Sample records for urine lead concentration

  1. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePLUS

    A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to appropriately conserve or excrete water. ... Increased urine concentration may be due to different conditions, such as: Heart failure Loss of body fluids (dehydration) from diarrhea or ...

  2. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  3. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  4. Concentration of urine by the hibernating marmot.

    PubMed

    Zatzman, M L; South, F E

    1975-05-01

    Studies wer performed with marmots (Marmota flaviventris) of both sexes that had chronic arterial, venous, and bladder catheters. Urine collection was performed during hibernation and urine osmolalities (611.6 not equal to 166.1 SD) were found to be lower than those of aroused animals (1264 not equal to 472.9 SD), but hypertonic to plasma. Peak osmolality of meduallary slices was found to be in the range of osmotic pressures of urine obtained from hibernating or aroused animals. After single injections of a mixture of rho-aminohippurate and inulin, or during constant infusion of inulin, steady-state excretion by hibernators was not achieved for several days. Indirect evidence indicateds that the hibernating marmot is capable of PAH secretion. PMID:1130537

  5. Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, K.; Hauser, R.; Calafat, A.M.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Duty, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The present report describes the distribution of breast milk and urinary free and total bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations, from 27 post-partum women and their 31 infants, and explores the influence of age, sex, and nutritional source on infant BPA urinary concentration. Methods Both free (unconjugated) and total (free plus conjugated) BPA concentrations from women’s breast milk samples and infants’ urine samples were measured by online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests of group comparisons were conducted. Results Total BPA was detected in 93% of urine samples in this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who were without known environmental exposure to BPA (interquartile range [IQR]=1.2 – 4.4 ?g/L). Similarly, 75% of the mothers’ breast milk samples had detectable concentrations of total BPA (IQR=0.4 – 1.4 ?g/L). The magnitude and frequency of detection of free BPA in the children’s urine and the mothers’ breast milk were much lower than the total concentrations. Conclusions Total BPA was detected in 93% of this healthy infant population aged 3–15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA. Neither free nor total BPA urinary concentrations differed significantly by infant’s sex or by nutritional source (breast milk and/or formula) while age group was of borderline significance. There were no significant correlations between free or total BPA concentrations in mothers’ breast milk and their infants’ urine. PMID:23212895

  6. The Silicon Concentration in Cat Urine and Its Relationship with Other Elements

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Fumihito; MOCHIZUKI, Mariko; YOGO, Takuya; ISHIOKA, Katsumi; YUMOTO, Norio; SAKO, Toshinori; UEDA, Fukiko; TAGAWA, Masahiro; TAZAKI, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT To understand the effects of silicon (Si) in the urine with respect to the formation of urinary stones, the distribution of Si in urine was observed. Urine samples from cats with urolithiasis (n=10) and healthy cats (n=15) were used. The concentration of Si in the cats with urolithiasis was significantly higher (P<0.001). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between the concentration of Si and those of other elements, such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and iron, only in the urine of the healthy cats. The distribution of elements in the urine differed between the cats with urolithiasis and the healthy cats. The Si concentration and its relationship with other elements were suggested to be useful biomarkers for urolithiasis in cats. PMID:24334829

  7. Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E Bassett

    2004-01-01

    Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment

  8. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a sorbent material for the solid phase extraction of lead from urine and subsequent determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Crecente, Rosa M.; Lovera, Carlha Gutiérrez; García, Julia Barciela; Méndez, Jennifer Álvarez; Martín, Sagrario García; Latorre, Carlos Herrero

    2014-11-01

    The determination of lead in urine is a way of monitoring the chemical exposure to this metal. In the present paper, a new method for the Pb determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) in urine at low levels has been developed. Lead was separated from the undesirable urine matrix by means of a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been used as a sorbent material. Lead from urine was retained at pH 4.0 and was quantitatively eluted using a 0.7 M nitric acid solution and was subsequently measured by ETAAS. The effects of parameters that influence the adsorption-elution process (such as pH, eluent volume and concentration, sampling and elution flow rates) and the atomic spectrometry conditions have been studied by means of different factorial design strategies. Under the optimized conditions, the detection and quantification limits obtained were 0.08 and 0.26 ?g Pb L- 1, respectively. The results demonstrate the absence of a urine matrix effect and this is the consequence of the SPE process carried out. Therefore, the developed method is useful for the analysis of Pb at low levels in real samples without the influence of other urine components. The proposed method was applied to the determination of lead in urine samples of unexposed healthy people and satisfactory results were obtained (in the range 3.64-22.9 ?g Pb L- 1).

  9. PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population.

    PubMed

    Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-09-15

    As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk. PMID:24998972

  10. Measurement of Sterigmatocystin Concentrations in Urine for Monitoring the Contamination of Cattle Feed

    PubMed Central

    Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15–0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01–0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

  11. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  12. Plasma and urine aluminium concentrations in healthy subjects after administration of sucralfate.

    PubMed Central

    Allain, P; Mauras, Y; Krari, N; Duchier, J; Cournot, A; Larcheveque, J

    1990-01-01

    1. Sucralfate (basic sucrose aluminium sulphate), a topical intestinal agent, was administered in suspension or granule form to 25 healthy subjects at a total dose of 4 g day-1 for 21 days. Aluminium in plasma and 24 h urine samples was assayed before, during and after administration of sucralfate by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. 2. Sucralfate produced significant increases in plasma and urine aluminium concentrations. On average, plasma aluminium increased from about 2 micrograms 1-1 to more than 5 micrograms 1-1 and 24 h urine aluminium increased from less than 5 micrograms to more than 30 micrograms. Both plasma and urine aluminium concentrations decreased rapidly after sucralfate was stopped. However, urinary aluminium concentrations remained higher than normal 5 and 10 days after discontinuation of sucralfate administration. Moreover subjects receiving sucralfate granules had significantly higher average urinary excretion of aluminium than subjects receiving the suspension. 3. The small but significant increase in plasma and urine aluminium following sucralfate administration in therapeutic doses may reflect intestinal absorption of aluminium. Although such absorption would appear to be moderate in healthy subjects, it is suggested that aluminium-based treatments should be used only intermittently, especially in patients with renal disorders. PMID:2328192

  13. Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.

    PubMed

    Bassett, John E

    2004-02-01

    Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful. PMID:15123201

  14. Mercury concentrations in urine, scalp hair, and saliva in children from Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A PESCH; M WILHELM; U ROSTEK; N SCHMITZ; M WEISHOFF-HOUBEN; U RANFT; H IDEL

    2002-01-01

    Mercury levels measured in urine, hair, and saliva of 245 German children (8–10 years old) are reported. Mercury concentrations in urine ranged between <0.1 and 5.3 ?g\\/l [geometric mean (GM) 0.26 ?g\\/l or 0.25 ?g\\/g creatinine; median for both, 0.22 in ?g\\/l and ?g\\/g, respectively]. Using multiple linear regression analysis, two predictors have been found accounting for 25.3% of the

  15. Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood

    DOEpatents

    Nogar, Nicholas S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood. The present invention includes the use of resonant laser ablation to analyze .ltoreq.1 .mu.L (or equivalent mass) samples of blood for lead content. A typical finger prick, for example, yields about 10 .mu.L. Solid samples may also readily be analyzed by resonant laser ablation. The sample is placed on a lead-free, electrically conducting substrate and irradiated with a single, focused laser beam which simultaneously vaporizes, atomizes, and resonantly ionizes an analyte of interest in a sample. The ions are then sorted, collected and detected using a mass spectrometer.

  16. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur

    2010-12-01

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236±0.677 kBq/L and 1.704±0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO4 addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 ?Sv/year and 0.532 ?Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 ?Sv/year.

  17. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur [PTNBR BATAN, Jl. Tamansari no. 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2010-12-23

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

  18. An individualized weight-based goal urine volume model significantly improves expected calcium concentrations relative to a 2-L goal urine volume.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Mark D; Anderson, Christopher B; Viprakasit, Davis P; Dietrich, Mary S; Herrell, S Duke; Miller, Nicole L

    2013-10-01

    Increased urinary volume decreases recurrence rates of nephrolithiasis. Current recommendations for goal volumes are not adjusted to reflect individual risk factors, such as obesity. Our intent was to develop and evaluate a goal urine volume for stone prevention based on predictive calcium modeling. Stone formers with a 24-h urine study (6/2001-9/2010) were identified. Patients with inadequate collections or non-calcium stones were excluded. Multivariate and univariate predictive models for daily calcium were evaluated and a univariate (weight) model was selected. A target calcium concentration constant (2.5 mM) was determined from current recommendations. Individualized weight-based goal urine volumes (WGUV) were calculated. Measured calcium concentration and expected calcium concentrations using a 2-L goal volume and WGUV were compared. 185 of 399 patients met inclusion criteria. Body weight was a strong predictor of calcium excretion in each model (p < 0.0001). While a 2-L goal urine volume would be expected to improve mean calcium concentrations for the cohort from 3.53 to 2.96 mM, the benefit is unequal between subsets with nearly twofold expected concentration for the highest weight quartile (3.98 vs. 2.10 mM) and higher expected concentration for males (3.35 vs. 2.59 mM). By contrast, a WGUV model improves expected concentrations for all subsets to <2.9 mM and the overall cohort to 2.50 mM. This study demonstrates a strong relationship between body weight and urinary calcium excretion in stone formers. We introduce the novel concept of individualized goal urine output using statistical modeling, which may be preferable to current recommendations. PMID:23857331

  19. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in two successive urinary voids from drinking drivers: relationship to creatinine content and blood and urine ethanol concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Bergström; A Helander; A. W Jones

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of alcohol in blood (BAC) and two successive urine voids (UAC) from 100 drunk drivers were compared with the concentration of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol in urine, and the urinary creatinine content as an indicator of dilution. The subjects consisted of 87 men with mean age 42.2±14.2 years (±standard deviation, S.D.) and 13 women

  20. Benzonphenone-type UV filters in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, source and exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong-Jing; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Jiang, Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-08-01

    Benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters are commonly used in our daily life. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-3), 4-hydroxy benzophenone (4-HBP), 2,4-dihydroxy benzophenone (BP-1), 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxy benzophenone (BP-2) and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone (BP-8) were measured in urine samples from Chinese young adults. The results indicated that Chinese young adults were widely exposed to BP-3, BP-1, and 4-HBP, with the median concentrations of 0.55, 0.21, and 0.08 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was found between males and females, between urban and rural population. The correlations between urinary concentrations provided important indications for sources and metabolic pathways of target compounds. The estimated daily excretion doses of BP-3, 4-HBP, BP-1, BP-2 and BP-8 were 27.2, 2.24, 5.86, 0.76 and 0.30ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. The ratio of exposure to excretion must be considered for the exposure assessment with chemicals based on urine measurement. This is the first nationwide study on BP-derivatives with young adults in China. PMID:25841211

  1. Green and black tea consumption by humans: impact on polyphenol concentrations in feces, blood and urine.

    PubMed

    He, Y H; Kies, C

    1994-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of green tea, black tea and decaffeinated black tea consumption on urinary and fecal excretions and whole blood and blood serum concentrations of polyphenols. The 56 day study was divided into four randomly arranged experimental periods of 14 days each during which the 10 healthy adult subjects consumed a laboratory controlled, constant, measured diet based on ordinary foods. During separate periods, subjects received no tea, green tea, regular black tea or decaffeinated black tea beverages at the three daily meals. Subjects made complete collections of urine and stools throughout the study and fasting blood samples were drawn at the beginning of the study and at the end of each experimental period. Polyphenols contained in urine, feces, whole blood, blood serums, food and tea were analyzed by the spectrophotometry method of Wah Lau et al. (1989). Green tea consumption resulted in highest intakes in greatest fecal and urinary excretions, highest retentions, and high whole blood concentrations of polyphenols followed by effects of regular black tea, decaffeinated black tea and no tea treatments. These results indicate that polyphenols from tea are at least partly absorbable. Hence, both positive and negative effects of dietary polyphenol may occur internal to the body proper and not only as effects within the intestines. PMID:7855093

  2. A simple pharmacokinetic model of alendronate developed using plasma concentration and urine excretion data from healthy men.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jung-Woo; Seo, Jeong-Won; Mahat, Bimit; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Baek, In-Hwan; Lee, Byung-Yo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Kwang-Il

    2014-10-01

    The study of pharmacokinetics of alendronate has been hampered by difficulties in accurately and reproducibly determining their concentrations in serum and urine. Thus, pharmacokinetic characteristics of alendronate have been described in many reports based on urinary excretion data; and plasma pharmacokinetics and the simultaneous pharmacokinetic models of alendronate in plasma and urine are not available. The aims of this study were to measure alendronate concentration in plasma and excretion in urine concurrently and to develop compartmental pharmacokinetic model using urine data. In open-label, single-dose pharmacokinetic study, 10 healthy male volunteers received oral dose of alendronate (70?mg tablet). Blood and urine alendronate concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Non-compartmental analysis was performed using WinNonlin program (Pharsight Inc., Apex, NC). A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model was applied to describe pharmacokinetics of alendronate. A peak plasma alendronate concentration of 33.10?±?14.32?ng/mL was attained after 1.00?±?0.16?h. The cumulative amount of alendronate excreted in urine and peak excretion rate were 731.28?±?654.57??g and 314.68?±?395.43??g/h, respectively. The model, which included first-order absorption rate for oral dosing, showed good fit to alendronate data obtained from plasma and urine. The absorption rate constant was 2.68?±?0.95?h(-1). The elimination rate constants Kurine and Knon-ur were 0.005?±?0.004?h(-1) and 0.42?±?0.08?h(-1), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of alendronate in plasma and urine of healthy men can be predicted using one-compartment model, and thus the behavior of drug in plasma can be estimated from urinary excretion data. PMID:23886303

  3. Lead Concentrations in Inner-City Soils as a Factor in the Child Lead Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Howard W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Excess lead concentration (resulting primarily from vehicular emissions) in Baltimore's inner city soils probably has a bearing on that city's child lead poisoning problem. Soil lead concentrations were lower outside the inner city. (GC)

  4. Plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin following single subcutaneous administration to cats.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Manfred; Niedorf, Frank; Kramer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Marina; Schneider, Marc; Vallé, Marc; Pankow, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofoxacin, a third generation fluoroquinolone, were investigated in 12 healthy adult cats after single subcutaneous (SC) administration of 2 mg/kg BW (Part I, n=8 cats) and 4 mg/kg BW (Part II, n=4 cats). In each part of the study blood and urine samples were collected before treatment and thereafter for 5 days. The plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin were determined by HPLC with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed for each treated animal using an open one-compartment-model with first-order elimination after SC dosing. Marbofloxacin in plasma (means): Maximum concentrations (Cmax) of about 1.2 and 3.0 microg/ml were measured 2.3 and 4 hours (tmax) after dosing of 2 and 4 mg/kg BW, respectively. Elimination from the body was low with a total clearance (Cl/F) of approximately 0.1 l/h/kg for both dosages. The half-life (t 1/2) for this process was calculated with 8-10 hours. AUC increased almost proportional when doubling the dose, i.e., 19.77 +/- 6.25 microg * h/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 51.26 +/- 11.83 microg * h/ml (4 mg/kg BW). Plasma kinetics measured were in accordance with data from literature. Marbofloxacin in urine (means): Maximum drug concentrations were detected 4 and 8 hours after dosing with 70 microg/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 160 microg/ml (4 mg/kg BW), respectively. Inhibitory effects of the urinary matrix on the antimicrobial activity of the drug were taken into account when performing PK/PD calculations. However, a concentration-dependent bactericidal activity (Cmax/MIC > 8-10) which is claimed for fluoroquinolones was sufficiently met with focus on Escherichia (E.) coli (MIC90 0.5 microg/ml). In the same matrix a threshold value of 1.0 microg/ml was undercut 82 and 116 hours after SC dosing, respectively. Hence, a time-dependent bacteria killing kinetic (T > MIC) which may be of relevance for some Gram-positive germs like Staphylococcus spp. (MIC90 1.0 microg/ml) should be covered, too. PMID:21306059

  5. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  6. The Use of Hydrogel Microparticles to Sequester and Concentrate Bacterial Antigens in a Urine Test for Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Temple; Tamburro, Davide; Fredolini, Claudia; Espina, Benjamin; Lepene, Benjamin S.; Ilag, Leopold; Espina, Virginia; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Luchini, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogel biomarker capturing microparticles were evaluated as a biomaterial to amplify the sensitivity of urine testing for infectious disease proteins. Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted by ticks. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of Lyme disease reduces complications including arthritis and cardiac involvement. While a urine test is highly desirable for Lyme disease screening, this has been difficult to accomplish because the antigen is present at extremely low concentrations, below the detection limit of clinical immunoassays. N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) – acrylic acid (AAc) microparticles were covalently functionalized with amine containing dyes via amidation of carboxylic groups present in the microparticles. The dyes act as affinity baits towards protein analytes in solution. NIPAm/AAc microparticles functionalized with acid black 48 (AB48) mixed with human urine, achieved close to one hundred percent capture and 100 percent extraction yield of the target antigen. In urine, microparticles sequestered and concentrated Lyme disease antigens 100 fold, compared to the absence of microparticles, achieving an immunoassay detection sensitivity of 700 pg/mL in 10mL urine. Antigen present in a single infected tick could be readily detected following microparticle sequestration. Hydrogel microparticles functionalized with high affinity baits can dramatically increase the sensitivity of urinary antigen tests for infectious diseases such as Lyme disease. These findings justify controlled clinical studies evaluating the sensitivity and precision of Lyme antigen testing in urine. PMID:21035184

  7. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in-vitro activity of urine concentrates and rubber chemicals.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, R; Falcone, E; Aquilina, G; Carere, A; Paoletti, A; Fabri, G

    1984-01-01

    A possible occupational contribution to urinary mutagenicity was studied in a tyre plant, by assaying concentrates of urine from 72 workmen and 23 controls for their activity in the Ames test and microtitre fluctuation test. The results show that smoking habits but not occupation are related to the appearance of a detectable urinary mutagenicity in strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation was, however, observed among tyre builders who were smokers. Mutagenicity screening of 25 rubber chemicals, of major technological relevance and used in high volume in the workplace investigated, showed that three of them are weakly active in TA98 and TA100 (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) or TA98 alone (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene and mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines). PMID:6400096

  8. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

  9. Architecture of vasa recta in the renal inner medulla of the desert rodent Dipodomys merriami: potential impact on the urine concentrating mechanism.

    PubMed

    Issaian, Tadeh; Urity, Vinoo B; Dantzler, William H; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2012-10-01

    We hypothesize that the inner medulla of the kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami, a desert rodent that concentrates its urine to over 6,000 mosmol/kg H(2)O, provides unique examples of architectural features necessary for production of highly concentrated urine. To investigate this architecture, inner medullary vascular segments in the outer inner medulla were assessed with immunofluorescence and digital reconstructions from tissue sections. Descending vasa recta (DVR) expressing the urea transporter UT-B and the water channel aquaporin 1 lie at the periphery of groups of collecting ducts (CDs) that coalesce in their descent through the inner medulla. Ascending vasa recta (AVR) lie inside and outside groups of CDs. DVR peel away from vascular bundles at a uniform rate as they descend the inner medulla, and feed into networks of AVR that are associated with organized clusters of CDs. These AVR form interstitial nodal spaces, with each space composed of a single CD, two AVR, and one or more ascending thin limbs or prebend segments, an architecture that may lead to solute compartmentation and fluid fluxes essential to the urine concentrating mechanism. Although we have identified several apparent differences, the tubulovascular architecture of the kangaroo rat inner medulla is remarkably similar to that of the Munich Wistar rat at the level of our analyses. More detailed studies are required for identifying interspecies functional differences. PMID:22914749

  10. Automatic On-line Solid-phase Extraction-Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Exploiting Sequential Injection Analysis for Trace Vanadium, Cadmium and Lead Determination in Human Urine Samples.

    PubMed

    Giakisikli, Georgia; Ayala Quezada, Alejandro; Tanaka, Junpei; Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Murakami, Hiroya; Teshima, Norio; Sakai, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated sequential injection column preconcentration method for the on-line determination of trace vanadium, cadmium and lead in urine samples was successfully developed, utilizing electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Polyamino-polycarboxylic acid chelating resin (Nobias chelate PA-1) packed into a handmade minicolumn was used as a sorbent material. Effective on-line retention of chelate complexes of analytes was achieved at pH 6.0, while the highest elution effectiveness was observed with 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 in the reverse phase. Several analytical parameters, like the sample acidity, concentration and volume of the eluent as well as the loading/elution flow rates, have been studied, regarding the efficiency of the method, providing appropriate conditions for the analysis of real samples. For a 4.5 mL sample volume, the sampling frequency was 27 h(-1). The detection limits were found to be 3.0, 0.06 and 2.0 ng L(-1) for V(V), Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, with the relative standard deviations ranging between 1.9 - 3.7%. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing a certified reference material (Seronorm(TM) trace elements urine) and spiked urine samples. PMID:25958867

  11. Evaluation of serum and urine 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol and myo-inositol concentrations in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yohei; Mori, Akihiro; Hayakawa, Noriyuki; Niki, Tomoe; Oda, Hitomi; Saeki, Kaori; Sato, Toko; Tazaki, Hiroyuki; Ishioka, Katsumi; Arai, Toshiro; Sako, Toshinori

    2011-09-01

    1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol (1,5AG) is a pyranoid polyol compound found in human circulating blood. Myo-inositol (MI) is a stereoisomer of inositol and serves as a precursor of inositol phospholipids. 1,5AG and MI are filtered by the glomerulus and almost completely reabsorbed through the renal tubules. However, under hyperglycemic conditions, reabsorption through the renal tubules is competitively inhibited because the structures of 1,5AG and MI resemble that of glucose. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of serum and urine 1,5AG and MI levels in healthy dogs. We demonstrated that 1,5AG and MI exist in canine serum and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Under continuous hyperglycemic conditions, the serum 1,5AG concentration in healthy dogs decreased while the serum MI concentration remained unchanged. Urinary excretion of 1,5AG and MI increased significantly after blood glucose concentrations reached 200 to 220 mg/dl. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum 1,5AG and glucose concentrations during hyperglycemia. However, no significant correlation was observed between serum MI and glucose concentrations. In this study, we demonstrated that serum and urine 1,5AG and MI levels were changed by blood glucose concentrations. The serum 1,5AG concentration was decreased by continuous hyperglycemia. However, the serum MI concentration does not reflect hyperglycemia. PMID:21525712

  12. BLOOD LEAD CONCENTRATION AND DELAYED PUBERTY IN GIRLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Environmental lead exposure has been linked to alterations in growth and endocrine function. It is not known whether such exposure affects pubertal development. Methods We analyzed the relations between blood lead concentration and pubertal...

  13. Cathepsin D serum and urine concentration in superficial and invasive transitional bladder cancer as determined by surface plasmon resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    GORODKIEWICZ, EWA; GUSZCZ, TOMASZ; ROSZKOWSKA-JAKIMIEC, WIESLAWA; KOZ?OWSKI, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Determination of cathepsin D (Cat D) concentration in serum and urine may be useful in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The present study included 54 healthy patients and 68 patients with bladder cancer, confirmed by transurethral resection or cystectomy. Cat D concentration was determined using a surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensor. Cat D concentration in the serum of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.3–5.59 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.28–0.52 ng/ml. In urine, the Cat D concentration of bladder cancer patients was within the range of 1.35–7.14 ng/ml, while for healthy donors it was within the range of 0.32–0.68 ng/ml. Cat D concentration may represent an efficient tumor marker, as its concentration in the serum and urine of transitional cell carcinoma patients is extremely high when compared with healthy subjects. PMID:25120717

  14. Mechanism of postflight decline in osmotic concentration of urine in cosmonauts.

    PubMed

    Natochin YuV; Grigoriev, A I; Noskov, V B; Parnova, R G; Sukhanov YuV; Firsov, D L; Shakhmatova, E I

    1991-11-01

    The ratio of reabsorption of osmotically free water to osmolal clearance in individual urine voids was about the same before and after short-term spaceflights (the points fall on the same regression line). This ratio was reduced after long-term flights, so that the regression lines for pre- and postflight values have different slopes. This change in the function relating the two factors was accompanied by increased vasopressin in blood plasma and probably was caused by altered cellular reaction to vasopressin. The decrease in the effect of vasopressin may have been caused by development of hypokalemia and hypercalcemia in the cosmonauts, and decrease in cellular potassium in the outer renal medulla (this effect was observed in experiments on rats after flights on biosatellites). We established that, in addition to cAMP, cGMP and inositol trisphosphate participate in cellular reactions to vasopressin. Increases in the concentration of cGMP and decrease in the formation of inositol trisphosphate in the presence of neomycin increase the hydro-osmotic effect of vasopressin. We hypothesize that modulation of the effect of vasopressin in cosmonauts is due to change in the functional state of their kidneys. PMID:1660260

  15. Evaluation of Dietary Nitrogen Utilization in Dairy Cows Based on Urea Concentrations in Blood, Urine and Milk, and on Urinary Concentration of Purine Derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horacio Leandro Gonda; Jan Erik Lindberg

    1994-01-01

    The effects of level and degradability of dietary protein on urea in blood, urine and milk, and on the urinary purine derivatives and creatinine in dairy cows, were studied. Diurnal variation in urinary concentration of urea, allantoin and creatinine was also studied. A total of 24 multiparous lactating dairy cows were selected from a production experiment and divided into two

  16. Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20°C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

  17. Measurement of sodium ion concentration in undiluted urine with cation-selective polymeric membrane electrodes after the removal of interfering compounds

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Feyisayo; Kaczor, Kim; Gandhi, Neel; Pendley, Bradford D.; Danish, Robert K.; Neuman, Michael R.; Toth, Blanka; Horvath, Viola; Lindner, Erno

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of sodium ion concentration in urine can provide diagnostic information and guide therapy. Unfortunately, neutral-carrier-based ion-selective electrodes show a large positive drift and loss in selectivity in undiluted urine. The extraction of electrically neutral lipids from the urine into the sensing membrane was suggested as the main source of the drift, loss of selectivity and the consequent incorrect concentration readings. In this work, (i) solvent-solvent extraction, (ii) membrane-immobilized solvent extraction, and (iii) solid phase extraction were used to remove interfering compounds from urine samples. The “cleaned” urine samples were subsequently analyzed using a calixarene (sodium ionophore X)-based, solid-contact, sodium-selective electrode in a flow-through manifold. The solid-contact sodium sensors had excellent stability in cleaned urine and an acceptable bias compared to commercial clinical analyzers. PMID:18371638

  18. Comparison of lead bioavailability in F344 rats fed lead acetate, lead oxide, lead sulfide, or lead ore concentrate from Skagway, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dieter, M.P.; Matthews, H.B. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)); Jeffcoat, R.A. (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)); Moseman, R.F. (Radian Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    An animal model using rats was developed to initiate investigations on the bioavailability of different sources of environmental lead. Lead must be absorbed and transported to target organs like brain, liver, kidney, and bone, before susceptible cells can be harmed. The bioavailability and therefore the toxicity of lead are dependent upon the route of exposure, dose, chemical structure solubility, particle size, matrix incorporation, and other physiological and physicochemical factors. In the present study male F344 rats were fed [<=] 38 [mu]m size particles of lead sulfide, lead oxide, lead acetate, and a lead ore concentrate from Skagway, Alaska, mixed into the diet at doses of 0, 10, 30, an 100 ppm as lead for 30 d. No morality or overt symptoms of lead toxicity were observed during the course of the study. Maximum blood lead concentrations attained in the 100 ppm groups were [approximately]80 [mu]g/dl in rats fed lead acetate and lead oxide and were [approximately]10 [mu]g/dl in those fed lead sulfide and lead ore concentrate. Maximum bone lead levels in rats fed soluble lead oxide and lead acetate were much higher ([approximately] 200 [mu]g/g) that those seen in rats fed the less soluble lead sulfide and lead ore ([approximately]10 [mu]g); kidney lead concentrations were also about 10-fold greater in rats fed the more soluble compared to the less soluble lead compounds. However, strong correlations between dose and tissue lead concentrations were observed in rats fed each of the four different lead compounds. Kidney lesions graded as minimal occurred in 7/10 rats fed 30 ppm and in 10/10 rats fed 100 ppm lead acetate, but not at lower doses or from other lead compounds. Similarly, urinary aminolevulinic acid excretion, a biomarker for lead toxicity, was increased in rats fed 100 ppm lead acetate or lead oxide, but was unaffected at lower doses or by the less soluble lead compounds. 25 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Urine cyclic nucleotide concentrations in cancer and other conditions; cyclic GMP: a potential marker for cancer treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G A Turner; R D Ellis; D Guthrie; A L Latner; J M Monaghan; W M Ross; A W Skillen; R G Wilson

    1982-01-01

    Cyclic guanosine 3',5' monophosphate (cyclic GMP) and cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cyclic AMP) have been determined in random urine specimens from 95 healthy individuals, 60 patients with non-cancerous conditions, 52 patients with benign tumours, and 74 patients with malignant tumours. Concentrations of cyclic GMP have also been determined in a number of other groups, including some undergoing cancer treatment. Ninety-three

  20. Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in bus drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.S.; Osterloh, J.; Becker, C.E.; Bernard, B.; Smith, A.H.; Fisher, J.M.; Syme, S.L.; Holman, B.L.; Johnston, T.

    1988-06-01

    San Francisco bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in 342 drivers. The analysis reported in this study was limited to subjects not on treatment for hypertension (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic pressure varied from 102 to 173 mm Hg and from 61 to 105 mm Hg, respectively. The blood lead concentration varied from 2 to 15 ..mu..g/dL. The relationship between blood pressure and the logarithm of blood lead concentration was examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The largest regression coefficient relating systolic blood pressure and blood lead concentration was 1.8 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). The coefficient for diastolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). These findings suggest effects of lead exposure at lower blood lead concentrations than those concentrations that have previously been linked with increases in blood pressure.

  1. Blood lead concentrations in a remote Himalayan population

    SciTech Connect

    Piomelli, S.; Corash, L.; Corash, M.B.; Seaman, C.; Mushak, P.; Glover, B.; Padgett, R.

    1980-12-05

    The lead content in the air at the foothills of the Himalayas in Nepal was found to be negligible. The concentration of lead in the blood of 103 children and adults living in this region was found to average 3.4 micrograms per deciliter, a level substantially lower than that found in industrialized populations.

  2. Normal dolichol concentration in urine sediments from four patients with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten's disease)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Paton; A. Poulos

    1987-01-01

    The dolichol contents of urine sediments from a patient with infantile (Santavuori), a patient with late infantile (Jansky-Bielschowsky) and two patients with juvenile (Spielmeyer-Vogt) neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten's disease) were not elevated when compared to those from healthy controls.

  3. Drying methods effects on nitrogen and energy concentrations in pig feces and urine, and poultry excreta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimation of digestibility coefficients are critical in nutrient balance and feed evaluation studies as errors that occur are often additive. However, there is no standard universal method for drying feces, urine, or excreta prior to laboratory analysis. The objective of this study was to ...

  4. Nephron-specific deletion of the prorenin receptor causes a urine concentration defect.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Nirupama; Stuart, Deborah; Calquin, Matias; Quadri, Syed; Wang, Shuping; Van Hoek, Alfred N; Siragy, Helmy M; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Kohan, Donald E

    2015-07-01

    The prorenin receptor (PRR), a recently discovered component of the renin-angiotensin system, is expressed in the nephron in general and the collecting duct in particular. However, the physiological significance of nephron PRR remains unclear, partly due to developmental abnormalities associated with global or renal-specific PRR gene knockout (KO). Therefore, we developed mice with inducible nephron-wide PRR deletion using Pax8-reverse tetracycline transactivator and LC-1 transgenes and loxP flanked PRR alleles such that ablation of PRR occurs in adulthood, after induction with doxycycline. Nephron-specific PRR KO mice have normal survival to ?1 yr of age and no renal histological defects. Compared with control mice, PRR KO mice had 65% lower medullary PRR mRNA and protein levels and markedly diminished renal PRR immunofluorescence. During both normal water intake and mild water restriction, PRR KO mice had significantly lower urine osmolality, higher water intake, and higher urine volume compared with control mice. No differences were seen in urine vasopressin excretion, urine Na(+) and K(+) excretion, plasma Na(+), or plasma osmolality between the two groups. However, PRR KO mice had reduced medullary aquaporin-2 levels and arginine vasopressin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in the isolated renal medulla compared with control mice. Taken together, these results suggest nephron PRR can potentially modulate renal water excretion. PMID:25995108

  5. Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff.

    PubMed

    Kayhanian, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0-15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15-60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990 s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters. PMID:22035941

  6. In vitro activity and concentrations in serum, urine, prostatic secretion and adenoma tissue of ofloxacin in urological patients.

    PubMed

    Naber, K G; Adam, D; Kees, F

    1987-01-01

    Studies in vitro showed that at concentrations of 1 and 4 mg/L ofloxacin inhibited 94 and 99% of the Gram-negative pathogens in isolates cultured from the urine of patients with complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). Against Gram-positive bacteria, 60 and 100% were inhibited at the corresponding concentrations. Comparisons of the MIC90 values of 8 quinolones showed the decreasing order of in vitro antibacterial activity to be ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, pefloxacin, enoxacin, pipemidic acid, nalidixic acid and cinoxacin. After an oral dose of ofloxacin 400mg, the mean peak serum concentration in 10 elderly patients was 5.5 mg/L and mean renal excretion during 24 hours was 41%. In 17 patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate, ofloxacin 400mg was given for perioperative prophylaxis. Two to 4.5 hours after administration, the median concentrations in prostatic secretion (5 patients) and prostatic adenoma tissue were 4.0 mg/L and 4.1 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding serum concentrations of ofloxacin were 3.4 and 3.9 mg/L, respectively. In a group of 10 patients, 14.5 to 19.5 hours after oral administration of ofloxacin 400mg the median serum and prostatic adenoma tissue concentrations of ofloxacin were 1.9 mg/L and 1.2 mg/kg, respectively. The in vitro activity of ofloxacin concentrations attained in serum, urine, prostatic secretion and adenoma tissue show that it appears to be well suited for the treatment of complicated UTI. PMID:3481328

  7. Platinum concentrations in urban road dust and soil, and in blood and urine in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Farago, M E; Kavanagh, P; Blanks, R; Kelly, J; Kazantzis, G; Thornton, I; Simpson, P R; Cook, J M; Delves, H T; Hall, G E

    1998-03-01

    Increasing Pt concentrations from vehicle catalysts have been reported from a number of countries. Analysis of Pt and Pd in soils and road dusts taken from areas of high and low traffic flows in SE England show concentrations of Pt in the range < 0.30-40.1 ng g-1 and Pd in the range < 2.1-57.9 ng g-1. Higher concentrations of Pt are associated with high traffic densities. Samples taken from streets of lower traffic flows were found to contain the lower concentrations of the ranges. Pilot studies of Pt concentrations in blood and urine using ICP-MS have been carried out. Platinum concentrations in whole blood were: precious metal workers, 780-2170, mean 1263 pmol l-1 (0.152-0.423, mean 0.246 microgram l-1); motorway maintenance workers, 645-810, mean 744 pmol l-1 (0.126-0.158, mean 0.145 microgram l-1); Imperial College staff, 590-713, mean 660 pmol l-1 (0.115-0.139, mean 0.129 microgram l-1). Platinum concentrations in urine in pmol Pt per mmol creatinine were: precious metal workers, 122-682, mean 273 [0.21-1.18, mean 0.47 microgram Pt (g creatinine)-1]; motorway maintenance workers, 13-78, mean 33.7 [0.022-0.135, mean 0.058 microgram Pt (g creatinine)-1]; Imperial College staff, 28-130, mean 65.6 [0.048-0.224, mean 0.113 microgram Pt (g creatinine)-1]. Detection limits were 0.03 microgram l-1 for both blood and urine. The possible health effects of increasing Pt in the environment are discussed. Platinum provides an excellent example of the significance of speciation in metal toxicity. Platinum allergy is confined to a small group of charged compounds that contain reactive ligand systems, the most effective of which are chloride ligand systems. Metallic Pt is considered to be biologically inert and non allergenic and since the emitted Pt is probably in the metallic or oxide form, the sensitising potential is probably very low. Platinum from road dusts, however, can be solubilised, and enter waters, sediments, soils and the food chain. There is at present no evidence for any adverse health effects from Pt in the general environment, particularly allergic reactions. PMID:9659707

  8. Correlation between lead and cadmium concentration and semen quality.

    PubMed

    Pant, N; Kumar, G; Upadhyay, A D; Gupta, Y K; Chaturvedi, P K

    2014-09-16

    There are contrary reports of association of lead and cadmium with the decline in semen quality. This study evaluates whether seminal lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) at environmental concentration are associated with altered semen quality. We conducted a study of healthy fertile and infertile men 20-43 years of age attending the Andrology Laboratory of Reproductive Biology Department for semen analysis. The semen analysis was carried out according to the WHO 2010 guidelines. Seminal lead and cadmium were estimated by ICP-AES. The lead and cadmium values were significantly higher in infertile subjects. A negative association between seminal lead or cadmium concentration and sperm concentration, sperm motility and per cent abnormal spermatozoa was found. This study shows that exposure to Pb (5.29-7.25 ?g dl(-1) ) and cadmium (4.07-5.92 ?g dl(-1) ) might affect semen profile in men. Age, diet, smoking and tobacco chewing habits may have an influence on the increase in exposure to Pb and Cd in the individual subjects. PMID:25228328

  9. Lead concentrations and isotopes in aerosols from Xiamen, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Laimin; Tang, Jianwu; Lee, Ben; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Feifei

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the magnitude and origin of lead (Pb) pollution in the atmosphere of Xiamen, China, 40 aerosol samples were collected from the coast of Xiamen from January to December 2003. All these samples were measured for Pb isotopic compositions ((208)Pb/(206)Pb=2.10897 ± 0.00297, (207)Pb/(206)Pb=0.85767 ± 0.00159, n=40) using a Multi-collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). Thirty-five out of forty samples were also measured for Pb concentrations (79.1 ± 38.3 ng/m(3), n=35) by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The results indicate that the Pb concentrations display significant seasonal variations while Pb isotopic ratios remain relatively constant. The Pb concentrations were high in January and February, abruptly decreased in March, remained relatively constant (but low) from April to August, and then gradually increased from September to December. This corresponds to the rainless climate in winter and rain scavenging in summer. The higher Pb concentration of Xiamen aerosols in winter and spring may be also caused by long-range transferred anthropogenic Pb during the northeastern monsoon seasons. Although the use of leaded gasoline in Xiamen was banned in 2000, our new data indicate that the Pb annual concentrations of aerosols in Xiamen increased about 12% when compared to the data measured between 1991 and 1993. Thus, Pb pollution in the atmosphere of Xiamen has not receded even after the phase-out of leaded gasoline. Our results further confirm the previous studies' conclusion that the primary source of atmospheric Pb in China, especially in South China, is the vast combustion of lead-containing coal, not leaded gasoline. PMID:20739036

  10. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W

    2009-04-01

    The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species. PMID:19416182

  11. GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Busardò, Francesco P.; Jones, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t½ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines. PMID:26074743

  12. Comparison of breath, blood and urine concentrations in the biomonitoring of environmental exposure to 1,3-butadiene, 2,5-dimethylfuran, and benzene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Perbellini; Andrea Princivalle; Marzia Cerpelloni; Francesco Pasini; Francesco Brugnone

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To investigate and compare alveolar, blood, and urine concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, 2,5 dimethylfuran, and benzene, in non-occupational exposure to these products. Methods Benzene, 2,5-dimethylfuran and 1,3-butadiene were measured in the breath, blood, and urine samples of 61 subjects living in small mountain villages. All 61 were regularly employed as forestry workers. Sampling was done during the long winter-season non-working

  13. Longitudinal changes in bone lead concentration: implications for modelling of human bone lead metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brito, J A; McNeill, F E; Stronach, I; Webber, C E; Wells, S; Richard, N; Chettle, D R

    2001-08-01

    In this study, 539 occupationally exposed subjects received in vivo bone lead measurements using 109Cd excited K X-ray fluorescence (109Cd K XRF). Of these subjects, 327 had previously been measured five years earlier. Measurements were made from both tibia and calcaneus samples, taken to reflect cortical and trabecular bone, respectively. Changes in tibia lead concentration related negatively to initial tibia lead concentration and positively to both lead exposure between the measurement dates and initial calcaneus lead concentration. This finding confirmed and strengthened the interpretation of an earlier study involving fewer subjects. With the larger data set it was possible to examine subgroups of subjects. This showed that people aged less than 40 years had a shorter half-life for the release of lead from the tibia (4.9, 95% CI 3.6-7.8 years) than did those older than 40 (13.8, 95% CI 9.7-23.8 years). Similarly, less intensely exposed subjects (lifetime average blood lead < or = 25 micrograms dL-1) had a shorter tibia lead half-life (6.2, 95% CI 4.7-9.0 years) than those with a lifetime average blood lead > 25 micrograms dL-1 (14.7, 95% CI 9.7-29.9 years). Age and measures of lead exposure were strongly correlated; nevertheless, age matched subgroups with high and low intensity exposures showed clearance rates that were significantly different at the 10% level, with the lower exposure intensity again being associated with the faster clearance. These findings imply that current models of human lead metabolism should be examined with a view to adjusting them to account for kinetic rates varying with age and probably also with exposure level. PMID:11523432

  14. Temporal trends in the lead concentrations of umbilical cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B.; Needleman, H.L.

    1982-06-25

    Umbilical cord blood specimens from 11,837 births between April 1979 and April 1981 have been analyzed for lead by anodic stripping voltammetry. The mean was 6.56 +- 3.19 (standard deviation) micrograms per deciliter of blood, and the range was 0.0 to 37.0 micrograms per deciliter. The mean decreased annually by 0.77 +- 0.03 microgram per deciliter, about 11 percent. Lead concentrations were higher in infants born in summer than in infants born in winter (7.17 versus 5.99, probability < .001). A Fourier model of the data is presented, and possible reasons for the decline are discussed.

  15. Temporal trends in the lead concentrations of umbilical cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B.; Needleman, H.L.

    1982-06-25

    Umbilical cord blood specimens from 11,837 births between April 1979 and April 1981 have been analyzed for lead by anodic stripping voltammetry. The mean was 6.56 +/- 3.19 (standard deviation) micrograms per deciliter of blood, and the range was 0.0 to 37.0 micrograms per deciliter. The mean decreased annually by 0.77 +/- 0.03 microgram per deciliter, about 11 percent. Lead concentrations were higher in infants born in summer than in infants born in winter (7.17 versus 5.99, probability less than .001). A Fourier model of the data is presented, and possible reasons for the decline are discussed.

  16. Concentration profiles of calcium and oxalate in urine, tubular fluid and renal tissue--some theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Hautmann, R; Osswald, H

    1983-02-01

    This paper analyzes some aspects of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis. It is emphasized that a better understanding of factors contributing to stone formation can only be gained when the primary nucleation site is identified. Three compartments are considered in which supersaturation as a precondition for stone formation could be present: urine in the urinary tract, tubular fluid from the glomerulus down to the duct of Bellini, and the interstitium of the medulla. From calculations based on micropuncture data it becomes apparent that the oxalate concentration in the tubular fluid at the bend of Henle's loop is 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than in the duct of Bellini and that the oxalate concentration maximum invariably must be located in the final urine. The calculation of a tubular concentration profile of oxalate shows, that the probability of intra luminal crystal formation is even less likely for plasma oxalate values of 2-3 microM as compared to 1.2 microM, which therefore should be the correct value. The time necessary for the growth of crystals up to a critical size which can obstruct tubules or ureter is not available in the urinary tract nor in the tubules. However, in the medullary interstitium, where solute concentration is highest, nearly unlimited time for crystal growth is available due to the fact, that in this compartment convective flow is very low. It is concluded that the interstitium of the inner medulla has the best chances to function as the primary nucleation site where particles can be formed of a size which subsequently can obstruct the urinary tract. PMID:6834526

  17. Analysis of tapwater lead concentration in homes of children with undue body lead burden

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, A.H.; Signs, S.A.; Caffo, A.L.

    1981-06-01

    Lead concentrations in household tapwater were analyzed in 49 homes inhabited by children with known elevations of blood lead (greater than or equal to 30 ..mu..g +- 3/dl) in Columbus, Ohio to assess the contribution to body lead burden of household tapwater intake. Average Pb concentration for all water samples tested was 4 ..mu..g/l, well below the EPA maximum allowable 50 ..mu..g/l standard. Level of Pb in blood and Pb water concentration for households showed no correlation nor were there significant differences in water Pb concentrations for water supplies in homes with lead compared to copper service pipes. The consistently low levels of Pb in Columbus water (< 10 ..mu..g/dl) probably is the result of the alkaline pH (10.0) reducing the solubility of Pb in water. In contrast, water in Boston, Massachusetts has a more acid pH (6.5) resulting in a more frequent incidence of water Pb concentrations greater than 50 ..mu..g/l. Based on an estimated steady state normal intake in a preschool child of approx. 130 ..mu..g of Pb per day from all sources, Pb intake from consumption of tapwater is unlikely to add significantly to a child's totl body burden of Pb in cities whose water supplies comply with EPA drinking water standards.

  18. An analysis of workers' tritium concentration in urine samples as a function of time after intake at Korean pressurised heavy water reactors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2012-12-01

    In general, internal exposure from tritium at pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) accounts for ?20-40 % of the total radiation dose. Tritium usually reaches the equilibrium concentration after a few hours inside the body and is then excreted from the body with an effective half-life in the order of 10 d. In this study, tritium metabolism was reviewed using its excretion rate in urine samples of workers at Korean PHWRs. The tritium concentration in workers' urine samples was also measured as a function of time after intake. On the basis of the monitoring results, changes in the tritium concentration inside the body were then analysed. PMID:22511731

  19. Nonlinearity in the relationship between bone lead concentrations and CBLI for lead smelter employees.

    PubMed

    Behinaein, Sepideh; Chettle, David R; Egden, Lesley M; McNeill, Fiona E; Norman, Geoff; Richard, Norbert; Stever, Susan

    2012-12-01

    494 smelter employees from New Brunswick participated in a bone lead survey conducted by McMaster University in 2008, using the four element "clover-leaf" geometry germanium detector system. The employees were measured at two different bone sites, tibia and calcaneus, each measurement lasting 30 minutes. Scattered photons, including Pb X-rays, were collected by the germanium detectors located behind the ¹??Cd source. A strong positive correlation was observed between tibia and calcaneus lead concentrations. Having been provided with blood lead levels, a cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) was generated. The employees were classified into four groups based on their date of hire, and their CBLI levels were compared to their tibia and calcaneus lead concentrations in the different groups. The slopes of bone Pb versus CBLI varied amongst groups, with those hired earliest showing the steepest slopes. This could be taken to imply a non-linearity in the uptake of Pb by bone from blood. In this paper, the association of the bone lead concentrations versus CBLI has been expressed by a polynomial function for the whole group of employees. PMID:23152131

  20. Hydrometallurgical processing of lead-bearing materials for the recovery of lead and silver as lead concentrate and lead metal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Raghavan; P. K Mohanan; S. R Swarnkar

    2000-01-01

    Hydrometallurgical processing of lead-bearing materials generated at zinc plants is described. Two types of lead sulphate generated at the smelters of Hindustan Zinc (HZL) have been used, in addition to other types of lead–silver-bearing residues. Two approaches have been selected in view of the complexities of the material. In the first approach, a simple double-decomposition technique was selected for treatment

  1. Picomolar concentrations of morphine in human urine determined by dansyl derivatization and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Lamshöft; Nadja Grobe; Michael Spiteller

    2011-01-01

    Morphine is present in varying amounts as an endogenous product in human urine. Derivatization of morphine contained in urine with dansyl chloride yields a known product, which can be quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with high selectivity and sensitivity. Urine samples of 51 healthy individuals were spiked with stable-isotope labeled morphine, hydrolyzed and subjected to solid phase extraction followed

  2. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on osmoregulation and urine concentration mechanisms of the semi-desert rodent Meriones shawi.

    PubMed

    Mbarek, Sihem; Saidi, Tounes; González-Costas, Javier M; González-Romero, Elisa; Ben Chaouacha Chekir, Rafika

    2012-08-01

    Contamination by cadmium in the environment is of great concern because of its toxicity and threats to human and animal health. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of a cadmium contaminated diet on the osmoregulation and urine concentration mechanisms of the semi-desert rodent Meriones shawi and eventual accumulation of this metal in vital organs such as the kidneys, which are directly implicated in water regulation. Originally, we used Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV) to avoid the matrix interference due to the highly organic content in the biological samples. Our results show that Meriones shawi successfully maintained a homeostasis state and presented a special adaptation to regulate urine volume during cadmium exposure by decreasing diuresis and increasing urinary osmolality. The plasma osmolality and hematocrit remained constant throughout the experiment. The stripping signals of cadmium are linear up to 0.3-100 ?g L(-1) range, with a detection limit of 0.28 ?g L(-1). The DPASV technique was useful for easy, fast, selective and sensitive determination of Cd, which permits working at cellular concentration. This gives us more information about the chemical form in which Cd is introduced into the organ, as well as the intracellular Cd quantities. This study has potential importance if this valuable novel animal model, imitating human and animal environmental chronic exposure to Cd, could serve as an appropriate terrestrial biomonitor for Cd contaminated sites. These results are encouraging in the context of developing a low-cost and fast technology for the detection of pollutants and for studying the impairment caused by their effects. PMID:22696068

  3. Application of an improved biuret method to the determination of total protein in urine and cerebrospinal fluid without concentration step by use of Hitachi 7170 auto-analyzer.

    PubMed

    Guobing, X; Lili, J; Lihua, Z; Tiean, X

    2001-01-01

    A biuret automated colorimetric assay for total protein in urine and cerebrospinal fluids was established. The procedures were as follows. Acidify all urine sample before analysis. Add precipitant Na(2)WO(4) to urine samples. After 10 min, centrifuge, decant the supernatant fluid, drain the inverted tubes on absorbent tissue, dissolve the precipitation with 0.1 mol/L NaOH, and finally adapt the reconstituted urine to the Hitachi 7170 analyzer. A cell-free cerebrospinal fluid sample produced by centrifugation can be inserted in an auto-analyzer for protein measurement directly. The program: mix 35 microl sample (CSF or reconstituted urine) and standard with 0.2 mol/L NaOH; incurable at 37 degrees C for 5 min, and real A1. Add concentrated biuret reagent, and 10 min later measure absorbance A2 at 546 nm vs. reagent blank. Secondary wavelength was 700 nm. The test results were calculated against a one-point standard. This biuret colorimetric method was relatively simple, fast, and accurate for the determination of protein in urine and cerebrospinal fluid, with a wide linearity extending from 0.125 g/L up to 6 g/L, had a good correlation with Benzethonium chloride turbidimetry technique, and was a practical routine method. PMID:11436195

  4. Isotope Concentrations from 24-h Urine and 3-h Serum Samples Can Be Used to Measure Intestinal Magnesium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women123

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karen E.; Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Shafer, Martin M.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ?6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ?23 mg of oral 26Mg and ?11 mg of i.v. 25Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0–24 h urine MgA value alone (? = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0–24 h urine and the 3-h (? = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (? = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (?0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01593501. PMID:24500940

  5. Elimination of matrix and spectral interferences in the measurement of lead and cadmium in urine and blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction

    SciTech Connect

    D'Haese, P.C.; Lamberts, L.V.; Liang, L.; Van de Vyver, F.L.; De Broe, M.E. (University of Antwerp, Department of Nephrology-Hypertension (Belgium))

    1991-09-01

    Direct measurement of lead and cadmium in blood and urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction (D2-AAS) is prone to severe matrix and spectral interferences. The authors overcame these effects by coating the L'vov platform with ammonium molybdate, reducing the atomization time, introducing a post-atomization cooling step, carefully selecting ashing and atomization temperatures, and using an appropriate procedure for matrix modification. To determine Pb and Cd in blood and urine, they used matrix-matched calibration curves. With the proposed procedure for sample preparation, both Pb and Cd in whole blood can be determined in the same diluted sample. Results obtained by D2-AAS correlate closely with those by Zeeman-corrected AAS. Detection limits (mean blank + 3 SDblank) for Pb in urine and blood were 4 micrograms/L. For cadmium, the detection limits were 0.4 and 0.1 micrograms/L for urine and blood analysis, respectively. Between-run CVs were less than 5.0%.

  6. Environmental and physiological factors contributing to tissue lead concentrations in freshwater molluscs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    Environmental and physiological factors contibuting to lead concentrations in selected freshwater molluscs were examined. Field investigation demonstrated that lead concentrations in Physa integra, Pseudosuccinea columella and Campeloma decisum reflected the lead levels at the two study sites. However, molluscs sharing a common habitat displayed widely differing lead levels. Lead concentrations in P. integra, P. columella and Helisoma trivolvis were correlated

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Urinary Cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, and Nickel Concentrations in Steel Production Workers by Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Jyi Horng; Ping-Hua Horng; John W. Hsu; Jin-Lian Tsai

    2003-01-01

    Screening for metals in urine is important because toxic levels of these elements are linked to disease. In the current study, the authors used differential pulse stripping voltammetry on a hanging mercury drop electrode for the simultaneous determination of cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel in the urine of 63 production and 63 quality control workers in a steel production plant,

  8. Concentrations of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxytetrahydrocannabinol in blood and urine after passive exposure to Cannabis smoke in a coffee shop.

