three sites were subjected to a series concentrations of Pb(NO3)2. By comparing their indexes of tolerance and values of 14-day EC50 (effective concentration reducing the normal root growth by 50%), roadside populations of the two grasses collected from Tai Po and Shek O, especially the former one, were more tolerant to elevated levels of Pb compared with those collected from Wu Kai Sha. PMID:2579805

Wong, M H; Lau, W M



Antioxidative defense system in lupin roots exposed to increasing concentrations of lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) cv. Juno seedlings exposed to increasing concentrations of Pb2+ (50–350 mg l?1) were analysed in respect to its effect on the degradation of lipids, the content of antioxidants (ascorbate, ?-tocopherol)\\u000a and the activity of the ascorbate glutathione cycle enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase DAR; EC and glutathione reductase\\u000a GR; EC Lipid peroxidation, expressed as the content

Renata RuciÒska-Sobkowiak; Pawe? M. Pukacki



Assessment of Elemental Concentrations in Streams of the New Lead Belt in Southeastern Missouri, 2002-05  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concerns about possible effects of lead-mining activities on the water quality of federally protected streams located in southeastern Missouri prompted a suite of multidisciplinary studies to be conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. As part of this investigation, a series of biological studies were initiated in 2001 for streams in the current mining region and the prospecting area. In this report, results are examined for trace elements and other selected chemical measurements in sediment, surface water, and sediment interstitial (pore) water sampled between 2002 and 2005 in association with these biological studies. Compared to reference sites, fine sediments collected downstream from mining areas were enriched in metals by factors as large as 75 for cadmium, 62 for cobalt, 171 for nickel, 95 for lead, and 150 for zinc. Greatest metal concentrations in sediments collected in 2002 were from sites downstream from mines on Strother Creek, Courtois Creek, and the West Fork Black River. Sediments from sites on Bee Fork, Logan Creek, and Sweetwater Creek also were noticeably enriched in lead. Sediments in Clearwater Lake, at least 75 kilometers downstream from mining activity, had metal concentrations that were 1.5 to 2.1 times greater than sediments in an area of the lake with no upstream mining activity. Longitudinal sampling along three streams in 2004 indicated that sediment metal concentrations decreased considerably a few kilometers downstream from mining activities; however, in Strother Creek some metals were still enriched by a factor of five or more as far as 13 kilometers downstream from the Buick tailings impoundment. Compared with 2002 samples, metals concentrations were dramatically lower in sediments collected in 2004 at an upper West Fork Black River site, presumably because beneficiation operations at the West Fork mill ceased in 2000. Concentrations of metals and sulfate in sediment interstitial (pore) waters generally tracked closely with metal concentrations in sediments. Metals, including cobalt, nickel, lead, and zinc, were elevated substantially in laboratory-produced pore waters of fine sediments collected near mining operations in 2002 and 2004. Passive diffusion samplers (peepers) buried 4 to 6 centimeters deep in riffle-run stream sediments during 2003 and 2005 had much lower pore-water metal concentrations than the laboratory-produced pore waters of fine sediments collected in 2002 and 2004, but each sampling method produced similar patterns among sites. The combined mean concentration of lead in peeper samples from selected sites located downstream from mining activities for six streams was about 10-fold greater than the mean of the reference sites. In most instances, metals concentrations in surface water and peeper water were not greatly different, indicating considerable exchange between the surface water and pore water at the depths and locations where peepers were situated. Passive sampling probes used to assess metal lability in pore waters of selected samples during 2004 sediment toxicity tests indicated that most of the filterable lead in the laboratory-prepared pore water was relatively non-labile, presumably because lead was complexed by organic matter, or was present as colloidal species. In contrast, large percentages of cobalt and nickel in pore water appeared to be labile. Passive integrative samplers deployed in surface water for up to 3 weeks at three sites in July 2005 confirmed the presence of elevated concentrations of labile metals downstream from mining operations on Strother Creek and, to a lesser extent, Bee Fork. These samplers also indicated a considerable increase in metal loadings occurred for a few days at the Strother Creek site, which coincided with moderate increases in stream discharges in the area.

Brumbaugh, William G.; May, Thomas W.; Besser, John M.; Allert, Ann L.; Schmitt, Christopher J.



Effects of abomasal infusion of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) oil on microbial ?-glucuronidase activity and concentration of the mammalian lignan enterolactone in ruminal fluid, plasma, urine and milk of dairy cows.  


Ruminal microbiota plays an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into mammalian lignans. The main mammalian lignan present in the milk of dairy cows fed flax products is enterolactone (EL). The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of abomasal infusion of flax oil on the metabolism of flax lignans and concentrations of EL in biological fluids of dairy cows. A total of six rumen-cannulated dairy cows were assigned within a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of six treatments utilising flax hulls (0 and 15·9 % of DM) and abomasal infusion of flax oil (0, 250 and 500 g/d). There were six periods of 21 d each. Samples were collected during the last 7 d of each period and subjected to chemical analysis. Flax hull supplementation increased concentrations of EL in ruminal fluid, plasma, urine and milk, while flax oil infusion had no effect. Post-feeding, ?-glucuronidase activity in the ruminal fluid of cows infused with 250 g flax oil was significantly lower for cows fed hulls than for those fed the control diet. The present study demonstrated that the presence of a rich source of n-3 fatty acids such as flax oil in the small intestine does not interfere with the absorption of the mammalian lignan EL and that lower ruminal ?-glucuronidase activity had no effect on the conversion of flax lignans into EL in the rumen of dairy cows. PMID:22717302

Côrtes, Cristiano; da Silva-Kazama, Daniele; Kazama, Ricardo; Benchaar, Chaouki; dos Santos, Geraldo; Zeoula, Lucia M; Gagnon, N; Petit, Hélène V



Manganese and lead concentrations in ambient air and emission rates from unleaded and leaded gasoline between 1981 and 1992 in Canada: A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic derivative of manganese (Mn) used as an additive in unleaded gasoline. Its use in Canada has increased since 1976 until it completely replaced lead (Pb) in gasoline in 1990. Canada is the only country in the world to have authorized the replacement of Pb in gasoline by MMT. The aim of this study is to compare the concentrations of Mn, Pb and suspended particulates (TSP) in Montreal air from 1981 to 1992, as well as the emission rates of Mn and Pb from mobile sources from the same period. The atmospheric concentrations of Mn, Pb and TSP were measured by the Montreal Urban Community at three sampling stations located in areas of low and high traffic density. The data on emission rates were obtained from Environment Canada and from the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute. Multiple regression and non-parametric correlation analysis were used to predict and to compare the evolution of the chosen variables. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the variables which best distinguish low and high traffic density areas. The results indicate stable Mn concentrations between 1981 and 1990 followed by a substantial decrease, in spite of annual increases of about 10% in Mn emissions from the combustion of MMT since 1981. The decrease observed since 1991 is attributed to the closing of a ferromanganese plant near Montreal. The decrease in atmospheric Pb concentrations observed since 1981 corresponds to the decrease of about 30% per year of emissions from mobile sources over the same period. A definitive evaluation of the environmental contamination and exposure due to Mn from MMT will require an improved estimation of the dispersion of particulates near motorways using dispersion models, as well as receptor modeling based on the physicochemical analysis of particulates using electron microscopy.

Loranger, Sylvain; Zayed, Joseph


Frequent or urgent urination  


... use Anxiety Bladder cancer (not a common cause) Caffeine Enlarged prostate or infection of the prostate Interstitial ... pelvis Vaginitis Drinking too much before bedtime, especially caffeine or alcohol, can cause frequent urination at nighttime. ...


Urination - difficulty with flow  


... also be caused by: Some medicines (such as remedies for colds and allergies, tricyclic antidepressants, some drugs ... the bladder sits. The heat relaxes muscles and aids urination. Massage or place light pressure over your ...


Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscles of three species of wild birds.  


The aim of this study was to monitor accumulation of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscle of some wild birds from selected areas of Slovakia and the correlations among the heavy metals. A total of 160 wild birds representing 3 species-Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) (n = 24), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (n = 68) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) (n = 68) were involved for analyses. Concentrations of heavy metals from samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Metal concentrations are expressed as mg/kg wet weight. The order of lead and arsenic concentrations in muscles of wild birds were as follows: mallard > pheasant > Eurasian coot; in the case of arsenic the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Muscle of Eurasian coot accumulated the highest concentration of cadmium and mercury followed by pheasant and the lowest in mallard, but differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Moderately negative correlations were noted in pheasant between cadmium and mercury (r = -0.39), and between mercury and arsenic (r = -0.45). Moderately negative correlation between cadmium and arsenic (r = -0.31) was found for Eurasian coot. PMID:20397088

Gasparik, Jozef; Vladarova, Denisa; Capcarova, Marcela; Smehyl, Peter; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Garaj, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Massanyi, Peter



When are fetuses and young children most susceptible to soil metal concentrations of arsenic, lead and mercury?  


This study was designed to analyze when, during pregnancy and early childhood, the association between soil metal concentrations of arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) and the outcome of intellectual disability (ID) is statistically significant. Using cluster analysis, we identified ten areas of land that contained a cluster of ID and areas of average risk for ID. We analyzed soil for As, Pb, and Hg and estimated the soil metal concentration at the residential sites where the woman and children lived during pregnancy and early childhood using a Bayesian Kriging model. Arsenic concentrations were associated with ID during the first trimester of pregnancy and Hg was associated with ID early in pregnancy and the first two years of childhood. The covariates that remained in the final models were also temporally associated with ID. PMID:22749212

McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Weichao; Marjorie Aelion, C; Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew



When are fetuses and young children most susceptible to soil metal concentrations of arsenic, lead and mercury?  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to analyze when, during pregnancy and early childhood, the association between soil metal concentrations of arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) and the outcome of intellectual disability (ID) is statistically significant. Using cluster analysis, we identified ten areas of land that contained a cluster of ID and areas of average risk for ID. We analyzed soil for As, Pb, and Hg and estimated the soil metal concentration at the residential sites where the woman and children lived during pregnancy and early childhood using a Bayesian Kriging model. Arsenic concentrations were associated with ID during the first trimester of pregnancy and Hg was associated with ID early in pregnancy and the first two years of childhood. The covariates that remained in the final models were also temporally associated with ID. PMID:22749212

McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Weichao; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Cai, Bo; Lawson, Andrew



Meteorological and Topographic Conditions in the Wintertime Uintah Basin Leading to High Ozone Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High concentrations of O3 in the Uintah Basin, Utah, during winter have been observed during periods of snow cover in the basin. Low sun angles and the high albedo of snow contribute to very cold surface temperatures and strong static stability, which inhibit vertical mixing and trap pollutants within a very shallow layer near the ground. The pollutants are emitted from a variety of sources related to petroleum extraction in the western part of the basin and natural gas ';fracking' and extraction in the eastern half. These unevenly distributed sources also include several point and area NOX sources distributed around the basin as well. Despite the weakness of the daytime shortwave radiative heating of the snow surface and the daytime heat fluxes, a shallow unstable mixed layer is observed to form, in which pollutants and potential temperature are often observed to be nearly constant with height. Also often observed is an upslope or upvalley daytime flow by NOAA's High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which was located in the eastern portion of the basin. At this location, the weak (1-3 m/s) upslope flow was from a westerly direction during daytime. At night, a shallow, weak (1-3 m/s) easterly drainage flow was routinely observed by the lidar. The sloshing of air by the alternating daytime and nighttime flows, along with other weak oscillatory flows in the basin cold pool, had the effect of mingling the pollutants from the various sources, which may have contributed to the highest O3 concentrations.

Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Martin, R. S.; Schnell, R. C.; Johnson, B.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Helmig, D.; Stephens, C. R.; Evans, J.; Senff, C. J.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Roberts, J. M.; Conley, S. A.; Zamora, R. J.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Watch your solution change color as you mix chemicals with water. Then check molarity with the concentration meter. What are all the ways you can change the concentration of your solution? Switch solutes to compare different chemicals and find out how concentrated you can go before you hit saturation!

Simulations, Phet I.; Chamberlain, Julia; Malley, Chris; Lancaster, Kelly; Moore, Emily B.; Perkins, Kathy



[Activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters].  


The human body is constantly exposed to xenobiotics. This will include exogenous substances from environmental pollution such as heavy metals and lifestyle such as smoking, which may lead to impaired functioning of many organs. The liver and kidney are the critical organs in the case of a long-term occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke. In diagnostics of liver and kidney damage useful are the methods which determine the activity of enzymes such as alanine aminopeptidase (AAP). AAP is a marker for early detection of acute kidney damage, and presence of AAP derive mainly from proximal tubular brush-border. Activity of AAP in urine allows to assess the damage resulting from the nephrotoxic exposure to heavy metals. In the serum AAP is mainly from hepatic. Activity of AAP may be useful to identify liver cancer. The investigation was shown, that AAP activity in the blood is used to detect hepatic cholestasis and congestive jaundice. The aim of present study was to assess the influence of occupational exposure of copper-foundry workers to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead) on activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and urine. The investigations were performed in blood and urine of 166 subjects: 101 male copper smelters and 65 non-exposed male subjects. The study protocol was approved by Local Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (KB No: 469/2008). The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material collected from the control group and smelters was divided into subgroups of nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined in whole blood, whilst the level of arsenic and cadmium were determined in urine using FAAS method (Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) in the acetylate flame on the SOLAAR M6. The activity of AA was determined in blood and in urine. The results showed a 9-fold increase in the concentration of lead and 10-fold elevation of arsenic level in all groups of smelters in comparison to the control group. The highest cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations were observed in blood and urine of smoking smelters. We have observed a significant increase in the concentrations of lead and cadmium in blood of smoking persons from control group in comparison to the non-smoking persons from this group, which suggest, that tobacco smoking increase the heavy metals concentrations in the organisms. Occupational exposure to heavy metals resulted in an increase of AAP activity in blood and urine of all groups of smelters in comparison to corresponding control groups. The highest value of AAP was observed in serum and urine of smoking smelters. Tobacco smoke also increases the AAP activity the blood and urine of smoking smelters and control group compared to the non-smoking smelters and nonsmoking control group, appropriate. The study was shown that occupational exposure to heavy metals and tobacco. PMID:21360924

Bizo?, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina; Milnerowicz, Halina



Sodium concentration in urine greater than in the plasma: possible biomarker of normal renal function and better outcome in critically ill patients.  


Correct interpretation of the urinary sodium concentration (NaU) and its relation to renal function in critically ill patients is lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between simultaneous NaU value and serum creatinine (sCr). The hypothesis is that a NaU value greater than 140 mmol/l (normal equivalent value in plasma) is only found in patients with normal sCr. We made a retrospective analysis of 1153 simultaneous samples of NaU and sCr, divided according to diuretic use in the previous 24 hours and grouped in five distinct NaU ranges (< 20, 20 to 39, 40 to 139, 140 to 169, ? 170 mmol/l). NaU values below 140 mmol/l were found simultaneously with both normal and increased sCr. NaU values above 140 mmol/l were almost always found in patients with normal sCr, even if diuretics were used. Median sCr values in the NaU ranges above 140 mmol/l were significantly lower than in the other NaU ranges. Estimated glomerular filtration rates were lower and intensive care unit and hospital mortalities were higher in patients with NaU values lower than 140 mmol/l compared to patients with a NaU higher than 140 mmol/l. We concluded that a high natriuretic capacity reflects significant residual renal function in the critically ill. NaU greater than normal plasma sodium is a possible biomarker of normal/improving renal function and also of better outcome. Sole NaU values below 140 mmol/l are difficult to interpret but it is possible that very low NaU values may signify some threat to normal kidney function and worse prognosis even in the presence of normal sCr. Our way to interpret NaU values in critically ill patients needs further careful evaluation. PMID:25233171

Maciel, A T; Vitorio, D; Salles, L D; Park, M



Effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation and virulence factors of Escherichia coli planktonic and biofilm forms isolated from human urine  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation, motility, curli fimbriae formation by planktonic and biofilm cells of E. coli strains isolated from the urine of patients with various urinary system infections. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. Bacterial enumeration was used to assess the viability of bacteria in the biofilm. Curli expression was determined by using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Using motility agar the ability to move was examined. All the antibiotics used at sub-MICs reduced biofilm formation in vitro, decreased the survival of bacteria, but had no effect on the motility of planktonic as well as biofilm cells. The inhibitory effect of sub-MICs of antimicrobial agents on curli fimbriae formation was dependent on the form in which the bacteria occurred, incubation time and antibiotic used. Our results clearly show that all the three antibiotics tested reduce biofilm production, interfere with curli expression but do not influence motility. This study suggests that ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin may be useful in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections caused by E. coli strains. PMID:24159313

Wojnicz, Dorota; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota



Urine Proteome Analysis in Murine Nephrotoxic Serum Nephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Urine contains serum proteins filtered by the glomerulus or secreted by the renal tubules and proteins produced locally by the urinary tract. Proteomic analysis of urine holds the potential as a noninvasive means of studying or monitoring disease activity. In mice, large concentrations of albumin and lipocalins have complicated the ability to identify urinary biomarkers in disease models. Methods:

Scott E. Wenderfer; William P. Dubinsky; Mayra Hernandez-Sanabria; Michael C. Braun



Thermal lens study of thermo-optical properties and concentration quenching of Er3+-doped lead pyrophosphate based glasses  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we have used the thermal lens technique combined with conventional spectroscopy to characterize the thermo-optical properties of Er3+-doped lead pyrophosphate-based glasses. More precisely, we have investigated and quantified experimentally the fluorescence quantum efficiencies of the Er3+ levels, and we describe the role of concentration quenching effects. The fluorescence quantum efficiency of the 4I13/2 level is very high when compared to other phosphate glasses, while that of the green-coupled levels is very small. Other important photonic materials parameters, such as the thermal diffusivity and temperature coefficient of the optical path length change, were obtained and compared with those of other glass systems. The cumulative results obtained here for the Er-doped lead pyrophosphate glass show that this material is a good candidate for photonic applications with a characteristic Er3+ infrared emission around 1550 nm.

Santos, C. C. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Rocha, U. [Grupo de Fotônica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Brazil; Guedes, Ilde [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Vermelho, M. V. D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Jacinto, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil



Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.  


In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (p<0.05). The results showed that Pb, Cd and As contents in 4.3%, 3.3% and 2.2% rice samples respectively, were above maximum allowable concentration (MAC). In fresh edible mushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety. PMID:24206698

Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui



Lead Poison Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.



Lead Concentration Levels in Waters from Public Drinking Fountains in the East San Francisco Bay Area, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many East San Francisco Bay Area public parks are heavily populated by parents and their children and generally experience high levels of pedestrian traffic during the day, particularly during summer months. Consequently, if ever any of these visitors become thirsty they are likely to drink from the many public water fountains that exist. As most of the parks were established long before lead-related legislation was put in place, and their associated plumbing systems are very old, we decided to collect samples from a variety of locations to determine their lead concentration levels. Our rationale was that the public is generally not well informed about possible lead contamination related to a seemingly innocent source, namely drinking water fountains at parks, or about and the potential hazards related to lead consumption, and that our research could serve as a means of helping to increase public understanding of this important issue. This is especially important given that many young children populate parks during summer months and, according to the EPA, lead consumption in infants and young children is known to cause physical and mental development problems. With this situation in mind, our team collected multiple samples from water fountains in five different East Bay parks: Piedmont, San Antonio, Dracena, Mosswood, and Lake Merritt. Later these samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. Preliminary results indicate that lead concentration levels in waters issuing from fountains in all of the parks we collected samples from exceed the 15 ppb action limit set by the EPA for in-home tap water. Samples collected from the park in Piedmont yielded values as high as 35 ppb, greater than twice the EPA limit. Given these results, it is with most pressing urgency that we continue this study, and that we publicize our results as soon as possible so that the communities using these parks can decide for themselves whether or not to take the risks associated with drinking water from these fountains, and what steps they can take to improve current conditions.

Buford, B.; Lawrence, D.; Lawrence, T.; Lewis-Velasco, W.; Lockett, N.; Swamy, S.; Tyner, N.; Quach, C.



Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): The potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration.  


Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55?g/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30?g/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55?g/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36?g/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ?5?g/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from <5% (in winter) to about 20% (in summer) in children aged 0.5-2years. The likelihood of having BLLs ?5?g/dL in young children during warm months was reduced by at least 40% by flushing tap-water. PMID:25087106

Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P



The Automicrobic System for urines.  

PubMed Central

An evaluation of the Automicrobic System (AMS) for Urines (Vitek Systems, Inc.) was carried out under the auspices of the Product Evaluation Committee of the College of American Pathologists from the period June 1977 through October 1978. Data generated during this evaluation indicated that, when comparing the AMS methodology to our clinical microbiology laboratory methodology, a 37% time saving could be realized by utilizing the AMS. Quantitation with the AMS showed a 99% correlation with the clinical microbiology laboratory method except for yeast which correlated only 50% of the time. The average overall identification accuracy was 95%. Negative response accuracy was 99%. Other members of the Enterobacteriaceae which the instrument is not designed to identify may produce erroneous results if they occur in urine specimens. Specimens containing two organisms were identified with a 94% correlation when compared to our conventional methodology. The time when a well becomes positive may be used as a fairly reliable indicator of significance (count greater than 70,000 colony-forming units per ml) for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella-Enterobacter group, and group D Enterococcus, but not for Proteus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and yeast. Specimen collection must be performed properly since specimens considered as contaminated by conventional plating-out techniques may be reported out by the AMS as only one or two organisms and thus lead to an erroneous assumption as to significance. Cost per specimen was $1.83 more by utilizing the AMS method as compared to our conventional method. This is offset by a saving of 1.74 h daily of personnel time and a final report in 13 h. At least 30 urine specimens would be needed daily to pay for the instrument and specimen costs in 1 year. The AMS can provide significant aid to a clinical microbiology laboratory when all factors are considered. PMID:118176

Nicholson, D P; Koepke, J A



A comparison of portable XRF and ICP-OES analysis for lead on air filter samples from a lead ore concentrator mill and a lead-acid battery recycler.  


Personal and area samples for airborne lead were taken at a lead mine concentrator mill, and at a lead-acid battery recycler. Lead is mined as its sulfidic ore, galena, which is often associated with zinc and silver. The ore typically is concentrated, and partially separated, on site by crushing and differential froth flotation of the ore minerals before being sent to a primary smelter. Besides lead, zinc and iron are also present in the airborne dusts, together with insignificant levels of copper and silver, and, in one area, manganese. The disposal of used lead-acid batteries presents environmental issues, and is also a waste of recoverable materials. Recycling operations allow for the recovery of lead, which can then be sold back to battery manufacturers to form a closed loop. At the recycling facility lead is the chief airborne metal, together with minor antimony and tin, but several other metals are generally present in much smaller quantities, including copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Samplers used in these studies included the closed-face 37 mm filter cassette (the current US standard method for lead sampling), the 37 mm GSP or "cone" sampler, the 25 mm Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable sampler, the 25 mm Button sampler, and the open-face 25 mm cassette. Mixed cellulose-ester filters were used in all samplers. The filters were analyzed after sampling for their content of the various metals, particularly lead, that could be analyzed by the specific portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer under study, and then were extracted with acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The 25 mm filters were analyzed using a single XRF reading, while three readings on different parts of the filter were taken from the 37 mm filters. For lead at the mine concentrate mill, all five samplers gave good correlations (r2 > 0.96) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass, which encompassed the permissible exposure limit of 150 mg m(-3) enforced in the USA by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Linear regression on the results from most samplers gave almost 1 ratio 1 correlations without additional correction, indicating an absence of matrix effects from the presence of iron and zinc in the samples. An approximately 10% negative bias was found for the slope of the Button sampler regression, in line with other studies, but it did not significantly affect the accuracy as all XRF results from this sampler were within 20% of the corresponding ICP values. As in previous studies, the best results were obtained with the GSP sampler using the average of three readings, with all XRF results within 20% of the corresponding ICP values and a slope close to 1 (0.99). Greater than 95% of XRF results were within 20% of the corresponding ICP values for the closed-face 37 mm cassette using the OSHA algorithm, and the IOM sampler using a sample area of 3.46 cm2. As in previous studies, considerable material was found on the interior walls of all samplers that possess an internal surface for deposition, at approximately the same proportion for all samplers. At the lead-acid battery recycler all five samplers in their optimal configurations gave good correlations (r2 > 0.92) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass, which included the permissible exposure limit enforced in the USA by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Linear regression on the results from most samplers gave almost 1 ratio 1 correlations (except for the Button sampler), indicating an absence of matrix effects from the presence of the smaller quantities of the other metals in the samples. A negative bias was found for the slope of the button sampler regression, in line with other studies. Even though very high concentrations of lead were encountered (up to almost 6 mg m(-3)) no saturation of the detector was observed. Most samplers performed well, with >90% of XRF results within +/- 25% of the cor

Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Andrew, Michael E



Lead concentrations in sediments and blue-winged teals (Anas discors) from El Palmar State Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico.  


