Sample records for uropathogenic escherichia coli

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain CI5.

    PubMed

    Mehershahi, Kurosh S; Abraham, Soman N; Chen, Swaine L

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli represents the primary etiological agent responsible for urinary tract infections, one of the most common infections in humans. We report here the complete genome sequence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CI5, a clinical pyelonephritis isolate used for studying pathogenesis. PMID:26021932

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain CI5

    PubMed Central

    Mehershahi, Kurosh S.; Abraham, Soman N.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli represents the primary etiological agent responsible for urinary tract infections, one of the most common infections in humans. We report here the complete genome sequence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CI5, a clinical pyelonephritis isolate used for studying pathogenesis. PMID:26021932

  3. Biochemical characteristic of biofilm of uropathogenic Escherichia coli Dr(+) strains.

    PubMed

    Zalewska-Pi?tek, Beata; Wilkanowicz, Sabina; Bru?dziak, Piotr; Pi?tek, Rafa?; Kur, Józef

    2013-07-19

    Urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli are very common health problem in the developed countries. The virulence of the uropathogenic E. coli Dr(+) IH11128 is determined by Dr fimbriae, which are homopolymeric structures composed of DraE subunits with the DraD protein capping the fiber. In this study, we have analyzed the structural and biochemical properties of biofilms developed by E. coli strains expressing Dr fimbriae with or without the DraD tip subunit and the surface-exposed DraD protein. We have also demonstrated that these E. coli strains form biofilms on an abiotic surface in a nutrient-dependent fashion. We present evidence that Dr fimbriae are necessary during the first stage of bacterial interaction with the abiotic surface. In addition, we reveal that the DraD alone is also sufficient for the initial surface attachment at an even higher level than Dr fimbriae and that chloramphenicol is able to reduce the normal attachment of the analyzed E. coli. The action of chloramphenicol also shows that protein synthesis is required for the early events of biofilm formation. Additionally, we have identified reduced exopolysaccharide coverage in E. coli that express only Dr fimbrial polyadhesins at the cell surface with or without the DraD capping subunit. PMID:23375236

  4. Intracellular bacterial communities of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urinary tract pathogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory G. Anderson; Karen W. Dodson; Thomas M. Hooton; Scott J. Hultgren

    2004-01-01

    Urinary tract infections in young, healthy women frequently recur, despite their traditional classification as acute infections. Conventional wisdom dictates that uropathogens causing recurrent infections in such individuals come from the fecal or vaginal flora, in the same manner as the initial infection. However, recent studies of uropathogenic Escherichia coli have found that it can carry out a complex developmental program

  5. Biofilm and fluoroquinolone resistance of canine Escherichia coli uropathogenic isolates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli is the most common uropathogen involved in urinary tract infection (UTI). Virulence of strains may differ, and may be enhanced by antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation, resulting in increased morbidity and recurrent infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro biofilm forming capacity of E. coli isolates from dogs with UTI, by using fluorescent in situ hybridization, and its association with virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance. Findings The proportion of biofilm-producing isolates significantly increased with the length of incubation time (P??0.05), but was significantly associated with afa, aer and the ?-lactamase genes (P?coli isolates from dogs with UTI. Biofilm formation may contribute to UTI treatment failure in dogs, through the development of bacterial reservoirs inside bladder cells, allowing them to overcome host immune defenses and to establish recurrent infections. PMID:25099929

  6. Bacteriophages with the ability to degrade uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms.

    PubMed

    Chibeu, Andrew; Lingohr, Erika J; Masson, Luke; Manges, Amee; Harel, Josée; Ackermann, Hans-W; Kropinski, Andrew M; Boerlin, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Escherichia coli-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. UTIs are usually managed with antibiotic therapy, but over the years, antibiotic-resistant strains of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) have emerged. The formation of biofilms further complicates the treatment of these infections by making them resistant to killing by the host immune system as well as by antibiotics. This has encouraged research into therapy using bacteriophages (phages) as a supplement or substitute for antibiotics. In this study we characterized 253 UPEC in terms of their biofilm-forming capabilities, serotype, and antimicrobial resistance. Three phages were then isolated (vB_EcoP_ACG-C91, vB_EcoM_ACG-C40 and vB_EcoS_ACG-M12) which were able to lyse 80.5% of a subset (42) of the UPEC strains able to form biofilms. Correlation was established between phage sensitivity and specific serotypes of the UPEC strains. The phages' genome sequences were determined and resulted in classification of vB_EcoP_ACG-C91 as a SP6likevirus, vB_EcoM_ACG-C40 as a T4likevirus and vB_EcoS_ACG-M12 as T1likevirus. We assessed the ability of the three phages to eradicate the established biofilm of one of the UPEC strains used in the study. All phages significantly reduced the biofilm within 2-12 h of incubation. PMID:22590682

  7. Transposon Mutagenesis Identifies Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Biofilm Factors

    PubMed Central

    Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Gu, Alice P.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Kostakioti, Maria; Zhang, Ellisa W.; Greene, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which accounts for 85% of urinary tract infections (UTI), assembles biofilms in diverse environments, including the host. Besides forming biofilms on biotic surfaces and catheters, UPEC has evolved an intracellular pathogenic cascade that culminates in the formation of biofilm-like intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) within bladder epithelial cells. Rapid bacterial replication during IBC formation augments a build-up in bacterial numbers and persistence within the host. Relatively little is known about factors mediating UPEC biofilm formation and how these overlap with IBC formation. To address this gap, we screened a UPEC transposon mutant library in three in vitro biofilm conditions: Luria broth (LB)-polyvinyl chloride (PVC), YESCA (yeast extract-Casamino Acids)-PVC, and YESCA-pellicle that are dependent on type 1 pili (LB) and curli (YESCA), respectively. Flagella are important in all three conditions. Mutants were identified that had biofilm defects in all three conditions but had no significant effects on the expression of type 1 pili, curli, or flagella. Thus, this approach uncovered a comprehensive inventory of novel effectors and regulators that are involved in UPEC biofilm formation under multiple conditions. A subset of these mutants was found to be dramatically attenuated and unable to form IBCs in a murine model of UTI. Collectively, this study expands our insights into UPEC multicellular behavior that may provide insights into IBC formation and virulence. PMID:22984258

  8. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Antigens Expressed during Urinary Tract Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin C. Hagan; Harry L. T. Mobley

    2007-01-01

    Received 2 March 2007\\/Returned for modification 13 April 2007\\/Accepted 14 May 2007 Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) represents a prevalent and potentially severe infectious disease. In this study, we describe the application of an immuno- proteomics approach to vaccine development that has been used successfully to identify vaccine targets in other pathogenic bacteria. Outer

  9. Impact of the RNA Chaperone Hfq on the Fitness and Virulence Potential of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard R. Kulesus; Karen Diaz-Perez; E. Susan Slechta; Danelle S. Eto; Matthew A. Mulvey

    2008-01-01

    Hfq is a bacterial RNA chaperone involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of many stress-inducible genes via small noncoding RNAs. Here, we show that Hfq is critical for the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolate UTI89 to effectively colonize the bladder and kidneys in a murine urinary tract infection model system. The disruption of hfq did not affect bacterial adherence to or

  10. Identification of Type 3 Fimbriae in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Reveals a Role in Biofilm Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl-Lynn Y. Ong; Glen C. Ulett; Amanda N. Mabbett; Scott A. Beatson; Richard I. Webb; Wayne Monaghan; Graeme R. Nimmo; David F. Looke; Alastair G. McEwan; Mark A. Schembri

    2008-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the United States. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most common cause of CAUTI, can form biofilms on indwelling catheters. Here, we identify and characterize novel factors that affect biofilm formation by UPEC strains that cause CAUTI. Sixty-five CAUTI UPEC isolates were characterized for phenotypic markers of urovirulence, including

  11. Bad bugs and beleaguered bladders: Interplay between uropathogenic Escherichia coli and innate host defenses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Mulvey; Joel D. Schilling; Juan J. Martinez; Scott J. Hultgren

    Strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the causative agents in the vast majority of all urinary tract infections. Upon entering the urinary tract, UPEC strains face a formidable array of host defenses, including the flow of urine and a panoply of antimicrobial factors. To gain an initial foothold within the blad- der, most UPEC strains encode filamentous surface adhesive

  12. Active Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Associated with Outer Membrane Vesicles from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Clavin Kouokam; Sun Nyunt Wai; Maria Fallman; Ulrich Dobrindt; Jorg Hacker; Bernt Eric Uhlin

    2006-01-01

    Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1) is one of the virulence factors produced by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). How this toxin is translocated from the bacterial cytoplasm to the surrounding environment is not well understood. Our data suggest that CNF1 may be regarded as a secreted protein, since it could be detected in culture supernatants. Furthermore, we found that CNF1

  13. Loss of Regulatory Protein RfaH Attenuates Virulence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabor Nagy; Ulrich Dobrindt; Gyorgy Schneider; A. Salam Khan; Jorg Hacker; Levente Emody

    2002-01-01

    RfaH is a regulatory protein in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Although it enhances expression of different factors that are proposed to play a role in bacterial virulence, a direct effect of RfaH on virulence has not been investigated so far. We report that inactivation of rfaH dramatically decreases the virulence of uropathogenic E. coli strain 536 in

  14. Effects of green tea on Escherichia coli as a uropathogen

    PubMed Central

    Noormandi, Afsaneh; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infections. The development of antibiotic resistance in E. coli is an important problem. Finding alternative antimicrobial agents from plant extracts has received growing interest. Camellia sinensis is a safe, nontoxic, cheap beverage that has been reported to have antimicrobial effects against various pathogenic bacteria including E. coli. Polyphenolic components of green tea (?? l? chá) have antibacterial activity. Catechins also have synergistic effect with antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin, levofloxacin, gentamycin, methicillin, naldixic acid, and, especially ciprofloxacin. In this review, all experimental studies that evaluated the effect of green tea on E. coli were collected. Data from in vitro studies on the antimicrobial effects of green tea are promising, but human data are currently lacking. In vivo studies on antibacterial effects of green tea and evaluating the efficacy of its catechins in the treatment of urinary tract infection are needed.

  15. Identification of a type III secretion system in uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Miyazaki; William Ba-Thein; Toshio Kumao; Hideyuki Akaza; Hideo Hayashi

    2002-01-01

    To determine virulence-related genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) showing invasiveness to T-24 bladder cancer cells, genomic subtractive hybridization was performed between a highly invasive and a less invasive strain. Forty-nine DNA fragments were isolated from the invasive strain. One of them showed homology with Salmonella invA gene. By chromosomal walking of the strain, a type III secretion system that

  16. The asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972 outcompetes uropathogenic E. coli strains in human urine.

    PubMed

    Roos, Viktoria; Ulett, Glen C; Schembri, Mark A; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which causes symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI), very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the human urinary tract. The prototype ABU E. coli strain 83972 was originally isolated from a girl who had carried it asymptomatically for 3 years. Deliberate colonization of UTI-susceptible individuals with E. coli 83972 has been used successfully as an alternative approach for the treatment of patients who are refractory to conventional therapy. Colonization with strain 83972 appears to prevent infection with UPEC strains in such patients despite the fact that this strain is unable to express the primary adhesins involved in UTI, viz. P and type 1 fimbriae. Here we investigated the growth characteristics of E. coli 83972 in human urine and show that it can outcompete a representative spectrum of UPEC strains for growth in urine. The unique ability of ABU E. coli 83972 to outcompete UPEC in urine was also demonstrated in a murine model of human UTI, confirming the selective advantage over UPEC in vivo. Comparison of global gene expression profiles of E. coli 83972 grown in lab medium and human urine revealed significant differences in expression levels in the two media; significant down-regulation of genes encoding virulence factors such as hemolysin, lipid A, and capsular polysaccharides was observed in cells grown in urine. Clearly, divergent abilities of ABU E. coli and UPEC to exploit human urine as a niche for persistence and survival suggest that these key differences may be exploited for preventative and/or therapeutic approaches. PMID:16369018

  17. The Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Escherichia coli Strain 83972 Outcompetes Uropathogenic E. coli Strains in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Viktoria; Ulett, Glen C.; Schembri, Mark A.; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which causes symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI), very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the human urinary tract. The prototype ABU E. coli strain 83972 was originally isolated from a girl who had carried it asymptomatically for 3 years. Deliberate colonization of UTI-susceptible individuals with E. coli 83972 has been used successfully as an alternative approach for the treatment of patients who are refractory to conventional therapy. Colonization with strain 83972 appears to prevent infection with UPEC strains in such patients despite the fact that this strain is unable to express the primary adhesins involved in UTI, viz. P and type 1 fimbriae. Here we investigated the growth characteristics of E. coli 83972 in human urine and show that it can outcompete a representative spectrum of UPEC strains for growth in urine. The unique ability of ABU E. coli 83972 to outcompete UPEC in urine was also demonstrated in a murine model of human UTI, confirming the selective advantage over UPEC in vivo. Comparison of global gene expression profiles of E. coli 83972 grown in lab medium and human urine revealed significant differences in expression levels in the two media; significant down-regulation of genes encoding virulence factors such as hemolysin, lipid A, and capsular polysaccharides was observed in cells grown in urine. Clearly, divergent abilities of ABU E. coli and UPEC to exploit human urine as a niche for persistence and survival suggest that these key differences may be exploited for preventative and/or therapeutic approaches. PMID:16369018

  18. ESBL-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from dogs and cats in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Huber, Helen; Zweifel, Claudio; Wittenbrink, Max M; Stephan, Roger

    2013-03-23

    Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia (E.) coli have emerged in human and veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ESBL-producers among uropathogenic E. coli isolated from dogs and cats and to characterize detected ESBL-producing isolates by antibiotic susceptibility testing, identification of ESBL genes, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), detection of putative virulence genes, and analysis of E. coli phylogroups. Among the 107 E. coli isolates derived from urinary samples (59 from dogs, 40 from cats), eight isolates from four different animals (two dogs, two cats) were found to be ESBL-producers. These isolates were of ST533/CTX-M-15/TEM/phylogroup B1 (four strains from one dog), ST410/CTX-M-15/TEM/phylogroup A (three strains, one from a dog and two from a cat), and ST648/CTX-M-15/phylogroup D (one strain from a cat). In terms of putative virulence factors, all isolates harbored lpfA, sat, and tsh, whereas iss was only detected in strains of ST533. Thus, ESBL-producers were detected among uropathogenic E. coli from Swiss companion animals and the eight CTX-M-15-producing isolates belonged to three sequence types (ST410, ST533, ST648) and three E. coli phylogroups (A, B1, D). For the first time, E. coli of ST533 carrying bla(CTX-M-15) were thereby detected in a dog. PMID:23177909

  19. Escherichia coli–Mediated Impairment of Ureteric Contractility Is Uropathogenic E. coli Specific

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Rachel V.; Upton, Mathew; Hultgren, Scott J.; Wray, Susan; Burdyga, Theodor V.; Winstanley, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Background.?Ureters are fundamental for keeping kidneys free from uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), but we have shown that 2 strains (J96 and 536) can subvert this role and reduce ureteric contractility. To determine whether this is (1) a widespread feature of UPEC, (2) exhibited only by UPEC, and (3) dependent upon type 1 fimbriae, we analyzed strains representing epidemiologically important multilocus sequence types ST131, ST73, and ST95 and non-UPEC E. coli. Methods.?Contractility and calcium transients in intact rat ureters were compared between strains. Mannose and fim mutants were used to investigate the role of type 1 fimbriae. Results.?Non-UPEC had no significant effect on contractility, with a mean decrease after 8 hours of 8.8%, compared with 8.8% in controls. UPEC effects on contractility were strain specific, with decreases from 9.47% to 96.7%. Mannose inhibited the effects of the most potent strains (CFT073 and UTI89) but had variable effects among other UPEC strains. Mutation and complementation studies showed that the effects of the UTI89 cystitis isolate were fimH dependent. Conclusions.?We find that (1) non-UPEC do not affect ureteric contractility, (2) impairment of contractility is a common feature of UPEC, and (3) the mechanism varies between strains, but for the most potent UPEC type 1 fimbriae are involved. PMID:23002447

  20. Photoluminescent Gold Nanoclusters as Sensing Probes for Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hong-Zheng; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Mong, Kwok Kong Tony; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2013-01-01

    Glycan-bound nanoprobes have been demonstrated as suitable sensing probes for bacteria containing glycan binding sites. In this study, we demonstrated a facile approach for generating glycan-bound gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). The generated AuNCs were used as sensing probes for corresponding target bacteria. Mannose-capped AuNCs (AuNCs@Mann) were generated and used as the model sensors for target bacteria. A one-step synthesis approach was employed to generate AuNCs@Mann. In this approach, an aqueous solution of tetrachloroauric acid and mannoside that functionized with a thiol group (Mann-SH) was stirred at room temperature for 48 h. The mannoside functions as reducing and capping agent. The size of the generated AuNCs@Mann is 1.95±0.27 nm, whereas the AuNCs with red photoluminescence have a maximum emission wavelength of ?630 nm (?excitation?=?375 nm). The synthesis of the AuNCs@Mann was accelerated by microwave heating, which enabled the synthesis of the AuNCs@Mann to complete within 1 h. The generated AuNCs@Mann are capable of selectively binding to the urinary tract infection isolate Escherichia coli J96 containing the mannose binding protein FimH expressed on the type 1 pili. On the basis of the naked eye observation, the limit of detection of the sensing approach is as low as ?2×106 cells/mL. PMID:23554874

  1. Transcriptional Responses of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli to Increased Environmental Osmolality Caused by Salt or Urea

    PubMed Central

    Withman, Benjamin; Gunasekera, Thusitha S.; Beesetty, Pavani; Agans, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common causative agent of urinary tract infections in humans. The majority of urinary infections develop via ascending route through the urethra, where bacterial cells come in contact with human urine prior to reaching the bladder or kidneys. Since urine contains significant amounts of inorganic ions and urea, it imposes osmotic and denaturing stresses on bacterial cells. In this study, we determined the transcriptional adaptive responses of UPEC strain CFT073 to the presence of 0.3 M NaCl or 0.6 M urea in the growth medium. The cell responses to these two osmolytes were drastically different. Although most of the genes of the osmotically inducible regulon were overexpressed in medium with salt, urea failed to stimulate osmotic stress response. At the same time, UPEC colonization genes encoding type 1 and F1C fimbriae and capsule biosynthesis were transcriptionally induced in the presence of urea but did not respond to increased salt concentration. We speculate that urea can potentially be sensed by uropathogenic bacteria to initiate infection program. In addition, several molecular chaperone genes were overexpressed in the presence of urea, whereas adding NaCl to the medium led to an upregulation of a number of anaerobic metabolism pathways. PMID:23090957

  2. Escherichia coli Serotype O15:K52:H1 as a Uropathogenic Clone

    PubMed Central

    Prats, Guillem; Navarro, Ferran; Mirelis, Beatriz; Dalmau, David; Margall, Nuria; Coll, Pere; Stell, Adam; Johnson, James R.

    2000-01-01

    To clarify the clinical and bacteriological correlates of urinary-tract infection (UTI) due to Escherichia coli O15:K52:H1, during a 1-year surveillance period we prospectively screened all 1,871 significant E. coli urine isolates at the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain, for this serotype and assessed the epidemiological features of community-acquired UTI due to E. coli O15:K52:H1 versus other E. coli serotypes. We also compared the 25 O15:K52:H1 UTI isolates from the present study with 22 O15:K52:H1 isolates from other, diverse geographic locales and with 23 standard control strains (8 strains from the ECOR reference collection and 15 strains of nonpathogenic O:K:H serotypes) with respect to multiple phenotypic and genotypic traits. Although E. coli O15:K52:H1 caused only 1.4% of community-acquired E. coli UTIs during the surveillance period, these UTIs were more likely to present as pyelonephritis and to occur in younger hosts, with similar risk factors, than were UTIs due to other E. coli serotypes. Irrespective of geographic origin, E. coli O15:K52:H1 strains exhibited a comparatively restricted repertoire of distinctive virulence factor profiles (typically, they were positive for papG allele II, papA allele F16, and aer and negative for sfa, afa, hly, and cnf1), biotypes, ribotypes, and amplotypes, consistent with a common clonal origin. In contrast, their antimicrobial resistance profiles were more extensive and more diverse than those of control strains. These findings indicate that E. coli O15:K52:H1 constitutes a broadly distributed and clinically significant uropathogenic clone with fluid antimicrobial resistance capabilities. PMID:10618088

  3. Relationship of biofilm formation and different virulence genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from Northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Sargol; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Nahai, Mohammad Reza; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Nori, Roghaya; Aghazadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: The Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterium is one of the main causative agents of urinary tract infections (UTI) worldwide. The ability of this bacterium to form biofilms on medical devices such as catheters plays an important role in the development of UTI. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship between virulence factors and biofilm formation of E. coli isolates responsible for urinary tract infection. Materials and methods: A total of 100 E. coli isolates isolated from patients with UTI were collected and characterized by routine bacteriological methods. In vitro biofilm formation by these isolates was determined using the 96-well microtiter-plate test, and the presence of fimA, papC, and hly virulence genes was examined by PCR assay. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0 software. Results: From 100 E. coli isolates isolated from UTIs, 92% were shown to be biofilm positive. The genes papC, fimA, and hly were detected in 43%, 94% and 26% of isolates, respectively. Biofilm formation in isolates that expressed papC, fimA, and hly genes was 100%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. A significant relationship was found between presence of the papC gene and biofilm formation in E. coli isolates isolated from UTI (P<0.01), but there was no statistically significant correlation between presence of fimA and hly genes with biofilm formation (P<0.072, P<0.104). Conclusion: Results showed that fimA and hly genes do not seem to be necessary or sufficient for the production of biofilm in E. coli, but the presence of papC correlates with increased biofilm formation of urinary tract isolates. Overall, the presence of fimA, papC, and hly virulence genes coincides with in vitro biofilm formation in uropathogenic E. coli isolates.

  4. Colicin E2 Expression in Lactobacillus brevis DT24, A Vaginal Probiotic Isolate, against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Disha

    2014-01-01

    Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to combat the urinary tract infection in women. During menstruation elevated protein concentration and increase in oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations with decrease in vaginal Lactobacilli all together contribute to urinary tract infections. Lactobacillus species are a predominant member of the vaginal microflora and are critical in the prevention of a number of urogenital diseases. In order to increase antimicrobial potential of vaginal Lactobacilli, bacteriocin colicin E2 which has specific activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been overexpressed in vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24. Recombinant Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 showed much higher inhibitory activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli than wild type L. brevis DT24 in vitro. Efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 protein is required for further in vivo evaluation. PMID:24649377

  5. Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokó?-??towska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2012-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095

  6. Genetics of digalactoside-binding adhesin from a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed Central

    Normark, S; Lark, D; Hull, R; Norgren, M; Bĺga, M; O'Hanley, P; Schoolnik, G; Falkow, S

    1983-01-01

    The uropathogenic strain Escherichia coli J96 mediates mannose-resistant hemagglutination owing to production of a digalactoside-binding adhesin. A cosmid clone from this strain has been isolated that, when harbored in E. coli K-12, expressed Pap pili and this adhesin (R. Hull et al., Infect. Immun. 33:933-938, 1981). By transposon mutagenesis and by the construction of a number of hybrid plasmid derivatives, we have demonstrated that about 8.5 kilobases of DNA is required to generate a mannose-resistant hemagglutination-positive phenotype in E. coli K-12 strain P678-54. The structural gene for the Pap pili monomer, papA, has been identified and mapped close to the promotor-proximal end of the Pap operon. Although strain P678-54 that harbored a Tn5 insertion within papA showed a mannose-resistant hemagglutination-positive phenotype, it was negative in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with anti-Pap pilus serum. This could mean that a Pap adhesin is encoded by a region on the Pap operon that is distinct from papA. Images PMID:6136465

  7. Avian P1 antigens inhibit agglutination mediated by P fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J R; Swanson, J L; Neill, M A

    1992-01-01

    Whole egg white from pigeon, dove, and cockatiel eggs, as well as the ovomucoid fraction of pigeon egg white, exhibited strong P1 antigenic activities and inhibited agglutination of human P1 erythrocytes and of digalactoside-coated latex beads by P-fimbriated Escherichia coli strains. In contrast, chicken egg white exhibited only weak P1 antigenic activity and had little impact on P-fimbrial agglutination. These preparations did not affect hemagglutination by E. coli strains expressing mannose-resistant adhesins other than P fimbriae, i.e., Dr, F1845, and S adhesins. Human anti-P1 serum diminished the P-fimbrial inhibitory activities of pigeon egg white and pigeon ovomucoid. Pigeon ovomucoid was equipotent on a molar basis with globoside, and the pigeon, dove, and cockatiel egg white preparations were equipotent with each other in P-fimbrial inhibition. Incubation of p erythrocytes in whole egg whites or in pigeon ovomucoid did not render them agglutinable by P-fimbriated bacteria, whereas incubation in globoside did. These data demonstrate that whole egg whites (and their ovomucoid fraction) from members of the families Columbidae (pigeons and doves) and Psittacidae (parrots) specifically and potently inhibit P-fimbrial agglutination, probably by providing P1 antigen as a receptor for the P-fimbrial adhesin. Avian egg white preparations may facilitate adhesin characterization of wild-type uropathogenic strains and may useful in preventing upper urinary tract infections due to P-fimbriated E. coli. PMID:1346125

  8. Biofilm formation and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urine after consumption of cranberry-lingonberry juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tapiainen; H. Jauhiainen; L. Jaakola; J. Salo; J. Sevander; I. Ikäheimo; A. M. Pirttilä; A. Hohtola; M. Uhari

    Cranberry-lingonberry juice (CLJ) was effective in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in our earlier randomized clinical\\u000a trial. We aimed to test whether consumption of CLJ at a similar dose to earlier reduces the biofilm formation and virulence\\u000a of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urine. Twenty healthy women drank 100 ml of CLJ daily for two weeks. Urine samples were obtained 2–4 hours

  9. Alkaloids modulate motility, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dusane, Devendra H; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Asadishad, Bahareh; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing natural compounds have shown promise in the treatment of microbial infections. However, practical application of many of these compounds is pending a mechanistic understanding of their mode of action. We investigated the effect of two alkaloids, piperine (found in black pepper) and reserpine (found in Indian snakeroot), on the ability of the uropathogenic bacterium Escherichia coli CFT073 to colonize abiotic surfaces. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of both compounds (0.5 to 10 µg/mL) decreased bacterial swarming and swimming motilities and increased biofilm formation. qRT-PCR revealed a decrease in the expression of the flagellar gene (fliC) and motility genes (motA and motB) along with an increased expression of adhesin genes (fimA, papA, uvrY). Interestingly, piperine increased penetration of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and azithromycin into E. coli CFT073 biofilms and consequently enhanced the ability of these antibiotics to disperse pre-established biofilms. The findings suggest that these alkaloids can potentially affect bacterial colonization by hampering bacterial motility and may aid in the treatment of infection by increasing antibiotic penetration in biofilms. PMID:25391152

  10. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Modulates Innate Immunity To Suppress Th1-Mediated Inflammatory Responses during Infectious Epididymitis

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Tali; Hudemann, Christoph; Tchatalbachev, Svetlin; Stammler, Angelika; Michel, Vera; Aslani, Ferial; Bhushan, Sudhanshu; Chakraborty, Trinad; Renz, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Infectious epididymitis in men, a frequent entity in urological outpatient settings, is commonly caused by bacteria originating from the anal region ascending the genitourinary tract. One of the most prevalent pathogens associated with epididymitis is Escherichia coli. In our previous study, we showed that semen quality is compromised in men following epididymitis associated with specific E. coli pathovars. Thus, our aim was to investigate possible differences in immune responses elicited during epididymitis following infection with the uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain CFT073 and the nonpathogenic enteric E. coli (NPEC) strain 470. Employing an in vivo experimental epididymitis model, C57BL/6 mice were infected with UPEC CFT073, NPEC 470, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as a sham control for up to 7 days. After infection with NPEC 470, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in the epididymis was significantly increased. Conversely, UPEC CFT073-challenged mice displayed inflammatory gene expression at levels comparable to sham PBS-treated animals. Moreover, by day 7 only NPEC-infected animals showed activation of adaptive immunity evident by a substantial influx of CD3+ and F4/80+ cells in the epididymal interstitium. This correlated with enhanced production of Th1-associated cytokines IL-2 and gamma interferon (IFN-?). Furthermore, splenocytes isolated from UPEC-infected mice exhibited diminished T-cell responses with significantly reduced secretion of IL-2 and IFN-? in contrast to NPEC-infected animals. Overall, these findings provide new insights into understanding pathogen-specific modulation of host immunity during acute phases of epididymitis, which may influence severity of disease and clinical outcomes. PMID:24366252

  11. Virulence Factors and O-Serogroups Profiles of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolated from Iranian Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad; Hosseini, Sahar; Momtaz, Hassan; Mirnejad, Reza; Hoseini, Mohammad Javad; Yahaghi, Emad; Tarhriz, Vahideh; Khodaverdi Darian, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli O- Serogroups with their virulence factors are the most prevalent causes of UTIs. Objectives: The present investigation was performed to study the virulence factors and O-Serogroups profiles of UPEC isolated from Iranian pediatric patients. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional investigation was performed on 100 urine samples collected from hospitalized pediatrics of Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Midstream urine was collected to decrease potential bacterial, cellular and artifactual contamination. All samples were cultured and those with positive results were subjected to polymerase chain reactions to detect pap, cnf1, afa, sfa and hlyA genes and various O- Serogroups. Results: We found that 37.5% of boys and 75% of girls had positive results for Escherichia coli. We also found that O1 (19.33%), O2 (13.33%), O6 (13.33%), O4 (11.66%), and O18 (11.66 %) were the most commonly detected Serogroups. Totally, the serogroup of 5% of all strains were not detected. In addition, all of these O- Serogroups were pap+, cnf1+, hlyA+, and afa+. Totally, pap (70 %), cnf1 (56.66 %), and hlyA (43.33 %) were the most commonly detected virulence genes in the both studied groups of children. The sfa (30 %) and afa (26.66 %) genes had the lowest incidence rates. Conclusions: Special health care should be performed on UTIs management in Iranian pediatric patients. Extended researches should be performed to evaluate relation between other O-Serogroups and virulent genes. PMID:24719745

  12. Pleiotropic Roles of uvrY on Biofilm Formation, Motility and Virulence in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Arindam; Palaniyandi, Senthilkumar; Herren, Christopher D.; Zhu, Xiaoping; Mukhopadhyay, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections primarily caused by uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) remain a significant public health problem in both developed and developing countries. An important virulence determinant in uropathogenesis is biofilm formation which requires expression of fimbriae, flagella, and other surface components such as lipopolysaccharides. In this study, we explored the regulation of uvrY and csrA genes in biofilm formation, motility and virulence determinants in uropathogenic E. coli. We found that mutation in uvrY suppressed biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces such as polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and glass, and complementation of uvrY in the mutant restored the biofilm phenotype. We further evaluated the role of uvrY gene in expression of type 1 fimbriae, an important adhesin that facilitates adhesion to various abiotic surfaces. We found that phase variation of type 1 fimbriae between fimbriated and afimbriated mode was modulated by uvrY at its transcriptional level. Deletion mutant of uvrY lowered expression of fimbrial recombinase genes, such as fimB, fimE, and fimA, a gene encoding major fimbrial subunit. Furthermore, transcription of virulence specific genes such as papA, hlyB and galU was also reduced in the deletion mutant. Swarming motility and expression of flhD and flhC was also diminished in the mutant. Taken together, our findings unravel a possible mechanism in which uvrY facilitates biofilm formation, persistence and virulence of uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23383333

  13. The Cpx Stress Response System Potentiates the Fitness and Virulence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Irina; Norton, J. Paul; Barber, Amelia E.; Ott, Elizabeth M.; Dhakal, Bijaya K.; Kulesus, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    Strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the primary cause of urinary tract infections, representing one of the most widespread and successful groups of pathogens on the planet. To colonize and persist within the urinary tract, UPEC must be able to sense and respond appropriately to environmental stresses, many of which can compromise the bacterial envelope. The Cpx two-component envelope stress response system is comprised of the inner membrane histidine kinase CpxA, the cytosolic response regulator CpxR, and the periplasmic auxiliary factor CpxP. Here, by using deletion mutants along with mouse and zebrafish infection models, we show that the Cpx system is critical to the fitness and virulence of two reference UPEC strains, the cystitis isolate UTI89 and the urosepsis isolate CFT073. Specifically, deletion of the cpxRA operon impaired the ability of UTI89 to colonize the murine bladder and greatly reduced the virulence of CFT073 during both systemic and localized infections within zebrafish embryos. These defects coincided with diminished host cell invasion by UTI89 and increased sensitivity of both strains to complement-mediated killing and the aminoglycoside antibiotic amikacin. Results obtained with the cpxP deletion mutants were more complicated, indicating variable strain-dependent and niche-specific requirements for this well-conserved auxiliary factor. PMID:23429541

  14. Transcriptional activation of a pap pilus virulence operon from uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bĺga, M; Göransson, M; Normark, S; Uhlin, B E

    1985-01-01

    A gene cluster mediating production of pili in uropathogenic Escherichia coli was analysed with respect to regulation of pili synthesis. Two cistrons, papB and papI, were localized upstream of the major pilus subunit gene, papA. The papI-papB-papA region was characterized by nucleotide sequencing and by transcriptional analysis. The papA gene was primarily represented by an 800 nucleotide long transcript but was also co-transcribed with papB as a less abundant 1300 nucleotide long mRNA. Both transcripts presumably terminated at the same site downstream of the papA coding sequence. The weakly expressed papI gene was transcribed in the opposite direction to that of papB and papA. Studies with lacZ operon fusions showed that the papB gene encoded a trans-active effector required for papA transcription. Similarly, the papI gene stimulated papB transcription in trans. Furthermore, full expression of papA was cis dependent upon the papI-papB region. Transcription of the papB gene was shown to be dependent upon cAMP and its receptor protein. A binding site for the cAMP-CRP complex was postulated in the DNA sequence upstream of the papB promoter. Images Fig. 3. PMID:2868893

  15. Lactobacillus by-products inhibit the growth and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cadieux, P A; Burton, J; Devillard, E; Reid, G

    2009-12-01

    Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC) can colonize the vagina and cause infections within the entire urogenital tract, including those associated with urinary tract devices. Lactobacilli typically dominate the vaginal microbiota in healthy women, and studies have shown that they can inhibit UPEC growth and vaginal colonization. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms behind these effects. Using a luciferase-based reporter construct, gradients of lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide and spent culture supernatants (SCS) from urogenital probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 were examined for their effects on growth and virulence factor expression in UPEC isolate C1212. In a dose- and pH- dependent manner, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide and Lactobacillus SCS all strongly inhibited UPEC C1212 growth and increased the promoter activity of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) A and X, two porins normally upregulated in response to UPEC membrane stress. Lactic acid and the culture supernatants also downregulated the promoter activity of the major subunits of type 1 and P fimbriae, critical adherence factors within the urogenital tract. Our findings indicate that compounds secreted by lactobacilli likely protect the urogenital tract from UPEC colonization and infection by inhibiting growth, inducing stress and downregulating proteins critical for host attachment. PMID:20224146

  16. FNR Regulates Expression of Important Virulence Factors Contributing to Pathogenicity of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Nicolle L.; Nicholson, Bryon; Hussein, Ashraf; Cai, Wentong; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M.; Dell'Anna, Giuseppe; Logue, Catherine M.; Horn, Fabiana; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is responsible for the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are some of the world's most common bacterial infections of humans. Here, we examined the role of FNR (fumarate and nitrate reduction), a well-known global regulator, in the pathogenesis of UPEC infections. We constructed an fnr deletion mutant of UPEC CFT073 and compared it to the wild type for changes in virulence, adherence, invasion, and expression of key virulence factors. Compared to the wild type, the fnr mutant was highly attenuated in the mouse model of human UTI and showed severe defects in adherence to and invasion of bladder and kidney epithelial cells. Our results showed that FNR regulates motility and multiple virulence factors, including expression of type I and P fimbriae, modulation of hemolysin expression, and expression of a novel pathogenicity island involved in ?-ketoglutarate metabolism under anaerobic conditions. Our results demonstrate that FNR is a key global regulator of UPEC virulence and controls expression of important virulence factors that contribute to UPEC pathogenicity. PMID:25245807

  17. Human Urine Decreases Function and Expression of Type 1 Pili in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Sarah E.; Hibbing, Michael E.; Janetka, James; Chen, Swaine L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). UPEC bind the bladder using type 1 pili, encoded by the fim operon in nearly all E. coli. Assembled type 1 pili terminate in the FimH adhesin, which specifically binds to mannosylated glycoproteins on the bladder epithelium. Expression of type 1 pili is regulated in part by phase-variable inversion of the genomic element containing the fimS promoter, resulting in phase ON (expressing) and OFF (nonexpressing) orientations. Type 1 pili are essential for virulence in murine models of UTI; however, studies of urine samples from human UTI patients demonstrate variable expression of type 1 pili. We provide insight into this paradox by showing that human urine specifically inhibits both expression and function of type 1 pili. Growth in urine induces the fimS phase OFF orientation, preventing fim expression. Urine also contains inhibitors of FimH function, and this inhibition leads to a further bias in fimS orientation toward the phase OFF state. The dual effect of urine on fimS regulation and FimH binding presents a potential barrier to type 1 pilus-mediated colonization and invasion of the bladder epithelium. However, FimH-mediated attachment to human bladder cells during growth in urine reverses these effects such that fim expression remains ON and/or turns ON. Interestingly, FimH inhibitors called mannosides also induce the fimS phase OFF orientation. Thus, the transduction of FimH protein attachment or inhibition into epigenetic regulation of type 1 pilus expression has important implications for the development of therapeutics targeting FimH function. PMID:26126855

  18. Functional Heterogeneity of the UpaH Autotransporter Protein from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Allsopp, Luke P.; Beloin, Christophe; Moriel, Danilo Gomes; Totsika, Makrina; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is responsible for the majority of urinary tract infections (UTI). To cause a UTI, UPEC must adhere to the epithelial cells of the urinary tract and overcome the shear flow forces of urine. This function is mediated primarily by fimbrial adhesins, which mediate specific attachment to host cell receptors. Another group of adhesins that contributes to UPEC-mediated UTI is autotransporter (AT) proteins. AT proteins possess a range of virulence properties, such as adherence, aggregation, invasion, and biofilm formation. One recently characterized AT protein of UPEC is UpaH, a large adhesin-involved-in-diffuse-adherence (AIDA-I)-type AT protein that contributes to biofilm formation and bladder colonization. In this study we characterized a series of naturally occurring variants of UpaH. We demonstrate that extensive sequence variation exists within the passenger-encoding domain of UpaH variants from different UPEC strains. This sequence variation is associated with functional heterogeneity with respect to the ability of UpaH to mediate biofilm formation. In contrast, all of the UpaH variants examined retained a conserved ability to mediate binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the UpaH passenger domain identified a conserved region (UpaHCR) and a hydrophobic region (UpaHHR). Deletion of these domains reduced biofilm formation but not the binding to ECM proteins. Despite variation in the upaH sequence, the transcription of upaH was repressed by a conserved mechanism involving the global regulator H-NS, and mutation of the hns gene relieved this repression. Overall, our findings shed new light on the regulation and functions of the UpaH AT protein. PMID:22904291

  19. Atg16L1 deficiency confers protection from uropathogenic Escherichia coli infection in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caihong; Mendonsa, Graziella R.; Symington, Jane W.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Cadwell, Ken; Virgin, Herbert W.; Mysorekar, Indira U.