    PubMed

    Röhrich, J; Schimmel, I; Zörntlein, S; Becker, J; Drobnik, S; Kaufmann, T; Kuntz, V; Urban, R

    2010-05-01

    Cannabinoid concentrations in blood and urine after passive exposure to cannabis smoke under real-life conditions were investigated in this study. Eight healthy volunteers were exposed to cannabis smoke for 3 h in a well-attended coffee shop in Maastricht, Netherlands. An initial blood and urine sample was taken from each volunteer before exposure. Blood samples were taken 1.5, 3.5, 6, and 14 h after start of initial exposure, and urine samples were taken after 3.5, 6, 14, 36, 60, and 84 h. The samples were subjected to immunoassay screening for cannabinoids and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). It could be demonstrated that all volunteers absorbed THC. However, the detected concentrations were rather small. None of the urine samples produced immunoassay results above the cutoff concentration of 25 ng/mL. THC-COOH concentrations up to 5.0 and 7.8 ng/mL before and after hydrolysis, respectively, were found in the quantitative GC-MS analysis of urine. THC could be detected in trace amounts close to the detection limit of the used method in the first two blood samples after initial exposure (1.5 and 3.5 h). In the 6 h blood samples, THC was not detectable anymore. THC-COOH could be detected after 1.5 h and was still found in 3 out of 8 blood samples after 14 h in concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL. PMID:20465865

  9. Natural variation in 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in the urine of Finnish population groups.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja; Solatie, Dina; Vesterbacka, Pia

    2011-11-01

    A study to determine activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the urine of certain Finnish population groups was conducted, to investigate the variation in natural background level of urinary excretion. The study participants were divided into three groups mainly based on their diet. The first group comprised recreational fishermen and the second group represented people consuming more reindeer meat than an average Finn, while people using drinking water with very high activity concentrations of (210)Po were selected for the third group. The fourth group was a control group. The mean urinary excretion of (210)Po in groups 1 and 2 was 73 and 100 mBq d(-1), respectively. These values were higher than the value of the control group (20 mBq d(-1)) and the mean values reported in the literature. The mean daily urinary excretion of (210)Pb in groups 1 and 2, 70 and 52 mBq d(-1), was also slightly higher than that in the control group (32 mBq d(-1)). In contrast, the excretion rates of both (210)Po and (210)Pb for the members of group 3 were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. This was clearly due to the elevated levels of natural radionuclides in their drinking water. The present study demonstrates the importance of possessing good knowledge of the background levels, in order to allow the determination of the additional exposure due, for example, to the malevolent use of radiation. PMID:21922285

  10. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered species: correlations with physiologic events and use as a marker of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, Bernard G; Brown, Janine L; Roth, Terri L; Czekala, Nancy

    2005-05-01

    Many mammalian species are facing extinction due to problems created by human encroachment, agriculture, pollution, and willful slaughter. Among those at risk are the Asian and African elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros, and giant panda. Conservation groups try to save species in the wild by preserving habitat and limiting animal-human conflicts, often with limited success. Another alternative is to preserve the extant gene pool through captive breeding as a hedge against extinction. Measurement of circulating reproductive hormones is impractical for most wildlife species; determination of urinary or fecal hormone metabolites provides a more viable approach. To aid breeding management, one important tool is the ability to diagnose and monitor pregnancy, especially in species with long gestations (e.g., rhinos over 15 mo and elephants over 20 mo). Unfortunately, measuring progestins often is not useful diagnostically, because concentrations are similar during at least part of the pregnancy and the nonpregnant luteal phase in some species (e.g., elephants, rhinoceroses, and giant pandas). As serum relaxin reliably distinguishes between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in bitches, relaxin measurement might also provide a method for detecting a successful pregnancy in endangered species. Appropriate immunoassay reagents have enabled the estimation of relaxin concentrations in the serum of elephants and rhinos and the determination of pregnancy establishment and the outcome. Relaxin was also detected in panda serum and urine. However, the extreme variability of the time between observed mating and parturition and the confounding factors of delayed implantation, pseudopregnancy, and frequent fetal resorptions made it impossible to use the panda relaxin data as a specific marker of pregnancy. PMID:15956734

  11. Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.

    2003-05-01

    At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

  12. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jean Brown; Howard Hu; Teresa Gonzales-Cossio; Karen E Peterson; Luz-Helena Sanin; Maria de Luz Kageyama; Eduardo Palazuelos; Antonio Aro; Lourdes Schnaas; Mauricio Hernandez-Avila

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVEThis study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.METHODSMaternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-xray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors

  13. Abnormal function of the vasopressin-cyclic-AMP-aquaporin2 axis during urine concentrating and diluting in patients with reduced renal function. A case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The kidneys ability to concentrate and dilute urine is deteriorated during progressive renal insufficiency. We wanted to test the hypothesis that these phenomena could be attributed to an abnormal function of the principal cells in the distal part of the nephron. Methods Healthy control subjects and patients with chronic kidney diseases were studied. Group 1 comprised healthy subjects, n = 10. Groups 2-4 comprised patients with chronic kidney disease (Group 2, n = 14, e-GFR ? 90 m1/min; Group 3, n = 11, 60 m1/min ? e-GFR < 90 ml/min; and Group 4, n = 16, 15 ml/min ? e-GFR < 60 ml/min). The subjects collected urine during 24 hours. A urine concentrating test was done by thirsting during the following 12 hours. Thereafter, a urine diluting test was performed with a water load of 20 ml/kg body weight. The effect variables were urinary excretions of aquaporin2 (u-AQP2), cyclic-AMP (u-c-AMP), urine volume (UV), free water clearance (CH2O), urine osmolarity (u-Osm), and plasma arginine vasopressin (p-AVP). Results After fluid deprivation, u-Osm increased. In all groups, UV and CH2O decreased and u-AQP2 and u-c-AMP increased in Groups 1 and 2, but were unchanged in Group 3 and 4. P-AVP was significantly higher in Group 4 than in the other groups. During urine diluting, UV and CH2O reached significantly higher levels in Groups 1-3 than Group 4. Both before and after water loading, u-AQP2 and p-AVP were significantly higher and u-c-AMP was significantly lower in Group 4 than the other groups. Estimated-GFR was correlated negatively to p-AVP and positively to u-c-AMP. Conclusions Patients with moderately severe chronic kidney disease have a reduced renal concentrating and diluting capacity compared to both patients with milder chronic kidney disease and healthy control subjects. These phenomena can be attributed, at least partly, to an abnormally decreased response in the AVP-c-AMP-AQP2 axis. ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT00313430 PMID:20923561

  14. Phenolic acid concentrations in plasma and urine from men consuming green or black tea and potential chemopreventive properties for colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Susanne M.; Wang, Piwen; Abgaryan, Narine; Vicinanza, Roberto; de Oliveira, Daniela Moura; Zhang, Yanjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Carpenter, Catherine L.; Aronson, William J.; Heber, David

    2013-01-01

    Scope Tea polyphenols are metabolized by the colonic microflora yielding phenolic metabolites, which may contribute to the health benefits of tea. We determined the serum and urine concentrations of phenolic acids, hippuric acid and polyhydroxyphenyl-?-valerolactones during green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) administration. The effects of (?)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4-DHPAA) alone and in combination on bioavailability, intracellular metabolism, and antiproliferative activity was determined in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Methods and Results The concentration of phenolic metabolites was quantified by HPLC with electrochemical detection and MS. Urine concentrations of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA) and polyhydroxy-?-valerolactones were increased significantly in men drinking GT compared to control. Urine concentration of 3-O-methylgallic acid (3OMGA) was significantly increased in men drinking BT compared to control. Serum 3,4-DHPAA was significantly increased after consumption of GT and BT and 4-HPAA after GT consumption. In vitro treatment of HCT-116 colon cancer cells with 3,4-DHPAA and EGCG exhibited an additive antiproliferative effect, while methylation of 3,4-DHPAA was significantly decreased. 3OMGA exhibited the strongest antiproliferative activity among the phenolic acids. Conclusions The consumption of both, GT and BT, was associated with a significant increase in urinary and serum phenolic acids. PMID:23319439

  15. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  16. A longitudinal study of the relation of lead in blood to lead in air concentrations among battery workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D G Hodgkins; T G Robins; D L Hinkamp; M A Schork; W H Krebs

    1992-01-01

    The relation between lead in air (PbA) and lead in blood (PbB), concentrations was investigated among 44 workers in five major operations in a United States high volume, lead acid battery plant. The study covered a 30 month period in which workers received frequent PbA and PbB determinations, workers remained in a single job, and PbA concentrations averaged below the

  17. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Porphyrins help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin, the protein in ... blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins can be found in urine. A urine porphyrins ...

  18. Immunofixation - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infant: Thoroughly wash the area where the urine exits the body. Open a urine collection bag (a ... eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  19. Cotinine Concentrations in Follicular Fluid as a Measure of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization: Inter-matrix Comparisons with Urine and Temporal Variability

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Meeker, John D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationship between cotinine measures in follicular fluid (FF) and urine to inform our exposure assessment strategy for an ongoing epidemiological study of secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure and early pregnancy loss. Among subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared cotinine levels in paired urine and FF samples from the same women and examined FF cotinine levels over time. We found a weak rank-order relationship (Spearman r <0.2) and poor agreement for classifying nonsmoking individuals as exposed to STS (sensitivity = 0.29–0.71; specificity = 0.35–0.72) between cotinine concentrations in FF and urine. We observed fair reliability (ICC = 0.42–0.52) in FF cotinine concentrations from women undergoing multiple IVF cycles. If available, FF cotinine concentrations may be desired as a biomarker of low-level tobacco smoke exposure over urinary cotinine in studies of early reproduction. Collection of multiple FF samples for cotinine analysis may be needed to accurately represent long-term STS exposure. PMID:21397293

  20. Intellectual Impairment in Children with Blood Lead Concentrations below 10 ?g per Deciliter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Canfield; Deborah A. Cory-Slechta; Christopher Cox; Todd A. Jusko; Bruce P. Lanphear

    2003-01-01

    background Despite dramatic declines in children's blood lead concentrations and a lowering of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's level of concern to 10 µg per deciliter (0.483 µmol per liter), little is known about children's neurobehavioral functioning at lead concentrations below this level. methods We measured blood lead concentrations in 172 children at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36,

  1. Increased blood lead concentration during menstruation in teen female students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-Hui Yang; Saou-Hsing Liou; Chun-Yuh Yang; Fung-Chang Sung; Chin-Ching Wu; Trong-Neng Wu

    2007-01-01

    Among many studies on the health effects associated with lead burden in human, none has addressed for menstrual cycle. Studies have reported that blood lead levels (BLLs) may increase as estrogen levels decrease. We conducted a study to test whether the BLLs vary during the menstrual cycle. The subjects were 138 teen girls recruited at a junior nursing college. Blood

  2. Investigation and control strategies of lead concentration in drinking water distribution systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu Shihu; Liu Suiqing; Zhang Dong

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of lead pipes in the major countries in Europe was investigated. International protocols of lead concentration in drinking water on human health were reviewed and compared. Lead concentration in drinking water samples was measured and single pipe model was used to simulate the dissolution of lead into the water flowing. It has been successfully validated in a range

  3. A surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method for the determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine and variation of endogenous urinary concentrations of GHB.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyoung; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun

    2014-09-01

    ?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a strong anesthetic effect; however, proving its ingestion through the quantification of GHB in biological specimens is not straightforward due to the endogenous presence of GHB in human blood, urine, saliva, etc. In the present study, a surrogate analyte approach was applied to accurate quantitative determination of GHB in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to overcome this issue. For this, (2)H6-GHB and (13)C2-dl-3-hydroxybutyrate were used as a surrogate standard and as an internal standard, respectively, and parallelism between the surrogate analyte approach and standard addition was investigated at the initial step. The validation results proved the method to be selective, accurate, and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges (0.1-1?g/ml). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of (2)H6-GHB were 0.05 and 0.1?g/ml, respectively. No significant variations were observed among urine matrices from different sources. The stability of (2)H6-GHB was satisfactory under sample storage and in-process conditions. However, in vitro production of endogenous GHB was observed when the urine sample was kept under the in-process condition for 4h and under the storage conditions of 4 and -20°C. In order to facilitate the practical interpretation of urinary GHB, endogenous GHB was accurately measured in urine samples from 79 healthy volunteers using the surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method developed in the present study. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations in 74 urine samples with quantitative results ranged from 0.09 to 1.8?g/ml and from 4.5 to 530?g/mmol creatinine, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between the unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations. The urinary endogenous GHB concentrations were affected by gender and age while they were not significantly influenced by habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, or caffeine-containing beverage drinking. PMID:24929871

  4. Environmental and physiological factors contributing to tissue lead concentrations in freshwater molluscs

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental and physiological factors contibuting to lead concentrations in selected freshwater molluscs were examined. Field investigation demonstrated that lead concentrations in Physa integra, Pseudosuccinea columella and Campeloma decisum reflected the lead levels at the two study sites. However, molluscs sharing a common habitat displayed widely differing lead levels. Lead concentrations in P. integra, P. columella and Helisoma trivolvis were correlated with dissolved lead in the water. Lead concentrations in P. integra were also correlated with those in the dominant macrophyte at the study sites. The lead levels in these gastropods were not correlated with concentrations of Aufwuchs-associated lead. Lead levels in C. decisum were not correlated with the lead concentrations in any of the measured potential sources. Lead contributions in P. integra were independent of size. Lead levels in C. decisum were greatest in small snails. In laboratory experiments, P. integra accumulated lead rapidly from plant tissue and more slowly from the Aufwuchs. This species also eliminated lead rapidly. C. decisum neither accumulated lead rapidly from sediments nor eliminated lead rapidly from its body when exposed to a lead-free environment.

  5. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.

  6. Reduction of lead concentrations in vegetables grown in Tarragona Province, Spain, as a consequence of reduction of lead in gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, M.; Rico, A.; Schuhmacher, M. [Rovira i Virgili Univ., Reus (Spain)] [and others] [Rovira i Virgili Univ., Reus (Spain); and others

    1995-12-31

    Lead concentrations were determined in 350 samples belonging to 13 different species of vegetables from Tarragona Province, Spain. The samples were subjected to lead analyses by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. During the period 1989-1994, an average decrease for lead concentrations of 69% was estimated. Spinach showed the lowest reduction2 in lead content (6%), while the highest decreases were observed for onion (87%) and leek (90%). Taking into account the average consumption of vegetable foodstuffs by the population of Tarragona Province, the daily lead intake through edible vegetables was reduced from 41.5 {mu}g/d in 1989 to 10.6 {mu}g/d in 1994. The results of the current study demonstrate a substantial decline in the lead levels of vegetables from Tarragona Province. The major cause of this decline is most likely the reduced leaded gasoline consumption.

  7. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in oral fluid, blood, and urine after volunteers drank 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg doses of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Mørland, Jørg; Christophersen, Asbjørg

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid, blood, and urine after healthy volunteers drank two doses of ethanol, 0.5 (n = 11) and 1.0 g/kg (n = 10), after an overnight fast. Samples of oral fluid, blood, and urine were collected before drinking started and at 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 8.5, 11.5, and 24 h post-dosing. Following ingestion of low dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 0.36 mg/L (range 0.28-0.41 mg/L) in blood and 69.8 mg/L (range 47.1-96.5 mg/L) in urine. In oral fluid, the concentrations were < 1% of those in blood, and only three subjects exceeded the limit of quantification for EtG in oral fluid. After ingestion of the high dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 1.06 mg/L (range 0.8-1.22 mg/L) in blood, 159.9 mg/L (range 97.2-225.5 mg/L) in urine, and 0.032 mg/L (range 0.013-0.059 mg/L) in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood ratio was 0.029 (range 0.012-0.054) for EtG. The detection time for EtG was median 11.5 h (range 3.5-11.5 h) in oral fluid. According to this, the detection time for EtG in oral fluid is therefore only a few hours longer than for ethanol itself and represents limited additional value. PMID:20663284

  8. Seasonal variations of lead concentration and loading rates in residential house dust in northern Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varduhi Petrosyan; Margrit C. von Braun; Susan M. Spalinger; Ian H. von Lindern

    2006-01-01

    Although lead hazards to humans have been known since ancient times and many regulatory actions and lead risk reductions have been achieved over the past century, lead contamination and exposure remain significant problems worldwide. The focus of this study was to investigate whether residential house dust lead concentrations and lead and dust loading rates in non-contaminated or “background” communities in

  9. Factors Affecting Lead Concentrations in Drinking Water: Solder and Sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa M. Stimpfel; Catherine E. Volin; Daniel W. Rosenberg; Edward L. Gershey

    1991-01-01

    The lead content of the drinking water on a 15-acre urban campus was evaluated by a method employing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water samples were collected from supply mains, distribution lines, and drinking water fixtures in 14 buildings that range in age up to 80 years. Despite the age of many installations, the majority of the fixtures delivered water

  10. Breast milk lead concentrations of mothers living near tin smelters.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Moreira, Maria de Fátima R; Bernardi, José Vicente E; Dórea, José G

    2013-11-01

    We compared Pb concentration in human milk from 37 mothers living in a neighborhood of tin-ore smelters to that from 45 mothers living in a fishing community. The median breast-milk-Pb (BM-Pb) concentration was significantly (p = 0.0000001) higher (11.3 ?g L(-1); ?0.96-29.4 ?g L(-1)) in mothers living in the vicinity of smelters than that of rural mothers (1.9 ?g L(-1); ?0.96-20.0 ?g L(-1)). These mothers also showed a statistically significant correlation between length of residence and BM-Pb concentration (Spearman r = 0.6864; p < 0.0001). The estimated median exposure (for infants <6 months) was 3.0 ?g kg(-1) b.w. for rural infants compared to 7.5 ?g kg(-1) b.w. for infants in the vicinity of metal smelters. Overall, most BM-Pb concentrations (79 %) in the metal smelter area were above the critical limit of 5.0 ?g L(-1) set by the WHO. PMID:24068462

  11. Magnesium, Calcium, and Trace Elements Excretion in 24-h Urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria D?ugaszek; Miros?awa Kaszczuk; Monika Mularczyk-Oliwa

    2011-01-01

    Urine is a clinical specimen often used in medical diagnostics for monitoring of elements concentrations and kidneys function.\\u000a We determined the contents of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd)\\u000a in 74 samples of 24-h urine (from 46 women and 28 men). The measurements were realized by the atomic absorption spectrometry\\u000a (AAS)

  12. Antibacterial activity of human urine

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Donald

    1968-01-01

    The fate of bacteria in human urine was studied after inoculation of small numbers of Escherichia coli and other bacterial strains commonly implicated in urinary tract infection. Urine from normal individuals was often inhibitory and sometimes bactericidal for growth of these organisms. Antibacterial activity of urine was not related to lack of nutrient material as addition of broth did not decrease inhibitory activity. Antibacterial activity was correlated with osmolality, urea concentration and ammonium concentration, but not with organic acid, sodium, or potassium concentration. Between a pH range of 5.0-6.5 antibacterial activity of urine was greater at lower pH. Ultrafiltration and column chromatography to remove protein did not decrease antibacterial activity. Urea concentration was a more important determinant of antibacterial activity than osmolality or ammonium concentration. Increasing the urea of a noninhibitory urine to equal that of an inhibitory urine made the urine inhibitory. However, increasing osmolality (with sodium chloride) or increasing ammonium to equal the osmolality or ammonium of an inhibitory urine did not increase antibacterial activity. Similarly, dialysis to decrease osmolality or ammonium but preserve urea did not decrease inhibitory activity. Decreasing urea with preservation of ammonium and osmolality decreased antibacterial activity. Removal of ammonium with an ion exchanger did not decrease antibacterial activity, whereas conversion of urea to ammonium with urease and subsequent removal of the ammonium decreased antibacterial activity. Urine collected from volunteers after ingestion of urea demonstrated a marked increase in antibacterial activity, as compared with urine collected before ingestion of urea. PMID:4877682

  13. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  14. The relation between lead concentrations in human dental tissues and in blood.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Theunissen, F S; Kotze, T J

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to measure the lead concentrations in various parts of the teeth (enamel, dentine and circumpulpal dentine) and in blood from individuals of a remote rural South African community; (2) to investigate any correlation between the lead concentrations in these various dental tissues and in blood; and (3) to estimate blood lead from the tooth lead concentrations reported in other studies. Primary teeth and blood were collected from 48 children and analysed by graphite-furnace atomic absorptiometry. The following median concentrations (expressed in mg/kg) of lead were found: blood, 0.025; enamel, 0.25; dentine, 2.04; circumpulpal dentine, 6.71. The tooth lead concentrations were similar to those from other studies from remote rural areas but comparisons of blood lead were not possible in the absence of previous data. Blood lead in other studies could be calculated from the ratios here reported. PMID:10785525

  15. The behaviour of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during struvite precipitation in urine.

    PubMed

    Ronteltap, Mariska; Maurer, Max; Gujer, Willi

    2007-05-01

    Separating urine from wastewater at the source reduces the costs of extensive wastewater treatment. Recovering the nutrients from urine and reusing them for agricultural purposes adds resource saving to the benefits. Phosphate can be recovered in the form of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate). In this paper, the behaviour of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during the precipitation of struvite in urine is studied. When precipitating struvite in urine spiked with hormones and non-ionic, acidic and basic pharmaceuticals, the hormones and pharmaceuticals remain in solution for more than 98%. For heavy metals, initial experiments were performed to study metal solubility in urine. Solubility is shown to be affected by the chemical conditions of stored and therefore hydrolysed urine. Thermodynamic modelling reveals low or very low equilibrium solute concentrations for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). Experiments confirmed Cd, Cu and Pb carbonate and hydroxide precipitation upon metal addition in stored urine with a reaction half-life of ca. 7 days. For all metals considered, the maximum specific metal concentrations per gram phosphate or nitrogen showed to be typically several orders of magnitudes lower in urine than in commercially available fertilizers and manure. Heavy metals in struvite precipitated from normal stored urine could not be detected. Phosphate recovery from urine over struvite precipitation is shown to render a product free from most organic micropollutants and containing only a fraction of the already low amounts of heavy metals in urine. PMID:17368503

  16. Investigation of Higher Than Standard Lead Concentrations in Drinking Water From Washington, D.C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Adarkwah; I. Ararso; N. Garcia; A. Goldman; C. Lieu; J. Mondragon; V. Swamy; M. Unigarro; K. Cuff

    2005-01-01

    For over two years, the Washington, D.C. area has been plagued by the incidence of alarming concentrations of lead found in local drinking water. During this period, water with lead concentration levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) action limit of 15 ppb has been found in approximately 66% of the homes tested. Because of the problems with lead

  17. Influence of multiple injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on urine and serum endogenous steroids concentrations.

    PubMed

    Strahm, Emmanuel; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Pralong, François; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert

    2011-12-10

    Since it is established that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) affects testosterone production and release in the human body, the use of this hormone as a performance enhancing drug has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Nowadays, the only validated biomarker of a hCG doping is its direct quantification in urine. However, this specific parameter is subjected to large inter-individual variability and its determination is directly dependent on the reliability of hCG immunoassays used. In order to counteract these weaknesses, new biomarkers need to be evidenced. To address this issue, a pilot clinical study was performed on 10 volunteers submitted to 3 subsequent hCG injections. Blood and urine samples were collected during two weeks in order to follow the physiological effects on related compounds such as the steroid profile or hormones involved in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The hCG pharmacokinetic observed in all subjects was, as expected, prone to important inter-individual variations. Using ROC plots, level of testosterone and testosterone on luteinizing hormone ratio in both blood and urine were found to be the most relevant biomarker of a hCG abuse, regardless of inter-individual variations. In conclusion, this study showed the crucial importance of reliable quantification methods to assess low differences in hormonal patterns. In regard to these results and to anti-doping requirements and constraints, blood together with urine matrix should be included in the anti-doping testing program. Together with a longitudinal follow-up approach it could constitute a new strategy to detect a hCG abuse, applicable to further forms of steroid or other forbidden drug manipulation. PMID:21798680

  18. Lead concentrations in bullfrog Rana catesbeiana and green frog R. clamitans tadpoles inhabiting highway drainages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdsall, C.W.; Grue, C.E.; Anderson, A.

    1986-01-01

    Lead concentrations were determined in sediment and tadpoles of bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana and green frogs R. clamitans from drainages along highways with different daily average traffic volumes (range, 4272 to I08,800 vehicles day-I) and from ponds >0.4 km from the nearest highway. Lead concentrations (mg kg--I dry weight) in sediment (7-8 to 940) were usually greater (4-5 times) than those in the tadpoles (bullfrog, 0,07 to 270; green frog, 0,90 to 240 mg kg-I). Lead concentrations in sediment (r =0.63) and in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = 0.69; green frog, r = 0.57) were positively correlated with average daily traffic volume. Lead concentrations in both species of tadpoles (bullfrog, r = (). 76: green frog, r = 0.75) were also positively correlated with lead concentrations in sediment. At sites where both bullfrog and green frog tadpoles were collected. lead concentrations in the two species were closely related (r = 0.84). Lead concentrations in tadpoles living near highways may contribute to the elevated lead levels reported in wildlife that are potential tadpole predators. Dietary lead concentrations similar to those in our tadpoles have been associated with physiological and reproductive effects in some species of birds and mammals. However, additional data are needed to determine the hazards to predators of lead concentrations in tadpoles.

  19. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. J.; Hu, H.; Gonzales-Cossio, T.; Peterson, K.; Sanin, L.; Kageyama, M. d.; Palazuelos, E.; Aro, A.; Schnaas, L.; Hernandez-Avila, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.?METHODS—Maternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-x ray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors related to exposure to lead were collected by questionnaire. Linear regression was used to examine the relations between bone and blood lead, demographics, and environmental exposure variables.?RESULTS—Mean (SD) blood, tibial, and patellar lead concentrations were 9.5 (4.5) µg/dl, 10.2 (10.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral, and 15.2 (15.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral respectively. These values are considerably higher than values for women in the United States. Older age, the cumulative use of lead glazed pottery, and higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City were powerful predictors of higher bone lead concentrations. Use of lead glazed ceramics to cook food in the past week and increased patellar lead concentrations were significant predictors of increased blood lead. Patellar lead concentrations explained one third of the variance accounted for by the final blood lead model. Women in the 90th percentile for patella lead had an untransformed predicted mean blood lead concentration 3.6 µg/dl higher than those in the 10th percentile.?CONCLUSIONS—This study identified the use of lead glazed ceramics as a major source of cumulative exposure to lead, as reflected by bone lead concentrations, as well as current exposure, reflected by blood lead, in Mexico. A higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City, a proxy for exposure to leaded gasoline emissions, was identified as the other major source of cumulative lead exposure. The influence of bone lead on blood lead coupled with the long half life of lead in bone has implications for other populations and suggests that bone stores may pose a threat to women of reproductive age long after exposure has declined.???Keywords: postpartum; blood lead; bone lead PMID:10896960

  20. Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

  1. Rewarming from hypothermia leads to elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gaffin, S L; Dietz, F B; Brock-Utne, J G; Andrews, T C; Jaffe, R A; Steinberg, G K; Wallace, R F

    2000-01-01

    Rewarming victims of hypothermia such as divers or immersion victims, participants in winter sports and military operations, and surgical patients on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may lead to vascular instability, multiorgan failure, shock, and even death. While the causes of these rewarming symptoms are unknown, they may be related to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) translocated from the intestines into the circulation due to splanchnic ischemia. We have determined LPS during the cooling (to 31.5 degrees-34.0 degrees C) and rewarming phases of hypothermic surgery in 11 patients at the Stanford University Medical Center. During rewarming, there was an LPS spike in 6/11, in one more patient there was an LPS spike during surgery but not during rewarming, and in 4/11 there was no rise in LPS, i.e., a temporary endotoxemia occurred in 7/11 (63.6%) patients, usually at the commencement of rewarming. All four patients with no LPS spike received dexamethasone for at least 7 days before surgery. We propose that hypothermia reduced splanchnic blood flow (BF), causing ischemic damage to the gut wall and translocation of LPS from the gut into the vascular space. Upon rewarming, splanchnic BF is restored, the translocated LPS transits from the splanchnic to the systemic circulations as a bolus, and the gut wall is healed. No sequelae occurred in these patients because of their adequately functioning immune systems. However, had they been immunocompromised, symptoms might have occurred. Rewarming of accident victims probably also incurs a similar risk of endotoxemia, and dexamethasone may have protected the gut wall. Further studies are indicated. PMID:10813433

  2. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... jaundice. Bilirubin may also be measured with a blood test. ... urinated into it. Drain the urine from the bag into the container provided by your health care provider. Deliver the sample to the laboratory or to your health care provider as soon as possible.

  3. The Effects of Different Concentrations of Lead Salts on a Variety of Crop Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Liz; Gibbon, Jamie; Hofgartner, Jon; Mason, Craig; Willmetts, Helen

    2003-01-01

    An investigation is described that would be suitable for A-level or first year degree Biology or Environmental Science students. Crop plants were grown in different concentrations of lead chloride and lead nitrate. French beans, carrots and Brussels sprouts were all inhibited at concentrations over 0.01 mol dm[superscript -3] showing stunted root…

  4. The effects of different concentrations of lead salts on a variety of crop plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liz Whiteley; Jamie Gibbon; Jon Hofgartner; Craig Mason; Helen Willmetts

    2003-01-01

    An investigation is described that would be suitable for A-level or first year degree Biology or Environmental Science students. Crop plants were grown in different concentrations of lead chloride and lead nitrate. French beans, carrots and Brussels sprouts were all inhibited at concentrations over 0.01 mol dm showing stunted root growth. The difference in overall seedling length of the control

  5. A longitudinal study of the relation of lead in blood to lead in air concentrations among battery workers.

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkins, D G; Robins, T G; Hinkamp, D L; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1992-01-01

    The relation between lead in air (PbA) and lead in blood (PbB), concentrations was investigated among 44 workers in five major operations in a United States high volume, lead acid battery plant. The study covered a 30 month period in which workers received frequent PbA and PbB determinations, workers remained in a single job, and PbA concentrations averaged below the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 50 micrograms/m3. In both univariate and multivariable linear regressions, longitudinal analyses averaging PbA concentrations over the 30 month study period appeared superior to cross sectional analyses using only six month PbA averages to model PbB concentrations. The covariate adjusted coefficient (alpha value) for PbA (mu/m3) in models of PbB (micrograms/100 g) was 1.14. This figure is strikingly higher than that reported in previous studies in the lead acid battery industry in all of which PbA concentrations were substantially higher than in the current study. Plausible explanations for the difference in alpha values include non-linearity of the PbA-PbB curve, a higher fraction of large size particulate associated with higher PbA concentrations, survivor bias among workers exposed to higher PbA concentrations, and the cross sectional designs of most previous studies. Despite previously reported problems with the model used by OSHA to predict PbA-PbB relations, the findings of this study are in good agreement with the predictions of that model. PMID:1571294

  6. A longitudinal study of the relation of lead in blood to lead in air concentrations among battery workers.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, D G; Robins, T G; Hinkamp, D L; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1992-04-01

    The relation between lead in air (PbA) and lead in blood (PbB), concentrations was investigated among 44 workers in five major operations in a United States high volume, lead acid battery plant. The study covered a 30 month period in which workers received frequent PbA and PbB determinations, workers remained in a single job, and PbA concentrations averaged below the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 50 micrograms/m3. In both univariate and multivariable linear regressions, longitudinal analyses averaging PbA concentrations over the 30 month study period appeared superior to cross sectional analyses using only six month PbA averages to model PbB concentrations. The covariate adjusted coefficient (alpha value) for PbA (mu/m3) in models of PbB (micrograms/100 g) was 1.14. This figure is strikingly higher than that reported in previous studies in the lead acid battery industry in all of which PbA concentrations were substantially higher than in the current study. Plausible explanations for the difference in alpha values include non-linearity of the PbA-PbB curve, a higher fraction of large size particulate associated with higher PbA concentrations, survivor bias among workers exposed to higher PbA concentrations, and the cross sectional designs of most previous studies. Despite previously reported problems with the model used by OSHA to predict PbA-PbB relations, the findings of this study are in good agreement with the predictions of that model. PMID:1571294

  7. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) detected in abnormally high concentrations in postmortem blood and urine from two persons found dead inside a car containing a gasoline spill.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Morild, Inge; Johnsen, Lene; Le Nygaard, Ilah; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2013-09-01

    Two deep frozen persons, a female and a male, were found dead in a car. There had been an explosive fire inside the car which had extinguished itself. On the floor inside the car were large pools of liquid which smelled of gasoline. The autopsy findings and routine toxicological analyses could not explain the cause of death. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood samples were <10%. Analysis with a headspace gas chromatography revealed methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations of 185 mg/L (female victim) and 115 mg/L (male victim) in peripheral blood. The urine MTBE concentrations were 150 mg/L and 256 mg/L, respectively. MTBE is a synthetic chemical which is added to gasoline as a fuel oxygenate. Gasoline poisoning is likely to be the cause of the death in these two cases, and MTBE can be a suitable marker of gasoline exposure, when other volatile components have vaporized. PMID:23879346

  8. Variability of urine albumin excretion in normal and diabetic children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana M. Gibb; Vanita Shah; Michael Preece; T. Martin Barratt

    1989-01-01

    The variability of urine albumin excretion (UAE) was studied in normal and diabetic children and, in addition, the best method of expressing the data was investigated. In 39 timed overnight urine samples from diabetic children, the urine albumin creatinine clearance ratio (CA\\/CC) was compared with the urine albumin creatinine concentration ratio (UA\\/UC), the urine albumin excretion rate (UAER) and the

  9. Feather lead concentrations and207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gwiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, A. P.; Clark, M.; Wynne, J.; Grantham, And J.; Smith, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ???10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Osmolality - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body fluids (dehydration) Narrowing of the kidney artery (renal artery stenosis) Shock Sugar, or glucose, in the urine Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion ( SIADH ) Lower-than-normal ... renal tubular necrosis ) Drinking too much fluid Kidney failure ...

  11. Amylase - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .

  12. Frequent Urination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... make you urinate more frequently. Avoid beverages like coffee, tea, colas and other caffeinated drinks. Do Kegel ... them. more Explore Prematurity Research Peristats Product catalog Shop Professionals Partners Careers Annual Report © March of Dimes ...

  13. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  14. Lead concentrations and isotopic signatures in vintages of French wine between 1950 and 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rosman, K.J.R.; Chisholm, W.; Jimi, S. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)] [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Candelone, J.P. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)] [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); [Domaine Univ., Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l`Environnement; Boutron, C.F. [Domaine Univ., Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l`Environnement] [Domaine Univ., Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l`Environnement; [Univ. Joseph Fourier de Grenoble (France); Teissedre, P.L. [Univ. Montpellier (France). Centre de Formation et de Recherche] [Univ. Montpellier (France). Centre de Formation et de Recherche; Adams, F.C. [Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-08-01

    Vintages of French wine from 1950 to 1991 were analyzed for lead isotopes and concentration to investigate whether they might be used to archive the isotopic composition of the anthropogenic lead in aerosols to which the vineyard was exposed. Early vintages (1950--1980) contained 78--227 ng/g of lead with {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios between 1.152 and 1.173, while the later vintages displayed significantly lower concentrations and a smaller range of isotopic ratios. The concentration of trimethyl lead, which is associated with automobile emissions, was found to be poorly correlated with total lead in the wines, suggesting that automobile aerosols were not a significant source of the lead. This result was supported by lead isotope data which showed a poor correlation with the available petrol and aerosol data. To identify its origin lead isotopes were measured in vineyard aerosols, soil particles, bottle caps, corks, and brass components used to dispense the wine. Although a dominant source could not be identified there was some evidence to suggest that brass which had a high lead concentration was a significant contributor. Because the lead contribution from the processing of wine was probably relatively high in the past it is unlikely that old vintages of wine will be a suitable archive for lead isotopes in aerosols.

  15. Tissue lead concentrations and shot ingestion in nine species of waterbirds from the Camargue (France).

    PubMed

    Pain, D J; Amiard-Triquet, C; Sylvestre, C

    1992-10-01

    This study investigates the relationship among lead exposure (shot ingestion), current lead impregnation (liver lead values), current and previous lead impregnation (bone lead values), and lead excretion (feather lead) in nine species of waterbird from the Camargue (Rhone river delta), France. Results indicate that for individuals there is no readily predictable relationship between ingested shot and liver or bone lead concentrations. However, at the "population" level, and interspecifically, significant positive relationships exist between the susceptibility to shot ingestion and the degree of lead impregnation. Shoveler (Anas clypeata) proved to be an exception, with a high level of shot ingestion and no elevated tissue lead values. This is probably related to dietary factors. Species with a high degree of current lead contamination tended to be those that had also previously absorbed elevated levels of lead. Feather lead concentrations were not clearly related to the vulnerability of a species to shot ingestion or lead poisoning. There was no significant absorption of arsenic and antimony from gunshot associated with lead absorption. PMID:1280587

  16. Blood lead concentrations of spectacled eiders near the Kashunuk River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Creekmore, L.H.; Flint, P.; Smith, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    We collected, 342 blood samples from spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) on their breeding grounds in western Alaska from late May through to early August 1993a??1995. Lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. wet weight were found in the blood of 20% of the adult female eiders, 2% of the adult males and 6% of the ducklings. Lead was detected (a?Y0.02 p.p.m.) more frequently in the blood of adult females than in adult males or ducklings and the maximum concentrations were 14.37, 0.50 and 4.28 p.p.m. wet weight, respectively. In adult females, there was a significant difference in the proportion of detectable blood lead concentrations between three collection times (arrival/nesting, hatch and brood rearing), with the highest proportion (92%) occurring at hatch. Nine hens with blood lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. were captured a second time several weeks to 1 year later. In the hens sampled twice at intervals of several weeks, the blood lead concentrations increased and declined at mean daily rates of 1.10 and 0.94, respectively. The lead concentrations in the blood of adults were not correlated with body weights. Radiographs were taken of 119 eiders and corresponding blood samples from 98 of these birds were analysed for lead. Ingested shot was seen in X-rays of 12 adults and three ducklings and, of the 13 blood samples tested, all had detectable lead concentrations. Of the birds without radiographic evidence of ingested shot, 84% of the adult females, 19% of the adult males and 17% of the ducklings had detectable lead concentrations in their blood. Breeding ground exposure of waterfowl to lead shot is unusual and is of particular concern in spectacled eiders because of their threatened status and declining numbers in western Alaska.

  17. Lead concentrations in fine particulate matter after the phasing out of leaded gasoline in Xi'an, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H. M.; Cao, J. J.; Ho, K. F.; Ding, H.; Han, Y. M.; Wang, G. H.; Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Khol, S. D.; Qiang, J.; Li, W. T.

    2012-01-01

    Daily concentrations of lead (Pb) were determined for PM 2.5 samples collected from an urban location in Xi'an, China from 2007 to 2009 to assess the effects of the phasing out of leaded gasoline in 2000. The Pb concentrations (annual average: 0.306 ?g m -3, range: below detection limit to 2.631 ?g m -3) have declined after the phasing out of leaded gasoline, but the concentrations were still higher than those reported in many other cities. Seasonal variations of Pb were significant, with high concentrations in winter, presumably due to the burning of coal, and low concentrations in summer, due to a deep mixed layer and scavenging of aerosols by precipitation. Correlation analyses and enrichment factor calculations both indicated that anthropogenic sources had a large influence on atmospheric Pb. The lead isotope ratios were low in winter (the average 207Pb/ 206Pb ratio was 0.843 ± 0.032; 208Pb/ 206Pb was 1.908 ± 0.058) and high in summer ( 207Pb/ 206Pb was 0.860 ± 0.032; 208Pb/ 206Pb was 2.039 ± 0.057), suggesting that coal combustion was the major Pb source in winter and vehicular emission was the major Pb source in summer. Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model indicated that there were five major sources for Pb in PM 2.5. Coal combustion was the major contributor, accounting for 39.0% PM 2.5 mass, followed by vehicular emissions (30.4%). Other contributors included 17.8% from industrial emissions, 11.6% from biomass burning, and 1.2% from fugitive dust.

  18. Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wan; Liu, Xiande; Zhao, Liwei; Guo, Dongfa; Tian, Xiaodan; Adams, Freddy

    2006-07-01

    The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The 206Pb/207Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level. PMID:16165188

  19. Association of Prenatal and Childhood Blood Lead Concentrations with Criminal Arrests in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John Paul; Dietrich, Kim N; Ris, M. Douglas; Hornung, Richard W; Wessel, Stephanie D; Lanphear, Bruce P; Ho, Mona; Rae, Mary N

    2008-01-01

    Background Childhood lead exposure is a purported risk factor for antisocial behavior, but prior studies either relied on indirect measures of exposure or did not follow participants into adulthood to examine the relationship between lead exposure and criminal activity in young adults. The objective of this study was to determine if prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations are associated with arrests for criminal offenses. Methods and Findings Pregnant women were recruited from four prenatal clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio if they resided in areas of the city with a high concentration of older, lead-contaminated housing. We studied 250 individuals, 19 to 24 y of age, out of 376 children who were recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984. Prenatal maternal blood lead concentrations were measured during the first or early second trimester of pregnancy. Childhood blood lead concentrations were measured on a quarterly and biannual basis through 6.5 y. Study participants were examined at an inner-city pediatric clinic and the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. Total arrests and arrests for offenses involving violence were collected from official Hamilton County, Ohio criminal justice records. Main outcomes were the covariate-adjusted rate ratios (RR) for total arrests and arrests for violent crimes associated with each 5 ?g/dl (0.24 ?mol/l) increase in blood lead concentration. Adjusted total arrest rates were greater for each 5 ?g/dl (0.24 ?mol/l) increase in blood lead concentration: RR = 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.85) for prenatal blood lead, 1.07 (95% CI 0.88–1.29) for average childhood blood lead, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.03–1.57) for 6-year blood lead. Adjusted arrest rates for violent crimes were also greater for each 5 ?g/dl increase in blood lead: RR = 1.34 (95% CI 0.88–2.03) for prenatal blood lead, 1.30 (95% CI 1.03–1.64) for average childhood blood lead, and 1.48 (95% CI 1.15–1.89) for 6-year blood lead. Conclusions Prenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations are associated with higher rates of total arrests and/or arrests for offenses involving violence. This is the first prospective study to demonstrate an association between developmental exposure to lead and adult criminal behavior. PMID:18507497

  20. Seasonal variations of lead concentration and loading rates in residential house dust in northern Idaho.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Varduhi; von Braun, Margrit C; Spalinger, Susan M; von Lindern, Ian H

    2006-04-30

    Although lead hazards to humans have been known since ancient times and many regulatory actions and lead risk reductions have been achieved over the past century, lead contamination and exposure remain significant problems worldwide. The focus of this study was to investigate whether residential house dust lead concentrations and lead and dust loading rates in non-contaminated or "background" communities in northern Idaho are significantly affected by seasonal variations. House dust samples were obtained from 34 houses in five towns of northern Idaho from March to November 1999. There was evidence of significant seasonality of lead concentration in house dust in some towns, but no evidence in other towns. Because of the high variability between the towns and small sample sizes, it was difficult to make firm conclusions about seasonal patterns observed in house dust lead levels. A linear relationship between precipitation rates and dust loading rates was detected. PMID:16442226

  1. Elevation of urinary adipsin in preeclampsia: correlation with urine protein concentration and the potential use for a rapid diagnostic test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Rong; Gao, Linbo; Wang, Yanyun; Song, Changping; Gong, Yunhui; Jia, Jin; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Li; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Huaizhong

    2014-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of preeclampsia are essential for prevention of seizure development and fetus maturation. Although various methods have been developed for predicting or monitoring the onset of preeclampsia, a simple assay that can be used as a home or point of care test remains unavailable. We attempted to find a urinary protein that could be used as a biomarker for developing such a test. Urinary samples were collected from 124 preeclampsia and 135 healthy pregnant women for screening using a protein array technology and quantification by ELISA. A urinary protein, adipsin, was found significantly increased, and the adipsin creatinine ratio was closely correlated with the urinary 24-hour protein in patients with preeclampsia. When combined with the increased diastolic blood pressure (?90 mm Hg), the sensitivity was 90.3% and the specificity reached 100.0% for preeclampsia diagnosis. We then developed a laminar flow immunoassay for rapid diagnosis, and the sensitivity and specificity were 89.04% and 100%, respectively, when combined with increased diastolic blood pressure. Because of the easiness of sample collection, assay conduction, and result interpretation, this urine test can be potentially used as a home test for monitoring preeclampsia onset for high-risk pregnant women and as a rapid test for a preliminary diagnosis for emergency patients at hospitals. PMID:24958499

  2. Lead Concentrations and Isotopes in Corals and Water near Bermuda, 1780-2000 A.D.

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Amy E.

    The history of the oceanic anthropogenic lead (Pb) transient in the North Atlantic Ocean for the past 220 yr is documented here from measurements of Pb concentration and isotope ratios from annually-banded corals that grew ...

  3. Behavioural responses of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to components of human breath, sweat and urine depend on mixture composition and concentration.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y T; Smallegange, R C; VAN Loon, J J A; Takken, W

    2011-09-01

    Host-seeking behaviour of the anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is mediated predominantly by olfactory cues. Several hundreds of odour components have been identified from human emanations, but only a few have been proven to act as attractants or synergists in the host-seeking behaviour of female An. gambiae. In previous work, aromatics, alcohols and ketones in human odours were found to elicit electrophysiological activity in antennal olfactory neurons of female An. gambiae. However, the behavioural effects of these compounds have not been investigated. In this study, behavioural responses of female An. gambiae to components of human breath, urine and sweat at a series of concentrations, or a single concentration in the case of acetone, were examined in combination with ammonia and L-lactic acid in a dual-choice olfactometer. The results showed that at specific concentrations 4-ethylphenol, indole, 3-methyl-1-butanol and two ketones inhibited the attractive effect of a mixture of ammonia and lactic acid. Acetone on its own was not attractive; however, when combined with lactic acid, the binary mixture was attractive. When combined with ammonia, acetone inhibited the attractiveness exerted by ammonia alone. Dodecanol and dimethyldisulphide did not affect the attraction exerted by ammonia and lactic acid at any of the concentrations tested. By contrast, a human-specific armpit odour, 7-octenoic acid, augmented the attraction exerted by the combination of ammonia and lactic acid at a specific dosage. PMID:21108650

  4. Relation of Waterfowl Poisoning to Sediment Lead Concentrations in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Nelson Beyer; Daniel J. Audet; Gary H. Heinz; David J. Hoffman; Daniel Day

    2000-01-01

    For many years, waterfowl have been poisoned by lead after ingesting contaminated sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, in Idaho. Results of studies on waterfowl experimentally fed this sediment were combined with results from field studies conducted in the Basin to relate sediment lead concentration to injury to waterfowl. The first step in the model estimated exposure as the

  5. A study of lead concentrations in drinking water from water coolers at Tusculum College

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    Lead concentrations in drinking water were studied in a random sample of sixteen water coolers at Tusculum College to determine if the Environmental Protection Agency limit of fifty parts per billion lead was exceeded. The random sample of coolers was selected and classified based on brand, location, and frequency of use. One liter water samples were drawn from the coolers

  6. Tissue lead concentrations and blood characteristics of mourning doves from Southwestern Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J. Kendall; Patrick F. Scanlon

    1982-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the feasibility of sampling the blood from live mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) as a technique for evaluating lead exposure in this species. Measurements of the blood enzyme, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), were essentially the same in blood from the brachial vein or trunk blood. The ALAD activity decreased as liver lead concentration increased in mourning doves.

  7. Background concentrations of lead and cadmium in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes at different altitudes.

    PubMed

    Král, R; Krýzová, L; Liska, J

    1989-08-01

    The background concentrations of lead and cadmium in the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes were determined and found to depend on altitude. The lead content increases linearly with increasing altitude, whereas the cadmium content increases up to altitudes of 900-1100 m, and then decreases above this height. PMID:2772618

  8. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePLUS

    Difficulty starting or maintaining a urine stream is called urinary hesitancy. ... men have some trouble with dribbling, weak urine stream, and starting urination. Another common cause is infection ...

  9. Temporal variations in lead concentrations and isotopic composition in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.; Flegal, A. Russell

    1994-08-01

    Lead concentrations in surface waters of the Southern California Bight appear to have decreased threefold (from > 170 to <60 pM) since they were initially measured by Clair Patterson and his associates in the 1970s. The decrease parallels a threefold decline in anthropogenic inputs of industrial lead to the bight over the past two decades. Moreover, mass balance calculations indicate that the primary source of lead to the bight now is upwelling. This is evidenced by the isotopic compositions of surface waters in the bight, which are most characteristic of Asian industrial lead aerosols ( 0.4793 ? 206Pb /208Pb ? 0.4833 ) deposited in oceanic waters of the North Pacific. While the decrease in surface water lead concentrations in the bight reflects the reduction in industrial lead emissions from the United States, the isotopic compositions of surface waters in the southern reach of the bight reflect a concurrent increase in industrial lead emissions from Mexico ( 0.4852 ? 206Pb /208Pb ? 0.4877 ). The isotopic composition ( 208Pb /207Pb ? 2.427 ) of elevated lead concentrations of surface waters in San Diego Bay indicate that lead is being remobilized from contaminated sediments within that bay.

  10. Drosophila subobscura flies adapted to low lead concentration carry no fitness cost.

    PubMed

    Kalajdzic, Predrag; Kenig, Bojan; Andjelkovic, Marko

    2015-09-01

    As a response to the long-term presence of heavy metals in the environment, populations can evolve resistance. Its maintenance may have detrimental effect on population's fitness, causing a fitness cost. Lead is one of the widely distributed elements in the environment exhibiting high toxicity on organisms. By analyzing developmental stages viability and developmental time, we evaluated fitness cost in Drosophila subobscura flies adapted to low lead concentration and control flies derived from the same wild population, as well as their hybrids. Significant changes in specific developmental stages viability were detected in both lines, as well as their hybrids, suggesting complex response to low lead concentration. The results show that a long-term exposure to low lead concentration may have a significant impact on a population's survival, especially in a changing environment conditions. PMID:25935609

  11. A study of lead concentrations in drinking water from water coolers at Tusculum College

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, B. (Tusculum College, Greeneville, TN (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Lead concentrations in drinking water were studied in a random sample of sixteen water coolers at Tusculum College to determine if the Environmental Protection Agency limit of fifty parts per billion lead was exceeded. The random sample of coolers was selected and classified based on brand, location, and frequency of use. One liter water samples were drawn from the coolers for analysis on a schedule determined by the frequency of use of the cooler. The coolers were classified as either one day shut down. Two day shut down, or continuous use coolers. The control used was a source that comes from the main water line, and is at no time in contact with a source of lead. The test procedure used to analyze the samples is the Hach Lead Trak Fast Column Extraction Method for Drinking Water. The Hach DR-100 colorimeter was used. The two procedures used to verify the results are analysis using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and spiking of samples with a lead standard of ten parts per million. The control sample averaged one half part per billion lead. The majority of the water cooler samples averaged less than two parts per billion lead. Four coolers showed slightly elevated lead levels, but the levels did not exceed the EPA standard of fity parts per billion. The highest average lead concentration observed was 10.40 parts per billion. In general, there is not a problem with elevated lead levels in drinking water at Tusculum College.

  12. Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Quintanar-Escorza, M.A. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Martinez, M.T. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Navarro, L. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Maldonado, M. [CIATEC, A.C. (Mexico); Arevalo, B. [Medical Center Medic Unit 1 Bajio, IMSS, Leon Gto. (Mexico); Calderon-Salinas, J.V. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx

    2007-04-01

    Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples were taken from 15 workers exposed to lead (blood lead concentration 74.4 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/dl) and 15 non-exposed workers (9.9 {+-} 2 {mu}g/dl). In erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers, the intracellular free calcium was 79 {+-} 13 nM, a significantly higher concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.01) than the one detected in control (30 {+-} 9 nM). The enhanced intracellular free calcium was associated with a higher osmotic fragility and with important modifications in erythrocytes shape. The high intracellular free calcium in lead-exposed workers was also related to a 100% increase in calcium incorporation and to 50% reduction of (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity. Lipid peroxidation was 1.7-fold higher in erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers as compared with control. The alteration on calcium equilibrium in erythrocytes is discussed in light of the toxicological effects in lead-exposed workers.

  13. Aflatoxin B1 albumin adducts in plasma and aflatoxin M1 in urine are associated with plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E

    PubMed Central

    Obuseh, Francis A.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Jiang, Yi; Shuaib, Faisal M. B.; Waterbor, John; Ellis, William O.; Piyathilake, Chandrika J.; Desmond, Renee A.; Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although aflatoxin exposure has been shown to be associated with micronutrient deficiency in animals, there are few investigations on the effects of aflatoxin exposure on micronutrient metabolism in humans. Objective To examine the relationship between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in plasma and the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) metabolite in urine and plasma concentrations of retinol (vitamin A) and ?-tocopherol (vitamin E) in Ghanaians. Methods A cross-sectional study of 147 adult participants was conducted. Blood and urine samples were tested for aflatoxin and vitamins A and E levels. Results Multivariable analysis showed that participants with high AF-ALB (? 0.80 pmol/mg albumin) had increased odds of having vitamin A deficiency compared to those with lower AF-ALB [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61; CI = 1.03 – 6.58; p=0.04]. Participants with high AF-ALB also showed increased odds of having vitamin E deficiency but this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.4; CI = 0.96–6.05; p = 0.06). Conversely, those with higher AFM1 values had a statistically nonsignificant reduced odds of having vitamin A deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 1.15–0.09; p=0.05) and statistically significant reduced odds of having vitamin E deficiency (OR = 0.31; CI = 0.10 – 0.97; p = 0.04). Participants with high AF-ALB or high AFM1 (? 437.95 pg/dL creatinine) were almost 6 times more likely to be hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)- positive (OR = 5.88; CI = 1.71–20.14; p = 0.005) and (OR = 5.84; CI = 1.15–29.54; p = 0.03) respectively. Conclusions These data indicate that aflatoxin may modify plasma micronutrient status. Thus, preventing aflatoxin exposure may greatly reduce vitamins A and E deficiencies. PMID:21792816

  14. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 ?g/dL), 4.4 (2.4 ?g/L), 10.9 (9.2 ?g/L), and 43.7 (17.7 ?g/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 ?g/L vs. 6.4 ?g/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  15. Trends in lead concentrations in major US rivers and their relation to historical changes in gasoline-lead consumption, by Richard B. Alexander and Richard A. Smith

    SciTech Connect

    Flegal, A.R. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (United States)); Coale, K.H. (Moss Landing Marine Lab., CA (United States))

    1989-12-01

    The sequential development of trace metal clean techniques has resulted in a systematic decrease in reported lead concentrations in the ocean. Similar decreases have been observed in reports of lead concentrations in fresh water. This was illustrated by the changes in reported baseline concentrations of lead in Lake Huron. However, even the latest (1980) of those concentrations (19 ng/L) appears to be erroneously high based on recent measurements of lead concentrations in the Great Lakes. Lead concentrations in surface waters in the center of Lake Ontario are < 2 ng/L or one order of magnitude lower than the reported baseline concentration of Lake Huron in 1980. Corresponding concentrations of lead in surface waters of Lake Huron should be equal to or less than those in Lake Ontario. Anthropogenic lead fluxes to Lake Huron (621 metric tons per year) and Lake Ontario (592 metric tons per year) are comparable, while the assimilative capacity of Lake Huron is two-fold greater than that of Lake Ontario. Moreover, the atmospheric flux of industrial lead aerosols to surface waters in Lake Huron is approximately one half of the flux in Lake Ontario. Therefore, if removal rates are similar in these two lakes, the authors expect the baseline concentration of lead in Lake Huron to be {le} 2 ng/L or one order of magnitude lower than the 1980 baseline concentration. Concentrations in remote fresh water systems in North America, where inputs of industrial lead aerosols are orders of magnitude lower should also be < 2 ng/L. The preceding measurements and projected concentrations of lead in fresh water systems in North America are of note in light of some recent reports on the decrease of lead in natural waters within the US. Those reports are questionable, in spite of other reports of decreasing lead concentrations in the Mississippi River and North Atlantic.