Reserve regulations at El Palmar State Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico, prohibit the use of lead (Pb) shot, but hunters continue to use it, and no enforcement is implemented. Pb was quantified in sediments and in blue-winged teal Anas discors. No shot pellets were found in the sediment samples, nor were differences in sediment Pb concentrations observed within the reserve between popular hunting sites and those no longer used for hunting. However, there were differences between the hunting sites and sediments from an adjacent area where hunting is prohibited. Average Pb concentrations were highest at hunting entrances (15.69 ± 18.69 mg/kg) and lowest at decoy locations (5.24 ± 4.84 mg/kg). These averages are lower than the lowest effects level (31 mg/kg), although 10 samples exceeded this level. Pb-shot prevalence in gizzards was 4.88% (n = 41). Pb levels exceeded 5.0 mg/kg dry weight in one or more of the tested tissues (liver, gizzard, and bone) in 14 (34.14%; 7 female, 7 male; 11 adult, 3 juvenile) of the total birds. Bird weight, sex, and age had no effect on Pb concentration. Hunting using Pb shot in the reserve clearly affects Pb levels in sediments and in A. discors that winter there. PMID:23775175

Adán, Echeverría-García; Gerardo, Gold-Bouchot



Spatial Distribution of Lead Isotope Ratios and Inorganic Element Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled studies of inorganic element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios have been conducted on Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada in 2002, 2008, and 2011. To investigate the spatial extent of air emissions, the lichens were collected from sites as far as 160 km from the mining and processing operations. 30 milligram sub-samples of the lichens were microwave digested, and the extracts were analyzed using DRC-ICPMS to determine elemental concentrations, and sector field ICPMS to measure Pb isotope ratios. Concentrations of elements in the lichens were found to reflect proximity to mining and oil processing sites as well as topography, ecosystem differences, and the metabolic biogeochemistry of the lichens. An exponential decrease in concentration of metals associated with fugitive dust (aluminum and others) versus distance from the mining sites, suggests elevated coarse particle emissions associated with mining operations. Near source concentrations of metals with an oil signature (vanadium and others) are less enhanced and more homogeneous than the metals in the fugitive dust, reflecting emission and deposition of smaller diameter particles at greater distances from oil processing sources. The mining and oil processing signatures are superimposed over elemental concentrations that reflect the nutrient needs of the lichens. These findings are being confirmed through ongoing studies using dichot samplers to collect coarse and fine particulate aerosol samples. The lichen samples collected beyond 50 km from the mining and processing sites cluster into a Pb isotope grouping with a 207Pb / 206Pb ratio of 0.8650 and a 208Pb / 206Pb ratio near 2.095. This grouping likely reflects the regional background Pb isotope ratio signature. 207Pb / 206Pb and 208Pb / 206Pb ratios decrease as one nears the mining and processing operations. This indicates that other Pb source(s), (e.g. Pb in the bitumen from the oil sands), are contributing to the Pb accumulated by the lichens. The Pb isotope ratios are a better indicator of the spatial distribution resulting from atmospheric deposition than the Pb concentrations because the Pb isotope ratios are not affected by the potential for canopy interactions or preferential metabolic processing of elements by the lichens.

Graney, J. R.; Landis, M. S.; Puckett, K.; Edgerton, E.; Krupa, S.; Percy, K.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the NCTM Android app of their familiar on line Illuminations game, "Concentration" ( cataloged separately ) which challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NCTM iOS app of the familiar online Illuminations game, "Concentration" (cataloged separately) challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.



A Greenhouse Study on Lead Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) as a Function of Lead Concentration and Soil PhysicoChemical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead (Pb) is a toxic non-essential metal that can cause permanent learning disabilities, retardation, mental and behavioral problems in children. Lead accumulation in soils result from weathering, chipping, scraping, sanding and sand blasting of housing structures constructed prior to 1978, bearing lead-based paint. The primary objective of this study is to develop a cost-effective, chelate-assisted phytoremediation for cleaning up lead

S. P. Andra; R. Datta; D. Sarkar; S. K. Saminathan



Effect of complexans (EDTA, NTA and DTPA) on the exposure to high concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead  

SciTech Connect

The effects of complexans on the toxicity of short exposures to high chemical concentrations of heavy meals were examined. The heavy metals used were cadmium, zinc, lead and copper. Mortality every 24-h and the content of metal in each of three areas of fish - viscera, gills and other parts - were detemined both in the groups kept in water containing metal alone and in those whose aqueous environments contained complexan in mole concentrations three time that of the heavy metal. The carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) 8.0 + 0.5 cm were kept in groups of 8 to 10. There were altogether 49 such groups: 12 kept in three relatively high concentrations of each of the metals, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, alone; 36 groups in environments each containing only one of the three complexans, the tetrasodium salt of ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the trisodium salt of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and the pentasodium salt of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) were used. Results indicate that the addition of the complexans resulted in the decrease of the tissue concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. It is considered that the heavy metals were not present merely as metal ions but formed complexes with the complexans, since the complexans were added at three times mole of the metal and therefore complex formation occurred in preference to the binding of the metals with the tissue proteins of the fish. It is furthermore assumed that the heavy metals can pass through the fish as metal-complexes, and so are not retained.

Muramoto, S.



Microdetermination of urea in urine using p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde /PDAB/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaptation of the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde method for determining urea concentration in urine is an improved micromechanical method. Accuracy and precision are satisfactory. This method avoids extra steps of deproteinizing or removing normal urinary chromogens.

Geiger, P. J.



Magnesium, aluminum and lead in various brain areas  

SciTech Connect

Whereas the lead concentrations were increased in brain tissue of patients with chronic alcoholism, the aluminum concentrations remained within the normal range. The magnesium concentrations were found decreased in patients with chronic alcoholism compared to normal controls. The sources for the elevated lead levels seem to be the increased intake of alcohol. The decreased magnesium levels are probably caused by an increased loss of magnesium with the urine, malnutrition, malabsorption, hormonal factors and drugs. Various neurological disorders which often accompanied chronic alcoholism may be caused or aggravated by lead encephalopathy and hypomagnesemia. Therapeutical implications may be the early substitution of magnesium deficiency in chronic alcoholism. 10 references, 5 figures.

Zumkley, H.; Bertram, H.P.; Brandt, M.; Roedig, M.; Spieker, C.



Influence of PbF2 concentration on thermal, structural and spectroscopic properties of Eu3+-doped lead phosphate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of PbF2 content on the local structure, thermal and spectroscopic properties of Eu3+ ions in lead phosphate glass systems have been studied. The glass samples, where PbO was partially or totally replaced by PbF2, were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and luminescence spectroscopy. Based on DSC curves, characteristic temperatures and the thermal stability parameters useful for glass fiber drawing were determined. In order to confirm glass structure, XRD measurements were used. Luminescence spectra and their decays were analyzed in details. Especially, the changes of red-to-orange luminescence intensity ratios R/O (Eu3+) and measured lifetimes for 5D0 excited state of Eu3+ are presented and discussed as a function of PbF2 concentration.

?ur, Lidia; So?tys, Marta; Goryczka, Tomasz; Pisarska, Joanna; Pisarski, Wojciech A.



Concentrations of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Selenium, and zinc in fish from the Mississippi River basin, 1995.  


Fish were collected in late 1995 from 34 National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations and 12 National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations in the Mississippi River basin (MRB), and in late 1996 from a reference site in West Virginia. The NCBP sites represented key points (dams, tributaries, etc.) in the largest rivers of the MRB. The NAWQA sites were typically on smaller rivers and were selected to represent dominant land uses in their watersheds. The West Virginia site, which is in an Eastern U.S. watershed adjacent to the MRB, was selected to document elemental concentrations in fish used for other aspects of a larger study and to provide additional contemporaneous data on background elemental concentrations. At each site four samples, each comprising (nominally) 10 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, 'carp') or black bass (Micropterus spp., 'bass') of the same sex, were collected. The whole fish were composited by station, species, and gender for analysis of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) by atomic absorption spectroscopy and for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Concentrations of most of the elements examined were lower in both carp and bass from the reference site, a small impoundment located in a rural area, than from the NCBP and NAWQA sites on rivers and larger impoundments. In contrast, there were few overall differences between NCBP sites NAWQA sites. The 1995 results generally confirmed the continued weathering and re-distribution of these elemental contaminants in the MRB; concentrations declined or were unchanged from 1984-1986 to 1995 at most NCBP sites, thus continuing two-decade trends. Exceptions were Se at Station 77 (Arkansas R. at John Martin Reservoir, CO), where concentrations have been elevated historically and increased slightly (to 3.8-4.7 microg g-(1) in bass and carp); and Pb, Cd, and Zn at Station 67 (Allegheny R. at Natrona, PA), where levels of these metals were high in the past and increased from 1986 to 1995. PMID:15887377

Schmitt, Christopher J



Presence of endogenous prednisolone in human urine.  


The possibility of an endogenous presence of the glucocorticoid prednisolone has already been demonstrated in bovine and horse urine, with the aim of clarifying its origin in this matrix, which is used by official agencies for the control of illicit treatments. From this point of view, the endogenous nature of prednisolone could be a major topic in doping control of both amateur and professional human athletes. A study was therefore made on 34 human volunteers (13 males and 21 females; aged 22-62) to detect the presence of prednisolone in their urine by HPLC-MS(3). One of the volunteers underwent vernal allergy treatment with betamethasone for two subsequent years. An investigation was carried out with the aim of verifying if the suppression, and the circadian rhythm, of cortisol urinary levels could also apply to prednisolone. The results of the study show that prednisolone was present in the urine of all 34 volunteers, with a concentration very close to 100-times lower that of cortisol, with no dependence on gender. The same ratio (1/100) was observed in the prednisolone and cortisol levels detected during the 24h together with the suppression of prednisolone by betamethasone treatment. These data demonstrate the endogenous nature of low concentrations of prednisolone in human urine, and motivate further studies about the biosynthetic pathways of this corticosteroid and its relationship with stress in humans, as already described in cows. PMID:23182764

Fidani, Marco; Gamberini, Maria C; Pompa, Giuseppe; Mungiguerra, Francesca; Casati, Alessio; Arioli, Francesco



Malondialdehyde in exhaled breath condensate and urine as a biomarker of air pollution induced oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Underlying mechanisms by which air pollutants adversely affect human health remain poorly understood. Oxidative stress has been considered as a potential mechanism that may promote lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) that is excreted in biofluids (e.g., urine and exhaled breath condensate (EBC)). A panel study was conducted to examine whether concentrations of MDA in EBC and urine were associated, respectively, with changes in air pollution levels brought by the Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures. EBC and urine samples from 125 healthy adults were collected twice in each of the pre-, during-, and post-Olympic periods. Period-specific means of MDA and changes in MDA levels associated with increases in 24-h average pollutant concentrations were estimated using linear mixed-effects models. From the pre- to the during-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants decreased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA significantly decreased by 24% (P < 0.0001) and 28% (P = 0.0002), respectively. From the during-Olympic to the post-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants increased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA increased by 28% (P = 0.094) and 55% (P = 0.046), respectively. Furthermore, the largest increases in EBC MDA associated with one interquartile range (IQR) increases in all pollutants but ozone ranged from 10% (95% CI: 2%, 18%) to 19% (95% CI: 14%, 25%). The largest increases in urinary MDA associated with IQR increases in pollutant concentration ranged from 9% (95%: 0.3%, 19%) to 15% (95% CI: 3%, 28%). These findings support the utility of EBC MDA as a biomarker of oxidative stress in the respiratory tract and urinary MDA as a biomarker of systemic oxidative stress in relation to air pollution exposure in healthy young adults. Both EBC and urine samples can be collected noninvasively in the general population. PMID:23321859

Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Wang, Guangfa; Hu, Min; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Lu, Shou-En; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Rich, David Q.; Diehl, Scott R.; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)



Studies on osmotic fragility of red blood cells determined with a coil planet centrifuge for workers occupationally exposed to lead.  


In order to clarify the relationship between lead exposure level and osmotic fragility of red blood cells determined by the coil planet centrifuge method, several clinical laboratory examinations were performed on 27 male workers employed in a scrap lead refining factory using as controls 40 male workers employed in railway construction. The examinations included measurement of red blood cell and reticulocyte counts, hematocrit, MCV, blood and urine lead concentrations, urine coproporphyrin, and urine delta-aminolevulinic acid. The results were: 1. Osmotic fragility of red blood cells was lower in lead workers at all three hemolytic points compared with the controls. Significant difference was observed in hemolysis of the maximum point (P less than 0.05). 2. The red blood cell and reticulocyte counts, hematocrit value and MCV of the lead workers were not significantly different from those of the controls. Values for blood and urine lead, coproporphyrin, and delta-aminolevulinic acid of the lead workers were much higher than those of the controls (P less than 0.01). 3. In lead workers, close relationships between the osmotic fragility and these laboratory findings were observed: blood lead, r = -0.572, P less than 0.01; coproporphyrin, r = -0.608, P less than 0.01; delta-aminolevulinic acid, r = -0.559, P less than 0.01; urine lead, r = -0.453, P less than 0.05. PMID:7251181

Karai, I; Fukumoto, K; Horiguchi, S



Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium.  


Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n=60) and Coot (n=50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006-2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n=5) and high concentrations (Mallards n=18 and Coots n=17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions. PMID:23500832

Binkowski, ?ukasz J; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna; Szarek, Józef; Strzy?ewska, Emilia; Felsmann, Mariusz



Stimulation of TRPC5 cationic channels by low micromolar concentrations of lead ions (Pb{sup 2+})  

SciTech Connect

Lead toxicity is long-recognised but continues to be a major public health problem. Its effects are wide-ranging and include induction of hyper-anxiety states. In general it is thought to act by interfering with Ca{sup 2+} signalling but specific targets are not clearly identified. Transient receptor potential canonical 5 (TRPC5) is a Ca{sup 2+}-permeable ion channel that is linked positively to innate fear responses and unusual amongst ion channels in being stimulated by trivalent lanthanides, which include gadolinium. Here we show investigation of the effect of lead, which is a divalent ion (Pb{sup 2+}). Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on HEK 293 cells conditionally over-expressing TRPC5 or other TRP channels. Extracellular application of Pb{sup 2+} stimulated TRPC5 at concentrations greater than 1 {mu}M. Control cells without TRPC5 showed little or no response to Pb{sup 2+} and expression of other TRP channels (TRPM2 or TRPM3) revealed partial inhibition by 10 {mu}M Pb{sup 2+}. The stimulatory effect on TRPC5 depended on an extracellular residue (E543) near the ion pore: similar to gadolinium action, E543Q TRPC5 was resistant to Pb{sup 2+} but showed normal stimulation by the receptor agonist sphingosine-1-phosphate. The study shows that Pb{sup 2+} is a relatively potent stimulator of the TRPC5 channel, generating the hypothesis that a function of the channel is to sense metal ion poisoning.

Sukumar, Piruthivi [Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre and Institute of Membrane and Systems Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)] [Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre and Institute of Membrane and Systems Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Beech, David J., E-mail: [Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre and Institute of Membrane and Systems Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)



A Comparative Analysis of Lead Concentrations in Purged and Unpurged Crayfish ( Procambarus clarkii): The Significance of Digestive Tract Removal Prior to Consumption by Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead has been found to accumulate in the abdominal muscles of crayfish and because of the way in which crayfish feed, their digestive tract has been described as an indicator of lead concentrations in the sediment. Because human consumption of crayfish may result in the consumption of the digestive tract along with the abdominal muscle, the potential exists for ambient

L. M. Briggs-Reed; M. G. Heagler



Arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium concentrations in private bedrock wells in southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the trace metal arsenic have been identified in drinking water from groundwater sources in southeastern New Hampshire, a rapidly growing region of the State (Montgomery and others, 2003). During the past decade (2000–10), southeastern New Hampshire, which is composed of Hillsborough, Rockingham, and Strafford Counties, has grown in population by nearly 48,700 (or 6.4 percent) to 819,100. These three counties contain 62 percent of the State’s population but encompass only about 22 percent of the land area (New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning, 2011). According to a 2005 water-use study (Hayes and Horn, 2009), about 39 percent of the population in these three counties in southeastern New Hampshire uses private wells as sources of drinking water, and these wells are not required by the State to be routinely tested for trace metals or other contaminants. Some trace metals have associated human-health benchmarks or nonhealth guidelines that have been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate public water supplies. The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for arsenic (As) and a MCL of 30 ?g/L for uranium (U) because of associated health risks (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are essential for human health, but Mn at high doses may have adverse cognitive effects in children (Bouchard and others, 2011; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2012); therefore, the EPA has issued a lifetime health advisory (LHA) of 300 ?g/L for Mn. Recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for Fe (300 ?g/L) and Mn (50 ?g/L) were established primarily as nonhealth guidelines—based on aesthetic considerations, such as taste or the staining of laundry and plumbing fixtures—because these contaminants, at the SMCLs, are not considered to present risks to human health. Because lead (Pb) contamination of drinking water typically results from corrosion of plumbing materials belonging to water-system customers but still poses a risk to human health, the EPA established an action level (AL) of 15 ?g/L for Pb instead of an MCL or SMCL (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). The 15-?g/L AL for Pb has been adopted by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services for public water systems, and if exceeded, the public water system must inform their customers and undertake additional actions to control corrosion in the pipes of the distribution system (New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, 2013). Unlike the quality of drinking water provided by public water suppliers, the quality of drinking water obtained from private wells in New Hampshire is not regulated; consequently, private wells are sampled only when individual well owners voluntarily choose to sample them. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA New England, conducted an assessment in 2012–13 to provide private well owners and State and Federal health officials with information on the distribution of trace-metal (As, Fe, Pb, Mn, and U) concentrations in groundwater from bedrock aquifers in the three counties of southeastern New Hampshire. This fact sheet analyzes data from water samples collected by a randomly selected group of private well owners from the three-county study area and describes the major findings for trace-metal concentrations.

Flanagan, Sarah M.; Belaval, Marcel; Ayotte, Joseph D.



[Determination of zimarin in urine].  


Private technique of extraction isolation and purification, chromatographic detection and photometric determination of zimarin in urine is suggested. Detection limit is 0.01 mg, determination limit is 0.1 mg of glycoside in 100 ml of urine. Method makes it possible to detect 66-80% of zimarin added to 100 ml of urine in quantities 0.5-0.1 mg. PMID:2528227

Skorzova, Z B; Shniakina, G P



Association of Anemia, Child and Family Characteristics With Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations in Preschool Children From Montevideo, Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated blood lead levels (BPbs) have been identified in Uruguayan children in the La Teja neighborhood of Montevideo, but the extent of lead exposure in other city areas is unknown. Sources and predictors of exposure also remain understudied in this population. In 2007, the authors screened lead and hemoglobin levels in capillary blood of 222 preschool children from several areas

Elena I. Queirolo; Adrienne S. Ettinger; Rebecca J. Stoltzfus; Katarzyna Kordas



[Interannual variation patterns of heavy metals concentrations in tree rings of Larix gmelinii near Xilin Lead-zinc Mine, Yichun of Northeast China].  


By using dendro-environmental methods, this paper measured and analyzed the variations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Mn) concentrations in the tree rings of Larix gmelinii near Xilin Lead-zinc Mine, Yichun of Northeast China. Among the test heavy metals, the Mn concentration in the tree rings was the highest, while the Cd concentration was the lowest. The Cd, Zn, and Cu concentrations in the tree rings near the ground (0.3 m high from the ground, D0.3) were significantly higher than those at breast height (1.3 m high from the ground, D1.3), while the Pb and Mn concentrations at the two heights had less difference. In 1987-2010, the Pb concentration in the tree rings had a slight increase, but the Cd, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations presented a decreasing trend. The Cd concentration decreased most obviously, while the Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations decreased after an initial increase. With the increase of tree ring width, the Pb concentration decreased, while the Cd, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations were in adverse. The relationships between the Pb and other four heavy metals concentrations in the tree rings near the ground and at breast height had definite differences. Near the ground, the Pb concentration showed a significant positive correlation with the other four heavy metals concentrations, but at breast height, less correlation was observed, and even, the Cd concentration decreased significantly with increasing Pb concentration. The variations of the heavy metals concentrations in the L. gmelinii tree rings could be affected by the production and mining activities of Xilin Lead-zinc Mine, an thus, it would be possible to use the Pb concentration in the tree rings to reconstruct the mining his tory of the study area. At present, the Pb concentration in the tailing wastes has polluted the surrounding environments near Xilin Lead-zinc Mine. Therefore, countermeasures should be adopted to manage the heavy metals in tailing wastes if the Mine would be continued to be mined. PMID:24066537

Hu, Shen; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Jin-Yan



Concentration, isotopic composition, and sources of lead in Southern Ocean air during 1999/2000, measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station, Tasmania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Ocean aerosols were collected at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station from onshore air under baseline conditions between February 1999 and April 2000. Thermal ionization techniques (TIMS) and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) were used to measure the isotopic composition and concentration of lead in the air giving concentrations as low as 0.6 ± 0.1 pg · m -3. Air collected under baseline conditions for 12 months (May 1999-April 2000) yielded an overall lead concentration of 11.0 ± 0.2 pg · m -3 and isotopic composition of 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.154, 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.387 and 206Pb/ 204Pb = 17.93. The range in isotopic ratios was consistent with the mixing of lead from major population centers in the Southern Hemisphere in the mid to high latitudes, except for the presence of highly radiogenic lead in some samples. Contributions from radiogenic lead of up to ˜0.8% were observed. Three periods with the highest percentage contribution of radiogenic lead (>0.5%) were investigated in more detail, and 4-d back-trajectories and radon concentrations were used to help identify the sources. The sources are probably associated with the mining and processing of uranium rich ores in southern Africa and possibly South Australia.

Bollhöfer, A. F.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Dick, A. L.; Chisholm, W.; Burton, G. R.; Loss, R. D.; Zahorowski, W.