    2012-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI), a frequent and important disease in humans, is primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC forms acute cytoplasmic biofilms within superficial urothelial cells and can persist by establishing membrane-enclosed latent reservoirs to seed recurrent UTI. The host responds with an influx of innate immune cells and shedding of infected epithelial cells. The autophagy gene ATG16L1 has a commonly occurring mutation that is associated with inflammatory disease and intestinal cell abnormalities in mice and humans. Here, we show that Atg16L1-deficient mice (Atg16L1HM) cleared bacteriuria more rapidly and thoroughly than controls and showed rapid epithelial recovery. Atg16L1 deficiency was associated with a potent proinflammatory cytokine response with increased recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils to infected bladders. Chimeric and genetic studies showed that Atg16L1HM hematopoietic cells alone could increase clearance and that Atg16L1-deficient innate immune cells were required and sufficient for enhanced bacteriuric clearance. We also show that Atg16L1-deficient mice exhibit cell-autonomous architectural aberrations of superficial urothelial cells, including increases in multivesicular bodies, lysosomes, and expression of the UPEC receptor Up1a. Finally, we show that Atg16L1HM epithelial cells contained a significantly reduced number of latent reservoirs. Together, our results show that Atg16L1 deficiency confers protection in vivo to the host against both acute and latent UPEC infection, suggest that deficiency in a key autophagy protein can be protective against infection in an animal model of one of the most common diseases of women worldwide, and may have significant clinical implications for understanding the etiology of recurrent UTIs. PMID:22715292

  20. Frequency distribution of virulence factors in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from Kermanshah in 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Mohajeri, Parviz; Khademi, Hosna; Ebrahimi, Roya; Farahani, Abbas; Rezaei, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) can cause urinary tract infection (UTI). To prevent urine flow lavage, UPEC has acquired several virulence factors called adhesins. These adhesins are expressed and controlled by different genes. Aim: This study was aimed to determine some of the most important genes that control virulence factors of UPEC (pyelonephritis associated pili [pap], S fimbrial adhesion [sfa] and A fimbrial adhesion [afa] genes), which code for adhesins and phenotypic factors. Materials and Methods: In total, 205 UPEC isolates from in- and out-patients with UTI were obtained. Polymerase chain reaction was used for gene amplification. One drop of bacterial suspension, one of red blood cells and one of peripheral blood smear were mixed for hemagglutination (HA). Formation of a clump was considered to be positive. Bacteria were grown on blood agar to determine hemolysis. Surface hydrophobicity was determined using the SAT test. Result: Frequencies of pap, afa and sfa were 42 (20.5%), 17 (8.3%) and 44 (21.5%), respectively. Frequencies of HA, hemolysis and hydrophobicity were 138 (67.3%), 56 (27.3%) and 39 (19%), respectively. Among HA-positive bacteria, 103 (74.6%) were mannose resistant. Our results highlight higher frequency of HA than that of other virulence factors, indicating a crucial role of this virulence factor in UPEC. Discussion: We concluded that major differences exist in the prevalence of virulence factors among different UPEC isolated from different countries. The association observed between pathogenicity and virulence factors may promote UPEC survival and growth within the urinary tract. Detecting these genes as the primary controllers of UPEC virulence factors may aid in better management of related infections. PMID:25143887

  1. Effects of a Mutation in the gyrA Gene on the Virulence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Céspedes, Javier; Sáez-López, Emma; Frimodt-Mřller, N; Vila, Jordi; Soto, Sara M

    2015-08-01

    Fluoroquinolones are among the drugs most extensively used for the treatment of bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. Resistance to quinolones can be chromosome or plasmid mediated. The chromosomal mechanism of resistance is associated with mutations in the DNA gyrase- and topoisomerase IV-encoding genes and mutations in regulatory genes affecting different efflux systems, among others. We studied the role of the acquisition of a mutation in the gyrA gene in the virulence and protein expression of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). The HC14366M strain carrying a mutation in the gyrA gene (S83L) was found to lose the capacity to cause cystitis and pyelonephritis mainly due to a decrease in the expression of the fimA, papA, papB, and ompA genes. The levels of expression of the fimA, papB, and ompA genes were recovered on complementing the strain with a plasmid containing the gyrA wild-type gene. However, only a slight recovery was observed in the colonization of the bladder in the GyrA complement strain compared to the mutant strain in a murine model of ascending urinary tract infection. In conclusion, a mutation in the gyrA gene of uropathogenic E. coli reduced the virulence of the bacteria, likely in association with the effect of DNA supercoiling on the expression of several virulence factors and proteins, thereby decreasing their capacity to cause cystitis and pyelonephritis. PMID:26014933

  2. Uropathogenic specific protein gene, highly distributed in extraintestinal uropathogenic Escherichia coli, encodes a new member of H-N-H nuclease superfamily

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The uropathogenic specific protein (Usp) and three OrfU proteins (OrfU1, OrfU2 and OrfU3) are encoded in the putative small pathogenicity island which is closely associated with Uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Although homology search revealed that Usp and OrfUs have a homology with nuclease-type bacteriocins, which possess H-N-H nuclease motif, and immunity proteins respectively, the molecular activity of these proteins was never investigated. In this study, we try to over-express Usp in E. coli, purify Usp and characterize its molecular activity. Method Recombinant Usp protein was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells together with 6× Histidine tagged OrfU1 (OrfU1-His) protein, and purified with affinity chromatography using Ni2+ chelating agarose. The nuclease activity of the purified Usp was examined in vitro by using plasmid DNA as a substrate. The importance of H-N-H motif in nuclease activity of Usp was examined by site-directed mutagenesis study. Results We revealed that pET expression vector encoding Usp alone could not be maintained in E. coli BL21(DE3), and insertion of the orfUs as well as usp in the constructed plasmid diminished the toxic effect, suggesting that co-expressed OrfUs masked the activity of Usp. To purify Usp protein, we employed the expression vector encoding untagged Usp together with OrfU1-His. A tight complex formation could be observed between Usp and OrfU1-His, which allowed the purification of Usp in a single chromatographic step: binding of Usp/OrfU1-His complex to Ni2+ chelating agarose followed by elution of Usp from the complex with denaturing reagent. The purified free Usp was found to have the nuclease activity, and the activity was constitutively higher than Usp/OrfU1-His complex. H-N-H motif, which is found in various types of nucleases including a subfamily of nuclease-type bacteriocin, had been identified in the C-terminal region of Usp. Site-directed mutagenesis study showed that the H-N-H motif in Usp is indispensable for its nuclease activity. Conclusion This is the first evidence of the molecular activity of the new member of H-N-H superfamily and lays the foundation for the biological characterization of Usp and its inhibitor protein, OrfUs. PMID:23759109

  3. Biofilm formation and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urine after consumption of cranberry-lingonberry juice.

    PubMed

    Tapiainen, T; Jauhiainen, H; Jaakola, L; Salo, J; Sevander, J; Ikäheimo, I; Pirttilä, A M; Hohtola, A; Uhari, M

    2012-05-01

    Cranberry-lingonberry juice (CLJ) was effective in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in our earlier randomized clinical trial. We aimed to test whether consumption of CLJ at a similar dose to earlier reduces the biofilm formation and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urine. Twenty healthy women drank 100 ml of CLJ daily for two weeks. Urine samples were obtained 2-4 hours after the last dose. Control samples were taken after a one-week period without berry consumption. Biofilm formation of 20 E. coli strains was measured at 72 hours by the polystyrene microtitre plate method. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed for selected genes. Four of the 20 clinical strains produced more biofilm in urine after CLJ consumption (P < 0.05) and one produced less. Expression levels of the pga, cpxA, fimA and papF genes did not differ between bacteria grown in control urine and urine obtained after CLJ consumption, except for pga gene expression, which was reduced in one strain after CLJ (P = 0.04). It appears that the effect of CLJ in preventing UTIs is not explained by mechanisms that reduce biofilm formation or the expression of selected virulence genes of Escherichia coli in urine. PMID:21822564

  4. Gene clusters encoding the cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1, Prs-fimbriae and ?-hemolysin form the pathogenicity island II of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain J96

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Blum; Vincenzo Falbo; Alfredo Caprioli; Jörg Hacker

    1995-01-01

    The uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain J96 (04:K6) is able to produce four adherence factors [P-fimbriae (pap and prs), F1C-fimbriae (foc) and Type 1-fimbriae (fim)], two ?-hemolysins (hfyI and II) and the cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (cnf1). Using phenotypic test systems and genotypic analysis, it has been shown that the mutant strain J96-M1 has lost the hlyII, prs and cnf1

  5. Multiplex PCR-Based Reverse Line Blot Assay for Simultaneous Detection of 22 Virulence Genes in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Johnson, James R.; Andrew, Scott D.; Anderson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections and are responsible for significant morbidity and health care costs worldwide. The main bacterial cause of uncomplicated UTI is Escherichia coli, which possesses numerous virulence factors (VFs). Many studies of the pathogenesis of E. coli UTI have centered on VF genes. Hence, the development of better molecular assays to study VF genes would facilitate these studies. We developed a highly sensitive and specific multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) assay to simultaneously detect 22 VF genes of uropathogenic E. coli and then used it to characterize 180 isolates from nonpregnant women of child-bearing age with cystitis and 153 fecal isolates from similar-age healthy women, in regional New South Wales, Australia. The assay accurately identified all VF genes (of the 22 under study) known to be present in 30 previously characterized control strains. The detection limits were 28 ng of DNA from E. coli isolates and 50 CFU/ml in mock-infected urine specimens containing known concentrations of E. coli. Cystitis isolates (compared to the fecal isolates) showed a significantly higher prevalence of 18 individual VF genes and contained significantly more VF genes per isolate (median number, 18.5 versus 6.5 [P = 0.001]). Discordance between paired probes for a given VF gene occurred in several clinical test isolates but no reference strains and among the test isolates was associated with fecal source (10% of VF genes versus 2% for cystitis isolates [P < 0.001]). This novel mPCR/RLB method is a potentially powerful tool for investigating the prevalence and distribution of VFs in E. coli. PMID:22156422

  6. The Association of Virulence Determinants of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli With Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Sara; Kargar, Mohammad; Solhjoo, Kavous; Najafi, Akram; Ghorbani-Dalini, Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains of Escherichia coli has raised considerable interest in understanding the diversity and epidemiology of E. coli infections in humans. Virulence factors of E. coli determine the specific infections caused by this microorganism. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of eight E. coli virulence factors and their association with antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI). Patients and Methods: One thousand patients with UTI were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Antimicrobial susceptibility was examined by disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. After DNA extraction, the materials were probed by PCR for eight virulence factors genes, namely fimH, hly, iucC, ibeA, sfa/foc, neuC, papC, and afa genes. Results: The frequency of virulence factors papC, afa, sfa/foc, fimH, hly, neuC, ibeA, and iucC were 53.3%, 51.7%, 53.3%, 56.7%, 23.3%, 31.7%, 20%, and 73.3%, respectively. In addition, there was a high degree resistance to cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid while a high degree of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin was detected. There was a statistically significant association between fimH gene and resistance to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.006), nalidixic acid (P = 0.025), and cotrimoxazole (P = 0.02). Such associations were found between ibeA gene and amikacin (P = 0.02) and cotrimoxazole (P = 0.02) as well as between afa gene and gentamycin (P = 0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that E. coli isolated from patients with UTI had eight virulence factors with high frequencies. Moreover, these results alleged a direct connection between virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in E. coli. PMID:25147722

  7. Antibiotic resistance profile and virulence genes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in relation to phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Adib, N; Ghanbarpour, R; Solatzadeh, H; Alizade, H

    2014-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains are the major cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) and belong to the large group of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. The purposes of this study were to determine the antibiotic resistance profile, virulence genes and phylogenetic background of E. coli isolates from UTI cases. A total of 137 E. coli isolates were obtained from UTI samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility of confirmed isolates was determined by disk diffusion method against eight antibiotics. The isolates were examined to determine the presence and prevalence of selected virulence genes including iucD, sfa/focDE, papEF and hly. ECOR phylo-groups of isolates were determined by detection of yjaA and chuA genes and fragment TspE4.C2. The antibiogram results showed that 71% of the isolates were resistant to cefazolin, 60.42% to co-trimoxazole, 54.16% to nalidixic acid, 36.45% to gentamicin, 29.18% to ciprofloxacin, 14.58% to cefepime, 6.25% to nitrofurantoin and 0.00% to imipenem. Twenty-two antibiotic resistance patterns were observed among the isolates. Virulence genotyping of isolates revealed that 58.39% isolates had at least one of the four virulence genes. The iucD gene was the most prevalent gene (43.06%). The other genes including sfa/focDE, papEF and hly genes were detected in 35.76%, 18.97% and 2.18% isolates, respectively. Nine combination patterns of the virulence genes were detected in isolates. Phylotyping of 137 isolates revealed that the isolates fell into A (45.99%), B1 (13.14%), B2 (19.71%) and D (21.16%) groups. Phylotyping of multidrug resistant isolates indicated that these isolates are mostly in A (60.34%) and D (20.38%) groups. In conclusion, the isolates that possessed the iucD, sfa/focDE, papEF and hly virulence genes mostly belonged to A and B2 groups, whereas antibiotic resistant isolates were in groups A and D. Escherichia coli strains carrying virulence factors and antibiotic resistance are distributed in specific phylogenetic background. PMID:24862040

  8. A Novel Two-Component Signaling System Facilitates Uropathogenic Escherichia coli's Ability to Exploit Abundant Host Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wentong; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Dell'Anna, Giuseppe; Nicholson, Bryon; Barbieri, Nicolle L.; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Feng, Yaping; Logue, Catherine M.; Nolan, Lisa K.; Li, Ganwu

    2013-01-01

    Two-component signaling systems (TCSs) are major mechanisms by which bacteria adapt to environmental conditions. It follows then that TCSs would play important roles in the adaptation of pathogenic bacteria to host environments. However, no pathogen-associated TCS has been identified in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Here, we identified a novel TCS, which we termed KguS/KguR (KguS: ?-ketoglutarate utilization sensor; KguR: ?-ketoglutarate utilization regulator) in UPEC CFT073, a strain isolated from human pyelonephritis. kguS/kguR was strongly associated with UPEC but was found only rarely among other E. coli including commensal and intestinal pathogenic strains. An in vivo competition assay in a mouse UTI model showed that deletion of kguS/kguR in UPEC CFT073 resulted in a significant reduction in its colonization of the bladders and kidneys of mice, suggesting that KguS/KguR contributed to UPEC fitness in vivo. Comparative proteomics identified the target gene products of KguS/KguR, and sequence analysis showed that TCS KguS/KguR and its targeted-genes, c5032 to c5039, are encoded on a genomic island, which is not present in intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Expression of the target genes was induced by ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG). These genes were further shown to be involved in utilization of ?-KG as a sole carbon source under anaerobic conditions. KguS/KguR contributed to the regulation of the target genes with the direct regulation by KguR verified using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In addition, oxygen deficiency positively modulated expression of kguS/kguR and its target genes. Taken altogether, this study describes the first UPEC-associated TCS that functions in controlling the utilization of ?-ketoglutarate in vivo thereby facilitating UPEC adaptation to life inside the urinary tract. PMID:23825943

  9. Characterization of two homologous disulfide bond systems involved in virulence factor biogenesis in uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073.

    PubMed

    Totsika, Makrina; Heras, Begońa; Wurpel, Daniël J; Schembri, Mark A

    2009-06-01

    Disulfide bond (DSB) formation is catalyzed by disulfide bond proteins and is critical for the proper folding and functioning of secreted and membrane-associated bacterial proteins. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains possess two paralogous disulfide bond systems: the well-characterized DsbAB system and the recently described DsbLI system. In the DsbAB system, the highly oxidizing DsbA protein introduces disulfide bonds into unfolded polypeptides by donating its redox-active disulfide and is in turn reoxidized by DsbB. DsbA has broad substrate specificity and reacts readily with reduced unfolded proteins entering the periplasm. The DsbLI system also comprises a functional redox pair; however, DsbL catalyzes the specific oxidative folding of the large periplasmic enzyme arylsulfate sulfotransferase (ASST). In this study, we characterized the DsbLI system of the prototypic UPEC strain CFT073 and examined the contributions of the DsbAB and DsbLI systems to the production of functional flagella as well as type 1 and P fimbriae. The DsbLI system was able to catalyze disulfide bond formation in several well-defined DsbA targets when provided in trans on a multicopy plasmid. In a mouse urinary tract infection model, the isogenic dsbAB deletion mutant of CFT073 was severely attenuated, while deletion of dsbLI or assT did not affect colonization. PMID:19376849

  10. Aberrant Community Architecture and Attenuated Persistence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in the Absence of Individual IHF Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Sheryl S.; Li, Birong; Downey, Jennifer S.; Dabdoub, Shareef M.; Brockson, M. Elizabeth; Probst, G. Duane; Ray, William C.; Goodman, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) utilizes a complex community-based developmental pathway for growth within superficial epithelial cells of the bladder during cystitis. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a common matrix component of organized bacterial communities. Integration host factor (IHF) is a heterodimeric protein that binds to double-stranded DNA and produces a hairpin bend. IHF-dependent DNA architectural changes act both intrabacterially and extrabacterially to regulate gene expression and community stability, respectively. We demonstrate that both IHF subunits are required for efficient colonization of the bladder, but are dispensable for early colonization of the kidney. The community architecture of the intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) is quantitatively different in the absence of either IhfA or IhfB in the murine model for human urinary tract infection (UTI). Restoration of Type 1 pili by ectopic production does not restore colonization in the absence of IhfA, but partially compensates in the absence of IhfB. Furthermore, we describe a binding site for IHF that is upstream of the operon that encodes for the P-pilus. Taken together, these data suggest that both IHF and its constituent subunits (independent of the heterodimer), are able to participate in multiple aspects of the UPEC pathogenic lifestyle, and may have utility as a target for treatment of bacterial cystitis. PMID:23133584

  11. Decreased Expression of Type 1 Fimbriae by a pst Mutant of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Reduces Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Crépin, Sébastien; Houle, Sébastien; Charbonneau, Marie-Čve; Mourez, Michaël; Harel, Josée

    2012-01-01

    The pstSCAB-phoU operon encodes the phosphate-specific transport system (Pst). Loss of Pst constitutively activates the Pho regulon and decreases bacterial virulence. However, specific mechanisms underlying decreased bacterial virulence through inactivation of Pst are poorly understood. In uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain CFT073, inactivation of pst decreased urinary tract colonization in CBA/J mice. The pst mutant was deficient in production of type 1 fimbriae and showed decreased expression of the fimA structural gene which correlated with differential expression of the fimB, fimE, ipuA, and ipbA genes, encoding recombinases, mediating inversion of the fim promoter. The role of fim downregulation in attenuation of the pst mutant was confirmed using a fim phase-locked-on derivative, which demonstrated a significant gain in virulence. In addition, the pst mutant was less able to invade human bladder epithelial cells. Since type 1 fimbriae contribute to UPEC virulence by promoting colonization and invasion of bladder cells, the reduced bladder colonization by the pst mutant is predominantly attributed to downregulation of these fimbriae. Elucidation of mechanisms mediating the control of type 1 fimbriae through activation of the Pho regulon in UPEC may open new avenues for therapeutics or prophylactics against urinary tract infections. PMID:22665376

  12. Activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cyclic AMP attenuates acute pyelonephritis in mice induced by uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yang; Li, Ke; Wang, Na; Cai, Gui-Dong; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Yan; Gui, Bao-Song; Liu, En-Qi; Li, Zong-Fang; Zhou, Wuding

    2015-02-01

    The pathogenesis of pyelonephritis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is not well understood. Here, we show that besides UPEC virulence, the severity of the host innate immune response and invasion of renal epithelial cells are important pathogenic factors. Activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP significantly attenuated acute pyelonephritis in mice induced by UPEC. Administration of forskolin (a potent elevator of intracellular cAMP) reduced kidney infection (ie, bacterial load, tissue destruction); this was associated with attenuated local inflammation, as evidenced by the reduction of renal production of proinflammatory mediators, renal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and renal myeloperoxidase activity. In primary cell culture systems, forskolin not only down-regulated UPEC-stimulated production of proinflammatory mediators by renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells (eg, monocyte/macrophages) but also reduced bacterial internalization by renal tubular epithelial cells. Our findings clearly indicate that activation of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator cAMP is beneficial for controlling UPEC-mediated acute pyelonephritis in mice. The beneficial effect can be explained at least in part by limiting excessive inflammatory responses through acting on both renal tubular epithelial cells and inflammatory cells and by inhibiting bacteria invasion of renal tubular epithelial cells. PMID:25478807

  13. Pilicides inhibit the FGL chaperone/usher assisted biogenesis of the Dr fimbrial polyadhesin from uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The global spread of bacterial resistance has given rise to a growing interest in new anti-bacterial agents with a new strategy of action. Pilicides are derivatives of ring-fused 2-pyridones which block the formation of the pili/fimbriae crucial to bacterial pathogenesis. They impair by means of a chaperone-usher pathway conserved in the Gram-negative bacteria of adhesive structures biogenesis. Pili/fimbriae of this type belong to two subfamilies, FGS and FGL, which differ in the details of their assembly mechanism. The data published to date have shown that pilicides inhibit biogenesis of type 1 and P pili of the FGS type which are encoded by uropathogenic E. coli strains. Results We evaluated the anti-bacterial activity of literature pilicides as blockers of the assembly of a model example of FGL-type adhesive structures, – the Dr fimbriae encoded by a dra gene cluster of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. In comparison to the strain grown without pilicide, the Dr+ bacteria cultivated in the presence of the 3.5 mM concentration of pilicides resulted in a reduction of 75 to 87% in the adherence properties to CHO cells expressing Dr fimbrial DAF receptor protein. Using quantitative assays, we determined the amount of Dr fimbriae in the bacteria cultivated in the presence of 3.5 mM of pilicides to be reduced by 75 to 81%. The inhibition effect of pilicides is concentration dependent, which is a crucial property for their use as potential anti-bacterial agents. The data presented in this article indicate that pilicides in mM concentration effectively inhibit the adherence of Dr+ bacteria to the host cells, – the crucial, initial step in bacterial pathogenesis. Conclusions Structural analysis of the DraB chaperone clearly showed it to be a model of the FGL subfamily of chaperones. This permits us to conclude that analyzed pilicides in mM concentration are effective inhibitors of the assembly of adhesins belonging to the Dr family, and more speculatively, of other FGL-type adhesive organelles. The presented data and those published so far permit to speculate that based on the conservation of chaperone-usher pathway in Gram-negative bacteria , the pilicides are potential anti-bacterial agents with activity against numerous pathogens, the virulence of which is dependent on the adhesive structures of the chaperone-usher type. PMID:23758700

  14. Variations in 10 putative uropathogen virulence genes among urinary, faecal and peri-urethral Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Marrs, Carl F; Zhang, Lixin; Tallman, Patricia; Manning, Shannon D; Somsel, Patricia; Raz, Paul; Colodner, Raul; Jantunen, Maria E; Siitonen, Anja; Saxen, Harri; Foxman, Betsy

    2002-02-01

    A total of 868 isolates was screened from seven different collections of organisms from previous studies - pyelonephritis in children aged 1-24 months; first, second and recurring urinary tract infection (UTI) in women aged 18-39 years; UTI in women aged 40-65 years and peri-urethral and faecal isolates from women aged 18-39 years - for the presence of 10 potential Escherichia coli UTI virulence genes. Previously reported differences between the frequency of these genes in UTI compared with faecal isolates were confirmed and extended. A single virulence signature (strains containing aer, kpsMT, ompT, fim and papGAD) occurred in 29% of the pyelonephritic isolates, but in no more than 11% of the other collections. Peri-urethral isolates were found to have frequencies of these 10 genes that differed from those found for both UTI and faecal isolates. PMID:11863265

  15. DsbL and DsbI form a specific dithiol oxidase system for periplasmic arylsulfate sulfotransferase in uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, John P A; Stirnimann, Christian U; Brozzo, Maurice S; Malojcic, Goran; Grütter, Markus G; Capitani, Guido; Glockshuber, Rudi

    2008-07-18

    Disulfide bond formation in the Escherichia coli periplasm requires the transfer of electrons from substrate proteins to DsbA, which is recycled as an oxidant by the membrane protein DsbB. The highly virulent, uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073 contains a second, homologous pair of proteins, DsbL and DsbI, which are encoded in a tri-cistronic operon together with a periplasmic, uropathogen-specific arylsulfate sulfotransferase (ASST). We show that DsbL and DsbI form a functional redox pair, and that ASST is a substrate of DsbL/DsbI in vivo. DsbL is the most reactive oxidizing thioredoxin-like protein known to date. In contrast to DsbA, however, DsbL oxidizes reduced RNaseA with a much lower rate and prevents unspecific aggregation of reduced insulin. The 1.55 A resolution crystal structure of reduced DsbL provides insight into the reduced state of thioredoxin-like dithiol oxidases at high resolution, and reveals an unusual cluster of basic residues stabilizing the thiolate anion of the nucleophilic active-site cysteine. We propose that the DsbL/DsbI pair of uropathogenic E. coli was acquired as an additional, specific redox couple that guarantees biological activity of ASST. PMID:18565543

  16. The impact of vitamin D on the innate immune response to uropathogenic Escherichia coli during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, N L; Sekikubo, M; Kironde, F; Mirembe, F; Sääf, M; Brauner, A

    2015-05-01

    Urinary tract infections are highly common during pregnancy, and can cause serious complications for the mother and baby. Vitamin D, predominantly obtained from the sunlight, is known to have an effect on the urothelium, with immunomodulatory capacity against Escherichia coli infection. However, its influence at this site remains to be further explored. This study therefore investigated its impact during pregnancy in a population of women who have the possibility of adequate year-round sun exposure. Serum from pregnant Ugandan women (n = 32) in each trimester of pregnancy, from women after delivery (n = 29) and from never-pregnant controls (n = 25) was collected. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), cathelicidin LL-37, human ?-defensin 2, interleukin (IL)-8 and soluble CD14 serum concentrations were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay or ELISA. The ability of serum to inhibit E. coli growth was tested. The immunomodulatory capacities of these serum samples and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were investigated in urothelial cells. Increases in 25-OHD and LL-37 levels were observed as pregnancy progressed, peaking in the third trimester. Serum 25-OHD levels were higher in multigravidae than in primigravidae, and correlated positively with maternal age. IL-8 levels were lower in the third trimester than in the first trimester, increased after delivery, but remained below those of never-pregnant women. Similarly, soluble CD14 concentrations increased after delivery. As gestation advanced, serum had an increased capacity to inhibit E. coli growth. In vitro, it modulated the IL-8 response to infection in a vitamin D concentration-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that increasing vitamin D levels as pregnancy advances modulate the innate immune system towards a protective response to infection. PMID:25640157

  17. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems Are Important for Niche-Specific Colonization and Stress Resistance of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Norton, J. Paul; Mulvey, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are prevalent in many bacterial genomes and have been implicated in biofilm and persister cell formation, but the contribution of individual chromosomally encoded TA systems during bacterial pathogenesis is not well understood. Of the known TA systems encoded by Escherichia coli, only a subset is associated with strains of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). These pathogens colonize diverse niches and are a major cause of sepsis, meningitis, and urinary tract infections. Using a murine infection model, we show that two TA systems (YefM-YoeB and YbaJ-Hha) independently promote colonization of the bladder by the reference uropathogenic ExPEC isolate CFT073, while a third TA system comprised of the toxin PasT and the antitoxin PasI is critical to ExPEC survival within the kidneys. The PasTI TA system also enhances ExPEC persister cell formation in the presence of antibiotics and markedly increases pathogen resistance to nutrient limitation as well as oxidative and nitrosative stresses. On its own, low-level expression of PasT protects ExPEC from these stresses, whereas overexpression of PasT is toxic and causes bacterial stasis. PasT-induced stasis can be rescued by overexpression of PasI, indicating that PasTI is a bona fide TA system. By mutagenesis, we find that the stress resistance and toxic effects of PasT can be uncoupled and mapped to distinct domains. Toxicity was specifically linked to sequences within the N-terminus of PasT, a region that also promotes the development of persister cells. These results indicate discrete, multipurpose functions for a TA-associated toxin and demonstrate that individual TA systems can provide bacteria with pronounced fitness advantages dependent on toxin expression levels and the specific environmental niche occupied. PMID:23055930

  18. Quantification of filamentation by uropathogenic Escherichia coli during experimental bladder cell infection by using semi-automated image analysis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kasper; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Kolmos, Hans Jřrn; Mřller-Jensen, Jakob; Andersen, Thomas Emil

    2015-02-01

    Several rod-shaped pathogens including Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Klebsiella pneumonia are capable of adopting highly filamentous cell shapes under certain circumstances. This phenomenon occurs as a result of continued cell elongation during growth without the usual septation into single rod-shaped cells. Evidence has emerged over the past decade suggesting that this morphological transformation is controlled and reversible and provides selective advantages under certain growth conditions, such as during infection in humans. In order to identify the factors which induce filamentation of bacterial pathogens and study the advantages of bacterial morphological plasticity, methods are needed to accurately quantify changes in bacterial cell shape. In this study, we present a method for quantification of bacterial filamentation based on automatic detection and measurement of bacterial units in focus-stacked microscopy images. Used in combination with a flow-chamber based in vitro cystitis model, we study the factors involved in filament formation by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) during infection. The influence of substratum surface, intracellular proliferation and flow media on UPEC filamentation is evaluated. We show that reversible UPEC filamentation during cystitis is not dependent on intracellular infection, which previous studies have suggested. Instead, we find that filamentation can be induced by contact with surfaces, both biological and artificial. Lastly our data indicate that UPEC filamentation is induced by trace-amounts of specific components in urine, rather than being a generic stress-response to high urine salt concentrations. The study shows that the combined methodology is generally useful for investigation of bacterial morphological transitions during cell infection. PMID:25546841

  19. Adhesive fiber stratification in uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms unveils oxygen-mediated control of type 1 pili.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kyle A; Moore, Jessica L; Eberly, Allison R; Good, James A D; Shaffer, Carrie L; Zaver, Himesh; Almqvist, Fredrik; Skaar, Eric P; Caprioli, Richard M; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial biofilms account for a significant number of hospital-acquired infections and complicate treatment options, because bacteria within biofilms are generally more tolerant to antibiotic treatment. This resilience is attributed to transient bacterial subpopulations that arise in response to variations in the microenvironment surrounding the biofilm. Here, we probed the spatial proteome of surface-associated single-species biofilms formed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the major causative agent of community-acquired and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to analyze the spatial proteome of intact biofilms in situ. MALDI-TOF IMS revealed protein species exhibiting distinct localizations within surface-associated UPEC biofilms, including two adhesive fibers critical for UPEC biofilm formation and virulence: type 1 pili (Fim) localized exclusively to the air-exposed region, while curli amyloid fibers localized to the air-liquid interface. Comparison of cells grown aerobically, fermentatively, or utilizing an alternative terminal electron acceptor showed that the phase-variable fim promoter switched to the "OFF" orientation under oxygen-deplete conditions, leading to marked reduction of type 1 pili on the bacterial cell surface. Conversely, S pili whose expression is inversely related to fim expression were up-regulated under anoxic conditions. Tethering the fim promoter in the "ON" orientation in anaerobically grown cells only restored type 1 pili production in the presence of an alternative terminal electron acceptor beyond oxygen. Together these data support the presence of at least two regulatory mechanisms controlling fim expression in response to oxygen availability and may contribute to the stratification of extracellular matrix components within the biofilm. MALDI IMS facilitated the discovery of these mechanisms, and we have demonstrated that this technology can be used to interrogate subpopulations within bacterial biofilms. PMID:25738819

  20. Adhesive Fiber Stratification in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Biofilms Unveils Oxygen-Mediated Control of Type 1 Pili

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Kyle A.; Moore, Jessica L.; Eberly, Allison R.; Good, James A. D.; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Zaver, Himesh; Almqvist, Fredrik; Skaar, Eric P.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms account for a significant number of hospital-acquired infections and complicate treatment options, because bacteria within biofilms are generally more tolerant to antibiotic treatment. This resilience is attributed to transient bacterial subpopulations that arise in response to variations in the microenvironment surrounding the biofilm. Here, we probed the spatial proteome of surface-associated single-species biofilms formed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the major causative agent of community-acquired and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to analyze the spatial proteome of intact biofilms in situ. MALDI-TOF IMS revealed protein species exhibiting distinct localizations within surface-associated UPEC biofilms, including two adhesive fibers critical for UPEC biofilm formation and virulence: type 1 pili (Fim) localized exclusively to the air-exposed region, while curli amyloid fibers localized to the air-liquid interface. Comparison of cells grown aerobically, fermentatively, or utilizing an alternative terminal electron acceptor showed that the phase-variable fim promoter switched to the “OFF” orientation under oxygen-deplete conditions, leading to marked reduction of type 1 pili on the bacterial cell surface. Conversely, S pili whose expression is inversely related to fim expression were up-regulated under anoxic conditions. Tethering the fim promoter in the “ON” orientation in anaerobically grown cells only restored type 1 pili production in the presence of an alternative terminal electron acceptor beyond oxygen. Together these data support the presence of at least two regulatory mechanisms controlling fim expression in response to oxygen availability and may contribute to the stratification of extracellular matrix components within the biofilm. MALDI IMS facilitated the discovery of these mechanisms, and we have demonstrated that this technology can be used to interrogate subpopulations within bacterial biofilms. PMID:25738819