  16. Total lead concentration in new decorative enamel paints in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Scott; Speranskaya, Olga; Brosche, Sara; Gonzalez, Hebe; Solis, Daniela; Kodeih, Naji; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Lead concentrations in new enamel decorative paints were determined in three countries in different areas of the world where data were not previously available. The average total lead concentration of the enamel decorative paints purchased in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia was 24,500ppm (ppm, dry weight), more than 270 times the current limit of 90ppm in Canada and in the United States. Sixty-three percent of these paints contained concentrations greater than 90ppm. Fifty-nine percent contained concentrations greater than 600ppm, the current limit in some countries. The maximum concentrations found were 236,000ppm in Lebanon, 169,000ppm in Paraguay and 52,900ppm in Russia. An average of 29% of the samples contained exceedingly high lead concentrations, >=10,000ppm. Five brands of paint were sampled in each of Lebanon and Paraguay and seven in Russia. Three colors from each brand were analyzed. For five of the six samples of the two brands in Lebanon with affiliations outside the country, the lead concentrations ranged from 1360ppm to 135,000ppm. In Lebanon the maximum concentration in the Egypt-affiliated brand (Sipes) was 135,000ppm and the maximum for the USA-affiliated brand (Dutch Boy) was 32,400ppm. Lead was not detected in any paints from the three of the four brands of paint purchased in Paraguay that had headquarters/affiliations in other countries (Brazil-Coralit), Germany (Suvinil) and USA (Novacor)). Two of the three paints from each of the other Paraguay brands contained high levels of lead with the maximum concentrations of 108,000 and 168,000ppm; one of these brands was manufactured under a license from ICI in the Netherlands. All of the paints purchased in Russia were from Russian brands and were manufactured in Russia. All three paints from one brand contained below detection levels of lead. The maximum levels of lead in the other six brands in Russia ranged from 3230 to 52,900ppm. The two brands with the highest lead concentration, TEKS and LAKRA, were produced by companies in the top three in market share.. Overall, lead concentrations were much higher in the colored paints such as red and yellow than in white paints. In each of the three countries a brand based in that country had a colored paint that either met a 90ppm limit or was close to meeting the limit-demonstrating that practical technology was available in each of these countries to produce low lead bright colored enamel decorative paints. Even though technology for producing paint without added lead existed in each of these countries, twenty-nine (29) percent of the paints analyzed contained exceedingly high concentrations (>=10,000ppm) of lead. PMID:25791866

  17. Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 ?g/dL cases vs. 2.73 ?g/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 ?g/dL vs. 2.72 ?g/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

  18. Speciation analysis of triethyl-lead and tributyl-tin compounds in human urine by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography microwave-induced plasma atomic emission detection.

    PubMed

    Zachariadis, George A; Rosenberg, Erwin

    2012-05-01

    This work describes the development of a fast method for speciation analysis of triethyl-lead and tributyl-tin species in urine samples after in situ derivatization by tetraethyl- or tetrapropyl-borate reagents. The alkylation reaction is done in the aqueous and urine medium and the less-polar derivatives are extracted in hexane by liquid-liquid extraction. The species were extracted and the extract was efficiently collected from the aqueous phase after centrifugation. Finally, the organometallic species are separated by gas chromatography and determined from the emission signals of elemental lead and tin. Atomic lead and tin are formed from the organolead and organotin compounds during atomization of the column eluate in a microwave-induced helium plasma source. The simultaneous measurement of lead (Pb) at 405.780 nm and tin (Sn) at 303.419 nm was achieved by an atomic emission detector. Finally, the analytes were determined with satisfactory precision (<5%) and detection limits of 0.05 ?g Pb/L and 0.48 ?g Sn/L, respectively, when 10 mL of urine is extracted with 1 mL of hexane and 1 ?L of extract is injected. PMID:22689489

  19. Polymorphisms in Genes Encoding Potential Mercury Transporters and Urine Mercury Concentrations in Populations Exposed to Mercury Vapor from Gold Mining

    PubMed Central

    Ameer, Shegufta; Bernaudat, Ludovic; Drasch, Gustav; Baeuml, Jennifer; Skerfving, Staffan; Bose-O’Reilly, Stephan; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elemental mercury (Hg0) is widely used in small-scale gold mining. Persons working or living in mining areas have high urinary concentrations of Hg (U-Hg). Differences in genes encoding potential Hg-transporters may affect uptake and elimination of Hg. Objective: We aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Hg-transporter genes that modify U-Hg. Methods: Men and women (1,017) from Indonesia, the Philippines, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe were classified either as controls (no Hg exposure from gold mining) or as having low (living in a gold-mining area) or high exposure (working as gold miners). U-Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Eighteen SNPs in eight Hg-transporter genes were analyzed. Results: U-Hg concentrations were higher among ABCC2/MRP2 rs1885301 A–allele carriers than among GG homozygotes in all populations, though differences were not statistically significant in most cases. MRP2 SNPs showed particularly strong associations with U-Hg in the subgroup with highest exposure (miners in Zimbabwe), whereas rs1885301 A–allele carriers had higher U-Hg than GG homozygotes [geometric mean (GM): 36.4 µg/g creatinine vs. 21.9; p = 0.027], rs2273697 GG homozygotes had higher U-Hg than A–allele carriers (GM: 37.4 vs. 16.7; p = 0.001), and rs717620 A–allele carriers had higher U-Hg than GG homozygotes (GM: 83 vs. 28; p = 0.084). The SLC7A5/LAT1 rs33916661 GG genotype was associated with higher U-Hg in all populations (statistically significant for all Tanzanians combined). SNPs in SLC22A6/OAT1 (rs4149170) and SLC22A8/OAT3 (rs4149182) were associated with U-Hg mainly in the Tanzanian study groups. Conclusions: SNPs in putative Hg-transporter genes may influence U-Hg concentrations. PMID:23052037

  20. Blood lead concentrations in mallards from Delevan and Colusa National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauser, David M.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Mensik, John G.; Brand, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 181 (108 adult drakes and 73 individuals of mixed age and sex) mallards, Anas platyrhynchos , from Colusa and Delevan National Wildlife Refuges during late winter and summer of 1987. The percentage of birds with elevated lead concentration was 28.7 for late winter and 16.4 for late summer. For summer trapped birds, a significantly greater proportion of males than females contained elevated lead levels. These findings indicate that lead poisoning may be a year-round event in certain areas of the Sacramento Valley.

  1. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

  2. Effects of Eutrophication on Concentrations and Speciation of Copper, Zinc, and Lead in West Falmouth Harbor

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effects of Eutrophication on Concentrations and Speciation of Copper, Zinc, and Lead in West anoxic conditions and high carbon content favor relatively stable forms of heavy metals, eutrophication suggest that conditions associated with eutrophication do increase heavy metal retention in West Falmouth

  3. Validation of a method to quantify chromium, cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in human whole blood, urine, saliva and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Olmedo; A. Pla; A. F. Hernández; O. López-Guarnido; L. Rodrigo; F. Gil

    2010-01-01

    For biological monitoring of heavy metal exposure in occupational toxicology, usually whole blood and urine samples are the most widely used and accepted matrix to assess internal xenobiotic exposure. Hair samples and saliva are also of interest in occupational and environmental health surveys but procedures for the determination of metals in saliva and hair are very scarce and to our

  4. Effects on milk urea concentration, urine output, and drinking water intake from incremental doses of potassium bicarbonate fed to mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T; Rustas, B-O

    2014-07-01

    Large variation exists in the potassium content of dairy cow feeds and also within a feed type due to soil type and fertilization. Increased ration K concentration causes a subsequent increase in urinary volume and could be expected to also lower milk urea concentration. Six multiparous mid-lactation Swedish Red dairy cows, all fitted with rumen cannulas, were subjected to 3 different levels of K intake in a Latin square experiment with three 2-wk periods to evaluate the effects on concentrations of milk urea and rumen ammonia, urinary output, and drinking water intake. The treatments were achieved by K supplementation on top of a low-K basal ration fed at individual allowances fixed throughout the experiment. The basal ration, consumed at 20.2 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, provided 165 g of crude protein/kg of DM and consisted of grass silage, concentrates, and urea in the proportions 39.3:60.0:0.7 on a DM basis. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation was 0, 616, and 1,142 g/d, respectively, to give total ration K concentrations that were low (LO; 12 g/kg of DM), medium (MED; 23 g/kg of DM), or high (HI; 32 g/kg of DM). Production and composition of milk was not affected by treatment. A linear effect on milk urea concentration was detected, being 4.48, 4.18, and 3.77 mM for LO, MED, and HI, respectively, and a linear tendency for rumen ammonia concentration with 6.65, 6.51, and 5.84 mg of NH?-N/dL for LO, MED, and HI, respectively. Milk urea concentration peaked about 3h after the rumen ammonia peak from the morning feeding, at a level 1.3mM over the baseline. Urinary urea excretion declined linearly (105, 103, and 98 g of urea-N/d for LO, MED, and HI, respectively). Linear increases occurred in urinary output (0.058 ± 0.001 kg of urine/g of K intake; no intercept; coefficient of determination=0.997) and drinking water intake (65.9 ± 2.02 + 0.069 ± 0.004 kg of water/g of K intake; coefficient of determination=0.95). Urinary K concentration leveled off at 12.4 g/L. Urinary creatinine excretion was not affected by K addition, but allantoin excretion increased linearly by 27% from LO to HI, suggesting increased rumen microbial growth. Rumen pH, acetate proportion of total volatile fatty acids, and digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with increasing potassium intake. We concluded that increased ration K concentration lowers milk urea concentration with a magnitude significant for the interpretation of milk urea values, but other sources of variation, such as sampling time relative to feeding, may be even more important. PMID:24835966

  5. Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.

    1986-07-01

    Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

  6. Lead Concentration Levels In Public Water Sources in the Fruitvale District of Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A.; Edel, M.; Tril, E.; Crockett, R.; Moreno, K.; Telles, C.; Rodriguez, F.; Folgar, E.; Ramirez-Tril, J.; Torres, J.; Navarro, J.; Nguyen, R.; Moqadam, S.

    2010-12-01

    To assess the possible risk of lead contamination in drinking water in the Fruitvale neighborhood in Oakland, California we collected samples from different fresh water sources and used an EPA approved method to analyze these samples for lead using a spectrophotometer. Our sample locations included drinking fountains at a school, library and train station, as well as an ornamental fountain in a plaza area. Our preliminary results revealed that 8 out of 11, or about 73% of water samples collected contained lead concentrations that exceed the EPA action level of 15?g/l. Given these preliminary results, there is an urgent need for us to continue further testing to confirm these concentrations, so that we can quickly notify the public and city officials of the risks associated with these drinking water sources within this community. Future sampling will follow a more rigorous collection strategy, which will help determine whether or not initial high lead values detected result from waters having had long residence times in local plumbing systems. If this is in fact the case, we intend to produce information that instructs the public on procedures that can be used to reduce the risk of lead exposure, such as only using water after it has been issuing from sources for specified amounts of time, or using filtration devices.

  7. Lead-210 and polonium-210 concentrations in some species of marine molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gouvea, R C; Santos, P L; Dutra, I R

    1992-03-01

    Data are presented for 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in three species of molluscs collected in the intertidal region of the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lead-210 activity in the soft tissue of the edible mussel Perna perna was 20 times higher than that found in its shell. The visceral mass contained the largest activity for both radionuclides, which is attributed to the feeding habits of the molluscs. Animals collected from Ponta Negra beach (open sea) showed higher concentrations of isotopes than those collected from Boa Viagem beach (within Guanabara Bay). PMID:1566047

  8. Correlation Between Surface Area and Dissolving Properties of Lead - A Step in the Investigation of Higher than Standard Lead Concentration in Drinking Water in Washington, D.C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hua; L. Garduno; J. D. Mondragon; K. E. Cuff

    2004-01-01

    Several recently published articles by the Washington Post exposing the alarming concentration of lead in drinking water from schools and homes in the Washington D.C. area sparked our interest in the correlation between lead-containing materials used in plumbing and rate of lead solubility. Elementary children who attend schools in various regions of the District were contacted by San Francisco Bay

  9. BLOOD LEAD CONCENTRATIONS OF WATERFOWL FROM UNHUNTED AND HEAVILY HUNTED MARSHES OF NOVA SCOTIA AND PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, CANADA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Daury; Francis E. Schwab; Myrtle C. Bateman

    Blood lead concentrations of juvenile American black ducks (Anas rubrz'pes) sampled in unhunted sanctuaries of Nova Scotia (NS) and Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, usually were <30 parts per billion (ppb). Based on gizzard content analyses of juvenile American black ducks from hunted areas, eight (24%) of 33 flightless birds contained ingested lead shot. Blood lead concentrations were ?100 ppb

  10. Observations on the effect of parathyroid hormone on environmental blood lead concentrations in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Osterloh, J.D. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on blood lead (Pb) concentrations was observed preliminarily in three different situations. Of 342 healthy bus drivers with no unusual exposure to Pb, 25 drivers with the highest and 25 with the lowest blood Pb were compared for serum PTH concentrations. There was no association between blood Pb and serum PTH concentrations. Eight women with postmenopausal osteoporosis enrolled in an experimental protocol to increase bone mass received daily PTH (1-34 fragment) for 1 week, calcitonin for the next 2 weeks, and oral calcium for the subsequent 10 weeks. This cycle was repeated four times during the year. Initial blood Pb concentrations averaged 6.0 micrograms/dl (range 2.1-8.9). Mean blood Pb concentrations decreased by 1.7 micrograms/dl over 1 year of therapy. The confidence interval for this change excluded zero, the mean change was significantly different from the mean change for comparative population (P less than 0.050), and paired changes were statistically significant (P = 0.045). Lastly, a single subject with hyperparathyroid disease and no unusual exposures to lead demonstrated stabilized blood Pb concentrations that were 50% lower after removal of his hyperplastic parathyroid glands. These observations suggest that the effect of PTH on increasing bone turnover and releasing Pb into blood is not easily detected at low physiologic amounts of PTH, but that with pathologic increases of PTH in hyperparathyroid disease, elevation of blood Pb from bone or increased gastrointestinal absorption may be possible. Likewise, either bone building therapies (PTH + calcitonin + calcium) may move Pb from blood into bone or supplemental calcium may decrease Pb gastrointestinal absorption, thereby explaining the observed lower blood Pb concentrations.

  11. Venturi-scrubber pre-concentration technique for electrochemical detection of airborne lead traces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inessa Belostotsky; Vladimir V. Gridin; Israel Schechter; Chaim N. Yarnitzky

    2001-01-01

    A method for ambient tracing of airborne lead-containing pollutants is reported. It is based on coupling a Venturi-scrubber aerosol sampling with square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method was tested by a series of pilot experiments. These were performed using contamination-controlled air intakes. A linear concentration process was achieved by the Venturi-scrubber. These data were cross-referenced by means of standard analysis

  12. Lead

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Children can be exposed from eating lead-based paint chips or playing in contaminated soil. Lead can ... X-rays. Because of health concerns, lead from paints and ceramic products, caulking, and pipe solder has ...

  13. Lead

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your home was built before 1978, old lead paint on your walls, doors, windows, and sills may ... Abatement Program for permanent elimination of lead-based paint hazards Less Lead in Drinking Water = Better Health ...

  14. Combining poly (methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith microextraction and on-line pre-concentration-capillary electrophoresis for analysis of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in human plasma and urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Wei; Min Zhang; Yu-Qi Feng

    2007-01-01

    A method based on poly (methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (MAA-EGDMA) monolith microextraction (PMME) and field-enhanced sample injection (FESI) pre-concentration technique was proposed for sensitive capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet (CE-UV) analysis of ephedrine (E) and pseudoephedrine (PE) in human plasma and urine. The PMME device consisted of a regular plastic syringe (1mL), a poly (MAA-EGDMA) monolithic capillary (2cm×530?m I.D.) and a plastic pinhead

  15. Spatial distribution of lead concentrations in urban surface soils of New Orleans, Louisiana USA.

    PubMed

    Abel, Michael T; Suedel, Burton; Presley, Steven M; Rainwater, Thomas R; Austin, Galen P; Cox, Stephen B; McDaniel, Les N; Rigdon, Richard; Goebel, Timothy; Zartman, Richard; Leftwich, Blair D; Anderson, Todd A; Kendall, Ronald J; Cobb, George P

    2010-10-01

    Immediately following hurricane Katrina concern was raised over the environmental impact of floodwaters on the city of New Orleans, especially in regard to human health. Several studies were conducted to determine the actual contaminant distribution throughout the city and surrounding wetlands by analyzing soil, sediment, and water for a variety of contaminants including organics, inorganics, and biologics. Preliminary investigations by The Institute of Environmental and Human Health at Texas Tech University concluded that soils and sediments contained pesticides, semi-volatiles, and metals, specifically arsenic, iron, and lead, at concentrations that could pose a significant risk to human health. Additional studies on New Orleans floodwaters revealed similar constituents as well as compounds commonly found in gasoline. More recently, it has been revealed that lead (Pb), arsenic, and vanadium are found intermittently throughout the city at concentrations greater than the human health soil screening levels (HHSSLs) of 400, 22 (non-cancer endpoint) and 390 ?g/g, respectively. Of these, Pb appears to present the greatest exposure hazard to humans as a result of its extensive distribution in city soils. In this study, we spatially evaluated Pb concentrations across greater New Orleans surface soils. We established 128 sampling sites throughout New Orleans at approximately half-mile intervals. A soil sample was collected at each site and analyzed for Pb by ICP-AES. Soils from 19 (15%) of the sites had Pb concentrations exceeding the HHSSL threshold of 400 ?g/g. It was determined that the highest concentrations of Pb were found in the south and west portions of the city. Pb concentrations found throughout New Orleans in this study were then incorporated into a geographic information system to create a spatial distribution model that can be further used to predict Pb exposure to humans in the city. PMID:20054703

  16. Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations <10 microg/dL in US children and adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, B P; Dietrich, K; Auinger, P; Cox, C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lead is a confirmed neurotoxicant, but the lowest blood lead concentration associated with deficits in cognitive functioning and academic achievement is poorly defined. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship of relatively low blood lead concentrations-especially concentrations <10 micrograms per deciliter (microg/dL)--with performance on tests of cognitive functioning in a representative sample of US children and adolescents. METHODS: The authors used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted from 1988 to 1994, to assess the relationship between blood lead concentration and performance on tests of arithmetic skills, reading skills, nonverbal reasoning, and short-term memory among 4,853 children ages 6-16 years. RESULTS: The geometric mean blood lead concentration for children n the study sample was 1.9 microg/dL; 172 (2.1%) had blood lead concentrations > or =10 microg/dL. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, poverty, region of the country, parent or caregiver's educational level, parent or caregiver's marital status parent, serum ferritin level, and serum cotinine level, the data showed an inverse relationship between blood lead concentration and scores on four measures of cognitive functioning. For every 1 microg/dL increase in blood lead concentration, there was a 0.7-point decrement in mean arithmetic scores, an approximately 1-point decrement in mean reading scores, a 0.1-point decrement in mean scores on a measure of nonverbal reasoning, and a 0.5-point decrement in mean scores on a measure of short-term memory. An inverse relationship between blood lead concentration and arithmetic and reading scores was observed for children with blood lead concentrations lower than 5.0 microg/dL. CONCLUSION: Deficits in cognitive and academic skills associated with lead exposure occur at blood lead concentrations lower than 5 microg/dL. PMID:11354334

  17. Lead concentration in meat from lead-killed moose and predicted human exposure using Monte Carlo simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lindboe; E. N. Henrichsen; H. R. Høgåsen; A. Bernhoft

    2012-01-01

    Lead-based hunting ammunitions are still common in most countries. On impact such ammunition releases fragments which are widely distributed within the carcass. In Norway, wild game is an important meat source for segments of the population and 95% of hunters use lead-based bullets. In this paper, we have investigated the lead content of ground meat from moose (Alces alces) intended

  18. Temporal variability of atmospheric lead concentrations and fluxes over the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Remoudaki, E.; Bergametti, G. (Universite Paris (France)); Buat-Menard, P. (Centre des Faibles Radioactivites, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1991-01-20

    Beginning in 1985, daily 24-hour aerosol samples were collected on 0.4-{mu}m pore size filters at a coastal location in northwestern Corsica. Total atmospheric deposition (wet + dry) were sampled between February 1985 and October 1987 with a collection period of about 15 days. As indicated by three-dimensional air mass trajectories, lead aerosol particles collected at this site are primarily derived from European continental source regions. The variability of lead aerosol concentrations on both daily and seasonal time scales is primarily due to the scavenging of lead aerosol particles by rain rather than to changes in source regions. The results suggest that the ratio between the total atmospheric deposition of Pb and the corresponding mean daily precipitation (mdp) rate is not constant. This ratio reaches a maximum during the Mediterranean summer. The authors attribute this difference to wet scavenging processes which wash a more loaded atmosphere during the dry season than during the wet season. The precipitation frequency (F{sub p}) is a major factor influencing seasonal variability of the total atmospheric deposition of lead over the western Mediterranean. An intermediate value of F{sub p} allows sufficient reloading of the atmosphere with long-range transported Pb aerosol particles as well as efficient scavenging by precipitation events.

  19. DDE, PCBs, cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in rhinoceros auklets from Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Fitzner, R.E.; Leschner, L.L.; Wilson, U.W.

    1999-01-01

    In July 1981, 5 adult rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) were captured on the ground near nesting areas on each of Protection and Destruction Islands, Washington. The birds were euthanized, and their livers and kidneys removed and analyzed. Levels (I?g / g wet weight) of DDE (0.11 to 0.95), polychlorinated biphenyls (no residue detected [ND] to 1.1), mercury (0.60 to 1.8), and lead (ND to 0.85) in livers and cadmium (9.1 to 21.9) in kidneys were similar in each colony. All concentrations were less than known effect levels.

  20. Differences in trace metal concentrations (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, And Ni) in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children.

    PubMed

    B?a?ewicz, Anna; Klatka, Maria; Astel, Aleksander; Partyka, Ma?gorzata; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2013-11-01

    High-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods have been applied to estimate the content of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Ni in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children. The study was conducted on a group of 81 Polish children of age 6-17 years (37 males, 44 females). Obese children were defined as those with body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile in each age-gender-specific group. Statistical testing was done by the use of nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis's and Mann-Whitney's U) and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Significant correlations appeared for control group in plasma (Mn-Cd, Ni-Co), urine (Cu-Co), and blood (Fe-Cu), while for obese patients in plasma (Cd-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Zn) and urine (Fe-Cd, Co-Mn). Sex criteria did not influence correlations between metals' content in plasma and urine of obese patients. Metals' abundance was correlated in non-corresponding combinations of body fluids. Rare significant differences between content of metals according to sex and the type of body fluids were discovered: Zn in plasma from obese patients of both sexes, and Zn, Co, and Mn in blood, Mn in plasma from healthy subjects. Negative correlations between BMI and Zn in blood, Cu in plasma, and Fe in urine were discovered for girls (control group). Positive correlation between Co content in plasma and BMI was discovered for obese boys. The changes in metals' content in body fluids may be indicators of obesity. Content of zinc, copper, and cobalt should be monitored in children with elevated BMI to avoid deficiency problems. PMID:23975578

  1. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Willers; P. J. Hobbs; N. W. M. Ogink

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in a packed bed scrubber. Before entering the scrubber,

  2. Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Porter; J. Brodie

    1969-01-01

    Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation.

  3. Position Paper on urine alkalinization.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, A T; Krenzelok, E P; Vale, J A

    2004-01-01

    This Position Paper was prepared using the methodology agreed by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT) and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT). All relevant scientific literature was identified and reviewed critically by acknowledged experts using set criteria. Well-conducted clinical and experimental studies were given precedence over anecdotal case reports and abstracts were not considered. A draft Position Paper was then produced and presented at the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology in October 2001 and at the EAPCCT Congress in May 2002 to allow participants to comment on the draft after which a revised draft was produced. The Position Paper was subjected to detailed peer review by an international group of clinical toxicologists chosen by the AACT and the EAPCCT, and a final draft was approved by the boards of the two societies. The Position Paper includes a summary statement (Position Statement) for ease of use, which will also be published separately, as well as the detailed scientific evidence on which the conclusions of the Position Paper are based. Urine alkalinization is a treatment regimen that increases poison elimination by the administration of intravenous sodium bicarbonate to produce urine with a pH > or = 7.5. The term urine alkalinization emphasizes that urine pH manipulation rather than a diuresis is the prime objective of treatment; the terms forced alkaline diuresis and alkaline diuresis should therefore be discontinued. Urine alkalinization increases the urine elimination of chlorpropamide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, diflunisal, fluoride, mecoprop, methotrexate, phenobarbital, and salicylate. Based on volunteer and clinical studies, urine alkalinization should be considered as first line treatment for patients with moderately severe salicylate poisoning who do not meet the criteria for hemodialysis. Urine alkalinization cannot be recommended as first line treatment in cases of phenobarbital poisoning as multiple-dose activated charcoal is superior. Supportive care, including the infusion of dextrose, is invariably adequate in chlorpropamide poisoning. A substantial diuresis is required in addition to urine alkalinization in the chlorophenoxy herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and mecoprop, if clinically important herbicide elimination is to be achieved. Volunteer studies strongly suggest that urine alkalinization increases fluoride elimination, but this is yet to be confirmed in clinical studies. Although urine alkalinization is employed clinically in methotrexate toxicity, currently there is only one study that supports its use. Urine alkalinization enhances diflunisal excretion, but this technique is unlikely to be of value in diflunisal poisoning. In conclusion, urine alkalinization should be considered first line treatment in patients with moderately severe salicylate poisoning who do not meet the criteria for hemodialysis. Urine alkalinization and high urine flow (approximately 600 mL/h) should also be considered in patients with severe 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and mecoprop poisoning. Administration of bicarbonate to alkalinize the urine results in alkalemia (an increase in blood pH or reduction in its hydrogen ion concentration); pH values approaching 7.70 have been recorded. Hypokalemia is the most common complication but can be corrected by giving potassium supplements. Alkalotic tetany occurs occasionally, but hypocalcemia is rare. There is no evidence to suggest that relatively short-duration alkalemia (more than a few hours) poses a risk to life in normal individuals or in those with coronary and cerebral arterial disease. PMID:15083932

  4. Lead and cadmium concentrations in marine organisms from the Tarragona coastal waters, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Schuhmacher, M.; Bosque, M.A.; Domingo, J.L.; Corbella, J. (Univ. of Barcelona (Spain))

    1990-05-01

    Lead and cadmium are now recognized to be two of most important heavy metal contaminants of the marine environment. The Tarragona coastal area (Catalonia, NE Spain) is a biologically productive and physically diverse marine ecosystem, with a very important commercial fishing industry. Two rivers, the Ebro (South) and the Francoli (North) flow into the Mediterranean Sea at the Tarragona coastal waters, which are subjected to large loads of toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals). Although considerable data have been accumulated on the distribution and levels of heavy metals in marine species from different areas of the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Taragona coastal area are not available in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the distribution and concentrations of lead and cadmium in the marine species commonly consumed by the population of Tarragona, as well as to learn whether these levels may constitute a health hazard for the consumers. Lead and cadmium were measured in 23 commercially significant marine species from the Tarragona coastal waters.

  5. Examination of lead concentrations in new decorative enamel paints in four countries with different histories of activity in lead paint regulation.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Scott; Kumar, Abhay; Mohapatra, Piyush; Rajankar, Prashant; Nycz, Zuleica; Hambartsumyan, Amalia; Astanina, Lydia; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline; Menrath, William; Peng, Hongying

    2014-07-01

    Paints with high lead concentrations (ppm) continue to be sold around the world in many developing countries and those with economies in transition representing a major preventable environmental health hazard that is being increased as the economies expand and paint consumption is increasing. Prior lead paint testing had been performed in Brazil and India and these countries were selected to examine the impact of a new regulatory limit in Brazil and the impact of efforts of non-governmental organizations and others to stop the use of lead compounds in manufacturing paints. Armenia and Kazakhstan, in Central Asia, were selected because no information on lead concentration in those regions was available, no regulatory activities were evident and non-governmental organizations in the IPEN network were available to participate. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the lead loading (µg/cm(2)) limit determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for areas on toys that are too small to obtain a sample of sufficient size for laboratory analysis. The lead concentrations in more than three-fourths of the paints from Armenia and Kazakhstan exceeded 90 ppm, the limit in the United States, and 600 ppm, the limit in Brazil. The percentages were about one-half as high in Brazil and India. The average concentration in paints purchased in Armenia, 25,000 ppm, is among the highest that has been previously reported, that in Kazakhstan, 15,700 ppm, and India, 16,600, about median. The average concentration in Brazil, 5600 ppm, is among the lowest observed. Paints in Brazil that contained an average of 36,000 ppm before the regulatory limit became effective were below detection (< 9 ppm) in samples collected in the current study. The lack of any apparent public monitoring of paint lead content as part of regulatory enforcement makes it difficult to determine whether the regulation was a major factor contributing to the decline in lead use in these paints. Using data from the current study and those available from other studies 24 of 28 paints from major brands in India decreased from high concentrations to 90 ppm or lower. Since lead concentrations in golden yellow paints from these brands were found to decrease to ? 90 ppm, it is possible that all 28 of these paints now contain ? 90 ppm since yellow paints usually have the highest lead concentrations. Other brands in Brazil and India that have been analyzed only one time had lead concentrations up to 59,000 ppm and 134,000 ppm, respectively. Less than one-third of the paints had notations on their labels with information about lead content and these were sometimes inaccurate. The label from one brand indicating "no added lead" contained paint with 134,000 ppm lead, the highest found in this study. Three percent (3 of 98) of the paints with surface lead loading that did not exceed 2 µg/cm(2), the limit established by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for small areas on toys, contained greater than 90 ppm lead and thus were false negatives. Of the new paint samples that contained ? 600 ppm, 88% contained ? 90 ppm. Of the samples that contained ? 90 ppm, 97% contained ? 45 ppm and 92% contained ? 15 ppm. Based on these data it appears to be technically feasible to manufacture paints containing ? 90 ppm and in many cases to produce paints that have lead concentrations that do not exceed 15 ppm. PMID:24819125

  6. Biosynthesis of lead nanoparticles by the aquatic water fern, Salvinia minima Baker, when exposed to high lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Castro-Longoria, E; Trejo-Guillén, K; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Avalos-Borja, M; Andrade-Canto, S B; Leal-Alvarado, D A; Santamaría, J M

    2014-02-01

    Salvinia minima Baker is a small floating aquatic fern that is efficient for the removal and storage of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, we report that lead removal by S. minima causes large accumulation of lead inside the cells in the form of nanoparticles (PbNPs). The accumulation pattern of lead was analyzed in both, submerged root-like modified fronds (here named "roots"), and in its aerial leaf-like fronds ("leaves"). Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the biosynthesis of PbNPs by the plant. In both, roots and leaves, PbNPs were found to accumulate almost exclusively at the cell wall and closely associated to the cell membrane. Two types of PbNPs shapes were found in cells of both tissues, those associated to the cell wall were quasi-spherical with 17.2±4.2 nm of diameter, while those associated to the cell membrane/cytoplasm were elongated. Elongated particles were 53.7±29.6 nm in length and 11.1±2.4 nm wide. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) results indicate that cellulose, lignin and pectin are the major components that may be acting as the reducing agents for lead ions; these findings strongly suggest the potential use of this fern to further explore the bio-assisted synthesis of heavy metal nanostructures. PMID:24211828

  7. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations in female and embryonic Pacific sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon longurio) tissues.

    PubMed

    Frías-Espericueta, M G; Cardenas-Nava, N G; Márquez-Farías, J F; Osuna-López, J I; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Carrasco, W; Voltolina, D

    2014-11-01

    In this work we compared the cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contents of muscle, liver and placenta of gestating females of the viviparous shark Rhizoprionodon longurio and of muscle, liver and umbilical cord of their respective embryos. The higher values of the essential Cu and Zn were in embryonic or embryo-related tissues (placenta and umbilical cord). Maternal muscle and liver had the highest values of Pb and Cd, respectively. There were significant direct correlations between the Zn and Cd concentrations of placenta and umbilical cord, as well as between maternal muscle and embryonic livers for Pb and Cd, but the relation between these tissues was inverse in the case of Zn. All correlations between the metal content of embryonic tissues and size of the embryos were negative, suggesting an inverse relation between the rate of mother-to-embryo metal transfer and embryonic growth. PMID:25151279

  8. Evaluation of urine acidification by urine anion gap and urine osmolal gap in chronic metabolic acidosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gheun-Ho Kim; Jin Suk Han; Yon Su Kim; Kwon Wook Joo; Suhnggwon Kim; Jung Sang Lee

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of urine anion gap and urine osmolal gap as indirect markers of urine acidification in chronic metabolic acidosis, we evaluated urine ammonium (NH4+), net acid excretion (NAE), urine anion gap (Na+ + K+ ? Cl?), and urine osmolal gap (urine osmolality ? [2(Na+ + K+) + urea]) in 24 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF),

  9. Contamination of houses by workers occupationally exposed in a lead-zinc-copper mine and impact on blood lead concentrations in the families.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaradia, M; Gulson, B L; MacDonald, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathway of leaded dust from a lead-zinc-copper mine to houses of employees, and the impact on blood lead concentrations (PbB) of children. METHODS: High precision lead isotope and lead concentration data were obtained on venous blood and environmental samples (vacuum cleaner dust, interior dustfall accumulation, water, paint) for eight children of six employees (and the employees) from a lead-zinc-copper mine. These data were compared with results for 11 children from occupationally unexposed control families living in the same city. RESULTS: The median (range) concentrations of lead in vacuum cleaner dust was 470 (21-1300) ppm. In the houses of the mine employees, vacuum cleaner dust contained varying higher proportions of mine lead than did airborne particulate matter measured as dustfall accumulated over a three month period. The median (range) concentrations of lead in soil were 30 (5-407) ppm and these showed no evidence of any mine lead. Lead in blood of the mine employees varied from 7 to 25 micrograms/dl and was generally dominated by mine lead (> 60%). The mean (SD) PbB in the children of the mine employees was 5.7 (1.7) micrograms/dl compared with 4.1 (1.4) micrograms/dl for the control children (P = 0.02). The PbB of all children was always < 10 micrograms/dl, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal for all Australians. Some of the control children had higher PbB than the children of mine employees, probably from exposure to leaded paint as six of the eight houses of the control children were > 50 years old. In five of the eight children of mine employees > 20% of PbB was from the lead mine. However, in the other three cases of children of mine employees, their PbB was from sources other than mine lead (paint, petrol, background sources). CONCLUSIONS: Houses of employees from a lead mine can be contaminated by mine lead even if they are not situated in the same place as the mine. Delineation of the mine to house pathway indicates that lead is probably transported into the houses on the clothes, shoes, hair, skin, and in some cases, motor vehicles of the workers. In one case, dust shaken from clothes of a mine employee contained 3000 ppm lead which was 100% mine lead. The variable contamination of the houses was not expected given the precautions taken by mine employees to minimise transportation of lead into their houses. Although five out of the eight children of mine employees had > 20% mine lead in their blood, in no case did the PbB of a child exceed the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal of 10 micrograms/dl. In fact, some children in the control families had higher PbB than children of mine employees. In two cases, this was attributed to a pica habit for paint. The PbB in the children of mine employees and controls was independent of the source of lead. The low PbB in the children of mine employees may reflect the relatively low solubility (bioavailability) of the mine dust in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (< 40 %), behaviour--for example, limited mouthing activity--or diet. PMID:9072019

  10. PH urine test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine is tested for acidity or alkalinity (pH) because certain medications are more effective in acidic or alkaline environments. Medications for urinary tract infections are more effective when the urine ...

  11. Toxicity study of lead naphthenate

    PubMed Central

    Peteghem, Th. Van; Devos, H.

    1974-01-01

    van Peteghem, Th., and de Vos, H. (1974).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,31, 233-238. Toxicity study of lead naphthenate. Lead naphthenate is added to oils and greases in order to increase their resistance to high pressures. Experiments on animals and humans showed the possibility of a small amount of percutaneous absorption. An investigation was performed on technicians regularly dealing with these lubricants in order to explore to what extent they had absorbed the lead naphthenate. The degree of absorption was evaluated by measuring the lead content of the blood and the ?-aminolevulinic acid concentration in the urine. Individual results did not permit clearcut conclusions whether an increase in lead absorption had occured or not. Therefore the group of technicians was compared with a group without any occupational contact with lead-containing lubricants but otherwise comparable in occupational and general exposure to lead. To test the significance of the difference between the means of the samples a one-sided t test not assuming equal standard deviations for both populations was used. For any of two compared populations the t test was repeated after rejection of the larger values which were 2·5 standard deviations from the mean value in the exposed population. It appeared that the lead concentration in the blood and the ?-aminolevulinic acid concentration in the urine of people exposed to lead naphthenate-containing lubricants were significantly higher than those concentrations observed in non-exposed persons. PMID:4416678

  12. Getting a Urine Test

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the Body Works Main Page Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size It ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  13. Spatial variation of copper and lead concentrations of water hyacinth plants in a wetland receiving urban run-off

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Vesk; William G. Allaway

    1997-01-01

    Copper and lead concentrations of roots of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, in an urban wetland in Sydney, Australia ranged between 145 ± 15 and 1100 ± 145 ?g g?1 dry mass for lead; and between 14.7 ± 7.0 and 303 ± 108 ?g g?1 dry mass for copper, (mean ± sd, n = 6). Considerable variation at the

  14. Concentration of Copper, Iron, Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, and Nickel in Boar Semen and Relation to the Spermatozoa Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Massányi; Jozef Trandžík; Pavol Nad; Beáta Koréneková; Magdaléna Skalická; Robert Toman; Norbert Luká?; Peter Strapák; Marko Halo; Ján Tur?an

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel as well as its relation to spermatozoa quality was investigated. The semen samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The concentration of copper in boar semen was 1.64 ± 0.28 mg kg and of iron 16.14 ± 10.35 mg kg. The concentration of zinc in boar semen reached an average value of 171.74 ± 64.72 mg kg and the level of

  15. The association between spatial distribution of common malignancies and soil lead concentration in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Masoumeh; Rameshat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharib, Hadi; Rouzbahani, Reza; Ghias, Majid; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Malignancies are primarily environmental diseases mostly attributed to environmental factors. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences can be observed in detail. This study aimed to determine the association between map distribution of malignancies and the geological phenomena of lead (Pb) accumulation in soil in the province of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Spatial distribution maps of malignant diseases were plotted by using data recorded during 2007 to 2009 in the Isfahan Cancer Registry Program. Data on Pb accumulation in soil was obtained from the National Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration. Pb concentrations were documented in three parts of agricultural, non-agricultural, urban, and industrial land. The geographical mapping of cancers and soil Pb were then incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to create a spatial distribution model. Results: The spatial distributions of ten common malignant diseases in the province, i.e. skin cancers, hematological malignancies, and breast cancers, followed by other malignancies were scattered based on Pb distribution. In fact, common cancers were more prevalent in the parts of the province where soil Pb was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study underscore the importance of preventing Pb exposure and controlling industrial production of Pb. The data is also important to establish further effects modeling for cancers. Moreover, physicians and health professionals should consider the impact of environmental factors on their patients’ health. PMID:23267396

  16. Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in San Francisco MUNI bus drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    San Francisco MUNI bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration (Pb-B) and blood pressure (BP) in 342 drivers. Two groups of subjects were identified. These subjects treated for hypertension (n = 54) and untreated subjects (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic BPs varied from 102-173 mmHg and from 61-105 mm Hg respectively in untreated subjects. They varied from 110-206 mmHg and from 73-127 mmHg respectively in treated subjects. The Pb-B varied from 2-15 {mu}g/dl in untreated subjects, and 2-25 {mu}g/dl in treated drivers. The relationship between BP and the logarithm of Pb-B was examined in each group separately using multiple regression techniques. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The regression coefficient relating systolic BP and In(Pb-B) was 1-2 mmHg/ln({mu}g/Dl) (90% C.I.: {minus}2,5) in untreated subjects. The relationship in treated subjects was too unstable to be accurately determined. The coefficients for diastolic BP were 2.0-2.5 mmHg/ln({mu}g/dl) (90% C.I.: 0.1,4.5) and 6 mmHg/ln({mu}g/dl) (90% C.I.: 2,11) in untreated and treated subjects respectively.

  17. Hair as a noninvasive tool for risk assessment: do the concentrations of cadmium and lead in the hair of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) reflect internal concentrations?

    PubMed

    Tête, Nicolas; Afonso, Eve; Crini, Nadia; Drouhot, Séverine; Prudent, Anne-Sophie; Scheifler, Renaud

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing need for developing noninvasive markers of accumulation when studying the transfer of pollutants in wildlife, in response to problems caused by sacrifice of animals (disturbed population dynamics, respect of ethical protocols). Thus, the aim of this work was to determine whether trace metal (TM) concentrations in hair could be used as an accurate noninvasive estimator of internal and environmental concentrations. For that purpose, on a 40km² site surrounding an ancient smelter, 321 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were sampled on seven squares (500×500m) and 4 squares in fall 2010 and spring 2011, respectively. The relationships between the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations in hair and those in the liver, kidneys, and soils were described. The results indicated that hair concentration was a relatively good predictor of Pb concentrations in organs (p<0.001, 0.46concentrations in organs were only weakly predicted by hair concentrations in session 2010 (p<0.001, R²=0.10 for both organs), and no significant relationship was found in session 2011 (p=0.252 for liver and p=0.971 for kidneys). The Cd and Pb concentrations in the soil and in hair were not linearly related, but concentrations in hair increased with soil concentrations (Spearman's rank correlations). Linear relationships between internal and hair concentrations differed significantly between the sampling sessions, especially for Cd. When they were included in models analyzing the relationships between TM concentrations in organs and in hair, individual characteristics (gender and body mass as a non-lethal estimation of relative age) increased the explained variability of Cd in organs but not of Pb. In conclusion, hair should be used cautiously to predict internal Cd concentrations but can be considered as an accurate noninvasive estimator of internal Pb concentrations. Further studies should be performed to develop, generalize, and apply this useful possible tool for risk assessment in ecotoxicology. PMID:25090089

  18. Abrupt decrease of lead concentration in the Mediterranean sea: A response to antipollution policy

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, E.; Ruiz-Pino, D. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Villefranche (France)] [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Villefranche (France); Buat-Menard, P. [Universite de Bordeaux I (France)] [Universite de Bordeaux I (France)

    1994-09-15

    The authors present data from water samples from the northwestern Mediterranean which show a marked decline in the density of lead in surface waters over the past 10 years. This decrease follows the establishments of limits on leaded gasoline usage in western European countries beginning in 1976. This study indicates that the major lead pollutant source was lead based fuels, and that antipollution efforts clearly are successful.

  19. Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Quintanar-Escorza; M. T. González-Martínez; L. Navarro; M. Maldonado; B. Arévalo; J. V.. Calderon-Salinas

    2007-01-01

    Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca2+–Mg2+)-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples

  20. Placental transfer and concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium in mothers, newborns, and young children

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Myers, Robert; Wei, Taiyin; Bind, Eric; Kassim, Prince; Wang, Guoying; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Bartell, Tami; Gong, Yiwei; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Wang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging hypothesis that exposure to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in utero and early childhood could have long-term health consequences. However, there are sparse data on early life exposures to these elements in US populations, particularly in urban minority samples. This study measured levels of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se in 50 paired maternal, umbilical cord, and postnatal blood samples from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). Maternal exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se was 100% detectable in red blood cells (RBCs), and there was a high degree of maternal–fetal transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se. In particular, we found that Hg levels in cord RBCs were 1.5 times higher than those found in the mothers. This study also investigated changes in concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se during the first few years of life. We found decreased levels of Hg and Se but elevated Pb levels in early childhood. Finally, this study investigated the association between metal burden and preterm birth and low birthweight. We found significantly higher levels of Hg in maternal and cord plasma and RBCs in preterm or low birthweight births, compared with term or normal birthweight births. In conclusion, this study showed that maternal exposure to these elements was widespread in the BBC, and maternal–fetal transfer was a major source of early life exposure to Hg, Pb, and Se. Our results also suggest that RBCs are better than plasma at reflecting the trans-placental transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se from the mother to the fetus. Our study findings remain to be confirmed in larger studies, and the implications for early screening and interventions of preconception and pregnant mothers and newborns warrant further investigation. PMID:24756102

  1. Lead Concentration Levels in Drinking Water from Schools in Oakland, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Araraso; J. Huang; S. Lau; A. Le

    2006-01-01

    Lead was often used in plumbing during the past century because of its malleability and ability to ensure water tight pipe connections. However, when this element was discovered to be poisonous, the use of lead pipes was outlawed. In spite of this, lead solder continued to be used until the late 1980's. In 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) passed

  2. Decrease in ambient air lead concentrations in Varna, Bulgaria, associated with the introduction of unleaded gasoline.

    PubMed

    Chuturkova, Rozalina; Iossifova, Yulia; Clark, Scott

    2010-12-01

    An examination of ambient air lead monitoring data was used to demonstrate success of banning the import and use of leaded gasoline in Bulgaria. From 1996-2007 air lead levels in Varna, the third largest city, decreased up to 63-fold. PMID:21186768

  3. Determination of lead concentrations in leaves of the american elm, Ulmus americana L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Buckman

    1974-01-01

    Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was used to analyze the leaves for lead. The tissue of the leaf was finely ground and analyzed directly, no ashing or chemical digestion of the tissue was used. A base line for the lead content in elm tree leaves has been established for the summer of 1972. The lead content in the elm leaves differed significantly

  4. Critical aspects of urine and stone analysis. Appearance of iatrogenic urinary calculi.

    PubMed

    Asper, R; Schmucki, O

    1986-01-01

    In 25% of the samples the often applied qualitative chemical analysis of urinary stones leads to entirely wrong results with severe therapeutic consequences. The appropriate techniques for stone analysis are infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. These techniques make also possible the identification of iatrogenic urinary calculi. Four types of such stones were detected here, caused by modern medication. N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole, N4-acetylsulfadiazine, mefenamic acid and silicon dioxide. It is only the correct preanalytical treatment of urine samples that prevents considerable impairment of analytical results. Without precautions especially, the oxalate concentration in urine may be doubled or tripled during one day of storage. PMID:3811034

  5. Effect of ash circulation in gasification melting system on concentration and leachability of lead in melting furnace fly ash.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Suzuki, Masaru

    2013-11-30

    In some gasification-melting plants, generated melting furnace fly ash is returned back to the melting furnace for converting the ash to slag. This study investigated the effect of such ash circulation in the gasification-melting system on the concentration and leachability of lead in the melting furnace fly ash. The ash circulation in the melting process was simulated by a thermodynamic calculation, and an elemental analysis and leaching tests were performed on a melting furnace fly ash sample collected from the gasification-melting plant with the ash circulation. It was found that by the ash circulation in the gasification-melting, lead was highly concentrated in the melting furnace fly ash to the level equal to the fly ash from the ash-melting process. The thermodynamic calculation predicted that the lead volatilization by the chlorination is promoted by the ash circulation resulting in the high lead concentration. In addition, the lead extraction from the melting furnace fly ash into a NaOH solution was also enhanced by the ash circulation, and over 90% of lead in the fly ash was extracted in 5 min when using 0.5 mol l(-1) NaOH solution with L/S ratio of 10 at 100 °C. Based on the results, a combination of the gasification-melting with the ash circulation and the NaOH leaching method is proposed for the high efficient lead recovery. PMID:24121545

  6. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  7. Relationship between blood lead concentrations and learning achievement among primary school children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Ho, Chi-Kung; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Tsai, Jin-Lian; Wu, Ting-Shan; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2002-05-01

    Over the past 20 years lead has been proven to exert an influence on the intelligence of children. Especially for children exposed to environmental lead, average blood lead was often lower than the officially recognized intoxication level. Because Kaohsiung is an industrial area in Taiwan and lead exposure is an important environmental issue, we attempted to ascertain the extent to which environmental lead influences the achievement of primary school children. We randomly selected 934 children from 32 primary schools in 11 districts of Kaohsiung City. Blood lead levels of the children were checked, and they were administered a questionnaire about their family information. Scores of several courses were used in this study on the relationship between a child's blood lead and his or her academic performance (Ranking with his or her classmates), including Chinese (reading and writing short Chinese articles), Mathematics, History and Society, and Natural Science. Multiple regression models were done with adjustments for the confounding effects of their parents' socioeconomic levels. The mean (SD) of 934 blood lead level was 5.50 (1.86) microg/dL. Spearman's coefficient showed that class rankings in Chinese, Mathematics, Natural Science, and History and Society were all strongly associated with blood lead levels (P<0.01). The multiple regression models revealed that blood lead level exerts a stronger influence on children's language ability (Chinese) than on their ability to calculate (Mathematics). Our results suggest that environmental lead exposure adversely affects a child's academic achievement, making a direct link between exposure to lead and academic attainment. PMID:12051780

  8. Seasonal Variation of Cadmium, Copper, and Lead Concentrations in Fish from a Freshwater Lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Ebrahimpour; Idris Mushrifah

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the Cd, Cu, and Pb concentration in the bone, gills, and muscle of the seven fish species sampled\\u000a during normal and dry seasons. Cadmium, Cu, and Pb concentrations varied significantly depending on the type of the tissue\\u000a and season. Bone samples of the Osteochilus hasseltii showed the highest concentrations of Pb (6.08 ?g\\/g dw) during September

  9. Impact of environmental regulations on lead concentrations in Texas ambient air and water: 1970--1990

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Hester Harvey

    1994-01-01

    In the last two decades, the significance of lead has been addressed in a number of environmental regulations at the national and state levels. This project investigated the environmental regulations (Clean Air Act and Amendments, 1970-1990 and Clean Water Act of 1977) and their cumulative effects on lead in ambient air and water in the state of Texas. For this

  10. Noisy cell growth rate leads to fluctuating protein concentration in bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saburo Tsuru; Junya Ichinose; Akiko Kashiwagi; Bei-Wen Ying; Kunihiko Kaneko; Tetsuya Yomo

    2009-01-01

    The present study discusses a prime cause of fluctuating protein concentrations, which play a significant role in generating phenotypic diversity in bacteria. A genetic circuit integrated in a bacterial genome was used to evaluate the cell-to-cell variation in protein concentration. A simple dynamic model, comprising terms for synthesis and dilution, was used to elucidate the contributions of distinct noises to

  11. Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

  12. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  13. Arsenic, Iron, Lead, Manganese and Uranium Concentrations in Private Bedrock Wells in Southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the t...

  14. ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY AT A MERCURY FILM ELECTRODE: BASELINE CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM, LEAD, AND COPPER IN SELECTED NATURAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive anodic stripping voltammetric method with a mercury thin film electrode is reported for the establishment of baseline concentrations of cadmium, lead, and copper in natural waters. The procedure for routine surface preparation of wax-impregnated g...

  15. Organic and inorganic amendments affect soil concentration and accumulation of cadmium and lead in wheat in calcareous alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation with untreated effluent in periurban agriculture could result in accumulation and bioconcentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Different amendments were used to investigate their effect on availability, concentration, and uptake of metals by wheat in texturally different soils. Crop w...

  16. COMPARISON OF LEAD CONCENTRATION IN SURFACE SOIL BY INDUCTED COUPLED PLASMA/OPTICAL EMISSION SPECTROMETRY AND X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    COMPARISON OF LEAD CONCENTRATION IN SURFACE SOIL BY INDUCTED COUPLED PLASMA/OPTICAL EMISSION by Inducted Coupled Plasma/Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP/OES) and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). During of composite soil samples and analyses at laboratory by the Inducted Coupled Plasma/Optical Emission

  17. Joint Toxicity of Lead, Chromium, Cobalt and Nickel to Photobacterium phosphoreum at No Observed Effect Concentration.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yaling; Wang, Lan; Jiang, Long; Cai, Xiaoyu; Li, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Joint toxicity of Pb(2+), Cr(3+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+) toward Photobacterium phosphoreum (Ph. phosphoreum) at the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was determined through a factorial experiment. A neural network model was designed according to experimental results and employed for toxicity prediction of unary, binary, ternary and quaternary combinations. The mechanism and trends of joint toxicity were interpreted by quantitative structure-activity relationship, Michaelis-Menten kinetic model, and concentration addition (CA) theory. Toxicity was directly related to the covalent index (X m (2) r), covalent binding reaction presented a first and zero order reaction at low and high concentration, respectively, and CA accurately predicted toxicity. Additionally, the results showed that low concentrations of heavy metals should be considered when conducting environment risk assessment. PMID:26032300

  18. Vanadium in the blood and urine of workers in a ferroalloy plant.

    PubMed

    Gylseth, B; Leira, H L; Steinnes, E; Thomassen, Y

    1979-09-01

    The concentration of vanadium in the blood and urine of both nonexposed and occupationally exposed workers have been determined by neutron activation analysis. A comparison of the exposure data and the corresponding blood and urine values shows that the urine vanadium concentration adjusted for creatinine concentration is the most reliable exposure indicator. The normal levels of vanadium in blood are less than 20 nmol/l. The corresponding urine values are less than 3.5 nmol/mmol of creatinine. PMID:20120566

  19. RBC urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...

  20. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  1. Copper and lead concentrations in salt marsh plants on the Suir Estuary, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, E J; Caffrey, J M; Nesaratnam, S T; McLoughlin, P

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of Cu and Pb were determined in the roots and shoots of six salt marsh plant species, and in sediment taken from between the roots of the plants, sampled from the lower salt marsh zone at four sites along the Suir Estuary in autumn 1997. Cu was mainly accumulated in the roots of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. Pb was mainly accumulated in the roots of monocotyledons, while dicotyledons tended to accumulate Pb in the shoots. In the case of Aster tripolium there was a clear differentiation in the partitioning of Pb within the plant, between low and high salinity sites. At the low salinity sites, Pb accumulated only in the roots while at the high salinity sites there was a marked translocation to the shoots. The increase in Pb concentrations in roots and shoots of A. tripolium was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in sediment concentrations of Pb. This inverse correlation between sediment and plant concentrations of Pb was also recorded for Spartina spp. and Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani but in the case of these species the roots contained higher concentrations of Pb regardless of salinity levels. These differences in accumulation of Cu and Pb in various salt marsh species, and the influence of salinity on the translocation of Pb in A. tripolium in particular, should be taken into account when using these plants for biomonitoring purposes. PMID:12663206

  2. Determination of lead, cations, and anions concentration in indoor and outdoor air at the primary schools in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Awang, Normah; Jamaluddin, Farhana

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08??g/g-7.01 ± 0.08??g/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca(2+) (39.51 ± 5.01?mg/g-65.13 ± 9.42?mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-) were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3 (-) (29.72 ± 0.31??g/g-32.00 ± 0.75??g/g) was slightly higher than SO4 (2-). The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and Pb(2+), were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations. PMID:25136371

  3. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers' urine.