Concentrations and loads of cadmium, zinc, and lead in the main stem Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho—March, June, September, and October 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

of the effects of different river discharges and lake levels of Coeur d'Alene Lake on the transport of cadmium, zinc, and lead within the main stem Coeur d'Alene River. In particular, water-quality data and loads during a broad range of hydrologic conditions were examined to determine if the river channel, flood plain, and associated ground water along the main stem Coeur d'Alene River acted as sources or sinks of trace elements. Water-quality samples were collected at six riverine stations and one lake station along a 35-mile reach during March, June, September, and October of 1999. Samples were analyzed for whole-water recoverable, filtered (0.45 micrometer), and dissolved (0.01 micrometer) concentrations of cadmium, zinc, and lead. Concentrations and loads of cadmium and zinc measured during the four sampling trips were predominately in the filtered and dissolved fraction ,rather than particulate. The smallest concentrations were measured during the June sampling trip when flows were high and snowmelt runoff diluted riverine concentrations. Conversely, the largest concentrations were measured during the latter two sampling trips when flows were low because a larger proportion of the river's discharge was contributed by ground-water inflow. During each sampling trip, cadmium and zinc concentrations generally decreased in a downstream directioeven as discharge increased in a downstream direction. Spatial and temporal trends exhibited by lead concentrations and loads during the four sampling trips were different from those of cadmium and zinc because of the propensity for lead to adsorb to sediment particles. Whole-water recoverable lead concentrations and loads during the four sampling trips were predominantly in the particulate fraction, with filtered and dissolved concentrations and loads composing a much smaller proportion of the recoverable fraction compared to cadmium and zinc. Filtered lead concentrations generally increased at a faster rate in the downstream direction than dissolved lead concentrations; thus, colloidallead either was being formed by complexation reactions or being added by sediment erosion in the downstream direction.

Woods, P. F.



Metabolic alkalosis from unsuspected ingestion: use of urine pH and anion gap.  


Underlying causes of metabolic alkalosis may be evident from history, evaluation of effective circulatory volume, and measurement of urine chloride concentration. However, identification of causes may be difficult for certain conditions associated with clandestine behaviors, such as surreptitious vomiting, use of drugs or herbal supplements with mineralocorticoid activity, abuse of laxatives or diuretics, and long-term use of alkalis. In these circumstances, clinicians often are bewildered by unexplained metabolic alkalosis from an incomplete history or persistent deception by the patient, leading to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. We present a case of severe metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia with a borderline urine chloride concentration in an alcoholic patient treated with a thiazide. The cause of the patient's metabolic alkalosis eventually was linked to surreptitious ingestion of baking soda. This case highlights the necessity of a high index of suspicion for the diverse clandestine behaviors that can cause metabolic alkalosis and the usefulness of urine pH and anion gap in its differential diagnosis. PMID:22265393

Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Song, June-Seok; Kim, Ho-Jung



Biological Fractionation of Lead Isotopes in Sprague-Dawley Rats Lead Poisoned via the Respiratory Tract  

PubMed Central

Objectives It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems. Methods 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces) were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance) and the low-lead animal feed (diet) administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results There are significant differences (p<0.05) in lead isotope ratios between blood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of 204Pb/206Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when 204Pb/206Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group. Conclusions The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for 204Pb/206Pb ratio under high-dose exposure. PMID:23300678

Wu, Jing; Liu, Duojian; Xie, Qing; Wang, Jingyu



Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Function Testes in Lead Exposed Workers  

PubMed Central

Background The exposure to noxious agwents such as lead my cause lung disorders. Objectives In the present study, pulmonary function tests and self-reported respiratory symptoms in lead exposure workers were compared with matched control subjects. Materials and Methods The frequency of respiratory symptoms were evaluated in a sample of 108 lead exposure workers and 100 control subjects with similar age using a questionnaire including questions on respiratory symptoms in the past year. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were also measured in lead exposure workers and in controls. Results Most lead exposure workers (63%) reported work-related respiratory symptoms. Chest tightness (26%), cough (17%) and sputum (16%) were the most common symptoms and only 6% of lead exposure workers reported wheezing (P < 0.001 for all case except wheezing). Most PFT values were also significantly reduced among lead exposure workers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001 except MEF75, MEF50, MEF25, and MMEF. The lead concentration in urine and serum of lead exposure workers were significantly higher than control (P < 0.001 for both cases). Conclusions These results showed that c lead exposure workers have higher frequencies of respiratory symptoms higher serum and urine lead concentration but lower PFT values. PMID:23396762

Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Afshari, Reza; Dadpour, Bita; Behforouz, Amir; Javidi, Mohammad; Abbasnezhad, Abbasali; Moradi, Valiallah; Tabatabaie, Seyed Saleh



Determination of trace elements in urine using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy with a poly (dithiocarbamate) chelating resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application or a poly(dithiocarbamate) resin for the concentration and separation of Be, Zn. Mn, Hg, Cu, Co, Tl, Mo, Fe, Ti, and V in urine is developed with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Except for V, the metals studied are quantitatively recovered either directly from urine or from acid-digested urine.

Barnes, Ramon M.; Fodor, Peter; Inagaki, Kenji; Fodor, Marta


The effects of the size and the doping concentration on the power factor of n-type lead telluride nanocrystals for thermoelectric energy conversion.  


For the first time, we demonstrate a successful synthesis of colloidal n-type lead telluride nanocrystals doped with iodine. By tuning the reaction time and iodine concentration in the precursor solution, nanocrystals with different sizes and doping concentrations are synthesized. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the nanocrystals are measured on nanocrystal thin films fabricated by dip-coating glass substrates in the nanocrystals solution. Investigations on the influence of size and doping concentration on the electrical properties have been performed. The results show that the size of the nanocrystals significantly influences the electrical conductivity but not the Seebeck coefficient of nanocrystal films, while higher doping concentration leads to lower Seebeck coefficient but higher electrical conductivity in the nanocrystal films. Proof-of-concept thin-film thermoelectric modules are also fabricated using both p-type and n-type PbTe nanocrystals for the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. PMID:24527850

Fang, Haiyu; Luo, Zhiqiang; Yang, Haoran; Wu, Yue



Multivariate optimization and validation studies in on-line pre-concentration system for lead determination in drinking water and saline waste from oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper proposes an on-line pre-concentration procedure for lead determination in drinking water and saline waste from oil refinery by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). It is based on the sorption of lead (II) ions in a minicolumn of polyurethane foam loaded with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) reagent. The optimization step was performed using Doehlert matrix involving the variables: sampling flow

Walter L dos Santos; Carla M. M dos Santos; Jorge L. O Costa; Heloysa M. C Andrade; Sérgio L. C Ferreira



Reevaluation of blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Québec): a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Arctic populations are exposed to mercury, lead and cadmium through their traditional diet. Studies have however shown that cadmium exposure is most often attributable to tobacco smoking. The aim of this study is to examine the trends in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure between 1992 and 2004 in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada) using the data

Julie Fontaine; Éric Dewailly; Jean-Louis Benedetti; Daria Pereg; Pierre Ayotte; Serge Déry



Haematological and biochemical parameters and the serum concentrations of phosphorus, lead, cadmium and chromium in flamingo ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) and black-headed gull ( Larus ridibundus ) in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood samples of nine flamingos and 12 black-headed gulls from Fars province of Iran were used to determine the haematological\\u000a and biochemical factors and the concentrations of phosphorus, lead, chromium and cadmium in serum. Haematological parameters\\u000a in flamingo—packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, red blood cell (RBC) number, white blood cell (WBC)\\u000a count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular

K. Mostaghni; K. Badiei; H. Nili; A. Fazeli



Sustainable removal of iodinated X-ray contrast media (XRC) by ozonation in a complex wastewater matrix--urine as example.  


Pharmaceutical and diagnostic substances like antibiotics, cytostatics and iodised X-ray contrast media (XRC) are well-known for not being metabolised and are excreted soon after application. As a result, these preparations are difficult to biodegrade and their adsorption behaviour is rather poor. Finally, the refractory properties of these substances are leading to an accumulation in the natural waterbody depending on the hydrological situation. The elimination of contrast media from urine and diluted urine solutions by ozonation was investigated using a bubble column reactor to remove and recover the formed elemental iodine from the solution by gas stripping and down stream absorption. The experiments showed that the destruction of XRCs from concentrated solutions like urine is feasible and a recycling of elemental iodine from the exhaust gas is technically and economically possible. PMID:17674862

Fitzke, B; Geissen, S U



Toenail, Blood and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers. Methods Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a workshift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n=49), as well as blood and urine before (n=27) and after (urine, n=26; blood, n=24) a workshift were collected. Results Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in months 7-9, 10-12, and 7-12 before toenail clipping date, but not months 1-6. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese. Conclusions Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical workshift. PMID:21494156

Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.



Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.



Concentrations and Origins of Atmospheric Lead and Other Trace Species at a Rural Site in Northern China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study we analyze the ambient levels of lead and other trace species in the bulk aerosol samples from a rural site approx.70 km ESE of Beijing in spring 2005. Lead (0.28+/-0.24 micro-g/cu m, average +/- standard deviation), along with several pollution \\related trace elements, was enriched by over 100 fold relative to the Earth's crust. The ambient lead levels showing large synoptic variations were well-correlated with other anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., CO and SO2). The Unmix receptor model resolved four factors in the aerosol composition data: a biomass burning source, an industrial and coal combustion source, a secondary aerosol source, and a dust source. The first three sources were strongest in weak southerly winds ahead of cold fronts, while the dust source peaked in strong northerly winds behind cold fronts. The second source, primarily representing emissions from industrial processes and relatively small \\scale coal burning such as in home and institutional heating, was identified as the main source of ambient lead in this study. Mobile sources might also contribute to this factor, but there was no distinct evidence of emissions due to combustion of leaded gasoline, despite a correlation between lead and CO. Potential source contribution function, calculated from backward trajectories and aerosol composition, further reveals that lead observed in this study was predominantly from the populated and industrialized areas to the south and SW of Xianghe, rather than Beijing to the west. Our results and several recent studies show that the lead levels in suburban areas near big cities in China, although generally lower than those in industrial districts and urban areas, are substantial (near or above 0.15 micro-g/cu m). More extensive studies on airborne lead and its emission sources in China are called for.

Li, Can; Wen, Tianxue; Li, Zhanqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; Yang, Yongjie; Zhao, Yanan; Wang, Yuesi; Tsay, Si-Chee



Environmental lead and renal effects in children.  


The effect of lead on five renal-effect parameters was studied in 151 children (i.e., 3-6-y-olds) who resided at different distances from a lead smelter in Baia Mare, Romania. A relationship was found between concentration of lead in blood (mean +/- standard deviation: 342 +/- 224 microgram/l) and the activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in urine, as demonstrated by a 14% increase of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase per 100 micrograms/l blood lead that was indicative of renal tubular damage. No relationship was found between blood lead level and the renal-effect parameters albumin, alpha-1-microglobulin, retinol binding protein, or alanine aminopeptidase in urine. Cadmium in blood was not elevated. It is well known that N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase is a sensitive parameter for renal effects, resulting from lead exposure in adults and from diabetes and nephrotoxic medicines in children. This study is the first to demonstrate an effect of environmental lead exposure on renal integrity in children. PMID:8629869

Verberk, M M; Willems, T E; Verplanke, A J; De Wolff, F A



Associations between land cover categories, soil concentrations of arsenic, lead and barium, and population race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.  


The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between Anderson land cover category percentages and soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were investigated. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent. PMID:24914533

Davis, Harley T; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne



Isotopic evidence to account for changes in the concentration of lead in Greenland snow between 1960 and 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preserved layers of snow deposited between 1960 and 1988, taken from 10.7 m and 70 m snow cores drilled at Summit in central Greenland in 1989, were analyzed for lead isotopes ([sup 206]Pb\\/[sup 207]Pb, [sup 208]Pb\\/[sup 207]Pb, and [sup 206]Pb\\/[sup 204]Pb). The lead has an isotopic composition consistent with a mixture of USA and Eurasian origins. Although the [sup 206]Pb\\/[sup

K. J. R. Rosman; W. Chisholm; J. P. Candelone; S. Hong; C. F. Boutron



Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...


Lead concentrations have been analyzed on a 223 yr profile through the aragonitic skeleton of the reef-building Caribbean sclero-  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Lead concentrations have been analyzed on a 223 yr profile through the aragonitic skeleton coupled plasma­mass spectrometry.A parallel study of the 13C distri- bution in the skeleton validates change, LA-ICP-MS, carbonate. INTRODUCTION It has been demonstrated that the skeleton of scleractinian

Keppens, Edward


Validation of Bayesian kriging of arsenic, chromium, lead and mercury surface soil concentrations based on internode sampling  

PubMed Central

Bayesian kriging is a useful tool for estimating spatial distributions of metals; however, estimates are generally only verified statistically. In this study surface soil samples were collected on a uniform grid and analyzed for As, Cr, Pb, and Hg. The data were interpolated at individual locations by Bayesian kriging. Estimates were validated using a leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) statistical method which compared the measured and LOOCV predicted values. Validation also was carried out using additional field sampling of soil metal concentrations at points between original sampling locations, which were compared to kriging prediction distributions. LOOCV results suggest that Bayesian kriging was a good predictor of metal concentrations. When measured internode metal concentrations and estimated kriged values were compared, the measured values were located within the 5th – 95th percentile prediction distributions in over half of the internode locations. Estimated and measured internode concentrations were most similar for As and Pb. Kriged estimates did not compare as well to measured values for concentrations below the analytical minimum detection limit, or for internode samples that were very close to the original sampling node. Despite inherent variability in metal concentrations in soils, the kriged estimates were validated statistically and by in situ measurement. PMID:19603658

Aelion, C.M.; Davis, H.T.; Liu, Y.; Lawson, A.B.; McDermott, S.



Re-evaluation of blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Qu?bec): a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Arctic populations are exposed to mercury, lead and cadmium through their traditional diet. Studies have however shown that cadmium exposure is most often attributable to tobacco smoking. The aim of this study is to examine the trends in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure between 1992 and 2004 in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada) using the data obtained from two broad scale health surveys, and to identify sources of exposure in 2004. Methods In 2004, 917 adults aged between 18 and 74 were recruited in the 14 communities of Nunavik to participate to a broad scale health survey. Blood samples were collected and analysed for metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and dietary and life-style characteristics were documented by questionnaires. Results were compared with data obtained in 1992, where 492 people were recruited for a similar survey in the same population. Results Mean blood concentration of mercury was 51.2 nmol/L, which represent a 32% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Mercury blood concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20; p < 0.0001), and the most important source of exposure to mercury was marine mammal meat consumption (partial r2 = 0.04; p < 0.0001). In 2004, mean blood concentration of lead was 0.19 ?mol/L and showed a 55% decrease since 1992. No strong associations were observed with any dietary source, and lead concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20.; p < 0.001). Blood cadmium concentrations showed a 22% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Once stratified according to tobacco use, means varied between 5.3 nmol/L in never-smokers and 40.4 nmol/L in smokers. Blood cadmium concentrations were mainly associated with tobacco smoking (partial r2 = 0.56; p < 0.0001), while consumption of caribou liver and kidney remain a minor source of cadmium exposure among never-smokers. Conclusion Important decreases in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure were observed. Mercury decrease could be explained by dietary changes and the ban of lead cartridges use likely contributed to the decrease in lead exposure. Blood cadmium concentrations remain high and, underscoring the need for intensive tobacco smoking prevention campaigns in the Nunavik population. PMID:18518986

Fontaine, Julie; Dewailly, Eric; Benedetti, Jean-Louis; Pereg, Daria; Ayotte, Pierre; Dery, Serge



Effects of lead on anatomy, ultrastructure and concentration of nutrients in plants Oxycaryum cubense (Poep. & Kunth) Palla: a species with phytoremediator potential in contaminated watersheds.  


Lead (Pb) has been highlighted as a major pollutant of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, causing negative impacts to these environments. The concentration of Pb in plants has increased in recent decades, mainly due to anthropogenic activities. This study has as a hypothesis that the species Oxycaryum cubense (Poep. & Kunth) Palla, abundant in aquatic environments, has the potential to be used a phytoremediator. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system with Pb in increasing concentrations (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg l(-1)) for 15 days. Inductively coupled mass spectrometer (ICP OES) was used to determine the concentration of mineral nutrients and lead. Optical and transmission electron microscopy were used for the analysis of cellular damage induced by lead in roots and leaves. Ultrastructural alterations were observed as disorganization of thylakoids in the chloroplast and disruption of mitochondrial membranes in cells of leaf tissues of plants subjected to increasing Pb concentrations. There was accumulation of Pb, especially in the root system, affecting the absorption and translocation of some mineral nutrients analysed. In roots, there was reduction in the thickness of the epidermis in plants treated with Pb. This species was shown to be tolerant to the Pb concentrations evaluated, compartmentalizing and accumulating Pb mainly in roots. Due to these results, it may be considered a species with phytoremediation capacity for Pb, with potential rizofiltration of this metallic element in contaminated watersheds. PMID:24499985

Alves, Laize Queiroz; de Jesus, Raildo Mota; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Souza, Vânia Lima; Mangabeira, Pedro Antônio Oliveira



Association of anemia, child and family characteristics with elevated blood lead concentrations in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.  


Elevated blood lead levels (BPbs) have been identified in Uruguayan children in the La Teja neighborhood of Montevideo, but the extent of lead exposure in other city areas is unknown. Sources and predictors of exposure also remain understudied in this population. In 2007, the authors screened lead and hemoglobin levels in capillary blood of 222 preschool children from several areas of Montevideo, Uruguay, and identified predictors of elevated BPbs. Mean BPb was 9.0 +/- 6.0 microg/dL and 32.9% of children had levels >or= 10microg/dL. Mean hemoglobin level was 10.5 +/- 1.5 g/dL, with 44.1% having levels <10.5g/dL. Older child age, hemoglobin <10.5g/dL, and putting fingers/toys in the mouth were associated with higher BPbs. Young maternal age, less education, father's job with potential risk of lead exposure, and fewer family possessions were also associated with higher BPbs. Pediatric lead exposure is a public health problem in Uruguay, with children experiencing elevated BPbs at a young age. PMID:20439228

Queirolo, Elena I; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Kordas, Katarzyna



Catecholamines, Plasma and Urine Test  


... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Dopamine; Epinephrine; Norepinephrine; Free Urine Catecholamines; Fractionated Catecholamines Formal ... top of each kidney. The primary catecholamines are dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and norepinephrine. Catecholamine testing measures the ...


Treating urine by Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich


New insight into the effects of lead modulation on antioxidant defense mechanism and trace element concentration in rat bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risks of heavy metals-induced severe bone disorders generate interest to their toxicity. The present study was undertaken to monitor the biochemical and antioxidant status of bone of 30 and 80 days old male Wistar rats exposed to 5 week lead treatment. At the end of study, the rats were sacrificed, their long bone i.e. femur were excised, cleaned of soft

Bhardwaj Payal; Harkiran Preet Kaur; Durg Vijay Rai



Lead toxicity to wildlife: Derivation of a critical blood concentration for wildlife monitoring based on literature data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generic risk assessments of lead (Pb) toxicity to wildlife puts soil Pb limits below the natural background. The Tissue Residue Approach (TRA) is an alternative method by which the current risk of Pb to wildlife can be assessed and avoids uncertainties about Pb exposure routes or bioavailability of environmental Pb. About 80 toxicity studies were reviewed of which 19 experimental

J. Buekers; E. Steen Redeker; E. Smolders



A urine volume measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.



High concentration of blood lead levels among young children in Bagega community, Zamfara - Nigeria and the potential risk factor  

PubMed Central

Introduction In May 2010, lead poisoning (LP) was confirmed among children <5years (U5) in two communities in Zamfara state, northwest Nigeria. Following reports of increased childhood deaths in Bagega, another community in Zamfara, we conducted a survey to investigate the outbreak and recommend appropriate control measures. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Bagega community from 23rd August to 6th September, 2010. We administered structured questionnaires to parents of U5 to collect information on household participation in ore processing activities. We collected and analysed venous blood samples from 185 U5 with LeadCare II machine. Soil samples were analysed with X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for lead contamination. We defined blood lead levels (BLL) of >10ug/dL as elevated BLL, and BLL ?45ug/dL as the criterion for chelation therapy. We defined soil lead levels (SLL) of ?400 parts per million (ppm) as elevated SLL. Results The median age of U5 was 36 months (Inter-quartile range: 17-48 months). The median BLL was 71µg/dL (range: 8-332µg/dL). Of the 185 U5, 184 (99.5%) had elevated BLL, 169 (91.4%) met criterion for CT. The median SLL in tested households (n = 37) of U5 was 1,237ppm (range: 53-45,270ppm). Households breaking ore rocks within the compound were associated with convulsion related-children's death (OR: 5.80, 95% CI: 1.08 - 27.85). Conclusion There was an LP outbreak in U5 in Bagega community possibly due to heavy contamination of the environment as a result of increased ore processing activities. Community-driven remediation activities are ongoing. We recommended support for sustained environmental remediation, health education, intensified surveillance, and case management. PMID:25328633

Ajumobi, Olufemi Olamide; Tsofo, Ahmed; Yango, Matthias; Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Anagbogu, Ifeoma Nkiruka; Mohammed, Abdulazeez; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir; Mohammed, Suleiman; Abdullahi, Muhammad; Davis, Lora; Idris, Suleiman; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Gitta, Sheba; Nsubuga, Peter



Detection of depleted uranium in urine of veterans from the 1991 Gulf War.  


American soldiers involved in "friendly fire" accidents during the 1991 Gulf War were injured with depleted-uranium-containing fragments or possibly exposed to depleted uranium via other routes such as inhalation, ingestion, and/or wound contamination. To evaluate the presence of depleted uranium in these soldiers eight years later, the uranium concentration and depleted uranium content of urine samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in (a) depleted uranium exposed soldiers with embedded shrapnel, (b) depleted uranium exposed soldiers with no shrapnel, and (c) a reference group of deployed soldiers not involved in the friendly fire incidents. Uranium isotopic ratios measured in many urine samples injected directly into the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and analyzed at a mass resolution m/delta m of 300 appeared enriched in 235U with respect to natural abundance (0.72%) due to the presence of an interference of a polyatomic molecule of mass 234.81 amu that was resolved at a mass resolution m/delta m of 4,000. The 235U abundance measured on uranium separated from these urines by anion exchange chromatography was clearly natural or depleted. Urine uranium concentrations of soldiers with shrapnel were higher than those of the two other groups, and 16 out of 17 soldiers with shrapnel had detectable depleted uranium in their urine. In depleted uranium exposed soldiers with no shrapnel, depleted uranium was detected in urine samples of 10 out of 28 soldiers. The median uranium concentration of urines with depleted uranium from soldiers without shrapnel was significantly higher than in urines with no depleted uranium, though substantial overlap in urine uranium concentrations existed between the two groups. Accordingly, assessment of depleted uranium exposure using urine must rely on uranium isotopic analyses, since urine uranium concentration is not an unequivocal indicator of depleted uranium presence in soldiers with no embedded shrapnel. PMID:14695004

Gwiazda, R H; Squibb, K; McDiarmid, M; Smith, D



Negative urine pregnancy test in a molar pregnancy: is it possible?  


A urine pregnancy test is commonly used to detect pregnancy and is based on finding intact ?-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) molecules in the urine by an immunoassay system. However, the significantly large amount of ?-hCG in molar pregnancy may paradoxically lead to a false-negative result due to a phenomenon known as the 'high dose hook effect'. A case of molar pregnancy with negative urine pregnancy test but very high serum ?-hCG is reported. Every obstetrician should be aware of this limitation in the presence of a high index of suspicion of gestational trophoblastic disease but negative urine pregnancy test. PMID:25378114

Nigam, Aruna; Kumari, Archana; Gupta, Nidhi



Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard of ingesting dangerous levels of copper, lead and arsenic if dishes are prepared with poorly washed foliage.

K?íbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevi?, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.



Concentrations of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and copper) in fish from the Drôme river: potential effects on otters (Lutra lutra).  