  1. Influence of blood group on the availability of receptors for attachment of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lomberg, H; Cedergren, B; Leffler, H; Nilsson, B; Carlström, A S; Svanborg-Edén, C

    1986-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains with defined receptor specificity were used as probes to analyze the individual variation in host cell receptors with respect to blood groups. The adhesins were initially characterized as mannose sensitive (MS), mannose resistant (MR), or nonagglutinating (-). The receptor specificity of the strains with MR adhesins was defined by agglutination of synthetic Gal alpha 1----4Gal beta covalently linked via a spacer arm, (CH2)2S(CH2)2CO approximately H-bovine serum albumin (BSA) to BSA-latex beads as specific for the globoseries glycolipid receptors (MR:GS). Strains with MR adhesins not reacting with Gal alpha 1----4Gal beta-BSA-latex were designated MR:nonGS. The attachment and hemagglutination of the MR:GS strains was strictly dependent on Gal alpha 1----4Gal beta-containing receptors, as shown by the absence of binding to cells from individuals of blood group P lacking these structures. Previous reports showed differences in the composition of globoseries glycolipids between erythrocytes from individuals of P1 and P2. No significant difference was found, However, in the mean adhesion to P1 and P2 epithelial cells or in the agglutination titer for P1 and P2 erythrocytes. The MR:GS receptors were equally distributed on squamous and transitional epithelial cells. In contrast, the distribution of MR:nonGS receptors was skewed. Attachment occurred mostly to squamous epithelial cells. The attachment of strains with MR:nonGS adhesins was independent of the P blood group of the cell donor. The binding ability of MR:GS and MR:nonGS adhesins appeared independent and additive. The attachment was not influenced by the ABH blood group. However, increased binding to epithelial cells from nonsecretors occurred regardless of the P blood group, suggesting a shielding of receptors by products controlled by the secretor genes. These results illustrate how individual variation in cell surface components with and without receptor activity determine the interaction of a ligand with a known receptor. Images PMID:2868993

  2. Osmolarity and pH Growth Conditions Regulate fim Gene Transcription and Type 1 Pilus Expression in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Schwan, William R.; Lee, Jeffrey L.; Lenard, Farrah A.; Matthews, Brian T.; Beck, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study was performed to determine the effects of pH, osmolarity, and human urine on the transcription of several fim genes, as well as the overall expression of type 1 pili. Several fim-lacZYA fusions were constructed on single-copy plasmids to test a range of pHs and a range of osmolarities. Growth in acidic medium slightly reduced expression from all of the fim promoters (fimA, fimB, and fimE). Increased osmolarity in neutral-pH medium repressed fimA and fimB transcription by approximately 50% when 400 mM NaCl was used and nearly threefold when 800 mM NaCl was used, whereas fimE transcription rose slightly as the osmolarity increased. This effect was more pronounced in high-osmolarity acidic media; fimB and fimA expression decreased fivefold in growth media containing 800 mM NaCl compared to expression in growth media without added NaCl. Moreover, fimE expression doubled under the same high-osmolarity conditions compared to expression in a low-osmolarity acidic environment. When a fimB-lacZ or fimE-lacZ fusion was inserted into the chromosome of strain AAEC189, fimE expression changed slightly as the osmolarity increased, but fimB expression decreased by 50% in a low-pH high-osmolarity environment. When strain AAEC189 with either a plasmid-borne fimB-lacZ fusion or a plasmid-borne fimE-lacZ fusion was grown in human urine, similar changes in the levels of fimB and fimE expression were observed. Limiting-dilution reverse transcription-PCR confirmed that these changes in fim expression occurred in clinical isolates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli grown in media with different pHs and different osmolarities. Furthermore, the invertible switch region in uropathogenic strain NU149 shifted from favoring the phase-on position in a neutral-pH low-osmolarity environment to favoring the phase-off position in a low-pH high-osmolarity environment. Results obtained with an ompR mutant strain demonstrated that fimB expression was derepressed and that OmpR may neutralize repression by an acid response regulator of fimE expression in a low-pH environment. In addition, H-NS was verified to be important in regulation of fimB, but it had only a slight effect on fimE under the specific pH and osmotic growth conditions tested. Enzyme immunoassays with anti-type 1 pilus antibody and hemagglutination assays showed that fewer type 1 pili were detected with cells in a low-pH high-osmolarity environment. Together, these observations demonstrate that a combination of low pH and high osmolarity regulates the transcription of fim genes, which favors a shift in the invertible element to the phase-off orientation and a loss of type 1 pilus expression. Taken together, our data suggest that the environmental cues that we tested may regulate expression of type 1 pili in specific in vivo niches, such as murine kidneys and possibly human kidneys. PMID:11854225

  3. F9 Fimbriae of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Are Expressed at Low Temperature and Recognise Gal?1-3GlcNAc-Containing Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Wurpel, Daniël J.; Totsika, Makrina; Allsopp, Luke P.; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E.; Day, Christopher J.; Peters, Kate M.; Sarkar, Sohinee; Ulett, Glen C.; Yang, Ji; Tiralongo, Joe; Strugnell, Richard A.; Jennings, Michael P.; Schembri, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading causative agent of urinary tract infections (UTI) in the developed world. Among the major virulence factors of UPEC, surface expressed adhesins mediate attachment and tissue tropism. UPEC strains typically possess a range of adhesins, with type 1 fimbriae and P fimbriae of the chaperone-usher class the best characterised. We previously identified and characterised F9 as a new chaperone-usher fimbrial type that mediates biofilm formation. However, the regulation and specific role of F9 fimbriae remained to be determined in the context of wild-type clinical UPEC strains. In this study we have assessed the distribution and genetic context of the f9 operon among diverse E. coli lineages and pathotypes and demonstrated that f9 genes are significantly more conserved in a UPEC strain collection in comparison to the well-defined E. coli reference (ECOR) collection. In the prototypic UPEC strain CFT073, the global regulator protein H-NS was identified as a transcriptional repressor of f9 gene expression at 37°C through its ability to bind directly to the f9 promoter region. F9 fimbriae expression was demonstrated at 20°C, representing the first evidence of functional F9 fimbriae expression by wild-type E. coli. Finally, glycan array analysis demonstrated that F9 fimbriae recognise and bind to terminal Gal?1-3GlcNAc structures. PMID:24671091

  4. UpaH Is a Newly Identified Autotransporter Protein That Contributes to Biofilm Formation and Bladder Colonization by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073?

    PubMed Central

    Allsopp, Luke P.; Totsika, Makrina; Tree, Jai J.; Ulett, Glen C.; Mabbett, Amanda N.; Wells, Timothy J.; Kobe, Bostjan; Beatson, Scott A.; Schembri, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the primary cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the developed world. The major factors associated with virulence of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are fimbrial adhesins, which mediate specific attachment to host receptors and trigger innate host responses. Another group of adhesins is represented by the autotransporter (AT) subgroup of proteins. In this study, we identified a new AT-encoding gene, termed upaH, present in a 6.5-kb unannotated intergenic region in the genome of the prototypic UPEC strain CFT073. Cloning and sequencing of the upaH gene from CFT073 revealed an intact 8.535-kb coding region, contrary to the published genome sequence. The upaH gene was widely distributed among a large collection of UPEC isolates as well as the E. coli Reference (ECOR) strain collection. Bioinformatic analyses suggest ?-helix as the predominant structure in the large N-terminal passenger (?) domain and a 12-strand ?-barrel for the C-terminal ?-domain of UpaH. We demonstrated that UpaH is expressed at the cell surface of CFT073 and promotes biofilm formation. In the mouse UTI model, deletion of the upaH gene in CFT073 and in two other UPEC strains did not significantly affect colonization of the bladder in single-challenge experiments. However, in competitive colonization experiments, CFT073 significantly outcompeted its upaH isogenic mutant strain in urine and the bladder. PMID:20145097

  5. Hemagglutination and biofilm formation as virulence markers of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in acute urinary tract infections and urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Maheswari, Uma B.; Palvai, Sunitha; Anuradha, Pattepu Rajalingam; Kammili, Nagamani

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a major public health concern in developing countries. Most UTIs are caused by E. coli, accounting for up to 90% of community-acquired UTIs (CAUTI). Recurrent UTI is considered as a major risk factor for urolithiasis. Virulence factors like adhesins and biofilm have been extensively studied by authors on UPEC isolated from recurrent UTI. The studies on isolates from infection stones in kidney are scanty. In a prospective study, we aimed to determine the expression of Haemagglutinins, (Type 1 and P fimbriae), Biofilm production and resistance pattern to common antibiotics of Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) isolates from Community acquired Acute Urinary Tract Infection(CAUTI) and Urolithiasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 UPEC isolates, 23 mid-stream urine (MSU) samples from patients with CAUTI attending Out Patient Departments and 20 from renal calculi of urolithiasis patients at the time of Percutaneous nephrolithostomy (PCNL) were included in the study and the expression of Haemagglutinins,(Type 1 and P fimbriae), Biofilm production and resistance pattern to common antibiotics was assessed. Results: A total of 43 UPEC isolates 23 from CAUTI and 20 from renal calculi were tested for production of biofilm and hemagglutinins. In CAUTI, biofilm producers were 56.52% and hemagglutinins were detected in all isolates 100%. In urolithiasis, biofilm producers were 100% but hemagglutinins were detected only in 70% of isolates. All isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics used. CAUTI isolates were susceptible to 3rd generation cephalosporins, whereas urolithiasis isolates were resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins and 25% were Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases ESBL producers. Conclusions: HA mediated by type 1 fimbriae plays an important role in CAUTI (P < 0.001 highly significant), whereas, in chronic conditions like urolithiasis, biofilm plays an important role in persistence of infection and the role of hemagglutinins is less. PMID:24235787

  6. Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Expression of the K1 Polysaccharide Capsule of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Downregulation of the Capsule Genes during Growth in Urine.

    PubMed

    King, Jane E; Aal Owaif, Hasan A; Jia, Jia; Roberts, Ian S

    2015-07-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the major causative agent of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI). The K1 capsule on the surface of UPEC strains is a key virulence factor, and its expression may be important in the onset and progression of UTI. In order to understand capsule expression in more detail, we analyzed its expression in the UPEC strain UTI89 during growth in rich medium (LB medium) and urine and during infection of a bladder epithelial cell line. Comparison of capsule gene transcription using a chromosomal gfp reporter fusion showed a significant reduction in transcription during growth in urine compared to that during growth in LB medium. When examined at the single-cell level, following growth in both media, capsule gene expression appears to be heterogeneous, with two distinct green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing populations. Using anti-K1 antibody, we showed that this heterogeneity in gene expression results in two populations of encapsulated and unencapsulated cells. We demonstrated that the capsule hinders attachment to and invasion of epithelial cells and that the unencapsulated cells within the population preferentially adhere to and invade bladder epithelial cells. We found that once internalized, UTI89 starts to produce capsule to aid in its intracellular survival and spread. We propose that this observed phenotypic diversity in capsule expression is a fitness strategy used by the bacterium to deal with the constantly changing environment of the urinary tract. PMID:25870229

  7. Anti-Adhesive Activity of Cranberry Phenolic Compounds and Their Microbial-Derived Metabolites against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Bladder Epithelial Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    de Llano, Dolores González; Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J.; Moreno-Arribas, MŞ Victoria; Bartolomé, Begońa

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry consumption has shown prophylactic effects against urinary tract infections (UTI), although the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. In this paper, cranberry phenolic compounds and their potential microbial-derived metabolites (such as simple phenols and benzoic, phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids) were tested for their capacity to inhibit the adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) ATCC®53503™ to T24 epithelial bladder cells. Catechol, benzoic acid, vanillic acid, phenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid showed anti-adhesive activity against UPEC in a concentration-dependent manner from 100–500 µM, whereas procyanidin A2, widely reported as an inhibitor of UPEC adherence on uroepithelium, was only statistically significant (p < 0.05) at 500 µM (51.3% inhibition). The results proved for the first time the anti-adhesive activity of some cranberry-derived phenolic metabolites against UPEC in vitro, suggesting that their presence in the urine could reduce bacterial colonization and progression of UTI. PMID:26023719

  8. Inhibitors of TonB Function Identified by a High-Throughput Screen for Inhibitors of Iron Acquisition in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073

    PubMed Central

    Yep, Alejandra; McQuade, Thomas; Kirchhoff, Paul; Larsen, Martha; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The urinary tract is one of the most common sites of infection in humans, and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the main causative agent of urinary tract infections. Bacteria colonizing the urinary tract face extremely low iron availability. To counteract this, UPEC expresses a wide variety of iron acquisition systems. To exploit iron acquisition in UPEC as a global target for small-molecule inhibition, we developed and carried out a whole-cell growth-based high throughput screen of 149,243 compounds. Our primary assay was carried out under iron-limiting conditions. Hits in the primary screen were assayed using two counterscreens that ruled out iron chelators and compounds that inhibit growth by means other than inhibition of iron acquisition. We determined dose-response curves under two different iron conditions and purchased fresh compounds for selected hits. After retesting dose-response relationships, we identified 16 compounds that arrest growth of UPEC only under iron-limiting conditions. All compounds are bacteriostatic and do not inhibit proton motive force. A loss-of-target strategy was employed to identify the cellular target of these inhibitors. Two compounds lost inhibitory activity against a strain lacking TonB and were shown to inhibit irreversible adsorption of a TonB-dependent bacteriophage. Our results validate iron acquisition as a target for antibacterial strategies against UPEC and identify TonB as one of the cellular targets. PMID:24570372

  9. Anti-Adhesive Activity of Cranberry Phenolic Compounds and Their Microbial-Derived Metabolites against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Bladder Epithelial Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    de Llano, Dolores González; Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Martínlvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Bartolomé, Begońa

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry consumption has shown prophylactic effects against urinary tract infections (UTI), although the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. In this paper, cranberry phenolic compounds and their potential microbial-derived metabolites (such as simple phenols and benzoic, phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids) were tested for their capacity to inhibit the adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) ATCC®53503™ to T24 epithelial bladder cells. Catechol, benzoic acid, vanillic acid, phenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid showed anti-adhesive activity against UPEC in a concentration-dependent manner from 100-500 µM, whereas procyanidin A2, widely reported as an inhibitor of UPEC adherence on uroepithelium, was only statistically significant (p < 0.05) at 500 µM (51.3% inhibition). The results proved for the first time the anti-adhesive activity of some cranberry-derived phenolic metabolites against UPEC in vitro, suggesting that their presence in the urine could reduce bacterial colonization and progression of UTI. PMID:26023719

  10. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 Is Adapted to Acetatogenic Growth but Does Not Require Acetate during Murine Urinary Tract Infection? §

    PubMed Central

    Anfora, Andrew T.; Halladin, David K.; Haugen, Brian J.; Welch, Rodney A.

    2008-01-01

    In vivo accumulation of d-serine by Escherichia coli CFT073 leads to elevated expression of PAP fimbriae and hemolysin by an unknown mechanism. Loss of d-serine catabolism by CFT073 leads to a competitive advantage during murine urinary tract infection (UTI), but loss of both d- and l-serine catabolism results in attenuation. Serine is the first amino acid to be consumed in closed tryptone broth cultures and precedes the production of acetyl phosphate, a high-energy molecule involved in intracellular signaling, and the eventual secretion of acetate. We propose that the colonization defect associated with the loss of serine catabolism is due to perturbations of acetate metabolism. CFT073 grows more rapidly on acetogenic substrates than does E. coli K-12 isolate MG1655. As shown by transcription microarray results, d-serine is catabolized into acetate via the phosphotransacetylase (pta) and acetate kinase (ackA) genes while downregulating expression of acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs). CFT073 acs, which is unable to reclaim secreted acetate, colonized mouse bladders and kidneys in the murine model of UTI indistinguishably from the wild type. Both pta and ackA are involved in the maintenance of intracellular acetyl phosphate. CFT073 pta and ackA mutants were screened to investigate the role of acetyl phosphate in UTI pathogenesis. Both single mutants are at a competitive disadvantage relative to the wild type in the kidneys but normally colonize the bladder. CFT073 ackA pta was attenuated in both the bladder and the kidneys. Thus, we demonstrate that CFT073 is adapted to acetate metabolism as a result of requiring a proper cycling of the acetyl phosphate pathway for colonization of the upper urinary tract. PMID:18838520

  11. Necrosis Is the Dominant Cell Death Pathway in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Elicited Epididymo-Orchitis and Is Responsible for Damage of Rat Testis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yongning; Bhushan, Sudhanshu; Tchatalbachev, Svetlin; Marconi, Marcelo; Bergmann, Martin; Weidner, Wolfgang; Chakraborty, Trinad; Meinhardt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Male infertility is a frequent medical condition, compromising approximately one in twenty men, with infections of the reproductive tract constituting a major etiological factor. Bacterial epididymo-orchitis results in acute inflammation most often caused by ascending canalicular infections from the urethra via the continuous male excurrent ductal system. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) represent a relevant pathogen in urogenital tract infections. To explore how bacteria can cause damage and cell loss and thus impair fertility, an in vivo epididymo-orchitis model was employed in rats by injecting UPEC strain CFT073 into the vas deference in close proximity to the epididymis. Seven days post infection bacteria were found predominantly in the testicular interstitial space. UPEC infection resulted in severe impairment of spermatogenesis by germ cell loss, damage of testicular somatic cells, a decrease in sperm numbers and a significant increase in TUNEL (+) cells. Activation of caspase-8 (extrinsic apoptotic pathway), caspase-3/?6 (intrinsic apoptotic pathway), caspase-1 (pyroptosis pathway) and the presence of 180 bp DNA fragments, all of which serve as indicators of the classical apoptotic pathway, were not observed in infected testis. Notably, electron microscopical examination revealed degenerative features of Sertoli cells (SC) in UPEC infected testis. Furthermore, the passive release of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), as an indication of necrosis, was observed in vivo in infected testis. Thus, necrosis appears to be the dominant cell death pathway in UPEC infected testis. Substantial necrotic changes seen in Sertoli cells will contribute to impaired spermatogenesis by loss of function in supporting the dependent germ cells. PMID:23301002

  12. A structural and biochemical basis for PAPS-independent sulfuryl transfer by aryl sulfotransferase from uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Malojci?, Goran; Owen, Robin L; Grimshaw, John P A; Brozzo, Maurice S; Dreher-Teo, Hiang; Glockshuber, Rudi

    2008-12-01

    Sulfotransferases are a versatile class of enzymes involved in numerous physiological processes. In mammals, adenosine 3'-phosphate-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) is the universal sulfuryl donor, and PAPS-dependent sulfurylation of small molecules, including hormones, sugars, and antibiotics, is a critical step in hepatic detoxification and extracellular signaling. In contrast, little is known about sulfotransferases in bacteria, which make use of sulfurylated molecules as mediators of cell-cell interactions and host-pathogen interactions. Bacterial arylsulfate sulfotransferases (also termed aryl sulfotransferases), in contrast to PAPS-dependent sulfotransferases, transfer sulfuryl groups exclusively among phenolic compounds in a PAPS-independent manner. Here, we report the crystal structure of the virulence factor arylsulfate sulfotransferase (ASST) from the prototypic, pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 at 2.0-A resolution, and 2 catalytic intermediates, at 2.1-A and 2.4-A resolution, with substrates bound in the active site. ASST is one of the largest periplasmic enzymes and its 3D structure differs fundamentally from all other structurally characterized sulfotransferases. Each 63.8-kDa subunit of the ASST homodimer comprises a 6-bladed beta-propeller domain and a C-terminal beta-sandwich domain. The active sites of the dimer are situated at the center of the channel formed by each beta-propeller and are defined by the side chains of His-252, His-356, Arg-374, and His-436. We show that ASST follows a ping-pong bi-bi reaction mechanism, in which the catalytic residue His-436 undergoes transient sulfurylation, a previously unreported covalent protein modification. The data provide a framework for understanding PAPS-independent sulfotransfer and a basis for drug design targeting this bacterial virulence factor. PMID:19036922

  13. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  14. Plasmid-related quinolone resistance determinants in epidemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus, uropathogenic Escherichia coli, and marine bacteria from an aquaculture area in Chile.

    PubMed

    Aedo, Sandra; Ivanova, Larisa; Tomova, Alexandra; Cabello, Felipe C

    2014-08-01

    Marine bacteria from aquaculture areas with industrial use of quinolones have the potential to pass quinolone resistance genes to animal and human pathogens. The VPA0095 gene, related to the quinolone resistance determinant qnrA, from clinical isolates of epidemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus conferred reduced susceptibility to quinolone after cloning into Escherichia coli K-12 either when acting alone or synergistically with DNA gyrase mutations. In addition, a plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene from marine bacteria, aac(6')-Ib-cr, was identical to aac(6')-Ib-cr from urinary tract isolates of E. coli, suggesting a recent flow of this gene between these bacteria isolated from different environments. aac(6')-Ib-cr from E. coli also conferred reduced susceptibility to quinolone and kanamycin when cloned into E. coli K-12. PMID:24760167

  15. Characterization of Multidrug Resistant Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli among Uropathogens of Pediatrics in North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Salehifar, Ebrahim; Rafiei, Alireza; Rafati, Mohammadreza; Shafahi, Kheironesa

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli remains as one of the most important bacteria causing infections in pediatrics and producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) making them resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. In this study we aimed to genotype ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from pediatric patients for ESBL genes and determine their association with antimicrobial resistance. One hundred of the E. coli isolates were initially considered ESBL producing based on their MIC results. These isolates were then tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence or absence of CTX, TEM, SHV, GES, and VEB beta-lactamase genes. About 30.5% of isolated E. coli was ESBL-producing strain. The TEM gene was the most prevalent (49%) followed by SHV (44%), CTX (28%), VEB (8%), and GES (0%) genes. The ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were susceptible to carbapenems (66%) and amikacin (58%) and showed high resistance to cefixime (99%), colistin (82%), and ciprofloxacin (76%). In conclusion, carbapenems were the most effective antibiotics against ESBl-producing E. coli in urinary tract infection in North of Iran. The most prevalent gene is the TEM-type, but the other resistant genes and their antimicrobial resistance are on the rise.

  16. Correlation between uropathogenic properties of Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections and the antibody-coated bacteria test and comparison with faecal strains.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, H. J.; Benseman, B. A.; Peck, J.; Bettelheim, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli isolated from adult females with symptomatic urinary tract infection were found to possess the following properties significantly more frequently than faecal strains: (i) high K-antigen titre: (ii) haemolysin; (iii) type 1 pili; (iv) mannose-resistant haemagglutination; (v) fermentation of dulcitol and salicin; (vi) O serotype 2, 6 and 75; (vii) H serotype 1. E. coli isolated form urine specimens containing significant numbers of antibody-coated bacteria were richer in these seven properties than strains from urines without detectable antibody coated bacteria. The O and H serotypes of E. coli obtained from patients with urinary tract infection in two New Zealand cities were compared with those reported in the world literature and found to be similar. PMID:6114119

  17. In Vivo mRNA Profiling of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli from Diverse Phylogroups Reveals Common and Group-Specific Gene Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Bielecki, Piotr; Muthukumarasamy, Uthayakumar; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Bielecka, Agata; Pohl, Sarah; Schanz, Ansgar; Niemeyer, Ute; Oumeraci, Tonio; von Neuhoff, Nils; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT mRNA profiling of pathogens during the course of human infections gives detailed information on the expression levels of relevant genes that drive pathogenicity and adaptation and at the same time allows for the delineation of phylogenetic relatedness of pathogens that cause specific diseases. In this study, we used mRNA sequencing to acquire information on the expression of Escherichia coli pathogenicity genes during urinary tract infections (UTI) in humans and to assign the UTI-associated E. coli isolates to different phylogenetic groups. Whereas the in vivo gene expression profiles of the majority of genes were conserved among 21 E. coli strains in the urine of elderly patients suffering from an acute UTI, the specific gene expression profiles of the flexible genomes was diverse and reflected phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, genes transcribed in vivo relative to laboratory media included well-described virulence factors, small regulatory RNAs, as well as genes not previously linked to bacterial virulence. Knowledge on relevant transcriptional responses that drive pathogenicity and adaptation of isolates to the human host might lead to the introduction of a virulence typing strategy into clinical microbiology, potentially facilitating management and prevention of the disease. PMID:25096872

  18. Salicylate increases the expression of marA and reduces in vitro biofilm formation in uropathogenic Escherichia coli by decreasing type 1 fimbriae expression

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Jordi; Soto, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent bacteria implicated in biofilm formation, which is a dynamic process whose first step consists in bacteria adhesion to surfaces through type 1 fimbriae. Salicylate induces a number of morphological and physiological alterations in bacteria including the activation of the transcriptional regulator MarA. In this report the effects of salicylate on biofilm formation and their relationship with MarA were studied. An inverse relationship was observed between in vitro biofilm formation and salicylate concentration added to the culture medium. Salicylate increases the expression of marA and decreases the expression of fimA and fimB genes in the wild-type strain. In addition, the fimA and fimB expression was decreased in a MarR mutant in which marA was also overexpressed. In conclusion, the expression of type 1 fimbriae in presence of salicylate may be regulated by the level of marA expression through fimB regulator, albeit through neither the ompX nor the tolC genes. PMID:22546909

  19. Virulence factors, Serotypes and Antimicrobial Suspectibility Pattern of Escherichia coli in Urinary Tract Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasmeen Kausar; Sneha K Chunchanur; Shobha D Nadagir; LH Halesh; M R Chandrasekhar

    Purpose: To study the virulence factors, serotypes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and antimicrobial suspectibility pattern. Methods: A total of 200 Escherichia coli from symptomatic cases of urinary tract infections and 50 stool samples from apparently healthy individuals were included. UPEC were screened for virulence factors namely haemolysin, mannose resistant, mannose sensitive haemagglutination (MRHA, MSHA) and serum resistance by recommended

  20. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stelios Viazis; Francisco Diez-Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) have been recognized as a cause of serious illness and mortality in outbreaks of foodborne illness that involve a large variety of foods. In general, most pathogenic strains behave biochemically and ecologically like any other nonpathogenic E. coli, making their detection among commensal E. coli an important problem, especially among EHEC. E. coli infections in humans

  1. Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Nataro; Harry L. T. Mobley; James B. Kaper

    2004-01-01

    Few microorganisms are as versatile as Escherichia coli. An important member of the normal intestinal microflora of humans and other mammals, E. coli has also been widely exploited as a cloning host in recombinant DNA technology. But E. coli is more than just a laboratory workhorse or harmless intestinal inhabitant; it can also be a highly versatile, and frequently deadly,

  2. The Genome Sequence of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strain O1:K1:H7 Shares Strong Similarities with Human Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli Genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Johnson; Subhashinie Kariyawasam; Yvonne Wannemuehler; Paul Mangiamele; Sara J. Johnson; Curt Doetkott; Jerod A. Skyberg; Aaron M. Lynne; James R. Johnson; Lisa K. Nolan

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains that cause disease outside the intestine are known as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and include human uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). Regard- less of host of origin, ExPEC strains share many traits. It has been suggested that these commonalities may enable APEC to cause disease in humans. Here, we begin to

  3. PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...

  4. Antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli that cause childhood community-acquired urinary tract infections in Northern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra Caracciolo; Alberto Bettinelli; Claudio Bonato; Clementina Isimbaldi; Alessandro Tagliabue; Laura Longoni; Mario G Bianchetti

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACTS: BACKGROUND: Resistance rate of Escherichia coli against antimicrobials that are commonly prescribed in pediatric urinary tract infections is currently a matter of concern. METHODS: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains to the common antibimcrobials ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, coamoxyclav, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, and gentamycin were determined in 177 children aged from 2 to 36 months. They presented with

  5. Escherichia coli diarrhoea*

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that three types of Escherichia coli—enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and enteroinvasive—play important roles in the etiology of acute diarrhoea. This report reviews the available knowledge on the epidemiology, clinical features, and pathophysiology of acute diarrhoea caused by these three types of E. coli, summarizes information on their laboratory diagnosis, and outlines priorities for further research. Particular attention is paid to important aspects of the relationship between enterotoxigenic E. coli diarrhoea in young animals and in man, and to recent advances in the development of E. coli vaccines for use in animals and their potential relevance to the development of an E. coli vaccine for use in man. PMID:6991145

  6. Antibiotic Resistance in Uropathogenic E. Coli Strains Isolated from Non-Hospitalized Patients in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ihsan; Kumar, Neeraj; Ahmed, Safia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study multidrug-resistance in Uropathogenic E. Coli (UPEC) isolated from non-hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: Altogether, 250 bacterial samples were collected from non-hospitalized patients. Their identifications were done on basis of Gram-staining, colony morphology, biochemical testing and PCR. Susceptibility testing was performed by using standard protocols which were recommended by CLSI. Statistical analysis: For comparisons, statistical analysis was performed by using software, Graphpad Prism 5.0 Results: In total, 32% (n = 80) of the isolates were identified as E. Coli strains and their susceptibility patterns for different antibiotics were determined. The data indicated least resistance against tazocin [(TZP) -1.25%], amikacin [(AK) -1.8%], tigecycline [(TGC)- 2.5%] and nitrofurantoin [(F) -3.75%]. For both minocycline (MH) and sulzone (SUL), resistance rate was 5%, for gentamicin (CN), it was 16.25%, while higher resistances were observed against cephalothine [(KF)- 70%], cefotaxime [(CTX) -58.5%], ceftazidime [(CAZ)- 57.5%], cefepime [(FEP) -55%], cefuroxime and cefixime [(CXM) (CFM)- 53.75 %]. Resistance against ciprofloxacin (CIP) was 57.5%, for norfloxacine (NOR), it was 52.5% and incase of sparfloxacin (SPX), it remained 55%. High percentage of the isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole [(SXT) -86%] and Amoxicillin [AMX-CLA (AMC)- 76%]. No resistance against meropenem (MEM) was observed. Conclusion: Highest level of drug-resistance was observed against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) among clinical isolates of uropathogenic E. Coli collected from non-hospitalized patients. PMID:25386430

  7. 76 FR 20542 - Escherichia coli

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...beef, pork sausage, chicken, oysters, cheese, fresh mushrooms...it is not surprising that one study found Escherichia coli and coliphages...at retail markets. In this study, 10 purchases of each of the...chicken, fresh pork, fresh oyster, fresh mushrooms,...

  8. Escherichia coli proteomics and bioinformatics 

    E-print Network

    Niu, Lili

    2009-05-15

    of proteins, can be used to study the products of the genome and the physiology of Escherichia coli cells at different conditions. By comparing proteome from different growth phases, such as exponential and stationary phase, a lot of proteins with changes can...

  9. EXTRAINTESTINAL PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI (EXPEC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) possess virulence traits that allow them to invade, colonize, and induce disease in bodily sites outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Human diseases caused by ExPEC include urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, surgic...

  10. Host-Pathogen Checkpoints and Population Bottlenecks in Persistent and Intracellular Uropathogenic E. coli Bladder Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Thomas J.; Totsika, Makrina; Mansfield, Kylie J.; Moore, Kate H.; Schembri, Mark A.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder infections affect millions of people yearly, and recurrent symptomatic infections (cystitis) are very common. The rapid increase in infections caused by multi-drug resistant uropathogens threatens to make recurrent cystitis an increasingly troubling public health concern. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) cause the vast majority of bladder infections. Upon entry into the lower urinary tract, UPEC face obstacles to colonization that constitute population bottlenecks, reducing diversity and selecting for fit clones. A critical mucosal barrier to bladder infection is the epithelium (urothelium). UPEC bypass this barrier when they invade urothelial cells and form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs), a process which requires type 1 pili. IBCs are transient in nature, occurring primarily during acute infection. Chronic bladder infection is common and can be either latent, in the form of the Quiescent Intracellular Reservoir (QIR), or active, in the form of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB/ABU) or chronic cystitis. In mice, the fate of bladder infection: QIR, ASB, or chronic cystitis, is determined within the first 24 hours of infection and constitutes a putative host-pathogen mucosal checkpoint that contributes to susceptibility to recurrent cystitis. Knowledge of these checkpoints and bottlenecks is critical for our understanding of bladder infection and efforts to devise novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:22404313

  11. Identification of Escherichia coli Genes Associated with Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Bin-Hsu; Chang, Yung-Fu; Scaria, Joy; Chang, Chih-Ching; Chou, Li-Wei; Tien, Ni; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Tseng, Chin-Chung; Wang, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Chao-Chin; Hsu, Yuan-Man

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). E. coli genes epidemiologically associated with UTIs are potentially valuable in developing strategies for treating and/or preventing such infections as well as differentiating uropathogenic E. coli from nonuropathogenic E. coli. To identify E. coli genes associated with UTIs in humans, we combined microarray-based and PCR-based analyses to investigate different E. coli source groups derived from feces of healthy humans and from patients with cystitis, pyelonephritis, or urosepsis. The cjrABC-senB gene cluster, sivH, sisA, sisB, eco274, and fbpB, were identified to be associated with UTIs. Of these, cjrABC-senB, sisA, sisB, and fbpB are known to be involved in urovirulence in the mouse model of ascending UTI. Our results provide evidence to support their roles as urovirulence factors in human UTIs. In addition, the newly identified UTI-associated genes were mainly found in members of phylogenetic groups B2 and/or D. PMID:22075599

  12. Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Host Defense against Uropathogenic E. coli Is Counteracted by Bacterial HemolysinA-Dependent Killing of NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Chamutal; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Rosenberg, Shilo; Yamin, Rachel; Enk, Jonatan; Glasner, Ariella; Bar-On, Yotam; Fleissig, Omer; Naor, Ronit; Abed, Jawad; Mevorach, Dror; Granot, Zvi; Bachrach, Gilad; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are a common cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans. While the importance of natural killer (NK) cells in innate immune protection against tumors and viral infections is well documented, their role in defense against bacterial infections is still emerging, and their involvement in UPEC-mediated UTI is practically unknown. Using a systematic mutagenesis approach, we found that UPEC adheres to NK cells primarily via its type I fimbriae and employs its hemolysinA toxin to kill NK cells. In the absence of hemolysinA, NK cells directly respond to the bacteria and secrete the cytokine TNF-?, which results in decreased bacterial numbers in vitro and reduction of bacterial burden in the infected bladders. Thus, NK cells control UPEC via TNF-? production, which UPEC counteracts by hemolysinA-mediated killing of NK cells, representing a previously unrecognized host defense and microbial counterattack mechanism in the context of UTI. PMID:24331464

  13. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3255 Escherichia coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents...

  14. Enterobactin-Mediated Delivery of ?-Lactam Antibiotics Enhances Antibacterial Activity against Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of enterobactin–antibiotic conjugates, hereafter Ent-Amp/Amx, where the ?-lactam antibiotics ampicillin (Amp) and amoxicillin (Amx) are linked to a monofunctionalized enterobactin scaffold via a stable poly(ethylene glycol) linker are reported. Under conditions of iron limitation, these siderophore-modified antibiotics provide enhanced antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli strains, including uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 and UTI89, enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, and enterotoxigenic E. coli O78:H11, compared to the parent ?-lactams. Studies with E. coli K-12 derivatives defective in ferric enterobactin transport reveal that the enhanced antibacterial activity observed for this strain requires the outer membrane ferric enterobactin transporter FepA. A remarkable 1000-fold decrease in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value is observed for uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 relative to Amp/Amx, and time-kill kinetic studies demonstrate that Ent-Amp/Amx kill this strain more rapidly at 10-fold lower concentrations than the parent antibiotics. Moreover, Ent-Amp and Ent-Amx selectively kill E. coli CFT073 co-cultured with other bacterial species such as Staphylococcus aureus, and Ent-Amp exhibits low cytotoxicity against human T84 intestinal cells in both the apo and iron-bound forms. These studies demonstrate that the native enterobactin platform provides a means to effectively deliver antibacterial cargo across the outer membrane permeability barrier of Gram-negative pathogens utilizing enterobactin for iron acquisition. PMID:24927110

  15. SEROLOGICAL CROSS-REACTIONS BETWEEN ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 AND OTHER SPECIES OF THE GENUS ESCHERICHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia hermannii, a sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia, has been reported to be agglutinated by Escherichia coli 0157 and four sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia: . hermannii (24 isolates), Escherichia fergusonii (12 isolates), Escherichia vul...