    PubMed

    Finn, M B; Hallenbeck, W H

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. First morning void urine samples were obtained from six workers (occupationally exposed to chrysotile asbestos in a factory producing roof coatings) and from a control group (six individuals with no occupational exposure). The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Field blanks were designed to detect asbestos in the urine samples due to contamination which might occur during urine collection. Also, the workers' urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group (both on a number and mass basis). Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors. PMID:2986442

  4. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers' urine.

    PubMed

    Finn, M B; Hallenbeck, W H

    1984-11-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration through the lung or gastrointestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. First morning void urine samples were obtained from six workers (occupationally exposed to chrysotile asbestos in a factory producing roof coatings) and from a control group (six individuals with no occupational exposure). The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Field blanks were designed to detect asbestos in the urine samples due to contamination which might occur during urine collection. Also, the workers' urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group (both on a number and mass basis). Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors. PMID:6095633

  5. Effect of lead ion concentration on the structural and optical properties of nano-crystalline PbS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, S.; Mehmood, S. K.; Mansoor, M.; Asim, M. M.

    2014-06-01

    PbS thin films have received considerable attention because of their potential applications in opto-electronics applications. Spontaneous reaction of lead acetate and thiourea in aqueous hydrazine hydrate has been used for depositing PbS thin films on glass substrates. Structural and optical properties of PbS thin films are greatly influenced by the morality of the reactants and crystal defects in the lattice. Our work focuses on the variation in lead ion concentration and its effect on the structural and optical properties of PbS thin films. The deposited films were analyzed using XRD, SEM, spectrophotometer and dark resistance measurement. XRD patterns indicated the formation of major phase of nano crystalline PbS with minor presence of lead oxide phase. We also noticed that peak intensity ratio of I111/I200 varied by changing the Pb ion concentration. The film thickness and dark resistance increased whereas optical band gap decreased with the decreasing Pb ion concentration. SEM scans showed that the grain size is less than 100 nm and is not affected by varying Pb ion concentration.

  6. Factors affecting the concentrations of lead in British wheat and barley grain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J Zhao; M. L Adams; C Dumont; S. P McGrath; A. M Chaudri; F. A Nicholson; B. J Chambers; A. H Sinclair

    2004-01-01

    The entry of Pb into the food chain is of concern as it can cause chronic health problems. The concentration of Pb was determined in cereal grain samples collected representatively from British Cereal Quality Surveys in 1982 and 1998 (n=176, 250 and 233 for wheat collected in 1982 and 1998, and barley in 1998, respectively). In addition, paired soil and

  7. Copper and lead concentrations in salt marsh plants on the Suir Estuary, Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J Fitzgerald; J. M Caffrey; S. T Nesaratnam; P McLoughlin

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of Cu and Pb were determined in the roots and shoots of six salt marsh plant species, and in sediment taken from between the roots of the plants, sampled from the lower salt marsh zone at four sites along the Suir Estuary in autumn 1997. Cu was mainly accumulated in the roots of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. Pb was

  8. Are cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations in mosses across Europe primarily determined by atmospheric deposition of these metals?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winfried Schröder; Marcel Holy; Roland Pesch; Harry Harmens; Ilia Ilyin; Eiliv Steinnes; Renate Alber; Yuliya Aleksiayenak; Oleg Blum; Mahmut Co?kun; Maria Dam; Ludwig De Temmerman; Marina Frolova; Marina Frontasyeva; Laura Gonzalez Miqueo; Krystyna Grodzi?ska; Zvonka Jeran; Szymon Korzekwa; Miodrag Krmar; Eero Kubin; Kestutis Kvietkus; Sébastien Leblond; Siiri Liiv; Sigurður Magnússon; Blanka Ma?kovská; Juha Piispanen; Åke Rühling; Jesus Santamaria; Zdravko Spiric; Ivan Suchara; Lotti Thöni; Viktor Urumov; Lilyana Yurukova; Harald G. Zechmeister

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  This study aimed at investigating correlations between heavy metal concentrations in mosses and modelled deposition values\\u000a as well as other site-specific and regional characteristics to determine which factors primarily affect cadmium, lead and\\u000a mercury concentrations in mosses. The resulting relationships could potentially be used to enhance the spatial resolution\\u000a of heavy metal deposition maps across Europe.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Modelled heavy

  9. Relationship between lead-induced biochemical and behavioral changes with trace element concentrations in rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pardeep Sidhu; Bimla Nehru

    2003-01-01

    Lead has an obvious potential to disturb learning ability, adaptive responses, and other aspects of behavior and even personality\\u000a in those who may appear healthy according to conventional medical criteria. These disturbances are shown to be associated\\u000a with alterations in ionic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). The present\\u000a experiment was designed to study the neurotoxic

  10. Lead concentration and isotopic composition in five peridotite inclusions of probable mantle origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Tera, F.

    1973-01-01

    The lead content of five whole-rock peridotite inclusions (four lherzolites and one harzburgite) in alkali basalt ranges from 82 to 570 ppb (parts per billion). Approximately 30-60 ppb of this amount can be accounted for by analyzed major silicate minerals (olivine ??? 10 ppb; enstatite 5-28 ppb; chrome diopside ???400 ppb). Through a series of acid leaching experiments, the remainder of the lead is shown to be quite labile and to reside in either glassy or microcrystalline veinlets or accessory mineral phases, such as apatite and mica. The lead isotopic composition of the peridotites (206Pb/204Pb = 18.01-18.90; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.52-15.61; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.80-38.86) lies within the range of values defined by many modern volcanic rocks and, in particular, is essentially coextensive with the abyssal tholeiite field. In all but one instance, isotopic differences were found between the peridotite and its host alkali basalt. Two of the peridotites clearly demonstrated internal isotopic heterogeneity between leachable and residual fractions that could not simply be due to contamination by the host basalt. However, there is no evidence that these ultramafic rocks form some layer in the mantle with isotopic characteristics fundamentally different from those of the magma sources of volcanic rocks. ?? 1973.

  11. Excretion of corticosteroid metabolites in urine and faeces of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bamberg; R. Palme; J. G. Meingassner

    2001-01-01

    Summary Stress enhances the production of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, resulting in the increased excretion of their metabolites in urine and faeces. An intraperitoneal injection of radioactive corticosterone was applied to adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats to monitor the route and delay of excreted metabolites in urine and faeces. Peak concentrations appeared in urine after 3.2 1.9 h and in

  12. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering capacity of urine, and to lower the pH to levels that fix ammoniacal nitrogen in the non-volatile and highly water soluble NH4 + form. Citric acid, a highly soluble, solid tricarboxylic acid essential to cellular metabolism, and typically used as a food preservative, has also been shown to efficiently acidify urine in conjunction with non-oxidizing biocides to provide effective stabilization with respect to both microbial growth and ammonia volatilization.

  13. Effects of abomasal infusion of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) oil on microbial ?-glucuronidase activity and concentration of the mammalian lignan enterolactone in ruminal fluid, plasma, urine and milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Côrtes, Cristiano; da Silva-Kazama, Daniele; Kazama, Ricardo; Benchaar, Chaouki; dos Santos, Geraldo; Zeoula, Lucia M; Gagnon, N; Petit, Hélène V

    2013-02-14

    Ruminal microbiota plays an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into mammalian lignans. The main mammalian lignan present in the milk of dairy cows fed flax products is enterolactone (EL). The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of abomasal infusion of flax oil on the metabolism of flax lignans and concentrations of EL in biological fluids of dairy cows. A total of six rumen-cannulated dairy cows were assigned within a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of six treatments utilising flax hulls (0 and 15·9 % of DM) and abomasal infusion of flax oil (0, 250 and 500 g/d). There were six periods of 21 d each. Samples were collected during the last 7 d of each period and subjected to chemical analysis. Flax hull supplementation increased concentrations of EL in ruminal fluid, plasma, urine and milk, while flax oil infusion had no effect. Post-feeding, ?-glucuronidase activity in the ruminal fluid of cows infused with 250 g flax oil was significantly lower for cows fed hulls than for those fed the control diet. The present study demonstrated that the presence of a rich source of n-3 fatty acids such as flax oil in the small intestine does not interfere with the absorption of the mammalian lignan EL and that lower ruminal ?-glucuronidase activity had no effect on the conversion of flax lignans into EL in the rumen of dairy cows. PMID:22717302

  14. Manganese and lead concentrations in ambient air and emission rates from unleaded and leaded gasoline between 1981 and 1992 in Canada: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loranger, Sylvain; Zayed, Joseph

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic derivative of manganese (Mn) used as an additive in unleaded gasoline. Its use in Canada has increased since 1976 until it completely replaced lead (Pb) in gasoline in 1990. Canada is the only country in the world to have authorized the replacement of Pb in gasoline by MMT. The aim of this study is to compare the concentrations of Mn, Pb and suspended particulates (TSP) in Montreal air from 1981 to 1992, as well as the emission rates of Mn and Pb from mobile sources from the same period. The atmospheric concentrations of Mn, Pb and TSP were measured by the Montreal Urban Community at three sampling stations located in areas of low and high traffic density. The data on emission rates were obtained from Environment Canada and from the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute. Multiple regression and non-parametric correlation analysis were used to predict and to compare the evolution of the chosen variables. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the variables which best distinguish low and high traffic density areas. The results indicate stable Mn concentrations between 1981 and 1990 followed by a substantial decrease, in spite of annual increases of about 10% in Mn emissions from the combustion of MMT since 1981. The decrease observed since 1991 is attributed to the closing of a ferromanganese plant near Montreal. The decrease in atmospheric Pb concentrations observed since 1981 corresponds to the decrease of about 30% per year of emissions from mobile sources over the same period. A definitive evaluation of the environmental contamination and exposure due to Mn from MMT will require an improved estimation of the dispersion of particulates near motorways using dispersion models, as well as receptor modeling based on the physicochemical analysis of particulates using electron microscopy.

  15. Cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc concentrations in human infant tissues: their relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of an excess of the toxic elements, cadmium and lead, or a deficiency of any of the essential elements, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, in the tissues of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as compared to those of infants who died of other causes. The literature was reviewed for SIDS, mineral metabolism, and mineral interactions. Lung, liver, kidney, and rib specimens were obtained at autopsy from 130 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. There were 85 SIDS cases ranging in age from 2 to 64 weeks and 45, aged 1 to 92 weeks, who died of other causes. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc in each tissue were determined by electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis of the data showed that liver and rib lead concentrations and liver magnesium concentrations were significantly higher in SIDS tissues in the 4 to 26 week age group than in non-SIDS tissues in the same age group. There was no evidence of a deficiency of the essential minerals measured.

  16. HCG in urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - quantitative Pregnancy test ... Urine HCG tests are a common method of determining if a woman is pregnant. The best time to test for pregnancy at home is after you miss your period.

  17. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs of infection. ... Leukocyte esterase is a screening test used to detect a substance that suggests there are white blood ...

  18. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a "clean-catch" (midstream) urine sample: Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry your hands with a clean ... the health care provider or assistant. Wash your hands again with soap and water. The sample is then taken to ...

  19. Urine Blockage in Newborns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the ureter joins the kidney, only the kidney swells. The ureter remains a normal size. UPJ obstruction ... urine backs up and causes the ureters to swell, called hydroureter, and hydronephrosis. Swelling in the kidney ...

  20. Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscles of three species of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Gasparik, Jozef; Vladarova, Denisa; Capcarova, Marcela; Smehyl, Peter; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Garaj, Peter; Stawarz, Robert; Massanyi, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor accumulation of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in leg skeletal muscle of some wild birds from selected areas of Slovakia and the correlations among the heavy metals. A total of 160 wild birds representing 3 species-Eurasian coot (Fulica atra) (n = 24), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (n = 68) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) (n = 68) were involved for analyses. Concentrations of heavy metals from samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Metal concentrations are expressed as mg/kg wet weight. The order of lead and arsenic concentrations in muscles of wild birds were as follows: mallard > pheasant > Eurasian coot; in the case of arsenic the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Muscle of Eurasian coot accumulated the highest concentration of cadmium and mercury followed by pheasant and the lowest in mallard, but differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Moderately negative correlations were noted in pheasant between cadmium and mercury (r = -0.39), and between mercury and arsenic (r = -0.45). Moderately negative correlation between cadmium and arsenic (r = -0.31) was found for Eurasian coot. PMID:20397088

  1. Variability of Organophosphorous Pesticide Metabolite Levels in Spot and 24-hr Urine Samples Collected from Young Children during 1 Week

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, Katherine; Eisen, Ellen A.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Chevrier, Jonathan; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in spot urine samples are frequently used to characterize children’s exposures to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. However, variable exposure and short biological half-lives of OP pesticides could result in highly variable measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Objective: We examined within- and between-child variability in DAP metabolites in urine samples collected during 1 week. Methods: We collected spot urine samples over 7 consecutive days from 25 children (3–6 years of age). On two of the days, we collected 24-hr voids. We assessed the reproducibility of urinary DAP metabolite concentrations and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of spot urine samples as predictors of high (top 20%) or elevated (top 40%) weekly average DAP metabolite concentrations. Results: Within-child variance exceeded between-child variance by a factor of two to eight, depending on metabolite grouping. Although total DAP concentrations in single spot urine samples were moderately to strongly associated with concentrations in same-day 24-hr samples (r ? 0.6–0.8, p < 0.01), concentrations in spot samples collected > 1 day apart and in 24-hr samples collected 3 days apart were weakly correlated (r ? –0.21 to 0.38). Single spot samples predicted high (top 20%) and elevated (top 40%) full-week average total DAP excretion with only moderate sensitivity (? 0.52 and ? 0.67, respectively) but relatively high specificity (? 0.88 and ? 0.78, respectively). Conclusions: The high variability we observed in children’s DAP metabolite concentrations suggests that single-day urine samples provide only a brief snapshot of exposure. Sensitivity analyses suggest that classification of cumulative OP exposure based on spot samples is prone to type 2 classification errors. PMID:23052012

  2. Increased OB gene expression leads to elevated plasma leptin concentrations in patients with chronic primary hyperinsulinemia.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, M; Buongiorno, A; Maroccia, E; Leonetti, F; Barbetti, F; Giaccari, A; Zorretta, D; Tamburrano, G; Sbraccia, P

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, decreases food intake and increases energy expenditure. The role of insulin in the regulation of leptin secretion is poorly understood and is still a topic of debate. Insulin increases leptin mRNA synthesis in rodents, but in humans, the available data are discordant. To investigate the role of chronic hyperinsulinemia in the regulation of plasma leptin concentrations, we studied 13 patients with surgically confirmed insulinoma before and after tumor removal, along with 15 healthy control subjects matched for sex, age, and BMI. Immunoreactive plasma leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay; leptin mRNA levels were also determined by reverse transcription-competitive polymerase chain reaction in a subgroup of six patients with insulinoma and six control subjects. All determinations were made with subjects in the fasting state. Plasma leptin concentrations correlated positively with leptin mRNA levels (r = 0.880, P < 0.001). Leptin levels, both plasma protein and mRNA, were significantly higher in the insulinoma patients than in the control subjects (plasma protein: 17.5 +/- 3.6 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.4 ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.001; mRNA: 0.98 +/- 0.33 vs. 0.19 +/- 0.064 amol/microg RNA, respectively, P < 0.05), and they correlated positively with fasting plasma insulin levels in the patients with insulinoma (plasma protein: r = 0.686, P < 0.01; mRNA: 0.796, P < 0.05). Finally, removal of the insulin-secreting tumor was followed by the normalization of plasma leptin levels. In summary, in patients with insulinoma, 1) plasma leptin levels and leptin mRNA are elevated; 2) a direct relationship exists between leptin, both circulating protein and mRNA, and insulin concentrations; and 3) plasma leptin returns to normal levels after tumor removal. These data, therefore, support a role for insulin in the chronic regulation of leptin gene expression. PMID:9753302

  3. Meteorological and Topographic Conditions in the Wintertime Uintah Basin Leading to High Ozone Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Martin, R. S.; Schnell, R. C.; Johnson, B.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Helmig, D.; Stephens, C. R.; Evans, J.; Senff, C. J.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Roberts, J. M.; Conley, S. A.; Zamora, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    High concentrations of O3 in the Uintah Basin, Utah, during winter have been observed during periods of snow cover in the basin. Low sun angles and the high albedo of snow contribute to very cold surface temperatures and strong static stability, which inhibit vertical mixing and trap pollutants within a very shallow layer near the ground. The pollutants are emitted from a variety of sources related to petroleum extraction in the western part of the basin and natural gas ';fracking' and extraction in the eastern half. These unevenly distributed sources also include several point and area NOX sources distributed around the basin as well. Despite the weakness of the daytime shortwave radiative heating of the snow surface and the daytime heat fluxes, a shallow unstable mixed layer is observed to form, in which pollutants and potential temperature are often observed to be nearly constant with height. Also often observed is an upslope or upvalley daytime flow by NOAA's High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which was located in the eastern portion of the basin. At this location, the weak (1-3 m/s) upslope flow was from a westerly direction during daytime. At night, a shallow, weak (1-3 m/s) easterly drainage flow was routinely observed by the lidar. The sloshing of air by the alternating daytime and nighttime flows, along with other weak oscillatory flows in the basin cold pool, had the effect of mingling the pollutants from the various sources, which may have contributed to the highest O3 concentrations.

  4. Diet effects on urine composition of cattle and N2O emissions.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, J; Oenema, O; van Groenigen, J W; Spek, J W; van Vuuren, A M; Bannink, A

    2013-06-01

    Ruminant production contributes to emissions of nitrogen (N) to the environment, principally ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and di-nitrogen (N2) to air, nitrate (NO3 -) to groundwater and particulate N to surface waters. Variation in dietary N intake will particularly affect excretion of urinary N, which is much more vulnerable to losses than is faecal N. Our objective is to review dietary effects on the level and form of N excreted in cattle urine, as well as its consequences for emissions of N2O. The quantity of N excreted in urine varies widely. Urinary N excretion, in particular that of urea N, is decreased upon reduction of dietary N intake or an increase in the supply of energy to the rumen microorganisms and to the host animal itself. Most of the N in urine (from 50% to well over 90%) is present in the form of urea. Other nitrogenous components include purine derivatives (PD), hippuric acid, creatine and creatinine. Excretion of PD is related to rumen microbial protein synthesis, and that of hippuric acid to dietary concentration of degradable phenolic acids. The N concentration of cattle urine ranges from 3 to 20 g/l. High-dietary mineral levels increase urine volume and lead to reduced urinary N concentration as well as reduced urea concentration in plasma and milk. In lactating dairy cattle, variation in urine volume affects the relationship between milk urea and urinary N excretion, which hampers the use of milk urea as an accurate indicator of urinary N excretion. Following its deposition in pastures or in animal houses, ubiquitous microorganisms in soil and waters transform urinary N components into ammonium (NH4 +), and thereafter into NO3 - and ultimately in N2 accompanied with the release of N2O. Urinary hippuric acid, creatine and creatinine decompose more slowly than urea. Hippuric acid may act as a natural inhibitor of N2O emissions, but inhibition conditions have not been defined properly yet. Environmental and soil conditions at the site of urine deposition or manure application strongly influence N2O release. Major dietary strategies to mitigating N2O emission from cattle operations include reducing dietary N content or increasing energy content, and increasing dietary mineral content to increase urine volume. For further reduction of N2O emission, an integrated animal nutrition and excreta management approach is required. PMID:23739471

  5. Detection of hydatid antigen in urine by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Parija, S C; Ravinder, P T; Rao, K S

    1997-01-01

    Hydatid antigen was demonstrated for the first time in the urine of patients with hydatid disease by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP). The antigen was detected in the concentrated urine of 7 of 16 (43.75% positive) patients with surgically confirmed hydatid disease, 4 of 10 (40% positive) patients with ultrasound-proven hydatid disease (daughter cysts or prominent septation and hydatid sands demonstrated by ultrasound), and 8 of 14 (57.14% positive) patients with clinically diagnosed (presumptive) hydatid disease. No antigen was detected in the concentrated urine from 24 patients with parasitic diseases other than hydatid disease. However, antigen was detected in 2 (8% false positive) of 25 concentrated urine samples collected from healthy control subjects (blood donors and students). These result suggest that the detection of hydatid antigen in the urine by CIEP is a simple, rapid, and noninvasive method of diagnosis of hydatid disease. PMID:9163484

  6. Release of lead from bone in pregnancy and lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. I. Manton; C. R. Angle; K. L. Stanek; D. Kuntzelman; Y. R. Reese; T. J. Kuehnemann

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations and isotope ratios of lead in blood, urine, 24-h duplicate diets, and hand wipes were measured for 12 women from the second trimester of pregnancy until at least 8 months after delivery. Six bottle fed and six breast fed their infants. One bottle feeder fell pregnant for a second time, as did a breast feeder, and each was followed

  7. Effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation and virulence factors of Escherichia coli planktonic and biofilm forms isolated from human urine

    PubMed Central

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation, motility, curli fimbriae formation by planktonic and biofilm cells of E. coli strains isolated from the urine of patients with various urinary system infections. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. Bacterial enumeration was used to assess the viability of bacteria in the biofilm. Curli expression was determined by using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Using motility agar the ability to move was examined. All the antibiotics used at sub-MICs reduced biofilm formation in vitro, decreased the survival of bacteria, but had no effect on the motility of planktonic as well as biofilm cells. The inhibitory effect of sub-MICs of antimicrobial agents on curli fimbriae formation was dependent on the form in which the bacteria occurred, incubation time and antibiotic used. Our results clearly show that all the three antibiotics tested reduce biofilm production, interfere with curli expression but do not influence motility. This study suggests that ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin may be useful in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections caused by E. coli strains. PMID:24159313

  8. Effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation and virulence factors of Escherichia coli planktonic and biofilm forms isolated from human urine.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation, motility, curli fimbriae formation by planktonic and biofilm cells of E. coli strains isolated from the urine of patients with various urinary system infections. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. Bacterial enumeration was used to assess the viability of bacteria in the biofilm. Curli expression was determined by using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Using motility agar the ability to move was examined. All the antibiotics used at sub-MICs reduced biofilm formation in vitro, decreased the survival of bacteria, but had no effect on the motility of planktonic as well as biofilm cells. The inhibitory effect of sub-MICs of antimicrobial agents on curli fimbriae formation was dependent on the form in which the bacteria occurred, incubation time and antibiotic used. Our results clearly show that all the three antibiotics tested reduce biofilm production, interfere with curli expression but do not influence motility. This study suggests that ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin may be useful in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections caused by E. coli strains. PMID:24159313

  9. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  10. Chronic effects of environmentally-relevant concentrations of lead in Pelophylax nigromaculata tadpoles: Threshold dose and adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min-Yi; Duan, Ren-Yan; Ji, Xiang

    2014-06-01

    Lead (Pb) is a common heavy metal in the natural environment, but its concentration has been increasing alongside widespread industrial and agricultural development in China. The dark-spotted frog Pelophylax (formerly Rana) nigromaculata (Anura: Ranidae) is distributed across East Asia and inhabits anthropogenic habitats such as farmland. Here, P. nigromaculata tadpoles (Gosner stage 19-46) were exposed to Pb at different concentrations (0, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640 and 1280µg/L) and Pb-induced survival, metamorphosis time, development, malformations, mobility and gonad structure were monitored. The results showed that above the threshold concentration of Pb, adverse effects were obvious. As the concentration of Pb increased, the adverse effects on different traits followed different patterns: the effects on hindlimb length, survival rate, metamorphosis rate, total malformation rate, swimming speed and jumping speed largely exhibited a linear pattern; the effects on snout-vent length, body mass and forelimb length largely exhibited a bimodal pattern. Sex ratio and gonadal histology were not affected by Pb, suggesting that Pb is not strongly estrogenic in P. nigromaculata. PMID:24726944

  11. Placental concentrations of mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic and the risk of neural tube defects in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Zhang, Le; Li, Zhiwen; Liu, Jian-meng; Ye, Rrongwei; Ren, Aiguo

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether in utero exposure to mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) is associated with an elevated neural tube defects (NTDs) risk, placental concentrations of total Hg, Cd, Pb and As were measured with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) in 36 anencephaly and 44 spina bifida cases as well as in 50 healthy controls. The median Hg concentration in the NTD cases (2.25 ng/g) was higher than that of the controls (1.16 ng/g). The odds ratio (OR) for an Hg concentration above the median was 8.80 (95% CI 3.80-20.36) for the NTD cases. NTD risks increased for the second and third high levels of the concentrations, with ORs of 2.70 (95% CI 1.13-6.43) and 18.20 (95% CI 5.45-60.73), respectively. Therefore, higher placental levels of Hg are associated with an elevated risk of NTDs. PMID:23164984

  12. Effect of pH on the concentrations of lead and trace contaminants in drinking water: a combined batch, pipe loop and sentinel home study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jung; Herrera, Jose E; Huggins, Dan; Braam, John; Koshowski, Scott

    2011-04-01

    High lead levels in drinking water are still a concern for households serviced by lead pipes in many parts of North America and Europe. This contribution focuses on the effect of pH on lead concentrations in drinking water delivered through lead pipes. Though this has been addressed in the past, we have conducted a combined batch, pipe loop and sentinel study aiming at filling some of the gaps present in the literature. Exhumed lead pipes and water quality data from the City of London's water distribution system were used in this study. As expected, the lead solubility of corrosion scale generally decreased as pH increased; whereas dissolution of other accumulated metals present in the corrosion scale followed a variety of trends. Moreover, dissolved arsenic and aluminum concentrations showed a strong correlation, indicating that the aluminosilicate phase present in the scale accumulates arsenic. A significant fraction of the total lead concentration in water was traced to particulate lead. Our results indicate that particulate lead is the primary contributor to total lead concentration in flowing systems, whereas particulate lead contribution to total lead concentrations for stagnated systems becomes significant only at high water pH values. PMID:21458838

  13. Concentrations of lead and mercury in multimedia samples from homes near the former Clark Air Base, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Anne M; Shine, James P; Danan, Lieza M; Ford, Timothy E

    2005-04-01

    We measured lead and mercury in samples collected from 31 homes in communities near the former Clark Air Base, Philippines during May and October 2002. Sample media included water used for drinking and cooking, house dust and entryway soil. Composite samples of 15 food items purchased at local markets were also collected. Samples were analyzed for total lead (Pb) and total mercury (Hg) to evaluate the relative importance of each media to residential exposure concentrations in the community adjacent to Clark (Community A) versus a control community 5 km away (Community B). In general, we measured low (e.g. background) to undetectable levels of the target analytes in all media sampled with two important exceptions. First, the Hg concentrations we measured in canned mackerel composites, which were within the range reported for mackerel from other locations worldwide, may pose a risk to pregnant women who are frequent consumers (e.g. one or more cans per day). Second, we measured Pb above the USEPA residential screening concentration (400 mug/g) in dust and soil from two homes, illustrating the need for periodic residential lead monitoring in these and other communities in the Philippines. We found no significant difference between Communities A and B with respect to Pb and Hg concentrations in water or food, although we were not able to detect very low levels of Pb in most of the foods we sampled because of trace Pb contamination added during sample homogenization. Although the Pb levels we measured in dust and soil from Community A homes were higher on average than Community B homes, the levels in both communities were low (e.g. background) thus we did not investigate the difference further. To our knowledge, these are the first reported measurements of Pb in house dust in the Philippines. The concentrations of Pb we measured in house dust were significantly higher than those in entryway soil from both communities, adding empirical support to the assertion that yard soil should not be considered a proxy for house dust in exposure studies in the Philippines or elsewhere. PMID:15833241

  14. Low-cost struvite production using source-separated urine in Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Etter; E. Tilley; R. Khadka; K. M. Udert

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated the possibility of transferring phosphorus from human urine into a concentrated form that can be used as fertilizer in agriculture. The community of Siddhipur in Nepal was chosen as a research site, because there is a strong presence and acceptance of the urine-diverting dry toilets needed to collect urine separately at the source. Furthermore, because the mainly

  15. Magnesium, aluminum and lead in various brain areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zumkley, H.; Bertram, H.P.; Brandt, M.; Roedig, M.; Spieker, C.

    1986-01-01

    Whereas the lead concentrations were increased in brain tissue of patients with chronic alcoholism, the aluminum concentrations remained within the normal range. The magnesium concentrations were found decreased in patients with chronic alcoholism compared to normal controls. The sources for the elevated lead levels seem to be the increased intake of alcohol. The decreased magnesium levels are probably caused by an increased loss of magnesium with the urine, malnutrition, malabsorption, hormonal factors and drugs. Various neurological disorders which often accompanied chronic alcoholism may be caused or aggravated by lead encephalopathy and hypomagnesemia. Therapeutical implications may be the early substitution of magnesium deficiency in chronic alcoholism. 10 references, 5 figures.

  16. A comparison of portable XRF and ICP-OES analysis for lead on air filter samples from a lead ore concentrator mill and a lead-acid battery recycler.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    Personal and area samples for airborne lead were taken at a lead mine concentrator mill, and at a lead-acid battery recycler. Lead is mined as its sulfidic ore, galena, which is often associated with zinc and silver. The ore typically is concentrated, and partially separated, on site by crushing and differential froth flotation of the ore minerals before being sent to a primary smelter. Besides lead, zinc and iron are also present in the airborne dusts, together with insignificant levels of copper and silver, and, in one area, manganese. The disposal of used lead-acid batteries presents environmental issues, and is also a waste of recoverable materials. Recycling operations allow for the recovery of lead, which can then be sold back to battery manufacturers to form a closed loop. At the recycling facility lead is the chief airborne metal, together with minor antimony and tin, but several other metals are generally present in much smaller quantities, including copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Samplers used in these studies included the closed-face 37 mm filter cassette (the current US standard method for lead sampling), the 37 mm GSP or "cone" sampler, the 25 mm Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable sampler, the 25 mm Button sampler, and the open-face 25 mm cassette. Mixed cellulose-ester filters were used in all samplers. The filters were analyzed after sampling for their content of the various metals, particularly lead, that could be analyzed by the specific portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer under study, and then were extracted with acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The 25 mm filters were analyzed using a single XRF reading, while three readings on different parts of the filter were taken from the 37 mm filters. For lead at the mine concentrate mill, all five samplers gave good correlations (r2 > 0.96) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass, which encompassed the permissible exposure limit of 150 mg m(-3) enforced in the USA by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Linear regression on the results from most samplers gave almost 1 ratio 1 correlations without additional correction, indicating an absence of matrix effects from the presence of iron and zinc in the samples. An approximately 10% negative bias was found for the slope of the Button sampler regression, in line with other studies, but it did not significantly affect the accuracy as all XRF results from this sampler were within 20% of the corresponding ICP values. As in previous studies, the best results were obtained with the GSP sampler using the average of three readings, with all XRF results within 20% of the corresponding ICP values and a slope close to 1 (0.99). Greater than 95% of XRF results were within 20% of the corresponding ICP values for the closed-face 37 mm cassette using the OSHA algorithm, and the IOM sampler using a sample area of 3.46 cm2. As in previous studies, considerable material was found on the interior walls of all samplers that possess an internal surface for deposition, at approximately the same proportion for all samplers. At the lead-acid battery recycler all five samplers in their optimal configurations gave good correlations (r2 > 0.92) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass, which included the permissible exposure limit enforced in the USA by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Linear regression on the results from most samplers gave almost 1 ratio 1 correlations (except for the Button sampler), indicating an absence of matrix effects from the presence of the smaller quantities of the other metals in the samples. A negative bias was found for the slope of the button sampler regression, in line with other studies. Even though very high concentrations of lead were encountered (up to almost 6 mg m(-3)) no saturation of the detector was observed. Most samplers performed well, with >90% of XRF results within +/- 25% of the cor

  17. Kidney effects in long term exposed lead smelter workers.

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardsson, L; Chettle, D R; Englyst, V; Nordberg, G F; Nyhlin, H; Scott, M C; Todd, A C; Vesterberg, O

    1992-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead may cause kidney damage. This study was carried out on a cohort of 70 active and 30 retired long term exposed lead smelter workers. Their kidney function was compared with 31 active and 10 retired truck assembly workers who had no occupational exposure to lead. The lead workers had been regularly followed up with measurements of lead concentration in blood since 1950. Previous exposure to lead was calculated as a time integrated blood lead index for each worker. Blood and urine samples were obtained from all subjects. The concentration of lead in blood (B-Pb) and urine (U-Pb) was analysed. The urinary concentrations of several sensitive indicators of early tubular (U-beta 2-microglobulin (U-beta 2-m); U-N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (U-NAG)) and glomerular kidney damage (U-albumin) were determined. The B-Pb and U-Pb values were significantly higher among active and retired lead workers compared with their corresponding control groups. The highest concentrations were found among the active lead workers. The concentrations of the parameters of kidney function investigated were of the same magnitude for exposed workers and controls. No clinical signs of renal impairment were found among the workers. No correlations of clinical importance existed between concentrations of U-albumin, U-beta 2-m, and U-NAG activity on the one hand and the concentrations of B-Pb, cumulative blood lead index, U-Pb, and lead concentrations in the calcaneus and tibia on the other, among lead workers and controls. Despite many years of moderate to heavy exposure to lead, particularly for the retired lead workers, no signs of adverse effects on the kidney such as early tubular or glomerular malfunction were found. Reversible changes in kidney function during the 1950s and 1960s could not be excluded, however, due to a greater exposure to lead during that time. PMID:1554615

  18. Spatial Distribution of Lead Isotope Ratios and Inorganic Element Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, J. R.; Landis, M. S.; Puckett, K.; Edgerton, E.; Krupa, S.; Percy, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coupled studies of inorganic element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios have been conducted on Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada in 2002, 2008, and 2011. To investigate the spatial extent of air emissions, the lichens were collected from sites as far as 160 km from the mining and processing operations. 30 milligram sub-samples of the lichens were microwave digested, and the extracts were analyzed using DRC-ICPMS to determine elemental concentrations, and sector field ICPMS to measure Pb isotope ratios. Concentrations of elements in the lichens were found to reflect proximity to mining and oil processing sites as well as topography, ecosystem differences, and the metabolic biogeochemistry of the lichens. An exponential decrease in concentration of metals associated with fugitive dust (aluminum and others) versus distance from the mining sites, suggests elevated coarse particle emissions associated with mining operations. Near source concentrations of metals with an oil signature (vanadium and others) are less enhanced and more homogeneous than the metals in the fugitive dust, reflecting emission and deposition of smaller diameter particles at greater distances from oil processing sources. The mining and oil processing signatures are superimposed over elemental concentrations that reflect the nutrient needs of the lichens. These findings are being confirmed through ongoing studies using dichot samplers to collect coarse and fine particulate aerosol samples. The lichen samples collected beyond 50 km from the mining and processing sites cluster into a Pb isotope grouping with a 207Pb / 206Pb ratio of 0.8650 and a 208Pb / 206Pb ratio near 2.095. This grouping likely reflects the regional background Pb isotope ratio signature. 207Pb / 206Pb and 208Pb / 206Pb ratios decrease as one nears the mining and processing operations. This indicates that other Pb source(s), (e.g. Pb in the bitumen from the oil sands), are contributing to the Pb accumulated by the lichens. The Pb isotope ratios are a better indicator of the spatial distribution resulting from atmospheric deposition than the Pb concentrations because the Pb isotope ratios are not affected by the potential for canopy interactions or preferential metabolic processing of elements by the lichens.

  19. Is secondary wavelength always necessary in turbidimetric urine protein measurements?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma Meriç Y?lmaz; Gülsen Y?lmaz; Do?an Yücel

    2008-01-01

    ObjectivesTurbidimetric urine protein methods like Benzethonium Chloride (BTC) and Benzalkonium Chloride (BC) are previously reported to give falsely low protein results in very high protein concentrations (>2000 mg\\/L).

  20. Quantitative urine confirmatory testing for synthetic cannabinoids in randomly collected urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Gandhi, Adarsh; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid intake is an ongoing health issue worldwide, with new compounds continually emerging, making drug testing complex. Parent synthetic cannabinoids are rarely detected in urine, the most common matrix employed in workplace drug testing. Optimal identification of synthetic cannabinoid markers in authentic urine specimens and correlation of metabolite concentrations and toxicities would improve synthetic cannabinoid result interpretation. We screened 20?017 randomly collected US military urine specimens between July 2011 and June 2012 with a synthetic cannabinoid immunoassay yielding 1432 presumptive positive specimens. We analyzed all presumptive positive and 1069 negative specimens with our qualitative synthetic cannabinoid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which confirmed 290 positive specimens. All 290 positive and 487 randomly selected negative specimens were quantified with the most comprehensive urine quantitative LC-MS/MS method published to date; 290 specimens confirmed positive for 22 metabolites from 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids. The five most predominant metabolites were JWH-018 pentanoic acid (93%), JWH-N-hydroxypentyl (84%), AM2201 N-hydroxypentyl (69%), JWH-073 butanoic acid (69%), and JWH-122?N-hydroxypentyl (45%) with 11.1 (0.1-2,434), 5.1 (0.1-1,239), 2.0 (0.1-321), 1.1 (0.1-48.6), and 1.1 (0.1-250) µg/L median (range) concentrations, respectively. Alkyl hydroxy and carboxy metabolites provided suitable biomarkers for 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids; although hydroxyindoles were also observed. This is by far the largest data set of synthetic cannabinoid metabolites urine concentrations from randomly collected workplace drug testing specimens rather than acute intoxications or driving under the influence of drugs. These data improve the interpretation of synthetic cannabinoid urine test results and suggest suitable urine markers of synthetic cannabinoid intake. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25231213

  1. Advanced Urine Toxicology Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Tenore

    2010-01-01

    Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond

  2. Advanced urine toxicology testing.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2010-10-01

    Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond to that need. Current antibody-based enzymatic immunoassays (EIAs) used for urine toxicology screening are useful to detect classes of drugs (ex., opiate) but cannot determine which specific drug (ex., morphine) is present. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy can determine exactly which drugs are present, allowing prescribed (or illicit) opiates and benzodiazepines to be identified. This article will discuss principles and details of opiate and benzodiazepine EIA and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy urine toxicology testing. The approach to detecting patients attributing positive opiate EIAs to prescription opiates who are using heroin or other opioids will be reviewed. Cases of controlled prescription drugs that do not produce the expected positive urine tests (ex., oxycodone producing negative opiate screening tests) will be discussed. How to differentiate codeine from heroin and the role of poppy seeds in toxicology will be examined. The case of an anti-depressant drug that produces false-positive benzodiazepine results and antibiotics that cause positive opiate urine toxicology results will be reviewed. Common benzodiazepines (ex., clonazepam and lorazepam) that do not reliably produce positive benzodiazepine EIAs will be discussed. The approach to detection and management of all these types of toxicology cases will be reviewed, and it is hoped that the analyses presented will impart an adequate information base to medical providers and staff members of drug treatment and pain centers, enabling them to order and interpret these tests in the clinic more effectively as an integrated part of whole patient care. PMID:20924879

  3. Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_151843.html Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria New study links bacteria found in urine in bladder to urinary incontinence ... News) -- Though it's commonly believed that urine is bacteria-free, normal urine is not sterile, a new ...

  4. 62 FR 45292 - Urine Surveillance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-08-26

    ...28 CFR Part 550 Urine Surveillance; Final Rule Federal Register / Vol...BOP-1072-F] RIN 1120-AA68 Urine Surveillance AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice...its regulations on the use of urine surveillance to detect and deter illegal drug...

  5. Malondialdehyde in exhaled breath condensate and urine as a biomarker of air pollution induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Wang, Guangfa; Hu, Min; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Lu, Shou-En; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Rich, David Q.; Diehl, Scott R.; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

    2014-01-01

    Underlying mechanisms by which air pollutants adversely affect human health remain poorly understood. Oxidative stress has been considered as a potential mechanism that may promote lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) that is excreted in biofluids (e.g., urine and exhaled breath condensate (EBC)). A panel study was conducted to examine whether concentrations of MDA in EBC and urine were associated, respectively, with changes in air pollution levels brought by the Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures. EBC and urine samples from 125 healthy adults were collected twice in each of the pre-, during-, and post-Olympic periods. Period-specific means of MDA and changes in MDA levels associated with increases in 24-h average pollutant concentrations were estimated using linear mixed-effects models. From the pre- to the during-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants decreased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA significantly decreased by 24% (P < 0.0001) and 28% (P = 0.0002), respectively. From the during-Olympic to the post-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants increased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA increased by 28% (P = 0.094) and 55% (P = 0.046), respectively. Furthermore, the largest increases in EBC MDA associated with one interquartile range (IQR) increases in all pollutants but ozone ranged from 10% (95% CI: 2%, 18%) to 19% (95% CI: 14%, 25%). The largest increases in urinary MDA associated with IQR increases in pollutant concentration ranged from 9% (95%: 0.3%, 19%) to 15% (95% CI: 3%, 28%). These findings support the utility of EBC MDA as a biomarker of oxidative stress in the respiratory tract and urinary MDA as a biomarker of systemic oxidative stress in relation to air pollution exposure in healthy young adults. Both EBC and urine samples can be collected noninvasively in the general population. PMID:23321859

  6. Concentration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-09-15

    This NCTM iOS app of the familiar online Illuminations game, "Concentration" (cataloged separately) challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.

  7. Microelements in stones, urine, and hair of stone formers: a new key to the puzzle of lithogenesis?

    PubMed

    S?ojewski, Marcin; Czerny, Bogus?aw; Safranow, Krzysztof; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Pawlik, Andrzej; Go??b, Adam; Dro?dzik, Marek; Chlubek, Dariusz; Sikorski, Andrzej

    2010-12-01

    The role of trace elements in lithogenesis is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of elements in urinary stones and in the urine and hair of stone formers to identify these elements that have synergic correlations in studied materials and may contribute to lithogenesis. A total of 219 consecutive patients with idiopathic upper urinary tract stones were prospectively enrolled in the study. Urine and hair samples were collected from all patients. The content of the stone was evaluated using atomic absorption spectrometry, spectrophotometry, and colorimetric methods. The analysis of 29 elements in stones and hair and 21 elements in urine was performed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The strength of correlation was described with the value of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The positive correlation between concentration of sodium, potassium, magnesium, barium, vanadium, zinc, silicon, phosphorus, and iodine in phosphate stones was observed. Only a few incidental correlations between the composition of stones and the distribution of elements in urine and in hair were found. There were 109 positive two-element correlations between two materials. The most common were observed for vanadium, aluminum, lead, cobalt, and molybdenum. Two-element positive correlations for all samples were established only for three elements: vanadium, lead, and aluminum. Results indicate that analysis of particular elements in hair and urine cannot predict the composition of urinary stones. This study showed, for the first time, correlations between the levels of vanadium, lead, and aluminum in the stones, urine, and hair of stone formers. PMID:20024629

  8. Selected pesticide residues and metabolites in urine from a survey of the U.S. general population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick W. Kutz; Brion T. Cook; Debra Brody; Robert S. Murphy

    1992-01-01

    Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophos?phorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or their metabolites. Urine concentration was also measured. The most frequently occurring residue in urine was penta?chlorophenol (PCP), found in quantifiable concentrations in

  9. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. PMID:23557676

  10. Automatic on-line pre-concentration system using a knotted reactor for the FAAS determination of lead in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Souza, Anderson S; Brandão, Geovani C; dos Santos, Walter N L; Lemos, Valfredo A; Ganzarolli, Edgard M; Bruns, Roy E; Ferreira, Sérgio L C

    2007-03-22

    An automatic on-line pre-concentration system is proposed for lead determination in drinking water using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Lead(II) ions are retained as the 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) complex in the walls of a knotted reactor, followed by an elution step using 0.50molL(-1) hydrochloric acid solution. Optimisation involving the sampling flow rate, pH and buffer concentration factors was performed using a Box-Behnken design. Other factors were established considering results of previous experiments. The procedure allows the determination of lead with a 0.43microgL(-1) detection limit (3sigma/S) and precisions (expressed as relative standard deviation) of 4.84% (N=7) and 2.9% (N=7) for lead concentrations of 5 and 25microgL(-1), respectively. The accuracy was confirmed by the determination of lead in the NIST SRM 1643d trace elements in natural water standard reference material. The pre-concentration factor obtained is 26.5 and the sampling frequency is 48h(-1). The recovery achieved for lead determination in the presence of several ions demonstrated that this procedure could be applied to the analysis of drinking water samples. The method was applied for lead determination in drinking water samples collected in Jequié City, Brazil. The lead concentration found in 25 samples were always lower than the permissible maximum levels stipulated by World Health Organization. PMID:16956723

  11. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  12. On-line simultaneous pre-concentration procedure for the determination of cadmium and lead in drinking water employing sequential multi-element flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter N. L. dos Santos; João V. S. Santos; Laiana O. B. Silva; André S. Araújo; Valfredo A. Lemos; Manuel Miró; Sergio L. C. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    An on-line pre-concentration system for the sequential determination of cadmium and lead in drinking water by using fast sequential flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FS-FAAS) is proposed in this paper. Two minicolums of polyurethane foam loaded with 2-(6-methyl-2-benzothiazolylazo)-orcinol (Me-BTAO) were used as sorptive pre-concentration media for cadmium and lead. The analytical procedure involves the quantitative uptake of both analyte species by

  13. Automatic on-line pre-concentration system using a knotted reactor for the FAAS determination of lead in drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anderson S. Souza; Geovani C. Brandão; Walter N. L. dos Santos; Valfredo A. Lemos; Edgard M. Ganzarolli; Roy E. Bruns; Sérgio L. C. Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    An automatic on-line pre-concentration system is proposed for lead determination in drinking water using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Lead(II) ions are retained as the 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) complex in the walls of a knotted reactor, followed by an elution step using 0.50molL?1 hydrochloric acid solution.Optimisation involving the sampling flow rate, pH and buffer concentration factors was performed using a Box–Behnken

  14. NEW COLUMN SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B

    2007-08-28

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

  15. Correlation of gross urine color with diagnostic findings in male cats with naturally occurring urethral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Brabson, Tamera L; Bloch, Christopher P; Johnson, Justine A

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-five male cats with urethral obstruction were prospectively enrolled to evaluate gross urine color at urinary catheter placement for correlation with diagnostic findings. Cats with darker red urine were more likely to be azotemic (serum creatinine concentration >2.0 mg/dl [177 µmol/l]), and urine color correlated well with serum creatinine and serum potassium concentrations. Darker urine color was negatively correlated with urine specific gravity. Urine color was not associated with the presence or absence of lower urinary tract stones on radiographs or ultrasound. Cats with darker red urine at the time of urinary catheter placement are likely to have more significant metabolic derangements and may require more aggressive supportive care. PMID:25117491

  16. Effect of rosuvastatin on concentrations of plasma lipids, urine and plasma oxidative stress markers, and plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in hypercholesterolemic patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: A 12-week, open-label, pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Gen; Tanaka, Manabu; Nakano, Saburo; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Kojima, Masato; Murakami, Eiichi; Morita, Toshisuke

    2009-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation of the arterial wall are now recognized as important factors in the progression of atherosclerosis. C-reactive protein (CRP) has been defined as a sensitive but not specific marker of inflammation. Statin therapy has been reported to decrease plasma high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) concentration in hypercholesterolemic patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of rosuvastatin on concentrations of plasma lipids, urine and plasma oxidative stress markers, and plasma hs-CRP in hypercholesterolemic patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Patients with hypercholesterolemia with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in this pilot study after written informed consent was given. At baseline and after 12 weeks of open-label treatment with rosuvastatin 2.5 mg/d, concentrations of plasma lipids, urine and plasma oxidative stress markers, and plasma hs-CRP were measured. Urine 8-iso-prostaglandin F2? (8-iso-PGF2?) and 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were also measured to asess whole-body oxidative stress. Plasma free-radical generation was estimated using a total reactive oxygen species (TROS) assay system. Adverse effects were assessed at each study visit (4-week intervals) through patient interviews and laboratory testing. Results: Thirty-five patients were enrolled with 1 dropping out prior to study completion; therefore, 34 patients (19 women, 15 men; mean [SE] age, 55.4 [13.6] years; range, 30–78 years) completed the study. Compared with baseline, significant decreases were found in serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) (252.3 [39.3] vs 187.8 [30.1] mg/dL; P < 0.001; ? = 24.5%), LDL-C (162.0 [44.3] vs 98.5 [31.9] mg/dL; P < 0.001; ? = 38.7%), and triglycerides (TG) (157.2 [93.6] vs 124.4 [69.9] mg/dL; P < 0.05; ? = 11.7%) after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin. Serum HDL-C concentration did not change significantly from baseline (59.7 [20.5] vs 63.7 [19.3] mg/dL; ? = 9.4%). The plasma LDL-C/HDL-C ratio decreased significantly after rosuvastatin treatment (3.03 [1.33] vs 1.72 [0.83]; P < 0.001; ? = 43.2%). Compared with baseline, significant decreases were observed in urine concentrations of the oxidative stress markers after 12 weeks of rosuvastatin treatment: 8-iso-PGF2? (342.8 [154.3] vs 300.6 [101.2] pg/mg; P < 0.05) and 8-OHdG (11.1 [4.53] vs 8.1 [2.7] ng/mg; P < 0.01). TROS decreased significantly (182.3 [29.0] vs 157.6 [17.3] U; P < 0.001), and plasma hs-CRP concentration also decreased significantly (0.107 [0.100] vs 0.054 [0.033] mg/dL; P < 0.05). When the patients' results were assessed according to the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, urine 8-iso-PGF2? concentration was significantly decreased from baseline only in the nondiabetic group. No adverse events were reported or observed during the course of the study. Conclusion: Rosuvastatin treatment was associated with significant reductions in plasma concentrations of TC, LDL-C, and TG, urine and plasma oxidative stress markers, and plasma hs-CRP in these hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:24692836

  17. Nitrification of human urine for its stabilization and nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Daolun; Wu, Zucheng; Xu, Shihong

    2008-09-01

    Nitrification of human urine performed for its stabilization, and culture of Spirulina platensis in the nitrified human urine were investigated for nutrient recovery. With daily adjusting to pH 8 and keeping high dissolved oxygen concentration, mean 95.0% of NH(4)-N in human urine can be finally stabilized and oxidized to NO(3)-N. Furthermore, this nitrified human urine seems to be an ideal culture medium for S. platensis. Without pH adjustment, only about 50.0% NH(4)-N could be converted, i.e. NH(4)NO(3) would be formed. Under low dissolved oxygen concentration, mainly short nitrification (from NH(4)-N to NO(2)-N) occurred. PMID:18194861

  18. Arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium concentrations in private bedrock wells in southeastern New Hampshire, 2012-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, Sarah M.; Belaval, Marcel; Ayotte, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Trace metals, such as arsenic, iron, lead, manganese, and uranium, in groundwater used for drinking have long been a concern because of the potential adverse effects on human health and the aesthetic or nuisance problems that some present. Moderate to high concentrations of the trace metal arsenic have been identified in drinking water from groundwater sources in southeastern New Hampshire, a rapidly growing region of the State (Montgomery and others, 2003). During the past decade (2000–10), southeastern New Hampshire, which is composed of Hillsborough, Rockingham, and Strafford Counties, has grown in population by nearly 48,700 (or 6.4 percent) to 819,100. These three counties contain 62 percent of the State’s population but encompass only about 22 percent of the land area (New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning, 2011). According to a 2005 water-use study (Hayes and Horn, 2009), about 39 percent of the population in these three counties in southeastern New Hampshire uses private wells as sources of drinking water, and these wells are not required by the State to be routinely tested for trace metals or other contaminants. Some trace metals have associated human-health benchmarks or nonhealth guidelines that have been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate public water supplies. The EPA has established a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (?g/L) for arsenic (As) and a MCL of 30 ?g/L for uranium (U) because of associated health risks (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are essential for human health, but Mn at high doses may have adverse cognitive effects in children (Bouchard and others, 2011; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2012); therefore, the EPA has issued a lifetime health advisory (LHA) of 300 ?g/L for Mn. Recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for Fe (300 ?g/L) and Mn (50 ?g/L) were established primarily as nonhealth guidelines—based on aesthetic considerations, such as taste or the staining of laundry and plumbing fixtures—because these contaminants, at the SMCLs, are not considered to present risks to human health. Because lead (Pb) contamination of drinking water typically results from corrosion of plumbing materials belonging to water-system customers but still poses a risk to human health, the EPA established an action level (AL) of 15 ?g/L for Pb instead of an MCL or SMCL (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). The 15-?g/L AL for Pb has been adopted by the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services for public water systems, and if exceeded, the public water system must inform their customers and undertake additional actions to control corrosion in the pipes of the distribution system (New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, 2013). Unlike the quality of drinking water provided by public water suppliers, the quality of drinking water obtained from private wells in New Hampshire is not regulated; consequently, private wells are sampled only when individual well owners voluntarily choose to sample them. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA New England, conducted an assessment in 2012–13 to provide private well owners and State and Federal health officials with information on the distribution of trace-metal (As, Fe, Pb, Mn, and U) concentrations in groundwater from bedrock aquifers in the three counties of southeastern New Hampshire. This fact sheet analyzes data from water samples collected by a randomly selected group of private well owners from the three-county study area and describes the major findings for trace-metal concentrations.