In this study samples of ten species of fish were analyzed for concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Cu). Fish were captured using electric fishing on ten sites along the Drôme river (Rhône-Alpes region). Quantitative determination of the organochlorine and PCBs compounds was performed by gas chromatography-electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Samples contained detectable concentrations of lindane, PCBs, and heavy metals but at concentrations below the maximum residue limit (MRL). Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to distinguish groups of sites with different levels of contamination. PCBs concentrations increased along the river with four groups of sites significantly different from each other. Cadmium concentrations were below the MRL. Lead contamination showed two groups significantly different and a repartition similar to PCBs. Copper contamination was correlated with the localization of vineyards. We assessed the potential effects of contamination the otter (Lutra lutra). The concentrations of all pollutants analyzed in fish sampled in this study are lower than the threshold values described in literature. The Drôme river is relatively unpolluted river, and the establishment of otter populations should not be affected by pollution. PMID:15964052

Mazet, Alexandra; Keck, Gérard; Berny, Philippe



Use of a field portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzer to determine the concentration of lead and other metals in soil samples.  


Field portable methods are often needed in risk characterization, assessment and management to rapidly determine metal concentrations in environmental samples. Examples are for determining: "hot spots" of soil contamination, whether dust wipe lead levels meet housing occupancy standards, and worker respiratory protection levels. For over 30 years portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have been available for the in situ, non-destructive, measurement of lead in paint. Recent advances made possible their use for analysis of airborne dust filter samples, soil, and dust wipes. Research at the University of Cincinnati with the NITON 700 Series XRF instrument (40 millicurie Cadmium 109 source, L X-Rays) demonstrated its proficiency on air sample filters (NIOSH Method No. 7702, "Lead by Field Portable XRF; limit of detection 6 microg per sample; working range 17-1,500 microg/m3 air). Research with lead dust wipe samples from housing has also shown promising results. This XRF instrument was used in 1997 in Poland on copper smelter area soil samples with the cooperation of the Wroclaw Medical Academy and the Foundation for the Children from the Copper Basin (Legnica). Geometric mean soil lead concentrations were 200 ppm with the portable XRF, 201 ppm with laboratory-based XRF (Kevex) and 190 ppm using atomic absorption (AA). Correlations of field portable XRF and AA results were excellent for samples sieved to less than 125 micrometers with R-squared values of 0.997, 0.957, and 0.976 for lead, copper and zinc respectively. Similarly, correlations were excellent for soil sieved to less than 250 micrometers, where R-squared values were 0. 924, 0.973, and 0.937 for lead, copper and zinc, respectively. The field portable XRF instrument appears to be useful for the determination of soil pollution by these metals in industrial regions. PMID:10384212

Clark, S; Menrath, W; Chen, M; Roda, S; Succop, P



Lead concentrations in Hymenolepis diminuta adults and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae compared to their rat hosts (Rattus norvegicus) sampled from the city of Cairo, Egypt.  


Concentrations of lead, determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, were compared between the cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and its host rat (Rattus norvegicus). Rats were sampled at 2 sites, which differed in respect to lead pollution as quantified from road dust, adjacent to the city of Cairo, Egypt. Comparing lead levels among host tissues and the parasites the significantly highest accumulation was found in H. diminuta, followed by rat kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Calculation of bioconcentration factors showed that H. diminuta contained 36-, 29-, 6- and 6-fold higher lead levels than intestinal wall, liver, kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis, at the more polluted site. At the less contaminated site lead bioconcentration factors for H. diminuta were found to be 87, 87 and 11 referred to intestine, liver and kidney of the host. Due to a high variability of the lead concentrations in H. diminuta it was not possible to indicate differences in metal pollution between both sampling sites. This variability may be influenced by different age structures of cestode infrapopulations. It is likely that younger worms contain lower metal levels than older worms due to a shorter exposure period. Thus, it is necessary to standardize the sampling of worms which should be used for indication purposes. Due to a lack of adequate sentinel species in terrestrial habitats more studies are required to validate and standardize the use of helminths as accumulation bioindicators in order to obtain mean values with low standard deviations. The host-parasite system rat-H. diminuta appears to be a useful and promising bioindication system at least for lead in urban ecosystems as rats as well as the tapeworm are globally distributed and easily accessible. PMID:14653537

Sures, B; Scheible, T; Bashtar, A R; Taraschewski, H



Anomalous concentrations of several metals in iron-formation of the Blue Lead Mountain area, Pennington County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical sampling of bedrock has revealed anomalous copper, silver, molybdenum, gold, arsenic, mercury, zinc, and cobalt in meta-iron-formation in the Blue Lead Mountain area 5 miles (8 kilometres) north-northwest of Keystone, S. Dak. The anomalies are in complexly folded and faulted iron-formation. Metal content decreases sharply in the surrounding rocks. The extent and intensity of the anomalous areas, despite evidence that previous mining had little success, are sufficient to make this area an interesting target for exploration.

Raymond, William H.; King, Robert Ugstad; Norton, James Jennings



Higher urine desmosine levels are associated with mortality in patients with acute lung injury  

PubMed Central

Desmosine is a stable breakdown product of elastin that can be reliably measured in urine samples. We tested the hypothesis that higher baseline urine desmosine would be associated with higher mortality in 579 of 861 patients included in the recent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network trial of lower tidal volume ventilation (1). We also correlated urine desmosine levels with indexes of disease severity. Finally, we assessed whether urine desmosine was lower in patients who received lower tidal volumes. Desmosine was measured by radioimmunoassay in urine samples from days 0, 1, and 3 of the study. The data were expressed as a ratio of urine desmosine to urine creatinine to control for renal dilution. The results show that higher baseline (day 0) urine desmosine-to-creatinine concentration was associated with a higher risk of death on adjusted analysis (odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.82, P = 0.03). Urine desmosine increased in both ventilator groups from day 0 to day 3, but the average rise was higher in the 12-ml/kg predicted body weight group compared with the 6-ml/kg predicted body weight group (P = 0.053, repeated-measures model). In conclusion, patients with acute lung injury ventilated with lower tidal volumes have lower urine desmosine levels, a finding that may reflect reduced extracellular matrix breakdown. These results illustrate the value of evaluating urinary biological markers that may have prognostic and pathogenetic significance in acute lung injury. PMID:16698854

McClintock, Dana E.; Starcher, Barry; Eisner, Mark D.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Hayden, Doug L.; Church, Gwynne D.; Matthay, Michael A.



Phosphate recovery using hybrid anion exchange: applications to source-separated urine and combined wastewater streams.  


There is increasing interest in recovering phosphorus (P) from various wastewater streams for beneficial use as fertilizer and to minimize environmental impacts of excess P on receiving waters. One such example is P recovery from human urine, which has a high concentration of phosphate (200-800 mg P/L) and accounts for a small volume (? 1%) of total wastewater flow. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to evaluate the potential to recover P from source-separated and combined wastewater streams that included undiluted human urine, urine diluted with tap water, greywater, mixture of urine and greywater, anaerobic digester supernatant, and secondary wastewater effluent. A hybrid anion exchange (HAIX) resin containing hydrous ferric oxide was used to recover P because of its selectivity for phosphate and the option to precipitate P minerals in the waste regeneration solution. The P recovery potential was fresh urine > hydrolyzed urine > greywater > biological wastewater effluent > anaerobic digester supernatant. The maximum loading of P on HAIX resin was fresh urine > hydrolyzed urine > anaerobic digester supernatant ? greywater > biological wastewater effluent. Results indicated that the sorption capacity of HAIX resin for phosphate and the total P recovery potential were greater for source-separated urine than the combined wastewater streams of secondary wastewater effluent and anaerobic digester supernatant. Dilution of urine with tap water decreased the phosphate loading on HAIX resin. The results of this work advance the current understanding of nutrient recovery from complex wastewater streams by sorption processes. PMID:23866131

O'Neal, Jeremy A; Boyer, Treavor H



Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays. PMID:23424703

Fenderson, Joshua L.; Stratton, Amy N.; Domingo, Jennifer S.; Matthews, Gerald O.; Tan, Christopher D.



Metals in Urine and Peripheral Arterial Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants ?40 years of age in NHANES 1999–2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 ?g/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population. PMID:15687053

Navas-Acien, Ana; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Calderon-Aranda, Emma; Selvin, Elizabeth; Guallar, Eliseo



Relationships between thiamine content of eggs and concentrations of lead and other heavy metals in water and survival of Atlantic salmon fry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were extirpated in much of New York state by the late 1800s. Currently, Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond (Saranac Lake, NY) are stocked in Cayuga Lake (Ithaca, NY) and Lake Ontario to support a fishery, but reproduction is severely impaired by thiamine deficiency in Cayuga Lake and probably in Lake Ontario--apparently caused by adults feeding on prey fish high in thiaminase. One study suggested that survival of these fry may be reduced by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, copper, or lead in water. Thiamine deficiency is known to increase lead toxicity. Bringing gravid Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond and Cayuga Inlet into the laboratory, we examined the effect of exposing their fertilized eggs during water-hardening to water with and without added lead (0.1 to 100 mg lead·liter-1) and to other contaminated waters (from New York State) on the survival of their eggs and fry. Our results showed no significant influence of our water-hardening treatments on survival of eggs or fry; therefore, it appears that exposure of eggs (during water-hardening) to lead in water (concentrations up to 100 mg lead·liter-1) or to several contaminated waters was not detrimental to the survival of eggs or fry of Atlantic salmon. We also determined the mineral and heavy metal content of dried eggs and found that eggs from Cayuga Lake salmon had significantly higher concentrations of copper (1.9 vs. 0.5 mg·g-1) than did eggs from salmon from Little Clear Pond. All concentrations of copper appeared to be within the range observed in other normal salmon. There were no other significant differences in concentrations of other minerals tested. Concentrations of copper in Cayuga Lake water (mean, 1.16 mg·liter-1) were significantly higher than in Little Clear Pond water (mean, 0.17 mg·liter-1). The effect of copper in eggs of thiamine-deficient salmon is not known.

Ketola, H. George; Wedge, Leslie R.; Lary, Sandra J.; Grant, Edward C.; Rutzke, Michael A.



A Simple Method for the Quantitative Determination of N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol (APAP) in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method is describedfor the rapid quantitative analysisof N-acetyl-p-amino- phenol (APAP) in urine. APAP and its conjugates present in the urine following the ingestion of acetophenetidin, APAP or acetanilid, are hydrolyzed with acid to p. aminophenol. This compoundis coupledwith phenolin the presenceof hypobromiteto form an indophenol dye whose concentration is determined spectrophotometrically. Application of this method to a study

Richard M. Welch; A. H. Conney


SERS quantitative urine creatinine measurement of human subject  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SERS method for biomolecular analysis has several potentials and advantages over traditional biochemical approaches, including less specimen contact, non-destructive to specimen, and multiple components analysis. Urine is an easily available body fluid for monitoring the metabolites and renal function of human body. We developed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique using 50nm size gold colloidal particles for quantitative human urine creatinine measurements. This paper shows that SERS shifts of creatinine (104mg/dl) in artificial urine is from 1400cm-1 to 1500cm-1 which was analyzed for quantitative creatinine measurement. Ten human urine samples were obtained from ten healthy persons and analyzed by the SERS technique. Partial least square cross-validation (PLSCV) method was utilized to obtain the estimated creatinine concentration in clinically relevant (55.9mg/dl to 208mg/dl) concentration range. The root-mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) is 26.1mg/dl. This research demonstrates the feasibility of using SERS for human subject urine creatinine detection, and establishes the SERS platform technique for bodily fluids measurement.

Wang, Tsuei Lian; Chiang, Hui-hua K.; Lu, Hui-hsin; Hung, Yung-da



Clinical, Toxicological, Biochemical, and Hematologic Parameters in Lead Exposed Workers of a Car Battery Industry  

PubMed Central

Background: Lead is a toxic element which causes acute, subacute or chronic poisoning through environmental and occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and laboratory abnormalities of chronic lead poisoning among workers of a car battery industry. Methods: Questionnaires and forms were designed and used to record demographic data, past medical histories and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. Blood samples were taken to determine biochemical (using Auto Analyzer; Model BT3000) and hematologic (using Cell Counter Sysmex; Model KX21N) parameters. An atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer, Model 3030, USA) was used to determine lead concentration in blood and urine by heated graphite atomization technique. Results: A total of 112 men mean age 28.78±5.17 years, who worked in a car battery industry were recruited in the present study. The most common signs/symptoms of lead poisoning included increased excitability 41.9%, arthralgia 41.0%, fatigue 40.1%, dental grey discoloration 44.6%, lead line 24.1%, increased deep tendon reflexes (DTR) 22.3%, and decreased DTR (18.7%). Blood lead concentration (BLC) was 398.95 µg/L±177.40, which was significantly correlated with duration of work (P=0.044) but not with the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. However, BLC was significantly correlated with urine lead concentration (83.67 µg/L±49.78; r2=0.711; P<0.001), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r=-0.280; P=0.011), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (r=-0.304; P=0.006) and fasting blood sugar or FBS (r=-0.258; P=0.010). Conclusion: Neuropsychiatric and skeletal findings were common manifestations of chronic occupational lead poisoning. BLC was significantly correlated with duration of work, urine lead concentration, two hemoglobin indices and FBS. PMID:23645955

Kianoush, Sina; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Dadpour, Bita; Moradi, Valiollah; Sadeghi, Mahmoud



Changes in urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid at low lead exposure level with special reference to production activity.  


A 7-year follow-up survey on 53 workers was carried out in a lead storage battery factory to evaluate the significance of urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and blood lead in a work environment where lead in the air was considered to be about or less than the current occupational exposure limit. While lead in the blood and ALA in the urine had a good correlation to each other cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally, geometric means of lead concentrations in the workroom air samples which were collected following grid sampling strategy, did not correlate with ALA in urine significantly. On the contrary, the semiannual production of batteries significantly correlated with changes in mean ALA in urine. The questionnaire survey proved that the prolongation in work hours, lead to an increase in the mean ALA in urine as well as a higher incidence of higher-than-normal urinary ALA. The results clearly demonstrated the importance of the biological indicators, such as lead in blood and urinary ALA, as well as the necessity of paying attention to non-industrial hygiene factors, such as the production rate of batteries and the length of the daily shift, for the protection of the workers' health when lead in the air is moderate. PMID:6874089

Sato, K; Fujita, H; Inui, S; Ikeda, M



Influence of pre-, post-, and simultaneous perfusion of elevated calcium on the effect of ascending concentrations of lead on digoxin-induced cardiac arrest in isolated frog heart  

SciTech Connect

Cardiotoxicity of lead, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has already been documented as a potentially lethal, although rarely recognized, complication of lead intoxication. Further, it has already been reported from this laboratory that lead acetate (LA) preperfusion potentiated cardiotoxicity of digoxin (DGN) in isolated frog heart preparation and that exposure to elevated calcium (elev. Ca{sup 2+}) prior to, and simultaneously with LA at 10{sup {minus}7} M concentration, attenuated this potentiation. As an extension of this work, it was considered of interest to study the effect of perfusion of elev. Ca{sup 2+} (6.5 mM) prior to, after and simultaneously with ascending concentrations of lead (10{sup {minus}9}, 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}5}M) on DGN induced cardiac arrest (CA) in isolated frog heart, since Pb{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions are known to compete with each other for the same target sites at the cellular level, an instance of competitive mass action effect. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Krishnamoorthy, M.S.; Muthu, P.; Parthiban, N. [Univ. of Madras (Indonesia)



Urine therapy through the centuries.  


Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy. PMID:21614793

Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido



Associations of estimated residential soil arsenic and lead concentrations and community-level environmental measures with mother-child health conditions in South Carolina.  


We undertook a community-level aggregate analysis in South Carolina, USA, to examine associations between mother-child conditions from a Medicaid cohort of pregnant women and their children using spatially interpolated arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) concentrations in three geographic case areas and a control area. Weeks of gestation at birth was significantly negatively correlated with higher estimated As (r(s) = -0.28, p = 0.01) and Pb (r(s) = -0.26, p = 0.02) concentrations in one case area. Higher estimated Pb concentrations were consistently positively associated with frequency of black mothers (all p < 0.02) and negatively associated with frequency of white mothers (all p < 0.01), suggesting a racial disparity with respect to Pb. PMID:22579118

Aelion, C Marjorie; Davis, Harley T; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne



Quantitative determination of mycotoxins in urine by LCMS\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring mycotoxins are responsible for a wide array of adverse health effects. The measurement of urinary mycotoxin levels is a useful means of assessing an individual's exposure, but the development of sensitive and accurate analytical methods for detecting mycotoxins and their metabolites in urine samples is challenging. Urinary mycotoxins are present in low pg ml concentrations, and the chromatographic

J. Ahn; D. Kim; H. Kim; K.-Y. Jahng



Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood relation explained an additional 12% of the total variation in fillet Cd. Collectively, the results indicate that blood sampling could provide reasonably accurate and precise estimates of fillet Pb, Co, and Cd concentrations that would be suitable for identifying contaminated sites and for monitoring, but some fillet sampling might be necessary at contaminated sites for establishing consumption advisories. ?? 2009 US Government.

Schmitt, C. J.; Brumbaugh, W. G.; May, T. W.



[Detection of cannabinoids in urine].  


Described in the paper are results of comparative examination of urine by the methods of immunochromatographic express analysis (ICA), fluorescence-polarization immune analysis (FIA) and of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) made for the purpose of detecting consumers of hemp products. A high specificity and a good sensitivity of the methods were demonstrated, which is a basis for using them as preliminary tests in detecting cannaboids and their metabolites in urine. The methods were evaluated quantitively and qualitatively versus the etalon method of chromato-mass-spectrometry. A possibility was pointed out to apply the methods of ICA and TLC as system analysis in the determination of 11-nordelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carbonic acid in urine of marijuana users. PMID:15881141

Kataev, S S; Zelenina, N B; Melent'ev, A B; Zalesova, V A; Kurdina, L N



Normalization to specific gravity prior to analysis improves information recovery from high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic profiles of human urine.  


Extraction of meaningful biological information from urinary metabolomic profiles obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) necessitates the control of unwanted sources of variability associated with large differences in urine sample concentrations. Different methods of normalization either before analysis (preacquisition normalization) through dilution of urine samples to the lowest specific gravity measured by refractometry, or after analysis (postacquisition normalization) to urine volume, specific gravity and median fold change are compared for their capacity to recover lead metabolites for a potential future use as dietary biomarkers. Twenty-four urine samples of 19 subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort were selected based on their high and low/nonconsumption of six polyphenol-rich foods as assessed with a 24 h dietary recall. MS features selected on the basis of minimum discriminant selection criteria were related to each dietary item by means of orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis models. Normalization methods ranked in the following decreasing order when comparing the number of total discriminant MS features recovered to that obtained in the absence of normalization: preacquisition normalization to specific gravity (4.2-fold), postacquisition normalization to specific gravity (2.3-fold), postacquisition median fold change normalization (1.8-fold increase), postacquisition normalization to urinary volume (0.79-fold). A preventative preacquisition normalization based on urine specific gravity was found to be superior to all curative postacquisition normalization methods tested for discovery of MS features discriminant of dietary intake in these urinary metabolomic datasets. PMID:25285402

Edmands, William M B; Ferrari, Pietro; Scalbert, Augustin



Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, eastern Kentucky coal field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation (Westphalian B) Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds are the 2 largest producing coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Single channel samples from 22 localities in the Pond Creek coal bed were obtained from active coal mines in Pike and Martin Countries, Kentucky, and a total of 18 Fire Clay coal bed channel samples were collected from localities in the central portion of the coal field. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution of potentially hazardous elements in the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal beds, with particular emphasis on As and Pb, 2 elements that are included in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as potential air toxics. The 2 coals are discussed individually as the depositional histories are distinct, the Fire Clay coal bed having more sites where relatively high-S lithologies are encountered. In an effort to characterize these coals, 40 whole channel samples, excluding 1-cm partings, were analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Previously analyzed samples were added to provide additional geographic coverage and lithotype samples from one site were analyzed in order to provide detail of vertical elemental trends. The As and Pb levels in the Fire Clay coal bed tend to be higher than in the Pond Creek coal bed. One whole channel sample of the Fire Clay coal bed contains 1156 ppm As (ash basis), with a single lithotype containing 4000 ppm As (ash basis). Most of the As and Pb appears to be associated with pyrite, which potentially can be removed in beneficiation (particularly coarser pyrite). Disseminated finer pyrite may not be completely removable by cleaning. In the examination of pyrite conducted in this study, it does not appear that significant concentration of As or Pb occurs in the finer pyrite forms. The biggest potential problem of As- or Pb-enriched pyrite is, therefore, one of refuse disposal.

Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Ruppert, L.F.



Capillary ion electrophoresis of endogenous anions and anionic adulterants in human urine.  


Normal human urine contains many anions and cations. Ionic concentrations in urine have classically been determined by spectrophotometry of color reactions, flame emission spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, or potentiometry with ion-specific electrodes. Capillary ion electrophoresis (CIE) is a form of capillary electrophoresis which uses the differential electrophoretic mobility of ions to perform a separation of an ionic mixture. Various salts can be added to urine specimens to abnormally elevate ionic concentrations and interfere with either immunoassay urine drug screening procedures or gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric confirmation techniques. Application of CIE for the direct detection of endogenous anions and anionic adulterants in human urine specimens was the purpose of this investigation. CIE was performed using a Waters Quanta 4000 Capillary Electrophoresis System with either direct or indirect ultraviolet absorption detection at 254 nm. CIE of 30 random normal urine specimens and 21 urine specimens suspected of adulteration was performed. Duplicate aliquots were assayed by CIE and by colorimetric technique for nitrite. Sixteen specimens had elevated concentrations of nitrite and/or nitrate. The correlation coefficient between nitrite CIE and colorimetric results was 0.9895. Three specimens had detectable concentrations of chromate and were suspected of being adulterated with "Urine Luck," an adulterant found to contain chromate. Two specimens suspected of being adulterated with bleach were found to only contain chloride, sulfate, and phosphate. CIE is applicable to forensic analysis of urine anion concentrations. CIE can easily quantitate numerous endogenous anions and offers a method to detect and/or confirm anion adulteration of urine specimens. PMID:11372999

Ferslew, K E; Hagardorn, A N; Robert, T A



Comparison of urine dipsticks with quantitative methods for microalbuminuria.  


We describe a new dip- and read dipstick that detects urine albumin at concentrations of 10 mg/l and above and urine creatinine at concentrations of 300 mg/l and above. The albumin assay is based on a high-affinity, dye-binding technique while the creatinine assay is based on the peroxidase-like activity of copper creatinine complexes. With these two-test dipsticks, urines from normal adults supplemented with albumin and creatinine were correctly identified to within +/- 15% of the expected value for both analytes; the between-day coefficients of variation ranged from 7.1% to 16.1%. We tested 275 patients' unmodified urines by the Bayer and Boehringer Mannheim Micral-Test albumin dipsticks and for albumin with the Beckman Array on the same specimens. We also analyzed 42 selected urines from the group of 275 for albumin by another quantitative immunochemical method and by electrophoresis plus a total protein method to estimate the albumin concentration. The quantitative immunochemical methods appear to underestimate the urine albumin concentrations; in these 42 urines measured as negative, i.e., < ca. 16-20 mg/l, by one of the quantitative method but positive by the Bayer dipstick, 33 of these were positive by the electrophoresis/total protein assay combination. The Bayer albumin dipstick correctly identified urines as having < 16 mg/l or > or = 16 mg/l at an 80% rate. At a cutoff of 20 mg/l, the rate increased to 87%. We also determined the urinary albumin/creatinine ratios on the 275 patients using the Bayer two-pad dipstick and found agreement 84% of the time with the same ratio obtained from a quantitative immunochemical method for albumin and a rate-Jaffe method for creatinine; an albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g) of 30 was used as the discrimination point. Albumin stability studies performed on the Beckman Array patients with six fresh urines showed small but consistent decreases at -20 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C after one month of storage. The albumin in contrived urines, as estimated by electrophoreses/total protein and by the dipsticks did not change at these storage conditions. Boric acid at 1 g/l as a urine preservative had no effect on the measurement of albumin by any of the methods described here nor of the assay of creatinine. Other urinary proteins present at abnormal excretion rates did not interfere with the Bayer albumin dipstick. Abnormal concentrations of bilirubin, citrate, creatine, ascorbic acid, albumin, hemoglobin and myoglobin in urine did not interfere with the creatinine dipstick measurements. The first four of the above did not affect the Bayer dipstick results for albumin. PMID:9352232

Pugia, M J; Lott, J A; Clark, L W; Parker, D R; Wallace, J F; Willis, T W



A flow system for the spectrophotometric determination of lead in different types of waters using ion-exchange for pre-concentration and elimination of interferences.  