  16. Escherichia coli Isolates That Carry vat, fyuA, chuA, and yfcV Efficiently Colonize the Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Spurbeck, Rachel R.; Dinh, Paul C.; Walk, Seth T.; Stapleton, Ann E.; Hooton, Thomas M.; Nolan, Lisa K.; Kim, Kwang Sik; Johnson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Extraintestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC), a heterogeneous group of pathogens, encompasses avian, neonatal meningitis, and uropathogenic E. coli strains. While several virulence factors are associated with ExPEC, there is no core set of virulence factors that can be used to definitively differentiate these pathotypes. Here we describe a multiplex of four virulence factor-encoding genes, yfcV, vat, fyuA, and chuA, highly associated with uropathogenic E. coli strains that can distinguish three groups of E. coli: diarrheagenic and animal-associated E. coli strains, human commensal and avian pathogenic E. coli strains, and uropathogenic and neonatal meningitis E. coli strains. Furthermore, human intestinal isolates that encode all four predictor genes express them during exponential growth in human urine and colonize the bladder in the mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection in higher numbers than human commensal strains that do not encode the four predictor genes (P = 0.02), suggesting that the presence of the predictors correlates with uropathogenic potential. PMID:22966046

  17. Escherichia coli isolates that carry vat, fyuA, chuA, and yfcV efficiently colonize the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Spurbeck, Rachel R; Dinh, Paul C; Walk, Seth T; Stapleton, Ann E; Hooton, Thomas M; Nolan, Lisa K; Kim, Kwang Sik; Johnson, James R; Mobley, Harry L T

    2012-12-01

    Extraintestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC), a heterogeneous group of pathogens, encompasses avian, neonatal meningitis, and uropathogenic E. coli strains. While several virulence factors are associated with ExPEC, there is no core set of virulence factors that can be used to definitively differentiate these pathotypes. Here we describe a multiplex of four virulence factor-encoding genes, yfcV, vat, fyuA, and chuA, highly associated with uropathogenic E. coli strains that can distinguish three groups of E. coli: diarrheagenic and animal-associated E. coli strains, human commensal and avian pathogenic E. coli strains, and uropathogenic and neonatal meningitis E. coli strains. Furthermore, human intestinal isolates that encode all four predictor genes express them during exponential growth in human urine and colonize the bladder in the mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection in higher numbers than human commensal strains that do not encode the four predictor genes (P = 0.02), suggesting that the presence of the predictors correlates with uropathogenic potential. PMID:22966046

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains: adhesins, growth and competition.

    PubMed

    Roos, Viktoria; Nielsen, Eva M; Klemm, Per

    2006-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete against the UPEC strain CFT073 was also studied. The different ABU strains displayed a wide variety of the measured characteristics. Half of the ABU strains displayed functional type 1 fimbriae while only one expressed functional P fimbriae. A good correlation between the growth rate of a particular strain and the survival of the strain in competition against CFT073 was observed. Our results support the notion that for strains with reduced capacity to express fimbriae, the ability to grow fast in human urine becomes crucial for colonization of the urinary tract. PMID:16907735

  19. Inhibition of TIR Domain Signaling by TcpC: MyD88Dependent and Independent Effects on Escherichia coli Virulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manisha Yadav; Jingyao Zhang; Hans Fischer; Wen Huang; Nataliya Lutay; Christine Cirl; Josephine Lum; Thomas Miethke; Catharina Svanborg

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptor signaling requires functional Toll\\/interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor (TIR) domains to activate innate immunity. By producing TIR homologous proteins, microbes inhibit host response induction and improve their own survival. The TIR homologous protein TcpC was recently identified as a virulence factor in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli), suppressing innate immunity by binding to MyD88. This study examined how the host

  20. Characterization of Urinary Tract Infection-Associated Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Toval, Francisco; Schiller, Roswitha; Meisen, Iris; Putze, Johannes; Kouzel, Ivan U.; Zhang, Wenlan; Karch, Helge; Bielaszewska, Martina; Mormann, Michael; Müthing, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a subgroup of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC), is a leading cause of diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. However, urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by this microorganism but not associated with diarrhea have occasionally been reported. We geno- and phenotypically characterized three EHEC isolates obtained from the urine of hospitalized patients suffering from UTIs. These isolates carried typical EHEC virulence markers and belonged to HUS-associated E. coli (HUSEC) clones, but they lacked virulence markers typical of uropathogenic E. coli. One isolate exhibited a localized adherence (LA)-like pattern on T24 urinary bladder epithelial cells. Since the glycosphingolipids (GSLs) globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer) are well-known receptors for Stx but also for P fimbriae, a major virulence factor of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), the expression of Gb3Cer and Gb4Cer by T24 cells and in murine urinary bladder tissue was examined by thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry. We provide data indicating that Stxs released by the EHEC isolates bind to Gb3Cer and Gb4Cer isolated from T24 cells, which were susceptible to Stx. All three EHEC isolates expressed stx genes upon growth in urine. Two strains were able to cause UTI in a murine infection model and could not be outcompeted in urine in vitro by typical uropathogenic E. coli isolates. Our results indicate that despite the lack of ExPEC virulence markers, EHEC variants may exhibit in certain suitable hosts, e.g., in hospital patients, a uropathogenic potential. The contribution of EHEC virulence factors to uropathogenesis remains to be further investigated. PMID:25156739

  1. Negative Chemotaxis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Wung-Wai; Adler, Julius

    1974-01-01

    Several methods for detecting or measuring negative chemotaxis are described. Using these, we have surveyed a number of chemicals for their ability to repel Escherichia coli. Although most of the repellents are harmful compounds, harmfulness is neither necessary nor sufficient to make a compound a repellent. The repellents can be grouped into at least nine classes according to (i) competition experiments, (ii) mutants lacking certain of the negative taxes, and (iii) their chemical structure. The specificity of each class was studied. It is suggested that each class corresponds to a distinct chemoreceptor. Generally, non-chemotactic mutants lack both positive and negative chemotaxis, and l-methionine is required for both kinds of taxis. Repellents at very low concentrations are not attractants, and attractants at very high concentrations are not repellents. Images PMID:4597449

  2. Recombinant collagen production optimization in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Whittemore, Brett A

    2005-01-01

    An Escherichia coli-based collagen-production process was used to investigate several process optimization objectives for use at the industrial scale. The effect of cooling on fermentation growth kinetics was studied, with ...

  3. Biofilm formation by asymptomatic and virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Viktoria; Ferričres, Lionel; Klemm, Per

    2007-02-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic urinary tract infection, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the biofilm-forming capacity on abiotic surfaces of groups of ABU strains and UPEC strains in human urine. We found that there is a strong bias; ABU strains were significantly better biofilm formers than UPEC strains. Our data suggest that biofilm formation in urinary tract infectious E. coli seems to be associated with ABU strains and appears to be an important strategy used by these strains for persistence in this high-flow environment. PMID:17166230

  4. Engineering a Reduced Escherichia coli Genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitaliy Kolisnychenko; Guy Plunkett; Christopher D. Herring; Tamás Fehér; János Pósfai; Frederick R. Blattner; György Pósfai

    2002-01-01

    Our goal is to construct an improved Escherichia coli to serve both as a better model organism and as a more useful technological tool for genome science. We developed techniques for precise genomic surgery and applied them to deleting the largest K-islands of E. coli, identified by comparative genomics as recent horizontal acquisitions to the genome. They are loaded with

  5. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  6. Transcriptional proofreading in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Libby, R T; Nelson, J L; Calvo, J M; Gallant, J A

    1989-01-01

    A novel transcriptional proofreading mechanism associated with the beta-subunit of wild-type RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli is suggested from the following data. The purified holoenzyme contains an NTPase activity which specifically converts noncognate NTPs to their corresponding NDP in a template-dependent manner during in vitro transcription of synthetic single- and double-stranded templates. In contrast, purified enzyme from an rpoB mutant which shows increased transcriptional error lacked template-dependent NTP hydrolytic activity. The NTP hydrolytic activity of wild-type enzyme was critically dependent on the integrity of the initiation complex, and required continued transcriptional elongation. Transcription and translation of the lacZ gene proceeded 17% faster in the mutant than in its wild-type parent. These results are discussed in terms of a proofreading model in which the rate of transcription is limited by proofreading events that involve recognition and hydrolysis of noncognate NTPs before they can be misincorporated into RNA. Images PMID:2555156

  7. Synergistic effect of lipopeptide biosurfactant with antibiotics against Escherichia coli CFT073 biofilm.

    PubMed

    Rivardo, Fabrizio; Martinotti, Maria Giovanna; Turner, Raymond Joseph; Ceri, Howard

    2011-04-01

    Biofilms are microcolonies of microbes adherent to biotic and abiotic surfaces, often responsible for chronic infections and medical device contamination. Escherichia coli is one of the prevalent pathogens involved in uropathogenic infections and contamination of catheters. A biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis V9T14 was tested alone and in association with various antibiotics against a mature 24-h uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 biofilm. Biofilm was grown on polystyrene pegs of a Calgary Biofilm Device, providing a tool to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial agents. Antibiotics tested were ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, tobramycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (19:1). Biosurfactant alone at the concentrations tested was not able to remove the adherent cells of the pre-formed biofilm. However, the difference between the effect of antibiotic alone and in combination with the biosurfactant was significant and exceeded 1log(10) (90%) reduction in most cases. Results of this study indicate that V9T14 biosurfactant in association with antibiotics leads to a synergistic increase in the efficacy of antibiotics in biofilm killing, and in some combinations leads to total eradication of E. coli CFT073 biofilm. PMID:21316197

  8. Inhibition and Reversal of Microbial Attachment by an Antibody with Parasteric Activity against the FimH Adhesin of Uropathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Kisiela, Dagmara I; Avagyan, Hovhannes; Friend, Della; Jalan, Aachal; Gupta, Shivani; Interlandi, Gianluca; Liu, Yan; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Rodriguez, Victoria B; Sumida, John P; Strong, Roland K; Wu, Xue-Ru; Thomas, Wendy E; Sokurenko, Evgeni V

    2015-05-01

    Attachment proteins from the surface of eukaryotic cells, bacteria and viruses are critical receptors in cell adhesion or signaling and are primary targets for the development of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. It is proposed that the ligand-binding pocket in receptor proteins can shift between inactive and active conformations with weak and strong ligand-binding capability, respectively. Here, using monoclonal antibodies against a vaccine target protein - fimbrial adhesin FimH of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, we demonstrate that unusually strong receptor inhibition can be achieved by antibody that binds within the binding pocket and displaces the ligand in a non-competitive way. The non-competitive antibody binds to a loop that interacts with the ligand in the active conformation of the pocket but is shifted away from ligand in the inactive conformation. We refer to this as a parasteric inhibition, where the inhibitor binds adjacent to the ligand in the binding pocket. We showed that the receptor-blocking mechanism of parasteric antibody differs from that of orthosteric inhibition, where the inhibitor replaces the ligand or allosteric inhibition where the inhibitor binds at a site distant from the ligand, and is very potent in blocking bacterial adhesion, dissolving surface-adherent biofilms and protecting mice from urinary bladder infection. PMID:25974133

  9. Proteomes of pathogenic Escherichia coli/Shigella group surveyed in their host environments.

    PubMed

    Suh, Moo-Jin; Kuntumalla, Srilatha; Yu, Yanbao; Pieper, Rembert

    2014-10-01

    Proteomic studies on Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are reviewed. UPEC causes infections in the urogenital tract, whereas the other species colonize and, to varying degrees, invade the intestinal tract. Type III secretion systems used to breach the mucosal barrier by the intestinal pathogens revealed distinct expression patterns in different host environments. Dynamic adaptations to changes in nutrient availability and oxygen were observed, including increased reliance on anaerobic respiration and mixed acid fermentation in vivo. Utilization of carbon and nitrogen resources by the bacteria varied considerably depending on the host model investigated. Shigellae and UPEC adapted to metal ion sequestration in the mammalian host by enhancing expression of various receptors and transporters for iron and zinc. This appears to reflect the preferred intracellular life stage of Shigella spp. and responses of UPEC to high levels of lipocalin and lactotransferrin in the urinary tract. PMID:25163594

  10. Comparison of 61 Sequenced Escherichia coli Genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oksana Lukjancenko; Trudy M. Wassenaar; David W. Ussery

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli is an important component of the biosphere and is an ideal model for studies of processes involved in bacterial genome evolution.\\u000a Sixty-one publically available E. coli and Shigella spp. sequenced genomes are compared, using basic methods to produce phylogenetic and proteomics trees, and to identify the\\u000a pan- and core genomes of this set of sequenced strains. A hierarchical

  11. Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine D. Berry; James E. Wells

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen that is an important cause of human foodborne and waterborne disease, with a spectrum of illnesses ranging from asymptomatic carriage and diarrhea to the sometimes fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome. Outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 disease are often associated with undercooked beef, but there are other sources of transmission, including water, produce, and animal

  12. Heteropathogenic virulence and phylogeny reveal phased pathogenic metamorphosis in Escherichia coli O2:H6

    PubMed Central

    Bielaszewska, Martina; Schiller, Roswitha; Lammers, Lydia; Bauwens, Andreas; Fruth, Angelika; Middendorf, Barbara; Schmidt, M Alexander; Tarr, Phillip I; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Karch, Helge; Mellmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic and intestinal pathogenic (diarrheagenic) Escherichia coli differ phylogenetically and by virulence profiles. Classic theory teaches simple linear descent in this species, where non-pathogens acquire virulence traits and emerge as pathogens. However, diarrheagenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O2:H6 not only possess and express virulence factors associated with diarrheagenic and uropathogenic E. coli but also cause diarrhea and urinary tract infections. These organisms are phylogenetically positioned between members of an intestinal pathogenic group (STEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. STEC O2:H6 is, therefore, a ‘heteropathogen,’ and the first such hybrid virulent E. coli identified. The phylogeny of these E. coli and the repertoire of virulence traits they possess compel consideration of an alternate view of pathogen emergence, whereby one pathogroup of E. coli undergoes phased metamorphosis into another. By understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of bacterial pathogens, rational strategies for counteracting their detrimental effects on humans can be developed. Subject Categories Microbiology, Virology & Host Pathogen Interaction PMID:24413188

  13. Pathogenic potential of escherichia coli O26 and sorbitol-fermenting escherichia coli O157:NM 

    E-print Network

    Rosser, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) are important human pathogens that may cause diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Worldwide, non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) VTEC O157:H7 is ...

  14. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by photocatalytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bekbölet, M; Araz, C V

    1996-03-01

    The inactivation of Escherichia coli (E.coli) was studied in presterilized surface water sample using titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst under irradiation of BLF Fluorescent lamps. Inactivation of E.coli (10(3) CFU/mL) was achieved in 60 min in the presence of 1.0 mg TiO2/mL. Photocatalytic inactivation data was evaluated in terms of first order rate equation N/N0 = e (-kIt). The reaction rate constant k, 1.22*10(-2)(mW min/cm2)-1 was calculated. PMID:8867143

  15. Functional motifs in Escherichia coli NC101.

    PubMed

    Motalleb, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria can damage DNA of the gut lining cells and may encourage the development of colon cancer according to recent reports. Genetic switches are specific sequence motifs and many of them are drug targets. It is interesting to know motifs and their location in sequences. At the present study, Gibbs sampler algorithm was used in order to predict and find functional motifs in E. coli NC101 contig 1. The whole genomic sequence of Escherichia coli NC101 contig 1 were retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov (NCBI Reference sequence: NZ_AEFA01000001.1) in order to be analyzed with DAMBE software and BLAST. The results showed that the 6-mer motif is CUGGAA in most sequences (genes1-3, 8, 9, 12, 14-18, 20-23, 25, 27, 29, 31-34), CUUGUA for gene 4 , CUGUAA for gene 5, CUGAUG for gene 6, CUGAUA for gene7, CUGAAA for genes 10, 11, 13, 26, 28, and CUGGAG for gene 19, and CUGGUA for gene30 in E. coli NC101 contig 1. It is concluded that the 6-mer motif is CUGGAA in most sequences in E. coli NC101 contig1. The present study may help experimental studies on elucidating the pharmacological and phylogenic functions of the motifs in E. coli. PMID:24551810

  16. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.…

  17. Escherichia coli and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bettelheim, Karl A.; Goldwater, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the association of strains of Escherichia coli with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and the possible role these bacteria play in this enigmatic condition. The review addresses evidence for E. coli in SIDS infants, potential sources of E. coli in the environment, colonization by commensal and pathogenic strains, the variety of currently accepted pathotypes, and how these pathotypes could compromise intestinal integrity and induce inflammation. Both intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes are compared in relation to the apparent liability in which virulence traits can be gained or lost by strains of E. coli. The way in which E. coli infections fit with current views on infant sleeping position and other SIDS risk factors is highlighted.

  18. A Survey for Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Asymptomatic Free-Ranging Parrots

    PubMed Central

    Becker Saidenberg, André; Robaldo Guedes, Neiva Maria; Fernandes Seixas, Gláucia Helena; da Costa Allgayer, Mariangela; Pacífico de Assis, Erica; Fabio Silveira, Luis; Anne Melville, Priscilla; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2012-01-01

    Parrots in captivity are frequently affected by Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections. The objective of this study was to collect information on the carrier state for E. coli pathotypes in asymptomatic free-ranging parrots. Cloacal swabs were collected from nestlings of Hyacinth, Lear's macaws and Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for virulence factors commonly found in enteropathogenic, avian pathogenic, and uropathogenic E. coli strains. In total, 44 samples were cultured and E. coli isolates were yielded, from which DNA was extracted and processed by PCR. Genes commonly found in APEC isolates from Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws were expressed in 14 of these 44 samples. One atypical EPEC isolate was obtained from a sample from Lear's macaw. The most commonly found gene was the increased serum survival (iss) gene. This is the first report, that describes such pathotypes in asymptomatic free-living parrots. The findings of this study suggest the presence of a stable host/parasite relationship at the time of the sampling brings a new understanding to the role that E. coli plays in captive and wild parrots. Such information can be used to improve husbandry protocols as well as help conservation efforts of free-living populations. PMID:23738135

  19. A Survey for Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Asymptomatic Free-Ranging Parrots.

    PubMed

    Becker Saidenberg, André; Robaldo Guedes, Neiva Maria; Fernandes Seixas, Gláucia Helena; da Costa Allgayer, Mariangela; Pacífico de Assis, Erica; Fabio Silveira, Luis; Anne Melville, Priscilla; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2012-01-01

    Parrots in captivity are frequently affected by Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections. The objective of this study was to collect information on the carrier state for E. coli pathotypes in asymptomatic free-ranging parrots. Cloacal swabs were collected from nestlings of Hyacinth, Lear's macaws and Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for virulence factors commonly found in enteropathogenic, avian pathogenic, and uropathogenic E. coli strains. In total, 44 samples were cultured and E. coli isolates were yielded, from which DNA was extracted and processed by PCR. Genes commonly found in APEC isolates from Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws were expressed in 14 of these 44 samples. One atypical EPEC isolate was obtained from a sample from Lear's macaw. The most commonly found gene was the increased serum survival (iss) gene. This is the first report, that describes such pathotypes in asymptomatic free-living parrots. The findings of this study suggest the presence of a stable host/parasite relationship at the time of the sampling brings a new understanding to the role that E. coli plays in captive and wild parrots. Such information can be used to improve husbandry protocols as well as help conservation efforts of free-living populations. PMID:23738135

  20. Survival of Escherichia coli in stormwater biofilters.

    PubMed

    Chandrasena, G I; Deletic, A; McCarthy, D T

    2014-04-01

    Biofilters are widely adopted in Australia for stormwater treatment, but the reported removal of common faecal indicators (such as Escherichia coli (E. coli)) varies from net removal to net leaching. Currently, the underlying mechanisms that govern the faecal microbial removal in the biofilters are poorly understood. Therefore, it is important to study retention and subsequent survival of faecal microorganisms in the biofilters under different biofilter designs and operational characteristics. The current study investigates how E. coli survival is influenced by temperature, moisture content, sunlight exposure and presence of other microorganisms in filter media and top surface sediment. Soil samples were taken from two different biofilters to investigate E. coli survival under controlled laboratory conditions. Results revealed that the presence of other microorganisms and temperature are vital stressors which govern the survival of E. coli captured either in the top surface sediment or filter media, while sunlight exposure and moisture content are important for the survival of E. coli captured in the top surface sediment compared to that of the filter media. Moreover, increased survival was found in the filter media compared to the top sediment, and sand filter media was found be more hostile than loamy sand filter media towards E. coli survival. Results also suggest that the contribution from the tested environmental stressors on E. coli survival in biofilters will be greatly affected by the seasonality and may vary from one site to another. PMID:24371007

  1. Pathogenesis of Afa/Dr Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Servin, Alain L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few years, dramatic increases in our knowledge about diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) pathogenesis have taken place. The typical class of DAEC includes E. coli strains harboring AfaE-I, AfaE-II, AfaE-III, AfaE-V, Dr, Dr-II, F1845, and NFA-I adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC); these strains (i) have an identical genetic organization and (ii) allow binding to human decay-accelerating factor (DAF) (Afa/DrDAF subclass) or carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (Afa/DrCEA subclass). The atypical class of DAEC includes two subclasses of strains; the atypical subclass 1 includes E. coli strains that express AfaE-VII, AfaE-VIII, AAF-I, AAF-II, and AAF-III adhesins, which (i) have an identical genetic organization and (ii) do not bind to human DAF, and the atypical subclass 2 includes E. coli strains that harbor Afa/Dr adhesins or others adhesins promoting diffuse adhesion, together with pathogenicity islands such as the LEE pathogenicity island (DA-EPEC). In this review, the focus is on Afa/Dr DAEC strains that have been found to be associated with urinary tract infections and with enteric infection. The review aims to provide a broad overview and update of the virulence aspects of these intriguing pathogens. Epidemiological studies, diagnostic techniques, characteristic molecular features of Afa/Dr operons, and the respective role of Afa/Dr adhesins and invasins in pathogenesis are described. Following the recognition of membrane-bound receptors, including type IV collagen, DAF, CEACAM1, CEA, and CEACAM6, by Afa/Dr adhesins, activation of signal transduction pathways leads to structural and functional injuries at brush border and junctional domains and to proinflammatory responses in polarized intestinal cells. In addition, uropathogenic Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following recognition of ?1 integrin as a receptor, enter epithelial cells by a zipper-like, raft- and microtubule-dependent mechanism. Finally, the presence of other, unknown virulence factors and the way that an Afa/Dr DAEC strain emerges from the human intestinal microbiota as a “silent pathogen” are discussed. PMID:15831825

  2. Escherichia coli in retail processed food.

    PubMed Central

    Pinegar, J. A.; Cooke, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    Four thousand two hundred and forty six samples of retail processed food were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli. Overall 12% of samples contained this organism, cakes and confectionery being more frequently contaminated (28%) than meat and meat based products (9%). Contamination was more frequent in the summer months than in the colder weather and 27% of the contaminated foods contained greater than 10(3) E. coli/g. E. coli from meat and meat based products were more commonly resistant to one or more antibiotics (14%) than were confectionery strains (1%). The significance of these findings in relation to the E. coli population of the human bowel is discussed. PMID:3894508

  3. Biosynthesis of 4-aminobenzoate in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Huang, M; Gibson, F

    1970-06-01

    Two different mutations (pabA and pabB) affecting 4-aminobenzoate biosynthesis were obtained in strains of Escherichia coli lacking chorismate mutase and anthranilate synthetase activity, thus allowing study of the pathway of biosynthesis of 4-aminobenzoate by use of cell extracts of strains carrying the pab mutations. Two components with approximate molecular weights of 9,000 (component A) and 48,000 (component B) are concerned in the biosynthesis of 4-aminobenzoate from chorismate by E. coli. No diffusible intermediate compound could be detected. PMID:4914080

  4. Preventing urinary tract infection: progress toward an effective Escherichia coli vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Brumbaugh, Ariel R; Mobley, Harry LT

    2012-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common, with nearly half of all women experiencing at least one UTI in their lifetime. This high frequency of infection results in huge annual economic costs, decreased workforce productivity and high patient morbidity. At least 80% of these infections are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC can reside side by side with commensal strains in the gastrointestinal tract and gain access to the bladder via colonization of the urethra. Antibiotics represent the current standard treatment for UTI; however, even after treatment, patients frequently suffer from recurrent infection with the same or different strains. In addition, successful long-term treatment has been complicated by a rise in both the number of antibiotic-resistant strains and the prevalence of antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. As a result, preventative approaches to UTI, such as vaccination, have been sought. This review summarizes recent advances in UPEC vaccine development and outlines future directions for the field. PMID:22873125

  5. Escherichia coli Biofilms Have an Organized and Complex Extracellular Matrix Structure

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chia; Zhou, Yizhou; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Dodson, Karen W.; Crowley, Jan R.; Heuser, John; Chapman, Matthew R.; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Henderson, Jeffrey P.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, and their resilience is derived in part from a complex extracellular matrix that can be tailored to meet environmental demands. Although common developmental stages leading to biofilm formation have been described, how the extracellular components are organized to allow three-dimensional biofilm development is not well understood. Here we show that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains produce a biofilm with a highly ordered and complex extracellular matrix (ECM). We used electron microscopy (EM) techniques to image floating biofilms (pellicles) formed by UPEC. EM revealed intricately constructed substructures within the ECM that encase individual, spatially segregated bacteria with a distinctive morphology. Mutational and biochemical analyses of these biofilms confirmed curli as a major matrix component and revealed important roles for cellulose, flagella, and type 1 pili in pellicle integrity and ECM infrastructure. Collectively, the findings of this study elucidated that UPEC pellicles have a highly organized ultrastructure that varies spatially across the multicellular community. PMID:24023384

  6. Properties of an Escherichia coli cytotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Konowalchuk, J; Dickie, N; Stavric, S; Speirs, J I

    1978-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing of a heat-labile cytotoxin of Escherichia coli H30 revealed the presence of two molecular variants, pI 7.2 and a comparatively small quantity of pI 6.8. Predominant component pI 7.2 had a molecular weight of 28,000, induced some fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loops, and showed no morphological response in Y-1 cells but a strong cytotoxic effect on Vero cells. PMID:208977

  7. Systematic Mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli Genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yisheng Kang; Tim Durfee; Jeremy D. Glasner; Yu Qiu; David Frisch; Kelly M. Winterberg; Frederick R. Blattner

    2004-01-01

    A high-throughput method has been developed for the systematic mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli genome. The system is based on in vitro transposition of a modified Tn5 element, the Sce-poson, into linear fragments of each open reading frame. The transposon introduces both positive (kanamycin resistance) and negative (I-SceI recognition site) selectable markers for isolation of mutants and subsequent allele replacement,

  8. Characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli from pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, V P; Gyles, C L; Friendship, R W

    1988-01-01

    Porcine verotoxigenic Escherichia coli were characterized with respect to frequency of occurrence, serogroup, and association with disease, weaning, and selected properties of the bacterium. Of 668 strains of E. coli from southern Ontario pigs with enteric disease, 32 (4.8%) produced verotoxin at 10(3)-10(7) cytotoxic doses per mL of culture supernatant. Of 22 isolates which belonged to O serogroups 138, 139 and 141, 15 produced verotoxin. Among other enterotoxigenic types of E. coli, two of 57 isolates of O157:K"V17" and two of 96 isolates of O149:K91 were verotoxigenic. The remaining 13 verotoxigenic E. coli belonged to O groups 2, 107, 120, 121 and 130. An additional 21 verotoxigenic E. coli belonging to O groups 138, 139 and 141 and three to O157:K"V17" were identified in a collection of 47 E. coli recovered from weaned pigs with enteric disease. Verotoxigenic E. coli were associated with postweaning diarrhea, bloody stools, sudden death and edema disease. They were isolated at similar frequencies (14%) from healthy weaned pigs, and from weaned pigs with enteric disease. Isolation rates from neonates were low and significantly different from rates in weaned pigs. Neutralizing antibody to verotoxin was not detected in the sera of 45 pigs, which included pigs from herds with a history of edema disease. Verotoxin was not associated with production of colicin, hemolysin, or enterotoxins or with any of 23 biochemical properties of the organisms. The serological data indicate that porcine verotoxigenic E. coli are not a common source of verotoxigenic E. coli for humans. Porcine verotoxin may play a role in postweaning diarrhea and absence of detectable neutralizing antibody in serum may be an important aspect of pathogenesis. PMID:3048621

  9. The antibacterial effect of nitric oxide against ESBL-producing uropathogenic E. coli is improved by combination with miconazole and polymyxin B nonapeptide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) is produced as part of the host immune response to bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections. The enzyme flavohemoglobin, coded by the hmp gene, is involved in protecting bacterial cells from the toxic effects of NO and represents a potentially interesting target for development of novel treatment concepts against resistant uropathogenic bacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the in vitro antibacterial effects of NO can be enhanced by pharmacological modulation of the enzyme flavohemoglobin. Results Four clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing uropathogenic E. coli were included in the study. It was shown that the NO-donor substance DETA/NO, but not inactivated DETA/NO, caused an initial growth inhibition with regrowth noted after 8?h of exposure. An hmp-deficient strain showed a prolonged growth inhibition in response to DETA/NO compared to the wild type. The imidazole antibiotic miconazole, that has been shown to inhibit bacterial flavohemoglobin activity, prolonged the DETA/NO-evoked growth inhibition. When miconazole was combined with polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN), in order to increase the bacterial wall permeability, DETA/NO caused a prolonged bacteriostatic response that lasted for up to 24?h. Conclusion An NO-donor in combination with miconazole and PMBN showed enhanced antimicrobial effects and proved effective against multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:24629000

  10. Thymineless Death in Escherichia coli: Strain Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Donald J.; Mondale, Lee

    1967-01-01

    Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive strains of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, Bs?12, K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon?, all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive strains of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation. Images PMID:5337772

  11. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255 Escherichia coli serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  12. COMPARATIVE RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCI TO CHLORINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium were inactivated by free chlorine and monochloramine. ndigenous E. coli and enterococci in wastewater effluents were also inactivated. elective bacteriological media specifically designed for the enumeration of the target...

  13. Original article Resistance of Escherichia coli growing as biofilms

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Resistance of Escherichia coli growing as biofilms to disinfectants C Ntsama) Summary ― The bactericidal activity of various disinfectants (cationic or amphoteric surfactants, oxidizing agents, phenolic derivatives) was determined against E.scherichin coli CIP 54127 obtained

  14. Survival of multi-drug resistant enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella paratyphi in Vembanadu

    E-print Network

    Mazumder, Asit

    Survival of multi-drug resistant enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella paratyphi the survival response of multi-drug resistant enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella paratyphi- otypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica typhi and paratyphi are highly endemic to India

  15. Carbon nutrition of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine

    E-print Network

    Conway, Tyrrell

    used by E. coli MG1655 to colonize, having an impact on both the initiation and maintenance stages. N > ribose. The results of this systematic analysis of nutrients used by E. coli MG1655 to colonize the mouse E. coli pathogens in some individuals and a barrier to infection in others. Escherichia coli

  16. Automatic Tracking of Escherichia Coli Bacteria , Shahid Khan2 3

    E-print Network

    Central Florida, University of

    bacteria (E. coli), which can generally cause several intestinal and extra-intestinal infections of Escherichia Coli Bacteria 825 Fig. 1. (Left) A typical view of E. coli bacteria under a phase may appear as a white bulb (B). (Right) An sequence of E. coli bacteria. Among the efforts devoted

  17. Global Gene Expression Profiling of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Escherichia coli during Biofilm Growth in Human Urine?

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important health problem worldwide, with many millions of cases each year, and Escherichia coli is the most common organism causing UTI in humans. Also, E. coli is responsible for most infections in patients with chronic indwelling bladder catheter. The two asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) E. coli strains 83972 and VR50 are significantly better biofilm formers in their natural growth medium, human urine, than the two uropathogenic E. coli isolates CFT073 and 536. We used DNA microarrays to monitor the expression profile during biofilm growth in urine of the two ABU strains 83972 and VR50. Significant differences in expression levels were seen between the biofilm expression profiles of the two strains with the corresponding planktonic expression profiles in morpholinepropanesulfonic acid minimal laboratory medium and human urine; 417 and 355 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, during biofilm growth in urine of 83972 and VR50. Many genes involved in transcription and stress were up-regulated in biofilm-grown cells. The role in biofilm formation of four of the up-regulated genes, i.e., yceP, yqgA, ygiD, and aaeX, was investigated by creating single-knockout mutant versions of 83972 and VR50; all mutants showed reduced biofilm formation in urine by 18 to 43% compared with the wild type (P < 0.05). Also, the expression profile of strain 83972 in the human urinary tract partially overlaps with the biofilm expression profile. PMID:17145952

  18. Global gene expression profiling of asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli during biofilm growth in human urine.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2007-02-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important health problem worldwide, with many millions of cases each year, and Escherichia coli is the most common organism causing UTI in humans. Also, E. coli is responsible for most infections in patients with chronic indwelling bladder catheter. The two asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) E. coli strains 83972 and VR50 are significantly better biofilm formers in their natural growth medium, human urine, than the two uropathogenic E. coli isolates CFT073 and 536. We used DNA microarrays to monitor the expression profile during biofilm growth in urine of the two ABU strains 83972 and VR50. Significant differences in expression levels were seen between the biofilm expression profiles of the two strains with the corresponding planktonic expression profiles in morpholinepropanesulfonic acid minimal laboratory medium and human urine; 417 and 355 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, during biofilm growth in urine of 83972 and VR50. Many genes involved in transcription and stress were up-regulated in biofilm-grown cells. The role in biofilm formation of four of the up-regulated genes, i.e., yceP, yqgA, ygiD, and aaeX, was investigated by creating single-knockout mutant versions of 83972 and VR50; all mutants showed reduced biofilm formation in urine by 18 to 43% compared with the wild type (P < 0.05). Also, the expression profile of strain 83972 in the human urinary tract partially overlaps with the biofilm expression profile. PMID:17145952

  19. Core and panmetabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Gilles; Sabarly, Victor; Bourguignon, Pierre-Yves; Durot, Maxime; Le Fčvre, François; Mornico, Damien; Vallenet, David; Bouvet, Odile; Denamur, Erick; Schachter, Vincent; Médigue, Claudine

    2011-03-01

    Escherichia coli exhibits a wide range of lifestyles encompassing commensalism and various pathogenic behaviors which its highly dynamic genome contributes to develop. How environmental and host factors shape the genetic structure of E. coli strains remains, however, largely unknown. Following a previous study of E. coli genomic diversity, we investigated its diversity at the metabolic level by building and analyzing the genome-scale metabolic networks of 29 E. coli strains (8 commensal and 21 pathogenic strains, including 6 Shigella strains). Using a tailor-made reconstruction strategy, we significantly improved the completeness and accuracy of the metabolic networks over default automatic reconstruction processes. Among the 1,545 reactions forming E. coli panmetabolism, 885 reactions were common to all strains. This high proportion of core reactions (57%) was found to be in sharp contrast to the low proportion (13%) of core genes in the E. coli pangenome, suggesting less diversity of metabolic functions compared to that of all gene functions. Core reactions were significantly overrepresented among biosynthetic reactions compared to the more variable degradation processes. Differences between metabolic networks were found to follow E. coli phylogeny rather than pathogenic phenotypes, except for Shigella networks, which were significantly more distant from the others. This suggests that most metabolic changes in non-Shigella strains were not driven by their pathogenic phenotypes. Using a supervised method, we were yet able to identify small sets of reactions related to pathogenicity or commensalism. The quality of our reconstructed networks also makes them reliable bases for building metabolic models. PMID:21239590

  20. ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 AND WILD-TYPE ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of a number of human-virulent and "wild-type" Escherichia coli strains in phosphate buffered water was measured. The impact of pH, ionic strength, cation type (valence) and concentration, and bacterial strain on the EPM was investigated. Resul...