  19. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. PMID:25617855

  20. Nitrification and autotrophic denitrification of source-separated urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Udert; C. Fux; M. Münster; T. A. Larsen; H. Siegrist; W. Gujer

    2003-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, source-separated urine was stabilised with nitrification and denitrified via nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. The highest total ammonia concentration in the influent was 7,300 gN\\/m3, the maximum pH 9.2. In a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with Kaldnes® biofilm carriers, we stabilised urine as a 1:1 ammonium nitrate solution. The maximum nitrification rate was 380 gN\\/m3\\/d corresponding

  1. Widening the problem of lead poisoning to a South-American top scavenger: Lead concentrations in feathers of wild Andean condors

    E-print Network

    Donázar, José A.

    might come from a mix of two types of ammunition sources, one used for big game and another for hare hunt- ing. Andean condors are at the top of the food chain, thus all the other medium-to-large sized hunting policies in Argentina, and in other South-American countries, including the banning of lead

  2. Urinary excretion of lead during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Gulson, B L; Mizon, K J; Palmer, J M; Korsch, M J; Donnelly, J B

    2000-10-30

    We have compared lead isotopic ratios and lead concentrations in 53 spot urine and 59 24-h urine samples from 13 subjects covering the interval from pre-pregnancy through 180 days postpartum to estimate the amount of lead excreted in urine and renal clearance relative to blood. The total amount of lead excreted in 24-h urine samples ranges from 0.8 to 5.9 microg Pb with an arithmetic mean of 2.2+/-1.1 microg (geometric mean 1.90 microg). This compares with amounts of 0.9-10 microg of extra lead per day estimated to be released into blood from the skeleton during pregnancy and postpartum. There were no differences in excretion rates during the trimesters of pregnancy and between pregnancy and postpartum time periods. The renal clearance relative to blood ranged from 0.8 to 10 g/h (arithmetic mean 3.2+/-1.9; geometric mean 2.7). Renal clearance relative to blood was somewhat higher in trimesters 2 and 3 compared with postpartum 150-180 days (P = 0.004, 0.006, respectively). Reassessment of earlier published blood and dietary data for Australian pregnant controls indicates there is no increased gastrointestinal absorption of lead during pregnancy and postpartum. This differs from calcium, which shows increased absorption during late pregnancy. In light of the inconvenience of sampling and potential contamination at the low levels of lead found in most of these subjects, we do not consider the 24 h urines to provide sufficient useful information. PMID:11059841

  3. Thorium in human blood serum, clot, and urine comparison with ICRP excretion model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Sunta; H. S. Dang; D. D. Jaiswal; S. D. Soman

    1990-01-01

    Neutron activation followed by a simple radio-chemical separation procedure was employed to determine the concentrations of thorium (232Th) in human blood serum, clot, and urine of normal subjects and three groups of occupationally exposed persons. The thorium concentrations in the blood serum, clot, and urine samples of the exposed groups were distinctly higher than those of the other study groups

  4. Using human urine as food for cyanobacteria in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, Galina; Gribovskaya, Iliada; Kolmakova, Angela

    In biological LSS: human, higher plants, algae, united by common cycle of matter, native human urine is the most problematic substance for using in inter-link exchange. It contains urea, ammonium compounds and up to 10 g/l of NaCl. Each of the mentioned components is toxic for growing higher plants. As for inferior plants, experiments showed that cyanobacteria of genus Spirulina platensis and similar genus Oscillatoria deflexa can grow at NaCl concentrations up to 20 g/l and NH4Cl concentrations up to 800 mg/l. These cyanobacteria can be used in LSS as a photosynthesizing link. Besides, S. platensis is edible for humans and fish. To use urine as food for algae, it is necessary to remove urea and organics. All previously used methods for urine treatment aimed at urea destruction: heating to 300oC, ultraviolet exposure, freezing, oxidation on reactor with hydrogen peroxide, had no effect. We used the following method of urine treatment: urine evaporation till dry residue, subsequent combustion in muffle furnace at 450-500oC and creation of ash water extract of the same volume as the initial urine. Comparison of standard Zarrouk's solution for S. platensis and O. deflexa with the water extract of urine ash showed that the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, S were similar. Successful experiments were made with O. deflexa that were grown on nutrient solution made of the water extract of urine ash with 10 g/l of NaHCO3 and 2 g/l of NaNO3. The sources of intersystem production of HCO3 and NO3 were shown, and the biochemical composition of the investigated algae species, including mineral composition, protein, carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid and vitamin content were studied.

  5. A Method for Determination of Trichloroethanol and Trichloroacetic Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shiro; Ikeda, Masayuki

    1968-01-01

    When trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trichloroethanol (TCE) in the urine of human subjects, rabbits, rats, and guinea-pigs were determined by Seto and Schultze's (1956) method, the recovery of TCE, added to urine, varied widely from 81·3% in guinea-pig urine to 16·2% in rat urine. To obtain the maximum recovery of added TCE, Seto and Schultze's method was further modified to give satisfactory results (recovery rate of 95·9 to 98·5%) when applied to human urine as well as to the urine of the above species of animals. Urine samples from human subjects as well as from rats exposed to trichloroethylene were analysed by this modified method. The results showed that the ratio of TCE to TCA varies as a function of environmental trichloroethylene concentration, indicating that the determination of total trichlorocompounds gives a better index of trichloroethylene exposure than does the determination of TCA alone. PMID:5690921

  6. Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tract is the body’s drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. The urinary tract includes two kidneys, two ureters, ... 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra water. The urine flows from the kidneys to the ...

  7. [Lead in drinking water, determination of its concentration and effects of new recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) on public and private networks management].

    PubMed

    Vilagines, R; Leroy, P

    1995-10-01

    In 1993, the World Health Organization (WHO) has given a guideline value of 10 microgram/l for lead in drinking water, a phased approach should lead to a temporary parametric value of 25 micrograms/l within 5 years the final concentration value of 10 micrograms/l being achieved after 15 years. So far the current European Community Directive 80/778 and the French decree 89/3 stipulate a Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC) for lead of 50 micrograms/l. In a first step we studied the mechanisms of plumbosolvency in corrosive and scaling water. In the first case we have shown that simple oxidative corrosion of lead pipes forms a coating of lead carbonate and hydroxicarbonate on the inside wall of the pipe but "plumbosolvent" waters can dissolve those products, although at a lower level, resulting in a rather high lead concentration. In the case of scaling waters there is a co-precipitation of insoluble calcium carbonate but only on the microcathodics zones of the lead pipe. As this precipitate is poorly cohesive and does not cover the entire surface of the pipe its oxidative corrosion can proceed. In a second step we have shown the major importance of sampling for the determination of lead concentration in drinking water. We therefore compared random day time sampling, first draw and flushed samplings and composite proportional sampling. Only this last method gave a reasonably accurate idea of lead's amounts ingested by drinking water's consumers. The control of corrosion in lead-containing materials involves two successive steps: the reduction of lead concentration to 25 micrograms/l within five years and the compliance with the final 10 micrograms/l concentration 15 years later. The first step consists in water treatments such as pH increase, adjustment of alkalinity and addition of orthophospates. But available data suggest that it is unlikely that lead concentration could be reduced consistently to below 10 micrograms/l by avalable water treatment methods alone but it would enable to match the parametric 25 micrograms/l value in the great majority of cases. Therefore, to unable compliance with the 10 micrograms/l parametric value, it will be necessary to replace all the internal plumbing and supply lead pipes (70,000 buildings for Paris only). Data for materials able to replace lead such as plastic pipes are not yet complete and an currently under investigations. Although the United States Environmental Protection Agency have suggested in its 1988 report on air quality criteria for lead report (EPA 600/8-33-028 aF-dF) that each 1 microgram/l of lead in water can lead to an increase of blood lead levels of approximately 0.2 micrograms/l for a child, the data are still uncertain. The considerable cost of these works (143 billion of french francs for France and 347 billions of french francs for Europe), unrelated to any important Public Health problems, arises an ethical problem which has to be considered in view of many others letal illnesses such as heart and circulatory diseases, cancer and AIDS. PMID:8556413

  8. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Search Help? Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... UACR Formal name: Urine Albumin; Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Creatinine ; Glucose ; A1c ; Urine Protein ; ...

  9. Evidence for false-positive results for boldenone testing of veal urine due to faecal cross-contamination during sampling.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo Rossi, C A; Arioli, F; Bassini, A; Chiesa, L M; Dell'Orto, V; Montana, M; Pompa, G

    2004-08-01

    European Directive 96/22/EC, which controls veterinary residues in animals, does not permit the presence of synthetic growth promoters in products of animal origin or in livestock. Boldenone is categorized in class A3 (growth promoters -- steroids) and is thus a banned substance. Testing of veal urine for banned substances is part of the European Union statutory programme for animals going into the food chain. In relation to this monitoring, three studies were conducted to investigate the apparent presence of the banned growth promoter boldenone in veal urine, which was suspected as being caused by interference from faecal contamination of the sample. In the first study, urine samples were collected at different times (time 0 and after 30 min) using (1) a conventional zoonotechnical apron and (2) a technique designed specifically to avoid faecal contamination ('kettle'). This resulted in samples that were, respectively, positive and negative for the presence of alpha-boldenone (alpha-BOL). In a second study, urine samples negative to alpha-BOL were collected from eight veal calves, but became positive after deliberate faecal contamination. In a third study, data obtained from the Italian RNP (Residual National Program) indicated that 18.1% of 3295 urine samples collected using the zootechnical apron were positive for alpha-BOL and 2.1% for beta-boldenone (beta-BOL), whilst of 902 samples collected using the kettle, beta-BOL was not detected in any samples and only 0.2% were positive to alpha-BOL, in concentrations lower than 2 ng ml(-1). These results further support the supposition that faecal contamination of the urine during sample collection can lead to false-positive results during boldenone analysis. PMID:15370825

  10. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  11. Reevaluation of blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Québec): a cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Fontaine; Éric Dewailly; Jean-Louis Benedetti; Daria Pereg; Pierre Ayotte; Serge Déry

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arctic populations are exposed to mercury, lead and cadmium through their traditional diet. Studies have however shown that cadmium exposure is most often attributable to tobacco smoking. The aim of this study is to examine the trends in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure between 1992 and 2004 in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada) using the data

  12. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  13. Analysis of the human urine endogenous peptides by nanoparticle extraction and mass spectrometry identification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomin; Hu, Lianghai; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-06-01

    Peptides in urine are excreted by kidney from the blood and tissues, which are composed of a large amount of hormones, cytokines, regulatory factors and the metabolized fragments of proteins. The peptide distribution in urine will reflect the physiological and pathophysiological processes in body. In past, limited information was reported about the composition of the peptides in urine. One possible reason is that the peptides in urine are fairly low abundant and there are high concentrations of salts and organic metabolites in the urine. In this report, we extracted the peptides from human urine by highly ordered mesoporous silica particles with the pore size of 2 nm, which will exclude the high molecular weight proteins over 12 kDa. The extracted peptides were then separated into fractions according to their molecular weight by size exclusion chromatography. Each of the fractions was further analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and ?RPLC-MS/MS. Totally, 193 peptides were identified by two-dimensional SEC/?RPLC-MS/MS analysis. By analyzing the progenitor protein of the peptides; we found that two-thirds of the proteins differed from the reported urine proteome database, and the high abundant proteins in urine proteome were less detected in the urine peptidome. The developed extraction and separation methods were efficient for the profiling of the endogenous peptides in human urine. The peptidome in human urine was complementary to the human urinary proteome and may provide an emerging field for biomarker discovery. PMID:24856401

  14. Associations between land cover categories, soil concentrations of arsenic, lead and barium, and population race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Davis, Harley T; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2014-08-15

    The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between Anderson land cover category percentages and soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were investigated. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent. PMID:24914533

  15. Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

  16. Concentrations and origins of atmospheric lead and other trace species at a rural site in northern China

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhanqing

    deposition can reenter the atmosphere as surface soil is disturbed by wind or other mechanical processes leaded fuels), combustion (e.g., utility boilers), and waste management (e.g., incinerators) [U.S. EPA

  17. Freeze-dried powder of cow urine reduces the viability of the snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruchi Tripathi; V. K. Singh; D. K. Singh

    2006-01-01

    Molluscicidal activity of cow urine alone and with different additives was studied against Lymnaea acuminata. The toxicity of cow urine kept for 15 days in sunlight (8 h\\/day) or ambient laboratory conditions against the snail was time- and concentration-dependent. The pH of fresh cow urine is 7.4 which changes to 10.9 when kept for 15 days in laboratory; exposure to sunlight for the

  18. Water-quality data collected to determine the presence, source, and concentration of lead in the drinking water supply at Pipe Spring National Monument, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Sharrow, David; Unema, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Pipe Spring National Monument in northern Arizona contains historically significant springs. The groundwater source of these springs is the same aquifer that presently is an important source of drinking water for the Pipe Spring National Monument facilities, the Kaibab Paiute Tribe, and the community of Moccasin. The Kaibab Paiute Tribe monitored lead concentrations from 2004 to 2009; some of the analytical results exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique for lead of 15 parts per billion. The National Park Service and the Kaibab Paiute Tribe were concerned that the local groundwater system that provides the domestic water supply might be contaminated with lead. Lead concentrations in water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from three springs, five wells, two water storage tanks, and one faucet were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique. Lead concentrations of rock samples representative of the rock units in which the local groundwater resides were less than 22 parts per million.

  19. Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead, and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Wim; Römkens, Paul F A M; Schütze, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of the risk of elevated soil metal concentrations requires appropriate critical limits for metal concentrations in soil in view of ecological and human toxicological risks. This chapter presents an overview of methodologies to derive critical total metal concentrations in soils for Cd, Pb, and Hg as relevant to health effects on animals and humans, taking into account the effect of soil properties. The approach is based on the use of nonlinear relationships for metals in soil, soil solution, plants, and soil invertebrates, including soil properties that affect metal availability in soil. Results indicate that the impact of soil properties on critical soil metal concentrations is mainly relevant for Cd because of significant soil-plant, soil-solution, and soil-worm relationships. Critical Cd levels in soil thus derived are sometimes lower than those related to ecotoxicological impacts on soil organisms/processes and plants, which is especially true for critical soil Cd concentrations in view of food quality criteria for wheat, drinking water quality, and acceptable daily intakes of worm-eating birds and mammals. There are, however, large uncertainties involved in the derivation from assumptions made in the calculation and uncertainties in acceptable daily intakes and in relationships for Cd in soil, soil solution, plants, and soil invertebrates. Despite these uncertainties, the analyses indicate that present Cd concentrations in parts of the rural areas are in excess of the critical levels at which effects in both agricultural and nonagricultural systems can occur. PMID:17708073

  20. Levels of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in oral fluid, blood, and urine after use of mouthwash and ingestion of nonalcoholic wine.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Christophersen, Asbjørg

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid and both EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in blood and urine following intense use of mouthwash and ingestion of nonalcoholic wine, which are proven to contain 3 mg/L EtG, 1.5 mg/L EtS, and 0.2 g/L ethanol. Twelve subjects participated in a controlled experiment. All subjects ingesting nonalcoholic wine showed urine samples negative for EtG but positive for EtS (Cmax 2.15 mg/L). All four subjects using mouthwash were negative for EtG and EtS in urine. All samples of oral fluid were negative for EtG and all samples of blood were negative for EtG and EtS. This study showed that ingestion of EtG and EtS as components of nonalcoholic wine lead to detection of urine EtS only, suggesting superior bioavailability of orally ingested EtS compared to EtG. This possibility of false-positive EtS results in urine after ingestion of nonalcoholic wine is important to remember when using EtG and EtS as relapse markers for alcohol. Finally, the study showed that a positive EtG or EtS result after accidental alcohol exposure is unlikely in blood and oral fluid. PMID:20223100

  1. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  2. Electroreduction of nitrate ions in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at lead, zinc, nickel, and phthalocyanine-modified electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H. [Lanzhou Univ., Ganzu (China). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Chambers, J.Q. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Hobbs, D.T. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.

    1987-12-31

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrate in strongly alkaline solution has been studied using nickel, lead, zinc, and iron cathodes. Intermediate formation of nitrate ion and ammonia product was observed for all electrode materials. Coating a nickel sponge electrode with phthalocyanine renders it less active toward nitrate reduction, while iron electrodes appear to be activated. Electrolysis between a lead cathode and a nickel anode is an efficient means of removing nitrate from strongly alkaline solutions. Electrode pretreatment and solution conditions were chosen to correspond to those that might be encountered in practical applications, for example, the cleanup of radioactive waste solutions.

  3. Uncertainties of Mayak urine data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Guthrie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vostrotin, Vadim [SUBI; Vvdensky, Vladimir [SUBI

    2008-01-01

    For internal dose calculations for the Mayak worker epidemiological study, quantitative estimates of uncertainty of the urine measurements are necessary. Some of the data consist of measurements of 24h urine excretion on successive days (e.g. 3 or 4 days). In a recent publication, dose calculations were done where the uncertainty of the urine measurements was estimated starting from the statistical standard deviation of these replicate mesurements. This approach is straightforward and accurate when the number of replicate measurements is large, however, a Monte Carlo study showed it to be problematic for the actual number of replicate measurements (median from 3 to 4). Also, it is sometimes important to characterize the uncertainty of a single urine measurement. Therefore this alternate method has been developed. A method of parameterizing the uncertainty of Mayak urine bioassay measmements is described. The Poisson lognormal model is assumed and data from 63 cases (1099 urine measurements in all) are used to empirically determine the lognormal normalization uncertainty, given the measurement uncertainties obtained from count quantities. The natural logarithm of the geometric standard deviation of the normalization uncertainty is found to be in the range 0.31 to 0.35 including a measurement component estimated to be 0.2.

  4. Distribution of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium concentrations in stream sediments from the Mapocho River in Santiago, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Segura; V. Arancibia; M. C. Zúñiga; P. Pastén

    2006-01-01

    The Mapocho river, which crosses downtown Santiago, is one of the most important rivers in contact with a population of about six million inhabitants. Anthropogenic activities, industrialization, farming activities, transport, urbanization, animal and human excretions, domestic wastes and copper mining have affected the river, contaminating it and its sediments with heavy metals. Concentration and distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb and

  5. The effect of covariance between the K alpha and the K beta lead peak concentrations on the uncertainty in the result of in vivo (109)Cd KXRF bone lead measurement.

    PubMed

    Brito, J A A

    2006-12-01

    The effect of covariance between the K alpha and K beta lead peak concentrations on the uncertainty in the (109)Cd K x-ray fluorescence measurement of lead in bone is addressed here. It is commonly believed that this covariance arises as a result of the mutual dependence of the ratios of x-ray to coherent amplitudes on the same coherent peak amplitude. Previous work assumes statistical independence between spectral quantities of interest, crudely estimates the uncertainties in the lead peak concentrations, and suggests that the effect of covariance on the measurement uncertainty is small and can be ignored. Consequently, the current method followed by most laboratories reports the measurement uncertainty as if the fluctuations in the measured peak concentrations were independent. The robustness of such assumption, however, is undermined by existing epidemiological data. This paper assesses the magnitude of the covariance effect, using a method based on the observed significant correlations between the ratios of x-ray to coherent peak amplitudes in series of repeat phantom measurements. The revised uncertainties following this approach can exceed the uncertainties estimated by the accepted method by as much as 40%, which suggests a much stronger effect of covariance on the measurement uncertainty than previously reported. PMID:17110775

  6. High concentration of blood lead levels among young children in Bagega community, Zamfara – Nigeria and the potential risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Ajumobi, Olufemi Olamide; Tsofo, Ahmed; Yango, Matthias; Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Anagbogu, Ifeoma Nkiruka; Mohammed, Abdulazeez; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir; Mohammed, Suleiman; Abdullahi, Muhammad; Davis, Lora; Idris, Suleiman; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Gitta, Sheba; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In May 2010, lead poisoning (LP) was confirmed among children <5years (U5) in two communities in Zamfara state, northwest Nigeria. Following reports of increased childhood deaths in Bagega, another community in Zamfara, we conducted a survey to investigate the outbreak and recommend appropriate control measures. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Bagega community from 23rd August to 6th September, 2010. We administered structured questionnaires to parents of U5 to collect information on household participation in ore processing activities. We collected and analysed venous blood samples from 185 U5 with LeadCare II machine. Soil samples were analysed with X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for lead contamination. We defined blood lead levels (BLL) of >10ug/dL as elevated BLL, and BLL ?45ug/dL as the criterion for chelation therapy. We defined soil lead levels (SLL) of ?400 parts per million (ppm) as elevated SLL. Results The median age of U5 was 36 months (Inter-quartile range: 17-48 months). The median BLL was 71µg/dL (range: 8-332µg/dL). Of the 185 U5, 184 (99.5%) had elevated BLL, 169 (91.4%) met criterion for CT. The median SLL in tested households (n = 37) of U5 was 1,237ppm (range: 53-45,270ppm). Households breaking ore rocks within the compound were associated with convulsion related-children's death (OR: 5.80, 95% CI: 1.08 - 27.85). Conclusion There was an LP outbreak in U5 in Bagega community possibly due to heavy contamination of the environment as a result of increased ore processing activities. Community-driven remediation activities are ongoing. We recommended support for sustained environmental remediation, health education, intensified surveillance, and case management. PMID:25328633

  7. Determination of eight elements in animal chow, urine and wastewater. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blakemore, W.M.

    1981-02-01

    Analytical procedures are described for the analysis of arsenic, calcium, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in animal feed. Mercury is determined by digesting the feed sample with concentrated HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ plus V2O5 as an oxidation catalyst, reducing the stannous chloride, and sweeping the elemental mercury into an absorption tube for measurement by atomic absorption (AA) spectrophotometry. Arsenic and selenium are determined simultaneously by digesting the sample with concentrated HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and HClO/sub 4/; forming their respective hybrides with the addition of sodium borohybride, which are swept into an argon-hydrogen flame for analysis by AA. A low temperature ash is prepared and dissolved in 1 N HNO/sub 3/ for the analysis of calcium, copper, and zinc, by emission spectroscopy using the inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) source. The same solution is used for the determination of cadmium and lead by flameless AA. Animal feed spiked with three levels of each of the eight elements yielded recoveries of between 80 and 107%. Development of specific methods for the recovery of these elements for wastewater and human urine was suspended due to overriding priorities within the Analytical Methods Branch. However, a method was developed for mercury in urine and blood to address the safety surveillance requirement for NCTR workers potentially exposed to methyl mercury chloride while dosing test animals with this chemical.

  8. Changes in volatile compounds of human urine as it ages: their interaction with water.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae; Grigsby, Claude C; Smith, Brittany R; Rizki, Mateen M; Preti, George

    2013-12-15

    The urinary odors are commonly perceived as unpleasant. While numerous studies have identified the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from urine, the odorants responsible for the urine odor are not well characterized. Furthermore, anecdotal reports suggest that the odor of aged urine is different from that of fresh urine. However, no study has yet to investigate the specific VOCs released from aged urine. In this study, we analyzed and compared the VOCs released from fresh and aged urine samples, investigating the changes in the urinary VOCs as urine aged. We found an overall decrease in concentration of many urinary VOCs, and concluded this was due to the urine evaporating as it aged. On the contrary, some highly water-soluble compounds such as short and branched-chain organic acids and trimethylamine, increased. Their increased release is most likely due to the loss of water and the subsequent release of water-soluble VOCs as urine ages. We suggest that these VOCs may contribute to the odor of the aged urine. PMID:24184836

  9. Higher urine desmosine levels are associated with mortality in patients with acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Dana E.; Starcher, Barry; Eisner, Mark D.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Hayden, Doug L.; Church, Gwynne D.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Desmosine is a stable breakdown product of elastin that can be reliably measured in urine samples. We tested the hypothesis that higher baseline urine desmosine would be associated with higher mortality in 579 of 861 patients included in the recent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network trial of lower tidal volume ventilation (1). We also correlated urine desmosine levels with indexes of disease severity. Finally, we assessed whether urine desmosine was lower in patients who received lower tidal volumes. Desmosine was measured by radioimmunoassay in urine samples from days 0, 1, and 3 of the study. The data were expressed as a ratio of urine desmosine to urine creatinine to control for renal dilution. The results show that higher baseline (day 0) urine desmosine-to-creatinine concentration was associated with a higher risk of death on adjusted analysis (odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.82, P = 0.03). Urine desmosine increased in both ventilator groups from day 0 to day 3, but the average rise was higher in the 12-ml/kg predicted body weight group compared with the 6-ml/kg predicted body weight group (P = 0.053, repeated-measures model). In conclusion, patients with acute lung injury ventilated with lower tidal volumes have lower urine desmosine levels, a finding that may reflect reduced extracellular matrix breakdown. These results illustrate the value of evaluating urinary biological markers that may have prognostic and pathogenetic significance in acute lung injury. PMID:16698854

  10. Lead Increases Free Ca2+ Concentration in Cultured Osteoblastic Bone Cells: Simultaneous Detection of Intracellular Free Pb2+ by 19F NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis A. X. Schanne; Terry L. Dowd; Raj K. Gupta; John F. Rosen

    1989-01-01

    Lead (Pb) has been shown to perturb Ca-mediated cellular processes. However, to date, a direct effect of Pb on intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) has not been demonstrated. 19F NMR in combination with 1,2-bis(2-amino-5-fluorophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'- tetraacetic acid (5F-BAPTA) was used to simultaneously measure [Ca2+]i and intracellular free Pb2+ concentration ([Pb2+]i) in the rat osteoblastic bone cell line ROS 17\\/2.8. The basal

  11. The effect of malathion, diazinon, and various concentrations of zinc, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and mercury on fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Alam; O. E. Maughan

    1992-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests for malathion, diazinon, copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), and\\u000a iron (Fe) were conducted. Mortalities ofBarilius vagra andCyprinus carpio (common carp) were variable but LC50-96 hr were similar for pesticides. AdultB. vagra seem to be more sensitive to malathion than juvenile carp. Both juvenile carp and adultB. vagra were extremely sensitive

  12. Phosphate and potassium recovery from source separated urine through struvite precipitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Wilsenach; C. A. H. Schuurbiers; M. C. M. van Loosdrecht

    2007-01-01

    Phosphate can be recovered as struvite or apatite in fluidised bed reactors. Urine has a much higher phosphate concentration than sludge reject water, allowing simpler (and less expensive) process for precipitation of phosphates. A stirred tank reactor with a special compartment for liquid solid separation was used to precipitate struvite from urine. Magnesium ammonium phosphate as well as potassium magnesium

  13. The in£uence of synthetic sheep urine on ammonia oxidizing bacterial communities in grassland soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahid Mahmood; James I. Prosser

    In grazed, grassland soils, sheep urine generates heterogeneity in ammonia concentrations, with potential impact on ammonia oxidizer community structure and soil N cycling. The influence of different levels of synthetic sheep urine on ammonia oxidizers was studied in grassland soil microcosms. 'Total' and active ammonia oxidizers were distinguished by comparing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles following PCR and RT-PCR

  14. High-resolution determination of {sup 147}Pm in urine using dynamic ion-exchange chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Elchuk, S.; Lucy, C.A.; Burns, K.I. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)

    1992-10-15

    Ion exchange preconcentration followed by HPLC purification prior to scintillation counting was used to measure the concentration of {sup 147}Pm in urine. the detection limit for this method was found to be 0.1 Bq (3 fg) of {sup 147}Pm in 500 ml of urine.

  15. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  16. Collecting urine samples from young children using cotton gauze for pesticide studies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y A; Barr, D B; Akland, G; Melnyk, L; Needham, L; Pellizzari, E D; Raymer, J H; Roberds, J M

    2000-01-01

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to test the validity of using cotton gauze pad as a medium for collecting urine samples from young children and to examine the stability of the recoveries for creatinine and pesticide metabolites over 24 h. Urine spiked with a pesticide and four metabolites, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (which is mainly eliminated from urine unchanged), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (metabolite for synthetic pyrethroids), atrazine mercapturate (metabolite for atrazine), malathion dicarboxylic acid (metabolite for malathion), and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (metabolite for diazinon) was added to the gauze pads and kept in jars at 37 degrees C in a water bath. Urine was expressed from the gauze pads immediately and after 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h, then analyzed. The recoveries, calculated as the percentage of concentration in expressed urine divided by that of the control urine sample, were within a range of 70-130%. The metabolite and creatinine concentrations did not change with time in either expressed urine samples or controls. The results suggest that cotton gauze pad is a promising candidate for collecting urine samples from young children wearing diapers for studies in which these five urinary pesticide metabolites are to be analyzed. PMID:11138662

  17. High fat diet leads to changes in metabolite patterns in pig plasma, fecal, and urine samples detected by a ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem with high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-targeted metabolite profiling can identify robust biological markers of dietary exposure that can lead to a better understanding of causal interactions between diet and health. In this study, pigs were used as an animal model to develop an efficient procedure to discover metabolites in biolog...

  18. Relationships between thiamine content of eggs and concentrations of lead and other heavy metals in water and survival of Atlantic salmon fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketola, H. George; Wedge, Leslie R.; Lary, Sandra J.; Grant, Edward C.; Rutzke, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were extirpated in much of New York state by the late 1800s. Currently, Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond (Saranac Lake, NY) are stocked in Cayuga Lake (Ithaca, NY) and Lake Ontario to support a fishery, but reproduction is severely impaired by thiamine deficiency in Cayuga Lake and probably in Lake Ontario--apparently caused by adults feeding on prey fish high in thiaminase. One study suggested that survival of these fry may be reduced by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, copper, or lead in water. Thiamine deficiency is known to increase lead toxicity. Bringing gravid Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond and Cayuga Inlet into the laboratory, we examined the effect of exposing their fertilized eggs during water-hardening to water with and without added lead (0.1 to 100 mg lead·liter-1) and to other contaminated waters (from New York State) on the survival of their eggs and fry. Our results showed no significant influence of our water-hardening treatments on survival of eggs or fry; therefore, it appears that exposure of eggs (during water-hardening) to lead in water (concentrations up to 100 mg lead·liter-1) or to several contaminated waters was not detrimental to the survival of eggs or fry of Atlantic salmon. We also determined the mineral and heavy metal content of dried eggs and found that eggs from Cayuga Lake salmon had significantly higher concentrations of copper (1.9 vs. 0.5 mg·g-1) than did eggs from salmon from Little Clear Pond. All concentrations of copper appeared to be within the range observed in other normal salmon. There were no other significant differences in concentrations of other minerals tested. Concentrations of copper in Cayuga Lake water (mean, 1.16 mg·liter-1) were significantly higher than in Little Clear Pond water (mean, 0.17 mg·liter-1). The effect of copper in eggs of thiamine-deficient salmon is not known.

  19. Simultaneous pre-concentration procedure for the determination of cadmium and lead in drinking water employing sequential multi-element flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindomar A. Portugal; Hadla S. Ferreira; Walter N. L. dos Santos; Sergio L. C. Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    In this paper is proposed a simultaneous pre-concentration procedure using cloud point extraction for the determination of cadmium and lead in drinking water employing sequential multi-element flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The ligand used is 2-(2-thiazolylazo)-p-cresol (TAC) and the micellar phase is obtained using non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) and centrifugation.The optimization step was performed using two-level factorial design and Doehlert

  20. Atmospheric trace metals over the Atlantic and South Indian Oceans: Investigation of metal concentrations and lead isotope ratios in coastal and remote marine aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Melanie; Baker, Alex R.; Jickells, Tim D.

    Atmospheric concentrations of trace metals over the oceans are investigated through analysis of aerosol samples collected during cruises from the UK to the Falkland Islands and from South Africa to Australia. The readily soluble concentrations of Cu (4-256 pmol m -3), Ni (0.1-54 pmol m -3), Ba (0.2-60 pmol m -3), Zn (6-316 pmol m -3), Cd (0.01-0.29 pmol m -3) and Pb (0.4-22 pmol m -3) were measured in the aerosols, along with total concentrations of crustal elements (Fe, Al and Mn) to evaluate the crustal contributions. Air mass back trajectories suggested most of the aerosol samples had spent several days over the ocean prior to collection. The highest metal concentrations were observed in aerosols close to South Africa, Australia and major cities in South America, although these concentrations were lower than had been reported previously in the literature. Apart from Ba, which had a major crustal source, the trace metals were enriched relative to crustal sources in most samples, including some collected thousands of kilometers from emission sources. The mean trace metal concentrations in the remote Indian Ocean were lower than those measured in the Atlantic Ocean. Even lower concentrations are reported in the literature for the remote Pacific Ocean. In contrast to previous studies, no clear north-south gradient is observed in the concentrations of the trace metals in the aerosols. Lead isotope measurements were also carried out on aerosol samples using a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to assist in source apportionment. Clear differences were noted in the isotope ratios collected on either side of the Indian Ocean with Australian lead ore dominating over much of the eastern and mid-southern Indian Ocean. Samples collected over the western Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean under South African influence had lead isotopes quite different from those seen in South African cities in the past, and are closer in ratio to the coal signature of the region.

  1. Determination of lead in seawater by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after separation and pre-concentration with cocrystallized naphthalene alizarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bispo, Márcia Sousa; Korn, Maria das Graças Andrade; Morte, Elane Santos da Boa; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes

    2002-12-01

    An analytical method for separation and pre-concentration of lead in seawater for determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been investigated. Lead was retained in the solid phase (0.5 g) composed of co-precipitated naphthalene and alizarin red. The solid phase quantitatively sorbs Pb(II) at pH 8-9, and the metal was eluted using 5.0 ml of 2 mol l -1 nitric acid. The effect of NaCl, KCl, BaCl 2, CaCl 2, Na 2SO 4, MgCl 2 and Na 3PO 4 on the sorption of Pb(II) in the solid phase was studied. A set of solutions containing varying amounts of electrolytes (0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 5.0% m/v) with Pb (50 ?g) was prepared and the recommended procedure applied. The Na 3PO 4 was found to interfere; the other electrolytes did not interfere up to 5% m/v. A pre-concentration factor of 40 was obtained in this analytical procedure. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for Pb(II) were 53 and 176 ?g l -1, respectively. Lead was determined in seawater samples collected in Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The precision, expressed as R.S.D., was 1.8-4.6%, and the recovery of lead added to seawater samples was 95-97%.

  2. Absorbing and diffusive properties of blood plasma and urine proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guminetsky, S. G.; Pishak, Olga V.; Pishak, Vasyl P.; Grigorishin, P. M.

    1997-12-01

    An analysis of absorbing and scattering properties of blood and urine plasma proteins is presented. Assessment methods of their spectroscopic parameters, such as extinction, absorption and scattering coefficients, are described. Possibilities for a separate assessment of the albumin and globulin concentrations in biological media are considered.

  3. Urine therapy through the centuries.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy. PMID:21614793

  4. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood relation explained an additional 12% of the total variation in fillet Cd. Collectively, the results indicate that blood sampling could provide reasonably accurate and precise estimates of fillet Pb, Co, and Cd concentrations that would be suitable for identifying contaminated sites and for monitoring, but some fillet sampling might be necessary at contaminated sites for establishing consumption advisories. ?? 2009 US Government.

  5. [Significance of the urine strip test in case of stunted growth].

    PubMed

    Bertholet-Thomas, A; Llanas, B; Servais, A; Bendelac, N; Goizet, C; Choukroun, G; Novo, R; Decramer, S

    2015-07-01

    Observation of stunted growth in children usually leads the general practitioner to refer the patient to endocrinologists or gastroenterologists. In most cases, after a complementary check-up, the diagnosis is made and treatment is initiated. However, certain cases remain undiagnosed, particularly renal etiologies, such as proximal tubulopathy. The urine strip test at the initial check-up would be an easy and inexpensive test to avoid delayed diagnosis. The aim of the present paper is to increase general physicians' and pediatricians' awareness of the significance of questioning the parents and using the urine strip test for any child presenting stunted growth. We report a patient case of a 20-month-old child admitted to the emergency department for severe dehydration. He had displayed stunted growth since the age of 5months and showed a negative etiologic check-up at 9months of age. Clinical examination at admission confirmed stunted growth with loss of 2 standard deviations and signs of dehydration with persistent diuresis. Skin paleness, ash-blond hair, and signs of rickets were also observed and the urine strip test showed positive pads for glycosuria and proteinuria. Polyuria and polydipsia were also revealed following parents' questioning, suggesting proximal tubulopathy (Fanconi syndrome). Association of stunted growth, rickets, polyuria and polydipsia, glycosuria (without ketonuria and normal glycemia), and proteinuria suggest nephropathic cystinosis. Ophthalmic examination showed cystine deposits in the cornea. The semiotic diagnosis of nephropathic cystinosis was confirmed by leukocyte cystine concentrations and genetic investigations. This case report clearly illustrates the significance of the urine strip test to easily and quickly concentrate the diagnosis of stunted growth on a renal etiology (glycosuria, proteinuria), especially on proximal tubulopathy for which the most frequent cause is nephropathic cystinosis. Specificity of nephropathic cystinosis treatment is that the age of treatment initiation is crucial and determinant for the prognosis of the disease and the onset of final stage renal failure. Therefore, the urine strip test should be included in the systematic check-up of stunted growth to identify any renal etiology. PMID:26047745

  6. A novel in situ method for sampling urban soil dust: particle size distribution, trace metal concentrations, and stable lead isotopes.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiangyang; Liang, Siyuan; Li, Xiangdong

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a novel in situ sampling method was utilized to investigate the concentrations of trace metals and Pb isotope compositions among different particle size fractions in soil dust, bulk surface soil, and corresponding road dust samples collected within an urban environment. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of using soil dust samples to determine trace metal contamination and potential risks in urban areas in comparison with related bulk surface soil and road dust. The results of total metal loadings and Pb isotope ratios revealed that soil dust is more sensitive than bulk surface soil to anthropogenic contamination in urban areas. The new in situ method is effective at collecting different particle size fractions of soil dust from the surface of urban soils, and that soil dust is a critical indicator of anthropogenic contamination and potential human exposure in urban settings. PMID:23466731

  7. Radionuclide analyses of urine samples: results of an intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalheimer, A. R.; Beyer, D.; Günther, E. W.; Henrichs, K.

    1996-02-01

    The measurement of radioactivity concentrations in urine samples is an important tool for monitoring possible radionuclide intakes by occupationally exposed workers, especially for radionuclides emitting alpha or beta radiation. Quality assurance requires systematic intercomparisons involving all laboratories responsible for these measurements. Such analyses were performed by the German—Swiss Radiation Protection Association. The main purpose of these measurements was the specification of criteria for the acceptance of laboratories by radiation protection authorities. This contribution presents some measurement results of Th-nat, 90Sr, and 241Am in urine and discusses the implications for internal dosimetry.

  8. Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, eastern Kentucky coal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Ruppert, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation (Westphalian B) Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds are the 2 largest producing coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Single channel samples from 22 localities in the Pond Creek coal bed were obtained from active coal mines in Pike and Martin Countries, Kentucky, and a total of 18 Fire Clay coal bed channel samples were collected from localities in the central portion of the coal field. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution of potentially hazardous elements in the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal beds, with particular emphasis on As and Pb, 2 elements that are included in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as potential air toxics. The 2 coals are discussed individually as the depositional histories are distinct, the Fire Clay coal bed having more sites where relatively high-S lithologies are encountered. In an effort to characterize these coals, 40 whole channel samples, excluding 1-cm partings, were analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Previously analyzed samples were added to provide additional geographic coverage and lithotype samples from one site were analyzed in order to provide detail of vertical elemental trends. The As and Pb levels in the Fire Clay coal bed tend to be higher than in the Pond Creek coal bed. One whole channel sample of the Fire Clay coal bed contains 1156 ppm As (ash basis), with a single lithotype containing 4000 ppm As (ash basis). Most of the As and Pb appears to be associated with pyrite, which potentially can be removed in beneficiation (particularly coarser pyrite). Disseminated finer pyrite may not be completely removable by cleaning. In the examination of pyrite conducted in this study, it does not appear that significant concentration of As or Pb occurs in the finer pyrite forms. The biggest potential problem of As- or Pb-enriched pyrite is, therefore, one of refuse disposal.

  9. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration leads to increased whole-plant isoprene emission in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides).

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhihong; Niinemets, Ülo; Hüve, Katja; Rasulov, Bahtijor; Noe, Steffen M

    2013-05-01

    Effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] on plant isoprene emissions are controversial. Relying on leaf-scale measurements, most models simulating isoprene emissions in future higher [CO2] atmospheres suggest reduced emission fluxes. However, combined effects of elevated [CO2] on leaf area growth, net assimilation and isoprene emission rates have rarely been studied on the canopy scale, but stimulation of leaf area growth may largely compensate for possible [CO2] inhibition reported at the leaf scale. This study tests the hypothesis that stimulated leaf area growth leads to increased canopy isoprene emission rates. We studied the dynamics of canopy growth, and net assimilation and isoprene emission rates in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) grown under 380 and 780 ?mol mol(-1) [CO2]. A theoretical framework based on the Chapman-Richards function to model canopy growth and numerically compare the growth dynamics among ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2]-grown plants was developed. Plants grown under elevated [CO2] had higher C : N ratio, and greater total leaf area, and canopy net assimilation and isoprene emission rates. During ontogeny, these key canopy characteristics developed faster and stabilized earlier under elevated [CO2]. However, on a leaf area basis, foliage physiological traits remained in a transient state over the whole experiment. These results demonstrate that canopy-scale dynamics importantly complements the leaf-scale processes, and that isoprene emissions may actually increase under higher [CO2] as a result of enhanced leaf area production. PMID:23442171

  10. Simple and sensitive determination of urea in serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Orsonneau, J L; Massoubre, C; Cabanes, M; Lustenberger, P

    1992-05-01

    In this method for serum and urinary urea determination, the same reagent is used without predilution of urine samples. The method is based on the pH increase resulting from the ammonia released by urease hydrolysis of urea. o-Cresolphthalein complexone is used to monitor the pH change colorimetrically. Urea concentration and absorbance at 570 nm are linearly related for concentrations as great as 600 mmol/L for urine samples and 100 mmol/L for serum. There are no clinically significant interferences from physiological substances or drugs, and precision and accuracy are excellent (CV approximately 2%, except at very low concentrations in serum; analytical recovery was 99% in urine, 100% in serum). Results by this method (y) and by the Astra method (x) for urine correlated well (y = 0.991x - 2.87, Sy/x = 9.21, r = 0.994), as did the results by this method and by the total enzymatic method (x') for serum (y = 1.002x' + 0.192, Sy/x' = 0.598, r = 0.997). This method is applicable to automated as well as manual instruments, and one-reagent or two-reagent formats can be used. PMID:1582010

  11. A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

    1993-01-01

    Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

  12. Sensitivity of an opiate immunoassay for detecting hydrocodone and hydromorphone in urine from a clinical population: analysis of subthreshold results.

    PubMed

    Bertholf, Roger L; Johannsen, Laura M; Reisfield, Gary M

    2015-01-01

    Urine drug testing (UDT) is an emerging standard of care in the evaluation and treatment of chronic non-cancer pain patients with opioid analgesics. UDT may be used both to verify adherence with the opioid analgesic regimen and to monitor abstinence from non-prescribed or illicit controlled substances. In the former scenario, it is vital to determine whether the drug is present in the urine, even at low concentrations, because failure to detect the drug may lead to accusations of opioid abuse or diversion. Opiate immunoassays typically are developed to detect morphine and are most sensitive to morphine and codeine. Although many opiate immunoassays also detect hydrocodone (HC) and/or hydromorphone (HM), sensitivities for these analytes are often much lower, increasing the possibility of negative screening results when the drug is present in the urine. We selected 112 urine specimens from patients who had been prescribed HC or hydromorphone but were presumptive negative by the Roche Online DAT Opiate II™ urine drug screening assay, which is calibrated to 300 ng/mL morphine. Using a GC/MS confirmatory method with a detection limit of 50 ng/mL both for HC and for HM, one or both of these opiates were detected in 81 (72.3%) of the urine specimens. Examination of the raw data from these presumptive negative opiate screens revealed that, in many cases, the turbidity signal was greater than the signal obtained for the negative control, but less than the signal for the 300 ng/mL (morphine) threshold calibrator. A receiver operating characteristic curve generated for the reciprocal of the ratio of turbidity measurements in the patient specimens and negative (drug-free) controls, against the presence or absence of HC and/or HM by confirmatory analyses, produced an area under the curve of 0.910. We conclude that this opiate immunoassay has sufficient sensitivity to detect HC and/or HM in some urine specimens that screen presumptive negative for these commonly prescribed opiates at the established threshold. PMID:25288720

  13. Analysis of codeine positivity in urine of pain management patients.

    PubMed

    Colby, Jennifer M; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L

    2015-06-01

    The opioids codeine and morphine have legitimate uses in managing chronic pain conditions, but they are frequently abused. Patients prescribed opioids submit urine samples for medication compliance monitoring, and the interpretation of the results is complex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the percentage of codeine- and morphine-positive urine drug tests that result from morphine use only, with the positive codeine result arising from low levels of codeine present in pharmaceutical formulations of morphine. This study included 80 urine samples which tested positive for codeine and morphine after pre-analytical hydrolysis and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantitative results were correlated with patient prescription information and immunoassay results to classify patients into one of four categories: heroin users (50%), codeine users (34%), codeine and morphine users (5%), and morphine users (11%). The percentage of codeine-positive resulting from morphine use was higher than previous estimates. Urine from patients prescribed morphine only was found to contain codeine at <1% of the morphine concentration, a ratio that was also observed in patients who used heroin. Careful analysis of urine drug testing results, including assessing the ratio of codeine to morphine (C/M), can help providers determine if patients are compliant with their pain management regimens. PMID:25840440

  14. COMPARATIVE YIELDS OF MUTAGENS FROM CIGARETTE SMOKERS' URINE OBTAINED BY USING SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urine from cigarette smokers was prepared for mutagenicity testing by extracting mutagens with solid phase extraction columns. ommercially available prepacked bonded silicas (cotadecyl, cyclohexyl, cyanopropyl) were compared for their efficiency and specificity in concentration o...

  15. Quantification of chromatographic effects of vitamin B supplementation in urine and implications for hydration assessment.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Heavens, K R; Dennis, W E; Caruso, E M; Guerriere, K I; Charkoudian, N; Cheuvront, S N

    2015-07-15

    Changes in body water elicit reflex adjustments at the kidney, thus maintaining fluid volume homeostasis. These renal adjustments change the concentration and color of urine, variables that can, in turn, be used as biomarkers of hydration status. It has been suggested that vitamin supplementation alters urine color; it is unclear whether any such alteration would confound hydration assessment via colorimetric evaluation. We tested the hypothesis that overnight vitamin B2 and/or B12 supplementation alters urine color as a marker of hydration status. Thirty healthy volunteers were monitored during a 3-day euhydrated baseline, confirmed via first morning nude body mass, urine specific gravity, and urine osmolality. Volunteers then randomly received B2 (n = 10), B12 (n = 10), or B2 + B12 (n = 10) at ?200 × recommended dietary allowance. Euhydration was verified on trial days (two of the following: body mass ± 1.0% of the mean of visits 1-3, urine specific gravity < 1.02, urine osmolality < 700 mmol/kg). Vitamin purity and urinary B2 concentration ([B2]) and [B12] were quantified via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Two independent observers assessed urine color using an eight-point standardized color chart. Following supplementation, urinary [B2] was elevated; however, urine color was not different between nonsupplemented and supplemented trials. For example, in the B2 trial, urinary [B2] increased from 8.6 × 10(4) ± 7.7 × 10(4) to 5.7 × 10(6) ± 5.3 × 10(6) nmol/l (P < 0.05), and urine color went from 4 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 (P > 0.05). Both conditions met the euhydrated color classification. We conclude that a large overnight dose of vitamins B2 and B12 does not confound assessment of euhydrated status via urine color. PMID:25977447

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... anD human services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Urination Changes Call your doctor or ... urine to change color or smell different during chemotherapy. Talk with your doctor or nurse to learn ...

  17. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Date reviewed: May 2013 Back 1 ? 2 For Teens For ... Tract Infections Urine Test (Video) Kidneys and Urinary Tract Glomerulonephritis Kidney Stones Contact ...

  18. Chemical measurement of urine volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

  19. Relative density of urine: methods and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Pradella, M; Dorizzi, R M; Rigolin, F

    1988-01-01

    The physical properties and chemical composition of urine are highly variable and are determined in large measure by the quantity and the type of food consumed. The specific gravity is the ratio of the density to that of water, and it is dependent on the number and weight of solute particles and on the temperature of the sample. The weight of solute particles is constituted mainly of urea (73%), chloride (5.4%), sodium (5.1%), potassium (2.4%), phosphate (2.0%), uric acid (1.7%), and sulfate (1.3%). Nevertheless, urine osmolality depends only on the number of solute particles. The renal production of maximally concentrated urine and formation of dilute urine may be reduced to two basic elements: (1) generation and maintenance of a renal medullary solute concentration hypertonic to plasma and (2) a mechanism for osmotic equilibration between the inner medulla and the collecting duct fluid. The interaction of the renal medullary countercurrent system, circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone, and thirst regulates water metabolism. Renin, aldosterone, prostaglandins, and kinins also play a role. Clinical estimation of the concentrating and diluting capacity can be performed by relatively simple provocative tests. However, urinary specific gravity after taking no fluids for 12 h overnight should be 1.025 or more, so that the second urine in the morning is a useful sample for screening purposes. Many preservation procedures affect specific gravity measurements. The concentration of solids (or water) in urine can be measured by weighing, hydrometer, refractometry, surface tension, osmolality, a reagent strip, or oscillations of a capillary tube. These measurements are interrelated, not identical. Urinary density measurement is useful to assess the disorders of water balance and to discriminate between prerenal azotemia and acute tubular necrosis. The water balance regulates the serum sodium concentration, therefore disorders are revealed by hypo- and hypernatremia. The disturbances are due to renal and nonrenal diseases, mainly liver, cardiovascular, intestinal, endocrine, and iatrogenic. Fluid management is an important topic of intensive care medicine. Moreover, the usefulness of specific gravity measurement of urine lies in interpreting other findings of urinalysis, both chemical and microscopical. PMID:3077030

  20. Experimental animal urine collection: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biji T. Kurien; Nancy E. Everds; R. Hal Scofield

    2004-01-01

    Summary Animal urine collection is a vital part of veterinary practice for ascertaining animal health and in scientific investigations for assessing the results of experimental manipulations. Untainted animal urine collection is very challenging, especially with small rodents, and is an almost impossible task under conditions of microgravity. The fundamental aspects of urine collection are: (1) ease of collection, (2) quality

  1. Interaction of hydrophobic components in female urine before and after childbirth with P-glycoprotein in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yokooji, T; Kameda, Y; Utsumi, M; Mori, N; Murakami, T

    2014-06-01

    The first urine in the morning (total 15 samples) and whole day urine (total 4 days, 17 samples) were collected from a young healthy woman during the pregnancy and lactation period, to examine the possible interactions of urine components (methanol extracts) with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs). The interaction was evaluated by measuring the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine123, a P-gp substrate, in LLC-GA5-COL150 cells, or calcein, an MRP substrate, in Caco-2 cells in the absence and presence of urine components. Four first urine samples out of 12 collected before childbirth and one sample out of three collected after childbirth suppressed P-gp function significantly. The effect of pregnancy and lactation on P-gp inhibitory potencies of urine components was not observed. The whole day urine samples showed a clear circadian rhythm, in which three first urine samples in the morning out of four showed greater P-gp inhibitory potencies than other daytime samples. Interaction of urine components with MRPs was not detected. In conclusion, the concentration of endogenous P-gp inhibitor(s) was higher in the first urine in the morning, showing a clear circadian rhythm. Normal pregnancy and lactation appeared not to significantly affect the P-gp inhibitory potencies of urine components. PMID:24974576

  2. Intercomparison of analytical methods for arsenic speciation in human urine.

    PubMed Central

    Crecelius, E; Yager, J

    1997-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise was conducted for the quantification of arsenic species in spiked human urine. The primary objective of the exercise was to determine the variance among laboratories in the analysis of arsenic species such as inorganic As (As+3 and As+5), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Laboratories that participated had previous experience with arsenic speciation analysis. The results of this interlaboratory comparison are encouraging. There is relatively good agreement on the concentrations of these arsenic species in urine at concentrations that are relevant to research on the metabolism of arsenic in humans and other mammals. Both the accuracy and precision are relatively poor for arsenic concentrations of less than about 5 micrograms/l. PMID:9288500

  3. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in plaster and mortar from structures in Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri (Tri-State Mining District).

    PubMed

    Perry, Phyllis M; Pavlik, Jeffrey W; Sheets, Ralph W; Biagioni, Richard N

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate anecdotal evidence that within Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri, two counties within the Tri-State Mining District, granular mine tailings were commonly used in place of river sands in wall plasters and mortar. Interior wall plaster and mortar samples from structures in this mining district were analyzed for lead, cadmium, and zinc, and compared to samples from Springfield, MO (comparison site). The Jasper and Newton County samples showed elevated concentrations of the three elements, consistent with the inclusion of mine tailings, with a number of samples containing lead and cadmium at concentrations greater than EPA remediation targets for yard soil. X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of the zinc ore minerals, sphalerite and hemimorphite, in high level samples. Thin section optical studies identified the major component of the aggregate as chert, a mineral abundant within the tailing piles. Because dust from crumbling plaster and mortar could represent an avenue for significant heavy metal exposure to building occupants, we suggest that there may be associated health consequences that should be further evaluated. PMID:15589265

  4. The Effect of Continuous and Pulse Dose Ammonium Chloride Regimens on the Urine pH of Goats 

    E-print Network

    Sprake, Philippa May

    2012-10-19

    and mortality in castrated and intact male show goats. Risk factors for development of struvite uroliths include excess minerals in the urine (particularly phosphates), concentrated urine and an alkaline urine pH. Feeding and management practices associated... frequent urolith recovered from clinical cases in Central Texas has been struvite.5 The typical signalment in obstructive urolithiasis cases is the castrated male.5,6,12 Although both males and females can develop uroliths at equal rates, males typically...