A flow system for the spectrophotometric determination of lead in natural and waste waters is proposed. The determination is based on the colorimetric reaction between malachite green and iodide, followed by the formation of a ternary complex between those reagents and lead cations. The developed flow system includes a lead pre-concentration step in a column packed with a cationic resin (Chelex 100) operating in a sequential injection mode. To improve the mixture of sample and reagents, a flow injection approach was adopted for the colorimetric determination. This way a hybrid flow system, involving both sequential and flow injection concepts was designed. Another feature of the proposed system is the efficient elimination of major interferent species, such as cadmium and copper. The elimination of cadmium interference is obtained by complexing Cd(2+) with chloride and retaining the formed negatively charged complexes in an anionic resin, AG1 X-8. As for copper, with the presence of both ionic resins as well as the conditions for cadmium elimination, it no longer acts as an interferent. Different ranges of lead concentration (50-300 and 300-1000mugl(-1)) can be determined with minor changes in the controlling software, useful for application to both natural and waste waters. Therefore, a detection limit of 25mugl(-1) was achieved. Repeatability was evaluated from 10 consecutive determinations being the results better than 4%. The recoveries of lead spikes added to the samples ranged from 93 to 102%. The sampling frequency was 17 and 24 determinations per hour, for 50-300 and 300-1000mugl(-1) ranges, respectively. PMID:18969308

Mesquita, Raquel B R; Fernandes, Sílvia M V; Rangel, António O S S



Associations between soil lead concentrations and populations by race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio in urban and rural areas.  


Lead (Pb) is a well-studied environmental contaminant that has many negative health effects, especially for children. Both racial/ethnic and income disparities have been documented with respect to exposure to Pb in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess whether soil Pb concentrations in rural and urban areas of South Carolina USA, previously identified as having clusters of intellectual disabilities (ID) in children, were positively associated with populations of minority and low-income individuals and children (? 6 years of age). Surface soils from two rural and two urban areas with identified clusters of ID were analyzed for Pb and concentrations were spatially interpolated using inverse distance weighted analysis. Population race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio (ITPR) from United States Census 2000 block group data were aerially interpolated by block group within each area. Urban areas had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than rural areas. Significant positive associations between black, non-Hispanic Latino, individuals and children ? 6 years of age and mean estimated Pb concentrations were observed in both urban (r = 0.38, p = 0.0007) and rural (r = 0.53, p = 0.04) areas. Significant positive associations also were observed between individuals and children with an ITPR < 1.00 and Pb concentrations, though primarily in urban areas. Racial/ethnic minorities and low ITPR individuals, including children, may be at elevated risk for exposure to Pb in soils. PMID:22752852

Aelion, C Marjorie; Davis, Harley T; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne



Acute water intoxication during military urine drug screening.  


Random mandatory urine drug screening is a routine practice in the military. The pressure to produce a urine specimen creates a temptation to consume large volumes of water, putting those individuals at risk of acute water intoxication. This occurs when the amount of water consumed exceeds the kidney's ability to excrete it, resulting in hyponatremia owing to excess amount of water compared to serum solutes. The acute drop in serum osmolality leads to cerebral edema, causing headaches, confusion, seizures, and death. There has been increasing awareness of the danger of overhydration among performance athletes, but dangers in other groups can be underappreciated. We present the case of a 37-year-old male Air Force officer who developed acute water intoxication during urine drug screening. Our case demonstrates the need for a clear Air Force policy for mandatory drug testing to minimize the risk of developing this potentially fatal condition. PMID:21539169

Tilley, Molly A; Cotant, Casey L



A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.



The Recovery of Water and Nitrogen from Urine in BLSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recycle and reuse of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), and the treatment and recovery of the crew’s urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Urine contains a lot of water and high concentrations of urea and salts. Water can be used for the irrigation of the plants in BLSS, and the nitrogen is also the necessary nutrient for plant growth. Therefore, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urea was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification and urease processing methods were studied during the urea hydrolysis step. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the degrees of hydrolysis were compared. This investigation may provide a reference for the establishment of the urine recycle in BLSS.

Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Deng, Shengda


Organophosphorous pesticide breakdown products in house dust and children's urine  

PubMed Central

Human exposure to preformed dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in food or the environment may affect the reliability of DAP urinary metabolites as biomarkers of organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure. We conducted a study to investigate the presence of DAPs in indoor residential environments and their association with children’s urinary DAP levels. We collected dust samples from homes in farmworker and urban communities (40 homes total, n = 79 samples) and up to two urine samples from resident children ages 3–6 years. We measured six DAPs in all samples and eight DAP-devolving OP pesticides in a subset of dust samples (n = 54). DAPs were detected in dust with diethylphosphate (DEP) being the most frequently detected (?60%); detection frequencies for other DAPs were ?50%. DEP dust concentrations did not significantly differ between communities, nor were concentrations significantly correlated with concentrations of chlorpyrifos and diazinon, the most frequently detected diethyl-OP pesticides (Spearman ? = ?0.41 to 0.38, P>0.05). Detection of DEP, chlorpyrifos, or diazinon, was not associated with DEP and/or DEP + diethylthiophosphate detection in urine (Kappa coefficients = ?0.33 to 0.16). Finally, estimated non-dietary ingestion intake from DEP in dust was found to be ?5% of the dose calculated from DEP levels in urine, suggesting that ingestion of dust is not a significant source of DAPs in urine if they are excreted unchanged. PMID:22781438

Quiros-Alcala, Lesliam; Bradman, Asa; Smith, Kimberly; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Barr, Dana Boyd; Nishioka, Marcia; Castorina, Rosemary; Hubbard, Alan E.; Nicas, Mark; Hammond, S. Katharine; McKone, Thomas E.; Eskenazi, Brenda



Occupational lead exposure of storage battery workers in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and thirty-four lead workers employed in a storage battery factory in Korea were examined for lead in blood (PbB) and urine (PbU). delta-aminolaevulinic acid in urine (ALAU), coproporphyrin in urine (CPU), and haemoglobin. The dose-response relationship between PbB and ALAU suggested that a PbB below 50-60 micrograms\\/dl is a proper practical limit of biological monitoring for lead workers.

B K Lee



Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes  


... services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Urination Changes Call your doctor or nurse if ... as a fever or pain.” Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes Learn about liquids. Drink more liquids. ...


28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling...surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in...



Thermal lens study of thermo-optical properties and concentration quenching of Er{sup 3+}-doped lead pyrophosphate-based glasses  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we have used the thermal lens technique combined with conventional spectroscopy to characterize the thermo-optical properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped lead pyrophosphate-based glasses. More precisely, we have investigated and quantified experimentally the fluorescence quantum efficiencies of the Er{sup 3+} levels, and we describe the role of concentration quenching effects. The fluorescence quantum efficiency of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} level is very high when compared to other phosphate glasses, while that of the green-coupled levels is very small. Other important photonic materials parameters, such as the thermal diffusivity and temperature coefficient of the optical path length change, were obtained and compared with those of other glass systems. The cumulative results obtained here for the Er-doped lead pyrophosphate glass show that this material is a good candidate for photonic applications with a characteristic Er{sup 3+} infrared emission around 1550 nm.

Santos, C. C. [Departamento de Fisica, CCET, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, 65085-580 Sao Luis-MA (Brazil); Rocha, U.; Vermelho, M. V. D.; Jacinto, C. [Grupo de Fotonica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceio, AL (Brazil); Guedes, I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do PICI, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Boatner, L. A. [ORNL Center for Radiation Detection Materials and Systems and ORNL Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6044 (United States)



National contaminant biomonitoring program: Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in U.S. Freshwater Fish, 1976–1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

From late 1984 to early 1985, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected a total of 315 composite samples of whole fish\\u000a from 109 stations nationwide, which were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Geometric\\u000a mean, maximum, and 85th percentile concentrations (?g\\/g wet weight) for 1984 samples were as follows: arsenic-0.14, 1.5, 0.27;\\u000a cadmium-0.03, 0.22, 0.05;

Christopher J. Schmitt; William G. Brumbaugh



Urine specimen detection of concurrent nonprescribed medicinal and illicit drug use in patients prescribed buprenorphine.  


Patients being treated with buprenorphine usually have a history of opioid dependence and may be predisposed to misuse of drugs. Concurrent drug misuse increases the risk of life-threatening drug interactions. This retrospective data analysis observed which nonprescribed and illicit drugs were most commonly detected in the urine of patients from pain management clinics taking buprenorphine with or without a prescription. GC, LC/MS and LC-MS-MS were used to quantify 20,929 urine specimens. The most prevalent illicit drug used in both the groups (prescribed and nonprescribed buprenorphine) was marijuana, followed by cocaine. The most prevalent nonprescribed medications abused by both the groups were benzodiazepines, followed by oxycodone and hydrocodone. The overall prevalence of illicit and nonprescribed drug use was significantly higher in subjects who used buprenorphine without a prescription versus prescribed use. Of the concurrent use of marijuana and cocaine with buprenorphine, cocaine is most concerning since it decreases exposure to buprenorphine (lower area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration). The concurrent use of nonprescribed benzodiazepines with buprenorphine can cause excess sedation leading to respiratory depression and even death. These findings highlight the importance of educating patients about these potential toxicities. Furthermore, pain providers should consider expanding the spectrum of drugs that they monitor in patients under treatment. PMID:24080973

Guo, Alexander Y; Ma, Joseph D; Best, Brookie M; Atayee, Rabia S



Isolation of Encephalitozoon cuniculi from urine samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Encephalitozoon cuniculi was isolated from the urine of infected rabbits using human and canine tissue cultures. The organism was isolated from 7 of 11 contaminated urines from seropositive animals. The advantages of urine over tissue as a source of E. cuniculi are that it is obtainable from living animals, can be examined for the presence of organisms, and is

D. Pye; J. C. Cox



The Relevance of Hyperuricemia and Metabolic Syndrome and the Effect of Blood Lead Level on Uric Acid Concentration in Steelmaking Workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives Uric acid concentration is known to increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by affecting its components, resulting in increased risk of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and long-term lead exposure is known to affect this serum uric acid level. In this study, we aimed to examine the association between the causes of hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome, and to determine whether an increased blood lead level affects hyperuricemia. Method Anthropometric measurements, surveys, and blood tests were conducted between May and June 2012 in 759 men working in the steelmaking process at a domestic steel company. Workers were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of hyperuricemia, and an analysis was performed to examine its association with metabolic syndrome. In addition, the workers were divided into 3 groups according to the blood lead level to analyze the association between blood lead and hyperuricemia. Results The geometric mean (standard deviation) of the blood lead levels in the hyperuricemia group was significantly higher than that of the healthy group (3.8 [1.8] vs. 3.3 [1.8] ?g/dL). The adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome of the hyperuricemia group increased significantly to 1.787 (1.125–2.839) compared with the healthy group. In addition, the adjusted odds ratios for the occurrence of hyperuricemia in the tertile 2 (2.61–4.50 ?g/dL) and tertile 3 groups (>4.50 ?g/dL) according to blood lead level significantly increased to 1.763 (1.116–2.784) and 1.982 (1.254–3.132), respectively, compared with the tertile 1 group (< 2.61 ?g/dL). Conclusion Hyperuricemia is believed to function as an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome, while lead seems to increase the serum uric acid level even at a considerably low blood level. Therefore, attention should be given to patients with hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome who are prone to lead exposure, and a prospective study should be conducted to identify their causal relationship. PMID:24472219



Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow differences in the two regression models, 1999-2001 and 1999-2004. Flow-weighted concentrations (FWCs) calculated from the estimated loads for 1999-2004 were examined to aid interpretation of metal load estimates, which were influenced by large spatial and temporal variations in streamflow. FWCs of total cadmium ranged from 0.04 micrograms per liter (?g/L) at Enaville to 14 ?g/L at Ninemile Creek. Total lead FWCs were lowest at Long Lake (1.3 ?g/L) and highest at Ninemile Creek (120 ?g/L). Elevated total lead FWCs at Harrison confirmed that the high total lead loads at this station were not simply due to higher streamflow. Conversely, relatively low total lead loads combined with high total lead FWCs at Ninemile and Canyon Creeks reflected low streamflow but high concentrations of total lead. Very low total lead FWCs (1.3 to 2.7 ?g/L) at the stations downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake are a result both of deposition of lead-laden sediments in the lake and dilution by additional streamflow. Total zinc FWCs also demonstrated the effect of streamflow on load calculations, and highlighted source areas for zinc in the basin. Total zinc FWCs at Canyon and Ninemile Creeks, 1,600 ?g/L and 2,200 ?g/L, respectively, were by far the highest in the basin but contributed among the lowest total zinc loads due to their relatively low streamflow. Total zinc FWCs ranged from 38 to 67 ?g/L at stations downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake, but total zinc load estimates at these stations were relatively high because of high mean streamflow compared to other stations in the basin. Long-term regression models for 1991 to 2003 or 2004 were developed and annual trace-metal loads and FWCs were estimated for Pinehurst, Enaville, Harrison, and Post Falls to better understand the variability of metal loading with time. Long-term load estimates are similar to the results for 1999-2004 in terms of spatial distribution of metal loads throughout the basin. LOADEST results for 1991-2004 indicated that statistically significant downward temporal trends for dissolved and total cadmium, dissolved zinc,

Donato, Mary M.



Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women  

SciTech Connect

Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia)] [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)] [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia)] [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)] [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)



Levels of lead, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc in deciduous teeth of children living in Irbid, Jordan by ICP-OES: some factors affecting their concentrations.  


The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in deciduous teeth from children living in Jordan and to investigate the affecting factors. Deciduous teeth samples (n = 320, without fillings) were collected from 5- to 12-year-old children and analyzed for Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. A questionnaire was used to gather information on each child, such as sex, age, tooth type (incisors, canines, and molars), tooth position within the mouth (upper or lower jaw), caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, type of drinking water (tap water, home purified water, and plant purified water), and zone of residence (close to or far from heavy traffic roads). The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn were 30.26, 0.55, 6.23, 34.72, and 128.21 ?g/g, respectively. Our results indicate that there is a clear relation between the concentrations of the metals analyzed in this study and tooth type, tooth position within the mouth, caries status, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and type of drinking water. No significant differences in the concentrations of the five metals analyzed were observed due to sex. Our results also show that no significant difference among Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations and age among the ages of 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12, except for Pb, which decreases at age 11-12. PMID:22851195

Alomary, A; Al-Momani, I F; Obeidat, S M; Massadeh, A M



Hepatitis B antigen in saliva, urine, and stool.  


A survey of hepatitis B patients, asymptomatic hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) carriers, and control subjects was conducted to determine the relationship between antigenemia and antigen excretion in saliva, urine, and stool. Radioimmunoassay was used to detect HBsAg. Specificity-confirmed HBsAg was detected in the saliva of 6 (30%) of 20 antigenemic patients, 1 (5%) of 20 nonantigenemic patients, 14 (34%) of 41 carriers, and 0 of 112 controls. HBsAg was detected in urine only after 100-fold concentration of first-morning specimens. Specificity-confirmed HBsAg was present in the urine of 7 (16%) of 43 carriers; unconfirmed HBsAg was found in the urine of 5 (13%) of 38 patients and 5 (5%) of 112 controls. Unconfirmed HBsAg was detected in concentrated stool specimens from 5 (46%) of 11 patients and 3 of 8 carriers and controls. Longitudinally collected specimens from antigenemic subjects showed no consistent patterns of antigen excretion. PMID:1116873

Irwin, G R; Allen, A M; Bancroft, W H; Karwacki, J J; Brown, H L; Pinkerton, R H; Willhight, M; Top, F H



Thyreostatic drugs, stability in bovine and porcine urine.  


Thyreostatic drugs, illegally administrated to livestock for fattening purposes, are banned in the European Union since 1981. For monitoring their illegal use, sensitive and specific analytical methods are required. In this context, the knowledge of the stability in a matrix is of primary importance. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of preservation, number of freeze-thaw cycles, and matrix-related variables on the stability of thyreostatic drugs in the urine of livestock. Finally, the developed conservation approach was applied on incurred urine samples, which displayed traces of the thyreostat thiouracil below the recommended concentration of 10 ?g L(-1). The stability study confirmed the negative influence of preservation (8 h) at room temperature and at -70 °C, decreases in concentration of more than 78.0% were observed for all thyreostats, except for 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole and 2-mercaptobenzimidazole. Additionally, investigation of matrix-related variables indicated significant impacts of the presence of copper (p = 0.001) and the pH (p = 0.002). Next, an optimised pre-treatment (pH 1 and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dehydrate) significantly differing from the original conservation approach (p < 0.05) was developed, which proved capable of delaying the decrease in concentration and improved the detection in time for both spiked as well as incurred urine samples. In the future, it seems highly advisable to apply the developed pre-treatment on incurred urines upon sampling, before thyreostat analysis. Additionally, it is recommendable to limit preservation of urine samples at room temperature, but also in the freezer prior to thyreostat analysis. PMID:22349321

Vanden Bussche, J; Sterk, S S; De Brabander, H F; Blokland, M H; Deceuninck, Y; Le Bizec, B; Vanhaecke, L



Plasma and urine biomarkers in acute viral hepatitis E  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis E, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is endemic to developing countries where it manifests as waterborne outbreaks and sporadic cases. Though generally self-limited with a low mortality rate, some cases progress to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) with high mortality. With no identified predictive or diagnostic markers, the events leading to disease exacerbation are not known. Our aim is to use proteomic tools to identify biomarkers of acute and fulminant hepatitis E. Results We analyzed proteins in the plasma and urine of hepatitis E patients and healthy controls by two-dimensional Differential Imaging Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) and mass spectrometry, and identified over 30 proteins to be differentially expressed during acute hepatitis E. The levels of one plasma protein, transthyretin, and one urine protein, alpha-1-microglobulin (?1m), were then quantitated by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in clinical samples from a larger group of patients and controls. The results showed decreased plasma transthyretin levels (p < 0.005) and increased urine ?1m levels (p < 0.001) in acute hepatitis E patients, compared to healthy controls. Preliminary results also showed lower urine zinc alpha glycoprotein levels in fulminant hepatitis E compared to acute disease; this remains to be confirmed with more fulminant cases. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the utility of characterizing plasma and urine proteomes for signatures of the host response to HEV infection. We predict that plasma transthyretin and urine ?1m could be reliable biomarkers of acute hepatitis E. Besides the utility of this approach to biomarker discovery, proteome-level changes in human biofluids would also guide towards a better understanding of host-virus interaction and disease. PMID:19860894

Taneja, Shikha; Sen, Somdutta; Gupta, Vijay K; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Jameel, Shahid



Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in fish from mining-influenced waters of northeastern Oklahoma: Sampling of blood, carcass, and liver for aquatic biomonitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tri-States Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri (MO), Kansas (KS), and Oklahoma (OK), USA, was mined for lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) for more than a century. Mining ceased more than 30 years ago, but wastes remain widely distributed in the region, and there is evidence of surface- and groundwater contamination in the Spring River-Neosho River (SR-NR) system of northeastern OK. In October 2001, we collected a total of 74 fish from six locations in the SR-NR system that included common carp (Cyprinus carpio), channel- and flathead catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth- and spotted bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus punctulatus), and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). We obtained additional fish from locations in MO that included three reference sites and one site that served as a "positive control" (heavily contaminated by Pb). Blood, carcass (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and liver (carp only) samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn. Our objectives were to assess the degree to which fish from the OK portion of the SR-NR system are contaminated by these elements and to evaluate fish blood sampling for biomonitoring. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in carp and catfish from OK sites were elevated and Pb concentrations of some approached those of the highly contaminated site in MO, but concentrations in bass and crappie were relatively low. For Zn, correlations were weak among concentrations in the three tissues and none of the samples appeared to reflect site contamination. Variability was high for Cd in all three tissues of carp; differences between sites were statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for blood even though mean liver concentrations were at least 100-fold greater than those in blood. Blood concentrations of Cd and Pb were positively correlated (r 2 = 0.49 to 0.84) with the concentration of the same element in carp and catfish carcasses or in carp livers, and the corresponding multiple regression models were highly significant (p < 0.001). Our data indicate that potentially nonlethal blood sampling can be useful for monitoring of selected metals in carp, catfish, and perhaps other fishes. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Brumbaugh, W. G.; Schmitt, C. J.; May, T. W.



Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in fish from mining-influenced waters of northeastern Oklahoma: sampling of blood, carcass, and liver for aquatic biomonitoring.  


The Tri-States Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri (MO), Kansas (KS), and Oklahoma (OK), USA, was mined for lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) for more than a century. Mining ceased more than 30 years ago, but wastes remain widely distributed in the region, and there is evidence of surface- and groundwater contamination in the Spring River-Neosho River (SR-NR) system of northeastern OK. In October 2001, we collected a total of 74 fish from six locations in the SR-NR system that included common carp (Cyprinus carpio), channel- and flathead catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth- and spotted bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus punctulatus), and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). We obtained additional fish from locations in MO that included three reference sites and one site that served as a "positive control" (heavily contaminated by Pb). Blood, carcass (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and liver (carp only) samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn. Our objectives were to assess the degree to which fish from the OK portion of the SR-NR system are contaminated by these elements and to evaluate fish blood sampling for biomonitoring. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in carp and catfish from OK sites were elevated and Pb concentrations of some approached those of the highly contaminated site in MO, but concentrations in bass and crappie were relatively low. For Zn, correlations were weak among concentrations in the three tissues and none of the samples appeared to reflect site contamination. Variability was high for Cd in all three tissues of carp; differences between sites were statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for blood even though mean liver concentrations were at least 100-fold greater than those in blood. Blood concentrations of Cd and Pb were positively correlated (r2 = 0.49 to 0.84) with the concentration of the same element in carp and catfish carcasses or in carp livers, and the corresponding multiple regression models were highly significant (p < or = 0.001). Our data indicate that potentially nonlethal blood sampling can be useful for monitoring of selected metals in carp, catfish, and perhaps other fishes. PMID:15981034

Brumbaugh, William G; Schmitt, Christopher J; May, Thomas W



Protopine alkaloids in horse urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and

Paul M Wynne; John H Vine; R Gary Amiet



The determination of organophosphonate nerve agent metabolites in human urine by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  


A sensitive, robust isotope dilution LC/MS/MS method is presented for the quantitative analysis of human urine for the alkyl methylphosphonic acid metabolites of five organophosphorus nerve agents (VX, rVX or VR, GB or Sarin, GD or Soman, and GF or Cyclosarin). The selective sample preparation method employs non-bonded silica solid-phase extraction and is partially automated. While working with a mobile phase composition that enhances the electrospray ionization process, the hydrophilic interaction chromatography method results in a 5-min injection-to-injection cycle time, excellent peak shapes and adequate retention (k'=3.1). These factors lead to limits of detection for these metabolites as low as 30 pg/mL in a 1-mL sample of human urine. The quality control data (15 and 75 ng/mL) demonstrate accurate (-0.5 to +3.4%) and precise (coefficients of variation of 2.1-3.6%) quantitative results over the clinically relevant urine concentration range of 1-200 ng/mL for a validation set of 20 standard and quality control sets prepared by five analysts over 54 days. The selectivity of the method is demonstrated for a 100-individual reference range study, as well as the analysis of relevant biological samples. The combined sample preparation and analysis portions of this method have a throughput of 288 samples per day. PMID:17289448

Mawhinney, Douglas B; Hamelin, Elizabeth I; Fraser, Rheaclare; Silva, Sathya S; Pavlopoulos, Antonis J; Kobelski, Robert J



Detection of antigens and antibodies in the urine of humans with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.  