  1. A subset of mucosa-associated Escherichia coli isolates from patients with colon cancer, but not Crohn's disease, share pathogenicity islands with urinary pathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Bronowski, Christina; Smith, Shirley L; Yokota, Kyoko; Corkill, John E; Martin, Helen M; Campbell, Barry J; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Hart, C Anthony; Winstanley, Craig

    2008-02-01

    Adherent and invasive mucosa-associated Escherichia coli have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colon cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases. It has been reported that such isolates share features of extraintestinal E. coli (ExPEC) and particularly uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to subtract the genome of E. coli K-12 from that of a colon cancer mucosal E. coli isolate. Of the subtracted sequences, 53 % were present in the genomes of one or more of three sequenced UPEC strains but absent from the genome of an enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain. Of the subtracted sequences, 80 % matched at least one UPEC genome, whereas only 4 % were absent from the UPEC genomes but present in the genome of the EHEC strain. A further genomic subtraction against the UPEC strain 536 enriched for sequences matching mobile genetic elements, other ExPEC strains, and other UPEC strains or commensals, rather than strains associated with gastrointestinal disease. We analysed the distribution of selected subtracted sequences and UPEC-associated pathogenicity islands (PAIs) amongst a panel of mucosa-associated E. coli isolated from colonoscopic biopsies of patients with colon cancer, patients with Crohn's disease and controls. This enabled us to identify a group of isolates from colon cancer (30-40 %) carrying multiple genes previously categorized as UPEC-specific and implicated in virulence. PMID:18227261

  2. S-Nitrosylation Signaling in Escherichia coli

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ivan Gusarov (New York University School of Medicine; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology REV)

    2012-06-12

    Most bacteria generate nitric oxide (NO) either aerobically by NO synthases or anaerobically from nitrite. Far from being a mere by-product of nitrate respiration, bacterial NO has diverse physiological roles. Many proteins undergo NO-mediated posttranslational modification (S-nitrosylation) in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli. The regulation of one such protein, OxyR, represents a redox signaling paradigm in which the same transcription factor controls different protective genes depending on its S-nitrosylation versus S-oxidation status. We discuss a structural model that may explain the remarkable stability and specificity of OxyR S-nitrosylation.

  3. Engineering Desiccation Tolerance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Billi, Daniela; Wright, Deborah J.; Helm, Richard F.; Prickett, Todd; Potts, Malcolm; Crowe, John H.

    2000-01-01

    Recombinant sucrose-6-phosphate synthase (SpsA) was synthesized in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 by using the spsA gene of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Transformants exhibited a 10,000-fold increase in survival compared to wild-type cells following either freeze-drying, air drying, or desiccation over phosphorus pentoxide. The phase transition temperatures and vibration frequencies (P?O stretch) in phospholipids suggested that sucrose maintained membrane fluidity during cell dehydration. PMID:10742260

  4. Regulation of glutaminase levels in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Prusiner, S

    1975-01-01

    Nitrogenous metabolites, cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP), and the stage of culture growth all influence the levels of glutaminase A in Escherichia coli, but no variables in culture conditions alter the levels of glutaminase B. Growth of E. coli on culture media containing glucose and excess ammonia results in a rise in the level of glutaminase A as the cultures enter stationary phase; this rise is abolished by ammonia limitation. cAMP or glycerol reduce the level of glutaminase A. In mutants deficient in cAMP receptor protein, glutaminase A levels are unchanged by cAMP, but they are still susceptible to regulation by ammonia. We consider glutaminase B to be a constitutive enzyme, since its levels appear independent of nutritional conditions. PMID:239927

  5. Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.

  6. Engineering the Escherichia coli Fermentative Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orencio-Trejo, M.; Utrilla, J.; Fernández-Sandoval, M. T.; Huerta-Beristain, G.; Gosset, G.; Martinez, A.

    Fermentative metabolism constitutes a fundamental cellular capacity for industrial biocatalysis. Escherichia coli is an important microorganism in the field of metabolic engineering for its well-known molecular characteristics and its rapid growth. It can adapt to different growth conditions and is able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Through the use of metabolic pathway engineering and bioprocessing techniques, it is possible to explore the fundamental cellular properties and to exploit its capacity to be applied as industrial biocatalysts to produce a wide array of chemicals. The objective of this chapter is to review the metabolic engineering efforts carried out with E. coli by manipulating the central carbon metabolism and fermentative pathways to obtain strains that produce metabolites with high titers, such as ethanol, alanine, lactate and succinate.

  7. Transient fluorescence in synchronously dividing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Layne, S P; Bigio, I J; Scott, A C; Lomdahl, P S

    1985-01-01

    Using a spectrometer equipped with an optical multichannel analyzer as the detector, we observed the Stokes laser-Raman spectra of metabolically synchronous Escherichia coli from 100 to 2100 cm-1. After more than 400 separate recordings, at cell concentrations of 10(7)-10(8) per ml, no Raman lines attributable to the metabolic process nor to the cells themselves were found. However, we did find that synchronous E. coli cultures become more fluorescent during a limited phase of the division cycle. This transient increase in fluorescence may be ascribed to a variation in the redox state of a chemical species within the bacteria or to a variation of the intracellular optical field. The effect is reproducible in synchronous cultures and it is not seen in asynchronous ones. The results suggest that spectral features seen in previous laser-Raman spectra of synchronous bacteria (taken with scanning monochromators) are due to a time-dependent variation in bacterial fluorescence. PMID:3906649

  8. Amino Sugar Assimilation by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, James P.; Shuster, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    The carbon skeleton of glucose is extensively randomized during conversion to cell wall glucosamine by Escherichia coli K-12. Exogenous glucosamine-1-14C is selectively oxidized, and isotope incorporation into cellular glucosamine is greatly diluted during assimilation. A mutant unable to grow with N-acetylglucosamine as a carbon and energy source was isolated from E. coli K-12. This mutant was found to be defective in glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase. Glucosamine-1-14C and N-acetylglucosamine-1-14C were assimilated during the growth of mutant cultures without degradation or carbon randomization. Assimilated isotopic carbon resided entirely in cell wall glucosamine and muramic acid. Some isotope dilution occurred from biosynthesis, but at high concentrations (0.2 mm) of added N-acetylglucosamine nearly all cellular amino sugar was derived from the exogenous source. Growth of the mutant was inhibited with 1 mmN-acetylglucosamine. PMID:4563983

  9. Kefir grain tolerance to Escherichia coli contamination--industrial advantages

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE Kefir grain tolerance to Escherichia coli contamination--industrial advantages Piotr / Published online: 21 August 2012 # INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2012 Abstract Kefir grains are used the possibility of the re-use of kefir grains grown at 18 °C for 24 h in pasteurized Escherichia coli contaminated

  10. Research Note--Prevalence of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in the

    E-print Network

    Singer, Randall

    Research Note-- Prevalence of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in the Broiler House Environment J. S sampling of Escherichia coli from broiler house litter and bird lesions of either cellulitis in the environment. Isolates were collected from six broiler flocks representing six geographically disparate ranches

  11. Chemical Organizations in the Central Sugar Metabolism of Escherichia Coli

    E-print Network

    Dittrich, Peter

    1 Chemical Organizations in the Central Sugar Metabolism of Escherichia Coli Florian Centler represent po- tential steady state compositions of the system. When applied to a model of sugar metabolism, network analysis, stoichiometry, systems biology, sugar metabolism, Escherichia coli 1.1 Introduction

  12. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. PMID:24747185

  13. Both Host and Pathogen Factors Predispose to Escherichia coli Urinary-Source Bacteremia in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Marschall, Jonas; Zhang, Lixin; Foxman, Betsy; Warren, David K.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?The urinary tract is the most common source for Escherichia coli bacteremia. Mortality from E. coli urinary-source bacteremia is higher than that from urinary tract infection. Predisposing factors for urinary-source E. coli bacteremia are poorly characterized. Methods.?In order to identify urinary-source bacteremia risk factors, we conducted a 12-month prospective cohort study of adult inpatients with E. coli bacteriuria that were tested for bacteremia within ±1 day of the bacteriuria. Patients with bacteremia were compared with those without bacteremia. Bacterial isolates from urine were screened for 16 putative virulence genes using high-throughput dot-blot hybridization. Results.?Twenty-four of 156 subjects (15%) had E. coli bacteremia. Bacteremic patients were more likely to have benign prostatic hyperplasia (56% vs 19%; P = .04), a history of urogenital surgery (63% vs 28%; P = .001), and presentation with hesitancy/retention (21% vs 4%; P = .002), fever (63% vs 38%; P = .02), and pyelonephritis (67% vs 41%; P = .02). The genes kpsMT (group II capsule) (17 [71%] vs 62 [47%]; P = .03) and prf (P-fimbriae family) (13 [54%] vs 40 [30%]; P = .02) were more frequent in the urinary strains from bacteremic patients. Symptoms of hesitancy/retention (odds ratio [OR], 7.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–37), history of a urogenital procedure (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2–14.7), and presence of kpsMT (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1–8.2) independently predicted bacteremia. Conclusions.?Bacteremia secondary to E. coli bacteriuria was frequent (15%) in those tested for it. Urinary stasis, surgical disruption of urogenital tissues, and a bacterial capsule characteristic contribute to systemic invasion by uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:22431806

  14. Disruption of Escherichia coli amyloid-integrated biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface by a polysorbate surfactant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cynthia; Lim, Ji Youn; Fuller, Gerald G; Cegelski, Lynette

    2013-01-22

    Functional amyloid fibers termed curli contribute to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation in Escherichia coli . We discovered that the nonionic surfactant Tween 20 inhibits biofilm formation by uropathogenic E. coli at the air-liquid interface, referred to as pellicle formation, and at the solid-liquid interface. At Tween 20 concentrations near and above the critical micelle concentration, the interfacial viscoelastic modulus is reduced to zero as cellular aggregates at the air-liquid interface are locally disconnected and eventually eliminated. Tween 20 does not inhibit the production of curli but prevents curli-integrated film formation. Our results support a model in which the hydrophobic curli fibers associated with bacteria near the air-liquid interface require access to the gas phase to formed strong physical entanglements and to form a network that can support shear stress. PMID:23259693

  15. Ancestral Lineages of Human Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli? †

    PubMed Central

    Steinsland, Hans; Lacher, David W.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Whittam, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of diarrhea among children living in and among travelers visiting developing countries. Human ETEC strains represent an epidemiologically and phenotypically diverse group of pathogens, and there is a need to identify natural groupings of these organisms that may help to explain this diversity. Here, we sought to identify most of the important human ETEC lineages that exist in the E. coli population, because strains that originate from the same lineage may also have inherited many of the same epidemiological and phenotypic traits. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on 1,019 ETEC isolates obtained from humans in different countries and analyzed the data against a backdrop of MLST data from 1,250 non-ETEC E. coli and eight ETEC isolates from pigs. A total of 42 different lineages were identified, 15 of which, representing 792 (78%) of the strains, were estimated to have emerged >900 years ago. Twenty of the lineages were represented in more than one country. There was evidence of extensive exchange of enterotoxin and colonization factor genes between different lineages. Human and porcine ETEC have probably emerged from the same ancestral ETEC lineage on at least three occasions. Our findings suggest that most ETEC strains circulating in the human population today originate from well-established, globally widespread ETEC lineages. Some of the more important lineages identified here may represent a smaller and more manageable target for the ongoing efforts to develop effective ETEC vaccines. PMID:20534806

  16. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the synthesis of ethanol and related fermentation products are regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its coding sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase and have recently cloned the ldh gene. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  17. Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by <15% decrease in DMY and <30 days until return to normal (n?=?5), and 'long inflammation', characterized by >15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands. PMID:24906501

  18. Efficient production of indigoidine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuchao; Gage, David; Zhan, Jixun

    2015-08-01

    Indigoidine is a bacterial natural product with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Its bright blue color resembles the industrial dye indigo, thus representing a new natural blue dye that may find uses in industry. In our previous study, an indigoidine synthetase Sc-IndC and an associated helper protein Sc-IndB were identified from Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982 and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BAP1 to produce the blue pigment at 3.93 g/l. To further improve the production of indigoidine, in this work, the direct biosynthetic precursor L-glutamine was fed into the fermentation broth of the engineered E. coli strain harboring Sc-IndC and Sc-IndB. The highest titer of indigoidine reached 8.81 ± 0.21 g/l at 1.46 g/l L-glutamine. Given the relatively high price of L-glutamine, a metabolic engineering technique was used to directly enhance the in situ supply of this precursor. A glutamine synthetase gene (glnA) was amplified from E. coli and co-expressed with Sc-indC and Sc-indB in E. coli BAP1, leading to the production of indigoidine at 5.75 ± 0.09 g/l. Because a nitrogen source is required for amino acid biosynthesis, we then tested the effect of different nitrogen-containing salts on the supply of L-glutamine and subsequent indigoidine production. Among the four tested salts including (NH4)2SO4, NH4Cl, (NH4)2HPO4 and KNO3, (NH4)2HPO4 showed the best effect on improving the titer of indigoidine. Different concentrations of (NH4)2HPO4 were added to the fermentation broths of E. coli BAP1/Sc-IndC+Sc-IndB+GlnA, and the titer reached the highest (7.08 ± 0.11 g/l) at 2.5 mM (NH4)2HPO4. This work provides two efficient methods for the production of this promising blue pigment in E. coli. PMID:26109508

  19. Eco Cyc: encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes and metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. Karp; Monica Riley; Suzanne M. Paley; Alida Pellegrini-toole; Markus Krummenacker

    1999-01-01

    The encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes andmetabolism (EcoCyc) is a database that combinesinformation about the genome and the intermediarymetabolism of E.coli. The database describes 3030genes of E.coli, 695 enzymes encoded by a subset ofthese genes, 595 metabolic reactions that occur inE.coli, and the organization of these reactions into 123metabolic pathways. The EcoCyc graphical user interfaceallows scientists to query and explore

  20. Animal models of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli infection

    PubMed Central

    Philipson, Casandra W.; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) has been acknowledged as an emerging cause of gastroenteritis worldwide for over two decades. Epidemiologists are revealing the role of EAEC in diarrheal outbreaks as a more common occurrence than ever suggested before. EAEC induced diarrhea is most commonly associated with travelers, children and immunocompromised individuals however its afflictions are not limited to any particular demographic. Many attributes have been discovered and characterized surrounding the capability of EAEC to provoke a potent pro-inflammatory immune response, however cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying initiation, progression and outcomes are largely unknown. This limited understanding can be attributed to heterogeneity in strains and the lack of adequate animal models. This review aims to summarize current knowledge about EAEC etiology, pathogenesis and clinical manifestation. Additionally, current animal models and their limitations will be discussed along with the value of applying systems-wide approaches such as computational modeling to study host-EAEC interactions. PMID:23680797

  1. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: foe or innocent bystander?

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Torres, A G

    2015-08-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) remain one the most important pathogens infecting children and they are one of the main causes of persistent diarrhoea worldwide. Historically, typical EPEC (tEPEC), defined as those isolates with the attaching and effacement (A/E) genotype (eae(+)), which possess bfpA(+) and lack the stx(-) genes are found strongly associated with diarrhoeal cases. However, occurrence of atypical EPEC (aEPEC; eae(+)bfpA(-)stx(-)) in diarrhoeal and asymptomatic hosts has made investigators question the role of these pathogens in human disease. Current epidemiological data are helping to answer the question of whether EPEC is mainly a foe or an innocent bystander during infection. PMID:25726041

  2. Translocation of ?-Synuclein Expressed in Escherichia coli?

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Guoping; Wang, Xi; Hao, Shufeng; Hu, Hongyu; Wang, Chih-chen

    2007-01-01

    ?-Synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease. Although no signal sequence is apparent, ?-synuclein expressed in Escherichia coli is mostly located in the periplasm. The possibilities that ?-synuclein translocated into the periplasm across the inner membrane by the SecA or the Tat targeting route identified in bacteria and that ?-synuclein was released through MscL were excluded. The signal recognition particle-dependent pathway is involved in the translocation of ?-synuclein. The C-terminal 99-to-140 portion of the ?-synuclein molecule plays a signal-like role for its translocation into the periplasm, cooperating with the central 61-to-95 section. The N-terminal 1-to-60 region is not required for this translocation. PMID:17277073

  3. Chemotaxis toward sugars in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Adler, J; Hazelbauer, G L; Dahl, M M

    1973-09-01

    Using a quantitative assay for measuring chemotaxis, we tested a variety of sugars and sugar derivatives for their ability to attract Escherichia coli bacteria. The most effective attractants, i.e., those that have thresholds near 10(-5) M or below, are N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, 6-deoxy-d-glucose, d-fructose, d-fucose, 1-d-glycerol-beta-d-galactoside, galactitol, d-galactose, d-glucosamine, d-glucose, alpha-d-glucose-1-phosphate, lactose, maltose, d-mannitol, d-mannose, methyl-beta-d-galactoside, methyl-beta-d-glucoside, d-ribose, d-sorbitol, and trehalose. Lactose, and probably d-glucose-1-phosphate, are attractive only after conversion to the free monosaccharide, while the other attractants do not require breakdown for taxis. Nine different chemoreceptors are involved in detecting these various attractants. They are called the N-acetyl-glucosamine, fructose, galactose, glucose, maltose, mannitol, ribose, sorbitol, and trehalose chemoreceptors; the specificity of each was studied. The chemoreceptors, with the exception of the one for d-glucose, are inducible. The galactose-binding protein serves as the recognition component of the galactose chemoreceptor. E. coli also has osmotically shockable binding activities for maltose and d-ribose, and these appear to serve as the recognition components for the corresponding chemoreceptors. PMID:4580570

  4. Characterization of enterotoxigenic bovine Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sivaswamy, G; Gyles, C L

    1976-01-01

    Among 300 isolates of bovine Escherichia coli, 56 which had been found enterotoxigenic in calf gut loops were characterized on the basis of O and K antigens, colonial morphology and resistance to seven antimicrobial drugs. The 56 isolates enterotoxigenic in the calf were compared with the nonenterotoxigenic ones. Of the 56 enterotoxigenic E. coli the majority possessed the A type of K antigen and had OK groups, O9:K(PS274) or O101:K(RVC118). Fourteen of these isolates had the K99 antigen. None of 27 isolates found enterotoxigenic in the piglet but not in the calf possessed the K99 antigen or belonged to OK groups O9:K(PS274) or O101:K(RVC118). Comparison of the patterns of resistance to seven antimicrobial drugs showed that all enterotoxigenic and nonenterotoxigenic isolates were susceptible to nitrofurantoin and sulphachlorphyridiazine and that there was no significant difference in the patterns between the two groups. The majority of enterotoxigenic isolates were mucoid, whereas most of the nonenterotoxigenic isolates were nonmucoid. PMID:793694

  5. Nucleotide excision repair in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, B

    1990-01-01

    One of the best-studied DNA repair pathways is nucleotide excision repair, a process consisting of DNA damage recognition, incision, excision, repair resynthesis, and DNA ligation. Escherichia coli has served as a model organism for the study of this process. Recently, many of the proteins that mediate E. coli nucleotide excision have been purified to homogeneity; this had led to a molecular description of this repair pathway. One of the key repair enzymes of this pathway is the UvrABC nuclease complex. The individual subunits of this enzyme cooperate in a complex series of partial reactions to bind to and incise the DNA near a damaged nucleotide. The UvrABC complex displays a remarkable substrate diversity. Defining the structural features of DNA lesions that provide the specificity for damage recognition by the UvrABC complex is of great importance, since it represents a unique form of protein-DNA interaction. Using a number of in vitro assays, researchers have been able to elucidate the action mechanism of the UvrABC nuclease complex. Current research is devoted to understanding how these complex events are mediated within the living cell. PMID:2181258

  6. Genes under positive selection in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lise; Bollback, Jonathan P.; Dimmic, Matt; Hubisz, Melissa; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    We used a comparative genomics approach to identify genes that are under positive selection in six strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri, including five strains that are human pathogens. We find that positive selection targets a wide range of different functions in the E. coli genome, including cell surface proteins such as beta barrel porins, presumably because of the involvement of these genes in evolutionary arms races with other bacteria, phages, and/or the host immune system. Structural mapping of positively selected sites on trans-membrane beta barrel porins reveals that the residues under positive selection occur almost exclusively in the extracellular region of the proteins that are enriched with sites known to be targets of phages, colicins, or the host immune system. More surprisingly, we also find a number of other categories of genes that show very strong evidence for positive selection, such as the enigmatic rhs elements and transposases. Based on structural evidence, we hypothesize that the selection acting on transposases is related to the genomic conflict between transposable elements and the host genome. PMID:17675366

  7. Surface Expression of ?-Transaminase in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, Martin; Muraleedharan, Madhu Nair

    2014-01-01

    Chiral amines are important for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, and there is rapidly growing interest to use transaminases for their synthesis. Since the cost of the enzyme is an important factor for process economy, the use of whole-cell biocatalysts is attractive, since expensive purification and immobilization steps can be avoided. Display of the protein on the cell surface provides a possible way to reduce the mass transfer limitations of such biocatalysts. However, transaminases need to dimerize in order to become active, and furthermore, they require the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate; consequently, successful transaminase surface expression has not been reported thus far. In this work, we produced an Arthrobacter citreus ?-transaminase in Escherichia coli using a surface display vector based on the autotransporter adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA-I), which has previously been used for display of dimeric proteins. The correct localization of the transaminase in the E. coli outer membrane and its orientation toward the cell exterior were verified. Furthermore, transaminase activity was detected exclusively in the outer membrane protein fraction, showing that successful dimerization had occurred. The transaminase was found to be present in both full-length and proteolytically degraded forms. The removal of this proteolysis is considered to be the main obstacle to achieving sufficient whole-cell transaminase activity. PMID:24487538

  8. Chemotaxis Toward Sugars in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Julius; Hazelbauer, Gerald L.; Dahl, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Using a quantitative assay for measuring chemotaxis, we tested a variety of sugars and sugar derivatives for their ability to attract Escherichia coli bacteria. The most effective attractants, i.e., those that have thresholds near 10?5 M or below, are N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, 6-deoxy-d-glucose, d-fructose, d-fucose, 1-d-glycerol-?-d-galactoside, galactitol, d-galactose, d-glucosamine, d-glucose, ?-d-glucose-1-phosphate, lactose, maltose, d-mannitol, d-mannose, methyl-?-d-galactoside, methyl-?-d-glucoside, d-ribose, d-sorbitol, and trehalose. Lactose, and probably d-glucose-1-phosphate, are attractive only after conversion to the free monosaccharide, while the other attractants do not require breakdown for taxis. Nine different chemoreceptors are involved in detecting these various attractants. They are called the N-acetyl-glucosamine, fructose, galactose, glucose, maltose, mannitol, ribose, sorbitol, and trehalose chemoreceptors; the specificity of each was studied. The chemoreceptors, with the exception of the one for d-glucose, are inducible. The galactose-binding protein serves as the recognition component of the galactose chemoreceptor. E. coli also has osmotically shockable binding activities for maltose and d-ribose, and these appear to serve as the recognition components for the corresponding chemoreceptors. PMID:4580570

  9. Expanding ester biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M; Tashiro, Yohei; Atsumi, Shota

    2014-04-01

    To expand the capabilities of whole-cell biocatalysis, we have engineered Escherichia coli to produce various esters. The alcohol O-acyltransferase (ATF) class of enzyme uses acyl-CoA units for ester formation. The release of free CoA upon esterification with an alcohol provides the free energy to facilitate ester formation. The diversity of CoA molecules found in nature in combination with various alcohol biosynthetic pathways allows for the biosynthesis of a multitude of esters. Small to medium volatile esters have extensive applications in the flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, solvent, paint and coating industries. The present work enables the production of these compounds by designing several ester pathways in E. coli. The engineered pathways generated acetate esters of ethyl, propyl, isobutyl, 2-methyl-1-butyl, 3-methyl-1-butyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohols. In particular, we achieved high-level production of isobutyl acetate from glucose (17.2 g l(-1)). This strategy was expanded to realize pathways for tetradecyl acetate and several isobutyrate esters. PMID:24609358

  10. The extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Upadhyaya, Bimal Babu; Fritz, Joëlle V; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Desai, Mahesh S; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Huang, David; Baumuratov, Aidos; Wang, Kai; Galas, David; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but they also play roles in inter-kingdom exchanges and pathogenicity. To date, released products, such as small molecules, DNA, peptides, and proteins, have been well studied in bacteria. However, the bacterial extracellular RNA complement has so far not been comprehensively characterized. Here, we have analyzed, using a combination of physical characterization and high-throughput sequencing, the extracellular RNA complement of both outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-associated and OMV-free RNA of the enteric Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655 and have compared it to its intracellular RNA complement. Our results demonstrate that a large part of the extracellular RNA complement is in the size range between 15 and 40 nucleotides and is derived from specific intracellular RNAs. Furthermore, RNA is associated with OMVs and the relative abundances of RNA biotypes in the intracellular, OMV and OMV-free fractions are distinct. Apart from rRNA fragments, a significant portion of the extracellular RNA complement is composed of specific cleavage products of functionally important structural noncoding RNAs, including tRNAs, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA, and tmRNA. In addition, the extracellular RNA pool includes RNA biotypes from cryptic prophages, intergenic, and coding regions, of which some are so far uncharacterised, for example, transcripts mapping to the fimA-fimL and ves-spy intergenic regions. Our study provides the first detailed characterization of the extracellular RNA complement of the enteric model bacterium E. coli. Analogous to findings in eukaryotes, our results suggest the selective export of specific RNA biotypes by E. coli, which in turn indicates a potential role for extracellular bacterial RNAs in intercellular communication. PMID:25611733

  11. P fimbriae and other adhesins enhance intestinal persistence of Escherichia coli in early infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Adlerberth, I.; Svanborg, C.; Carlsson, B.; Mellander, L.; Hanson, L. A.; Jalil, F.; Khalil, K.; Wold, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    Resident and transient Escherichia coli strains were identified in the rectal flora of 22 Pakistani infants followed from birth to 6 months of age. All strains were tested for O-antigen expression, adhesin specificity (P fimbriae, other mannose-resistant adhesins or type 1 fimbriae) and adherence to the colonic cell line HT-29. Resident strains displayed higher mannose-resistant adherence to HT-29 cells, and expressed P fimbriae (P = 0.0036) as well as other mannose-resistant adhesins (P = 0.012) more often than transient strains. In strains acquired during the first month of life, P fimbriae were 12 times more frequent in resident than in transient strains (P = 0.0006). The O-antigen distribution did not differ between resident and transient strains, and none of the resident P-fimbriated strains belonged to previously recognized uropathogenic clones. The results suggest that adhesins mediating adherence to intestinal epithelial cells, especially P fimbriae, enhance the persistence of E. coli in the large intestine of infants. PMID:10030709

  12. Escherichia coli biofilm formation and recurrences of urinary tract infections in children.

    PubMed

    Tapiainen, T; Hanni, A-M; Salo, J; Ikäheimo, I; Uhari, M

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that biofilm formation by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates is associated with recurrence and persistence of urinary tract infection (UTI). We compared the in vitro biofilm formation of UPEC isolates from children with acute or recurrent UTI. Employing 206 consecutive clinical UPEC isolates from children with proven UTI, i.e., pyelonephritis (n?=?78), recurrent pyelonephritis (n?=?10), cystitis (n?=?84) or recurrent cystitis (n?=?34), we applied 1 % crystal violet staining to polystyrene microtitre plates at 72 h and measured the optical density (OD) values. The method had been validated to measure biofilm formation against confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The OD values were lower in the recurrent cystitis group than in the other groups (mean OD 0.36, SD 0.21 vs mean 0.47, SD 0.36, P?=?0.04) and higher in the recurrent pyelonephritis group than in the other groups (mean OD 0.69, SD 0.33 vs mean OD 0.44, SD 0.34, P?=?0.006) indicating biofilm formation of strains causing recurrent pyelonephritis. It appears that the properties of UPEC isolates required for effective biofilm growth on an abiotic surface are important for recurrent pyelonephritis, but not for recurrent cystitis. It would be valuable in the future to analyze whether the biofilm properties of E. coli observed in vitro predict a slower clinical response to antimicrobial treatment and increased renal scar formation after UTI. PMID:23996047

  13. Regulation of type III secretion in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 

    E-print Network

    Xu, Xuefang

    2011-11-25

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains are associated with gastrointestinal and severe systemic disease in humans. EHEC O157:H7 is the most common serotype causing human infections in North America and the ...

  14. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  15. Cleaving Yeast and Escherichia coli Genomes at a Single Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Koob; Waclaw Szybalski

    1990-01-01

    The 15-megabase pair Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the 4.7-megabase pair Escherichia coli genomes were completely cleaved at a single predetermined site by means of the Achilles' heel cleavage (AC) procedure. The symmetric lac operator (lacO_s) was introduced into the circular Escherichia coli genome and into one of the 16 yeast chromosomes. Intact chromosomes from the resulting strains were prepared in agarose

  16. Escherichia coli in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases: An update on adherent invasive Escherichia coli pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Garcia-Gil, Librado Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli), and particularly the adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) pathotype, has been increasingly implicated in the ethiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). E. coli strains with similar pathogenic features to AIEC have been associated with other intestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer, and coeliac disease, but AIEC prevalence in these diseases remains largely unexplored. Since AIEC was described one decade ago, substantial progress has been made in deciphering its mechanisms of pathogenicity. However, the molecular bases that characterize the phenotypic properties of this pathotype are still not well resolved. A review of studies focused on E. coli populations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is presented here and we discuss about the putative role of this species on each IBD subtype. Given the relevance of AIEC in CD pathogenesis, we present the latest research findings concerning AIEC host-microbe interactions and pathogenicity. We also review the existing data regarding the prevalence and abundance of AIEC in CD and its association with other intestinal diseases from humans and animals, in order to discuss the AIEC disease- and host-specificity. Finally, we highlight the fact that dietary components frequently found in industrialized countries may enhance AIEC colonization in the gut, which merits further investigation and the implementation of preventative measures. PMID:25133024

  17. EXPERIMENTAL ESCHERICHIA COLI DIARRHOEA IN COLOSTRUM DEPRIVED LAMBS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    EXPERIMENTAL ESCHERICHIA COLI DIARRHOEA IN COLOSTRUM DEPRIVED LAMBS Marion DUCHET-SUCHAUX, AnneCHlA COLl CHEZ DES AGNEAUX PRIVÉS DE COLOSTRUM. ― Vingt agneaux (10 Berrichons du Cher et 10 Préalpes) élevés conventionnellement sans colostrum ont été inoculés par voie orale avec 1,7 ŕ 3,1 x 108 E. coli B

  18. Expression of Treponema pallidum antigens in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, L V; Folds, J D; Bassford, P J

    1982-01-01

    A colony bank of recombinant plasmids harboring Treponema pallidum DNA inserts has been established in Escherichia coli K-12. By using an in situ immunoassay, we identified four E. coli clones that expressed T. pallidum antigens. Thus, recombinant DNA technology may provide powerful new tools for studying the pathogenesis of T. pallidum infection. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:7047395

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Herbs and Spices Extract on Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venugopal Amrita; Dasani Sonal; Rai Shalini

    2009-01-01

    Escherichia coli are the most commonly present bacterium in the human intestine, which helps in preventing the entry of pathogenic microorganisms. E. coli are non-pathogenic in normal conditions, but if present in excess, will become causative agent of various diseases like urinary tract infection, diarrhoea, vomiting etc. With increasing resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, there is a shift of choice

  20. Detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in chicken rinse carcasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Asensi; E. M. F. dos Reis; E. M. Del Aguila; D. dos P. Rodrigues; J. T. Silva; V. M. F. Paschoalin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to optimize a multiplex PCR in order to detect the incidence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in chicken carcasses, eliminating a pre-culture enrichment step and the pathogen isolation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 30 chicken rinse carcasses were analysed by standard microbiological methods, and the isolates were identified by biochemical and serological tests.

  1. DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 USING IMMUNO BEADS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new fluorescent sandwich method for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was developed. Streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and fluorescence beads were used to react with biotinylated anti E. coli O157 antibodies to form the immuno magnetic beads (IMB) and immuno fluorescence beads (IFB), resp...

  2. EFFECT OF MANURE ON ESCHERICHIA COLI ATTACHMENT TO SOIL FRACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli are commonly used as indicators of fecal contamination in the environment. Attachment of bacteria to soil and sediment is an important retardation factor of bacterial transport with runoff water. Despite the fact that E. coli are derived exclusively from feces/manure, the effect of ...

  3. Molecular Serotyping of Escherichia coli O111:H8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate Escherichia coli serotyping is critical for pathogen diagnosis and surveillance of non-O157 shiga-toxigenic strains, however, few laboratories have this capacity. The molecular serotyping protocol described in this paper targets the somatic and flagellar antigens of E. coli O111:H8 used in...

  4. Genetic studies of the ribosomal proteins in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renkichi Takata

    1972-01-01

    Ribosomal protein compositions of Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli K12 were analyzed by using carboxymethyl cellulose column chromatography. Nine 50S and nine 30S ribosomal proteins of E. coli K12 could be distinguished from those of S. marcescens on the chromatogram.

  5. ATTACHMENT OF MANURE-BORNE ESCHERICHIA COLI TO SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attachment of bacteria to soil is an important component of the bacteria fate and transport. Escherichia coli is commonly used as an indicator of fecal contamination in the environment. Despite the fact that E. coli are derived exclusively from feces or manure, effect of the presence of manure collo...

  6. Phylogenetic and genomic diversity of human bacteremic Escherichia coli strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Françoise Jaureguy; Luce Landraud; Virginie Passet; Laure Diancourt; Eric Frapy; Ghislaine Guigon; Etienne Carbonnelle; Olivier Lortholary; Olivier Clermont; Erick Denamur; Bertrand Picard; Xavier Nassif; Sylvain Brisse

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains represent a huge public health burden. Knowledge of their clonal diversity and of the association of clones with genomic content and clinical features is a prerequisite to recognize strains with a high invasive potential. In order to provide an unbiased view of the diversity of E. coli strains responsible for bacteremia, we studied

  7. Molecular Serotyping of Escherichia coli O26:H11

    PubMed Central

    Durso, Lisa M.; Bono, James L.; Keen, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Serotyping is the foundation of pathogenic Escherichia coli diagnostics; however, few laboratories have this capacity. We developed a molecular serotyping protocol that targets, genetically, the same somatic and flagellar antigens of E. coli O26:H11 used in traditional serotyping. It correctly serotypes strains untypeable by traditional methods, affording primary laboratories serotyping capabilities. PMID:16085902

  8. Escherichia coli Response to Exogenous Pyrophosphate and Analogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Biville; Taku Oshima; Hirotada Mori; Yuya Kawagoe; Odile Bouvet; Marie-Noëlle Rager; Marina Perrotte-Piquemal; Antoine Danchin

    2003-01-01

    The addition of exogenous pyrophosphate increases the growth yield and cAMP synthesis in stationary phase when Escherichia coli is grown in minimal medium. Pyrophosphate increases the yield by altering the enterobactin uptake system. We studied the physiological effects and examined how the E. coli transcriptome was modified when two structural analogs of pyrophosphate were added to the growth medium. Methylenediphosphonic

  9. Influence of Escherichia coli hydrogenases on hydrogen fermentation from glycerol

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    , we evaluated the effect of inactivation of each E. coli hydrogenase on cell growth, hydrogen production, but no significant effect occurred at pH 6.5 or in complex medium. Inactivation of hydrogenase 3Influence of Escherichia coli hydrogenases on hydrogen fermentation from glycerol Viviana Sanchez

  10. Genome organisation and chromatin structure in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Ussery; Thomas Schou Larsen; K. Trevor Wilkes; Carsten Friis; Peder Worning; Anders Krogh; Sřren Brunak

    2001-01-01

    We have analysed the complete sequence of the Escherichia coli K12 isolate MG1655 genome for chromatin-associated protein binding sites, and compared the predicted location of predicted sites with experimental expression data from ‘DNA chip’ experiments. Of the dozen proteins associated with chromatin in E. coli, only three have been shown to have significant binding preferences: integration host factor (IHF) has

  11. Purification and Refolding of Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase Expressed Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae-Hyukkweon Kweon; Sung-Gunkim Kim; Jin-Hoseo Seo

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering are currently utilized in the cost-effective production of pharmaceutical and industrial proteins with native conformation. Escherichia coli retains its dominant position as the first choice of host for speed, simplicity and well-established production protocols. However, protein production using recombinant E. coli occasionally encounters complex purification and refolding steps. This paper introduces an efficient scheme

  12. RAPID GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASE ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid test procedure for the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase was developed for the detection of Escherichia coli. he assay procedure was able to confirm the presence of E. coli in enteric broth cultures with a 95 percent specificity for both pure cultures and environmental sampl...