  5. Thyreostatic drugs, stability in bovine and porcine urine.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bussche, J; Sterk, S S; De Brabander, H F; Blokland, M H; Deceuninck, Y; Le Bizec, B; Vanhaecke, L

    2012-07-01

    Thyreostatic drugs, illegally administrated to livestock for fattening purposes, are banned in the European Union since 1981. For monitoring their illegal use, sensitive and specific analytical methods are required. In this context, the knowledge of the stability in a matrix is of primary importance. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of preservation, number of freeze-thaw cycles, and matrix-related variables on the stability of thyreostatic drugs in the urine of livestock. Finally, the developed conservation approach was applied on incurred urine samples, which displayed traces of the thyreostat thiouracil below the recommended concentration of 10 ?g L(-1). The stability study confirmed the negative influence of preservation (8 h) at room temperature and at -70 °C, decreases in concentration of more than 78.0% were observed for all thyreostats, except for 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole and 2-mercaptobenzimidazole. Additionally, investigation of matrix-related variables indicated significant impacts of the presence of copper (p = 0.001) and the pH (p = 0.002). Next, an optimised pre-treatment (pH 1 and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dehydrate) significantly differing from the original conservation approach (p < 0.05) was developed, which proved capable of delaying the decrease in concentration and improved the detection in time for both spiked as well as incurred urine samples. In the future, it seems highly advisable to apply the developed pre-treatment on incurred urines upon sampling, before thyreostat analysis. Additionally, it is recommendable to limit preservation of urine samples at room temperature, but also in the freezer prior to thyreostat analysis. PMID:22349321

  6. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in fish from mining-influenced waters of northeastern Oklahoma: Sampling of blood, carcass, and liver for aquatic biomonitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Schmitt, C.J.; May, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Tri-States Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri (MO), Kansas (KS), and Oklahoma (OK), USA, was mined for lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) for more than a century. Mining ceased more than 30 years ago, but wastes remain widely distributed in the region, and there is evidence of surface- and groundwater contamination in the Spring River-Neosho River (SR-NR) system of northeastern OK. In October 2001, we collected a total of 74 fish from six locations in the SR-NR system that included common carp (Cyprinus carpio), channel- and flathead catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth- and spotted bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus punctulatus), and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). We obtained additional fish from locations in MO that included three reference sites and one site that served as a "positive control" (heavily contaminated by Pb). Blood, carcass (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and liver (carp only) samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn. Our objectives were to assess the degree to which fish from the OK portion of the SR-NR system are contaminated by these elements and to evaluate fish blood sampling for biomonitoring. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in carp and catfish from OK sites were elevated and Pb concentrations of some approached those of the highly contaminated site in MO, but concentrations in bass and crappie were relatively low. For Zn, correlations were weak among concentrations in the three tissues and none of the samples appeared to reflect site contamination. Variability was high for Cd in all three tissues of carp; differences between sites were statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for blood even though mean liver concentrations were at least 100-fold greater than those in blood. Blood concentrations of Cd and Pb were positively correlated (r 2 = 0.49 to 0.84) with the concentration of the same element in carp and catfish carcasses or in carp livers, and the corresponding multiple regression models were highly significant (p < 0.001). Our data indicate that potentially nonlethal blood sampling can be useful for monitoring of selected metals in carp, catfish, and perhaps other fishes. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  7. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in fish from mining-influenced waters of northeastern Oklahoma: sampling of blood, carcass, and liver for aquatic biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Brumbaugh, William G; Schmitt, Christopher J; May, Thomas W

    2005-07-01

    The Tri-States Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri (MO), Kansas (KS), and Oklahoma (OK), USA, was mined for lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) for more than a century. Mining ceased more than 30 years ago, but wastes remain widely distributed in the region, and there is evidence of surface- and groundwater contamination in the Spring River-Neosho River (SR-NR) system of northeastern OK. In October 2001, we collected a total of 74 fish from six locations in the SR-NR system that included common carp (Cyprinus carpio), channel- and flathead catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth- and spotted bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus punctulatus), and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). We obtained additional fish from locations in MO that included three reference sites and one site that served as a "positive control" (heavily contaminated by Pb). Blood, carcass (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and liver (carp only) samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn. Our objectives were to assess the degree to which fish from the OK portion of the SR-NR system are contaminated by these elements and to evaluate fish blood sampling for biomonitoring. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in carp and catfish from OK sites were elevated and Pb concentrations of some approached those of the highly contaminated site in MO, but concentrations in bass and crappie were relatively low. For Zn, correlations were weak among concentrations in the three tissues and none of the samples appeared to reflect site contamination. Variability was high for Cd in all three tissues of carp; differences between sites were statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for blood even though mean liver concentrations were at least 100-fold greater than those in blood. Blood concentrations of Cd and Pb were positively correlated (r2 = 0.49 to 0.84) with the concentration of the same element in carp and catfish carcasses or in carp livers, and the corresponding multiple regression models were highly significant (p < or = 0.001). Our data indicate that potentially nonlethal blood sampling can be useful for monitoring of selected metals in carp, catfish, and perhaps other fishes. PMID:15981034

  8. Determination of ptaquiloside and pterosin B derived from bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) in cattle plasma, urine and milk.

    PubMed

    Aranha, Paulo César Reis; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Strobel, Bjarne W; Friis, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a toxin from bracken fern (Pteridium sp.) with genotoxic effects. Hydrolysis of PTA leads to the non-toxic and aromatised indanone, pterosin B (PTB). Here we present a sensitive, fast, simple and direct method, using SPE cartridges to clean and pre-concentrate PTA and PTB in plasma, urine and milk followed by LC-MS quantification. The average recovery of PTA in plasma, urine, and milk was 71, 88 and 77%, respectively, whereas recovery of PTB was 75, 82 and 63%. The method LOQ for PTA and PTB in plasma was 1.2 and 3.7ngmL(-1), 52 and 33ngmL(-1) for undiluted urine and 5.8 and 5.3ngmL(-1) for milk. The method is repeatable within and between days, with RSD values lower than 15% (PTA) and 20% (PTB). When PTA and PTB spiked samples were stored at -18°C for 14 days both compounds remained stable. In contrast, the PTA concentration was reduced by 15% when PTA spiked plasma was left for 5h at room temperature before SPE clean-up, whereas PTB remained stable. The method is the first to allow simultaneous quantification of PTA and PTB in biological fluids in a relevant concentration range. After intravenous administration of 0.092mg PTA per kgbw in a heifer, the plasma concentration was more than 300ngmL(-1) PTA and declined to 9.8ngmL(-1) after 6h, PTB was determined after 10min at 50ngmL(-1.) PMID:24508676

  9. Tumor markers in serum, polyamines and modified nucleosides in urine, and cytogenetic aberrations in lymphocytes of workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Buchet, J P; Ferreira, M; Burrion, J B; Leroy, T; Kirsch-Volders, M; Van Hummelen, P; Jacques, J; Cupers, L; Delavignette, J P; Lauwerys, R

    1995-04-01

    Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(a)anthracene are well-established genotoxic agents. Long-term exposure to PAHs may lead to proliferative cell disorders in humans, predominantly in the skin, lung, and bladder. The concentration of several tumor markers in serum, of polyamines and modified nucleosides in urine, and of cytogenetic endpoints in peripheral lymphocytes (sister-chromatid exchanges, high frequency cells [HFC], and micronuclei) were measured in 149 male workers exposed to PAHs in two coke oven and one graphite electrode plants, and in 137 controls. We have assessed whether these biomarkers were related to several parameters reflecting exposure to PAHs, i.e., the sum of the airborne concentration of 13 PAHs, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentration in postshift urine, benzo(a)pyrene-diolepoxide adducts to hemoglobin (BPDE-Hb adducts), and duration of exposure, taking also into account several possible confounding factors. HFC was the biomarker most consistently associated with the intensity of current exposure to PAHs. Smoking exerts an independent effect on the same parameter. On the basis of the logistic regression between the prevalence of abnormal HFC values and PAHs in air and 1-OHP in postshift urine found in nonsmokers, it is suggested that the latter should be kept below 6.4 micrograms/m3 and 2.7 micrograms/g creatinine, respectively. No relationship was found between the cytogenetic effects and BPDE-Hb adducts although both parameters are statistically correlated with the airborne PAH level. Some tumor markers in serum (carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, sialic acid) and the urinary concentration of some polyamines were correlated with either PAHs in air or 1-OHP in urine. The associations, however, were very weak which suggests that these biomarkers have limited practical value for the health surveillance of groups of workers exposed to genotoxic PAHs. PMID:7793423

  10. Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2014-12-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals. PMID:25300751

  11. Recovery of dengue virus from urine samples by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, D; Cnops, L; Van Esbroeck, M

    2015-07-01

    Recently, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for dengue virus (DENV) has been reported to test positive in urine samples for a longer time frame than in serum. We evaluated two RNA extraction procedures from urine and investigated the stability of DENV RNA in urine and serum up to 1 year at different storage temperatures. In addition, 24 urine samples collected from patients with a recent infection were tested with DENV real-time RT-PCR and compared to the RT-PCR results on serum. Five patients with an acute DENV infection were followed up for 6 months by RT-PCR on urine. The automated extraction method with the MagNA Pure LC 2.0 device had a higher yield of DENV RNA compared to the manual QIAGEN method, explained by the higher volume used in the former method. DENV RNA in both serum and urine was stable at room temperature up to 1 month and at 4 °C and -20 °C for at least 1 year. The detection rate by RT-PCR on urine was 50 % (4/8) until day 7, 100 % (6/6) between 1 and 3 weeks after symptom onset, and 25 % (2/8) thereafter. Generally, DENV RNA concentrations are higher in serum than in urine up till day 7, switching to lower concentrations in serum thereafter. Peak concentrations in urine are reached around day 10, and RNA becomes undetectable 3 to 4 weeks following disease onset. This diagnostic tool is of added value in clinical settings by extending the period during which DENV infections are diagnosed by RT-PCR. PMID:25794553

  12. Study on stable coatings for determination of lead by flow-injection hydride generation and in situ concentration in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, H. O.

    1996-09-01

    Lead hydride was generated by flow-injection from 0.05 M oxalic acid sample solution by using 0.1 M HCl carrier solution and the reaction with 1.5% sodium borohydride in the presence of 2% potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) as a mild oxidizing agent. Pb was determined by in situ concentration in graphite furnace AAS. The hydride generation by flow-injection and trapping in the graphite tube coated with a highly stable trapping reagent (e.g. tungsten) allows automatic Pb determination. In a systematic investigation, the in situ concentration of Pb was studied in the temperature range 50-600° on graphite tubes coated with noble metals (Ir, Ir/Mg, Pd/Ir), and with W or Zr. The highest response was found on the Ir coatings at trapping temperatures of 200-300°, followed by the W and Zr coatings. The radiotracer 210Pb was used to measure hydride generation (95%) and trapping efficiency (71%) on a W-coated tube. Signal stability and reproducibility was tested over 400 trapping and atomization cycles, and the better performance was found with the W and Zr coatings at a precision of 3%. Trapping temperatures above 450°C can lead to errors in absorbance values owing to an adsorptive "carry-over" effect. A characteristic mass of about 21 pg Pb for W-coated tube (283.3 nm) and a detection limit (3?) of about 0.25 ng was obtained with a 0.5 ml sample loop. The problem with Pb hydride generation is the relatively high reagent blank (1.3 ng in 30 s trapping time) even using chemicals of the highest purity. The method has been tested by applying it to the determination of Pb in a sediment certified reference material.

  13. Urine levels of drugs for which Triage DOA screening was positive.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Fumio

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between urine levels of target drugs of abuse for which Triage DOA gave positive results, as well as the cut-off levels for these drugs. Thirty-eight forensic urine samples positive for commonly abused drugs were involved. Of these samples, 12 were positive for barbiturates (BAR), 11 for benzodiazepines (BZO), 8 for opiates (OPI), 7 for amphetamines (AMP), and 4 for tricyclic antidepressants (TCA). In the BAR-positive urine samples, phenobarbital, amobarbital or barbital was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In the BZO-positive samples, diazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, nitrazepam and/or midazolam was detected at concentrations lower than cut-off levels; in the triazolam-involved urine, alpha-hydroxytriazolam, a metabolite of triazolam, showed concentrations higher than cut-off level. In the AMP-positive samples, methamphetamine was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off level. Urine samples positive for OPI contained total dihydrocodeine, codeine or morphine at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In TCA-positive samples, amitriptyline was detected at concentrations higher or lower than cut-off level, and clomipramine was detected at a concentration much lower than cut-off level. Metabolites of BZO and TCA, which are not typically analyzed by instrumental procedures, may cross-react to varying degrees with the antibodies used for Triage DOA. PMID:19261513

  14. Decomposition pathways and rates of human urine in soils.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Federico; Daly, Edoardo

    2013-07-01

    This study proposes a comprehensive reaction network of the soil microbial breakdown of the main compounds in human urine to the end products NH? and NH??. A reactive model was developed and parameters were determined against experimental data. The model was used to assess the amount and release rate of NH? and NH?? in a soil control volume flushed with (i) pulses of urine at various dilutions and (ii) a continuous flow of urine at various dilutions and flow rates. In scenario i, 90% of incoming organic nitrogen was converted to NH? and NH?? between 5 and 20 days from application at rates strongly dependent on the initial microbial soil content. Urea and hippuric acid were largely correlated to NH? and NH?? release, whereas microbial functional groups in the same scenarios were poorly correlated with NH? and NH?? release. In scenario ii, 90% conversion was generally reached for low flow rates and was highly nonlinear with the dilution. Finally, a stochastic analysis showed that urine decomposition was more sensitive to uncertainty in microbial growth rate parameters than half-saturation concentrations. PMID:23750893

  15. Concentrations and loads of cadmium, lead, zinc, and nutrients measured during the 1999 water year within the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woods, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    the network was to quantify the absolute and relative magnitude of hydrologic, trace-element, and nutrient loads transported by numerous stream reaches within the Spokane River Basin. Of the 29 water-quality stations in the network, 19 were in the Coeur d?Alene River Basin, 2 were in the St. Joe River Basin, and the remaining 8 were on the Spokane River downstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake. All stations were sampled for whole-water recoverable and dissolved concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were sampled at nine stations to determine loads of nutrients into and out of Coeur d'Alene Lake and transported down the Spokane River into the Columbia River. Mean daily discharge during the 1999 water year was about 120 percent of the long-term average. Trace-element loads to the Columbia River were calculated for the basin's terminal station, Spokane River at Long Lake. For whole-water recoverable cadmium, 2,110 pounds, 92 percent of which was dissolved, was delivered to the Columbia River. The Columbia River received 25,000 pounds of whole-water recoverable lead, 29 percent of which was dissolved, from the Spokane River Basin. The largest trace-element load delivered to the Columbia River by the Spokane River was 764,000 pounds of whole-water recoverable zinc, 76 percent of which was dissolved. The primary source of trace-element loads in the Spokane River Basin was the Coeur d'Alene River Basin. The South Fork Coeur d'Alene River was the largest source of dissolved and wholewater recoverable loads of cadmium and zinc. In contrast, the main stem of the Coeur d'Alene River was the largest source of dissolved and wholewater recoverable loads of lead. Within the South Fork, substantial increases in dissolved loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc were detected in excess of those measured by the monitoring network stations upstream from the terminal station, South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst. Much of the added load was attributed to inflow of traceelement-contaminated ground water. Similarly, increases in whole-water recoverable loads of cadmium, lead, and zinc were detected in the South Fork in excess of measured loads; these were attributed largely to erosion and transport of sediment-associated trace elements during increased stream discharge events. Coeur d'Alene Lake received nearly all its trace-element loads from the Coeur d'Alene River. The lake retained the majority of the dissolved and whole-water recoverable loads of lead input to it, but retained almost none of its dissolved and whole-water recoverable loads of zinc. About one-half of the dissolved and whole-water recoverable loads of cadmium was retained in the lake. Within the Spokane River Basin, the largest loads of total nitrogen, 13,000,000 pounds, and total phosphorus, 677,000 pounds, were measuredat Spokane River at Long Lake, the station closest to the Columbia River. At Coeur d'Alene Lake, total nitrogen loads input to the lake from the Coeur d'Alene and St. Joe Rivers totaled 1,890,000 pounds; the lake discharged 2,430,000 pounds. The lake received 253,000 pounds of total phosphorus and discharged 187,000 pounds; thus, 66,000 pounds was retained by the lake.

  16. Determination of trace element concentrations and stable lead, uranium and thorium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS in NORM and NORM-polluted sample leachates.

    PubMed

    Mas, J L; Villa, M; Hurtado, S; García-Tenorio, R

    2012-02-29

    This work focuses on the monitoring of the potential pollution in scenarios that involve NORM-related industrial activities (environmental or in-door scenarios). The objective was to develop a method to determine extent and origin of the contamination, suitable for monitoring (i.e. simple, fast and economical) and avoiding the use of too many different instruments. It is presented a radiochemical method that allows the determination of trace element concentrations and 206Pb/207Pb/208Pb, 238U/234U and 232Th/230Th isotope ratios using a single sample aliquot and a single instrument (ICP-QMS). Eichrom UTEVA® extraction chromatography minicolumns were used to separate uranium and thorium in sample leachates. Independent ICP-MS determinations of uranium and thorium isotope ratios were carried out afterwards. Previously a small aliquot of the leachate was used for the determination of trace element concentrations and lead isotope ratios. Several radiochemical arrangements were tested to get maximum performances and simplicity of the method. The performances of the method were studied in terms of chemical yields of uranium and thorium and removal of the potentially interfering elements. The established method was applied to samples from a chemical industry and sediments collected in a NORM-polluted scenario. The results obtained from our method allowed us to infer not only the extent, but also the sources of the contamination in the area. PMID:22230754

  17. [Air pollution by sevoflurane in operating room and serum and urine inorganic fluoride of anesthetists].

    PubMed

    Takeda, J; Sato, M; Shimada, M; Ochiai, R; Takahashi, J; Fukushima, K; Shibata, K

    1995-07-01

    Since lower blood-gas partition coefficient of sevoflurane provides rapid induction and emergence from anesthesia, sevoflurane has been used widely for inhalational anesthesia. However, because higher minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane requires a large dosage of anesthetic than other volatile anesthetics, air pollution with sevoflurane in the operating room might be of great concern. Anesthetists may keep inhaling the low concentration of anesthetics every day, even though scavenging system is equipped in the operating room. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects on anesthetists of the low concentration of anesthetics by measuring the inorganic fluoride concentration in the urine and serum of anesthetists and operating room nurses. Healthy 29 anesthesiologists and two operating room nurses were studied. Informed consent was obtained. Inorganic fluoride ions in the serum and urine were measured. Simultaneously sevoflurane concentration in operating room was measured in three operating rooms, at two places in the corridor and in the recovery room. Sevoflurane concentrations in three operating rooms were 1.22 ppm, 2.13 ppm and 6.05 ppm respectively. Concentration in the recovery room was 0.544 ppm. Serum and urine concentrations of inorganic fluoride were 1.1 +/- 0.1 mumol.l-1 and 36.2 +/- 17.1 mumol.l-1, respectively (mean +/- SD). Serum concentration of inorganic fluoride was within normal ranges. Although it is possible that fluoride concentration in urine is influenced by urine volume and a half of fluoride deposits in bone, no abnormal values in urine were found in this study. These results suggest that long term exposure to low concentration of sevoflurane and isoflurane causes no significant increase in their metabolites in operating room staffs. PMID:7637181

  18. A longitudinal investigation of selected pesticide metabolites in urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID L MACINTOSH; LARRY L NEEDHAM; KAREN A HAMMERSTROM; P BARRY RYAN

    1999-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal investigation of environmental exposures to selected chemical contaminants, concentrations of the pesticide metabolites 1-naphthol (1NAP), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA), and atrazine mercapturate (AM) were measured in repeated samples obtained from 80 individuals in Maryland during 1995–1996. Up to six urine samples were collected from each individual at intervals of approximately 8 weeks over

  19. Human urine - Chemical composition and fertilizer use efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kirchmann; S. Pettersson

    1994-01-01

    Stored human urine had pH values of 8.9 and was composed of eight main ionic species (> 0.1 meq L?1), the cations Na, K, NH4, Ca and the anions, Cl, SO4, PO4 and HCO3. Nitrogen was mainly (> 90%) present as ammoniacal N, with ammonium bicarbonate being the dominant compound. Urea and urate decomposed during storage. Heavy metal concentrations in

  20. Association of blood lead levels with urinary F2-8? isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine concentrations in first-grade Uruguayan children.

    PubMed

    Roy, Aditi; Queirolo, Elena; Peregalli, Fabiana; Mañay, Nelly; Martínez, Gabriela; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is a potential molecular mechanism for lead-induced toxicities, yet, we have limited understanding of the relation between low-level lead (Pb) exposure and OS, especially in children. This cross-sectional study examines the association between blood lead level (BLL) and two OS markers-urinary F2-8? isoprostane or isoprostane (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-Guanosine or 8-OH-dG (a marker of DNA damage) in 211 children, aged 5-8 years, from Montevideo, Uruguay. The role of dietary intakes of vitamin C and zinc in modifying the relation between BLL and OS was also examined. The mean (SD) BLL of the study children was 4.7 (2.2)µg/dL, with 30.2% children having BLL ?5µg/dL, the current reference level set by the US Centre for Disease Control for identifying, monitoring and management of children with elevated BLL. In covariate-adjusted analysis, there was a weak positive association between BLL and urinary isoprostane (adjusted for specific gravity) [?=0.09, p<0.1]. No association was found between children's BLL and urinary 8-OH-dG. Interactions between dietary intakes of vitamin C or zinc and BLL on OS biomarkers were not consistent. However, when BLL and vitamin C or BLL and zinc were modeled together, BLL was independently associated with isoprostane concentration [?=0.10, p<0.05] but vitamin C or zinc intake was not. These findings suggest that there may be a potential adverse effect of BLL on OS in children with low-level Pb exposure. There is a need to study the effects of Pb on other OS measures, as well as the role of OS in mediating low-level Pb toxicity on functional outcomes. PMID:25863186

  1. Determining picogram quantities of U in human urine by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, W.R.; Fassett, J.D.; Hotes, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    The U concentration in Standard Reference Material 2670 (Toxic Metals in Freeze-Dried Urine) and the urine of two preschool-age children were determined by measuring the chemically separated U by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry using ion counting detection. This procedure can detect about 1% of the U atoms loaded into the mass spectrometer and has a total chemical blank of about 5 pg U. The U concentration in SRM 2670 was found to be 113 +/- 2 pg /sup 238/U/ml (1 s). At this concentration, a 1-ml sample is sufficient for a determination with a total uncertainty of less than 5%. The U concentrations in the two children were 3.1 +/- 0.9 and 3.6 +/- 0.9 pg /sup 238/U/g. These values suggest that the U concentration in urine of unexposed persons may be at this low level or lower.

  2. A simple high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of rebamipide in rat urine

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Dustin L.; Harirforoosh, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Rebamipide is a mucoprotective agent commonly used to prevent nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastrointenstinal side effects [1]. Human plasma and urine analysis of rebamipide utilizing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been reported [2]. Recently, we reported on the plasma levels of rebamipide in presense or absence of celecoxib or diclofenac in rats [3] using a modified HPLC method of detection developed by Jeoung et al. [4]. To tailor the method towards use in urinary rebamipide extraction and analysis, the following modifications were made:•To compensate for high concentrations of rebamipide found in urine, a new rebamipide stock solution was prepared with a final concentration of 50,000 ng/mL.•Rat urine calibration standards were obtained within the range of 50–1000 ng/mL and 1000–50,000 ng/mL.•Plasma samples were replaced with urine samples.

  3. Development of an Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly for the ISS Urine Processor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Carter, Donald Layne; Higbie, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Recovering water from urine is a process that is critical to supporting larger crews for extended missions aboard the International Space Station. Urine is collected, preserved, and stored for processing into water and a concentrated brine solution that is highly toxic and must be contained to avoid exposure to the crew. The brine solution is collected in an accumulator tank, called a Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) that must be replaced monthly and disposed in order to continue urine processing operations. In order to reduce resupply requirements, a new accumulator tank is being developed that can be emptied on orbit into existing ISS waste tanks. The new tank, called the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) is a metal bellows tank that is designed to collect concentrated brine solution and empty by applying pressure to the bellows. This paper discusses the requirements and design of the ARFTA as well as integration into the urine processor assembly.

  4. The effects of prenatal exposure to low-level cadmium, lead and selenium on birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Chen, Wen; Wang, Dongyue; Jin, Yinlong; Chen, Xiaodong; Xu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the current maternal and fetal exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and their potential effect on newborn birth outcomes, a cross-sectional study involving an assessment of the levels of these three metals in maternal blood, urine and umbilical cord blood was conducted in 209 pregnant women living in Eastern China. The maternal blood, urine and cord blood samples were collected and measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The maternal blood concentrations of Cd, Pb and Se (the geometric means (GMs) were 0.48, 39.50 and 143.53 ?g L(-1)) were significantly higher than and correlated with those in the cord blood (GM: 0.09, 31.62 and 124.61 ?g L(-1)). In the urine samples, the GMs for Cd, Pb and Se were 0.13, 0.48, and 4.78 ?g L(-1), respectively. Passive smoking was found to positively correlate with urine Cd (r=0.16) and negatively correlate with urine Se (r=-0.29). The maternal blood Se level was negatively associated with the cord Cd levels (r=-0.41). The blood Cd concentration in the mother could significantly affect the newborn birth weight (r=-0.22), but it was not correlated with birth height. We identified cord Se as a new factor which significantly correlated with birth weight. In conclusion, maternal Cd, Pb, Se exposure correlated with their umbilical cord concentration, and maternal Cd exposure might affect the newborn birth weight. Increasing the Se intake might reduce the cord blood Cd concentration and promote the fetal growth. PMID:24875909

  5. Determination of endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) levels in antemortem urine and blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert A. Elian

    2002-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid’s (GHB’s) natural presence in the body has made the interpretation of its levels a challenging task for the forensic toxicologist. This study was designed to measure endogenous GHB levels in antemortem urine and blood samples. The range detected in urine was from 34 to 575?g\\/dl and in blood from 17 to 151?g\\/dl. The results indicate that the concentration

  6. Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Assay for the Detection of Legionella Antigen in Urine Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Domínguez; N. Galí; L. Matas; P. Pedroso; A. Hernández; E. Padilla; V. Ausina

    1999-01-01

    A new immunochromatographic membrane assay for detecting Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen in urine samples (Binax Now Legionella Urinary Antigen Test; Binax, USA) was evaluated. Its sensitivity, specificity and level of agreement with the Binax enzyme\\u000a immunoassay were compared using nonconcentrated and concentrated urine samples. The overall agreement between the two tests\\u000a was 98.1%; the specificity of both was 100%.

  7. Solid phase extraction of 2,4-D from human urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Thompson; R. G. Treble

    1996-01-01

    A method for determining urinary concentrations of 2,4-D in samples collected from non-occupationally, environmentally exposed individuals was developed. The 2,4-D was extracted from fortified human urine samples using octadecylsilane solid phase extraction cartridges. The average percent recovery for urine samples spiked at 2 and 20 nglmL was 100% and 93%, respectively. The method detection limit was estimated to be 0.75

  8. Persistence of High Lead Concentrations and Associated Effects in Tundra Swans Captured Near a Mining and Smelting Complex in Northern Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence J. Blus; Charles J. Henny; David J. Hoffman; Lou Sileo; Daniel J. Audet

    1999-01-01

    Lead poisoning of waterfowl, particularly tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus), has been documented in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho for nearly a century. Over 90% of the lead-poisoned tundra swans in this area that were necropsied have no ingested lead shot. Spent lead shot from hunting activities over the years is therefore a minor source of lead in

  9. Quantification of 1-aminopyrene in human urine after a controlled exposure to diesel exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert; Tong, Jian; Zhang, Lin; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Stern, Alan; Fiedler, Nancy; Kipen, Howard; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Lioy, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant source of air pollution that has been linked to respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many components in DE, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are present in the environment from other sources. 1-Nitropyrene appears to be a more specific marker of DE exposure. 1-Nitropyrene is partially metabolized to 1-aminopyrene and excreted in urine. We developed a practical, sensitive method for measuring 1-aminopyrene in human urine using a HPLC-fluorescence technique. We measured 1-aminopyrene concentrations in spot urine samples collected prior to and during 24 h following the start of 1 h controlled exposures to DE (target concentration 300 ?g m?3 as PM10) and clean air control. Time-weighted-average concentrations of urinary 1-aminopyrene were significantly greater following the DE exposure compared to the control (median 138.7 ng g?1 creatinine vs. 21.7 ng g?1 creatinine, p < 0.0001). Comparing DE to control exposures, we observed significant increases in 1-aminopyrine concentration from pre-exposure to either first post-exposure void or peak spot urine concentration following exposure (p = 0.027 and p = 0.0026, respectively). Large inter-individual variability, in both the concentration of urinary 1-aminopyrene and the time course of appearance in the urine following the standardized exposure to DE, suggests the need to explore subject variables that may affect conversion of inhaled 1-nitropyrene to urinary excretion of 1-aminopyrene. PMID:19137151

  10. Crystallization of calcium oxalate from synthetic urine.

    PubMed

    Doremus, R H; Teich, S; Silvis, P X

    1978-05-01

    The precipitation of calcium oxalate from synthetic urine was followed from the disappearance of radioactive oxalate from solution. Rates of precipitation were also estimated from the time of appearance of crystals. Synthetic urine inhibited the rate of crystallization of calcium oxalate; this inhibition was a combined effect of ionic strength and specific inhibition by one or mroe components of the synthetic urine. Polyphosphate and polyacrylate ions strongly inhibited crystallization of calcium oxalate from synthetic urine; phosphonates, heparin, and polystyrene sulfonate showed much less inhibition. Inasmuch as citrate and pyrophosphate ions showed some inhibition, it seems that carboxylate and phosphate groups on a polymer chain are the most effective inhibitors. PMID:649296

  11. Phosphorus recovery from urine with different magnesium resources in an air-agitated reactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Zhengyi; Mu, Jing; Zang, Haixing; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery through struvite formation from urine has gained increasing attention as an approach to alleviate the potential shortage of P. The concentration of magnesium (Mg) is lower than those of ammonium and ortho-phosphate in urine, so the cost of adding Mg is a major economic constraint for P recovery. This study aims at evaluating the potential of seawater and bittern as Mg resources to recover P from urine in an air-agitated reactor. Results indicate that effects of seawater and bittern on P recovery from urine are comparable to that of magnesium chloride, with an average crystal size of around 34 ?m under an Mg/P molar ratio of 1.3. The average crystal size of the struvite crystals obtained from high P concentration urine with different Mg resources showed no significant difference, whereas larger crystal size was obtained from low P concentration urine with bittern as Mg resource. Analysis of mainly rod-like crystals produced in the reactor indicates the presence of pure struvite (>98.0% by weight) with small amounts of calcium (<1.39% by weight). Bittern is recommended as a suitable Mg resource for P recovery because of its high Mg content and the convenience it offers in terms of transportation and storage. PMID:25176481

  12. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials for an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP. METHODS: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model discrimination was performed, by minimizing the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), maximizing the coefficient of determination (r²) and by comparison of the quality of fit plots. RESULTS: The best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition after INSCOP administration (minimal AIC =907.2) consisted of one compartment for plasma, saliva and urine respectively that were inter-connected with different rate constants. The estimated values of PK parameters were compiled in Table 1. The model fitting exercises revealed a nonlinear PK for scopolamine between plasma and saliva compartments for K21, Vmax and Km. CONCLUSION: PK model for INSCOP was developed and for the first time it satisfactorily predicted the PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after INSCOP administration. Using non-linear PK yielded the best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition between plasma and saliva compartments, and inclusion of non-linear PK resulted in a significant improved model fitting. The model can be utilized to predict scopolamine plasma concentration using saliva and/or urine data that allows non-invasive assessment of pharmacotherapeutics of scopolamine in space and other remote environments without requiring blood sampling.

  13. Analysis of urine for pure beta emitters: methods and application.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-08-01

    Bioassay for individual radionuclides is an essential and first step in estimation of radiation risk to nuclear facilities workers and people who are exposed to the contaminated environment in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological attack. Urine is a frequently used biological sample for this purpose. Tritium and (14)C are important radionuclides for workers in nuclear reactors and radiopharmaceutical laboratories. A method for the determination of tritium and (14)C in organic and inorganic forms in urine has been developed. It involves activated charcoal absorption of organic matter followed by combustion to separate tritiated water from organically-bound tritium. Inorganic (14)C from organically-bound (14)C, the separated tritium and (14)C were measured using liquid scintillation counting. Iodine-129, a long-lived beta emitter, is normally released to the atmosphere during the operation of nuclear facilities, especially in reprocessing plants. The high concentration of iodine in the thyroid makes this radionuclide an important source of exposure to exposed populations. A simple method has been developed in this work for the determination of (129)I in urine by anion exchange preconcentration, extraction purification and liquid scintillation counting. Using accelerator mass spectrometry, urine samples can be analyzed for low level (129)I in both organic and inorganic forms after active charcoal adsorption and solvent extraction separation. Condensed water collected daily from the reactor hall in a Danish research reactor and monthly urine samples from the staff working in the reactor building were collected from 2003-2010 and analyzed using this method, and the results are presented and discussed. PMID:21709504

  14. Spot Urine Estimations Are Equivalent to 24-Hour Urine Assessments of Urine Protein Excretion for Predicting Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Boon Wee; Loh, Ping Tyug; Wong, Weng Kin; Ho, Peh Joo; Choi, Kwok Pui; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Saw, Sharon; Lau, Titus; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of spot urine protein to creatinine ratios in estimating 24?hr urine protein excretion rates for diagnosing and managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) predated the standardization of creatinine assays. The comparative predictive performance of spot urine ratios and 24?hr urine collections (of albumin or protein) for the clinical outcomes of CKD progression, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality in Asians is unclear. We compared 4 methods of assessing urine protein excretion in a multiethnic population of CKD patients. Methods. Patients with CKD (n = 232) provided 24?hr urine collections followed by spot urine samples the next morning. We created multiple linear regression models to assess the factors associated with GFR decline (median follow-up: 37 months, IQR 26–41) and constructed Cox proportional-hazards models for predicting the combined outcome of ESRD and death. Results. The linear regression models showed that 24?hr urine protein excretion was most predictive of GFR decline but all other methods were similar. For the combined outcomes of ESRD and death, the proportional hazards models had similar predictive performance. Conclusions. We showed that all methods of assessments were comparable for clinical end-points, and any method can be used in clinical practice or research. PMID:25649135

  15. Highly sensitive radioimmunoassay of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in human plasma and urine

    SciTech Connect

    Marumo, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Ando, K.; Ishigami, T.; Kawakami, M.

    1986-05-29

    A highly sensitive radioimmunoassay has been established for measurement of human plasma and urine concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and requires no extraction or concentration process. An antiserum was prepared from rabbits immunized with ..cap alpha..-human ANP (..cap alpha..-hANP) coupled with bovine-thyroglobulin. The sensitivity of this method was 0.2 pg/tube of synthetic ..cap alpha..-hANP utilized as authentic standard. Recovery of ..cap alpha..-hANP spiked to plasma and urine was 97.7 +/- 15.4% and 97.1 +/- 9.5% (mean +/- SD), respectively. Plasma and urinary ANP concentrations versus assay data showed satisfactory linearity. In 124 health subjects, the plasma ANP concentration was 31.7 +/- 12.0 pg/ml. Two different molecular forms of ANP in plasma and a single form in urine were found by gel permeation chromatography.

  16. Advanced imaging technique for automated classification of casts and crystals in urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Amit S.; Castleman, Kenneth; Milner, Thomas E.; Rylander, H. Grady

    2007-02-01

    We present the development and demonstration of a novel technique for microscopic analysis of urine particles. Casts and crystals in urine are indicative of clinically important abnormalities. Current urinalysis techniques using flow cytometry and image analysis are limited by their inability to detect, identify and classify crystals and casts. Casts, crystals and yeast cells reported by current automated urine particle analyzers must be confirmed by a second microscopic review involving a human operator to prevent false positives. Human examination of suspect urine samples is resource intensive and time consuming. We introduce a new imaging method to add functionality for recognition of casts and crystals in urine. Our approach uses a polarization microscopy technique to aid classification of crystals, casts and other urine particles. Crystals and casts in urine exhibit unique interference patterns when imaged using a fixed polarizer and analyzer in a crossed configuration. These interference patterns are a measure of birefringence (retardation angle) of the cast or crystal being imaged. Preliminary experiments indicate that uric acid shows a polarization color, and larger crystals exhibit a series of concentric black lines. We show that these unique 'signatures' when used in conjunction with a hierarchical pattern recognition technique can reliably classify the analytes with improved accuracy. The new imaging technique combined with the classification algorithm can address the shortcomings of current urinalysis techniques; and provide quicker and more accurate results.

  17. Concentration Adjustments in Urinalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HERVEY B. ELKINS; LEONARD D. PAGNOTTO; HENRY L. SMITH

    1974-01-01

    Various methods of adjusting urinary concentrations of heavy metals and various organic metabolites are discussed. Those involving specific gravity, osmolality, and creatinine have been studied in detail. Data indicate adjusted values are better than unadjusted ones. No general superiority is shown, however, of creatinine over specific gravity or osmolality. But in cases where urine samples contain sugar or protein the

  18. Assessment of urine solute and matrix effects on the performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measurement of interleukin-6 in dog urine

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Michael W.; Nordone, Sushila K.; Vaden, Shelly L.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of cytokine concentrations within body fluids is a means of recognizing subclinical and/or unresolved, infectious and inflammatory states in patients. In the urinary tract, such information may be useful for identifying patients with pyelonephritis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, recurrent infections, and cystitis. One such cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), is recognized as a primary cytokine that is produced following exposure of the urothelium to bacterial virulence factors. Complicating reliable testing for this and other cytokines is the nature of urine itself. Urine varies widely in its composition as indicated by the range of pH and urine specific gravity (USG) observed in healthy patients. An additional variable is the protein and carbohydrate matrix capable of hindering immunologic testing modalities, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of urine pH, USG, and matrix while optimizing a canine-specific chemiluminescent ELISA for the measurement of IL-6 in the urine of dogs. Urine spiked with IL-6 obtained maximal IL-6 quantitative recoveries of only 55 ± 10% (mean ± 1 standard deviation) when an ELISA optimized for cell culture supernatants was used. The urine matrix and variations in USG were determined to by contributing to this poor IL-6 recovery. Using specific matrix inhibitors and optimal dilutions improved the IL-6 quantitative recovery to 91 ± 5%. Urine pH (5.5–9.5) had no effect. The current work underscores the importance of critically optimizing testing modalities for biomarkers, particularly if they are immunologic in origin. PMID:21398454

  19. Cycle-Characteristic Odour of Cow Urine Can Be Detected by the Female Face Fly (Musca autumnalis)

    PubMed Central

    Nordéus, K; Webster, B; Söderquist, L; Båge, R; Glinwood, R

    2014-01-01

    Contents Due to declining dairy cow fertility rates, there is great interest in developing tools for oestrus detection. Compounds in the volatile profile of oestrous cows are suggested as oestrus-specific, but consistent results have not been presented. Certain haematophagous arthropods can discriminate stages of the mammalian reproductive cycle based on host volatiles. This study investigated whether the face fly, Musca autumnalis de Geer (Diptera: Muscidae), can discriminate between urine from cows in oestrus and urine collected during the luteal phase. Individual flies were tested in a two-choice behavioural assay with choice between odour of oestrous or luteal urine and water (control). Flies chose the control arm significantly more when exposed to oestrous urine than when exposed to luteal urine. Analysis of volatiles showed that 1-hexadecanol (cetyl alcohol) was released in greater amounts from oestrous urine than from urine collected during the luteal phase. In a dose response assay, flies were significantly attracted by 0.01 ng of 1-hexadecanol but significantly repelled by 0.1 ng, a pattern consistent with fly responses to urine. In conclusion, M. autumnalis can discriminate between oestrous and luteal urine, and this may be mediated by differences in 1-hexadecanol concentration. PMID:25244510

  20. Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein decreases recovery of total protein in urine when trichloroacetic acid is used to precipitate the proteins.

    PubMed

    Beilby, J P; O'Leary, B A

    1990-03-01

    Total urine protein was measured in 132 samples by an automated benzethonium chloride method and the Ponceau-S/trichloroacetic acid (PS/TCA) method. Of these, 27% gave a result 0.1 g/L or more higher by the benzethonium chloride method. Of this 27%, most contained an abnormally high concentration of the acute-phase reactant, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. By assaying urine containing added alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and albumin, we found that alpha 1-acid glycoprotein causes the PS/TCA method to underestimate the total urine protein concentration, whereas the benzethonium chloride method is unaffected. Not all urinary albumin was precipitated by TCA when alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was present. Therefore, protein methods in which trichloroacetic acid is used as a concentrating step before the assay will underestimate total urine protein when the concentration of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein is high. PMID:2311234

  1. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42 Section 550.42 ...DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates... § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor...

  2. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. ...drug and validity testing; and (3) The...splitting of the urine specimen and...only if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...

  3. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. ...drug and validity testing; and (3) The...splitting of the urine specimen and...only if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...

  4. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section...PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The...donor shall provide his or her urine specimen in the privacy...

  5. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. ...drug and validity testing; and (3) The...splitting of the urine specimen and...only if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...

  6. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the...disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test shows a positive result for...disciplinary hearings and a copy of positive urine testing results which the inmate cannot...

  7. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section...PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The...donor shall provide his or her urine specimen in the privacy...

  8. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the...disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test shows a positive result for...disciplinary hearings and a copy of positive urine testing results which the inmate cannot...

  9. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. ...drug and validity testing; and (3) The...splitting of the urine specimen and...only if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...

  10. Green urine in a critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Carpenito, Gerardo; Kurtz, Ira

    2002-04-01

    The development of discolored urine in the critically ill patient, although uncommon, may have many possible causes, with the most likely source related to medication administration. Studies were undertaken in a 39-year-old man who developed dark green urine while in the intensive care unit for neutropenic sepsis. Although the patient had developed prior nonoliguric renal failure stemming from his sepsis, his renal function at the time of presentation of urine discoloration was considered normal. Review of his medications and intravenous infusions suggested the most likely cause was the food dye placed in his enteral tube feedings. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the urine confirmed the presence of Food Dye and Color Blue Number 1 (FD&C Blue No. 1). This case shows that significant gastrointestinal absorption of FD&C Blue No. 1 can occur. FD&C Blue No. 1 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dark green discolored urine. PMID:11920362

  11. Nicotine and cotinine in adults’ urine: The German Environmental Survey 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Heinrich; Bernd Hölscher; Margarete Seiwert; Cara L Carty; Günter Merkel; Christine Schulz

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, the German Environmental Survey (GerES III) recruited approximately 5000 adults between the ages of 18 and 69 years. The study population for these analyses consisted of 1580 smokers (34% of the total population) and 3126 nonsmokers. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in urine were determined by HPLC methods with UV-detection and corrected for creatinine. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations differed

  12. S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine in urine of rats and workers after exposure to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Jongeneelen, F.J.; Dirven, H.A.; Leijdekkers, C.M.; Henderson, P.T.; Brouns, R.M.; Halm, K.

    1987-05-01

    An HPLC method for the determination of S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine in urine is described. The sensitivity is 6 mumol/L (CV = 9%) urine. Exposure of rats to six different concentrations of benzene, ranging from 0-30 ppm, was highly associated with urinary excretion of S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine (r = 0.86) and with total phenol (r = 0.81). A background level of phenol was found in urine of both non-exposed rats and of non-exposed referents. However, no background excretion of S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine was found, either in rats or in humans. In urine of exposed rats, the level of S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine was approximately five times lower than the phenol level. Workers occupationally exposed to benzene, showing high levels of urinary phenol, revealed low concentrations of urinary S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine. The biological monitoring of industrial exposure to benzene by determination of S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine in urine is not better than the determination of phenol in urine.

  13. Enhanced excretion of thioethers in urine of operators of chemical waste incinerators.

    PubMed Central

    van Doorn, R; Leijdekkers, C M; Bos, R P; Brouns, R M; Henderson, P T

    1981-01-01

    Thioether concentrations were determined in urine samples obtained from ten workers in the despatch department (n = 69), three chemical waste incinerator operators (n = 67), and an analyst (n = 21), all working in the same chemical plant. Urine samples (n = 196) obtained from non-exposed men, including smokers, served as controls. Enhanced excretion of thioethers was found in urine samples taken from incinerator workers at the end of work. A regular pattern in the time course of the urinary thioether excretion was shown by a non-smoking incinerator worker; end-of-work values were always higher than prework values. This phenomenon was not found in samples obtained from the analyst. These findings suggest that incinerator workers inhale or otherwise absorb electrophilic compounds or their precursors, which are subsequently metabolised to, and excreted as, thioethers in urine. PMID:7195275

  14. Nephelometric determination of total protein in cerebrospinal fluid and urine using benzalkonium chloride as precipitation reagent.

    PubMed

    Shephard, M D; Whiting, M J

    1992-07-01

    Four different protein precipitants, namely trichloroacetic acid, sulphosalicylic acid, benzethonium chloride and benzalkonium chloride, were used to estimate the total protein concentration in cerebrospinal fluid and urine by nephelometry. Protein determinations for 50 cerebrospinal fluid samples and 100 urine samples were compared with values obtained by a trichloroacetic acid-Ponceau S spectrophotometric method. All methods were correlated well, but total protein results using acid precipitants were usually lower, while results obtained using benzethonium chloride were generally higher, than results obtained by the trichloroacetic acid-Ponceau S method. Anomalous results were obtained for some urine samples with benzethonium chloride, but not with benzalkonium chloride. Assays using benzalkonium chloride as precipitating reagent showed good precision and closest agreement with the trichloroacetic acid-Ponceau S dye-binding method. The use of benzalkonium chloride as precipitant is recommended for automated cerebrospinal fluid and urine protein estimations by nephelometry. PMID:1642447

  15. Methods for analysis of citrinin in human blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Muñoz, Katherine; Degen, Gisela H

    2013-06-01

    Citrinin (CIT), produced by several Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus species, has been detected as contaminant in feeds, grains, and other food commodities. CIT can co-occur with ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin also known for its nephrotoxicity, and this raises concern regarding possible combined effects. But, in contrast to OTA, data on CIT contamination in foods for human consumption are scarce, and CIT biomonitoring has not been conducted so far due a lack of suitable methods for human specimen. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to develop sensitive methods for the analysis of CIT in human blood and urine to investigate human exposure. To this end, we assessed different methods of sample preparation and instrumental analysis for these matrices. Clean-up of blood plasma by protein precipitation followed by LC-MS/MS-based analysis allowed robust detection of CIT (LOD 0.07 ng/mL, LOQ 0.15 ng/mL). For urine, sample clean-up by an immunoaffinity column (CitriTest(®)) proved to be clearly superior to SPE with RP(18) material for subsequent analysis by LC-MS/MS. For CIT and its metabolite dihydrocitrinone (HO-CIT), the LOD and LOQ determined by external calibration curves in matrix were 0.02 and 0.05 ng/mL for CIT, and those for HO-CIT were 0.05 and 0.1 ng/mL urine. The newly developed method was applied in a small pilot study: CIT was present in all plasma samples from 8 German adults, at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 0.26 ng/mL. The molar (nM) concentrations of CIT are similar to those measured for OTA in these samples as a result of dietary mycotoxin intake. CIT was detected in 8/10 urines (from 4 adults and 6 infants) in a range of 0.16-0.79 ng/mL, and HO-CIT was present in 5/10 samples at similar concentrations. Thus, CIT is excreted in urine as parent compound and also as metabolite. These first results in humans point to the need for further studies on CIT exposure. PMID:23354378

  16. Management of diabetics with the use of a microprocessor: comparison of insulin treatments based on blood and urine glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Hermányi, I; Tamás, G

    1988-01-01

    The insulin treatment of 8 insulin-dependent diabetics was controlled with a microprocessor (Better Control Medical Computer, BCMC, Inc., Toronto, Canada) with information derived from blood or first voided urine glucose concentrations assessed by reagent strips four times a day, before the three main meals and bedtime snack. The microprocessor recommends modification of the insulin doses so as to reach a pre-prandial blood glucose value of 110 mg/dl or a urine glucose concentration of 0.1 g/dl. During the first two weeks self-management was uniformly applied by the patients, based on their blood glucose concentration. Subsequently, it was continued by the patients who were divided into two groups, one using the blood, the other the urine glucose concentrations, each for three weeks, alternately. During microprocessor treatment the patients' mean blood glucose profiles decreased from 152 +/- 37 mg/dl to 126 +/- 28 mg/dl. No difference was found between treatments based on blood or urine glucose concentrations concerning either the mean blood glucose profiles or the number of hypoglycemic episodes in the presence of an average glucose threshold and good renal function. The first voided urine glucose concentration and mean and maximal blood glucose values obtained at the time of urine filtration were closely correlated (r = 0.82 and 0.86, p less than 0.001). PMID:3043988

  17. Provocative chelation with DMSA and EDTA: evidence for differential access to lead storage sites.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, B K; Schwartz, B S; Stewart, W; Ahn, K D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To validate a provocative chelation test with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) by direct comparison with the standard ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) test in the same subjects; and to compare and contrast the predictors of lead excretion after DMSA with those after EDTA. A metal chelating agent given orally, DMSA may mobilise and enhance the excretion of lead from the storage sites in the body that are most directly relevant to the health effects of lead. A provocative chelation test with DMSA could thus have wide potential application in clinical care and epidemiological studies. METHODS--34 male lead workers in the Republic of Korea were given a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg DMSA, urine was collected over the next eight to 24 hours, and urine volume and urinary lead concentration determined at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours. Either two weeks before or two weeks after the dose of DMSA 17 of these workers also received 1 g intravenous EDTA followed by an eight hour urine collection with fractionation at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. RESULTS--Urinary lead concentration peaked at two hours after DMSA and four hours after EDTA. Lead excretion after DMSA was less than after EDTA, and cumulative excretion after DMSA plateaued at six to eight hours. The two hour and four hour cumulative lead excretions after DMSA were highly correlated with the eight hour total (r = 0.76 and 0.95). In multiple linear regression analyses, blood lead was found to be an important predictor of EDTA-chelatable lead, whereas urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALAU) was associated with DMSA-chelatable lead. Notably, lead excretion after DMSA was greatly increased if EDTA was given first. An earlier dose of EDTA also modified the relation between ALAU and DMSA-chelatable lead in that workers who received EDTA before DMSA showed a much steeper dose-response relation between these two measures. CONCLUSIONS--The predictors of lead excretion after DMSA and EDTA are different and an earlier dose of EDTA may increase lead excretion after a subsequent dose of DMSA. The results suggest that two hour or four hour cumulative lead excretion after DMSA may provide an estimate of lead in storage sites that are most directly relevant to the health effects of lead. PMID:7697134

  18. [Ethylglucuronide assays in urine and hair].

    PubMed

    Imbert, Laurent; Gaulier, Jean-Michel; Dulaurent, Sylvain; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    Ethylglucuronide (EtG) is a biomarker of ethanol consumption, and the authors propose an overview of its potential use in clinical or forensic cases. This metabolite presents a higher half-life and is therefore detectable longer than ethanol itself, and allows, in the case of late sampling, the research of acute alcohol abuse in the days prior to urine sampling. Routine testing for urinary EtG can be easily introduced in laboratories since an immunochemical kit is available. However, it is necessary to take into account the cut-off values in order to interpret the results. EtG can also be tested in hair and is a very useful biomarker of chronic alcohol abuse. A recent international consensus has established cut-off values for the interpretation of EtG concentrations in hair. However, hair testing is still limited to specific laboratories as it is not easily implemented in routine, due to a specific sample treatment and to the lack of immunochemical kits. PMID:23207805

  19. Urine toxicology testing in chronic pain management.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Caplan, Yale H

    2009-07-01

    Treatment guidelines for chronic noncancer pain recommend opioids for carefully selected, closely monitored patients. However, many primary care physicians have a limited understanding of urine toxicology testing, which is the standard for monitoring opioid therapy. This article describes the technical aspects of urine toxicology testing and provides recommendations for monitoring patients to maximize the safety of opioid therapy. Articles were identified in PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE (January 1980-November 2008) using the search term opioid in combination with the terms urine toxicology, compliance monitoring, abuse, and diversion. Articles characterizing the pharmacology of individual opioids and practice guidelines for the management of chronic pain were also identified. Articles selected for inclusion discussed technical aspects of urine toxicology testing, clinical aspects of monitoring, and issues related to abuse and diversion. Urine tests can detect prescribed and illicit substances that are present above a specific threshold, but they provide limited data about the source, dose, or route of administration of substances detected. Effective monitoring requires careful test selection, an understanding of pharmacologic and metabolic factors influencing test results, and awareness of methods by which patients who are substance abusers may tamper with test specimens to escape detection. All patients prescribed opioids, not just those considered at risk for abuse, should undergo urine toxicology testing. Given its inherent complexities, effective urine testing requires close collaboration between the primary care physician and a reliable laboratory to develop an appropriate test protocol for each patient and to interpret test results. PMID:19641275

  20. Release of lead from bone in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Manton, W I; Angle, C R; Stanek, K L; Kuntzelman, D; Reese, Y R; Kuehnemann, T J

    2003-06-01

    Concentrations and isotope ratios of lead in blood, urine, 24-h duplicate diets, and hand wipes were measured for 12 women from the second trimester of pregnancy until at least 8 months after delivery. Six bottle fed and six breast fed their infants. One bottle feeder fell pregnant for a second time, as did a breast feeder, and each was followed semicontinuously for totals of 44 and 54 months, respectively. Bone resorption rather than dietary absorption controls changes in blood lead, but in pregnancy the resorption of trabecular and cortical bone are decoupled. In early pregnancy, only trabecular bone (presumably of low lead content) is resorbed, causing blood leads to fall more than expected from hemodilution alone. In late pregnancy, the sites of resorption move to cortical bone of higher lead content and blood leads rise. In bottle feeders, the cortical bone contribution ceases immediately after delivery, but any tendency for blood leads to fall may be compensated by the effect of hemoconcentration produced by the postpartum loss of plasma volume. In lactation, the whole skeleton undergoes resorption and the blood leads of nursing mothers continue to rise, reaching a maximum 6-8 months after delivery. Blood leads fall from pregnancy to pregnancy, implying that the greatest risk of lead toxicity lies with first pregnancies. PMID:12854694

  1. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Two batches of nominally pretreated and augmented urine were prepared with the baseline pretreatment formulation of sulfuric acid and chromium trioxide. The urine was augmented with inorganic salts and organic compounds in order to simulate a urinary ionic concentrations representing the upper 95 percentile on orbit. Three strong mineral acids: phosphoric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid, were substituted for the sulfuric acid for comparison to the baseline sulfuric acid pretreatment formulation. Three concentrations of oxidizer in the pretreatment formulation were also tested. Pretreated urine was distilled to 85% water recovery to determine the effect of each acid and its conjugate base on the precipitation of minerals during distillation. The brines were analyzed for calcium and sulfate ion, total, volatile, and fixed suspended solids. Test results verified that substitution of phosphoric, hydrochloric, or nitric acids for sulfuric acid would prevent the precipitation of gypsum up to 85% recovery from pretreated urine representing the upper 95 percentile calcium concentration on orbit.

  2. Stability of ethyl glucuronide in urine, post-mortem tissue and blood samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiko Schloegl; Sebastian Dresen; Karin Spaczynski; Mylène Stoertzel; Friedrich Martin Wurst; Wolfgang Weinmann

    2006-01-01

    The stability of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) under conditions of degradation was examined in urine samples of nine volunteers\\u000a and in post-mortem tissue (liver, skeletal muscle) and blood taken from seven corpses at autopsies. Analysis was performed\\u000a via LC-MS\\/MS. EtG concentrations in urine samples ranged from 2.5 to 296.5 mg\\/l. When stored at 4°C in airtight test tubes,\\u000a EtG concentrations remained relatively

  3. Plasma disappearance, urine excretion, and tissue distribution of ribavirin in rats and rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrara, E.A.; Oishi, J.S.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Stephen, E.L.