PubMed Central

Humans infected with Plasmodium falciparum frequently have elevated levels of proteins in their urine, but it is unclear if any of these proteins are parasite antigens or antimalarial antibodies. To resolve this question, urine samples from malaria patients and controls living in Thailand and Ghana were evaluated. Urine samples from 85% of the patients had elevated protein levels and contained proteins with Mrs ranging from less than 29,000 to greater than 224,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Antisera were produced against urine from infected and control subjects. Antisera raised against infected, but not control, urine were positive by indirect immunofluorescence on P. falciparum parasites and immunoprecipitated approximately 12 unique bands from extracts of parasites metabolically labeled with 35S-methionine. These data suggest that a variety of P. falciparum antigens are released into urine during acute infection. It is also likely that anti-P. falciparum antibodies are present in the urine of malaria patients because samples from these patients, but not controls, were positive in indirect immunofluorescence assays and immunoprecipitated at least 19 P. falciparum antigens from extracts of metabolically labeled parasites. The detection of malarial antigens and antibodies in urine may lead to a new approach for the diagnosis of malaria. Images PMID:1864942

Rodriguez-del Valle, M; Quakyi, I A; Amuesi, J; Quaye, J T; Nkrumah, F K; Taylor, D W



Determination of ptaquiloside and pterosin B derived from bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) in cattle plasma, urine and milk.  


Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a toxin from bracken fern (Pteridium sp.) with genotoxic effects. Hydrolysis of PTA leads to the non-toxic and aromatised indanone, pterosin B (PTB). Here we present a sensitive, fast, simple and direct method, using SPE cartridges to clean and pre-concentrate PTA and PTB in plasma, urine and milk followed by LC-MS quantification. The average recovery of PTA in plasma, urine, and milk was 71, 88 and 77%, respectively, whereas recovery of PTB was 75, 82 and 63%. The method LOQ for PTA and PTB in plasma was 1.2 and 3.7ngmL(-1), 52 and 33ngmL(-1) for undiluted urine and 5.8 and 5.3ngmL(-1) for milk. The method is repeatable within and between days, with RSD values lower than 15% (PTA) and 20% (PTB). When PTA and PTB spiked samples were stored at -18°C for 14 days both compounds remained stable. In contrast, the PTA concentration was reduced by 15% when PTA spiked plasma was left for 5h at room temperature before SPE clean-up, whereas PTB remained stable. The method is the first to allow simultaneous quantification of PTA and PTB in biological fluids in a relevant concentration range. After intravenous administration of 0.092mg PTA per kgbw in a heifer, the plasma concentration was more than 300ngmL(-1) PTA and declined to 9.8ngmL(-1) after 6h, PTB was determined after 10min at 50ngmL(-1.) PMID:24508676

Aranha, Paulo César Reis; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Strobel, Bjarne W; Friis, Christian



Determination of methylene blue and leucomethylene blue in male and female Fischer 344 rat urine and B6C3F1 mouse urine.  


A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of methylene blue and leucomethylene blue in male and female Fischer 344 rat urine and male and female B6C3F1 mouse urine was developed for use in supporting toxicokinetic studies, validated, and used to analyze urine samples for a preliminary dose level range-finding study. The method was validated for a concentration range of 10.0 to 20,000 ng/mL in urine. Samples up to 75,000 ng/mL demonstrated good recoveries when diluted into the range of the calibration curve. Six sets of calibration standards were prepared in F344 male rat urine for analysis to demonstrate reproducibility and ruggedness. The stability of sample extracts was determined under various storage conditions. During the course of analyses of the animal samples, a possible metabolic process was observed. Although Azure B is a significant impurity in methylene blue trihydrate, the amount of Azure B seen in urine samples collected from rodents dosed with methylene blue trihydrate is significantly greater than the amount seen in rodent urine spiked directly with methylene blue. This observation suggests possible N-demethylation of the methylene blue as a metabolic transformation to Azure B. PMID:15808010

Gaudette, Norman F; Lodge, Jon W



The relationship of blood- and urine-boron to boron exposure in borax-workers and usefulness of urine-boron as an exposure marker.  

PubMed Central

Daily dietary-boron intake and on-the-job inspired boron were compared with blood- and urine-boron concentrations in workers engaged in packaging and shipping borax. Fourteen workers handling borax at jobs of low, medium, and high dust exposures were sampled throughout full shifts for 5 consecutive days each. Airborne borax concentrations ranged from means of 3.3 mg/m3 to 18 mg/m3, measured gravimetrically. End-of-shift mean blood-boron concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.26 microgram/g; end-of-shift mean urine concentrations ranged from 3.16 to 10.72 micrograms/mg creatinine. Creatinine measures were used to adjust for differences in urine-specific gravity such that 1 ml of urine contains approximately 1 mg creatinine. There was no progressive increase in end-of-shift blood- or urine-boron concentrations across the days of the week. Urine testing done at the end of the work shift gave a somewhat better estimate of borate exposure than did blood testing, was sampled more easily, and was analytically less difficult to perform. Personal air samplers of two types were used: one, the 37-mm closed-face, two-piece cassette to estimate total dust and the other, the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler to estimate inspirable particulate mass. Under the conditions of this study, the IOM air sampler more nearly estimated human exposure as measured by blood- and urine-boron levels than did the sampler that measured total dust.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889874

Culver, B D; Shen, P T; Taylor, T H; Lee-Feldstein, A; Anton-Culver, H; Strong, P L



Determination of trace element concentrations and stable lead, uranium and thorium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS in NORM and NORM-polluted sample leachates.  


This work focuses on the monitoring of the potential pollution in scenarios that involve NORM-related industrial activities (environmental or in-door scenarios). The objective was to develop a method to determine extent and origin of the contamination, suitable for monitoring (i.e. simple, fast and economical) and avoiding the use of too many different instruments. It is presented a radiochemical method that allows the determination of trace element concentrations and 206Pb/207Pb/208Pb, 238U/234U and 232Th/230Th isotope ratios using a single sample aliquot and a single instrument (ICP-QMS). Eichrom UTEVA® extraction chromatography minicolumns were used to separate uranium and thorium in sample leachates. Independent ICP-MS determinations of uranium and thorium isotope ratios were carried out afterwards. Previously a small aliquot of the leachate was used for the determination of trace element concentrations and lead isotope ratios. Several radiochemical arrangements were tested to get maximum performances and simplicity of the method. The performances of the method were studied in terms of chemical yields of uranium and thorium and removal of the potentially interfering elements. The established method was applied to samples from a chemical industry and sediments collected in a NORM-polluted scenario. The results obtained from our method allowed us to infer not only the extent, but also the sources of the contamination in the area. PMID:22230754

Mas, J L; Villa, M; Hurtado, S; García-Tenorio, R



Trace element concentrations (mercury, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, aluminium, nickel, arsenic, and selenium) in some aquatic birds of the southwest Atlantic coast of France.  


Trace elements (mercury [Hg], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], zinc [Zn], lead [Pb], aluminium [Al], nickel [Ni], arsenic [As], and selenium [Se]) were investigated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in liver, kidney, muscle, and feather of aquatic birds wintering or inhabiting the wetlands situated on the Southwest Atlantic coast of France. A majority of greylag geese, red knots, and grey plovers were collected from among hunter-shot animals. The relation between residue concentrations, age (juvenile vs. adult), and sex was investigated. Trace elements were lower than threshold levels of toxicity, except for Pb. Greylag geese sampled could be considered Pb-poisoned. These consequential levels of contamination could be the result of the ingestion of Pb-shot from ammunition used in hunting areas they crossed during migration. Cd accumulation increased with age, whereas Pb levels in feathers were lower in adult birds in connection with moulting. As was influenced by sex. Female birds displayed higher concentrations in liver and feathers than did male birds. PMID:19763676

Lucia, Magali; André, Jean-Marc; Gontier, Karine; Diot, Nicolas; Veiga, Jesus; Davail, Stéphane



Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: a case report of an alarming phenomenon  

PubMed Central

Background: Purple urine bag syndrome is an uncommon phenomenon where the plastic urinary catheter bag and tubing turn purple. It occurs in some elderly constipated chronic urinary catheterization patients. The phenomenon is attributed to the presence of metabolites of tryptophan in the presence of urinary tract infection.This urine discoloration may lead to misdiagnosis and also cause great concern to patients and their relatives. Case report: We present the clinical case of a 83-year-old female patient with dementia and hypothyroidism, chronically catheterized, who presented with purple-color urine initially misdiagnosed as having haematuria. PMID:25125964

Agapakis, DI; Massa, EV; Hantzis, I; Paschoni, E; Satsoglou, E



Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: An occupational exposure study from Sweden.  


Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals. PMID:25300751

Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola



Proteomic profiling of urine for the detection of colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death in the developed world. To date, no blood or stool biomarkers with both high sensitivity and specificity for potentially curable early stage disease have been validated for clinical use. SELDI and MALDI profiling are being used increasingly to search for biomarkers in both blood and urine. Both techniques provide information predominantly on the low molecular weight proteome (<15 kDa). There have been several reports that colorectal cancer is associated with changes in the serum proteome that are detectable by SELDI and we hypothesised that proteomic changes would also be detectable in urine. Results We collected urine from 67 patients with colorectal cancer and 72 non-cancer control subjects, diluted to a constant protein concentration and generated MALDI and SELDI spectra. The intensities of 19 peaks differed significantly between cancer and non-cancer patients by both t-tests and after adjusting for confounders using multiple linear regressions. Logistic regression classifiers based on peak intensities identified colorectal cancer with up to 78% sensitivity at 87% specificity. We identified and independently quantified 3 of the discriminatory peaks using synthetic stable isotope peptides (an 1885 Da fragment of fibrinogen and hepcidin-20) or ELISA (?2-microglobulin). Conclusion Changes in the urine proteome may aid in the early detection of colorectal cancer. PMID:18558005

Ward, Douglas G; Nyangoma, Stephen; Joy, Howard; Hamilton, Emma; Wei, Wenbin; Tselepis, Chris; Steven, Neil; Wakelam, Michael JO; Johnson, Philip J; Ismail, Tariq; Martin, Ashley



A longitudinal investigation of selected pesticide metabolites in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a longitudinal investigation of environmental exposures to selected chemical contaminants, concentrations of the pesticide metabolites 1-naphthol (1NAP), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA), and atrazine mercapturate (AM) were measured in repeated samples obtained from 80 individuals in Maryland during 1995–1996. Up to six urine samples were collected from each individual at intervals of approximately 8 weeks over




Exchange transfusion in acute episodes of maple syrup urine disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two neonates with maple syrup urine disease were treated by exchange transfusion. Within 15 h blood leucine and KICA concentrations were lowered from 2.6 mM to 1.1 mM using 570 to 620 ml blood per kg body weight. The other branched-chain amino acid\\/keto acid pairs fell to normal. During exchange transfusion the patient's nitrogen balance seems to be negative. Further

U. Wendel; U. Langenbeck; I. Lombeck; H. J. Bremer



Persistence of High Lead Concentrations and Associated Effects in Tundra Swans Captured Near a Mining and Smelting Complex in Northern Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning of waterfowl, particularly tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus), has been documented in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho for nearly a century. Over 90% of the lead-poisoned tundra swans in this area that were necropsied have no ingested lead shot. Spent lead shot from hunting activities over the years is therefore a minor source of lead in

Lawrence J. Blus; Charles J. Henny; David J. Hoffman; Lou Sileo; Daniel J. Audet



Neuroradiological findings in maple syrup urine disease.  


Maple syrup urine disease is a rare inborn error of amino acid metabolism involving catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids. This disease, if left untreated, may cause damage to the brain and may even cause death. These patients typically present with distinctive maple syrup odour of sweat and urine. Patients typically present with skin and urine smelling like maple syrup. Here we describe a case with relevant magnetic resonance imaging findings and confirmatory biochemical findings. PMID:23772241

Indiran, Venkatraman; Gunaseelan, R Emmanuel



Development of an Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly for the ISS Urine Processor Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovering water from urine is a process that is critical to supporting larger crews for extended missions aboard the International Space Station. Urine is collected, preserved, and stored for processing into water and a concentrated brine solution that is highly toxic and must be contained to avoid exposure to the crew. The brine solution is collected in an accumulator tank, called a Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) that must be replaced monthly and disposed in order to continue urine processing operations. In order to reduce resupply requirements, a new accumulator tank is being developed that can be emptied on orbit into existing ISS waste tanks. The new tank, called the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) is a metal bellows tank that is designed to collect concentrated brine solution and empty by applying pressure to the bellows. This paper discusses the requirements and design of the ARFTA as well as integration into the urine processor assembly.

Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Carter, Donald Layne; Higbie, Scott



Capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection of procyclidine in human urine pretreated by ion-exchange cartridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describe a Ru(bpy)32+ based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method to detect procyclidine in human urine following separation by capillary electrophoresis (CE). An ECL detection cell was designed for post-column addition of Ru(bpy)32+. Parameters affecting separation and detection were optimized, leading to a detection limit of 1×10?9mol\\/l in an on-capillary stacking mode. For application in urine, a cartridge packed with slightly

Xiuhua Sun; Jifeng Liu; Weidong Cao; Xiurong Yang; Erkang Wang; Y. S. Fung



Correlations of Trace Element Levels in the Diet, Blood, Urine, and Feces in the Chinese Male  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the associations between trace elements in dietary intake and the other three biological media (blood,\\u000a urine, or feces) and inter-element interactions among the latter, we simultaneously collected 72-h diet duplicates, whole\\u000a blood, and 72-h urine and feces from 120 free-living healthy males in China. Correlations among the toxic (cadmium [Cd], lead\\u000a [Pb]), and nutritionally essential (zinc

Ying Wang; Yang-Li Ou; Ya-Qiong Liu; Qing Xie; Qing-Fen Liu; Quan Wu; Ti-Qiang Fan; Lai-Lai Yan; Jing-Yu Wang


Determining picogram quantities of U in human urine by thermal ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The U concentration in Standard Reference Material 2670 (Toxic Metals in Freeze-Dried Urine) and the urine of two preschool-age children were determined by measuring the chemically separated U by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry using ion counting detection. This procedure can detect about 1% of the U atoms loaded into the mass spectrometer and has a total chemical blank of about 5 pg U. The U concentration in SRM 2670 was found to be 113 +/- 2 pg /sup 238/U/ml (1 s). At this concentration, a 1-ml sample is sufficient for a determination with a total uncertainty of less than 5%. The U concentrations in the two children were 3.1 +/- 0.9 and 3.6 +/- 0.9 pg /sup 238/U/g. These values suggest that the U concentration in urine of unexposed persons may be at this low level or lower.

Kelly, W.R.; Fassett, J.D.; Hotes, S.A.



Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), antibodies to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts were measured by ELISA and hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS--Mean urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in samples from coke oven workers varied from 1.11 to 5.53 umol/mol creatinine and 0.14 umol/mol creatinine in the control group. Workers at the top side had the highest values of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts did not correlate with either 1-hydroxypyrene nor length of work at the coke oven plant. But antibody concentration in samples collected in January was predictive of the concentration in samples collected in June. A small non-significant increase in hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts was found in samples from coke oven workers relative to the control group when comparing smokers and nonsmokers separately. CONCLUSION--1-Hydroxypyrene correlates well with exposure groups based on job description. Antibodies to benzo(a)-pyrene DNA adducts was related to people and not exposure. Work at a coke oven plant might lead to increased hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts. PMID:8535495

Ovreb?, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D



Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Assay for the Detection of Legionella Antigen in Urine Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new immunochromatographic membrane assay for detecting Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen in urine samples (Binax Now Legionella Urinary Antigen Test; Binax, USA) was evaluated. Its sensitivity, specificity and level of agreement with the Binax enzyme\\u000a immunoassay were compared using nonconcentrated and concentrated urine samples. The overall agreement between the two tests\\u000a was 98.1%; the specificity of both was 100%.

J. Domínguez; N. Galí; L. Matas; P. Pedroso; A. Hernández; E. Padilla; V. Ausina



Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the aerobic and facultative bacterial flora of voided canine urine  

E-print Network

; however, urine which passes along the urethra may become contaminated with the resident bacter1a from that area. This resident bacterial population increases progressively from the proximal to the distal urethra with the highest concentration..., with delay of sampling 9, 17, 18, 23 until the urethra has been flushed by passage of the first portion of voided urine the contamination caused by urethral bacterial flora, will be reduced greatly. 9&15, 2 The differentation between contamination...

Biggerstaff, Jane



Protopine alkaloids in horse urine.  


Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-10-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-l][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, chelianthifoline, isochelianthifoline and 2-O-desmethylchelianthifoline. The metabolic formation of the tetrahydroprotoberberines by closure of the bridge across N5 and C13 is rate limited and protopine-like metabolites accumulate only when the route is overloaded. Metabolism was qualitatively similar in the horse and human. PMID:15458726

Wynne, Paul M; Vine, John H; Amiet, R Gary



Biomonitoring method for bisphenol A in human urine by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  


An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of total bisphenol A in human urine was developed and validated. The method utilized liquid/liquid extraction with 1-chlorobutane and a human urine aliquot size of 800?L. Chromatography was performed on an Acquity UPLC(®) system with a Kinetex(®) Phenyl-Hexyl column. Mass spectrometric analysis was with negative electrospray ionization on a Quattro Premier XE™. The surrogate matrix method was used for the preparation of calibration standards in synthetic urine due to the presence of BPA in control human urine. The validated calibration range was 0.75-20ng/mL with a limit of detection of 0.1ng/mL. The internal standard was d16-bisphenol A. Method validation utilized quality control samples at three concentrations in both synthetic urine and human urine. Bisphenol A mono-glucuronide was fortified in synthetic urine in each analytical run to monitor the enzymatic conversion of the glucuronide conjugate to BPA by ?-glucuronidase. Validated method parameters included linearity, accuracy, precision, integrity of dilution, selectivity, re-injection reproducibility, recovery/matrix effect, solution stability, and matrix stability in human urine. Acceptance criteria for analytical standards and QCs were ±20% of nominal concentration. Matrix stability in human urine was validated after 24h at ambient temperature, after three freeze/thaw cycles, and after frozen storage at -20°C and -80°C for up to 218 days. The method has been applied to the analysis of over 1750 human urine samples from a biomonitoring study. The median and mean urine BPA concentrations were 2.71ng/mL and 4.75ng/mL, respectively. PMID:24594944

Anderson, David J; Brozek, Eric M; Cox, Kyley J; Porucznik, Christina A; Wilkins, Diana G



Urine Metabolites Reflect Time-Dependent Effects of Cyclosporine and Sirolimus on Rat Kidney Function?  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical use of the immunosuppressant calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine is limited by its nephrotoxicity. This is enhanced when combined with the immunosuppressive mTOR inhibitor sirolimus. Nephrotoxicity of both drugs is not yet fully understood. Methods The goal was to gain more detailed mechanistic insights into the time-dependent effects of cyclosporine and sirolimus on the rat kidney by using a comprehensive approach including metabolic profiling in urine (1H-NMR spectroscopy), kidney histology, kidney function parameters in plasma, measurement of glomerular filtration rates, the oxidative stress marker 15-F2t-isoprostane in urine and immunosuppressant concentrations in blood and kidney. Male Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (controls), cyclosporine (10/25mg/kg/d) and/or sirolimus (1mg/kg/d) by oral gavage once daily for 6 and 28 days. Results Twenty-eight day treatment led to a decrease of glomerular filtration rates (cyclosporine -59%, sirolimus -25%). These were further decreased when both drugs were combined (-86%). Histology revealed tubular damage after treatment with cyclosporine, which was enhanced when sirolimus was added. No other part of the kidney was affected. 1H-NMR spectroscopy analysis of urine (day 6) revealed time-dependent changes of 2-oxoglutarate, citrate and succinate concentrations. In combination with increased urine isoprostane concentrations these changes indicated oxidative stress. After 28 days of cyclosporine treatment, urine metabonomics shifted to patterns typical for proximal tubular damage with reduction of Krebs cycle intermediates and trimethylamine-N-oxide concentrations whereas acetate, lactate, trimethylamine and glucose concentrations increased. Again, sirolimus enhanced these negative effects. Conclusions Our results indicate that cyclosporine and/or sirolimus induce damage of the renal tubular system. This is reflected by urine metabolite patterns, which seem to be more sensitive than currently used clinical kidney function markers such as creatinine concentrations in serum. Metabolic profiling in urine may provide the basis for the development of toxicodynamic monitoring strategies for immunosuppressant nephrotoxicity. PMID:19099400

Klawitter, Jost; Bendrick-Peart, Jamie; Rudolph, Birgit; Beckey, Virginia; Klawitter, Jelena; Haschke, Manuel; Rivard, Christopher; Chan, Laurence; Leibfritz, Dieter; Christians, Uwe; Schmitz, Volker



Application of duckweed for human urine treatment in Bioregenerative Life Support System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The object of the study was the common duckweed Lemna minor L. Thanks to the ability to assimilate mineral and organic substances, duckweed is used to purify water in sewage lagoons. In addition, duckweed biomass is known to be a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. The aim of the study was to estimate an application of duckweed in a two-stage treatment of human urine in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). At the first stage, the urine’s organic matter is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide. Diluted solution of oxidized urine is used for cultivation of duckweed. The appointment of duckweed is the assimilation of mineralized substances of urine. Part of the duckweed biomass yield directly or after composting could be embedded in the soil-like substrate as organic fertilizer to compensate the carry-over in consequence of plant growing. The rest duckweed biomass could be used as a feed for animals in BLSS. Then, the residual culture liquid is concentrated and used as a source of dietary salt. It takes 10-15 m2 of duckweed culture per crewmember to treat oxidized urine. The BLSS configuration including two-component subsystem of urine treatment is presented.

Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir


Radioscintigraphic demonstration of unsuspected urine extravasation  

SciTech Connect

Three cases of unsuspected urine extravasation first detected by radionuclide scintigraphy are presented with subsequent confirmation by CT and, retrograde pyelograms. A renal study done to rule out acute transplant rejection demonstrates gallbladder uptake which was initially thought to be consistent with urine extravasation.

Bocchini, T.; Williams, W.; Patton, D.



The Determination of Thallium in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variation of the triphenylmethane dye method for the determination of thallium has been modified to be suitable for analysis of urine samples in a small laboratory. Thallium is oxidized to the thallic state by bromine water, and is reacted with methyl violet for the colorimetric measurement. A maximum of 200 ?g thallium per liter was found in the urine

Morris B. Jacobs



Cranial Ultrasonography in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We performed serial cranial ultrasonography in four newborns affected by maple syrup urine disease. Symmetric increase of echogenicity of periventricular white matter, basal ganglia (mainly pallidi), and thalami was detected in the acute stage. The degree of ultrasonography abnormalities paralleled the clinical course of the disease. Maple syrup urine disease is a rare inborn error of branched-chain amino acid

Giuseppe Fariello; Carlo Dionisi-Vici; Cinzia Orazi; Saverio Malena; Andrea Bartuli; Paolo Schingo; Enza Carnevale; Isora Saponara; Gaetano Sabetta


Immunodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis using urine samples.  


Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is one of the most lethal zoonotic parasitic infections. The diagnosis is based on the combination of the abdominal imaging including CT, MRI and PET, and serology. To develop a new diagnostic tool for AE with urine as samples, mouse-Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) model and then human cases were studied. The antibody levels of urine and serum samples from the infected mice and AE cases were well correlated with each other. The sensitivity and specificity of the method with urine were 91% and 98%, respectively, when IgG4 to crude Em was examined. Comparing with serum samples, the collection of urine is easier and safer and the urine diagnostic tool makes surveys of this silent disease easier. PMID:23872436

Itoh, Makoto; Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Ishikawa, Yuji; Akabane, Hiromitsu; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Nagaoka, Fumiaki; Ito, Akira



Method for the analysis of the methylphosphonic acid metabolites of sarin and its ethanol-substituted analogue in urine as applied to the victims of the Tokyo sarin disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis method for the methylphosphonic acid metabolites of sarin in urine using trimethylsilyl derivatization and flame photometric detection is described in this report. Authentic reference standards of isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) and ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) as well as methylphosphonic acid were employed to estimate the concentration in human urine. A sample pretreatment procedure was developed for urine using

Masayasu Minami; Da-Mei Hui; Masao Katsumata; Hirofumi Inagaki; Camille A Boulet



Blood Erythrocyte Concentrations of Cadmium and Lead and the Risk of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma: A Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are hypothesised to be risk factors for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), a group of haematological malignancies with a suspected environmental aetiology. Within the EnviroGenoMarkers study we utilised pre-diagnostic erythrocyte concentrations of Cd and Pb to determine whether exposure was associated with risk of B-cell NHL and multiple myeloma. Methods 194 incident cases of B-cell NHL and 76 cases of multiple myeloma diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 were identified from two existing cohorts; EPIC-Italy and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Cases were matched to healthy controls by centre, age, gender and date of blood collection. Cd and Pb were measured in blood samples provided at recruitment using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association with risk. Analyses were stratified by cohort and gender and by subtype where possible. Results There was little evidence of an increased risk of B-cell NHL or multiple myeloma with exposure to Cd (B-cell NHL: OR 1.09 95%CI 0.61, 1.93, MM: OR 1.16 95% CI: 0.40, 3.40 ) or Pb (B-cell NHL: 0.93 95% CI 0.43, 2.02, multiple myeloma: OR 1.63 95%CI 0.45, 5.94) in the total population when comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of exposure. However, gender and cohort specific differences in results were observed. In females the risk of B-cell NHL was more than doubled in those with a body burden of Cd >1µg/L (OR 2.20 95%CI; 1.04, 4.65). Conclusions This nested case-control study does not support a consistent positive association between Cd or Pb and NHL, but there is some indication of a gender specific effect suggesting further research is warranted. PMID:24312375

Porta, Miquel; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Palli, Domenico; Johansson, Ann-Sofie; Botsivali, Maria; Vineis, Paolo; Vermeulen, Roel; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc



Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure  

PubMed Central

Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides detected in urine demonstrated the exposure as well as the ability of the rat to excrete these compounds. PMID:23736656

Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Boberg, Julie; Bonefeld-J?rgensen, Eva Cecilie



Gene Preference in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

PubMed Central

Untreated maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) results in mental and physical disabilities and often leads to neonatal death. Newborn-screening programs, coupled with the use of protein-modified diets, have minimized the severity of this phenotype and allowed affected individuals to develop into productive adults. Although inheritance of MSUD adheres to rules for single-gene traits, mutations in the genes for E1?, E1?, or E2 of the mitochondrial branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex can cause the disease. Randomly selected cell lines from 63 individuals with clinically diagnosed MSUD were tested by retroviral complementation of branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity to identify the gene locus for mutant alleles. The frequencies of the mutations were 33% for the E1? gene, 38% for the E1? gene, and 19% for the E2 gene. Ten percent of the tested cell lines gave ambiguous results by showing no complementation or restoration of activity with two gene products. These results provide a means to establish a genotype/phenotype relationship in MSUD, with the ultimate goal of unraveling the complexity of this single-gene trait. This represents the largest study to date providing information on the genotype for MSUD. PMID:11112664

Nellis, Mary M.; Danner, Dean J.



Measurement of urinary concentration: a critical appraisal of methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of urine concentration provides information concerning the kidney’s ability to appropriately respond to variations\\u000a in fluid homeostasis. It also assists in the interpretation of other tests performed on the same urine specimen. The gold\\u000a standard of estimating urinary concentration is the measurement of its osmolality; however, this procedure is not readily\\u000a available to the practicing physician. Therefore, urine

Vimal Chadha; Uttam Garg; Uri S. Alon



Reliability of triclosan measures in repeated urine samples from Norwegian pregnant women.  


Triclosan (TCS) is a synthetic antibacterial chemical that is used in personal care products and is measurable in urine. Urinary TCS has been associated with allergy in children in Norway and the United States. A reasonable degree of temporal reliability of TCS urinary concentrations has been reported among US children as well as for Puerto Rican pregnant women. We examined the reliability of TCS measures in urine among Norwegian pregnant women. TCS was measured in spot urine samples collected in gestational weeks 17, 23, and 29 from 45 women in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) enrolled in 2007 and 2008. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistics were calculated. Fifty-six percent of the 45 women had a least one sample with a value above the method limit of detection (2.3??g/l). The correlation coefficients were 0.61 for TCS concentrations at 17 and 23 weeks and 0.49 for concentrations at 17 and 29 weeks. For the three time points, the ICC was 0.49. The reliability of TCS concentrations in repeated urine samples from pregnant Norwegian women was reasonably good, suggesting a single urine sample can adequately represent TCS exposure during pregnancy. PMID:24472755

Bertelsen, Randi J; Engel, Stephanie M; Jusko, Todd A; Calafat, Antonia M; Hoppin, Jane A; London, Stephanie J; Eggesbø, Merete; Aase, Heidi; Zeiner, Pål; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun P; Guidry, Virginia T; Longnecker, Matthew P



Observations on the urine metabolic profile of codeine in pain patients.  


This retrospective data analysis explored the relationship between codeine and its metabolites morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone. The objectives were: (i) to determine urine concentrations and mole fractions of codeine and metabolites and (ii) to examine the effect of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 inhibition on metabolite mole fractions. De-identified urine specimens were collected between September 2010 and July 2011 and analyzed using LC-MS-MS to determine codeine, morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone concentrations. Geometric mean urine concentrations were 0.833, 0.085 and 0.055 for morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone, respectively. Mole fractions were 0.23, 0.025 and 0.014 for morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone, respectively. The fraction of excreted codeine in the urine increased (slope = 0.06 ± .01, R² = 0.02) with total moles. As the total amount of codeine and metabolites increased, the fraction of codeine increased, while the fraction of active metabolites decreased. CYP2D6 inhibition with paroxetine, fluoxetine, bupropion and methadone significantly decreased the fraction of morphine excreted. The prevalence of codeine metabolism to morphine was considerably higher than codeine to hydrocodone. The urine concentration of codeine excreted was the greatest, followed by morphine and hydrocodone. Subjects should be monitored during concomitant use of codeine and CYP2D6 inhibitors as this affects the amount of morphine metabolite formation. PMID:24396053

Yee, David A; Atayee, Rabia S; Best, Brookie M; Ma, Joseph D



Arsenic levels in blood, urine, and hair of workers applying monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)  

SciTech Connect

Uptake and excretion of total arsenic from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) in workers who applied the herbicide was followed during the spraying season. Urine, blood, and hair samples were collected and air samples were taken from the workers' breathing zone. Arsenic concentrations in air samples ranged from 0.001-1.086 micrograms/m3. Blood and urine arsenic values ranged from 0.0-0.2 mg/L and 0.002-1.725 mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean arsenic concentration in urine increased during the week but returned to base levels on weekends. Hair arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.02-358.0 mg/kg, increased during the spraying season, and returned to pre-season levels once herbicide application ceased. Three workers had higher than normal pre-exposure hair values. However, only one of the three workers had consistently above normal values throughout the study period.

Abdelghani, A.A.; Anderson, A.C.; Jaghabir, M.; Mather, F.



[Development of automatic urine monitoring system].  


An automatic urine monitoring system is presented to replace manual operation. The system is composed of the flow sensor, MSP430f149 single chip microcomputer, human-computer interaction module, LCD module, clock module and memory module. The signal of urine volume is captured when the urine flows through the flow sensor and then displayed on the LCD after data processing. The experiment results suggest that the design of the monitor provides a high stability, accurate measurement and good real-time, and meets the demand of the clinical application. PMID:24941774

Wei, Liang; Li, Yongqin; Chen, Bihua



Quantitative Micro-albuminuria Assessment from 'Random Voided Urinary Albumin: Creatinine Ratio' Versus '24 hours Urinary Albumin Concentration' for Screening of Diabetic Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Aims: This study aims at assessing the predictive value of random urine A:C ratio as a screening method for Micro-albuminuria assessment in DM patients as compared to 24 hours urine albumin. Settings and Design: A cross sectional observational study was conducted at a tertiary care centre. One hundred ninty three patients diagnosed with DM were enrolled in the study but 14 participants didn’t turn up with 24 hours urine sample. Thus, 179 people actually participated in the study. Material and Methods: All DM patients who attended Out Patient Departments (OPDs) and In Patient Departments (IPDs) of Medicine, Surgery and Orthopaedics, were enrolled. Proper history about development and duration of DM was taken from the patients. Examination in the form of height and weight measurement to know Body Mass Index (BMI), the Waist: Hip Ratio (W:H ratio) calculated from waist and hip circumference and blood pressure measurement was done. Fasting blood sugar was measured in the study group. [Urine analysis was done for urinary albumin and urinary creatinine]. Two urine samples were collected from each participant; one, 24 hours sample and the other random urine sample. 24 hours urine samples were used to measure urinary albumin concentration while urinary albumin to creatinine ratio was measured from random urine sample. Statistical analysis used: SPSS 17. Results: Twenty four hours RUA:C ratio has very good sensitivity and specificity of Sensitivity and specificity of 84.9% and 95.8% respectively,which makes it a better alternative to 24 hours UAC. Negative and positive predictive values of RUA:C ratio method are 0.93 and 0.090 respectively with false negative and false positive rates, 15.1% and 4.2 % respectively. Conclusion: Twenty four hours UAC is considered gold standard for screening of Micro-albuminuria but is cumbersome to collect 24 hours urine sample especially in OPD setup and in female patients. This leads to loss of compliance thereby preventing early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. This problem is more impracticable in hilly regions of India. By using random urine sample for screening of Micro-albuminuria in the form of RUA: C in random urine sample that correlates well with 24 hours UAC in 24 hours urine sample,is easier and more practical in Indian scenario especially in diabetics residing in hills. PMID:24551649

Pathania, Monika; Rathaur, Vyas Kumar; Yadav, Neeraj; Jayara, Aparna; Chaturvedi, Aditi



Crystallization of calcium oxalate in minimally diluted urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystallization of calcium oxalate was studied in minimally diluted (92%) urine using a mixed suspension mixed product crystallizer in series with a Malvern particle sizer. The crystallization was initiated by constant flow of aqueous sodium oxalate and urine into the reaction vessel via two independent feed lines. Because the Malvern cell was in series with the reaction vessel, noninvasive measurement of particle sizes could be effected. In addition, aliquots of the mixed suspension were withdrawn and transferred to a Coulter counter for crystal counting and sizing. Steady-state particle size distributions were used to determine nucleation and growth kinetics while scanning electron microscopy was used to examine deposited crystals. Two sets of experiments were performed. In the first, the effect of the concentration of the exogenous sodium oxalate was investigated while in the second, the effect of temperature was studied. Calcium oxalate nucleation and growth rates were found to be dependent on supersaturation levels inside the crystallizer. However, while growth rate increased with increasing temperature, nucleation rates decreased. The favored phases were the trihydrate at 18°C, the dihydrate at 38° and the monohydrate at 58°C. The results of both experiments are in agreement with those obtained in other studies that have been conducted in synthetic and in maximally diluted urine and which have employed invasive crystal counting and sizing techniques. As such, the present study lends confidence to the models of urinary calcium oxalate crystallization processes which currently prevail in the literature.

Bretherton, T.; Rodgers, A.



Complexometric determination of clodronate in aqueous solutions and urine.  


Three different procedures for the determination of clodronate by means of Th-EDTA-XO or Th-DCTA-XO (XO = xylenol orange) complexes are presented. According to the UV-VIS and 13C NMR measurements, XO is quantitatively replaced by the clodronate anion in the mixed ligand Th-EDTA-XO or Th-DCTA-XO complexes in slightly acidic solutions. This ligand replacement reaction can be applied to the determination of traces of clodronate. Procedures studied involve visual complexometric titration, spectrophotometric titration and conventional spectrophotometric determination. By visual complexometric titration it is possible to determine clodronate directly in human urine with acceptable accuracy and precision in the range 0.5-2.5 mg l-1. By diluting more concentrated urine samples 1:10 with water, samples of up to 80 mg l-1 can be determined with acceptable accuracy and precision. The working range of the method is linear up to 16 mg l-1 in aqueous solutions with the RSD-value varying between 0.7 and 3.8%. Interference caused by the major substances of human urine on the determination were studied. PMID:8297681

Virtanen, V; Pursiainen, J; Lajunen, L H



Antibacterial activity of nifuratel in urine and serum  

PubMed Central

The minimum inhibitory concentrations of nifuratel for 205 randomly selected isolates from urinary tract infections were tested by tube dilution. Of these, 177 (86·3%) were resistant to more than 6 ?g/ml and 140 of 141 (99·3%) strains of Escherichia coli were resistant to more than 3 ?g/ml. Urine levels of nifuratel were examined in two groups: one group had 400 mg given once and the other group had 2 g given over 24 hours. In both groups samples of urine were collected every hour for seven hours after the last dose. After one 400-mg dose the maximum urine level achieved by any subject was 2·0 ?g/ml and the mean maximum level was 0·75 ?g/ml. With the 2 g total dose, the maximum level noted was 4 ?g/ml and the mean maximum level was 1·8 ?g/ml. No measurable inhibition was noted in any of the blood samples removed at one and a half to two hours after the last dose. PMID:4625698

McGeachie, J.; Robinson, G.; Black, D.



Measurement of urine relative density using refractometer and reagent strips.  


The relative density of urine is the ratio of its density to that of water and depends on both the number and weight of solute particles in the sample, while osmolality depends only on the number of solute particles. Water metabolism is regulated by the interaction of the renal medullary countercurrent system with the circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone and thirst. The concentration of solids in urine can be measured by weighing, hydrometry, oscillations of a capillary tube, refractometry and reagent strip. These techniques, interrelated but not identical, are commonly used in hospital laboratories and in clinical wards. We compared the results obtained in 1725 urine samples of inpatients and outpatients using an automated refractometer to those obtained using two visually read dip stick tests. The correlation coefficients (Super Aution analyser vs. Aution Sticks 10EA, Aution Sticks 10 EA vs. N-Multistix, Super Aution analyser vs. N-Multisticks were 0.663, 0.645 and 0.514, respectively) and the great dispersion of mountain plots demonstrates that different techniques are not interchangeable in the measurement of relative density. Since the results obtained after discarding the samples with pH higher than 7 and those containing glucose or protein were very similar to the ones reported above, the role of these interferents appears negligible in inducing the discrepancy. PMID:9915224

Dorizzi, R M; Caputo, M



Urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) excretion in humans and cattle as an index of exposure to lead.  


Disposable ion-exchange chromatographic columns were used to determine delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) concentrations in 11 bovine and 184 human urine samples. The mean urinary ALA concentrations in persons working as battery charges, autopainters, automechanics, and urban first-grade pupils were 11.61 +/- 14.23, 6.51 +/- 3.31, 6.48 +/- 3.36, and 5.71 +/- 2.91 micrograms/ml respectively. These values were higher than those found in urine from gasoline station attendants, university students and laboratory assistants, rural adult farmers, and rural first-grade pupils, which were 4.90 +/- 1.95, 4.93 +/- 1.76, 4.40 +/- 1.79 and 4.51 +/- 2.65 micrograms/ml respectively. In cattle (Holstein Friesian/White Fulani cross) the mean urinary ALA concentration was 1.84 +/- 0.04 micron/ml. The data indicates that persons working around automobile, lead batteries and leaded gasoline had elevated ALA concentrations in urine. Rural humans and cattle did not have significant elevations of urinary ALA. PMID:7210469

Adaudi, A O; Aliu, Y O



Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications  

E-print Network

. Waterless, or no-flush urinals, may help mitigate these effects and offer other advantages, including lower utility charges, improved restroom hygiene, and decreased fixture maintenance. Some notable caveats include possible lack of acceptance by users, odor...

Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.



Renal calcium and magnesium excretion during vasopressin administration into sheep with acid or alkaline urine.  

PubMed Central

1. The proposition that changes in renal calcium excretion during vasopressin administration are positively correlated with concurrent changes in urine hydrogen ion concentration was tested by administration of vasopressin into twelve conscious diuresing sheep receiving either alkalinizing or acidifying infusions. 2. Vasopressin-induced antidiuresis in sheep with alkaline urine was associated with significant increases in urinary pH and decreases in the rate of calcium excretion whereas antidiuresis in sheep with acid urine was associated with significant decreases in urinary pH and no consistent effect on calcium excretion. 3. Magnesium excretion increased during vasopressin administration in most experiments regardless of urinary pH changes. 4. Vasopressin administration did not significantly alter the rate of excretion of sodium, potassium, chloride and phosphate or the rates of sodium, potassium, chloride, inulin, para-aminohippurate and osmolal clearance in sheep with either acid or alkaline urine. Potassium excretion and clearance in sheep with alkaline ruine was higher than that of sheep with acid urine during vasopressin infusion. 5. The results support the hypothesis that changes in renal tubular hydrogen ion concentration or bicarbonate concentration caused by water reabsorption from the collecting duct and possibly the late distal tubule could be part of the explanation for changes in renal calcium excretion which occur during vasopressin-induced antidiuresis. PMID:41939

Beal, A M



Measurement of beta 2-microglobulin in bovine serum and urine by radioimmunoassay.  


A radioimmunoassay (RIA) system for quantification of bovine beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) in serum and urine was developed. The protein isolated from bovine colostrum showed a single band in SDS-PAGE, and its molecular weight was approximately 11,600. Amino acid sequences for the first 24 residues and the amino acid composition of the protein were in agreement with those in the bovine beta 2-M of previous research works. In an Ouchterlony test, a single precipitation line was formed between the protein and the antiserum made by the protein. From these results, it was confirmed that the protein isolated from the colostrum was pure bovine beta 2-M. For creation of an RIA calibration curve for urine, a urine void of beta 2-M, as much as possible (beta 2-M-free urine), and a PBS were used as diluents. Intraassay (n = 10) and interassay (n = 3) variances were 1.7-4.6% and 7.1-11.5% in the PBS dilute method, and were 1.4-5.1% and 12.3-13.5% in the beta 2-M-free urine dilute method, respectively. Mean recoveries were 160 +/- 19% (mean +/- SD) and 98.4 +/- 7.9% in PBS and beta-M-free urine, respectively. It was found that the method using the beta 2-M-free urine as a diluent was more accurate than using PBS. The beta 2-M concentrations in serum and urine of healthy Holstein cows measured by this RIA system showed a logarithmic normal distribution for urine and a normal distribution for serum. The mean beta 2-M concentrations were 0.0305(+0.04443)(-0.0210) mg/l (Geometric mean +/- S.D., n = 43) in urine and 2.87 +/- 0.45 mg/l (Arithmetic mean +/- S.D., n = 26) in sera. Further, we could not observe the particular tendency of daily variation in urinary beta 2-M concentrations of healthy cows (Holstein, n = 3 x 2 days). PMID:8844596

Kunugiyama, I; Ito, N; Takagaki, Y; Hayashi, S; Sone, K; Gotoh, H; Saitoh, T; Furukawa, Y; Yamaguchi, T



Urine processing for potable water recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource recovery, including that of urine water extraction, is one of the most crucial aspects of long-term life support in interplanetary space travel. This effort consequently examined an approach to processing raw, undiluted urine based on low-temperature freezing. A strategy uniquely different from NASA's current emphasis on distillation processing strategies, whereby this liquid freeze-thaw (LiFT) procedure avoids both chemical and

Jeffrey MacLeod Schmidt



Urinary neopterin concentrations in healthy individuals with household contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased neopterin concentrations in serum and urine indicate activation of cell-mediated immunity. In this study, urinary neopterin concentrations of a family consisting of 1 child (aged 5 years), her parents, and her grand- parents were determined over a one year period and the course of neopterin levels was compared. Urine speci- mens were taken every second week during 1 year

Christiana Winkler; Barbara Wirleitner; Ernst R. Werner; Dietmar Fuchs


Impact of soil properties on critical concentrations of cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, and mercury in soil and soil solution in view of ecotoxicological effects.  


Risk assessment for metals in terrestrial ecosystems, including assessments of critical loads, requires appropriate critical limits for metal concentrations in soil and soil solution. This chapter presents an overview of methodologies used to derive critical (i) reactive and total metal concentrations in soils and (ii) free metal ion and total metal concentrations in soil solution for Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg, taking into account the effect of soil properties related to ecotoxicological effects. Most emphasis is given to the derivation of critical free and total metal concentrations in soil solution, using available NOEC soil data and transfer functions relating solid-phase and dissolved metal concentrations. This approach is based on the assumption that impacts on test organisms (plants, microorganisms, and soil invertebrates) are mainly related to the soil solution concentration (activity) and not to the soil solid-phase content. Critical Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg concentrations in soil solution vary with pH and DOC level. The results obtained are generally comparable to those derived for surface waters based on impacts to aquatic organisms. Critical soil metal concentrations, related to the derived soil solution limits, can be described as a function of pH and organic matter and clay content, and varying about one order of magnitude between different soil types. PMID:17708072

de Vries, Wim; Lofts, Steve; Tipping, Ed; Meili, Markus; Groenenberg, Jan E; Schütze, Gudrun



Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C  

SciTech Connect

Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) {mu}g/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r{sub s}=0.5; p<0.001). After adjustment, ln (urine cadmium) was not associated with serum cystatin-C-based measures. However, higher ln (urine cadmium) was associated with higher creatinine-based eGFRs including the MDRD and an equation incorporating serum cystatin C and creatinine (beta-coefficient=4.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

Weaver, Virginia M., E-mail: [Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615N. Wolfe St., Rm. 7041, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Industrial Medicine, SoonChunHyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Industrial Medicine, SoonChunHyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Parsons, Patrick J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States) [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Spector, June [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Fadrowski, Jeffrey [Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States) [Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jaar, Bernard G. [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States) [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Steuerwald, Amy J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States) [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Todd, Andrew C. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); and others



Development of correction formulas for canine and feline urine specific gravity measured using a Japanese refractometer.  