  13. Unusual "flesh-eating" strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, David; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Roussel, Hélčne; Zuber, Benjamin; Poupet, Hélčne; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Poyart, Claire; Mira, Jean-Paul

    2010-10-01

    We report an exceptional case of life-threatening Escherichia coli-induced necrotizing fasciitis. A combined host-pathogen genetic analysis explained the phenotype: the host displayed a susceptibility to intravascular coagulation, and the strain was capable of producing a necrotic toxin (cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1), showing how E. coli can be a dermonecrotic pathogen. PMID:20686096

  14. Type 1 Fimbriae Contribute to Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Maierl, Mario; Jörger, Michael; Krause, Robert; Berger, Daniela; Haid, Andrea; Tesic, Dijana; Zechner, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation on catheters is thought to contribute to persistence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), which represent the most frequent nosocomial infections. Knowledge of genetic factors for catheter colonization is limited, since their role has not been assessed using physicochemical conditions prevailing in a catheterized human bladder. The current study aimed to combine data from a dynamic catheterized bladder model in vitro with in vivo expression analysis for understanding molecular factors relevant for CAUTI caused by Escherichia coli. By application of the in vitro model that mirrors the physicochemical environment during human infection, we found that an E. coli K-12 mutant defective in type 1 fimbriae, but not isogenic mutants lacking flagella or antigen 43, was outcompeted by the wild-type strain during prolonged catheter colonization. The importance of type 1 fimbriae for catheter colonization was verified using a fimA mutant of uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073 with human and artificial urine. Orientation of the invertible element (IE) controlling type 1 fimbrial expression in bacterial populations harvested from the colonized catheterized bladder in vitro suggested that the vast majority of catheter-colonizing cells (up to 88%) express type 1 fimbriae. Analysis of IE orientation in E. coli populations harvested from patient catheters revealed that a median level of ?73% of cells from nine samples have switched on type 1 fimbrial expression. This study supports the utility of the dynamic catheterized bladder model for analyzing catheter colonization factors and highlights a role for type 1 fimbriae during CAUTI. PMID:24336940

  15. The N-degradome of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Humbard, Matthew A.; Surkov, Serhiy; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Jenkins, Lisa M.; Maurizi, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The N-end rule is a conserved mechanism found in Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes for marking proteins to be degraded by ATP-dependent proteases. Specific N-terminal amino acids (N-degrons) are sufficient to target a protein to the degradation machinery. In Escherichia coli, the adaptor ClpS binds an N-degron and delivers the protein to ClpAP for degradation. As ClpS recognizes N-terminal Phe, Trp, Tyr, and Leu, which are not found at the N terminus of proteins translated and processed by the canonical pathway, proteins must be post-translationally modified to expose an N-degron. One modification is catalyzed by Aat, an enzyme that adds leucine or phenylalanine to proteins with N-terminal lysine or arginine; however, such proteins are also not generated by the canonical protein synthesis pathway. Thus, the mechanisms producing N-degrons in proteins and the frequency of their occurrence largely remain a mystery. To address these issues, we used a ClpS affinity column to isolate interacting proteins from E. coli cell lysates under non-denaturing conditions. We identified more than 100 proteins that differentially bound to a column charged with wild-type ClpS and eluted with a peptide bearing an N-degron. Thirty-two of 37 determined N-terminal peptides had N-degrons. Most of the proteins were N-terminally truncated by endoproteases or exopeptidases, and many were further modified by Aat. The identities of the proteins point to possible physiological roles for the N-end rule in cell division, translation, transcription, and DNA replication and reveal widespread proteolytic processing of cellular proteins to generate N-end rule substrates. PMID:23960079

  16. The Escherichia coli peripheral inner membrane proteome.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Malvina; Orfanoudaki, Georgia; Koukaki, Marina; Kountourakis, Nikos; Sardis, Marios Frantzeskos; Aivaliotis, Michalis; Karamanou, Spyridoula; Economou, Anastassios

    2013-03-01

    Biological membranes are essential for cell viability. Their functional characteristics strongly depend on their protein content, which consists of transmembrane (integral) and peripherally associated membrane proteins. Both integral and peripheral inner membrane proteins mediate a plethora of biological processes. Whereas transmembrane proteins have characteristic hydrophobic stretches and can be predicted using bioinformatics approaches, peripheral inner membrane proteins are hydrophilic, exist in equilibria with soluble pools, and carry no discernible membrane targeting signals. We experimentally determined the cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome of the model organism Escherichia coli using a multidisciplinary approach. Initially, we extensively re-annotated the theoretical proteome regarding subcellular localization using literature searches, manual curation, and multi-combinatorial bioinformatics searches of the available databases. Next we used sequential biochemical fractionations coupled to direct identification of individual proteins and protein complexes using high resolution mass spectrometry. We determined that the proposed cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies a previously unsuspected ?19% of the basic E. coli BL21(DE3) proteome, and the detected peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies ?25% of the estimated expressed proteome of this cell grown in LB medium to mid-log phase. This value might increase when fleeting interactions, not studied here, are taken into account. Several proteins previously regarded as exclusively cytoplasmic bind membranes avidly. Many of these proteins are organized in functional or/and structural oligomeric complexes that bind to the membrane with multiple interactions. Identified proteins cover the full spectrum of biological activities, and more than half of them are essential. Our data suggest that the cytoplasmic proteome displays remarkably dynamic and extensive communication with biological membrane surfaces that we are only beginning to decipher. PMID:23230279

  17. Microdiesel: Escherichia coli engineered for fuel production.

    PubMed

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stölting, Torsten; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-09-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative energy source and a substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel. It is produced from renewable biomass by transesterification of triacylglycerols from plant oils, yielding monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids with short-chain alcohols such as fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). Despite numerous environmental benefits, a broader use of biodiesel is hampered by the extensive acreage required for sufficient production of oilseed crops. Therefore, processes are urgently needed to enable biodiesel production from more readily available bulk plant materials like sugars or cellulose. Toward this goal, the authors established biosynthesis of biodiesel-adequate FAEEs, referred to as Microdiesel, in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. This was achieved by heterologous expression in E. coli of the Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase and the unspecific acyltransferase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1. By this approach, ethanol formation was combined with subsequent esterification of the ethanol with the acyl moieties of coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids if the cells were cultivated under aerobic conditions in the presence of glucose and oleic acid. Ethyl oleate was the major constituent of these FAEEs, with minor amounts of ethyl palmitate and ethyl palmitoleate. FAEE concentrations of 1.28 g l(-1) and a FAEE content of the cells of 26 % of the cellular dry mass were achieved by fed-batch fermentation using renewable carbon sources. This novel approach might pave the way for industrial production of biodiesel equivalents from renewable resources by employing engineered micro-organisms, enabling a broader use of biodiesel-like fuels in the future. PMID:16946248

  18. Multidimensional annotation of the Escherichia coli K-12 genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. Karp; Ingrid M. Keseler; Alexander Shearer; Mario Latendresse; Markus Krummenacker; Suzanne M. Paley; Ian Paulsen; Julio Collado-Vides; Socorro Gama-Castro; Martin Peralta-Gil; Alberto Santos-Zavaleta; M. I. Penaloza-Spinola; C. Bonavides-Martinez; J. Ingraham

    2007-01-01

    The annotation of the Escherichia coli K-12 genome in the EcoCyc database is one of the most accurate, complete and multidimensional genome annota- tions. Of the 4460 E. coli genes, EcoCyc assigns biochemical functions to 76%, and 66% of all genes had their functions determined experimentally. EcoCyc assigns E. coli genes to Gene Ontology and to MultiFun. Seventy-five percent of

  19. Recombinant protein production in an Escherichia coli reduced genome strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shamik S. Sharma; Frederick R. Blattner; Sarah W. Harcum

    2007-01-01

    Recently, efforts have been made to improve the properties of Escherichia coli as a recombinant host by ‘genomic surgery’—deleting large segments of the E. coli K12 MG1655 genome without scars. These excised segments included K-islands, which contain a high proportion of transposons, insertion sequences, cryptic phage, damaged, and unknown-function genes. The resulting multiple-deletion strain, designated E. coli MDS40, has a

  20. Escherichia coli : on-farm contamination of animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Fairbrother; É. Nadeau

    2006-01-01

    Summary Escherichia coli is one of the main inhabitants of the intestinal tract of most mammalian species, including humans, and birds. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), also called verotoxinogenic E. coli, usually do not cause disease in animals but may cause watery diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis, and\\/or haemolytic uraemic syndrome in humans. Zoonotic STEC include the O157:H7 strains and, with increasing

  1. Genetic studies of the ribosomal proteins in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dekio

    1971-01-01

    Two 50s (50-10 and 50-12) and two 30s (30-4 and 30-7) ribosomal proteins could be distinguished between Shigella dysenteriae Sh\\/s and Escherichia coli K-12 JC411 with CMC column chromatography. On the other hand, E. coli K-12 AT2472 was shown to have a 30s ribosomal protein, 30-6(AT), which is specific to this strain and distinguishable from 30-6 of other E. coli

  2. Biocontrol of Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Boyacioglu, Olcay; Sharma, Manan; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Goktepe, Ipek

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a bacteriophage cocktail (EcoShield™) that is specific against Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated against a nalidixic acid-resistant enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 RM4407 (EHEC) strain on leafy greens stored under either (1) ambient air or (2) modified atmosphere (MA; 5% O2/35% CO2/60% N2). Pieces (~2 × 2 cm2) of leafy greens (lettuce and spinach) inoculated with 4.5 log CFU/cm2 EHEC were sprayed with EcoShield™ (6.5 log PFU/cm2). Samples were stored at 4 or 10°C for up to 15 d. On spinach, the level of EHEC declined by 2.38 and 2.49 log CFU/cm2 at 4 and 10°C, respectively, 30 min after phage application (p ? 0.05). EcoShield™ was also effective in reducing EHEC on the surface of green leaf lettuce stored at 4°C by 2.49 and 3.28 log units in 30 min and 2 h, respectively (p ? 0.05). At 4°C under atmospheric air, the phage cocktail significantly (p ? 0.05) lowered the EHEC counts in one day by 1.19, 3.21 and 3.25 log CFU/cm2 on spinach, green leaf and romaine lettuce, respectively compared with control (no bacteriophage) treatments. When stored under MA at 4°C, phages reduced (p ? 0.05) EHEC populations by 2.18, 3.50 and 3.13 log CFU/cm2, on spinach, green leaf and romaine lettuce. At 10°C, EHEC reductions under atmospheric air storage were 1.99, 3.90 and 3.99 log CFU/cm2 (p ? 0.05), while population reductions under MA were 3.08, 3.89 and 4.34 logs on spinach, green leaf and romaine lettuce, respectively, compared with controls (p ? 0.05). The results of this study showed that bacteriophages were effective in reducing the levels of E. coli O157:H7 on fresh leafy produce, and that the reduction was further improved when produce was stored under the MA conditions. PMID:23819107

  3. Pervasive compensatory adaptation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, F B; Rozen, D E; Lenski, R E

    2000-01-01

    To investigate compensatory adaptation (CA), we used genotypes of Escherichia coli which were identical except for one or two deleterious mutations. We compared CA for (i) deleterious mutations with large versus small effects, (ii) genotypes carrying one versus two mutations, and (iii) pairs of deleterious mutations which interact in a multiplicative versus synergistic fashion. In all, we studied 14 different genotypes, plus a control strain which was not mutated. Most genotypes showed CA during 200 generations of experimental evolution, where we define CA as a fitness increase which is disproportionately large relative to that in evolving control lines, coupled with retention of the original deleterious mutation(s). We observed greater CA for mutations of large effect than for those of small effect, which can be explained by the greater benefit to recovery in severely handicapped genotypes given the dynamics of selection. The rates of CA were similar for double and single mutants whose initial fitnesses were approximately equal. CA was faster for synergistic than for multiplicative pairs, presumably because the marginal gain which results from CA for one of the component mutations is greater in that case. The most surprising result in our view, is that compensation should be so readily achieved in an organism which is haploid and has little genetic redundancy This finding suggests a degree of versatility in the E. coil genome which demands further study from both genetic and physiological perspectives. PMID:10737410

  4. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverría, Analía Inés; Padola, Nora Lía

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. Outbreaks are linked to bovine food sources. STEC O157:H7 has been responsible for the most severe outbreaks worldwide. However, non-O157 serotypes have emerged as important enteric pathogens in several countries. The main virulence factor of STEC is the production of Shiga toxins 1 and 2. Additional virulence markers are a plasmid-encoded enterohemolysin (ehxA), an autoagglutinating adhesin (Saa), a catalase-peroxidase (katP), an extracellular serine protease (espP), a zinc metalloprotease (stcE), a subtilase cytotoxin (subAB), among others. Other virulence factors are intimin and adhesins that had a roll in the adherence of STEC to bovine colon. This review focuses on the virulence traits of STEC and especially on those related to the adhesion to bovine colon. The known of the interaction between STEC and the bovine host is crucial to develop strategies to control cattle colonization. PMID:23624795

  5. Oligosaccharide Binding in Escherichia coli Glycogen Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Fang; Yep, Alejandra; Feng, Lei; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H.; (MSU)

    2010-11-17

    Glycogen/starch synthase elongates glucan chains and is the key enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen in bacteria and starch in plants. Cocrystallization of Escherichia coli wild-type glycogen synthase (GS) with substrate ADPGlc and the glucan acceptor mimic HEPPSO produced a closed form of GS and suggests that domain-domain closure accompanies glycogen synthesis. Cocrystallization of the inactive GS mutant E377A with substrate ADPGlc and oligosaccharide results in the first oligosaccharide-bound glycogen synthase structure. Four bound oligosaccharides are observed, one in the interdomain cleft (G6a) and three on the N-terminal domain surface (G6b, G6c, and G6d). Extending from the center of the enzyme to the interdomain cleft opening, G6a mostly interacts with the highly conserved N-terminal domain residues lining the cleft of GS. The surface-bound oligosaccharides G6c and G6d have less interaction with enzyme and exhibit a more curled, helixlike structural arrangement. The observation that oligosaccharides bind only to the N-terminal domain of GS suggests that glycogen in vivo probably binds to only one side of the enzyme to ensure unencumbered interdomain movement, which is required for efficient, continuous glucan-chain synthesis.

  6. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczykowski, S C; Dixon, D A; Eggleston, A K; Lauder, S D; Rehrauer, W M

    1994-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a fundamental biological process. Biochemical understanding of this process is most advanced for Escherichia coli. At least 25 gene products are involved in promoting genetic exchange. At present, this includes the RecA, RecBCD (exonuclease V), RecE (exonuclease VIII), RecF, RecG, RecJ, RecN, RecOR, RecQ, RecT, RuvAB, RuvC, SbcCD, and SSB proteins, as well as DNA polymerase I, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase I, DNA ligase, and DNA helicases. The activities displayed by these enzymes include homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, helicase, branch migration, Holliday junction binding and cleavage, nuclease, ATPase, topoisomerase, DNA binding, ATP binding, polymerase, and ligase, and, collectively, they define biochemical events that are essential for efficient recombination. In addition to these needed proteins, a cis-acting recombination hot spot known as Chi (chi: 5'-GCTGGTGG-3') plays a crucial regulatory function. The biochemical steps that comprise homologous recombination can be formally divided into four parts: (i) processing of DNA molecules into suitable recombination substrates, (ii) homologous pairing of the DNA partners and the exchange of DNA strands, (iii) extension of the nascent DNA heteroduplex; and (iv) resolution of the resulting crossover structure. This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. Images PMID:7968921

  7. Expression of Escherichia coli pabA.

    PubMed

    Tran, P V; Nichols, B P

    1991-06-01

    Escherichia coli pabA encodes the glutamine amidotransferase subunit of p-aminobenzoate synthase. p-Aminobenzoate synthase catalyzes the conversion of chorismate and glutamine to 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate, which is then converted to p-aminobenzoate by a 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase. The 5'-terminal segment of pabA was previously shown to be transcribed from two different promoters, one near the pabA coding sequence (P1) and one preceding fic (P2). However, a pabA-lacZ translational fusion was expressed only from the mRNA originating at P1. We have determined that expression of a pabA-lacZ chromosomal fusion is not changed by p-aminobenzoate limitation, growth rate, catabolite repression, overexpression of either p-aminobenzoate synthase subunit, or gene dosage of pabA and pabB. The lack of pabA expression from P2 appears to be the result of a stable secondary structure in the intergenic space preceding pabA that sequesters the pabA ribosome binding site. Disruption of the secondary structure by mutation allowed expression of pabA from P2, as did translation of ribosomes into the fic-pabA intergenic region. PMID:2050628

  8. Soil solarization reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli on cattle feedlot pen surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feedlot pen soils are a source for transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and therefore a target for preharvest strategies to reduce this pathogen in cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of soil solarization to reduce E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot surface material (FSM)....

  9. The Serine Protease Pic From Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Mediates Immune Evasion by the Direct Cleavage of Complement Proteins.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Afonso G; Fraga, Tatiana R; Granados Martínez, Adriana P; Kondo, Marcia Y; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Isaac, Lourdes; Barbosa, Angela S; Elias, Waldir P

    2015-07-01

    Enteroaggregative and uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri 2a, and the hybrid enteroaggregative/Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strain (O104:H4) are important pathogens responsible for intestinal and urinary tract infections, as well as sepsis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. They have in common the production of a serine protease called Pic. Several biological roles for Pic have been described, including protection of E. coli DH5? from complement-mediated killing. Hereby we showed that Pic significantly reduces complement activation by all 3 pathways. Pic cleaves purified C3/C3b and other proteins from the classic and lectin pathways, such as C4 and C2. Cleavage fragments of C3, C4, and C2 were also observed with HB101(pPic1) culture supernatants, and C3 cleavage sites were mapped by fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptides. Experiments using human serum as a source of complement proteins confirmed Pic proteolytic activity on these proteins. Furthermore, Pic works synergistically with the human complement regulators factor I and factor H, promoting inactivation of C3b. In the presence of both regulators, further degradation of C3 ?' chain was observed. Therefore, Pic may contribute to immune evasion of E. coli and S. flexneri, favoring invasiveness and increasing the severity of the disorders caused by these pathogens. PMID:25583166

  10. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Escherichia coli PapD-like protein (EcpD)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Nishant Kumar; Pal, Ravi Kant; Kashyap, Maruthi; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar

    2012-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria are characterized by hair-like proteinaceous appendages on their surface known as fimbriae. In uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, fimbriae mediate attachment by binding to receptors on the host cell, often contributing to virulence and disease. E. coli PapD-like protein (EcpD) is a periplasmic chaperone that plays an important role in the proper folding and guiding of Yad fimbrial proteins to the outer membrane usher protein in a process known as pilus biogenesis. EcpD is essential for pilus biogenesis in uropathogenic E. coli and plays an important role in virulence. In the present study, EcpD was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.67?Ĺ resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 100.3, b = 127.6, c = 45.9?Ĺ. There was a single molecule in the asymmetric unit and the corresponding Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 3.02?Ĺ3?Da?1, with 59% solvent content. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement. PMID:22869131

  11. Virulence and plasmidic resistance determinants of Escherichia coli isolated from municipal and hospital wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Calhau, Vera; Mendes, Catarina; Pena, Angelina; Mendonça, Nuno; Da Silva, Gabriela Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Escherichia coli is simultaneously an indicator of water contamination and a human pathogen. This study aimed to characterize the virulence and resistance of E. coli from municipal and hospital wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in central Portugal. From a total of 193 isolates showing reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and/or nalidixic acid, 20 E. coli with genetically distinct fingerprint profiles were selected and characterized. Resistance to antimicrobials was determined using the disc diffusion method. Extended spectrum ?-lactamase and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, phylogroups, pathogenicity islands (PAIs) and virulence genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CTX-M producers were typed by multilocus sequence typing. Resistance to beta-lactams was associated with the presence of blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-32. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance was associated with qnrA, qnrS and aac(6')-Ib-cr. Aminoglycoside resistance and multidrug-resistant phenotypes were also detected. PAI IV536, PAI IICFT073, PAI II536 and PAI ICFT073, and uropathogenic genes iutA, papAH and sfa/foc were detected. With regard to the clinical ST131 clone, it carried blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-type, qnrS and aac(6')-lb-cr; IncF and IncP plasmids, and virulence factors PAI IV536, PAI ICFT073, PAI IICFT073, iutA, sfa/foc and papAH were identified in the effluent of a hospital plant. WWTPs contribute to the dissemination of virulent and resistant bacteria in water ecosystems, constituting an environmental and public health risk. PMID:26042965

  12. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  13. The Ascorbate Transporter of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongge; Aboulwafa, Mohammad; Smith, Meghan H.; Saier, Jr., Milton H.

    2003-01-01

    The sgaTBA genes of Escherichia coli encode a putative 12-transmembrane ?-helical segment (12 TMS) transporter, an enzyme IIB-like protein and an enzyme IIA-like protein of the phosphotransferase system (PTS), respectively. We show that all three proteins as well as the energy-coupling PTS proteins, enzyme I and HPr, are required for the anaerobic utilization and uptake of l-ascorbate in vivo and its phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation in vitro. The transporter exhibits an apparent Km for l-ascorbate of 9 ?M and is highly specific. The sgaTBA genes are regulated at the transcriptional level by the yjfQ gene product, as well as by Crp and Fnr. The yjfR gene product is essential for l-ascorbate utilization and probably encodes a cytoplasmic l-ascorbate 6-phosphate lactonase. We conclude that SgaT represents a novel prototypical enzyme IIC that functions with SgaA and SgaB to allow phosphoryl transfer from HPr(his-P) to l-ascorbate via the phosphoryl transfer pathway: PEP???enzyme?I-P???HPr-P???IIA-\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{ \\,\\substack{ ^{SgaA} \\\\ P \\\\ }\\, }\\end{equation*}\\end{document}???IIB-\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{ \\,\\substack{ ^{SgaB} \\\\ P \\\\ }\\, }\\end{equation*}\\end{document}\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{ \\,\\substack{ ^{IIC} \\\\ {\\rightarrow} \\\\ }\\, }\\end{equation*}\\end{document}SgaTl-ascorbate-6-P. PMID:12644495

  14. Dihydroorotase from Escherichia coli. Purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Washabaugh, M W; Collins, K D

    1984-03-10

    Dihydroorotase (4,5-L-dihydroorotate amidohydrolase (EC 3.5.2.3], which catalyzes the reversible cyclization of N-carbamyl-L-aspartate to dihydro-L-orotate, has been purified to homogeneity from an over-producing strain of Escherichia coli. Treatment of 70 g of frozen cell paste produces about 7 mg of pure enzyme, a yield of about 35%. The native molecular weight, determined by equilibrium sedimentation, is 80,900 +/- 4,300. The subunit molecular weight, determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is 38,400 +/- 2,600, and by amino acid analysis is 41,000. The enzyme is thus a dimer and contains 0.95 +/- 0.08 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit when isolated by the described procedure, which would remove any loosely bound metal ions. Isoelectric focusing under native conditions yields a major species at isoelectric point 4.97 +/- 0.27 and a minor species at 5.26 +/- 0.27; dihydroorotase activity is proportionately associated with both bands. The enzyme has a partial specific volume of 0.737 ml/g calculated from the amino acid composition and a specific absorption at 278 nm of 0.638 for a 1 mg/ml solution. At 30 degrees C, the Michaelis constant and kcat for dihydro-DL-orotate (at pH 8.0) are 0.0756 mM and 127 s-1, respectively; for N-carbamyl-DL-aspartate (at pH 5.80), they are 1.07 mM and 195 s-1. PMID:6142052

  15. An adhesive protein capsule of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Orskov, I; Birch-Andersen, A; Duguid, J P; Stenderup, J; Orskov, F

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the adhesive capacity of three hemagglutinating Escherichia coli strains that had earlier been described as nonfimbriated was studied. The strains that were isolated from human disease adhered to human buccal and urinary tract epithelial cells, an adhesion that was not inhibited by D-mannose. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that the three strains produced a common antigen, Z1, developed after growth at 37 degrees C but not 18 degrees C. One of the strains produced an additional antigen, Z2, of almost the same electrophoretic mobility in crossed immunoelectrophoresis. A mutant of this strain deficient of its polysaccharide K antigen had maintained the adhesive capacity, indicating that the K antigen was not responsible for adhesion. A further mutant of the acapsular mutant produced a strongly reduced amount of the Z antigens and had lost the ability to adhere. The Z1 (and Z2?) antigens were therefore deemed to be responsible for adhesion. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts of cells of the three strains, a heavy Coomassie-blue stained line was seen, indicating the presence of a protein subunit of molecular weight slightly above 14,400. By immunoblotting with absorbed antiserum, it was shown that this protein was the same as that detected by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Protease from Streptomyces griseus, but not trypsin, digested the protein. Heating to 100 degrees C did not affect it. By immunoelectron microscopy of embedded and sectioned bacteria that had first been treated with specific antisera and ferritin-labeled antirabbit immunoglobulin, the protein adhesin-antibody complex was found to surround the bacteria as a heavy capsule. After negative staining with uranylacetate (pH approximately 4), the capsule appeared as a mesh of very fine filaments. The possible role of this capsule in the pathogenesis of disease is discussed. Images PMID:2856913

  16. Small-molecule inhibitors target Escherichia coli amyloid biogenesis and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Cegelski, Lynette; Pinkner, Jerome S; Hammer, Neal D; Cusumano, Corinne K; Hung, Chia S; Chorell, Erik; Ĺberg, Veronica; Walker, Jennifer N; Seed, Patrick C; Almqvist, Fredrik; Chapman, Matthew R; Hultgren, Scott J

    2010-01-01

    Curli are functional extracellular amyloid fibers produced by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and other Enterobacteriaceae. Ring-fused 2-pyridones, such as FN075 and BibC6, inhibited curli biogenesis in UPEC and prevented the in vitro polymerization of the major curli subunit protein CsgA. The curlicides FN075 and BibC6 share a common chemical lineage with other ring-fused 2-pyridones termed pilicides. Pilicides inhibit the assembly of type 1 pili, which are required for pathogenesis during urinary tract infection. Notably, the curlicides retained pilicide activities and inhibited both curli-dependent and type 1–dependent biofilms. Furthermore, pretreatment of UPEC with FN075 significantly attenuated virulence in a mouse model of urinary tract infection. Curli and type 1 pili exhibited exclusive and independent roles in promoting UPEC biofilms, and curli provided a fitness advantage in vivo. Thus, the ability of FN075 to block the biogenesis of both curli and type 1 pili endows unique anti-biofilm and anti-virulence activities on these compounds. PMID:19915538

  17. Review article Pathogenic diversity of Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    termed pathogenicity islands (PAls) that are absent from the genomes of commen- sal E. coli strains. PAls and systemic infections in humans and other animals. The spectrum of diseases caused by E. coli is due are likely to have been transferred horizontally and may have integrated into the E. coli chromosome through

  18. Comparison of the PhoPQ Regulon in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium

    E-print Network

    Comparison of the PhoPQ Regulon in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium Pieter Monsieurs,1 as a transcriptional regulator that responds to Mg2+ starvation both in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.g., pathogenesis in S. typhimurium). Key words: PhoPQ regulon -- Escherichia coli -- Salmonella typhimirium

  19. AVIAN DISEASES 46:4852, 2002 Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli from Cellulitis or

    E-print Network

    Singer, Randall

    Escherichia coli is the most common second- ary bacterial infection of commercial poultry flocks and may also48 AVIAN DISEASES 46:48­52, 2002 Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli from Cellulitis. This study was designed to compare virulence factors of cellulitis-derived Escherichia coli to colisepticemic

  20. 76 FR 72331 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...FSIS-2010-0023] Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products...non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact...non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw, intact and...

  1. Use of EC-MUG Media to Confirm Escherichia coli Contamination in Water Samples Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Society For Microbiology

    2010-08-23

    Escherichia coli broth and Escherichia coli agar media with 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-glucuronide are used to confirm the presence of Escherichia coli in water samples. In this protocol, the history, procedure, and interpretation of results of this useful technique are discussed in detail.

  2. Pathogenomics of the Virulence Plasmids of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Bacterial plasmids are self-replicating, extrachromosomal elements that are key agents of change in microbial populations. They promote the dissemination of a variety of traits, including virulence, enhanced fitness, resistance to antimicrobial agents, and metabolism of rare substances. Escherichia coli, perhaps the most studied of microorganisms, has been found to possess a variety of plasmid types. Included among these are plasmids associated with virulence. Several types of E. coli virulence plasmids exist, including those essential for the virulence of enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Despite their diversity, these plasmids belong to a few plasmid backbones that present themselves in a conserved and syntenic manner. Thanks to some recent research, including sequence analysis of several representative plasmid genomes and molecular pathogenesis studies, the evolution of these virulence plasmids and the implications of their acquisition by E. coli are now better understood and appreciated. Here, work involving each of the E. coli virulence plasmid types is summarized, with the available plasmid genomic sequences for several E. coli pathotypes being compared in an effort to understand the evolution of these plasmid types and define their core and accessory components. PMID:19946140

  3. Differentiation of Escherichia coli Pathotypes by Oligonucleotide Spotted Array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raghavan U. M. Palaniappan; Yu Zhang; David Chiu; Alfonso Torres; Chobi DebRoy; Thomas S. Whittam; Yung-Fu Chang

    2006-01-01

    Received 27 July 2005\\/Returned for modification 28 September 2005\\/Accepted 11 January 2006 To accurately determine the pathotypes of Escherichia coli strains, a comprehensive assessment of each strain that targets multiple genes is required. A new approach to the identification and characterization of E. coli pathotypes was developed by constructing gene-specific probes (70-mers) for not only the virulence genes associated with

  4. A functional update of the Escherichia coli K-12 genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margrethe H Serres; Shuba Gopal; Laila A Nahum; Ping Liang; Terry Gaasterland; Monica Riley

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the genome of Escherichia coli K-12 was initially annotated in 1997, additional functional information based on biological characterization and functions of sequence-similar proteins has become available. On the basis of this new information, an updated version of the annotated chromosome has been generated. RESULTS: The E. coli K-12 chromosome is currently represented by 4,401 genes encoding 116 RNAs

  5. Recombinational Construction in Escherichia coli of Infectious Adenoviral Genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Crouzet; Laurent Naudin; Cecile Orsini; Emmanuelle Vigne; Lucy Ferrero; Aude Le Roux; Patrick Benoit; Martine Latta; Christophe Torrent; Didier Branellec; Patrice Denefle; Jean-Francois Mayaux; Michel Perricaudet; Patrice Yeh

    1997-01-01

    A two-step gene replacement procedure was developed that generates infectious adenoviral genomes through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. As a prerequisite, a human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived genome was first introduced as a PacI restriction fragment into an incP-derived replicon which, in contrast to ColE1-derivatives (e.g., pBR322 or pUC plasmids), is functional in a polA mutant of E. coli. Any

  6. The Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick R. Blattner; Guy Plunkett III; Craig A. Bloch; Nicole T. Perna; Valerie Burland; Monica Riley; Julio Collado-Vides; Jeremy D. Glasner; Christopher K. Rode; George F. Mayhew; Jason Gregor; Nelson Wayne Davis; Heather A. Kirkpatrick; Michael A. Goeden; Debra J. Rose; Bob Mau; Ying Shao

    2007-01-01

    The 4,639,221- base pair sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 is presented. Of 4288 protein-coding genes annotated, 38 percent have no attributed function. Comparison with five other sequenced microbes reveals ubiquitous as well as narrowly distributed gene families; many families of similar genes within E. coli are also evident. The largest family of paralogous proteins contains 80 ABC transporters. The genome

  7. FREQUENCY AND VIRULENCE PROPERTIES OF DIARRHEAGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI IN CHILDREN WITH DIARRHEA IN GABON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELISABETH PRESTERL; RALPH H. ZWICK; SONJA REICHMANN; ALEXANDER AICHELBURG; STEFAN WINKLER; PETER G. KREMSNER; WOLFGANG GRANINGER

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Lambaren e ´ , Gabon, 150 children with diarrhea were screened for enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) using polymerase chain reaction and an HEp-2 cell culture techniques. Isolates of EAEC were detected in 57 children,

  8. Quantitative Profile of the Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Proteome during Growth in Human Urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Alteri; Harry L. T. Mobley

    2007-01-01

    Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of microbial pathogens are critical components that mediate direct interactions between microbes and their surrounding environment. Consequently, the study of OMPs is integral to furthering the understanding of host-pathogen interactions and to identifying key targets for development of improved antimicrobial agents and vaccines. In this study, we used two-dimensional poly- acrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and tandem

  9. An integrated database to support research on Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Dunham, G.; Matsuda, Hideo; Michaels, G.; Taylor, R.; Overbeek, R.; Rudd, K.E. (National Inst. of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Ginsburg, A.; Joerg, D.; Kazic, T. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Genetics); Hagstrom, R.; Zawada, D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Smith, C.; Yoshida, Kaoru (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    We have used logic programming to design and implement a prototype database of genomic information for the model bacterial organism Escherichia coli. This report presents the fundamental database primitives that can be used to access and manipulate data relating to the E. coli genome. The present system, combined with a tutorial manual, provides immediate access to the integrated knowledge base for E. coli chromosome data. It also serves as the foundation for development of more user-friendly interfaces that have the same retrieval power and high-level tools to analyze complex chromosome organization.