    1981-06-01

    Ribavirin has been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral. To study its tissue distribution and disappearance rate, a single dose of 10 mg/kg which contained 10 microCi of (14C)ribavirin was injected intravenously into rhesus monkeys and intramuscularly into monkeys and rats. Except for peak plasma concentrations and the initial phases of the plasma disappearance and urine excretion curves, no significant difference was observed between plasma, tissue, or urine values for intramuscularly or intravenously injected monkeys. Plasma disappearance curves were triphasic; plasma concentrations of ribavirin were similar for both monkeys and rats. Rats excreted ribavirin in the urine more rapidly and to a greater extent (82% excreted in 24 h) than did monkeys (60% excreted in 72 h). In the rat, only 3% of the injected (14C)ribavirin was detected in expired CO2. Therefore, for both species, urine was the major route for the elimination of labeled ribavirin and its metabolites from the body. In monkeys, the amount of parent drug in blood cells increased through 48 h and remained stable for 72 h, whereas in rats, ribavirin decreased at a rate similar to the plasma disappearance curve. Concentrations of ribavirin at 8 h were consistently higher in monkeys than in rats for all tissues except the brain. Thus, these differences in blood cellular components and organ content and in urine excretion suggested that there was greater tissue retention of ribavirin in monkeys than in rats.

  4. Predictors of DMSA chelatable lead, tibial lead, and blood lead in 802 Korean lead workers

    PubMed Central

    Todd, A; Lee, B; Lee, G; Ahn, K; Moshier, E; Schwartz, B

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine the interrelations among chelatable lead (by dimercaptosuccinic acid, DMSA), tibial lead, and blood lead concentrations in 802 Korean workers with occupational exposure to lead and 135 employed controls with only environmental exposure to lead.?METHODS—This was a cross sectional study wherein tibial lead, DMSA chelatable lead, and blood lead were measured. Linear regression was used to identify predictors of the three lead biomarkers, evaluating the influence of age, job duration, sex, education level, alcohol and tobacco use, creatinine clearance rate, and body mass index.?RESULTS—DMSA chelatable lead concentrations ranged from 4.8 to 2102.9 µg and were positively associated with age, current smoking, and creatinine clearance rate. On average, women had 64 µg less DMSA chelatable lead than men. When blood lead and its square were added to a model with age, sex, current smoking, body mass index, and creatinine clearance rate, blood lead accounted for the largest proportion of the variance and sex became of borderline significance. Tibial lead concentrations ranged from ?7 to 338 µg/g bone mineral and were positively associated with age, job duration, and body mass index. Women had, on average, 9.7 µg/g less tibial lead than men. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 4.3 to 85.7 µg/dl and were positively associated with age and tibial lead, whereas current smokers had higher blood lead concentrations and women had lower blood lead concentrations.?CONCLUSIONS—The data suggest that age and sex are both predictors of DMSA chelatable lead, blood lead, and tibial lead concentrations and that tibial lead stores in older subjects are less bioavailable and may contribute less to blood lead concentrations than tibial lead stores in younger subjects. Although blood lead concentrations accounted for a large proportion of the variance in DMSA chelatable lead concentrations, suggesting that measurement of both in epidemiological studies may not be necessary, the efficacy of each measure in predicting health outcomes in epidemiological studies awaits further investigation.???Keywords: dimercaptosuccinic acid; bone lead; x ray fluorescence PMID:11160984

  5. A comparison of trace level concentrations for silver, arsenic, barium, cadmium, and lead in drinking waters obtained by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and electrothermal-vaporization atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Robinson; M. Bell; C. Burns; D. Knab

    1987-01-01

    We compared the data obtained by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and electrothermal-vaporization atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETVAA), for concentration values of silver, arsenic, barium, cadmium, and lead in drinking water specimens, spiked analyte recoveries, and control samples. Our goal was to obtain Environmental Protection Agency approval for the ICP-MS as an alternate analytical technique. We obtained similar concentrations for those

  6. Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications

    E-print Network

    Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.

    2004-01-01

    with generally positive results. This paper will discuss the design, applications, operation, maintenance, advantages, and disadvantages of waterless urinals. The results of two surveys of current users will be shared. A case study from a Texas school district...

  7. INGESTED MINERAL FIBERS: ELIMINATION IN HUMAN URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment in human urine examined by transmission electron microscopy contains amphibole fibers which originate from the ingestion of drinking water contaminated with these mineral fibers. The ingestion of filtered water results in the eventual disappearance of amphibole fibers fr...

  8. Design, fabrication and testing of a dual catalyst ammonia removal system for a urine VCD unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinikas, P.

    1980-01-01

    A three-man capacity catalytic system for the recovery of water from urine was designed, constructed, and tested, it was designed to operate with feed streams containing high concentrations of urine vapor and only 5 to 7% of oxygen for the oxidation of ammonia and volatile organic vapor.It can operate either in a flow-through or a recycle mode and is capable of accepting the urine vapor produced by a vapor compression distillation evaporator. Testing consisted of short preliminary and optimization test, an endurance test of 74 hours continuous operation, and recycle tests using both air and oxygen. The system was designed for a urine processing rate of 0.86 liters/hr; however, it was tested at rates up to 1.2 liter/hr. Untreated urine evaporated by an electrically heated evaporator was used. The quality of the recovered water meets the U.S. Drinking Water Standards, with the exception of a low pH. Accumulation of solids in the urine sludge is reduced to approximately 65% of the anticipated value.

  9. Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications 

    E-print Network

    Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.

    2004-01-01

    . Regular upkeep includes cleaning all surfaces, and drain care, whether the drain contains a cartridge type trap or one cast into the urinal. Custodial staffs can perform these tasks. Cleaning involves using a nonabrasive cleanser, followed by wiping... with waterless urinals, proper maintenance is the key to satisfaction. Since there is no flushing to clean the fixtures, they must be wiped down and cleaned regularly. Cleaning must be done according to manufacturer?s instructions for the best results...

  10. Diagnostic monitoring of urine by means of synchronous fluorescence spectrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katar??na Dubayová; Jaroslav Kušn??r; L'udmila Podracká

    2003-01-01

    A novel approach to clinical–biochemical analysis of urine is presented in this work. Urine composition is defined graphically as a record of synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS). The graphical standard has been made from SFS of urine samples from healthy children. Simple comparison of a standard record with that of an analyzed urine sample will immediately reveal changes in its composition.Reproducibility

  11. Lead excretion in spanish children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Albero, Milagros; Puig-Alcaraz, Carmen; Cauli, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Among epigenetic factors leading to increased prevalence of juvenile neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, exposure to metals, such as lead (Pb) have led to conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of Pb in the urine of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with typically developing children (TD) age- and sex-matched, and to analyze any association between core symptoms of ASD, special diets, supplements intake or prescription drugs and the concentration of Pb. The study was performed in a group of children with ASD (n = 35, average age 7.4 ± 0.5 years) and TD (n = 34, average age 7.7 ± 0.9 years). Measurement of lead in urine was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry; symptoms of ASD were analyzed by diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DMS-IV) using the questionnary ADI-R. Careful clinical evaluation was also undertaken and statistical analysis was done taking into account any possible confounding factor. PMID:25692508

  12. delta-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genotype modifies four hour urinary lead excretion after oral administration of dimercaptosuccinic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, B S; Lee, B K; Stewart, W; Sithisarankul, P; Strickland, P T; Ahn, K D; Kelsey, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests that binding of lead by delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) may vary by ALAD genotype. This hypothesis was tested by examining whether ALAD genotype modifies urinary lead excretion (DMSA chelatable lead) after oral administration of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). METHODS: 57 South Korean lead battery manufacturing workers were given 5 mg/kg oral DMSA and urine was collected for four hours. Male workers were randomly selected from two ALAD genotype strata (ALAD1-1, ALAD1-2) from among all current workers in the two plants (n = 290). Subjects with ALAD1-1 (n = 38) were frequency matched with subjects with ALAD1-2 (n = 19) on duration of employment in the lead industry. Blood lead, zinc protoporphyrin, and plasma aminolevulinic acid concentrations, as well as ALAD genotype, duration of exposure, current tobacco use, and weight were examined as predictors or effect modifiers of levels of DMSA chelatable lead. RESULTS: Blood lead concentrations ranged from 11 to 53 micrograms/dl, with a mean (SD) of 25.4 (10.2) micrograms/dl. After 5 mg/kg DMSA orally, the workers excreted a mean (SD) 85.4 (45.0) micrograms lead during a four hour urine collection (range 16.5-184.1 micrograms). After controlling for blood lead concentrations, duration of exposure, current tobacco use, and body weight, subjects with ALAD1-2 excreted, on average, 24 micrograms less lead during the four hour urine collection than did subjects with ALAD1-1 (P = 0.05). ALAD genotype seemed to modify the relation between plasma delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and DMSA chelatable lead. Workers with ALAD1-2 excreted more lead, after being given DMSA, with increasing plasma ALA than did workers with ALAD1-1 (P value for interaction = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: DMSA chelatable lead may partly reflect the stores of bioavailable lead, and the current data indicate that subjects with ALAD1-2 have lower stores than those with ALAD1-1. These data provide further evidence that the ALAD genotype modifies the toxicokinetics of lead-for example, by differential binding of current lead stores or by differences in long-term retention and deposition of lead. PMID:9166129

  13. Thioethers, mutagens, and D-glucaric acid in urine of operating room personnel exposed to anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, R; Monarca, S; Scassellati Sforzolini, G; Bauleo, F A; Angeli, G; Cerami, F

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenic hazards related to occupational exposure to nitrous oxide and enflurane was studied in the personnel of five operating rooms using a coupled environmental and biological monitoring approach. The environmental monitoring revealed air concentrations of the two anesthetics exceedings the TLVs by 10-15-fold. These values were correlated individually with the concentrations of the two anesthetics in the expired air of the exposed subjects. The biological monitoring was carried out by determining two parameters associated with mutagen exposure (urinary mutagenicity and thioethers) and a parameter associated with the enzymatic induction (D-glucaric acid) in the urine of exposed and unexposed subjects (N = 64 and N = 37, respectively). The results showed no difference in the two groups for urine mutagenicity and D-glucaric acid, but urine thioethers were significantly increased among highly exposed subjects. PMID:2576815

  14. Bioavailability of biologically detoxified lead: risks arising from consumption of polluted mussels.

    PubMed Central

    Regoli, F; Orlando, E

    1994-01-01

    The possible risk for human health arising from consumption of lead-polluted shellfish was suggested by experiments on the bioavailability for mice of a "biologically detoxified" form of the metal. In this work, young mice were fed with a mixed diet including mussels collected in a Pb-polluted area. Metal concentrations in blood, kidney, liver, urine, and feces and the activity of erythrocytic delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase were determined after 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Comparisons were made with mice treated with balanced diet, mixed diet including control mussels, and drinking water with lead dissolved as acetate. In mice fed polluted mussels, lead concentrations increased in blood, kidney, and liver, whereas no significant accumulation was observed in urine. Different responses in mice treated with Pb(CH3COO)2 in drinking water are probably due to the diversity of lead chemical form in the two treatments. Our results demonstrate the bioavailability of biologically detoxified lead that can be transferred to a consumer with possible consequences also for human health. PMID:7843130

  15. Determination of Ephedra Alkaloids in Urine and Plasma by HPLC-UV: Collaborative Study

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Mark C.; Gray, D.; Laurensen, J.; Luo, G.; McClanahan, R.; Perez, R.; Roper, C.; Roscoe, V.; Shevchuk, C.; Suen, E.; Sullivan, D.

    2008-01-01

    Ten collaborating laboratories determined the ephedra alkaloid content (ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, and methylpseudoephedrine) in 8 blind duplicates of human plasma and urine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. In addition to negative urine and plasma controls, urine samples were spiked with individual ephedra alkaloids ranging in concentration from about 1 to 5 ?g/mL. Plasma samples were spiked with individual ephedra alkaloids ranging in concentration from about 100 to 400 ng/mL. Sample solutions were treated to solid-phase extraction using a strong-cation exchange column to help remove interferences. The HPLC analyses were performed on a polar-embedded phenyl column using UV detection at 210 nm. The ephedra alkaloids were not consistently detected in any of the spiked plasma samples. When ephedra alkaloids were detected in the plasma samples, reproducibility between blind replicate samples was very poor. Repeatability, reproducibility, and accuracy were also very poor for the spiked urine samples. On the basis of these re sults, the HPLC-UV method for the determination of ephedra alkaloids in human urine and plasma is not recommended for adoption as Official First Action. PMID:15084082

  16. Determination of triamcinolone acetonide in equine serum and urine by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koupai-Abyazani, M R; Yu, N; Esaw, B; Laviolette, B

    1995-01-01

    Urine and serum samples collected from four standard-bred mares after 30-mg intraarticular administrations of triamcinolone acetonide were analyzed using combined high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. Maximum triamcinolone acetonide concentrations of 32.3, 14.8, 24.3, and 29.4 ng/mL in the urine and 2.7, 1.9, 2.3, and 2.5 ng/mL in the serum samples were observed. The peak concentrations of the drug were detected approximately 22 h (urine) and 12 h (serum) after administration. The drug elimination profiles for both urine and serum are presented and discussed. PMID:7564297

  17. Urine Stability Studies for Novel Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Chirag R.; Butrymowicz, Isabel; Yu, Angela; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Park, Meyeon; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Reeves, W. Brian; Devarajan, Prasad; Kimmel, Paul L.; Siew, Edward D.; Liu, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The study of novel urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury has expanded exponentially. Effective interpretation of data and meaningful comparisons between studies require awareness of factors that can adversely affect measurement. We examined how variations in short-term storage and processing might affect measurement of urine biomarkers. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional, prospective. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS Hospitalized patients from two sites: Yale New Haven Hospital (n= 52) and University of California, San Francisco Medical Center (n=36) PREDICTORS We tested the impact of 3 urine processing conditions on these biomarkers: a) centrifugation and storage at 4°C for 48 hours before freezing at ?80°C, b) centrifugation and storage at 25°C for 48 hours before freezing at ?80°C, and c) uncentrifuged samples immediately frozen at ?80°C. OUTCOMES Urine concentration of five biomarkers: neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin 18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty acid–binding protein (L-FABP) and cystatin C MEASUREMENTS We measured urine biomarkers by an established ELISA method. Biomarker values were log-transformed, and agreement with a reference standard of immediate centrifugation and storage at ?80°C was compared using concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs). RESULTS Neither storing samples at 4°C for 48 hours nor centrifugation had a significant effect on measured levels, with CCCs above 0.9 for all biomarkers tested. For samples stored at 25°C for 48 hours, excellent CCC values (>0.9) were also noted between the test sample and the reference standard for NGAL, cystatin C, L-FABP and KIM-1. However, the CCC for IL-18 between samples stored at 25°C for 48 hours and the reference standard was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.66–0.96). Limitations No comparisons to fresh “unfrozen” samples, no evaluation of the effect of protease inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS All candidate markers tested using the specified assays showed high stability with both short-term storage at 4°C and without centrifugation prior to freezing. For optimal fidelity, urine for IL-18 measurement should not be stored at 25°C before long-term storage or analysis. PMID:24200462

  18. Assessment of semen function and lipid peroxidation among lead exposed men

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra [Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, 41-808 Zabrze, Jordana 19 (Poland); Kasperczyk, Slawomir [Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, 41-808 Zabrze, Jordana 19 (Poland)], E-mail: kaslav@mediclub.pl; Horak, Stanislaw [Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology, Medical University of Silesia, 41-902 Bytom, Batorego 15 (Poland); Ostalowska, Alina; Grucka-Mamczar, Ewa; Romuk, Ewa [Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, 41-808 Zabrze, Jordana 19 (Poland); Olejek, Anita [Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology, Medical University of Silesia, 41-902 Bytom, Batorego 15 (Poland); Birkner, Ewa [Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, 41-808 Zabrze, Jordana 19 (Poland)

    2008-05-01

    The study population included healthy, fertile men, employees of Zinc and Lead Metalworks (n = 63). Workers exposed to lead were divided into two groups: a group with moderate exposure to lead (ME) - blood lead level (PbB) 25-40 {mu}g/dl and a group with high exposure to lead (HE) PbB = 40-81 {mu}g/dl. The control group consisted of office workers with no history of occupational exposure to lead. Evaluation of lead, cadmium and zinc level in blood and seminal plasma, zinc protoporphyrin in blood (ZPP), 5-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA), malondialdehyde (MDA) in seminal plasma and sperm analysis were performed. No differences were noted in the concentration of cadmium and zinc in blood and seminal plasma in the study population. Lipid peroxidation in seminal plasma, represented as MDA concentration, significantly increased by about 56% in the HE group and the percentage of motile sperm cells after 1 h decreased by about 34% in comparison to the control group. No statistically significant correlation between other parameters of sperm analysis and lead exposure parameters nor between lead, cadmium and zinc concentration in blood and seminal plasma were found. A positive association between lead intoxication parameters (PbB, ZPP, lead seminal plasma) and MDA concentration in sperm plasma and inverse correlation with sperm cells motility (PbB, ZPP) was found. An increased concentration of MDA was accompanied by a drop in sperm cells motility. In conclusion, we report that high exposure to lead causes a decrease of sperm motility in men most likely as a result of increased lipid peroxidation, especially if the level in the blood surpasses the concentration of 40 {mu}g/dl.

  19. The preservation of urine samples for determination of renal stone risk factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicar, M. J.; Hsu, M. C.; Johnson, T.; Pak, C. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A preservation technique for urine specimens before determination of stone risk factors was evaluated. The purpose of these experiments was to prove the effectiveness of the preservatives used to prevent changes in the concentrations of those constituents measured. Measured concentrations in fresh specimens were compared with those in the same specimens after storage with the preservatives. Refrigeration at 4 degrees C up to five days was appropriate in a laboratory setting, as no significant changes in urinary concentrations occurred. Refrigeration, however, did not offer a convenient method for shipping. Chemical preservation was found to be an effective alternative to refrigeration. Thymol prevented changes in concentration of pH, citrate, uric acid, sulfate, sodium, potassium, and cyclic AMP, while a mixture of hydrochloric (HCl) acid and boric acid prevented changes in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, oxalate, ammonium, and creatinine. Thus, the addition of thymol or HCl/boric acid to urine specimens will prevent significant changes in the concentrations of stone risk factors.

  20. Determination of platinum in urine and airborne particulate matter from Budapest and Vienna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyula Záray; Mihály Óvári; Imre Salma; Ilse Steffan; Michaele Zeiner; Sergio Caroli

    2004-01-01

    Urine samples taken from 100 adults living in the city centres of the two capitals were analysed by the same inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer following their 10-fold dilution with bidistilled water. The mean concentration values of platinum related to creatinine were about three times higher in the Hungarian samples than in the Austrian ones. Six particulate matter samples

  1. The detection of urine in the equine ejaculate and its effects on spermatozoa

    E-print Network

    Althouse, Gary Carl

    1988-01-01

    in and if spermatozoa were present in the zona pellucida. It was concluded that as the concentration of urine increased, the motility of the spermatozoa proportionally decreased. At 50% and above, few spermatozoa were motile. Even with this decreased or zero motility...

  2. Excretion of Deoxynivalenol and Its Metabolite in Milk, Urine, and Feces of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L.-M. Côté; A. M. Dahlem; T. Yoshizawa; S. P. Swanson; W. B. Buck

    1986-01-01

    Corn contaminated with deoxynival- enol was added to the diets of three dairy cows for 5 d and milk, urine, and feces were collected prior to, during, and 3 d following feeding of the diets. Dietary concentrations of deoxynivalenol aver- aged 66 mg\\/kg. Following exposure to deoxynivalenol, unconjugated deepoxy- deoxynivalenol, a metabolite of deoxy- nivalenol, was present in milk at

  3. Maple syrup urine disease as a cause of spongiform encephalopathy in calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PA Harper; PJ Healy; JA Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Estimates of branched chain amino acid concentrations in plasma and, or, serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, formalin-fixed cerebral tissue and the associated formalin, provided evidence for a diagnosis of branched chain keto acid decarboxylase deficiency in five polled Hereford calves. The similarity of the clinical signs of dullness, recumbency and opisthotonos, and the observation of severe status spongiosus within the central

  4. Nutrient recovery from source separated urine - steam stripping in demo scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Tettenborn; J. Behrendt; R. Otterpohl

    New sanitation concepts based on source separation and nutrient recovery become more and more important. In this study steam stripping in demo-scale was used for nitrogen recovery from source separated urine. Thus energy and space requirements at conventional wastewater treatment plants could be reduced while gaining a valuable product in form of a concentrated ammonia solution.

  5. EFFECTS OF DIETARY CRUDE PROTEIN ON SERUM AND URINE UREA NITROGEN IN FEEDLOT STEERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of dietary CP concentration and source on serum urea N (SUN) and urine urea N (UUN). A metabolism trial with three collection periods (approximately d 35, 95, and 155 on feed) was conducted using twenty seven crossbred steers (average BW = 353.2 ± 8.4 kg). Treatments were ...

  6. Effect of Sheep Urine Deposition on the Bacterial Community Structure in an Acidic Upland Grassland Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deirdre Rooney; Nabla Kennedy; Louise Deering; Deirdre Gleeson; Nicholas Clipson

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the addition of synthetic sheep urine (SSU) and plant species on the bacterial community composition of upland acidic grasslands was studied using a microcosm approach. Low, medium, and high concentrations of SSU were applied to pots containing plant species typical of both unimproved (Agrostis capillaris) and agriculturally improved (Lolium perenne) grasslands, and harvests were carried out 10

  7. Detection and quantification of low levels of benzoylecgonine in equine urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie Luckie; Carolyn Whitney; Marc Benoit; Lisa Taddei; Andre Sukta; Joshua Peterson; David Schwope; R. E. Gaensslen; Adam Negrusz

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine (COC) is a highly addictive plant alkaloid expressing strong psychostimulatory effect. It has no medical use in equine veterinary practice. The contamination of the environment with cocaine such as its presence on the US paper currency has been reported few times. There are anecdotal reports of low benzoylecgonine (BE) concentrations (usually much less than 100ng\\/mL) being found in urine

  8. A longitudinal investigation of selected pesticide metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, D L; Needham, L L; Hammerstrom, K A; Ryan, P B

    1999-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal investigation of environmental exposures to selected chemical contaminants, concentrations of the pesticide metabolites 1-naphthol (INAP), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA), and atrazine mercapturate (AM) were measured in repeated samples obtained from 80 individuals in Maryland during 1995-1996. Up to six urine samples were collected from each individual at intervals of approximately 8 weeks over a 1-year period (i.e., one sample per participant in each of six cycles). INAP (median=4.2 microg/l and 3.3 microg/g creatinine) and TCPY (median=5.3 microg/l and 4.6. microg/g creatinine) were present in over 80% of the samples, while MDA and AM were detected infrequently (6.6% and <1% of samples, respectively). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of INAP in urine did not vary significantly among sampling cycles. In contrast, GM concentrations of TCPY were significantly greater in samples collected during the spring and summer of 1996 than in the preceding fall and winter. Repeated measurements of INAP and TCPY from the same individual over time were highly variable. The average range of INAP and TCPY concentrations from the same individual were approximately 200% and 50% greater than the respective population mean levels. Geometric mean (GM) TCPY concentrations differed significantly between Caucasian (n=42, GM=5.7 microg/g creatinine) and African-American (n=11, GM=4.0 microg/g) participants and among education levels, but were not significantly different among groups classified by gender, age, or household income. In future research, environmental measurements of the parent compounds and questionnaire data collected concurrently with the biomarker data will be used to characterize the determinants of variability in the urinary pesticide metabolite levels. PMID:10554151

  9. Solid-phase extraction procedure for ethyl glucuronide in urine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yufang; Helander, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of the conjugated ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine is increasingly being used as a biomarker for recent alcohol consumption. Prior to quantification of EtG by mass spectrometric (MS) methods [liquid chromatography (LC)-MS or gas chromatography-MS], there is sometimes need for sample cleanup to remove interfering matrix constituents. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using a HyperSep SAX strong anion exchanger was developed for sample cleanup of urinary EtG prior to LC-MS analysis. The EtG content in a 50-100-microL urine sample was finally reconstituted in the same volume as the original aliquot. The cleaner SPE extracts, without sample dilution, allowed for improved quantification of urinary EtG in the low concentration range. The detection limit of the SPE procedure when combined with LC-MS analysis was < 0.1 mg/L EtG, and the assay imprecision < 5.5% (total CV) in the 0.5-5.0 mg/L concentration range. The absolute recovery of urinary EtG was ~80%, which was compensated for by using a deuterated analogue (EtG-d(5)) as internal standard. The urinary EtG results with SPE followed by LC-MS were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.959) with those obtained using a sensitive and selective ultra-performance LC-tandem MS method. PMID:19021935

  10. Determination of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg in urine using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnich, Michael G.; Miller, Derek C.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2008-03-01

    The application of the large-bore direct injection high efficiency nebulizer (LB-DIHEN) for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is described. The LB-DIHEN is compared with the standard method using a concentric pneumatic nebulizer and cyclonic spray chamber. In addition to the toxicological significance of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg, these elements represent a cross-section of analytical issues including spectral interferences (e.g., 40Ar 35Cl + on 75As + and 98Mo 16O + on 114Cd +) and memory effects (Hg). In this study, the low sample consumption of the LB-DIHEN is used to reduce the volume of urine needed for analysis, and to reduce the volume of final diluted sample required for analysis. Eliminating the spray chamber and reducing the dead volume of the nebulizer reduces memory effects, especially for analytes such as Hg. The Dynamic Reaction Cell (DRC) is used in this study to attenuate the background level of ArCl + in spite of the increase in the solvent load and, in turn, the urine matrix (chloride) delivered to the plasma by the LB-DIHEN. This is the first report on coupling the LB-DIHEN to a standard autosampler for unattended sample analysis. The robustness of direct injection nebulization for routine analysis and the issues associated with automation of the sample introduction process are discussed. Although the figures of merit (sensitivity, limit of detection, and precision) determined for both nebulizers are slightly poorer for the LB-DIHEN than for the concentric pneumatic nebulizer, there is not a clinically significant difference between the results for both sample introduction systems. The accuracy of results is assessed using archived urine materials that are circulated by several different proficiency testing (PT) programs and external quality assessment schemes (EQAS). Results obtained using the LB-DIHEN were within the acceptable range established by a consensus pool generated using different methods, none of which are likely to be using direct injection nebulization. Internal quality control sample results obtained using the LB-DIHEN were compared to those obtained using the conventional nebulizer. Reported results were similar for both nebulizers. Thus, these results show that the LB-DIHEN is certainly feasible for the analysis of urine specimens.

  11. Etodolac in equine urine and serum: determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, confirmation, and metabolite identification by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koupai-Abyazani, M R; Esaw, B; Laviolette, B

    1999-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was used for the detection of etodolac in equine serum and urine. The method consisted of a one-step liquid-liquid extraction, separation on a reversed-phase (RP-18) column and detection using an ultraviolet detector. Additional confirmation methods included a HPLC coupled with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer (APCI-MS). Free (unbound) etodolac and its conjugates were present in the samples. Concentrations of the drug in the serum and urine samples collected from four standardbred mares after a single oral administration of Ultradol were determined. Maximum etodolac concentrations of 712, 716, 568, and 767 microg/mL in urine and 4.1, 3.6, 3.1, and 2.2 microg/mL in serum were observed. The peak concentrations of the drug were detected 2-10 h (urine) and 40 min-6 h (serum) after administration to four horses. The maximum detection time was 79 h in urine and 48 h in serum after the drug administration. The drug-elimination profiles for both urine and serum are presented and discussed. Method ruggedness and precision and stability studies of etodolac in serum and urine are presented. Three major metabolites were detected in the urine by liquid chromatography-APCI-MS. All three metabolites were identified as monohydroxylated etodolac. PMID:10369330

  12. Manufacturing Industries with High Concentrations of Scientists and Engineers Lead in 1965-77 Employment Growth. Science Resources Studies Highlights, April 20, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Presented are the results of a survey of over 100,000 manufacturing establishments, conducted for the National Science Foundation by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, covering average annual employment for calendar year 1977. Industries whose relative concentration of scientists and engineers was high in 1977, such as petroleum refining, chemicals,…

  13. Color recognition system for urine analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Wang, Zicai; Lin, Qian; Dong, Mingli

    2010-08-01

    In order to increase the speed of photoelectric conversion, a linear CCD is applied as the photoelectric converter instead of the traditional photodiode. A white LED is used as the light source of the system. The color information of the urine test strip is transferred into the CCD through a reflecting optical system. It is then converted to digital signals by an A/D converter. The test results of urine analysis are obtained by a data processing system. An ARM microprocessor is selected as the CPU of the system and a CPLD is employed to provide a driving timing for the CCD drive and the A/D converter. Active HDL7.2 and Verilog HDL are used to simulate the driving timing of the CPLD. Experimental results show that the correctness rate of the test results is better than 90%. The system satisfies the requirements of the color information collection of urine analyzer.

  14. Lead induced increase of blood pressure in female lead workers

    PubMed Central

    Nomiyama, K; Nomiyama, H; Liu, S; Tao, Y; Nomiyama, T; Omae, K

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Although lead exposure has, in the absence of mathematical modelling, been believed to elevate blood pressure in females, it is necessary to clarify the relation between lead and blood pressure by eliminating confounding factors in the analysis. Methods: Blood lead was measured in 193 female workers, including 123 lead exposed workers. Possible confounding factors were controlled by multiple regression analyses. Results and Conclusion: Blood lead above 40 µg/dl was found to be the most potent factor for elevating systolic/diastolic blood pressure. Aging, urine protein, and plasma triglyceride also contributed to systolic/diastolic/pulse pressure increase, but hypertensive heredity did not. Data suggested that lead induced changes in lipoprotein metabolism may play an important role in the lead induced blood pressure increase in female workers. PMID:12409531

  15. Maple syrup urine disease as a cause of spongiform encephalopathy in calves.

    PubMed

    Harper, P A; Healy, P J; Dennis, J A

    1986-07-19

    Estimates of branched chain amino acid concentrations in plasma and, or, serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, formalin-fixed cerebral tissue and the associated formalin, provided evidence for a diagnosis of branched chain keto acid decarboxylase deficiency in five polled Hereford calves. The similarity of the clinical signs of dullness, recumbency and opisthotonos, and the observation of severe status spongiosus within the central nervous system, indicated that this condition had probably affected seven other newborn calves. It is suggested that this condition is analogous to branched chain keto acid decarboxylase deficiency or maple syrup urine disease of children. PMID:3529596

  16. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with

  17. Where Will LEAD Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    After setting forth eight assumptions concerning the education of educational administrators, findings about the Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD) program are discussed. The analysis is based on the first-year applications, telephone conversations with staff at a majority of the project sites, and additional material…

  18. Isolation of glycine betaine and proline betaine from human urine. Assessment of their role as osmoprotective agents for bacteria and the kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, S T; Kunin, C M

    1987-01-01

    Human urine is osmoprotective for enteric bacteria, permitting E. coli to grow with high concentrations of NaCl and other salts and even higher concentrations of sucrose and mannitol but not urea. The active material in urine is soluble in methanol and is precipitated by ammonium reineckate at acid pH. Using gel filtration and high-pressure liquid chromatography, we have identified two major osmoprotective compounds in urine. One is glycine betaine; the other is proline betaine as demonstrated by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrum scanning, and chemical synthesis. Proline betaine has not been described previously to our knowledge in vertebrate tissues. It is known to be a cell volume-regulating agent for marine red algae and the euryhaline mollusk Elysia chloritica. We suggest that the presence of glycine and proline betaines in human urine may reflect an osmoprotective role for the kidney and that they protect bacteria in the urine only fortuitously. PMID:3546377

  19. Biomonitoring of infant exposure to phenolic endocrine disruptors using urine expressed from disposable gel diapers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangpo; Xia, Tongwei; Zhang, Xueqin; Barr, Dana Boyd; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Meiping; Huang, Qingyu; Shen, Heqing

    2014-08-01

    Infant exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) may cause adverse health effects because of their fast growth and development during this life stage. However, collecting urine from infants for exposure assessment using biological monitoring is not an easy task. For this purpose, we evaluated the feasibility of using urine expressed from disposable gel absorbent diapers (GADs) as a matrix for biomonitoring selected phenolic EDs. GADs urine was expressed with the assistance of CaCl(2) and was collected using a device fabricated in our laboratory. The analytes were extracted and concentrated using a liquid-liquid method and their hydroxyl groups were modified by dansyl chloride to enhance their chromatography and detection. Finally, the analytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The target chemicals were bisphenol A, triclosan, 17 ?-ethynylestradiol, the natural hormone estrone, and 17 ?-estradiol. The ratio of the CaCl(2) to the urine-wetted gel absorbent, variation of the inter-urination volume, and analyte deposition bias in the diaper were assessed. Analyte blank values in the diapers, the sample storage stabilities, and recoveries of the analytes were also evaluated. The results showed that 70-80 % of the urine could be expressed from the diaper with the assistance of CaCl(2) and 70.5-124 % of the spiked analytes can be recovered in the expressed urine. The limits of detections (LODs) were 0.02-0.27 ng/mL, well within the range for detection in human populations. Our pilot data suggest that infants are widely exposed to the selected EDs. PMID:24924209

  20. Studies in Lead Poisoning: Oral Therapy with Penicillamine: Relationship between Lead in Blood and other Laboratory Tests

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Stig; Cramér, Kim; Hallberg, Leif

    1966-01-01

    Fifteen workers with lead poisoning of varying degrees were treated with penicillamine given by mouth. The effect on symptoms and pathological laboratory values was satisfactory, side effects were generally mild and the drug is considered to be a good alternative to Ca-EDTA, which must be given intravenously. Previous studies on the reliability of different laboratory tests in evaluating the degree of lead poisoning and the effect of the therapy were extended with special respect to the lead levels in blood. The correlations between lead in blood and lead in urine, coproporphyrins in urine and lead excreted during treatment were of the same order as those found between delta-aminolaevulic acid (ALA) in urin and the same parameters. As could be expected, the correlation between the initial values of lead in blood and ALA in urine was very strong (p<0·001). It also persisted during treatment. It is concluded that penicillamine is efficient and useful in the treatment of lead poisoning. Determinations of lead in blood and ALA in urine are equivalent as expressions of lead poisoning, provided that the lead level in blood is not temporarily raised because of an acute exposure. PMID:5926893

  1. [Protein determination in urine--a critical review].

    PubMed

    Lorentz, K; Weiss, T

    1986-05-01

    Seven methods for protein determination in urine were systematically checked, viz. turbidimetric assay with benzethonium chloride, turbidimetry with trichloroacetic acid of various concentrations, micellar complex formation with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250, formation and gel filtration of protein complexes with copper, reaction of protein tannin compounds with iron, and biuret reaction after different precipitation procedures. The evaluation was mainly based on the following criteria: identical reaction with various proteins, stable and linear absorbance with concentration, complete recovery, and greatest possible freedom from interferences. On this basis, the biuret reaction must now be regarded as the method of choice. Albumin and gamma-globulins are reliably estimated after precipitation by perchloric acid or by an ethanol-diethylether mixture, whereas all proteins, including uromucoid, may be measured after precipitation by Tsuchiya's reagent. Interference from urinary pigments can be avoided by reading versus a sample blank. PMID:3734701

  2. Concentrations of Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc in Fish from Mining-Influenced Waters of Northeastern Oklahoma: Sampling of Blood, Carcass, and Liver for Aquatic Biomonitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G. Brumbaugh; Christopher J. Schmitt; Thomas W. May

    2005-01-01

    The Tri-States Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri (MO), Kansas (KS), and Oklahoma (OK), USA, was mined for lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) for more than a century. Mining ceased more than 30 years ago, but wastes remain widely distributed in the region, and there is evidence of surface- and groundwater contamination in the Spring River-Neosho River (SR-NR) system of northeastern

  3. Characterizing aquatic health using salmonid mortality, physiology, and biomass estimates in streams with elevated concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in the Boulder River Watershed, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, A.M.; Skaar, D.; Nimick, D.A.; MacConnell, E.; Hogstrand, C.

    2003-01-01

    Abandoned tailings and mine adits are located throughout the Boulder River watershed in Montana. In this watershed, all species of fish are absent from some tributary reaches near mine sources: however, populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontitalis, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and cut-throat trout O. clarki are found further downstream. Multiple methods must be used to investigate the effects of metals released by past mining activity because the effects on aquatic life may range in severity, depending on the proximity of mine sources. Therefore, we used three types of effects - those on fish population levels (as measured by survival), those on biomass and density, and those at the level of the individual (as measured by increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and increases in concentrations of tissue metals) - to assess the aquatic health of the Boulder River watershed. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the water column were associated with increased mortality of trout at sites located near mine waste sources. The hypertrophy (swelling), degeneration (dying), and necrosis of epithelial cells observed in the gills support our conclusion that the cause of death was related to metals in the water column. At a site further downstream (lower Cataract Creek), we observed impaired health of resident trout, as well as effects on biomass and density (measured as decreases in the kilograms of trout per hectare and the number per 300 m) and effects at the individual level, including increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and tissue concentrations of metals.

  4. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  5. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in the urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~5 min per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5-10 ?g mL(-1) (which is more than 3 times lower than the clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

  6. Organophosphorous pesticide breakdown products in house dust and children’s urine

    PubMed Central

    Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Bradman, Asa; Smith, Kimberly; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Barr, Dana Boyd; Nishioka, Marcia; Castorina, Rosemary; Hubbard, Alan E.; Nicas, Mark; Hammond, S. Katharine; McKone, Thomas E.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to preformed dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in food or the environment may affect the reliability of DAP urinary metabolites as biomarkers of organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure. We conducted a study to investigate the presence of DAPs in indoor residential environments and their association with children’s urinary DAP levels. We collected dust samples from homes in farmworker and urban communities (40 homes total, n = 79 samples) and up to two urine samples from resident children ages 3–6 years. We measured six DAPs in all samples and eight DAP-devolving OP pesticides in a subset of dust samples (n = 54). DAPs were detected in dust with diethylphosphate (DEP) being the most frequently detected (?60%); detection frequencies for other DAPs were ?50%. DEP dust concentrations did not significantly differ between communities, nor were concentrations significantly correlated with concentrations of chlorpyrifos and diazinon, the most frequently detected diethyl-OP pesticides (Spearman ? = ?0.41 to 0.38, P>0.05). Detection of DEP, chlorpyrifos, or diazinon, was not associated with DEP and/or DEP + diethylthiophosphate detection in urine (Kappa coefficients = ?0.33 to 0.16). Finally, estimated non-dietary ingestion intake from DEP in dust was found to be ?5% of the dose calculated from DEP levels in urine, suggesting that ingestion of dust is not a significant source of DAPs in urine if they are excreted unchanged. PMID:22781438

  7. Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef; Lobo, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA. PMID:22253637

  8. Effects of urinary metabolites of etodolac on diagnostic tests of bilirubin in urine.

    PubMed

    Sho, Y; Ishiodori, T; Oketani, M; Kubozono, O; Nakamura, A; Takeuchi, A; Morino, A; Arima, T

    1999-07-01

    Etodolac (CAS 41340-25-4) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used clinically. The bilirubin levels in urine samples from patients treated with etodolac were determined with diagnostic tests (diazo and oxidized methods). The urine samples gave a positive reaction with a diazo method, but not with an oxidized method. The serum concentrations of bilirubin in the patients were also in the normal range. These results indicate that the positive reaction of the urine samples from patients treated with etodolac is false and caused by urinary metabolites of etodolac. To identify the false positive substance in the urine samples, the urinary metabolites of etodolac were extracted with ethyl acetate. The extract was injected into a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column and the eluate was mixed with the diazo reagent. Three positive fractions were found. The retention times of the two metabolites in HPLC matched with those of the 6- and 7-hydroxylated metabolites of etodolac. In addition, authentic compounds of the 6- and 7-hydroxylated metabolites gave a positive reaction in the diazo methods. These results indicate that the 6- and 7-hydroxylated metabolites are mainly responsible for the false positive reactions of the urine sample from patients treated with etodolac. PMID:10442203

  9. Urine dipstick analysis for identification of runners susceptible to acute kidney injury following an ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Stuempfle, Kristin J; Fogard, Kevin; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Winger, James; Weiss, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether urine dipstick testing might be useful to predict the development of acute kidney injury after an ultramarathon. Participants in the 2011 161-km Western States Endurance Run underwent post-race blood and urine dipstick analyses. Of the 310 race finishers, post-race urine dipstick testing was completed on 152 (49%) and post-race blood also was obtained from 150 of those runners. Based on "injury" and "risk" criteria for acute kidney injury of blood creatinine 2.0 and 1.5 times estimated baseline, respectively, 4% met the criteria for injury and an additional 29-30% met the criteria for risk of injury. Those meeting the injury criteria had higher creatine kinase concentrations (P < 0.001) than those not meeting the criteria. Urine dipstick tests that read positive for at least 1+ protein, 3+ blood, and specific gravity ? 1.025 predicted those meeting the injury criteria with sensitivity of 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-1.00), specificity of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.83), positive predictive value of 0.15 (95% CI 0.06-0.30), negative predictive value of 1.00 (95% CI 0.97-1.00), and likelihood ratio for a positive test of 4.2. We conclude that urine dipstick testing was successfully able to identify those individuals meeting injury criteria for acute kidney injury with excellent sensitivity and specificity. PMID:23035796

  10. Chem. Res. Toxiccil. 1993,6, 107-116 107 Determination of Atrazine Metabolites in Human Urine

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    of atrazineas a major urinary metabolite. The mercapturate was found in concentrations int least 10times that of any of the N-dealkylated products or the parent compound. Atrazine mercapturic acid was isolated from a small percentageof atrazine is excretedunchanged in the urine (5, 6). Urinary concentrations of N

  11. Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium, and lead in the liver and kidneys of dogs according to age, gender, and the occurrence of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in canine liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla, and the association of these concentrations with age, gender, and occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tissues from 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn, and Mn levels were highest in the liver followed by the renal cortex and renal medulla. The highest Sr, Cd, and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex while lower levels were found in the renal medulla and liver. Female dogs had higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver and renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver and renal cortex), Cr (liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla), and Pb (liver) than male animals. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. Hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge about the storage of specific elements in canine liver and kidneys, and can be considered important reference data for diagnostic methods and further investigations. PMID:25234328

  12. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What to Know Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  13. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The...

  14. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees...

  15. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The...

  16. Urine--a waste or the future of regenerative medicine?

    PubMed

    Kloskowski, T; Nowacki, M; Pokrywczy?ska, M; Drewa, T

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, urine has emerged as a source of urine cells. Two different types of cells can be isolated from urine: urine derived stem cells (USCs) and renal tubular cells called urine cells (UCs). USCs have great differentiation properties and can be potentially used in genitourinary tract regeneration. Within this paper, we attempt to demonstrate that such as easily accessible source of cells, collected during completely non-invasive procedures, can be better utilized. Cells derived from urine can be isolated, stored, and used for the creation of urine stem cell banks. In the future, urine holds great potential to become a main source of cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:25649852

  17. A simple, inexpensive urine test of smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Peach; G A Ellard; P J Jenner; R W Morris

    1985-01-01

    Three novel colorimetric methods of detecting urinary nicotine metabolites called the barbituric acid, diethylthiobarbituric acid (DETB), and DETB extraction methods were evaluated for use as a simple, cheap, objective test of smoking. Urine samples were collected from 103 male smokers and 78 male non-smokers working at two London factories. The smokers recorded the number of cigarettes smoked over the previous

  18. Urine drug testing in pain medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard A Heit; Douglas L Gourlay

    2004-01-01

    The use of urine drug testing (UDT) has increased over recent years. UDT results have traditionally been used in legal proceedings under supervision of a medical review officer (MRO). In this context, testing has been required by statute or regulation and so is typically not in the “donor's” interest. Physicians, however, can use UDT to assist in monitoring their patient's

  19. Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, David S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

  20. Size-exclusion chromatography-based enrichment of extracellular vesicles from urine samples

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Ramos, Inés; Bancu, Ioana; Oliveira-Tercero, Anna; Armengol, María Pilar; Menezes-Neto, Armando; Del Portillo, Hernando A.; Lauzurica-Valdemoros, Ricardo; Borràs, Francesc E.

    2015-01-01

    Renal biopsy is the gold-standard procedure to diagnose most of renal pathologies. However, this invasive method is of limited repeatability and often describes an irreversible renal damage. Urine is an easily accessible fluid and urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) may be ideal to describe new biomarkers associated with renal pathologies. Several methods to enrich EVs have been described. Most of them contain a mixture of proteins, lipoproteins and cell debris that may be masking relevant biomarkers. Here, we evaluated size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) as a suitable method to isolate urinary EVs. Following a conventional centrifugation to eliminate cell debris and apoptotic bodies, urine samples were concentrated using ultrafiltration and loaded on a SEC column. Collected fractions were analysed by protein content and flow cytometry to determine the presence of tetraspanin markers (CD63 and CD9). The highest tetraspanin content was routinely detected in fractions well before the bulk of proteins eluted. These tetraspanin-peak fractions were analysed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis revealing the presence of EVs. When analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tetraspanin-peak fractions from urine concentrated samples contained multiple bands but the main urine proteins (such as Tamm–Horsfall protein) were absent. Furthermore, a preliminary proteomic study of these fractions revealed the presence of EV-related proteins, suggesting their enrichment in concentrated samples. In addition, RNA profiling also showed the presence of vesicular small RNA species. To summarize, our results demonstrated that concentrated urine followed by SEC is a suitable option to isolate EVs with low presence of soluble contaminants. This methodology could permit more accurate analyses of EV-related biomarkers when further characterized by -omics technologies compared with other approaches. PMID:26025625

  1. Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after intensive exposure to high ethanol content mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Pesce, Amadeo J; Crews, Bridgit O; Wilson, George R; Teitelbaum, Scott A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    To determine the degree of ethanol absorption and the resultant formation and urinary excretion of its conjugated metabolites following intensive use of high ethanol content mouthwash, 10 subjects gargled with Listerine(®) antiseptic 4 times daily for 3¼ days. First morning void urine specimens were collected on each of the four study days and post-gargle specimens were collected at 2, 4, and 6 h after the final gargle of the study. Urine ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate (EtS), and creatinine were measured. Ethanol was below the positive threshold of 20 mg/dL in all of the urine specimens. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (6 and 82 ng/mL; 16 and 83 ?g/g creatinine). Only one specimen contained detectable EtG (173 ng/mL; 117 ?g/g creatinine). EtS was detected in the urine of seven study subjects, but was not detected in the single specimen that had detectable EtG. The maximum EtS concentrations were 104 ng/mL and 112 ?g/g creatinine (in different subjects). Three subjects produced a total of eight (non-baseline) urinary EtS concentrations above 50 ng/mL or 50 ?g/g creatinine and three EtS concentrations exceeding 100 ng/mL or 100 ?g/g creatinine. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG and EtS concentrations, currently accepted EtG and EtS cutoffs of 500 ng/mL are adequate to distinguish between ethanol consumption and four times daily use of high ethanol content mouthwash. PMID:21619720

  2. Development and validation of a sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of amoxapine in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Karasakal, Ayça; Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2014-05-01

    A selective and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed and validated for the determination of amoxapine in human plasma and urine. The developed method is based on labeling with 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl chloride) and monitoring at 397?nm (excitation)/514?nm (emission). The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy, recovery and robustness. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 250-2500 and 50-1250?ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. The LOD values were calculated to be 13.31 and 13.17?ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. The proposed method was applied to study of amoxapine in human plasma and urine. PMID:23780763

  3. Intoxication from an Accidentally Ingested Lead Shot Retained in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, Per; Gerhardsson, Lars

    2005-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Occupational and Environmental Health in January 2002 because of increased blood lead concentrations of unknown origin. She suffered from malaise, fatigue, and diffuse gastrointestinal symptoms. She had a blood lead level of 550 ?g/L (normal range < 40 ?g/L). The patient had not been occupationally exposed to lead, and no potential lead sources, such as food products or lead-glazed pottery, could be identified. Her food habits were normal, but she did consume game occasionally. Clinical examination, including standard neurologic examination, was normal. No anemia was present. Laboratory tests showed an increased excretion of lead in the urine, but there were no signs of microproteinuria. An abdominal X ray in October 2002 revealed a 6-mm rounded metal object in the colon ascendens. Before the object could be further localized, the patient contracted winter vomiting disease (gastroenteritis) and the metal object was spontaneously released from the colon during a diarrhea attack. The object was a lead shot pellet, possibly but not normally used in Sweden for hunting wild boar or roe deer. Blood lead levels slowly decreased. Nine months later the patient’s blood lead levels were almost normal (~ 70 ?g/L) and her symptoms had almost completely disappeared. In this case, a rare source of lead exposure was found. In investigations of blood lead elevations of unknown origin, we recommend abdominal X ray in parallel with repeated blood lead determinations. PMID:15811841

  4. Shortened forms of provocative lead chelation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary K. Sokas; Joyce Atleson; James P. Keogh

    1988-01-01

    Shortened urinary lead collections following provocative chelation have been standardized for pediatric patients, but have not been considered adequate for adults. This study compared shortened urine collections for lead excretion post chelation with standard 24-hour collections. Thirty-five patients without known current lead exposure and with serum creatinine measurements less than 2 mg\\/dL were hospitalized and had provocative chelation performed as

  5. Arsenic and Manganese Alter Lead Deposition in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, V; Mateus, ML; Santos, D; Aschner, M; Batoreu, MC; Marreilha dos Santos, AP

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) continues to be a major toxic metal in the environment. Pb exposure frequently occurs in the presence of other metals, such as arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn). Continued exposure to low levels of these metals may lead to long-term toxic effects due to their accumulation in several organs. Despite the recognition that metals in a mixture may alter each other’s toxicity by affecting deposition, there is dearth of information on their interactions in vivo. In this work, we investigated the effect of As and Mn on Pb tissue deposition, focusing on the kidney, brain and liver. Wistar rats were treated with 8 doses of each single metal, Pb (5 mg/Kg bw), As (60 mg/L) and Mn mg/Kg bw), or the same doses in a triple metal mixture. Kidney, brain, liver, blood and urine Pb, As and Mn concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pb kidney, brain and liver concentrations in the metal mixture-treated group were significantly increased compared to the Pb alone treated group, being more pronounced in the kidney (5.4 fold), brain (2.5 fold) and liver (1.6 fold). Urinary excretion of Pb in the metal mixture-treated rats significantly increased compared with the Pb treated group, although blood Pb concentrations were analogous to the Pb treated group. Co-treatment with As, Mn and Pb alters Pb deposition compared to Pb alone treatment, increasing Pb accumulation predominantly in kidney and brain. Blood Pb levels, unlike urine, do not reflect the increased Pb deposition in the kidney and brain. Taken together, the results suggest that the nephro- and neurotoxicity of “real-life” Pb exposure scenarios should be considered within the context of metal mixture exposures. PMID:24715659

  6. A method for studying inhibitory activity in whole urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Ryall; C. M. Hibberd; V. R. Marshall

    1985-01-01

    A method has been developed for inducing and quantifying calcium oxalate crystallisation in whole human urine. The propensity of a given urine to induce crystal formation was described in two ways: 1) its ability to resist spontaneous nucleation of calcium oxalate crystals was assessed by titrating 20 mls of the urine with increasing quantities of sodium oxalate (0–150 µmol) to

  7. Degradation of pharmaceuticals and metabolite in synthetic human urine by UV, UV/H2O2, and UV/PDS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruochun; Sun, Peizhe; Boyer, Treavor H; Zhao, Lin; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-03-01

    To minimize environmental pharmaceutical micropollutants, treatment of human urine could be an efficient approach due to the high pharmaceutical concentration and toxic potential excreted in urine. This study investigated the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP) and N4-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole (acetyl-SMX) in synthetic fresh and hydrolyzed human urines by low-pressure UV, and UV combined with H2O2 and peroxydisulfate (PDS). The objective was to compare the two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and assess the impact of urine matrices. All three compounds reacted quickly in the AOPs, exhibiting rate constants of (6.09-8.53) × 10(9) M(-1)·s(-1) with hydroxyl radical, and (2.35-16.1) × 10(9) M(-1)·s(-1) with sulfate radical. In fresh urine matrix, the pharmaceuticals' indirect photolysis was significantly suppressed by the scavenging effect of urine citrate and urea. In hydrolyzed urine matrix, the indirect photolysis was strongly affected by inorganic urine constituents. Chloride had no apparent impact on UV/H2O2, but significantly raised the hydroxyl radical concentration in UV/PDS. Carbonate species reacted with hydroxyl or sulfate radical to generate carbonate radical, which degraded SMX and TMP, primarily due to the presence of aromatic amino group(s) (k = 2.68 × 10(8) and 3.45 × 10(7) M(-1)·s(-1)) but reacted slowly with acetyl-SMX. Ammonia reacted with hydroxyl or sulfate radical to generate reactive nitrogen species that could react appreciably only with SMX. Kinetic simulation of radical concentrations, along with products analysis, helped elucidate the major reactive species in the pharmaceuticals' degradation. Overall, the AOPs' performance was higher in the hydrolyzed urine than fresh urine matrix with UV/PDS better than UV/H2O2, and varied significantly depending on pharmaceutical's structure. PMID:25625668

  8. Inhibition of bacterial degradation of EtG by collection as dried urine spots (DUS).

    PubMed

    Redondo, Ana Hernández; Körber, Christiane; König, Stefan; Längin, Andreas; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are direct alcohol consumption markers widely used nowadays for clinical and forensic applications. They are detectable in blood and urine even after consumption of trace amounts of ethanol and for a longer time frame, being detectable even when no more ethanol is present. The instability of EtG against bacterial degradation in contaminated urine samples and/or the possible postcollection synthesis of this metabolite in samples containing, e.g., Escherichia coli and ethanol, may cause false identification of alcohol uptake. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to constrict these error sources by inhibition of any bacterial growth causing hydrolization or synthesis of EtG. This study evaluates a new method of collecting urine samples on filter paper, dried urine spots (DUS), for simultaneous detection of EtG, EtS and creatinine, having the great advantage of inhibiting bacterial activity. In addition, a method validation for the determination of EtG and EtS in DUS was performed according to the FDA guidelines. Sterile-filtered urine was spiked with EtG and EtS, inoculated with E. coli and incubated. Liquid and dried urine samples were collected after various time intervals up to 96 h. Liquid samples were frozen immediately after collection, whereas aliquots for DUS were pipetted onto filter paper, allowed to dry and stored at RT until analysis 1 week after. The specimens were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. As expected, degradation of EtG, but not of EtS, was observed in contaminated liquid urine samples. However, the specimens collected on filter paper and stored at RT showed no degradation during storage. Therefore, collecting urine samples on filter paper for EtG and EtS analysis turns out to be a reliable method to avoid bacterial degradation of EtG and EtS, and consequently, stabilization of these ethanol metabolites is achieved. In addition, simultaneous measurement of creatinine content as an indicator of urine dilution helps to interpret the results. Method validation for EtG and EtS in DUS was satisfactory, showing the linearity of the calibration curves in the studied concentration range, good precision, accuracy and selectivity. PMID:22249418

  9. Urinary kallikrein activity in workers exposed to cadmium, lead, or mercury vapour.

    PubMed Central

    Roels, H A; Lauwerys, R R; Buchet, J P; Bernard, A M; Lijnen, P; Van Houte, G

    1990-01-01

    A significant reduction of kallikrein activity in urine (assayed by its amidolytic activity) was found in 64 normotensive workers who had been exposed to cadmium for 11 years on average and whose cadmium concentrations in urine ranged from 2.2 to 33.1 micrograms/g creatinine. The mean (geometric) urinary kallikrein activity (in U/g creatinine) amounted to 0.52 (range 0.11-1.90) in the control group (n = 193) against 0.39 (range 0.10-1.03) in the cadmium group, and the prevalence of abnormally low activity levels (less than or equal to 0.20 U/g creatinine) amounted to 17.2% in the cadmium group against 5.2% in the control group. A reduction of aldosterone release (aldosterone in urine) associated with an increased natriuresis was also observed. This might constitute a compensatory mechanism maintaining blood pressure in the normal range. These biological effects of cadmium were not reversible after removal from exposure. This study indicates that cadmium can induce an irreversible toxic effect in the distal nephron. It also suggests that an excessive cadmium body burden alone may not be sufficient to induce hypertension, but in individuals whose blood pressure regulation may be impaired by other factors cadmium could stimulate the development of hypertension. This study also supports the recommendation to prevent hypertensive subjects from being exposed to cadmium. There was no indication that moderate exposure to mercury vapour (n = 53; mercury in urine, range 11-224 micrograms/g creatinine; average duration of exposure: six years) or to inorganic lead (n = 23; lead in blood, range 40-67 micrograms/100 ml; average duration of exposure: eight years) was associated with a reduction of kallikrein production by the kidney. PMID:2357454

  10. Phthalate metabolites in urine from China, and implications for human exposures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-07-01

    Phthalates are esters of phthalic acid and are mainly used as plasticizers (added to plastics to increase their flexibility, transparency, durability, and longevity). Humans are exposed to phthalates through several routes. Urinary phthalate metabolites can be used as biomarkers of human exposures to phthalates. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 183 urine samples collected in 2010 from Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Qiqihaer, China. Phthalate metabolites were found in all urine samples and their total concentrations ranged from 18.6 to 3160 ng/mL (median: 331 ng/mL). Mono-n-butyl phthalate (mBP) and mono-2-isobutyl phthalate (miBP) were the major metabolites found in urine, and their respective median concentrations were 61.2 and 51.7 ng/mL; concentrations of miBP were higher than the concentrations reported for other countries, to date. Based on the urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites, we estimated the daily intake rates in the Chinese population. The estimated daily intakes of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in China were 12.2, 3.8, and ~5 ?g/kg bw/day, respectively. Thirty nine percent of the samples exceeded the tolerable daily intake of 10 ?g/kg bw/day, proposed for DBP, by the European Food Safety Authority, but none of the estimated daily intake values exceeded the reference dose recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:21477864

  11. Volatile signals of the major histocompatibility complex in male mouse?urine

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Alan G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Yamazaki, Kunio

    1997-01-01

    Variation in the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contributes to unique individual odors (odortypes) in mice, as demonstrated by the ability of trained mice in a Y-maze olfactometer to discriminate nearly identical inbred mice that differ genetically only at the MHC (MHC congenic mice), while they cannot distinguish genetically identical inbred mice. Similar distinctions are possible with urine, a substance that is involved in many facets of mouse chemical communication. This paper reports results supporting the hypothesis that the MHC-determined urinary odor is composed of a mixture of volatile carboxylic acids occurring in relative concentrations that are characteristic of the odortype. Y-maze behavioral testing of urine fractions from anion exchange chromatography indicates that volatile acids are necessary and sufficient to convey MHC odortype information. Diethyl ether extracts, which are expected to contain the more volatile, less polar organic acids, were also discriminable in the Y-maze olfactometer. Ether extracts of 12 different urine samples from each of two panels of MHC congenic mice were analyzed by gas chromatography. No compounds unique to urine of either genotype were detected, but compounds did appear to occur in characteristic ratios in most of the samples of each type. Nonparametric statistical analysis of the gas chromatographic data showed that eight of the peaks occurred in significantly different relative concentrations in the congenic samples. One of the peaks was shown to represent phenylacetic acid, which has implications for the mechanism of the MHC specification of odortype. PMID:9122173

  12. The determination of uranium in urine by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using resin bead loading

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.P.; Walker, R.L.; Scott, T.G.; Dyer, F.F.; Stokely, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Ion exchange separations are coupled with isotope dilution mass spectrometry to provide a highly sensitive method for the determination of uranium in urine. This method was examined for its sensitivity, practicality, reproducibility, and accuracy. Our goal was to measure uranium at the 0.1 ng/ml +- 0.01 ng/ml level for 10 mL aliquots of urine. The ability to measure this low concentration of uranium can be limited by both instrumental background and contamination from working environment, reagents, and labware in the procedure. Initially, high blank levels of uranium were observed so much emphasis was placed upon lowering the procedural blank. To achieve a 10% uncertainty, this blank must remain low and be reproducible throughout all determinations. The validity of the method was tested by analyzing an artificial urine spiked with a known concentration of uranium and several human urine samples analyzed by an independent method. Details and results of the method plus its possible bioassay applications are presented. 1 tab.