One of the most important functions of the kidney is to concentrate urine through the reabsorption of water. Urine specific gravity (USG) is used in routine tests of urine concentration and can be estimated using a refractometer. However, as the scale of Japanese refractometer is based on experimental data from healthy Japanese people, and human USG obtained by Japanese refractometers show higher values than that by refractometer produced in Europe or the U.S.A. The purpose of this study was to establish correction formulas for the USG of dogs and cats measured using Japanese refractometers. In this study, we found that Japanese refractometers overestimated USG in both dogs and cats. This study shows that the correlation formulas described in this study are useful for the accurate evaluation of USG. PMID:21187683

Miyagawa, Yuichi; Tominaga, Yoshinori; Toda, Noriko; Takemura, Naoyuki




Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the direct use of sewage water for more than 100 years to irrigate crops, heavy metals have accumulated in soils in the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State, México. From January to November 1996 the present study was conducted to make a diagnosis of the accumulation and variability of the concentration of cadmium, nickel, and lead in water,

Antonio Vázquez-Alarcón; Lenom Justin-Cajuste; Christina Siebe-Grabach; Gabriel Alcántar-González



Concentrations of Cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker ( Hypentelium nigricans ) from Streams Contaminated by Lead–Zinc Mining: Implications for Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers\\u000a are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb–zinc\\u000a (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory

C. J. Schmitt; W. G. Brumbaugh; T. W. May



[Activity of selected enzymes in urine of workers from the repair brigades in chemical plants "Organika-Azot" in Jaworz].  


In 45 repair service workers of a chemical plant producing pesticides the serum concentration of creatinine and uric acid as well as the concentration of proteins and the activity of alkaline phosphatase, a alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, lactic dehydrogenase, and N-acetyl-beta- glucosaminidase in urine were determined. As compared to 31 healthy controls, the serum creatinine concentration was significantly higher (in any case the creatinine and uric acid concentration did not exceed the upper normal limit), the urine lactic dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta- glucosaminidase activity, factored by creatinine, was significantly elevated. The results of the examinations point to a discrete lesion of the kidneys. PMID:1296110

Kossmann, S; Magner-Krezel, Z



High-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of aztreonam in sera and urine.  

PubMed Central

Aztreonam (SQ 26,776) is a new synthetic monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic which is specifically active against aerobic gram-negative bacteria. High-pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) systems were developed for the quantitative analysis of aztreonam in human, monkey, rat, mouse, and rabbit sera and urine. The HPLC conditions employed for these analyses were a muBondapak C18 column, a mobile phase made up of 0.005 M tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate at pH 3.0 and acetonitrile or methanol, UV detection at 293 nm, and a flow rate of 2.0 ml/min. For human sera and urine, the mobile phase was 80% 0.005 M tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate-0.005M (NH4)2SO4 and 20% acetonitrile (vol/vol). For the range of sera and urine, HPLC analyses were shown to have excellent detector linearity of aztreonam over a concentration range of 1.0 mg/ml to 0.5 microgram/ml. Correlation coefficients for plots of aztreonam peak area versus its concentration were greater than or equal to 0.990. The detection limit of aztreonam was 1.0 micrograms/ml in sera and 5.0 micrograms/ml in urine. HPLC and microbiological assays of aztreonam in human sera and urine were in good agreement. PMID:6684412

Pilkiewicz, F G; Remsburg, B J; Fisher, S M; Sykes, R B



Direct measurements of xanthine in 2000-fold diluted xanthinuric urine with a nanoporous carbon fiber sensor.  


High selectivity and sensitivity is reported in the measurements of xanthine in urine by fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSV) with a nanostructured carbon fiber sensor of 3.5 +/- 0.4 mum radius. Fabrication of the sensors for the measurements is described. Fabrication of the nanostructure at the carbon fiber sensor surface exposes surface pores. SEM images confirm the formation of the nanostructure. The results indicate that the nanostructure improves the sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD) in the measurements of xanthine and uric acid. The sensors allow rapid direct measurements of xanthine in 2000-fold diluted xanthinuric urine and of uric acid in 2000-fold diluted normal urine. The sensitivity and the LOD of xanthine is 0.40 +/- 0.02 nA microM(-1) (0.995) and 1 microM, respectively, and 0.99 +/- 0.01 nA microM(-1) (0.998) and 500 nM for uric acid. The concentration of xanthine in 2000-fold diluted xanthinuric urine is 1.6 +/- 0.2 muM from FSV and from HPLC. The concentration of xanthine and uric acid in urine can be determined by pre- or post-calibration of the sensor in buffer or by the method of standard addition. PMID:18493684

Kathiwala, Mehjabin; Affum, Andrews Obeng; Perry, Jason; Brajter-Toth, Anna



Multicenter study shows an investigational urine test can predict high-risk prostate cancer in men who choose ‘watchful waiting’

Initial results of a multicenter study coordinated by researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center indicates that two investigational urine-based biomarkers are associated with prostate cancers that are likely to be aggressive and potentially life-threatening among men who take a “watchful waiting,” or active-surveillance approach to manage their disease. Ultimately, these markers may lead to the development of a urine test that could complement prostate biopsy for predicting disease aggressiveness and progression.


Continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration in the acute phase of neonatal maple syrup urine disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maple syrup urine disease results in accumulation of leucine and its metabolites, which may lead in the long term to neurological dysfunction. In acute neonatal crises, large amounts of leucine may be removed by continuous venovenous haemofiltration. This extracorporeal technique has its risks and hazards, which increase with duration of treatment. We report three neonates in life-threatening conditions due to

P. Jouvet; F. Poggi; D. Rabier; J. L. Michel; P. Hubert; M. Sposito; J. M. Saudubray; N. K. Man



Management of maple syrup urine disease in the peri-operative period.  


Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) has an incidence of 1:125,000 newborns in Ireland. Patients, when fasting, or in a catabolic state build up toxic metabolites leading to progressive neurological dysfunction. We describe the necessary peri-operative management of a patient with MSUD who developed symptomatic gallstones requiring a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24416851

McCarron, E; McCormack, O; Cronin, T; McGowan, A; Healy, M L; O'Rourke, D; Crushell, E; Ravi, N; Reynolds, J V



Ex vivo spontaneous generation of 19-norandrostenedione and nandrolone detected in equine plasma and urine.  


19-Norandrostenedione (NAED) and nandrolone are anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Nandrolone was regarded solely as a synthetic AAS until the 1980s when trace concentrations of apparently endogenous nandrolone were detected in urine samples obtained from intact male horses (stallions). Since then, its endogenous origin has been reported in boars and bulls; endogenous NAED and nandrolone have been identified in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions. More recently, however, it was suggested that NAED and nandrolone detected in urine samples from stallions are primarily artifacts due to the analytical procedure. The present study was undertaken to determine whether NAED and nandrolone detected in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions are truly endogenous or artifacts from sample processing. To answer this question, fresh plasma and urine samples from ?8 stallions were analyzed for the two AASs, soon after collection, by liquid chromatography hyphenated to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). NAED and nandrolone were not detected in fresh plasma samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Concentrations of both AASs increased with storage time, and the increases were greater at a higher storage temperature (37°C versus 4°C, and ambient temperature versus 4°C). Although NAED was detected in some fresh stallion urine samples, its concentration (<407 pg/mL) was far lower (<0.4%) than that in the same samples post storage (at ambient temperature for 15 days). Nandrolone was not detected in most of fresh urine samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Based on these results, it is concluded that all NAED and nandrolone detected in stored plasma samples of stallions and most of them in the stored urine samples are not from endogenous origins but spontaneously generated during sample storage, most likely from spontaneous decarboxylation of androstenedione-19-oic acid and testosterone-19-oic acid. To our knowledge, it is the first time that all NAED and nandrolone detected in plasma of stallions and most of them detected in the urine have been shown to be spontaneously generated in vitro during sample storage. This finding would have significant implications with regard to the regulation of the two steroids in horse racing. PMID:22051080

Guan, Fuyu; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; You, Youwen; Li, Xiaoqing; McDonnell, Sue



The preservation of urine samples for determination of renal stone risk factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preservation technique for urine specimens before determination of stone risk factors was evaluated. The purpose of these experiments was to prove the effectiveness of the preservatives used to prevent changes in the concentrations of those constituents measured. Measured concentrations in fresh specimens were compared with those in the same specimens after storage with the preservatives. Refrigeration at 4 degrees C up to five days was appropriate in a laboratory setting, as no significant changes in urinary concentrations occurred. Refrigeration, however, did not offer a convenient method for shipping. Chemical preservation was found to be an effective alternative to refrigeration. Thymol prevented changes in concentration of pH, citrate, uric acid, sulfate, sodium, potassium, and cyclic AMP, while a mixture of hydrochloric (HCl) acid and boric acid prevented changes in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, oxalate, ammonium, and creatinine. Thus, the addition of thymol or HCl/boric acid to urine specimens will prevent significant changes in the concentrations of stone risk factors.

Nicar, M. J.; Hsu, M. C.; Johnson, T.; Pak, C. Y.



For information regarding the background concentration levels of macro and trace constituents, including elements of regulatory-interest such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead,  

E-print Network

Model And Its Use In Contaminant Transport Modeling 2.1 Introduction The concentration of contaminants of contam- inants (Section 2.7) and anion exclusion (Section 2.8). These latter processes are difficult conditions in the system to be modeled. Values for Kd not only vary greatly between contaminants, but also


Variations in Lead Isotopic Abundances in Sprague-Dawley Rat Tissues: Possible Reason of Formation  

PubMed Central

It has been reported in previous research that the lead isotopic composition of blood, urine and feces samples statistically differed from the given lead sources in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. However, the reason for this phenomenon is still unclear. An animal experiment was performed to investigate the lead isotope fractionation in diverse biological samples (i.e., lungs, liver, kidneys, bone) and to explore the possible reasons. SD rats were intratracheally instilled with lead acetate at the concentrations of 0, 0.02, 0.2, and 2 mg/kg body weight. Biological samples were collected for lead isotope analysis using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences are observed in lead isotope abundances among the diverse biological samples. The lead isotope abundances (206Pb, 207Pb and 208Pb) in diverse biological samples show different degrees and directions of departure from the given lead source. The results suggest that differences in enrichment or depletion capacity for each lead isotope in the various tissues might lead to the variation in lead isotopic abundances in tissues. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead level and the lead isotope abundances in liver and bone is observed. When the whole-blood level is higher than 50 ng/mL, the lead isotopic compositions of biological samples tend to be the same. Thus, the data support the speculation of a fractionation functional threshold. PMID:24587048

Liu, Duojian; Wu, Jing; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Jingyu




EPA Science Inventory

Five communities with water supplies having arsenic concentrations of 6, 51, 98, 123 and 393 micrograms/liter were selected for study. Samples of blood, hair, urine and tap water were obtained from participants in each community and analyzed for arsenic content. Results showed an...


A longitudinal investigation of selected pesticide metabolites in urine.  


As part of a longitudinal investigation of environmental exposures to selected chemical contaminants, concentrations of the pesticide metabolites 1-naphthol (INAP), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA), and atrazine mercapturate (AM) were measured in repeated samples obtained from 80 individuals in Maryland during 1995-1996. Up to six urine samples were collected from each individual at intervals of approximately 8 weeks over a 1-year period (i.e., one sample per participant in each of six cycles). INAP (median=4.2 microg/l and 3.3 microg/g creatinine) and TCPY (median=5.3 microg/l and 4.6. microg/g creatinine) were present in over 80% of the samples, while MDA and AM were detected infrequently (6.6% and <1% of samples, respectively). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of INAP in urine did not vary significantly among sampling cycles. In contrast, GM concentrations of TCPY were significantly greater in samples collected during the spring and summer of 1996 than in the preceding fall and winter. Repeated measurements of INAP and TCPY from the same individual over time were highly variable. The average range of INAP and TCPY concentrations from the same individual were approximately 200% and 50% greater than the respective population mean levels. Geometric mean (GM) TCPY concentrations differed significantly between Caucasian (n=42, GM=5.7 microg/g creatinine) and African-American (n=11, GM=4.0 microg/g) participants and among education levels, but were not significantly different among groups classified by gender, age, or household income. In future research, environmental measurements of the parent compounds and questionnaire data collected concurrently with the biomarker data will be used to characterize the determinants of variability in the urinary pesticide metabolite levels. PMID:10554151

MacIntosh, D L; Needham, L L; Hammerstrom, K A; Ryan, P B



Concentrations of Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc in Fish from Mining-Influenced Waters of Northeastern Oklahoma: Sampling of Blood, Carcass, and Liver for Aquatic Biomonitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tri-States Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri (MO), Kansas (KS), and Oklahoma (OK), USA, was mined for lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) for more than a century. Mining ceased more than 30 years ago, but wastes remain widely distributed in the region, and there is evidence of surface- and groundwater contamination in the Spring River-Neosho River (SR-NR) system of northeastern

William G. Brumbaugh; Christopher J. Schmitt; Thomas W. May



Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion  

PubMed Central

Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624



Urine as a CO2 absorbent.  


The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of urine on the absorption of greenhouse gases such as CO(2). Human urine diluted with olive-oil-mill wastewaters (OMW) could be used to capture CO(2) from flue gas of coal-fired power plant and convert CO(2) emissions into valuable fertilizers (mainly, NH(4)HCO(3)) that can enhance CO(2) sequestration into soil and subsoil layers. Thus, the CO(2) emissions could be reduced between 0.1 and 1%. The proposed strategy requires further research to increase CO(2) absorption and assess the risks associated with wastewater reuse and xenobiotics in the agroecological environment. PMID:22366316

Aguilar, Manuel Jiménez



Characterizing aquatic health using salmonid mortality, physiology, and biomass estimates in streams with elevated concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in the Boulder River Watershed, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abandoned tailings and mine adits are located throughout the Boulder River watershed in Montana. In this watershed, all species of fish are absent from some tributary reaches near mine sources: however, populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontitalis, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and cut-throat trout O. clarki are found further downstream. Multiple methods must be used to investigate the effects of metals released by past mining activity because the effects on aquatic life may range in severity, depending on the proximity of mine sources. Therefore, we used three types of effects - those on fish population levels (as measured by survival), those on biomass and density, and those at the level of the individual (as measured by increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and increases in concentrations of tissue metals) - to assess the aquatic health of the Boulder River watershed. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the water column were associated with increased mortality of trout at sites located near mine waste sources. The hypertrophy (swelling), degeneration (dying), and necrosis of epithelial cells observed in the gills support our conclusion that the cause of death was related to metals in the water column. At a site further downstream (lower Cataract Creek), we observed impaired health of resident trout, as well as effects on biomass and density (measured as decreases in the kilograms of trout per hectare and the number per 300 m) and effects at the individual level, including increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and tissue concentrations of metals.

Farag, A.M.; Skaar, D.; Nimick, D.A.; MacConnell, E.; Hogstrand, C.



Biomonitoring of infant exposure to phenolic endocrine disruptors using urine expressed from disposable gel diapers.  


Infant exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) may cause adverse health effects because of their fast growth and development during this life stage. However, collecting urine from infants for exposure assessment using biological monitoring is not an easy task. For this purpose, we evaluated the feasibility of using urine expressed from disposable gel absorbent diapers (GADs) as a matrix for biomonitoring selected phenolic EDs. GADs urine was expressed with the assistance of CaCl(2) and was collected using a device fabricated in our laboratory. The analytes were extracted and concentrated using a liquid-liquid method and their hydroxyl groups were modified by dansyl chloride to enhance their chromatography and detection. Finally, the analytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The target chemicals were bisphenol A, triclosan, 17 ?-ethynylestradiol, the natural hormone estrone, and 17 ?-estradiol. The ratio of the CaCl(2) to the urine-wetted gel absorbent, variation of the inter-urination volume, and analyte deposition bias in the diaper were assessed. Analyte blank values in the diapers, the sample storage stabilities, and recoveries of the analytes were also evaluated. The results showed that 70-80 % of the urine could be expressed from the diaper with the assistance of CaCl(2) and 70.5-124 % of the spiked analytes can be recovered in the expressed urine. The limits of detections (LODs) were 0.02-0.27 ng/mL, well within the range for detection in human populations. Our pilot data suggest that infants are widely exposed to the selected EDs. PMID:24924209

Liu, Liangpo; Xia, Tongwei; Zhang, Xueqin; Barr, Dana Boyd; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Meiping; Huang, Qingyu; Shen, Heqing



Mapping and Identification of the Urine Proteome of Prostate Cancer Patients by 2D PAGE/MS.  


Proteome analysis of the urine has shown that urine contains disease-specific information for a variety of urogenital system disorders, including prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to determine the protein components of urine from PCa patients. Urine from 8 patients with clinically and histologically confirmed PCa was analyzed by conventional 2D PAGE. The MS identification of the most prominent 125 spots from the urine map revealed 45 distinct proteins. According to Gene Ontology, the identified proteins are involved in a variety of biological processes, majority of them are secreted (71%), and half of them are enzymes or transporters. Comparison with the normal urine proteome revealed 11 proteins distinctive for PCa. Using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, we have found 3 proteins (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase rififylin, tumor protein D52, and thymidine phosphorylase) associated with cellular growth and proliferation (p = 8.35 × 10(-4) - 3.41 × 10(-2)). The top network of functional associations between 11 proteins was Cell Death and Survival, Cell-To-Cell Signaling and Interaction, and System Development and Function (p = 10(-30)). In summary, we have created an initial proteomic map of PCa patient's urine. The results from this study provide some leads to understand the molecular bases of prostate cancer. PMID:25215235

Kiprijanovska, Sanja; Stavridis, Sotir; Stankov, Oliver; Komina, Selim; Petrusevska, Gordana; Polenakovic, Momir; Davalieva, Katarina



Mapping and Identification of the Urine Proteome of Prostate Cancer Patients by 2D PAGE/MS  

PubMed Central

Proteome analysis of the urine has shown that urine contains disease-specific information for a variety of urogenital system disorders, including prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to determine the protein components of urine from PCa patients. Urine from 8 patients with clinically and histologically confirmed PCa was analyzed by conventional 2D PAGE. The MS identification of the most prominent 125 spots from the urine map revealed 45 distinct proteins. According to Gene Ontology, the identified proteins are involved in a variety of biological processes, majority of them are secreted (71%), and half of them are enzymes or transporters. Comparison with the normal urine proteome revealed 11 proteins distinctive for PCa. Using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, we have found 3 proteins (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase rififylin, tumor protein D52, and thymidine phosphorylase) associated with cellular growth and proliferation (p = 8.35 × 10?4 ? 3.41 × 10?2). The top network of functional associations between 11 proteins was Cell Death and Survival, Cell-To-Cell Signaling and Interaction, and System Development and Function (p = 10?30). In summary, we have created an initial proteomic map of PCa patient's urine. The results from this study provide some leads to understand the molecular bases of prostate cancer. PMID:25215235

Kiprijanovska, Sanja; Stavridis, Sotir; Stankov, Oliver; Komina, Selim; Petrusevska, Gordana; Polenakovic, Momir; Davalieva, Katarina



Imaging in classic form of maple syrup urine disease: a rare metabolic central nervous system.  


Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odour of affected infants' urine. MSUD is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and their toxic by-products (ketoacids) in the blood and urine. Imaging is characterestized by MSUD oedema affecting the myelinated white matter. We present a neonate with classic type of MSUD and its imaging features on computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:24049754

Jain, Aditi; Jagdeesh, K; Mane, Ranoji; Singla, Saurabh



Imaging in Classic Form of Maple Syrup Urine Disease: A Rare Metabolic Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odour of affected infants’ urine. MSUD is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and their toxic by-products (ketoacids) in the blood and urine. Imaging is characterestized by MSUD oedema affecting the myelinated white matter. We present a neonate with classic type of MSUD and its imaging features on computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:24049754

Jain, Aditi; Jagdeesh, K.; Mane, Ranoji; Singla, Saurabh



Effects of environmental lead levels on the urinary kallikrein excretion of exposed workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten men, working in a factory making car batteries, were hospitalized in order to establish the diagnosis of lead intoxication. The urinary kallikrein activity, determined in their 24-hr urines, was found to be lower than that of a control group. Kallikrein activity was then determined in morning urines of another group of 25 lead exposed men working in the same

P. Boscolo; E. Salimei; A. Adamo; G. Porcelli




SciTech Connect

This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.




Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA. PMID:22253637

Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef; Lobo, Rebecca A.



Urban nutrient recovery from fresh human urine through cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana.  


High rate food consumption in urban cities causes vast amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus used in agriculture to end up in urban wastewaters. To substantially recover these nutrients, source-separated human urine should be targeted. The present study was to investigate the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus in urine via microalgae cultivation. In concentrated urine, urea hydrolysis and precipitation occur rapidly, making microalgal growth difficult and nutrient recovery ineffective. However, when fresh urine was added as nutrient stock for 1-day growth requirement, biomass of Chlorella sorokiniana grew from 0.44 to 0.96 g L(-1) utilising 62.64 mg L(-1) of N and 10.64 mg L(-1) of P, achieving 80.4% and 96.6% recoveries, respectively in a 1-day non-sterile cultivation cycle. Overall, microalgae grown with urine added as nutrient supplement show no signs of inferiority as compared to those grown in recipe medium BG11 in terms of mass and chlorophyll a growth rates as well as resulting lipids (36.8%) and energy contents (21.0 kJ g(-1)). PMID:25016102

Zhang, Shanshan; Lim, Chun Yong; Chen, Chia-Lung; Liu, He; Wang, Jing-Yuan



An HPLC method for the determination of ethacridine lactate in human urine.  


An HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of ethacridine lactate in human urine. Solid-phase extraction cartridges were used to extract urine samples. Separation was carried out on a C(18) column maintained at 30 degrees C with methanol-0.05% sodium dodecylsulfonate (70:30, v/v, pH 3) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was at UV 272 nm. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 4-4000 ng/mL, with linear correlation coefficient r equal to 0.9998. The limit of detection for the assay was 1.1 ng/mL. The within-day accuracy ranged from 94.8 to 101.6% and precision from 2.3 to 5.4%. The between-day accuracy ranged from 96.8 to 102.6% and precision from 4.0 to 5.3%. The absolute recovery was 95.4-101.2%. Urine samples were stable for at least 15 days if stored in the dark at -20 degrees C. This simple and accurate method allows the sensitive determination of ethacridine lactate in human urine. It was successfully applied to assess the urine level of ethacridine lactate in women received intra-amniotic injection. PMID:17294498

Guo, Zhi-Yong; Wei, Dan-Yi; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Xuan, Kun-Fei; Yu, Xu-Fei; Yu, Qiu-Luan; Chu, Yun



Selenium metabolites in urine of cancer patients receiving L-selenomethionine at high doses  

SciTech Connect

We investigated, with quantitative HPLC/mass spectrometry, the selenium metabolites in urine from five cancer patients receiving high doses of L-selenomethionine over an extended period (2 x 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 7 days, then 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 21 days) as an adjunct to their normal cancer chemotherapy. Urine samples were collected at day 0 (all 5 patients), and at 2-3 additional collection times ranging from 1 to 33 days. The background selenium concentrations ranged from 12 to 55 {mu}g Se/L and increased to 870 to 4420 {mu}g Se/L for the five patients during the study. All five patients had appreciable levels of selenosugars in their background urine sample, and the concentrations increased dramatically after selenium intake. Trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe), on the other hand, was generally present as only a trace metabolite in background urine, and, although the concentration of TMSe increased following selenium exposure, it became a less significant proportion relative to selenosugars. These data refute the currently accepted role of TMSe as the preferred excretion metabolite when selenium exposure is high.

Kuehnelt, Doris [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens University Graz, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria); Juresa, Dijana [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens University Graz, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria); Francesconi, Kevin A. [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens University Graz, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria)]. E-mail:; Fakih, Marwan [Department of Epidemiology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Reid, Mary E. [Department of Epidemiology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)



Ultraviolet properties of Australian mammal urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploitation of predator signals by potential prey is well researched, but relatively little is known about how predators exploit chemical cues (either deliberate signals or waste by-products) produced by their prey. In Finland, the urine