  10. Genetically related Escherichia coli strains associated with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Masseret, E; Boudeau, J; Colombel, J; Neut, C; Desreumaux, P; Joly, B; Cortot, A; Darfeuille-Michau..., A

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients with Crohn's disease (CD) with chronic ileal lesions (n=14), early endoscopic recurrent lesions (n=20), without endoscopic recurrence (n=7), and controls (n=21) were compared by ribotyping. The dendrogram generated by 50 ribotype profile analysis revealed a large cluster of genetically linked E coli strains isolated significantly more frequently from patients with chronic and recurrent CD (24/33 patients) than from controls (9/21) (p<0.05). Most patients operated on for chronic ileal lesions (78.5%) harboured E coli strains belonging to cluster A (p<0.002 v controls). The prevalence of patients with early recurrent lesions harbouring E coli strains belonging to this cluster was high but not significant, although 16 strains isolated from eight patients presented the same ribotype profile. In this cluster, 21 of 26 strains isolated from patients with active CD demonstrated adherent ability to differentiated Caco-2 cells, indicating that most of the genetically related strains share a common virulence trait. Comparison of E coli strains recovered from ulcerated and healthy mucosa of patients operated on for CD demonstrated in each patient that a single strain colonised the intestinal mucosa. Our results suggest that although a single E coli isolate was not found in Crohn's ileal mucosa, some genotypes were more likely than others to be associated with chronic or early recurrent ileal lesions.???Keywords: Escherichia coli; Crohn's disease; chronic ileal lesion; early endoscopic recurrent ileal lesion; ribotyping PMID:11171820

  11. Slugs: Potential Novel Vectors of Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Sproston, Emma L.; Macrae, M.; Ogden, Iain D.; Wilson, Michael J.; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2006-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were performed to determine whether slugs could act as novel vectors for pathogen (e.g., Escherichia coli O157) transfer from animal feces to salad vegetables. Escherichia coli O157 was isolated from 0.21% of field slugs from an Aberdeenshire sheep farm. These isolates carried the verocytotoxin genes (vt1 and vt2) and the attaching and effacing gene (eae), suggesting that they are potentially pathogenic to humans. Strain typing using multilocus variable number tandem repeats analysis showed that slug and sheep isolates were indistinguishable. Laboratory experiments using an E. coli mutant resistant to nalidixic acid showed that the ubiquitous slug species Deroceras reticulatum could carry viable E. coli on its external surface for up to 14 days. Slugs that had been fed E. coli shed viable bacteria in their feces with numbers showing a short but statistically significant linear log decline. Further, it was found that E. coli persisted for up to 3 weeks in excreted slug feces, and hence, we conclude that slugs have the potential to act as novel vectors of E. coli O157. PMID:16391036

  12. The affinity of the FimH fimbrial adhesin is receptor-driven and quasi-independent of Escherichia coli pathotypes

    PubMed Central

    Bouckaert, Julie; Mackenzie, Jenny; de Paz, José L; Chipwaza, Beatrice; Choudhury, Devapriya; Zavialov, Anton; Mannerstedt, Karin; Anderson, Jennifer; Piérard, Denis; Wyns, Lode; Seeberger, Peter H; Oscarson, Stefan; De Greve, Henri; Knight, Stefan D

    2006-01-01

    Type-1 fimbriae are important virulence factors for the establishment of Escherichia coli urinary tract infections. Bacterial adhesion to the high-mannosylated uroplakin Ia glycoprotein receptors of bladder epithelium is mediated by the FimH adhesin. Previous studies have attributed differences in mannose-sensitive adhesion phenotypes between faecal and uropathogenic E. coli to sequence variation in the FimH receptor-binding domain. We find that FimH variants from uropathogenic, faecal and enterohaemorrhagic isolates express the same specificities and affinities for high-mannose structures. The only exceptions are FimHs from O157 strains that carry a mutation (Asn135Lys) in the mannose-binding pocket that abolishes all binding. A high-mannose microarray shows that all substructures are bound by FimH and that the largest oligomannose is not necessarily the best binder. Affinity measurements demonstrate a strong preference towards oligomannosides exposing Man?1-3Man at their non-reducing end. Binding is further enhanced by the ?1-4-linkage to GlcNAc, where binding is 100-fold better than that of ?-d-mannose. Man?1-3Man?1-4GlcNAc, a major oligosaccharide present in the urine of ?-mannosidosis patients, thus constitutes a well-defined FimH epitope. Differences in affinities for high-mannose structures are at least 10-fold larger than differences in numbers of adherent bacteria between faecal and uropathogenic strains. Our results imply that the carbohydrate expression profile of targeted host tissues and of natural inhibitors in urine, such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, are stronger determinants of adhesion than FimH variation. PMID:16930149

  13. Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL G. SURETTE; BONNIE L. BASSLER

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium strains grown in Luria-Bertani medium containing glucose secrete a small soluble heat labile organic molecule that is involved in intercellular communication. The factor is not produced when the strains are grown in Luria-Bertani me- dium in the absence of glucose. Maximal secretion of the substance occurs in midexponential phase, and the extracel- lular activity is

  14. Strategies for efficient production of heterologous proteins in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jana; J. K. Deb

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the number of recombinant proteins used for therapeutic applications has increased dramatically. Production of these proteins has a remarkable demand in the market. Escherichia coli offers a means for the rapid and economical production of recombinant proteins. These advantages, coupled with a wealth of biochemical and genetic knowledge, have enabled the production of such economically therapeutic proteins

  15. Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain B2C.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, T P Vipin; Steen, Jason A; Hugenholtz, Philip; Sakellaris, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease around the globe, causing an estimated 380,000 deaths annually. The disease is caused by a wide variety of strains. Here, we report the genome sequence of ETEC strain B2C, which was isolated from an American soldier in Vietnam. PMID:24723709

  16. MICROARRAY BASED COMPARISON OF TWO ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 LINEAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has identified the potential for the existence of two separate lineages of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Clinical isolates tended to cluster with only one of these two lineages. To determine if there are common genes differentially expressed between the two lineages, we chose to utiliz...

  17. Recombinant protein folding and misfolding in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirna Mujacic; François Baneyx

    2004-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen enormous progress in the understanding of the mechanisms used by the enteric bacterium Escherichia coli to promote protein folding, support protein translocation and handle protein misfolding. Insights from these studies have been exploited to tackle the problems of inclusion body formation, proteolytic degradation and disulfide bond generation that have long impeded the production of

  18. Elimination of Escherichia coli from oysters using electrolyzed seawater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisae Kasai; Koji Kawana; Matthura Labaiden; Kenji Namba; Mamoru Yoshimizu

    2011-01-01

    Electrolyzed seawater (ESW) is reportedly an effective disinfectant for aquaculture equipment because of its simple mechanism and cost effectiveness. The potential of electrolyzed seawater for oyster depuration was studied using different experiments. The first was determination of chlorine tolerance of oysters. Second was effectiveness of ESW against Escherichia coli in artificially contaminated oysters and third was effectiveness of ESW against

  19. Invasive Escherichia coli are a feature of Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maiko Sasaki; Shanti V Sitaraman; Brian A Babbin; Peter Gerner-Smidt; Efrain M Ribot; Nancy Garrett; Joel A Alpern; Adil Akyildiz; Arianne L Theiss; Asma Nusrat; Jan-Michael A Klapproth

    2007-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are idiopathic inflammatory conditions of the gut. Our goal was to investigate if invasive Escherichia coli strains were present in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Bacterial strains were isolated from biopsy material obtained from normal controls, and patients with a clinical diagnosis of CD and UC. Invasive bacteria were characterized by gentamicin

  20. Escherichia coli K-12: a cooperatively developed annotation snapshot--2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Riley; Takashi Abe; Martha B. Arnaud; Mary K. B. Berlyn; Frederick R. Blattner; Roy R. Chaudhuri; Jeremy D. Glasner; Takashi Horiuchi; Ingrid M. Keseler; Takehide Kosuge; Hirotada Mori; Nicole T. Perna; Guy Plunkett; Kenneth E. Rudd; Margrethe H. Serres; Gavin H. Thomas; Nicholas R. Thomson; David Wishart; Barry L. Wanner

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this group project has been to coordinate and bring up-to-date information on all genes of Escherichia coli K-12. Annotation of the genome of an organism entails identification of genes, the boundaries of genes in terms of precise start and end sites, and description of the gene products. Known and predicted functions were assigned to each gene product

  1. Attachment of Escherichia coli and Enterococci to Particles in Runoff

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle L. Soupir; Saied Mostaghimi; T. Dillaha

    2010-01-01

    Association of Escherichia coli and enterococci with particulates present in runoff from erodible soils has important implications for modeling the fate and transport of bacteria from agricultural sources and in the selection of management practices to reduce bacterial movement to surface waters. Th ree soils with diff erent textures were collected from the Ap horizon (silty loam, silty clay loam,

  2. Fast, Multiphase Volume Adaptation to Hyperosmotic Shock by Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teuta Pilizota; Joshua W. Shaevitz

    2012-01-01

    All living cells employ an array of different mechanisms to help them survive changes in extra cellular osmotic pressure. The difference in the concentration of chemicals in a bacterium's cytoplasm and the external environment generates an osmotic pressure that inflates the cell. It is thought that the bacterium Escherichia coli use a number of interconnected systems to adapt to changes

  3. Aminomalonic Acid: Identification in Escherichia coli and Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. van Buskirk; Wolff M. Kirsch; Don L. Kleyer; Robert M. Barkley; Tad H. Koch

    1984-01-01

    Aminomalonic acid (Ama) has been isolated from proteins of Escherichia coli and human atherosclerotic plaque. The presence of Ama has important biological implications because the malonic acid moiety potentially imparts calcium binding properties to protein. Ama was obtained by anaerobic alkaline hydrolysis and identified by chromatographic behavior, quantitative acid-mediated decarboxylation to glycine, and unambiguous gas chromatographic\\/mass spectral detection. The chromatographic,

  4. What's for Dinner?: Entner-Doudoroff Metabolism in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. PEEKHAUS; T. CONWAY

    1998-01-01

    The Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway was first discovered in 1952 in Pseudomonas saccharophila (21) and several years later was shown to be present in Escherichia coli (23). Although generally considered to be restricted to gram-negative bacteria, the ED pathway is present in all three phylogenetic domains, including the most deeply rooted Archaea (18). The ubiquity of the ED pathway suggests that

  5. Global Incidence of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli ST131

    PubMed Central

    Peirano, Gisele; Bradford, Patricia A.; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M.; Badal, Robert E.; Hackel, Meredith; Hoban, Daryl J.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized Escherichia coli ST131 isolates among 116 carbapenemase-producing strains. Of isolates from 16 countries collected during 2008–2013, 35% belonged to ST131 and were associated with blaKPC, H30 lineage, and virotype C. This study documents worldwide incidents of resistance to “last resort” antimicrobial drugs among a common pathogen in a successful sequence type. PMID:25340464

  6. |Research Focus In search of the minimal Escherichia coli genome

    E-print Network

    Conway, Tyrrell

    for a `second human genome project' to compile an inventory of the genomes of the human microflora, Stanley|Research Focus In search of the minimal Escherichia coli genome Darren J. Smalley, Marvin Whiteley and Tyrrell Conway Advanced Center for Genome Technology, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019

  7. Regulation of Acetyl Coenzyme A Synthetase in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUMAN KUMARI; CHRISTINE M. BEATTY; DOUGLAS F. BROWNING; STEPHEN J. W. BUSBY; ERICA J. SIMEL; GALADRIEL HOVEL-MINER; ALAN J. WOLFE

    2000-01-01

    Cells of Escherichia coli growing on sugars that result in catabolite repression or amino acids that feed into glycolysis undergo a metabolic switch associated with the production and utilization of acetate. As they divide exponentially, these cells excrete acetate via the phosphotransacetylase-acetate kinase pathway. As they begin the transition to stationary phase, they instead resorb acetate, activate it to acetyl

  8. Operons in Escherichia coli: Genomic analyses and predictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heladia Salgado; Gabriel Moreno-Hagelsieb; Temple F. Smith; Julio Collado-Vides

    2000-01-01

    The rich knowledge of operon organization in Escherichia coli, together with the completed chromosomal sequence of this bacterium, enabled us to perform an analysis of distances between genes and of functional relationships of adjacent genes in the same operon, as opposed to adjacent genes in different transcription units. We measured and demonstrated the expected tendencies of genes within operons to

  9. Physical map of the Escherichia coli K12 genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Smith; J. G. Econome; A. Schutt; S. Klco; C. R. Cantor

    1987-01-01

    A physical map of a genome is the structure of its DNA. Construction of such a map is a first step in the complete characterization of that DNA. The restriction endonuclease Not I cuts the genome of Escherichia coli K12 into 22 DNA fragments ranging from 20 kilobases (20,000 base pairs) to 1000 kilobases. These can be separated by pulsed

  10. Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infections: Translocation, Translocation, Translocation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junkal Garmendia; Gad Frankel; Valerie F. Crepin

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most abundant facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacterium of the intestinal microflora, naturally colonizing the mucous layer of the colon. A conserved core genomic structure is common to both commensal and patho- genic strains, providing the microorganisms with mechanisms required for survival under the competitive conditions in the gut, as well as the ability to spread among hosts

  11. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Siphophage Seurat.

    PubMed

    Doan, Dung P; Lessor, Lauren E; Hernandez, Adriana C; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in developing countries. Bacteriophage therapy has the potential to aid in the prevention and treatment of ETEC-related illness. To that end, we present here the complete genome of ETEC siphophage Seurat and describe its major features. PMID:25720682

  13. Escherichia coli O157: Burger bug or environmental pathogen?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norval J. C. Strachan; Geoffrey M. Dunn; Mary E. Locking; Thomas M. S. Reid; Iain D. Ogden

    2006-01-01

    The three main pathways of Escherichia coli O157 infection are foodborne, environmental (including direct contact with animals and their faeces and contaminated water supplies) or person to person contact. The disease is often nicknamed the ‘burger bug’ but it appears that environmental risk factors may be more important. In this study we use four techniques (outbreak analysis, case–control studies, disease

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Siphophage Seurat

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Dung P.; Lessor, Lauren E.; Hernandez, Adriana C.

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in developing countries. Bacteriophage therapy has the potential to aid in the prevention and treatment of ETEC-related illness. To that end, we present here the complete genome of ETEC siphophage Seurat and describe its major features. PMID:25720682

  15. Mouse Aurora A: Expression in Escherichia coli and purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Elling; Bradley T. Tangonan; David M. Penny; Jeremy T. Smith; Diana E. Vincent; Stig K. Hansen; Tom O’Brien; Michael J. Romanowski

    2007-01-01

    Aurora kinases have recently become some of the most intensely pursued oncology targets for the design of small-molecule inhibitors. Most of the active Aurora-A protein variants are currently being expressed from baculoviruses in insect cells, while catalytically impaired proteins can also be generated in and purified from Escherichia coli. In this study we present a method of expressing large quantities

  16. Classification of escherichia coli bacteria by artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mutlu Avci; T. Yildirim

    2002-01-01

    Through this paper, four different neural network structures which are: multilayer perceptron, radial basis function, general regression neural network and probabilistic neural network are applied to the escherichia coli bacteria benchmark and the most efficient neural network architecture for this data has been obtained. Better classification accuracy than the reference work using the ad hoc structured probability model was achieved

  17. Swimming patterns and dynamics of simulated Escherichia coli bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Zonia; Dennis Bray

    2009-01-01

    A spatially and temporally realistic simulation of Escherichia coli chemotaxis was used to investigate the swimming patterns of wild-type and mutant bacteria within a rectangular arena in response to chemoattractant gradients. Swimming dynamics were analysed during long time series with phase-space trajectories, power spectra and estimations of fractal dimensions (FDs). Cell movement displayed complex trajectories in the phase space owing

  18. Nontoxicity of an oil shale process water to Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Adams, J C

    1985-04-01

    The survival of Escherichia coli in the presence of an oil shale process water was studied over a five day period. The organism survived better in the presence of one or ten percent concentration of the process water than it did in distilled or tap water. Water chemistry of the diluent appeared to be important to the survival of the organism. PMID:3892236

  19. Biosynthesis of pinocembrin from glucose using engineered escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong Gyu; Lee, Hyejin; Ahn, Joong-Hoon

    2014-11-28

    Pinocembrin is a flavonoid that exhibits diverse biological properties. Although the major source of pinocembrin is propolis, it can be synthesized biologically using microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, which has been used to synthesize diverse natural compounds. Pinocembrin is synthesized from phenylalanine by the action of three enzymes; phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), and chalcone synthase (CHS). In order to synthesize pinocembrin from glucose in Escherichia coli, the PAL, 4CL, and CHS genes from three different plants were introduced into an E. coli strain. Next, we tested the different constructs containing 4CL and CHS. In addition, the malonyl-CoA level was increased by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Through these strategies, a high production yield (97 mg/l) of pinocembrin was achieved. PMID:25085569

  20. Escherichia coli O157 and Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... protect against infection with E coli, while washing hands with soap and water did protect children against infection. • Wash : Wash your hands and your children’s hands frequently with soap and water after using the bathroom, changing diapers, ...

  1. Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of canine uropathogens at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Teaching Hospital, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Ball, Katherine R; Rubin, Joseph E; Chirino-Trejo, M; Dowling, Patricia M

    2008-10-01

    Between January 2002 and June 2007, uropathogens were isolated from 473 of 1557 canine urine samples submitted to Prairie Diagnostic Services from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Culture and susceptibility results were analyzed, retrospectively, to estimate the prevalence of common bacterial uropathogens in dogs with urinary tract infections and to identify changes in antimicrobial resistance. The most common pathogens identified were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus intermedius, Enterococcus spp., and Proteus spp. Antimicrobial resistance increased during the study period, particularly among recurrent E. coli isolates. Using the formula to help select rational antimicrobial therapy (FRAT), bacterial isolates were most likely to be susceptible to gentamicin, fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and groups 4 and 5 (third generation) cephalosporins. PMID:19119366

  2. Lytic bacteriophages reduce Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Sean; Roberts, Cheryl; Handy, Eric; Sharma, Manan

    2013-01-01

    The role of lytic bacteriophages in preventing cross contamination of produce has not been evaluated. A cocktail of three lytic phages specific for E. coli O157:H7 (EcoShield™) or a control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) was applied to lettuce by either; (1) immersion of lettuce in 500 ml of EcoShield™ 8.3 log PFU/ml or 9.8 log PFU/ml for up to 2 min before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7; (2) spray-application of EcoShield™ (9.3 log PFU/ml) to lettuce after inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 (4.10 CFU/cm2) following exposure to 50 ?g/ml chlorine for 30 sec. After immersion studies, lettuce was spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (2.38 CFU/cm2). Phage-treated, inoculated lettuce pieces were stored at 4°C for and analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 populations for up to 7 d. Immersion of lettuce in 9.8 log PFU/ml EcoShield™ for 2 min significantly (p < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations after 24 h when stored at 4°C compared with controls. Immersion of lettuce in suspensions containing high concentrations of EcoShield™ (9.8 log PFU/ml) resulted in the deposition of high concentrations (7.8 log log PFU/cm2) of bacteriophages on the surface of fresh cut lettuce, potentially contributing to the efficacy of the lytic phages on lettuce. Spraying phages on to inoculated fresh cut lettuce after being washed in hypochlorite solution was significantly more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations (2.22 log CFU/cm2) on day 0 compared with control treatments (4.10 log CFU/cm2). Both immersion and spray treatments provided protection from E. coli O157:H7 contamination on lettuce, but spray application of lytic bacteriophages to lettuce was more effective in immediately reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations fresh cut lettuce. PMID:23819106

  3. Adhesion of Human and Animal Escherichia coli Strains in Association with Their Virulence-Associated Genes and Phylogenetic Origins

    PubMed Central

    Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

  4. Adhesion of human and animal Escherichia coli strains in association with their virulence-associated genes and phylogenetic origins.

    PubMed

    Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H; Schierack, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

  5. Proton-linked D-xylose transport in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, V M; Daruwalla, K R; Henderson, P J; Jones-Mortimer, M C

    1980-01-01

    The addition of xylose to energy-depleted cells of Escherichia coli elicited an alkaline pH change which failed to appear in the presence of uncoupling agents. Accumulation of [14C]xylose by energy-replete cells was also inhibited by uncoupling agents, but not by fluoride or arsenate. Subcellular vesicles of E. coli accumulated [14C]xylose provided that ascorbate plus phenazine methosulfate were present for respiration, and this accumulation was inhibited by uncoupling agents or valinomycin. Therefore, the transport of xylose into E. coli appears to be energized by a proton-motive force, rather than by a phosphotransferase or directly energized mechanism. Its specificity for xylose as inducer and substrate and the genetic location of a xylose-H+ transport-negative mutation near mtl showed that the xylose-H+ system is distinct from other proton-linked sugar transport systems of E. coli. PMID:6995439

  6. EcoCyc: Enyclopedia of Escherichia coli Genes and Metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Karp, P D; Riley, M; Paley, S M; Pellegrini-Toole, A; Krummenacker, M

    1997-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Genes and Metabolism (EcoCyc) is a database that combines information about the genome and the intermediary metabolism of Escherichia coli. It describes 2970 genes of E.coli, 547 enzymes encoded by these genes, 702 metabolic reactions that occur in E.coli and the organization of these reactions into 107 metabolic pathways. The EcoCyc graphical user interface allows scientists to query and explore the EcoCyc database using visualization tools such as genomic-map browsers and automatic layouts of metabolic pathways. EcoCyc spans the space from sequence to function to allow scientists to investigate an unusually broad range of questions. EcoCyc can be thought of as both an electronic review article because of its copious references to the primary literature, and as an in silicio model of E.coli metabolism that can be probed and analyzed through computational means. PMID:9016502

  7. Crystal structure of the Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    of the HIV-1 Nef gene, sharing 45% amino acid sequence identity with it. The structure of the E. coli,16. Surprisingly, the human enzyme was found to bind to, and be activated by, the product of the HIV Nef gene diagram showing an overview of the tertiary architecture of TEII. The -helices are magenta

  8. Regulation of fructose uptake by glucose in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Amaral, D; Kornberg, H L

    1975-09-01

    A mutant, DAI, has been isolated from the Escherichia coli K12, strain K2. 1t, as a colony resistant to 2-deoxyglucose (DG) when growing on fructose but still sensitive to DG when growing on other sugars. The mutation in DAI specifically affects the catabolite inhibition of fructose utilization by glucose and glucose-6-phosphate; the affected gene (designated cif) is located at min 41 on the E. coli linkage map and is highly co-transducible with the genes that specify the uptake of fructose (ptsF) and enzymic conversion of fructose-1-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (fpk). PMID:1100775

  9. Escherichia coli as a model active colloid: a practical introduction

    E-print Network

    Jana Schwarz-Linek; Jochen Arlt; Alys Jepson; Angela Dawson; Teun Vissers; Dario Miroli; Teuta Pilizota; Vincent A. Martinez; Wilson C. K. Poon

    2015-06-15

    The flagellated bacterium Escherichia coli is increasingly used experimentally as a self-propelled swimmer. To obtain meaningful, quantitative results that are comparable between different laboratories, reproducible protocols are needed to control, `tune' and monitor the swimming behaviour of these motile cells. We critically review the knowledge needed to do so, explain methods for characterising the colloidal and motile properties of E.coli, cells, and propose a protocol for keeping them swimming at constant speed at finite bulk concentrations. In the process of establishing this protocol, we use motility as a high-throughput probe of aspects of cellular physiology via the coupling between swimming speed and the proton motive force.

  10. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, Germán L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant proteins. Its use as a cell factory is well-established and it has become the most popular expression platform. For this reason, there are many molecular tools and protocols at hand for the high-level production of heterologous proteins, such as a vast catalog of expression plasmids, a great number of engineered strains and many cultivation strategies. We review the different approaches for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in E. coli and discuss recent progress in this ever-growing field. PMID:24860555

  11. Comparison of three types of biochar for removal of Escherichia coli from agricultural runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an infectious type of bacteria that infects over 5,000 people per year in the United States, sometimes leading to death. Since cattle can produce more than 104 Escherichia coli (E. coli) per gram of feces, and biochar is a material with physical prop...

  12. Antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer inhibits viability of Escherichia coli in pure culture

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    injection with a non-lethal inoculum of either E. coli AS19 or SM105. Following infection, mice were treatedAntisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer inhibits viability of Escherichia coli in pure of Escherichia coli. Previously, an 11 base PMO targeted to an essential gene (acpP) for phospholipid

  13. Inactivation of Escherichia coli using atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahata, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ohyama, Ryu-ichiro; Ito, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    An atmospheric-pressure argon (Ar) plasma jet was applied to the inactivation of Escherichia coli. The Ar plasma jet was generated at a frequency of 10 kHz, an applied voltage of 10 kV, and an Ar gas flow rate of 10 L/min at atmospheric pressure. E. coli cells seeded on an agar medium in a Petri dish were inactivated by Ar plasma jet irradiation for 1 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that E. coli cells were killed because their cell wall and membrane were disrupted. To determine the causes of the disruption of the cell wall and membrane of E. coli, we performed the following experiments: the measurement of the surface temperature of an agar medium using a thermograph, the analysis of an emission spectrum of a plasma jet obtained using a multichannel spectrometer, and the determination of the distribution of the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated on an agar medium by plasma jet irradiation using semiquantitative test strips. Moreover, H2O2 solutions of different concentrations were dropped onto an agar medium seeded with E. coli cells to examine the contribution of H2O2 to the death of E. coli. The results of these experiments showed that the cell wall and membrane of E. coli were disrupted by electrons in the plasma jet, as well as by electroneutral excited nitrogen molecules (N2) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals in the periphery of the plasma jet.

  14. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in captive black-footed ferrets.

    PubMed

    Bradley, G A; Orr, K; Reggiardo, C; Glock, R D

    2001-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with genes for heat stabile toxins Sta and STb was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract and multiple visceral organs of three adult and three juvenile black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) that died in a captive breeding colony between 24 May 1998 and 2 July 1998. Similar isolates were obtained from rectal swabs of one adult and one juvenile that were clinically ill. All were fed a diet composed of mink chow, raw rabbit meat, beef liver powder, blood meal and lard. Escherichia coli of the same toxin genotype was isolated from the mixed ration. Clinical signs included sudden death, dehydration, anorexia and diarrhea. Necropsy lesions included acute enteritis with large numbers of rod shaped bacteria microscopically visible on intestinal villi. PMID:11504237

  15. Filamentation by Escherichia coli subverts innate defenses during urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Sheryl S.; Hunstad, David A.; Seed, Patrick C.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    To establish disease, an infecting organism must overcome a vast array of host defenses. During cystitis, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) subvert innate defenses by invading superficial umbrella cells and rapidly increasing in numbers to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs). In the late stages of the IBC pathway, filamentous and bacillary UPEC detach from the biofilm-like IBC, fluxing out of this safe haven to colonize the surrounding epithelium and initiate subsequent generations of IBCs, and eventually they establish a quiescent intracellular reservoir. Filamentous UPEC are not observed during acute infection in mice lacking functional Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), suggesting that the filamentous phenotype arises in response to host innate immunity. We investigated SulA, a cell division inhibitor associated with the SOS response, to gain insight into the role of filamentous UPEC in pathogenesis. A transcriptional reporter from PsulA revealed spatial and temporal differences in expression within IBCs, and it was active in the majority of filamentous UPEC. Although UTI89 and UTI89 ?sulA both formed first-generation IBCs equally well, UTI89 ?sulA was sharply attenuated in formation of second-generation IBCs and establishment of the quiescent intracellular reservoir. The virulence of UTI89 ?sulA was restored in TLR4-deficient mice, suggesting that filamentation facilitates the transition to additional rounds of IBC formation by subverting innate immune responses. These findings demonstrate that transient SulA-mediated inhibition of cell division is essential for UPEC virulence in the murine model of cystitis. PMID:17172451

  16. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Prevalence in Laboratory Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Swennes, Alton G.; Buckley, Ellen M.; Madden, Carolyn M.; Byrd, Charles P.; Donocoff, Rachel S.; Rodriguez, Loretta; Parry, Nicola M. A.; Fox, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit-origin enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) causes substantial diarrhea-associated morbidity and has zoonotic potential. A culture-based survey was undertaken to ascertain its prevalence. EPEC was isolated from 6/141 (4.3%) commercially-acquired laboratory rabbits. Three of these did not have diarrhea or EPEC-typical intestinal lesions; they instead had background plasmacytic intestinal inflammation. Asymptomatically infected rabbits may function as EPEC reservoirs. PMID:23391439

  17. [Therapeutic strategies for Escherichia coli neonatal meningitis].

    PubMed

    Durrmeyer, X; Cohen, R; Bingen, E; Aujard, Y

    2012-11-01

    Outcome of early and late onset E. coli neonatal meningitis is poor with 12% (term infant) to 18% (premature infant) mortality rates. Early complications are cerebral abscesses, ventriculitis and ischemo-haemorragic cerebral lesions. Long term sequelae, particularly neurosensorial [14-17%] and neurodevelopmental [10-17%] are frequent. Delayed or unadapted antibiotic treatment is associated with an excess of complications. Main risk factors are hemodynamic failure, apnea, seizures, hypoglycorachia and abnormal EEG. Antibiotics must be started as soon as possible with a third generation cephalosporin (3GC). Cefotaxime is the most largely 3GC used with good tolerance and the most appropriate Pk/PD parameters, frequently in association with ciprofloxacin. Experimentally, neuroprotective drugs were recently proposed to improve prognosis such as inflammatory inhibitors, leakage bacterial components inhibitors, PMN penetration inhibitors in CSF, apoptosis regulators. Clinically protective effect of corticosteroids is discussed. Ciprofloxacin has an intrinsic anti-inflammatory activity and seems interesting to use in addition to conventional antibiotherapy during the first days of treatment. Prevalence of 3GC-resistant E. coli is 5% in the vaginal flora of pregnant women in some hospitals in France; this rate leads to reconsider first line antibiotic treatment and to switch cephalosporin with meropenem in neonates with confirmed gram negative bacilli or 3GC-resistant E. coli meningitis. PMID:23178136

  18. Electric field induced bacterial flocculation of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli 042

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aloke; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Mukherjee, Partha P.; Retterer, Scott T.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.

    2011-06-01

    A response of the aggregation dynamics of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli under low magnitude steady and oscillating electric fields is presented. The presence of uniform electric fields hampered microbial adhesion and biofilm formation on a transverse glass surface, but instead promoted the formation of flocs. Extremely heterogenous distribution of live and dead cells was observed among the flocs. Moreover, floc formation was largely observed to be independent of the frequency of alternating electric fields.

  19. Superoxide Dismutase Protects Escherichia coli against Killing by Human Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Mcmanus; P. D. Josephy

    1995-01-01

    To assess the role of superoxide dismutase in protecting Escherichia coli from killing by human serum and neutrophils, we constructed isogenic, smooth-lipopolysaccharide K-12 strains, either sod wild-type, ?sodA, or ?sodA?sodB. The ?sodA?sodB strain was killed by serum much more readily than either the wild-type or ?sodA strain. After allowing for this serum sensitivity difference, the ?sodA?sodB strain also showed increased

  20. Ozone-initiated disinfection kinetics of Escherichia coli in water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Favourite Zuma; Johnson Lin; Sreekanth B. Jonnalagadda

    2009-01-01

    The effect of ozonation on the rate of disinfection of Escherichia coli was investigated as a function of ozone concentration, ozonation duration and flow rates. Ozone was generated in situ using Corona discharge method using compressed oxygen stream and depending on the oxygen flux the ozone concentrations ranged from 0.91–4.72 mg\\/L. The rate of disinfection of all the three microbes

  1. Expression and characterization of Pichia etchellsii ?-glucosidase in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjula Pandey; Saroj Mishra

    1997-01-01

    The ?-glucosidase enzyme is important as the terminal enzyme involved in hydrolysis of cellobiose and short-chain cellodextrins generated during enzymatic cellulose degradation. Under controlled reaction conditions the enzyme also displays cello-oligosaccharide synthesizing ability (based on either the thermodynamic or kinetic approach). We present here the purification of the enzyme ?-glucosidase (BGL) of Pichia etchellsii from recombinant pBG55 Escherichia coli clone.

  2. General properties of transcriptional time series in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lok-hang So; Anandamohan Ghosh; Chenghang Zong; Leonardo A Sepúlveda; Ronen Segev; Ido Golding

    2011-01-01

    Gene activity is described by the time series of discrete, stochastic mRNA production events. This transcriptional time series shows intermittent, bursty behavior. One consequence of this temporal intricacy is that gene expression can be tuned by varying different features of the time series. Here we quantify copy-number statistics of mRNA from 20 Escherichia coli promoters using single-molecule fluorescence in situ

  3. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for 1-butanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shota Atsumi; Anthony F. Cann; Michael R. Connor; Claire R. Shen; Kevin M. Smith; Mark P. Brynildsen; Katherine J. Y. Chou; Taizo Hanai; James C. Liao

    2008-01-01

    Compared to ethanol, butanol offers many advantages as a substitute for gasoline because of higher energy content and higher hydrophobicity. Typically, 1-butanol is produced by Clostridium in a mixed-product fermentation. To facilitate strain improvement for specificity and productivity, we engineered a synthetic pathway in Escherichia coli and demonstrated the production of 1-butanol from this non-native user-friendly host. Alternative genes and

  4. The Escherichia coli RNA polymerase ? subunit: structure and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H Ebright; Steve Busby

    1995-01-01

    Recent work has established that the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase ? subunit consists of an amino-terminal domain containing determinants for interaction with the remainder of RNA polymerase, a carboxy-terminal domain containing determinants for interaction with DNA and interaction with transcriptional activator proteins, and a 13–36 amino acid unstructured and\\/or flexible linker. These findings suggest a simple, integrated model for the

  5. Diversification of Escherichia coli genomes: are bacteriophages the major contributors?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Ohnishi; Ken Kurokawa; Tetsuya Hayashi

    2001-01-01

    Determination of the genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 Sakai and genomic comparison with the laboratory strain K-12 has revealed that the two strains share a highly conserved 4.1-Mb sequence and that each also contains a large amount of strain-specific sequence. The analysis also revealed the presence of a surprisingly large number of prophages in O157, most of which

  6. Solar radiation induces sublethal injury in Escherichia coli in seawater.

    PubMed Central

    Kapuscinski, R B; Mitchell, R

    1981-01-01

    Sublethal injury was noted in Escherichia coli after cells were exposed to solar radiation. Injury was detected by differential plate counts between complete and minimal media that were observed with sunlight-exposed cells but not with cells kept in the dark. Since addition of catalase or pyruvate to minimal medium overcame or repaired this injury, the catalase system appeared to be the site of injury. PMID:7013708

  7. Expression of Aeromonas caviae bla genes in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameera Sayeed; Jon. R. Saunders; Clive Edwards; John E. Corkill; C. Anthony Hart

    1996-01-01

    An isolate of Aeromonas caviae 035 carried a 55.5 kb self-transfer able plasmid. Transfer of the plasmid to Escherichia coli K.12 resulted in the expression of a TEM-like ^-lactamase that was not expressed in parental A. caviae. The bla gene sequence was detectable by DNA hybridization and PCR amplification of the plasmid when extracted from parental A. caviae or from

  8. Interaction of Escherichia coli Ribosomal Protein S1 with Ribosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Draper; Peter H. von Hippel

    1979-01-01

    The binding affinity of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S1 for 30S ribosomal particles has been determined by a sucrose gradient band sedimentation technique; the association constant (K) for the binding of one S1 protein per active 30S ribosomal subunit is ≈ 2 × 108 M-1. The involvement of the two polynucleotide binding sites of S1 protein (site I binding single-stranded

  9. Electric field induced bacterial flocculation of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli 042

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Aloke [ORNL; Mortensen, Ninell P [ORNL; Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A response of the aggregation dynamics of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli under low magnitude steady and oscillating electric fields is presented. The presence of uniform electric fields hampered microbial adhesion and biofilm formation on a transverse glass surface, but instead promoted the formation of flocs. Extremely heterogeneous distribution of live and dead cells was observed among the flocs. Moreover, floc formation was largely observed to be independent of the frequency of alternating electric fields.

  10. Expression of the Human Erythrocyte Glucose Transporter in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hemanta K. Sarkar; Bernard Thorens; Harvey F. Lodish; H. Ronald Kaback

    1988-01-01

    The gene encoding the human erythrocyte glucose transporter, cloned from HepG2 hepatoma cells, was expressed in Escherichia coli by introducing a prokaryote-type ribosome binding site, subcloning the gene into the T7 promoter\\/T7 polymerase expression system, and transforming a strain that is defective in glucose transport. Cells bearing plasmids with the transporter gene take up 2-deoxy-D-glucose and D-glucose, unlike cells bearing

  11. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production from xylose by recombinant Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Yup Lee

    1998-01-01

    Several recombinant Escherichia coli strains harboring the Alcaligenes eutrophus polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis genes were used to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB, from xylose. By flask culture of TG1 (pSYL107) in a defined medium containing 20 g\\/l xylose, PHB concentration of 1.7 g\\/l was obtained. Supplementation of a small amount of cotton seed hydrolysate or soybean hydrolysate could enhance PHB production by more than

  12. Identifying Escherichia coli genes involved in intrinsic multidrug resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miao Duo; Shuyu Hou; Dacheng Ren

    2008-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is a major cause of clinical failure in treating bacterial infections. Increasing evidence suggests that\\u000a bacteria can resist multiple antibiotics through intrinsic mechanisms that rely on gene products such as efflux pumps that\\u000a expel antibiotics and special membrane proteins that block the penetration of drug molecules. In this study, Escherichia coli was used as a model system to

  13. Current perspectivesin pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kong, Haishen; Hong, Xiaoping; Li, Xuefen

    2015-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emerging pathogen that causes acute and persistent diarrhea in children and adults. While the pathogenic mechanisms of EAEC intestinal colonization have been uncovered (including bacterial adhesion, enterotoxin and cytotoxin secretion, and stimulation of mucosal inflammation), those of severe extraintestinal infections remain largely unknown. The recent emergence of multidrug resistant EAEC represents an alarming public health threat and clinical challenge, and research on the molecular mechanisms of resistance is urgently needed. PMID:26057827

  14. The Pangenome Structure of Escherichia coli: Comparative Genomic Analysis of E. coli Commensal and Pathogenic Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Rasko; M. J. Rosovitz; Garry S. A. Myers; Emmanuel F. Mongodin; W. Florian Fricke; Pawel Gajer; Jonathan Crabtree; Mohammed Sebaihia; Nicholas R. Thomson; Roy Chaudhuri; Ian R. Henderson; Vanessa Sperandio; Jacques Ravel

    2008-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing has been skewed toward bacterial pathogens as a consequence of the prioritiza- tion of medical and veterinary diseases. However, it is becoming clear that in order to accurately measure genetic variation within and between pathogenic groups, multiple isolates, as well as commensal species, must be sequenced. This study examined the pangenomic content of Escherichia coli. Six distinct E.