  13. Elimination of ephedrines in urine following administration of a Sho-seiryu-to preparation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kuei Hui; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Chen, Fu-An; Hsu, Ku-Fu

    2009-04-01

    Sho-seiryu-to is one of the most common Traditional Chinese Medicine preparations for the attenuation of colds. Ephedrae Herba is one of the prescriptions of Sho-seiryu-to. The major ingredients of Ephedrae Herba, ephedrines, are banned substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list. The purpose of this study was to investigate the elimination of urinary ephedrines after administering Sho-seiryu-to preparation and to determine the possibility of positive ephedrines test results in urine. Six healthy volunteers took a single 2.5-g dose of concentrated Sho-seiryu-to preparation. All urine was collected for 48 h. The concentrations of urinary ephedrines were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and the elimination half-life of the ephedrines was estimated. The results show that ephedrine and cathine (norpseudoephedrine), the prohibited substances of the WADA, were excreted in the urine after taking a single dose of Sho-seiryuto preparation. The peak concentration of ephedrine was 3.88 +/- 1.87 mg/mL (mean +/- SD), which was lower than the WADA permitted value (10 mg/mL). The estimated elimination half-lives of ephedrine, norephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine following administration of this preparation were 5.3 +/- 1.2, 4.9 +/- 0.9, 4.4 +/- 1.0, and 5.4 +/- 1.8 h, respectively. This study concluded that the urine would not violate the antidoping rules after administering a single dose of Sho-seiryu-to preparation. Nevertheless, an applied multiple-dose study upon administering the preparation for three times per day for three days showed a positive urine ephedrine result (13.7 mg/mL). Athletes should be careful when taking more than a single dose of Sho-seiryu-to preparation. PMID:19371465

  14. Human Urine Decreases Function and Expression of Type 1 Pili in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Sarah E.; Hibbing, Michael E.; Janetka, James; Chen, Swaine L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). UPEC bind the bladder using type 1 pili, encoded by the fim operon in nearly all E. coli. Assembled type 1 pili terminate in the FimH adhesin, which specifically binds to mannosylated glycoproteins on the bladder epithelium. Expression of type 1 pili is regulated in part by phase-variable inversion of the genomic element containing the fimS promoter, resulting in phase ON (expressing) and OFF (nonexpressing) orientations. Type 1 pili are essential for virulence in murine models of UTI; however, studies of urine samples from human UTI patients demonstrate variable expression of type 1 pili. We provide insight into this paradox by showing that human urine specifically inhibits both expression and function of type 1 pili. Growth in urine induces the fimS phase OFF orientation, preventing fim expression. Urine also contains inhibitors of FimH function, and this inhibition leads to a further bias in fimS orientation toward the phase OFF state. The dual effect of urine on fimS regulation and FimH binding presents a potential barrier to type 1 pilus-mediated colonization and invasion of the bladder epithelium. However, FimH-mediated attachment to human bladder cells during growth in urine reverses these effects such that fim expression remains ON and/or turns ON. Interestingly, FimH inhibitors called mannosides also induce the fimS phase OFF orientation. Thus, the transduction of FimH protein attachment or inhibition into epigenetic regulation of type 1 pilus expression has important implications for the development of therapeutics targeting FimH function. PMID:26126855

  15. Use of genital inspection and female urine tests to detect oestrus in captive Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Thitaram, Chatchote; Chansitthiwet, Saran; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Brown, Janine L; Wongkalasin, Waroot; Daram, Prachayarat; Roongsri, Ronnachit; Kalmapijit, Anchalee; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Colenbrander, Ben; van der Weijden, Gysbert C; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M

    2009-10-01

    Captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) populations are decreasing due to low birth rates compared to wild elephants. Improving oestrous detection in female elephants is required to ensure successful mating in captive and semi-captive herds. Responsive behaviours of eight semi-captive bull elephants to the uro-genital area (genital inspection test) or urinary pheromones (urine test) of 14 female elephants throughout the oestrous cycle were evaluated. Weekly blood samples were collected for 27 consecutive months (14 months for the genital inspection test and 13 months for the urine test) from female elephants to characterize the patterns of circulating progestagen. Responsive behaviours of bulls were compared between females in the follicular versus the luteal phase of the cycle. The sensitivity and specificity of the genital inspection test were 65% and 68%, while those of the urine test were 52% and 61%, respectively. The bulls showed significantly higher "genital inspection", "flehmen from genital area" and "trunk on back" behaviours during the genital inspection test, and "flehmen" behaviours during the urine test in oestrous than in non-oestrous females. In sum, this study showed that monitoring sexual behaviours of Asian elephant bulls towards females or their urine can be used to detect the oestrous period. Although the sensitivity and specificity of both tests were not as high as expected, still, these methods appear to be more efficient at detecting oestrous than traditional methods based on mahout estimations of female receptivity. The use of genital inspection and urine tests may lead to more successful matings and thus to creating self-sustaining populations of captive elephants in range countries. PMID:19131193

  16. Intellectual performance of children with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Hilliges, C; Awiszus, D; Wendel, U

    1993-02-01

    The intellectual performance of 22 children aged 3-16 years with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) was assessed and compared to a group of early treated phenylketonuria (PKU) children and normal subjects matched by age, sex, nationality, and socio-economic status. All subjects were tested by one examiner only using the age related versions of the non-verbal Snijders-Oomen intelligence test. The mean IQ (+/- SD) score was 74 +/- 14 (range 50-103) in patients with MSUD, 101 +/- 12 (range 87-125) in early treated PKU patients, and 107 +/- 9 (range 90-122) in normal subjects. Intercorrelations indicated that length of time after birth that plasma leucine concentration remained > 1 mmol/l and quality of long-term metabolic control have important influences on IQ. PMID:8444223

  17. Urine drug testing for pain management.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Barbarajean; Kwong, Tai

    2012-09-01

    An epidemic of prescription drug abuse in the United States has increased the burden on clinical toxicology testing laboratories. Urine drug testing provides objective evidence for compliance and aberrant drug behavior in patients on chronic (non-cancer) pain management. This article describes the testing menu, drug testing assays including tandem mass spectrometry and their limitations, interpretation of opiate results and clinical considerations. PMID:22939297

  18. OSMOTIC DIURESIS AND ITS EFFECT ON TOTAL ELECTROLYTE DISTRIBUTION IN PLASMA AND URINE OF THE AGLOMERULAR TELEOST, LOPHIUS AMERICANUS

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Roy P.; Berglund, Fredrik

    1956-01-01

    Quantitative evaluations have been made of the chief anions and cations in plasma, urine, and pericardial fluid taken both from freshly captured goosefish and from those undergoing "laboratory diuresis." Measurements included: Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, PO4, protein, HCO3, NH3, pH, titratable acidity, freezing point depression, creatine, trimethylamine oxide, and plasma volume. The total patterns of electrolyte distribution in these body fluids are presented. The morphologically undifferentiated aglomerular tubule acts as a barrier to the free diffusion of monovalent electrolytes, while transporting actively the divalent ions, especially Mg. Urine taken from freshly captured fish is hypotonic to plasma, low in electrolyte, and as much as 50 per cent of its total osmolarity is accounted for by nitrogenous components. Of these creatine is transported most actively by the renal tubule cells. With the onset of diuresis immediately after capture, plasma osmolarity slowly rises and urine suddenly becomes isotonic with plasma as chloride floods into the urine. The active movement of Mg continues during diuresis and urine/plasma concentration ratios of 100 or more are sustained for days while the animals are kept in the laboratory. Na follows chloride and never reaches 50 per cent of plasma values, and K never appears in urine in more than mere traces. Electrolytes in this system are viewed as not being in true equilibrium but rather as constituting a biological steady state with the distribution across renal cells being maintained against passive diffusion by the expenditure of cellular energy. PMID:13286453

  19. Seasonal variation in natural abundance of 2H and 18O in urine samples from rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Justin E; Dugas, Lara R; Brieger, William; Tayo, Bamidele O; Alabi, Tunrayo; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2015-07-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure free-living energy expenditure in humans. Inherent to this technique is the assumption that natural abundances of stable isotopes (2)H and (18)O in body water remain constant over the course of the measurement period and after elimination of the loading dose of DLW will return to the same predose level. To determine variability in the natural abundances of (2)H and (18)O in humans living in a region with seasonal shifts in rain patterns and sources of drinking water, over the course of 12 mo we collected weekly urine samples from four individuals living in southwest Nigeria as well as samples of their drinking water. From ongoing regional studies of hypertension, obesity, and energy expenditure, we estimated average water turnover rate, urine volumes, and sodium and potassium excretion. Results suggest that (2)H and (18)O in urine, mean concentrations of urinary sodium and potassium, urine volume, and total body turnover differed significantly from dry to rainy season. Additionally, seasonal weather variables (mean monthly maximum temperatures, total monthly rainfall, and minimum relative humidity) were all significantly associated with natural abundances in urine. No seasonal difference was observed in drinking water samples. Findings suggest that natural abundances in urine may not remain constant as assumed, and studies incorporating DLW measurements across the transition of seasons should interpret results with caution unless appropriate doses of the tracers are used. PMID:25977450

  20. Victims of lethal hypothermia have decreased levels of thrombomodulin in myocardium and urine.

    PubMed

    Pakanen, Lasse; Kaija, Helena; Kortelainen, Marja-Leena; Särkioja, Terttu; Porvari, Katja

    2015-03-01

    Severe cold stress has been shown to cause changes in the expression and secretion of thrombomodulin (TM), an endothelial protein regulating haemostasis and inflammation. To further evaluate TM as a cold stress indicator, relative TM mRNA and TM protein levels in the myocardium and the concentrations of TM in serum and urine were analysed in different causes of death (hypothermia main cause, n?=?80; hypothermia contributory cause, n?=?26; cardiovascular disease (CVD) main cause, n?=?94; trauma main cause, n?=?45; other main cause, n?=?25). Urinary catecholamine concentrations and myocardial heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) transcript levels were also studied. The TM mRNA and the TM protein levels in myocardium and urine were significantly lower in hypothermia deaths than those in the controls. Post-mortem interval did not correlate with urinary TM concentration. The sensitivity and specificity of urinary TM assay to detect hypothermia deaths were 70.8 and 70.3 %, respectively. Catecholamine concentrations in urine correlated significantly with TM concentration in urine and TM mRNA levels in all groups excluding CVD deaths. There were no differences in the HSF1 transcript levels and no correlation to TM levels. These findings provide further evidence that cold stress and hypothermia affect TM expression and secretion and that they are possibly linked to catecholamine action. Thus, measuring post-mortem TM levels may provide additional support to diagnosing hypothermia in medico-legal examination. The results may also provide additional knowledge for the treatment of hypothermic patients and the use of hypothermia for medical purposes. PMID:25543320

  1. Clinical, haematological, and neurocognitive findings in lead-exposed workers of a battery plant in Iran.

    PubMed

    Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Kalantari-Dehaghi, Razieh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this comparative cross-sectional study was to assess neurocognitive impairment, haematological findings, and clinical symptoms of lead exposure among 316 male battery plant workers aged between 20 and 61 years. Compared to 123 matched controls (matching in age and years of work), the exposed workers showed significantly higher mean blood lead level (BLL) and lower haematocrit, haemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Mean BLL significantly correlated with clinical symptoms such as nocturia, increased urination frequency, oedema, drop in deep tendon reflex, concentration impairment, agitation, headache, depression, abdominal pain, palpitation, fatigue, and diminished sex drive. Workers with clinical disorders had higher BLL and lower haematological parameters. These findings warn that silent toxicological problems caused by lead might go unnoticed by health professionals. PMID:24384755

  2. Association of Arsenic and Metals with Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D among Adolescents in Torreón, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Zamoiski, Rachel D.; Guallar, Eliseo; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Resnick, Carol; Andrade, Marisela Rubio; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Weaver, Virginia M.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Limited data suggest that lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and uranium (U) may disrupt vitamin D metabolism and inhibit production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], the active vitamin D metabolite, from 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in the kidney. Objectives: We evaluated the association between blood lead (BPb) and urine arsenic (As), Cd, molybdenum (Mo), thallium (Tl), and U with markers of vitamin D metabolism [25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D]. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 512 adolescents in Torreón, a town in Mexico with a Pb smelter near residential areas. BPb was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Urine As, Cd, Mo, Tl, and U were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay and a radioimmunoassay, respectively. Multivariable linear models with vitamin D markers as the outcome were used to estimate associations of BPb and creatinine-corrected urine As and metal concentrations with serum vitamin D concentrations, controlling for age, sex, adiposity, smoking, socioeconomic status, and time outdoors. Results: Serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with urine Mo and Tl [1.5 (95% CI: 0.4, 2.6) and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.3, 2.1) ng/mL higher with a doubling of exposure, respectively]. Serum 1,25(OH)2D was positively associated with urine As and U [3.4 (95% CI: 0.9, 5.9) and 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 3.7) pg/mL higher, respectively], with little change in associations after additional adjustment for serum 25(OH)D. Pb and Cd were not associated with 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D concentrations. Conclusions: Overall, our findings did not support a negative effect of As or metal exposures on serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations. Additional research is needed to confirm positive associations between serum 1,25(OH)2D and urine U and As concentrations and to clarify potential underlying mechanisms. Citation: Zamoiski RD, Guallar E, García-Vargas GG, Rothenberg SJ, Resnick C, Rubio Andrade M, Steuerwald AJ, Parsons PJ, Weaver VM, Navas-Acien A, Silbergeld EK. 2014. Association of arsenic and metals with concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D among adolescents in Torreón, Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 122:1233–1238; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307861 PMID:25095279

  3. Application of ICP-OES to the determination of barium in blood and urine in clinical and forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to barium (Ba) mostly occurs in the workplace or from drinking water, but it may sometimes be due to accidental or intentional intoxication. This paper presents a reliable, sensitive method for the determination of Ba in blood and urine: inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion of samples. The overall procedure was checked using Seronorm Whole Blood L-2, Trace Elements Urine and spiked blood and urine samples (0.5-10 µg/mL of Ba). The accuracy of the whole procedure (relative error) was 4% (blood) and 7% (urine); the recovery was 76-104% (blood) and 85-101% (urine). The limits of detection and quantification (Ba ? = 455.403 nm) were 0.11 and 0.4 µg/L of Ba, respectively; precision (relative standard deviation) was below 6% at the level of 15 µg/L of Ba for blood. This method was applied to a case of the poisoning of a man who had been exposed at the workplace for over two years to powdered BaCO3, and who suffered from paralysis and heart disorders. The concentrations of Ba, in ?g/L, were 160 (blood), 460 (serum) and 1,458 (urine) upon his admission to the hospital, and 6.1 (blood) and 4.9 (urine) after 11 months (reference values: 3.34 ± 2.20 µg/L of Ba for blood and 4.43 ± 4.60 µg/L of Ba for urine). PMID:23471954

  4. Evaluation of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc status in biological samples of smokers and nonsmokers hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Afridi, H I; Kazi, T G; Kazi, N G; Jamali, M K; Arain, M B; Sirajuddin; Baig, J A; Kandhro, G A; Wadhwa, S K; Shah, A Q

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between trace and toxic elements zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of smoker and nonsmoker hypertensive patients (n=457), residents of Hyderabad, Pakistan. For the purpose of comparison, the biological samples of age-matched healthy controls were selected as referents. The concentrations of trace and toxic elements were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference materials and real samples. The recovery of all the studied elements was found to be in the range of 97.8–99.3% in certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cd, Ni and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair, blood and urine samples of both smoker and nonsmoker patients than in referents (P<0.001), whereas the concentration of Zn was lower in the scalp hair and blood, but higher in the urine samples of hypertensive patients. The deficiency of Zn and the high exposure of toxic metals as a result of tobacco smoking may be synergistic with risk factors associated with hypertension. PMID:20010608

  5. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lead is still a health problem. Lead is everywhere, including dirt, dust, new toys, and old house ... and faucets. Lead can be found in drinking water in homes containing pipes that were connected with ...

  6. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used on the inside and outside of ... surface. In 1977, federal regulations banned lead from paint for general use. But homes built before 1977 ...

  7. Formation of a mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amine from creatinine in urine of meat eaters and vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Holland, Ricky D; Gehring, Theresa; Taylor, Jason; Lake, Brian G; Gooderham, Nigel J; Turesky, Robert J

    2005-03-01

    Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) with a triple quadrupole MS was used to identify known and novel heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in human urine. The identities of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were confirmed by their product ion spectra. The constant neutral loss scan mode was employed to probe for other analytes in urine that display the transition [M+H]+-->[M+H-CH3*]+*, which is common to HAAs containing an N-methylimidazo moiety, and led to the detection of a previously unreported isomer of 8-MeIQx [Holland, R., et al. (2004) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 17, 1121-1136]. We now report the identification of another novel HAA, 2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5-b]quinoline (IQ[4,5-b]), an isomer of the powerful animal carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ). The amounts of IQ[4,5-b] measured in the urine of human volunteers who consumed grilled beef ranged from 15 to 135% of the ingested dose, while the amounts of 8-MeIQx and PhIP excreted in urine were on average <2% of the ingested dose. Base treatment of urine at 70 degrees C increased the concentrations of 8-MeIQx and PhIP by as much as 6-fold, indicating the presence of phase II conjugates; however, the amount of IQ[4,5-b] increased by more than 100-fold. IQ[4,5-b] was also detected in the urine of vegetarians following base hydrolysis. The formation of IQ[4,5-b], but not IQ, 8-MeIQx, or PhIP, also occurred in urine incubated at 37 degrees C. Creatinine and 2-aminobenzaldehyde are likely precursors of IQ[4,5-b]. The detection of IQ[4,5-b] in the urine of both meat eaters and vegetarians suggests that this HAA may be present in nonmeat staples or that IQ[4,5-b] formation may occur endogenously within the urinary bladder or other biological fluids. PMID:15777097

  8. FRET Based Ratio-Metric Sensing of Hyaluronidase in Synthetic Urine as a Biomarker for Bladder and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chib, Rahul; Raut, Sangram; Fudala, Rafal; Chang, Aaron; Mummert, Mark; Rich, Ryan; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2014-01-01

    Elevated hyaluronidase levels are found in the urine of bladder and prostate cancer patients. Therefore, HA-ase is regarded as an important biomarker for the detection of these cancers. In this report, we use a FRET based ratiometric sensing approach to detect the level of HA-ase in synthetic urine. For this, we have used a HA-FRET probe (hyaluronan) labeled with fluorescein as a donor and rhodamine as an acceptor. We monitor the digestion of our HA-FRET probe with different concentrations of HA-ase in synthetic urine via fluorescence emission. The extent to which FRET is released depends on the concentration of HA-ase. Our fluorescence intensity results are also supported with time resolved fluorescence decay data. This assay can be used to develop a non-invasive technique for the detection of bladder and/or prostate cancer progression. PMID:23360262

  9. Hippuric acid, phenol, and trichloroacetic acid levels in the urine of Japanese subjects with no known exposure to organic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Ohtsuji, Hatsue

    1969-01-01

    Ikeda, M., and Ohtsuji, H. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 162-164. Hippuric acid, phenol, and trichloroacetic acid levels in the urine of Japanese subjects with no known exposure to organic solvents. Urine samples from 36 male and 30 female university students and 31 male factory workers with no known exposure to industrial organic solvents were analysed for hippuric acid, phenol, and trichloroacetic acid, which are the major metabolites of toluene, benzene, and trichloroethylene respectively. The normal levels were less than 1·4 g./l. for hippuric acid, less than 80 mg./l. for phenol, and less than 1 mg./l. for trichloroacetic acid. No evidence was obtained to suggest that correction for urine concentration with either specific gravity or creatinine concentration minimizes individual variation of metabolite levels. PMID:5780109

  10. Looking at the urine: the renaissance of an unbroken tradition.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2007-06-01

    The science of looking at the urine for diagnostic purposes, uroscopy, is as ancient as disease. Throughout history, urine, the first bodily fluid to be examined, has continuously and persistently provided medicine with an increasing body of knowledge about the workings of the inner body. For most of its history, uroscopy was a visual science; this focus peaked in the Middle Ages, when the vessel used to examine urine, the matula, became a symbol of the medical profession. Over time, the practice of uroscopy spread into the hands of quacks and apothecaries, who prescribed and sold their potions by merely looking at the urine. The consequent reformation measures of the 16th and 17th centuries coincided with the first attempts at analyzing the contents of urine. As a result, many of the chemical components now reported in metabolic profiles were first analyzed and identified in urine during the first half of the 18th century. In the process, what started as a science that bordered on divination laid the foundations of chemical analysis and spawned the disciplines of urology, endocrinology, and, after the use of urine in clearance studies, nephrology. The analytical methods and remarkable achievements of each of these disciplines have increased the value of examining urine. A renaissance of this oldest diagnostic tool of medicine is now under way in the proteomic profiling and detection of biomarkers in the urine, an approach which promises to further extend the merits of the unbroken tradition of looking at the urine. PMID:17533032

  11. Selected pesticide residues and metabolites in urine from a survey of the U.S. general population.

    PubMed

    Kutz, F W; Cook, B T; Carter-Pokras, O D; Brody, D; Murphy, R S

    1992-10-01

    Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophosphorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or their metabolites. Urine concentration was also measured. The most frequently occurring residue in urine was pentachlorophenol (PCP), found in quantifiable concentrations in 71.6% of the general population with an estimated geometric mean level of 6.3 ng/ml. Percent quantifiable levels of PCP were found to be highest among males. Quantifiable concentrations of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (5.8%), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (3.4%), para-nitrophenol (2.4%), dicamba (1.4%), malathion dicarboxylic acid (0.5%), malathion alpha-monocarboxylic acid (1.1%), and 2,4-D (0.3%) were found, but at much lower frequencies. No quantifiable levels of 2,4,5-T or silvex were found. Preliminary analyses showed an apparent relationship between residue concentration and two measures of urine concentration (osmolality and creatinine). A large segment of the general population of the United States experienced exposure to certain pesticides, including some considered biodegradable, during the years 1976-1980. PMID:1404486

  12. Phosphate and potassium recovery from source separated urine through struvite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Wilsenach, J A; Schuurbiers, C A H; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2007-01-01

    Phosphate can be recovered as struvite or apatite in fluidised bed reactors. Urine has a much higher phosphate concentration than sludge reject water, allowing simpler (and less expensive) process for precipitation of phosphates. A stirred tank reactor with a special compartment for liquid solid separation was used to precipitate struvite from urine. Magnesium ammonium phosphate as well as potassium magnesium phosphate are two forms of struvite that were successfully precipitated. Liquid/solid separation was very effective, but the compaction of struvite was rather poor in the case of potassium struvite. Crystals did not form clusters and maintained the typical orthorhombic structure. Ammonium struvite had slightly lower effluent phosphate concentrations, but an average of 95% of influent phosphate was removed regardless of ammonium or potassium struvite precipitation. Fluid mechanics is believed to be important and should inform further work. PMID:17126877

  13. Comparison of Uric Acid Quantity with Different Food in Human Urine by Flow Injection Chemiluminescence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiajia; Tan, Xijuan; Song, Zhenghua

    2013-01-01

    Based on the inhibitory effect of uric acid (UA) on luminol-Co2+ chemiluminescence (CL) system, a sensitive method for the determination of UA at nanomolar level by flow injection (FI) CL was proposed. The proposed method was successfully applied to real-time monitoring of UA excretion in human 24?h urine with different food intake, showing that meats, vegetables, and porridge intake caused differential UA excretions of 879, 798, and 742?mg, respectively. It was also found that UA concentrations in urine under the three kinds of food intake simultaneously reached maximum at 2?h after meals with the values of 417, 318, and 288??g?mL?1, respectively. The UA concentration in human serum was also determined by this approach, and the possible mechanism of luminol-Co2+-UA?CL reaction was discussed in detail. PMID:24251067

  14. The Total Urine Protein-to-Creatinine Ratio Can Predict the Presence of Microalbuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Katsumi; Niwa, Koichiro; Nishi, Yutaro; Mizuno, Atsushi; Kuwabara, Masanari; Asano, Taku; Sakoda, Kunihiro; Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Nakahara, Fumiko; Takeda, Kyoko; Shindoh, Chiyohiko; Komatsu, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Background The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes chronic kidney disease (CKD) guidelines recommend that CKD be classified based on the etiology, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and degree of albuminuria. The present study aimed to establish a method that predicts the presence of microalbuminuria by measuring the total urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (TPCR) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods and Results We obtained urine samples from 1,033 patients who visited the cardiovascular clinic at St. Luke's International Hospital from February 2012 to August 2012. We measured the TPCR and the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) from random spot urine samples. We performed correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, and subgroup analyses. There was a strong positive correlation between the TPCR and ACR (R2?=?0.861, p<0.001). A ROC curve analysis for the TPCR revealed a sensitivity of 94.4%, a specificity of 86.1%, and an area under the curve of 0.903 for detecting microalbuminuria for a TPCR cut-off value of 84 mg/g of creatinine. The subgroup analysis indicated that the cut-off value could be used for patients with CVD risk factors. Conclusions These results suggest that the TPCR with an appropriate cut-off value could be used to screen for the presence of microalbuminuria in patients with CVD risk factors. This simple, inexpensive measurement has broader applications, leading to earlier intervention and public benefit. PMID:24614247

  15. Urine as a material for evaluation of exposure to manganese in methcathinone users.

    PubMed

    Golasik, Magdalena; Wodowski, Grzegorz; Gomó?ka, Ewa; Herman, Ma?gorzata; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2014-07-01

    Chronic exposure even to low doses of manganese may lead to development of neurological syndrome similar to parkinsonism. The aim of this research is to assess the possibility of manganese poisoning based on the level of metal in the urine of long-term methcathinone users from Poland. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) was used to determine manganese in urine, while the detection of the psychoactive drugs was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results of survey on longitudinal patterns of drug use showed that users of traditional illicit drugs now turn to cheaper alternatives, such as methcathinone. Parkinsonian features were observed in almost half of methcathinone users. The subjects had a higher mean level of Mn in their urine (8.68±9.27 ?g L(-1)) than the controls (4.27±1.91 ?g L(-1)). The presence of numerous psychoactive substances (in unchanged forms and their metabolites) was confirmed in all of the samples, with only one exception. The elevated level of manganese in urine (in 29.2% of patients) can be used as a primary marker of recent methcathinone administration, especially in the case of long time intravenous drug users where blood sampling is complicated. PMID:24867657

  16. Identification of urine protein biomarkers with the potential for early detection of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Cao, Jing; Li, Lin; Liu, Yanbin; Zhao, Hong; Li, Nan; Li, Bo; Zhang, Aiqun; Huang, Huanwei; Chen, She; Dong, Mengqiu; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and has an overall 5-year survival rate lower than 15%. Large-scale clinical trials have demonstrated a significant relative reduction in mortality in high-risk individuals with low-dose computed tomography screening. However, biomarkers capable of identifying the most at-risk population and detecting lung cancer before it becomes clinically apparent are urgently needed in the clinic. Here, we report the identification of urine biomarkers capable of detecting lung cancer. Using the well-characterized inducible Kras (G12D) mouse model of lung cancer, we identified alterations in the urine proteome in tumor-bearing mice compared with sibling controls. Marked differences at the proteomic level were also detected between the urine of patients and that of healthy population controls. Importantly, we identified 7 proteins commonly found to be significantly up-regulated in both tumor-bearing mice and patients. In an independent cohort, we showed that 2 of the 7 proteins were up-regulated in urine samples from lung cancer patients but not in those from controls. The kinetics of these proteins correlated with the disease state in the mouse model. These tumor biomarkers could potentially aid in the early detection of lung cancer. PMID:26133466

  17. Thin layer chromatography of p-aminophenol in urine after mixed exposure to aniline and toluene.

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, G; Karma?ska, K; Wilczok, T

    1984-01-01

    A simple method of evaluating p-aminophenol in the urine of people exposed simultaneously to aniline and toluene relies on separating p-aminophenol from hippuric acid and other physiological components of the urine by thin layer chromatography. The adsorbents and developing system have been thus fixed to make possible the separation of p-aminophenol from hippuric acid, urea, and creatinine and their quantitative determination. This method also makes possible the determination of p-aminophenol in urine in the presence of hippuric acid. Hippuric acid is a physiological component of urine and also the metabolite of toluene, so the determination of p-aminophenol is possible also after simultaneous exposure to both compounds: aniline and toluene. At the same time the concentrations of urea and creatinine as additional factors may be determined. The limit of detection of the method is: 5 micrograms/ml for p-aminophenol, 9 micrograms/ml for hippuric acid, 8 micrograms/ml for urea, and 6 micrograms/ml for creatinine. PMID:6722055

  18. [Evaluation of the coagglutination reaction with urine in generalized forms of meningococcal infection].

    PubMed

    Kostiukova, N N; Merzeniuk, Z A

    1991-01-01

    The coagglutination test with concentrated urine was tried in 59 patients with validated generalized forms of meningococcal infection and in 23 ones with meningitides and pneumonia of a different etiology to assess the diagnostic value of this test. Positive results were obtained in 64.4% of the test group patient and in 4.3% of the reference patients (in a case with pneumococcal meningitis). The antigen serologic group in the urine coincided with the serologic group of the meningococcus that induced the disease in only 19 (50%) of the 38 patients in whom antigenuria+ was detected. In the rest cases urine samples reacted parallel with 2-7 antisera, in 5 patients with the antisera heterologic towards the serologic group of the meningococcus responsible for the disease. Antigenuria was observed between the second and ninth days of the illness, its peak was recorded on days 4-6. Repeated urine tests are more likely to yield positive results. The authors come to a conclusion that the test is simple and harmless for patients, but the presence of false positive results permits regarding it as but an auxiliary one. PMID:1721968

  19. Analysis of acetylene in blood and urine using cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Hara, Kenji; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kageura, Mitsuyoshi; Takamoto, Mutsuo; Matsusue, Aya; Sugimura, Tomoko; Kubo, Shin-ichi

    2009-09-01

    A method for quantitative analysis of acetylene in blood and urine samples was investigated. Using cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), acetylene was measured with isobutane as the internal standard in the headspace method, which revealed a linear response over the entire composite range with an excellent correlation coefficient, both in blood (R = 0.9968, range = 5.39-43.1 microg/ml) and urine (R = 0.9972, range = 2.16-10.8 microg/ml). The coefficients of variation (CV) for blood ranged from 2.62 to 11.6% for intra-day and 4.55 to 10.4% for inter-day. The CV for urine ranged from 2.38 to 3.10% for intra-day and 4.83 to 11.0% for inter-day. The recovery rate as an index of accuracy ranged from 83 to 111%. The present method showed good reliability, and is also simple and rapid. In actual samples from a charred cadaver due to acetylene explosion, the measured concentrations of acetylene by this method were 21.5 microg/ml for femoral vein blood, 17.9 microg/ml for right atrial blood, 25.5 microg/ml for left atrial blood and 7.49 microg/ml for urine. Quantification of acetylene provides important information, because the acetylene concentration is a vital reaction or sign. For example, when acetylene is filled in a closed space and then explodes, in antemortem explosion, the blood acetylene concentration of the cadaver might be significant. On the other hand, in postmortem explosion, acetylene is not detected in blood. Furthermore, when several victims are involved in one explosion, comparison of the sample concentrations can also provide useful information to establish the conditions at the accident scene; therefore, the present method is useful in forensics. PMID:19423404

  20. Estriol Excretion in the First-Voided Urine of Male Newborns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Fenner; G.-U. Lange; D. Moenkemeier; G. Ohlenroth

    1974-01-01

    Estriol concentration values in the first urine of 161 asymptomatic premature and mature newborns (mean birth weight, BW=3,312 g, range 1,350–4,320 g; mean gestational age, GA = 39.08 weeks, range 28–42 weeks) showed a positive correlation with increasing BW(r = 0.401, p < 0.001) as well as with GA (r = 0.432 p < 0.001). When urinary estriol levels were

  1. Determination of total tritium in urine from residents living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Qinshan, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bao-Ming; Ji, Yan-Qin; Tian, Qing; Shao, Xiang-Zhang; Yin, Liang-Liang; Su, Xu

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the tritium doses of the residents living in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant, urine samples of 34 adults were collected from residents living near the Qinshan nuclear power plant. The tritium-in-urine (HTO plus OBT) was measured by liquid scintillation counting. The doses of tritium-in-urine from participants living at 2, 10 and 22 km were in a range of 1.26-6.73 Bq/L, 1.31-3.09 Bq/L and 2.21-3.81 Bq/L, respectively, while the average activity concentrations of participants from the three groups were 3.53 ± 1.62, 2.09 ± 0.62 and 2.97 ± 0.78 Bq/L, respectively. The personal committed effective doses for males were 2.5 ± 1.7 nSv and for females they were 2.9 ± 1.3 nSv. These results indicate that tritium concentrations in urine samples from residents living at 2 km from a nuclear power plant are significantly higher than those at 10 km. It may be the downwind direction that caused a higher dose in participants living at 22 km. All the measured doses of tritium-in-urine are in a background level range. PMID:25602973

  2. Determination of urinary lead, cadmium and nickel in steel production workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Jyi Horng; Jin-Lian Tsai; Ping-Hua Horng; Shih-Ching Lin; Shinine-Ren Lin; Cherng-Chyi Tzeng

    2002-01-01

    The determination of toxic metals in urine is an important clinical screening procedure. In this study, the aim of our investigation was to determine the concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Ni in urine samples under routine clinical laboratory conditions. To assess the reliability of these methods, critical factors such as detection limit(s), calibration range(s), cost, accuracy and precision were studied.

  3. Grant Reference Lead / Sole

    E-print Network

    Rank Overall Score Grant Reference Lead / Sole Grant Grant Holder Research Organisation Project sediment-concentration and velocity data for submarine turbidity currents Standard Grant DEC12 1 9 NE-concentration and velocity data for submarine turbidity currents Standard Grant DEC12 2 8 NE/K015184/1 Y Alistair Pike

  4. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence). PMID:21810007

  5. Monitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review

    PubMed Central

    Enerly, Espen; Olofsson, Cecilia; Nygård, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, and many countries now offer vaccination against HPV to girls by way of government-funded national immunization programs. Monitoring HPV prevalence in adolescents could offer a near-term biological measure of vaccine impact, and urine sampling may be an attractive large-scale method that could be used for this purpose. Our objective was to provide an overview of the literature on HPV DNA detection in urine samples, with an emphasis on adolescents. We searched the PubMed database using the terms “HPV” and “urine” and identified 21 female and 14 male study populations in which HPV prevalence in urine samples was reported, four of which included only asymptomatic female adolescents. We provide herein an overview of the recruitment setting, age, urine sampling procedure, lesion type, HPV assay, and HPV prevalence in urine samples and other urogenital samples for the studies included in this review. In female study populations, concordance for any HPV type and type-specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples are provided in addition to sensitivity and specificity. We concluded that few studies on HPV prevalence in urine samples have been performed in asymptomatic female adolescent populations but that urine samples may be a useful alternative to cervical samples to monitor changes in HPV prevalence in females in the post-HPV vaccination era. However, care should be taken when extrapolating HPV findings from urine samples to the cervix. In males, urine samples do not seem to be optimal for monitoring HPV prevalence due to a low human genomic DNA content and HPV DNA detection rate compared to other urogenital sites. In each situation the costs and benefits of HPV DNA detection in urine compared to alternative monitoring options should be carefully considered. PMID:23516174

  6. Presence of Donor and Recipient-derived DNA in Cell-free Urine Samples of Renal Transplantation Recipients: Urinary DNA Chimerism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhang; Kwok-Lung Tong; Philip K. T. Li; Albert Y. W. Chan; Chung-Kwong Yeung; Calvin C. P. Pang; Teresa Y. H. Wong; Kam-Cheong Lee; Y. M. Dennis Lo

    1999-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have indicated that mi- crochimerism is present in body tissues, peripheral blood, and plasma of recipients after organ transplanta- tion. We hypothesize that donor-derived DNA may also be present in cell-free urine of renal transplant recipi- ents and that the concentrations of urine DNA may be correlated with graft rejection. Methods: Thirty-one female patients who had renal

  7. Novel high-performance liquid chromatographic and solid-phase extraction methods for quantitating methadone and its metabolite in spiked human urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Fong Cheng; Uwe D Neue; Laura L Woods

    1999-01-01

    A novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) method and HPLC method were developed for the determination of methadone and its metabolite from spiked human urine. For sample cleanup, a spiked urine sample was pretreated with phosphoric acid followed by a well-thought-out SPE method using a 10-mg Oasis HLB 96-well extraction plate. In this SPE method, the concentration of methanol as well as

  8. Determination of cocaine and benzoylecgonine by direct injection of human urine into a column-switching liquid chromatography system with diode-array detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Brunetto; Y. Delgado Cayama; L. Gutiérrez García; M. Gallignani; M. A. Obando

    2005-01-01

    A method for the determination of cocaine (COC) and benzoylecgonine (BZE) in human urine using a column-switching liquid chromatography system is reported. A homemade precolumn (20mm×4.6mm i.d.) dry-packed with Alltech ODS-C18 (35–750?m) was employed as an extraction precolumn in order to extract and concentrate the COC and BZE from the human urine sample. The analytes were continuously transferred to the

  9. Effects of chondroitin sulphate, human serum albumin and Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein on calcium oxalate crystallization in undiluted human urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Ryall; R. M. Harnett; C. M. Hibberd; K. A. Edyvane; V. R. Marshall

    1991-01-01

    The effects of physiological concentrations of chondroitin sulphate, human serum albumin and Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein on the crystallization of calcium oxalate in undiluted, ultrafiltered human urine were investigated using particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Neither the amount of oxalate required to induce detectable calcium oxalate crystal nucleation nor crystal morphology was affected by the presence of any of these

  10. Development testing of a shuttle urine collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests conducted in December 1973 demonstrated the ability of an unisexual urine collection subsystem to function in a zero-g environment. The urinal, which could be adjusted with three degrees of freedom, accommodated 16 female test subjects with a wide range of stature, as well as five male test subjects. The urinal was in intimate contact with the female and was contoured to form an effective air seal at the periphery. When positioned 2-4 inches forward, the urinal could be used for male collection and contact was not required.

  11. Human Urine as a Noninvasive Source of Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira Arcolino, Fanny; Tort Piella, Agnès; Papadimitriou, Elli; Bussolati, Benedetta; Antonie, Daniel J.; Murray, Patricia; van den Heuvel, Lamberthus; Levtchenko, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Urine represents an unlimited source of patient-specific kidney cells that can be harvested noninvasively. Urine derived podocytes and proximal tubule cells have been used to study disease mechanisms and to screen for novel drug therapies in a variety of human kidney disorders. The urinary kidney stem/progenitor cells and extracellular vesicles, instead, might be promising for therapeutic treatments of kidney injury. The greatest advantages of urine as a source of viable cells are the easy collection and less complicated ethical issues. However, extensive characterization and in vivo studies still have to be performed before the clinical use of urine-derived kidney progenitors.

  12. Ammonia inactivation of Ascaris ova in ecological compost by using urine and ash.

    PubMed

    McKinley, James W; Parzen, Rebecca E; Mercado Guzmán, Álvaro

    2012-08-01

    Viable ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, an indicator organism for pathogens, are frequently found in feces-derived compost produced from ecological toilets, demonstrating that threshold levels of time, temperature, pH, and moisture content for pathogen inactivation are not routinely met. Previous studies have determined that NH(3) has ovicidal properties for pathogens, including Ascaris ova. This research attempted to achieve Ascaris inactivation via NH(3) under environmental conditions commonly found in ecological toilets and using materials universally available in an ecological sanitation setting, including compost (feces and sawdust), urine, and ash. Compost mixed with stored urine and ash produced the most rapid inactivation, with significant inactivation observed after 2 weeks and with a time to 99% ovum inactivation (T(99)) of 8 weeks. Compost mixed with fresh urine and ash achieved a T(99) of 15 weeks, after a 4-week lag phase. Both matrices had relatively high total-ammonia concentrations and pH values of >9.24 (pK(a) of ammonia). In compost mixed with ash only, and in compost mixed with fresh urine only, inactivation was observed after an 11-week lag phase. These matrices contained NH(3) concentrations of 164 to 173 and 102 to 277 mg/liter, respectively, when inactivation occurred, which was below the previously hypothesized threshold for inactivation (280 mg/liter), suggesting that a lower threshold NH(3) concentration may be possible with a longer contact time. Other significant results include the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia between pH values of 10.4 and 11.6, above the literature threshold pH of 10. PMID:22582051

  13. Ammonia Inactivation of Ascaris Ova in Ecological Compost by Using Urine and Ash

    PubMed Central

    Parzen, Rebecca E.; Mercado Guzmán, Álvaro

    2012-01-01

    Viable ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, an indicator organism for pathogens, are frequently found in feces-derived compost produced from ecological toilets, demonstrating that threshold levels of time, temperature, pH, and moisture content for pathogen inactivation are not routinely met. Previous studies have determined that NH3 has ovicidal properties for pathogens, including Ascaris ova. This research attempted to achieve Ascaris inactivation via NH3 under environmental conditions commonly found in ecological toilets and using materials universally available in an ecological sanitation setting, including compost (feces and sawdust), urine, and ash. Compost mixed with stored urine and ash produced the most rapid inactivation, with significant inactivation observed after 2 weeks and with a time to 99% ovum inactivation (T99) of 8 weeks. Compost mixed with fresh urine and ash achieved a T99 of 15 weeks, after a 4-week lag phase. Both matrices had relatively high total-ammonia concentrations and pH values of >9.24 (pKa of ammonia). In compost mixed with ash only, and in compost mixed with fresh urine only, inactivation was observed after an 11-week lag phase. These matrices contained NH3 concentrations of 164 to 173 and 102 to 277 mg/liter, respectively, when inactivation occurred, which was below the previously hypothesized threshold for inactivation (280 mg/liter), suggesting that a lower threshold NH3 concentration may be possible with a longer contact time. Other significant results include the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia between pH values of 10.4 and 11.6, above the literature threshold pH of 10. PMID:22582051

  14. The precipitation of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate for P and K recovery from synthetic urine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kangning; Li, Jiyun; Zheng, Min; Zhang, Chi; Xie, Tao; Wang, Chengwen

    2015-09-01

    Nutrients recovery from urine to close the nutrient loop is one of the most attractive benefits of source separation in wastewater management. The current study presents an investigation of the thermodynamic modeling of the recovery of P and K from synthetic urine via the precipitation of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate (MPP). Experimental results show that maximum recovery efficiencies of P and K reached 99% and 33%, respectively, when the precipitation process was initiated only through adding dissolvable Mg compound source. pH level and molar ratio of Mg:P were key factors determining the nutrient recovery efficiencies. Precipitation equilibrium of MPP and magnesium sodium phosphate heptahydrate (MSP) was confirmed via precipitates analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Spectrometer and an X-ray Diffractometer. Then, the standard solubility products of MPP and MSP in the synthetic urine were estimated to be 10(-12.2 ± 0.0.253) and 10(-11.6 ± 0.253), respectively. The thermodynamic model formulated on chemical software PHREEQC could well fit the experimental results via comparing the simulated and measured concentrations of K and P in equilibrium. Precipitation potentials of three struvite-type compounds were calculated through thermodynamic modeling. Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MAP) has a much higher tendency to precipitate than MPP and MSP in normal urine while MSP was the main inhibitor of MPP in ammonium-removed urine. To optimize the K recovery, ammonium should be removed prior as much as possible and an alternative alkaline compound should be explored for pH adjustment rather than NaOH. PMID:25996754

  15. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... purposes for centuries. • Lead was widely used in paint and gasoline in the U.S. until the 1970’s. • ... were built before 1978 are likely to have paint that contains lead. If this paint is disturbed, ...

  16. Urine-activated paper batteries for biosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang Lee, Ki

    2005-09-01

    The first urine-activated laminated paper batteries have been demonstrated and reported in this paper. A simple and cheap fabrication process for the paper batteries has been developed which is compatible with the existing plastic laminating technologies or plastic molding technologies. In this battery, a magnesium (Mg) layer and copper chloride (CuCl) in the filter paper are used as the anode and the cathode, respectively. A stack consisting of a Mg layer, CuCl-doped filter paper and a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between two plastic layers is laminated into the paper batteries by passing through the heating roller at 120 °C. The paper battery is tested and it can deliver a power greater than 1.5 mW. In addition, these urine-activated laminated paper batteries could be integrated with bioMEMS devices such as home-based health test kits providing a power source for the electronic circuit. A portion of this paper was presented at The 4th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004), 28 30 November, 2004, Kyoto, Japan.

  17. Direct determination of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in postmortem urine specimens using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Ahmed I; Anderson, Robert A; Appelblad, Patrik

    2010-06-01

    This work was aimed at developing and validating a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometric method for identification and quantification of ethyl glucuronide (ETG) and ethyl sulfate (ETS) as ethanol biomarkers and at employing this method for analysis of postmortem urine samples. Analytes of interest were separated on a ZIC-HILIC column (150 x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) connected to a Thermo Finnigan LCQ Deca Plus liquid chromatographic- tandem mass spectrometric instrument operated in the ESI-selected reaction monitoring mode. Seventy-nine urine case samples were divided into three groups depending on the ethanol concentration found in blood and analyzed by the developed method: group A with postmortem blood ethanol concentrations higher than 200 mg/100 mL; group B with ethanol concentrations in the range 80-200 mg/100 mL; and group C with ethanol concentrations in the range 10-80 mg/100 mL. ETG and ETS had high recoveries of 98-99%, and the HILIC column produced fine, sharp peak shapes and achieved baseline separation in less than 7 min. Both ethanol markers were detected in all groups with overall median concentrations of 100 and 23 mg/L for ETG and ETS, respectively. It can be concluded that the potential for postmortem production of alcohol increased in the low ethanol concentration group as several cases tested negative for both biomarkers in group C. ETG was detected at low concentrations in some cases for which ETS tested negative. Although ETS is stable after being subjected to many stability conditions, the use of ETS as sole evidence of alcohol ingestion may lead to a false-negative result, as we noticed in groups A and C in the present study. The use of ETG is a more reliable ethanol biomarker. Both ethanol biomarkers should be determined in heavily putrefied cases and when the ethanol concentration in postmortem blood is low. PMID:20529460

  18. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carrier, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three different mineral acids were substituted for sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the urine stabilizer solution to eliminate the excess of sulfate ions in pretreated urine and assess the impact on maximum water recovery to avoid precipitation of minerals during distillation. The study evaluated replacing 98% sulfuric acid with 85% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), 37% hydrochloric acid (HCl), or 70% nitric acid (HNO3). The effect of lowering the oxidizer concentration in the pretreatment formulation also was studied. This paper summarizes the test results, defines candidate formulations for further study, and specifies the injection masses required to stabilize urine and minimize the risk of mineral precipitation during distillation. In the first test with a brine ersatz acidified with different acids, the solubility of calcium in gypsum saturated solutions was measured. The solubility of gypsum was doubled in the brines acidified with the alternative acids compared to sulfuric acid. In a second series of tests, the alternative acid pretreatment concentrations were effective at preventing precipitation of gypsum and other minerals up to 85% water recovery from 95th-percentile pretreated, augmented urine. Based on test results, phosphoric acid is recommended as the safest alternative to sulfuric acid. It also is recommended that the injected mass concentration of chromium trioxide solution be reduced by 75% to minimize liquid resupply mass by about 50%, reduce toxicity of brines, and reduce the concentration of organic acids in distillate. The new stabilizer solution formulations and required doses to stabilize urine and prevent precipitation of minerals up to 85% water recovery are given. The formulations in this study were tested on a limited number of artificially augmented urine batches collected from employees at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). This study successfully demonstrated that the desired physical and chemical stability of pretreated urine and brines can be achieved using alternate pretreatment formulations under laboratory conditions. Additional testing and hazard assessments will be required to determine the feasibility of utilizing the proposed urine pretreatment formulations on ISS.

  19. Hepatitis B virus DNA in saliva, urine, and seminal fluid of carriers of hepatitis B e antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Karayiannis, P; Novick, D M; Lok, A S; Fowler, M J; Monjardino, J; Thomas, H C

    1985-01-01

    Concentrated samples of saliva, urine, and seminal fluid from 23 men with chronic liver disease who were positive for hepatitis B e antigen were examined for the presence of hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV-DNA) by molecular hybridisation. HBV-DNA was detected in saliva from 15 of 17 men (88%), urine from 12 of 22 men (55%), and seminal fluid from 13 of 21 men (62%). The presence of hepatitis B virus in such secretions has important epidemiological implications for heterosexual and homosexual contact. Images p1854-a PMID:3924282

  20. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in urine after consumption of various beverages and foods—misleading results?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Musshoff; Elena Albermann; Burkhard Madea

    2010-01-01

    Urine testing for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is used to spot recent alcohol intake and is utilized to document alcohol abstinence.\\u000a However, other possible sources of ethanol existed when special beverages or foods were ingested. EtG concentration curves\\u000a in urine were measured after the consumption of non-alcoholic beers, fruit juices, sauerkraut, and matured bananas. Using\\u000a a cutoff of 0.1 mg\\/l, positive EtG