  15. Biomolecular Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl), pellicle Formation (Pel) and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides) that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation. PMID:25438014

  16. Biomolecular Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl), pellicle Formation (Pel) and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides) that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation. PMID:25438014

  17. The influence of antibiotic resistance gene carriage on biofilm formation by two Escherichia coli strains associated with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Teh, Amy Huei Teen; Wang, Yi; Dykes, Gary A

    2014-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli are one of the most common forms of human disease. In this study, the effect of the presence of newly acquired antibiotic resistance genes on biofilm formation of UTI-associated E. coli strains was examined. Two clinical UTI-associated E. coli strains (SMC18 and SMC20) carrying different combinations of virulence genes were transformed with pGEM-T, pGEM-T::Km?Amp, or pGEM-T::Km to construct ampicillin-resistant (Km(S)Amp(R)), kanamycin-resistant (Km(R)Amp(S)), or ampicillin- and kanamycin-resistant (Km(R)Amp(R)) strains. Transformed and wild-type strains were characterized for biofilm formation, bacterial surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, morphology, and attachment to abiotic surfaces. Transformation with a plasmid carrying an ampicillin resistance gene alone decreased (p < 0.05) biofilm formation by SMC18 (8 virulence marker genes) but increased (p < 0.05) biofilm formation by SMC20 (5 virulence marker genes). On the other hand, transformation with a plasmid carrying a kanamycin resistance gene alone or both ampicillin and kanamycin resistance genes resulted in a decrease (p < 0.05) in biofilm formation by SMC18 but did not affect (p > 0.05) the biofilm formation by SMC20. Our results suggest that transformation of UTI-associated E. coli with plasmids carrying different antibiotic resistance gene(s) had a significant impact on biofilm formation and that these effects were both strain dependent and varied between different antibiotics. PMID:24498987

  18. Survival of Escherichia coli on strawberries grown under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Angela Laury; Svoboda, Amanda; Jie, Beatrice; Nonnecke, Gail; Mendonca, Aubrey

    2015-04-01

    Strawberries are soft fruit that are not recommended to have a post-harvest wash due to quality concerns. Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been linked to outbreaks with strawberries but little is known about the survival of E. coli during the growth cycle of strawberries. The survival of E. coli on strawberry plants during growing under greenhouses conditions was evaluated. Soil, leaves, and strawberries (if present) were artificially contaminated with an E. coli surrogate either at the time of planting, first runner removal (4 wk), second runner removal (8 wk), or one week prior to harvest. At harvest E. coli was recovered from the leaves, soil, and strawberries regardless of the contamination time. Time of contamination influenced (P < 0.05) numbers of viable E. coli on the plant. The highest survival of E. coli (P < 0.0001) was detected in soil that was contaminated at planting (4.27 log10 CFU g soil(-1)), whereas, the survival of E. coli was maximal at later contamination times (8 wk and 1 wk prior to harvest) for the leaves (4.40 and 4.68 log10 CFU g leaves(-1)) and strawberries (3.37 and 3.53 log10 CFU strawberry(-1)). Cross contamination from leaves to fruit was observed during this study, with the presence of E. coli on strawberries which had not been present at the time of contamination. These results indicate that good agricultural best practices to avoid contamination are necessary to minimize the risk of contamination of these popular fruit with enteric pathogens. Practices should include soil testing prior to harvest and avoiding contamination of the leaves. PMID:25475285

  19. Shear alters motility of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaei, Mehdi; Jalali, Maryam; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Understanding of locomotion of microorganisms in shear flows drew a wide range of interests in microbial related topics such as biological process including pathogenic infection and biophysical interactions like biofilm formation on engineering surfaces. We employed microfluidics and digital holography microscopy to study motility of E. coli in shear flows. We controlled the shear flow in three different shear rates: 0.28 s-1, 2.8 s-1, and 28 s-1 in a straight channel with the depth of 200 ?m. Magnified holograms, recorded at 15 fps with a CCD camera over more than 20 minutes, are analyzed to obtain 3D swimming trajectories and subsequently used to extract shear responses of E.coli. Thousands of 3-D bacterial trajectories are tracked. The change of bacteria swimming characteristics including swimming velocity, reorientation, and dispersion coefficient are computed directly for individual trajectory and ensemble averaged over thousands of realizations. The results show that shear suppresses the bacterial dispersions in bulk but promote dispersions near the surface contrary to those in quiescent flow condition. Ongoing analyses are focusing to quantify effect of shear rates on tumbling frequency and reorientation of cell body, and its implication in locating the hydrodynamic mechanisms for shear enhanced angular scattering. Understanding of locomotion of microorganisms in shear flows drew a wide range of interests in microbial related topics such as biological process including pathogenic infection and biophysical interactions like biofilm formation on engineering surfaces. We employed microfluidics and digital holography microscopy to study motility of E. coli in shear flows. We controlled the shear flow in three different shear rates: 0.28 s-1, 2.8 s-1, and 28 s-1 in a straight channel with the depth of 200 ?m. Magnified holograms, recorded at 15 fps with a CCD camera over more than 20 minutes, are analyzed to obtain 3D swimming trajectories and subsequently used to extract shear responses of E.coli. Thousands of 3-D bacterial trajectories are tracked. The change of bacteria swimming characteristics including swimming velocity, reorientation, and dispersion coefficient are computed directly for individual trajectory and ensemble averaged over thousands of realizations. The results show that shear suppresses the bacterial dispersions in bulk but promote dispersions near the surface contrary to those in quiescent flow condition. Ongoing analyses are focusing to quantify effect of shear rates on tumbling frequency and reorientation of cell body, and its implication in locating the hydrodynamic mechanisms for shear enhanced angular scattering. NIH, NSF, GoMRI.

  20. Direct transmission of Escherichia coli from poultry to humans.

    PubMed Central

    Ojeniyi, A. A.

    1989-01-01

    Eight hundred and sixty-four Escherichia coli isolates from workers at the University of Ibadan Teaching and Research Poultry Farm, and 216 isolates from poultry attendants at a commercial poultry farm in the city were found to be resistant to streptomycin, sulphafurazole and tetracycline. In contrast, all 576 and 288 E. coli isolates from village fowls and from villagers respectively were sensitive to these drugs. Isolates from birds in a modern university poultry unit (3744) exhibited the same resistance patterns as those isolated from workers who were in direct contact with the birds. No nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli was isolated from farm workers prior to their assignment to the experimental pen. Following experimental oral infection of birds with E. coli K12 J5 NA+ Lac-, the organism was recovered from the workers who manned the experimental pen. Neither before nor after the experimental infection was any nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli isolated from workers who manned the pen from which birds used in the experiment were selected. Similarly, no drug resistant organisms were isolated from workers outside the poultry unit of the university or commercial farm. The MIC of the drugs against the avian and human E. coli isolates at the university and commercial poultry farms were similar. PMID:2691268

  1. Preharvest control of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle.

    PubMed

    LeJeune, J T; Wetzel, A N

    2007-03-01

    Bovine manure is an important source of Escherichia coli O157 contamination of the environment and foods; therefore, effective interventions targeted at reducing the prevalence and magnitude of fecal E. coli O157 excretion by live cattle (preharvest) are desirable. Preharvest intervention methods can be grouped into 3 categories: 1) exposure reduction strategies, 2) exclusion strategies, and 3) direct antipathogen strategies. Exposure reduction involves environmental management targeted at reducing bovine exposure to E. coli O157 through biosecurity and environmental niche management such as feed and drinking water hygiene, reduced exposure to insects or wildlife, and improved cleanliness of the bedding or pen floor. In the category of exclusion, we group vaccination and dietary modifications such as selection of specific feed components; feeding of prebiotics, probiotics, or both; and supplementation with competitive exclusion cultures to limit proliferation of E. coli O157 in or on exposed animals. Direct antipathogen strategies include treatment with sodium chlorate, antibiotics, bacteriophages, in addition to washing of animals before slaughter. Presently, only 1 preharvest control for E. coli O157 in cattle has been effective and has gained widespread adoption-the feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus. More research into the effectiveness of parallel and simultaneous application of 1 or more preharvest control strategies, as well as the identification of new pre-harvest control methods, may provide practical means to substantially reduce the incidence of human E. coli O157-related illness by intervening at the farm level. PMID:17145967

  2. Bacteriophage cocktail significantly reduces Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Chandi D.; Parks, Adam; Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Woolston, Joelle; Magnone, Joshua; Senecal, Andre; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Foods contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 cause more than 63,000 foodborne illnesses in the United States every year, resulting in a significant economic impact on medical costs and product liabilities. Efforts to reduce contamination with E. coli O157:H7 have largely focused on washing, application of various antibacterial chemicals, and gamma-irradiation, each of which has practical and environmental drawbacks. A relatively recent, environmentally-friendly approach proposed for eliminating or significantly reducing E. coli O157:H7 contamination of foods is the use of lytic bacteriophages as biocontrol agents. We found that EcoShield™, a commercially available preparation composed of three lytic bacteriophages specific for E. coli O157:H7, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the levels of the bacterium in experimentally contaminated beef by ? 94% and in lettuce by 87% after a five minute contact time. The reduced levels of bacteria were maintained for at least one week at refrigerated temperatures. However, the one-time application of EcoShield™ did not protect the foods from recontamination with E. coli O157:H7. Our results demonstrate that EcoShield™ is effective in significantly reducing contamination of beef and lettuce with E. coli O157:H7, but does not protect against potential later contamination due to, for example, unsanitary handling of the foods post processing. PMID:23275869

  3. Proximity-dependent inhibition in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Ashish A; Casavant, N Carol; Call, Douglas R; Besser, Thomas E

    2011-04-01

    We describe a novel proximity-dependent inhibition phenotype of Escherichia coli that is expressed when strains are cocultured in defined minimal media. When cocultures of "inhibitor" and "target" strains approached a transition between logarithmic and stationary growth, target strain populations rapidly declined >4 log CFU per ml over a 2-h period. Inhibited strains were not affected by exposure to conditioned media from inhibitor and target strain cocultures or when the inhibitor and target strains were incubated in shared media but physically separated by a 0.4-?m-pore-size membrane. There was no evidence of lytic phage or extracellular bacteriocin involvement, unless the latter was only present at effective concentrations within immediate proximity of the inhibited cells. The inhibitory activity observed in this study was effective against a diversity of E. coli strains, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli serotype O157:H7, enterotoxigenic E. coli expressing F5 (K99) and F4 (K88) fimbriae, multidrug-resistant E. coli, and commensal E. coli. The decline in counts of target strains in coculture averaged 4.8 log CFU/ml (95% confidence interval, 4.0 to 5.5) compared to their monoculture counts. Coculture of two inhibitor strains showed mutual immunity to inhibition. These results suggest that proximity-dependent inhibition can be used by bacteria to gain a numerical advantage when populations are entering stationary phase, thus setting the stage for a competitive advantage when growth conditions improve. PMID:21296941

  4. Effect of tannins on the in viro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and in vivo growth of generic Escherichia coli excreted from steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of commercially available chestnut and mimosa tannins in vitro (experiment 1) or in vivo (experiment 2) on the growth or recovery of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or generic fecal E. coli was evaluated. In experiment 1, the mean growth rate of E. coli O157:H7, determined via the measurement o...

  5. Escherichia coli kgtP encodes an. alpha. -ketoglutarate transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Wongi; Shatkin, A.J. (Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Piscataway, NJ (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The witA gene located between pss and rrnG on the Escherichia coli chromosome encodes a 432-amino acid protein. It is homologous to a human hepatoma glucose transporter and to E. coli membrane proteins that transport citrate (CitA), arabinose (AraE), and xylose (XylE), and, like these carrier proteins, WitA also contains 12 highly hydrophobic putative membrane-spanning regions. Gene disruption mutants constructed in two E. coli strains grew slowly or not at all, depending on genetic background, in M9 minimal medium containing {alpha}-ketoglutarate and uptake of {alpha}-({sup 14}C)ketoglutarate were restored by transformation with plasmids containing witA. These complementation studies indicate that WitA is an {alpha}-ketoglutarate transporter and should be renamed kgtP({alpha}-ketoglutarate permease).

  6. Engineering Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 to use starch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To attain a sustainable bioeconomy, fuel, or valuable product, production must use biomass as substrate. Starch is one of the most abundant biomass resources and is present as waste or as a food and agroindustry by-product. Unfortunately, Escherichia coli, one of the most widely used microorganisms in biotechnological processes, cannot use starch as a carbon source. Results We engineered an E. coli strain capable of using starch as a substrate. The genetic design employed the native capability of the bacterium to use maltodextrins as a carbon source plus expression and secretion of its endogenous ?-amylase, AmyA, in an adapted background. Biomass production improved using 35% dissolved oxygen and pH 7.2 in a controlled bioreactor. Conclusion The engineered E. coli strain can use starch from the milieu and open the possibility of optimize the process to use agroindustrial wastes to produce biofuels and other valuable chemicals. PMID:24886307

  7. Production of isopropanol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    A genetically engineered strain of Escherichia coli JM109 harboring the isopropanol-producing pathway consisting of five genes encoding four enzymes, thiolase, coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, and primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii NRRL B593, produced up to 227 mM of isopropanol from glucose under aerobic fed-batch culture conditions. Acetate production by the engineered strain was approximately one sixth that produced by a control E. coli strain bearing an expression vector without the clostridial genes. These results demonstrate a functional isopropanol-producing pathway in E. coli and consequently carbon flux from acetyl-CoA directed to isopropanol instead of acetate. This is the first report on isopropanol production by genetically engineered microorganism under aerobic culture conditions. PMID:17987288

  8. Functions of the gene products of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, M

    1993-01-01

    A list of currently identified gene products of Escherichia coli is given, together with a bibliography that provides pointers to the literature on each gene product. A scheme to categorize cellular functions is used to classify the gene products of E. coli so far identified. A count shows that the numbers of genes concerned with small-molecule metabolism are on the same order as the numbers concerned with macromolecule biosynthesis and degradation. One large category is the category of tRNAs and their synthetases. Another is the category of transport elements. The categories of cell structure and cellular processes other than metabolism are smaller. Other subjects discussed are the occurrence in the E. coli genome of redundant pairs and groups of genes of identical or closely similar function, as well as variation in the degree of density of genetic information in different parts of the genome. PMID:7508076

  9. A preliminary study of Salmonella, verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli/Escherichia coli O157 and Campylobacter on four mixed farms.

    PubMed

    Bolton, D J; O'Neill, C J; Fanning, S

    2012-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence of Salmonella, verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)/Escherichia coli O157 and Campylobacter on four mixed farms and to characterize the isolates in terms of a range of virulence factors. Eighty-nine composite (five different samples from the same animal species combined) faecal [cattle (24), pigs (14), sheep (4), poultry (4), horses (7), deer (4), dogs (9), rodents (2) and wild birds (20)] samples, 16 composite soil samples plus 35 individual water samples were screened using culture-based, immunomagnetic separation and molecular methods. Salmonella was detected in bovine faeces, cattle and poultry house water. Salmonella serotypes/phage types included Dublin, Kiel and Typhimurium DT193, and most isolates were spvC, invA and rck positive. The pefA and rck genes were found exclusively in the non-Typhimurium strains, while Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Kiel strains carried Salmonella genomic island I marker(s). VTEC/E. coli O157 were found in deer and dog faeces only. The E. coli O157 isolate was an enteroinvasive E. coli, while the VTEC isolate was untypable but carried the vt1, eaeA, hlyA, tir and eptD genes. This article reports the first confirmed carriage of E. coli O157 in Irish deer. Campylobacter species were not detected over the course of this study. It was concluded that [1] Salmonella, VTEC and Campylobacter have low (<5%) prevalence or are absent on the farms in this study; [2] water was an important source of bacterial pathogens; [3] both dogs and deer may act as a source of pathogenic E. coli and [4] key virulence and resistance determinants are widespread in farm Salmonella strains. This study highlights the need to control water as a source of pathogens and suggests that the domestic pets and deer should be considered in any farm risk assessment. PMID:21951421

  10. Analysis of O-island deletions in Escherichia coli O157:H7 

    E-print Network

    Flockhart, Allen Forrest

    2012-11-30

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) are a diverse species of bacteria that reside, often harmoniously and beneficially, in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. However, some strains are associated with serious ...

  11. Assessing Avian Contribution of Escherichia coli and Nutrient Loads to Watersheds 

    E-print Network

    Telesford-Checkley, Judlyn Merium

    2014-11-19

    The impairment of waterways by pathogens as indicated by the detection of high Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels continues to be a problem in Texas. Almost half of the assessed waterbodies designated for contact recreation ...

  12. Autoinducer 2-based quorum sensing response of Escherichia coli to sub-therapeutic tetracycline exposure

    E-print Network

    Lu, Lingeng

    2006-10-30

    -therapeutic tetracycline, the expression of genes associated with the conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids, and the conjugal transfer of these plasmids in Escherichia coli. The studies showed that AI-2 activity increased in Tets E. coli in the presence...

  13. THE WIDESPREAD OCCURRENCE OF THE ENTEROHEMOLYSIN GENE EHLYA AMONG ENVIRONMENTAL STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The putative virulence factor enterohemolysin, encoded for by the ehlyA gene, has been closely associated with the pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) group. E. coli isolates from effluents from seven geographically dispersed municipal ...

  14. Exogenous carbon monoxide suppresses Escherichia coli vitality and improves survival in an Escherichia coli-induced murine sepsis model

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei-chang; Wang, Xu; Qin, Wei-ting; Qiu, Xue-feng; Sun, Bing-wei

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to modulate inflammation and inhibit cytokine production both in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine whether exogenous carbon monoxide could suppress the vitality of Escherichia coli (E coli) and improve the survival rate in an E coli-induced murine sepsis model. Methods: ICR mice were infected with E coli, and immediately injected intravenously with carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg) or inactive CORM-2 (8 mg/kg). The survival rate was monitored 6 times daily for up to 36 h. The blood samples, liver and lung tissues were collected at 6 h after the infection. Bacteria in peritoneal lavage fluid, blood and tissues were enumerated following culture. Tissue iNOS mRNA expression was detected using RT-PCR. NF-?B expression was detected with Western blotting. Results: Addition of CORM-2 (200 and 400 ?mol/L) into culture medium concentration-dependently suppressed the growth of E coli and decreased the colony numbers, but inactive CORM-2 had no effect. Treatment of the infected mice with CORM-2 significantly increased the survival rate to 55%, while all the infected mice treated with inactive CORM-2 died within 36 h. E coli infection caused severe pathological changes in liver and lungs, and significantly increased serum transaminases, lipopolysaccharide, TNF-? and IL-1? levels, as well as myeloperoxidase activity, TNF-? and IL-1? levels in the major organs. Meanwhile, E coli infection significantly increased the number of colonies and the expression of iNOS mRNA and NF-?B in the major organs. All these abnormalities were significantly attenuated by CORM-2 treatment, while inactive CORM-2 was ineffective. Conclusion: In addition directly suppressing E coli, CORM-2 protects the liver and lungs against E coli-induced sepsis in mice, thus improving their survival. PMID:25399652

  15. Escherichia coli O157 and other Shiga toxin producting E. coli: detection by immunomagnetic particle-based assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome and are important food-borne pathogens that can contaminate various types of food. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service declared E. coli O157:H7 a...

  16. Global dissemination of a multidrug resistant Escherichia coli clone

    PubMed Central

    Petty, Nicola K.; Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Stanton-Cook, Mitchell; Skippington, Elizabeth; Totsika, Makrina; Forde, Brian M.; Phan, Minh-Duy; Gomes Moriel, Danilo; Peters, Kate M.; Davies, Mark; Rogers, Benjamin A.; Dougan, Gordon; Rodriguez-Bańo, Jesús; Pascual, Alvaro; Pitout, Johann D. D.; Upton, Mathew; Paterson, David L.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Schembri, Mark A.; Beatson, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a globally disseminated, multidrug resistant (MDR) clone responsible for a high proportion of urinary tract and bloodstream infections. The rapid emergence and successful spread of E. coli ST131 is strongly associated with several factors, including resistance to fluoroquinolones, high virulence gene content, the possession of the type 1 fimbriae FimH30 allele, and the production of the CTX-M-15 extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL). Here, we used genome sequencing to examine the molecular epidemiology of a collection of E. coli ST131 strains isolated from six distinct geographical locations across the world spanning 2000–2011. The global phylogeny of E. coli ST131, determined from whole-genome sequence data, revealed a single lineage of E. coli ST131 distinct from other extraintestinal E. coli strains within the B2 phylogroup. Three closely related E. coli ST131 sublineages were identified, with little association to geographic origin. The majority of single-nucleotide variants associated with each of the sublineages were due to recombination in regions adjacent to mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The most prevalent sublineage of ST131 strains was characterized by fluoroquinolone resistance, and a distinct virulence factor and MGE profile. Four different variants of the CTX-M ESBL–resistance gene were identified in our ST131 strains, with acquisition of CTX-M-15 representing a defining feature of a discrete but geographically dispersed ST131 sublineage. This study confirms the global dispersal of a single E. coli ST131 clone and demonstrates the role of MGEs and recombination in the evolution of this important MDR pathogen. PMID:24706808

  17. Characterization of an Escherichia coli elaC deletion mutant.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Oliver; Rüggeberg, Sabrina; Vogel, Andreas; Rittner, Nicole; Weichert, Sigrid; Schmidt, Sabine; Doig, Simon; Franz, Thomas; Benes, Vladimir; Andrews, Simon C; Baum, Michael; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram

    2004-08-01

    The elaC gene of Escherichia coli encodes a binuclear zinc phosphodiesterase (ZiPD). ZiPD homologs from various species act as3' tRNA processing endoribonucleases, and although the homologous gene in Bacillus subtilis is essential for viability [EMBO J. 22(2003) 4534], the physiological function of E. coli ZiPD has remained enigmatic. In order to investigate the function of E. coli ZiPDwe generated and characterized an E. coli elaC deletion mutant. Surprisingly, the E. coli elaC deletion mutant was viable and had wild-type like growth properties. Microarray-based transcriptional analysis indicated expression of the E. coli elaC gene at basal levels during aerobic growth. The elaC gene deletion had no effect on the expression of genes coding for RNases or amino-acyl tRNA synthetases or any other gene among a total of > 1300 genes probed. 2D-PAGE analysis showed that the elaC mutation, like-wise, had no effect on the proteome. These results strengthen doubts about the involvement of E. coli ZiPD in tRNA maturation and suggest functional diversity within the ZiPD/ElaC1 protein family. In addition to these unexpected features of the E. coli elaC deletion mutant, a sequence comparison of ZiPD (ElaC1) proteins revealed specific regions for either enterobacterial or mammalian ZiPD (ElaC1) proteins. PMID:15303284

  18. Temporal Stimulation of Chemotaxis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas A.; Berg, Howard C.

    1974-01-01

    We used the tracking microscope to study the chemotactic responses of E. coli to temporal gradients of L-glutamate generated in isotropic solutions by the action of the enzyme alanine aminotransferase. Positive gradients suppress directional changes which occur spontaneously in the absence of a stimulus. Negative gradients have little effect. The data can be fit with a model in which the suppression is proportional to the time rate of change of the fractional amount of chemoreceptor bound. The model accounts for the behavior of individual cells and populations of cells in spatial gradients. A computer simulation of the motion in spatial gradients indicates that if the bacteria have a “memory,” its decay time cannot be much longer than a few seconds. The relationship between the responses observed in these experiments and in experiments in which solutions of an attractant at different concentrations are mixed is discussed. PMID:4598304

  19. Preparation of Soluble Proteins from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Purification of human IL-1? is used in this unit as an example of the preparation of a soluble protein from E. coli. Bacteria containing IL-1? are lysed, and IL-1 ? in the resulting supernatant is purified by anion-exchange chromatography, salt precipitation, and cation-exchange chromatography, and then concentrated. Finally, the IL-1 ? protein is applied to a gel-filtration column to separate it from remaining higher- and lower-molecular-weight contaminants, the purified protein is stored frozen or is lyophilized. The purification protocol described is typical for a protein that is expressed in fairly high abundance (i.e., >5% total protein) and accumulates in a soluble state. In addition, the purification procedure serves as an example of how to use classical protein purifications methods, which may also be used in conjunction with the affinity-based methods now more commonly used. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25367009

  20. Analyzing the Escherichia coli Gene Expression Data by a Multilayer Adjusted Tree Organizing Map

    E-print Network

    Gruenwald, Le

    on biological data, none of them has examined the Escherichia coli (E. coli) gene expression data. This paper using the E. coli gene expression data, and a new evaluation method to assess them. The results show on clustering the E. coli gene expression data in order to identify unknown genes involved in the Acid Tolerance

  1. Extensive segments of the Escherichia coli K12 chromosome in Proteus mirabilis diploids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Wohlhieter; P. Gemski; L. S. Baron

    1975-01-01

    Various Escherichia coli K12 Hfr donors transfer at low frequency portions of the E. coli genome to Proteus mirabilis. By remating such Proteus hybrids with the same or a different E. coli Hfr strain, other genetic characters could be added to yield diploid Proteus hybrids which contained more than 30% of the E. coli genome. The extent of the E.

  2. Environmental Escherichia coli occur as natural plant growth-promoting soil bacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal; Ateequr Rehman; Puneet Singh Chauhan

    2010-01-01

    Currently, it is presumed that Escherichia coli is not a normal inhabitant of the soil. Soilborne E. coli strains were isolated from broad range of 7 geoclimatic zones of India, indicating that E. coli can survive and thrive under different extreme soil conditions. Diversity among E. coli strains from widely separated geographic regions using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR did

  3. Closely related strains of Escherichia coli have been shown to cause extraintestinal infections in unrelated per-

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    or foodborne transmission in the dissemination of E. coli causing common community-acquired UTIs. Extraintestinal infections caused by Escherichia coli cause serious illness and death. Every year, 6­8 mil- lion related E. coli strains. If there is a food animal reser- voir for extraintestinal E. coli, then the use

  4. Attachment of Escherichia coli and enterococci to particles in runoff.

    PubMed

    Soupir, Michelle L; Mostaghimi, Saied; Dillaha, Theo

    2010-01-01

    Association of Escherichia coli and enterococci with particulates present in runoff from erodible soils has important implications for modeling the fate and transport of bacteria from agricultural sources and in the selection of management practices to reduce bacterial movement to surface waters. Three soils with different textures were collected from the Ap horizon (silty loam, silty clay loam, and loamy fine sand), placed in portable box plots, treated with standard cowpats, and placed under a rainfall simulator. Rainfall was applied to the plots until saturation-excess flow occurred for 30 min, and samples were collected 10, 20, and 30 min after initiation of the runoff event. The attachment of E. coli and enterococci to particles present in runoff was determined by a screen filtration and centrifugation procedure. Percentage of E. coli and enterococci attached to particulates in runoff ranged from 28 to 49%, with few statistically significant differences in attachment among the three soils. Similar partitioning release patterns were observed between E. coli and enterococci from the silty loam (r = 0.57) and silty clay loam soils (r = 0.60). At least 60% of all attached E. coli and enterococci were associated particles within an 8- to 62-microm particle size category. The results indicate that the majority of fecal bacteria attach to and are transported with manure colloids in sediment-laden flow regardless of the soil texture. PMID:20400597

  5. Nonthermal atmospheric argon plasma jet effects on Escherichia coli biomacromolecules.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt; Memariani, Hamed; Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Valinataj Omran, Azadeh

    2013-12-01

    Nonthermal atmospheric plasma jet, a promising technology based on ionized gas at low temperatures, can be applied for disinfection of contaminated surfaces. In this study, Escherichia coli cells and their macromolecules were exposed to the nonthermal atmospheric argon plasma jet for different time durations. Total protein, genomic DNA, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of E. coli were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining; agarose gel electrophoresis; and measurement of absorbance at 534 nm, respectively. After exposure, the spectroscopic results of liquid samples indicated that the survival reduction of E. coli can reach to 100 % in an exposure time of 600 s. Moreover, inactivation zones of E. coli, DNA degradation, and MDA levels were significantly increased. Additionally, banding patterns of total protein were changed and amino acid concentrations increased following ninhydrin test. The experimental results suggest that the nonthermal plasma could serve as an effective instrument for both sterilizing E. coli and degrading macromolecules from the surface of the objects being sterilized. PMID:23982422

  6. The Escherichia coli Proteome: Past, Present, and Future Prospects†

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mee-Jung; Lee, Sang Yup

    2006-01-01

    Proteomics has emerged as an indispensable methodology for large-scale protein analysis in functional genomics. The Escherichia coli proteome has been extensively studied and is well defined in terms of biochemical, biological, and biotechnological data. Even before the entire E. coli proteome was fully elucidated, the largest available data set had been integrated to decipher regulatory circuits and metabolic pathways, providing valuable insights into global cellular physiology and the development of metabolic and cellular engineering strategies. With the recent advent of advanced proteomic technologies, the E. coli proteome has been used for the validation of new technologies and methodologies such as sample prefractionation, protein enrichment, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, protein detection, mass spectrometry (MS), combinatorial assays with n-dimensional chromatographies and MS, and image analysis software. These important technologies will not only provide a great amount of additional information on the E. coli proteome but also synergistically contribute to other proteomic studies. Here, we review the past development and current status of E. coli proteome research in terms of its biological, biotechnological, and methodological significance and suggest future prospects. PMID:16760308

  7. Escherichia coli ST131, an Intriguing Clonal Group

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Xavier; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2008, a previously unknown Escherichia coli clonal group, sequence type 131 (ST131), was identified on three continents. Today, ST131 is the predominant E. coli lineage among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolates worldwide. Retrospective studies have suggested that it may originally have risen to prominence as early as 2003. Unlike other classical group B2 ExPEC isolates, ST131 isolates are commonly reported to produce extended-spectrum ?-lactamases, such as CTX-M-15, and almost all are resistant to fluoroquinolones. Moreover, ST131 E. coli isolates are considered to be truly pathogenic, due to the spectrum of infections they cause in both community and hospital settings and the large number of virulence-associated genes they contain. ST131 isolates therefore seem to contradict the widely held view that high levels of antimicrobial resistance are necessarily associated with a fitness cost leading to a decrease in pathogenesis. Six years after the first description of E. coli ST131, this review outlines the principal traits of ST131 clonal group isolates, based on the growing body of published data, and highlights what is currently known and what we need to find out to provide public health authorities with better information to help combat ST131. PMID:24982321

  8. Recent Advances in Understanding Enteric Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Croxen, Matthew A.; Law, Robyn J.; Scholz, Roland; Keeney, Kristie M.; Wlodarska, Marta

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Although Escherichia coli can be an innocuous resident of the gastrointestinal tract, it also has the pathogenic capacity to cause significant diarrheal and extraintestinal diseases. Pathogenic variants of E. coli (pathovars or pathotypes) cause much morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consequently, pathogenic E. coli is widely studied in humans, animals, food, and the environment. While there are many common features that these pathotypes employ to colonize the intestinal mucosa and cause disease, the course, onset, and complications vary significantly. Outbreaks are common in developed and developing countries, and they sometimes have fatal consequences. Many of these pathotypes are a major public health concern as they have low infectious doses and are transmitted through ubiquitous mediums, including food and water. The seriousness of pathogenic E. coli is exemplified by dedicated national and international surveillance programs that monitor and track outbreaks; unfortunately, this surveillance is often lacking in developing countries. While not all pathotypes carry the same public health profile, they all carry an enormous potential to cause disease and continue to present challenges to human health. This comprehensive review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal pathotypes of E. coli. PMID:24092857

  9. Unusual "flesh-eating" strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Hila; Samra, Zmira; Paul, Michal; Madar-Shapiro, Liora; Cohen, Jonathan; Pitlik, Silvio; Bishara, Jihad

    2012-12-01

    Monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis (type II) is typically caused by group A streptococcus alone or in combination with Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli has been isolated from polymicrobial or Fournier's gangrene but has rarely been reported in monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of seven cases of monomicrobial E. coli necrotizing fasciitis and/or severe soft tissue infection diagnosed at a single institution during an 18-month period. Four isolates from three patients and two isolates from two patients with type I polymicrobial severe soft tissue infection (controls) were assayed by the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for fingerprinting and PCR amplification of primers in order to detect cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 and 2 (cnf1 and cnf2) genes. All patients had some type of immune suppression. The limb was the most commonly involved organ. In all cases, E. coli was isolated as a monomicrobial pathogen from blood, fascia, or both. All patients died during hospitalization, three within the first 48 h. The RAPD amplification assay showed a high degree of genetic diversity among the "flesh-eating" strains and controls. The cnf1 toxin gene was identified in two out of three cases, but not in the controls. cnf2 was not detected in any of the patients. E. coli may be responsible for life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis. Further research is needed to reveal relevant risk factors, reservoirs, and modes of transmission of cnf1 E. coli. PMID:23035196

  10. Blocking yersiniabactin import attenuates extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in cystitis and pyelonephritis and represents a novel target to prevent urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Brumbaugh, Ariel R; Smith, Sara N; Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Hazen, Tracy H; Rasko, David A; Mobley, Harry L T

    2015-04-01

    The emergence and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases among common bacterial pathogens are threatening our ability to treat routine hospital- and community-acquired infections. With the pipeline for new antibiotics virtually empty, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics. Bacteria require iron to establish infection, and specialized pathogen-associated iron acquisition systems like yersiniabactin, common among pathogenic species in the family Enterobacteriaceae, including multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and pathogenic Escherichia coli, represent potentially novel therapeutic targets. Although the yersiniabactin system was recently identified as a vaccine target for uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC)-mediated urinary tract infection (UTI), its contribution to UPEC pathogenesis is unknown. Using an E. coli mutant (strain 536?fyuA) unable to acquire yersiniabactin during infection, we established the yersiniabactin receptor as a UPEC virulence factor during cystitis and pyelonephritis, a fitness factor during bacteremia, and a surface-accessible target of the experimental FyuA vaccine. In addition, we determined through transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of RNA from E. coli causing cystitis in women that iron acquisition systems, including the yersiniabactin system, are highly expressed by bacteria during natural uncomplicated UTI. Given that yersiniabactin contributes to the virulence of several pathogenic species in the family Enterobacteriaceae, including UPEC, and is frequently associated with multidrug-resistant strains, it represents a promising novel target to combat antibiotic-resistant infections. PMID:25624354

  11. Selection of Escherichia coli expression systems.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; Payton, M

    2001-05-01

    This unit lists the most useful expression strains of E. coli for fermentation processes. Standard procedures are provided for several expression systems, namely, temperature induction via the p(L) promoter and chemical induction via the trp promoter, lac or tac promoters, and the T7 promoter. These protocols require that the gene encoding the protein of interest has been identified and cloned into an appropriate expression vector using standard molecular biology techniques. Transformation of a suitable host strain (e.g., by electroporation) is also described and is a prerequisite. Protocols for the analysis of plasmid stability and subsequent storage are provided. Support protocols describe how to prepare samples for electrophoresis, how to analyze the solubility of the expressed proteins, and how to make samples of periplasmic extracts and extracellular media (using TCA precipitation). Many of the support protocols are small-scale analysis procedures that are used to guide subsequent purification strategies and determine the suitability of the expression system for further development and scale-up. PMID:18429183

  12. Widespread antibiotic resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella species

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghabadi, Azam Fatahi; Ajami, Ali; Fadaei, Reza; Zandieh, Masoud; Heidari, Elham; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Ataei, Behrooz; Hoseini, Shervin Ghaffari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance of enteric pathogens particularly Shigella species, is a critical world-wide problem and monitoring their resistant pattern is essential, because the choice of antibiotics is absolutely dependent on regional antibiotic susceptibility patterns. During summer 2013, an unusual increase in number of diarrheal diseases was noticed in Isfahan, a central province of Iran. Therefore, the antibiotic resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella species isolated were evaluated. Materials and Methods: According to the guideline on National Surveillance System for Foodborn Diseases, random samples from patients with acute diarrhea were examined in local laboratories of health centers and samples suspicious of Shigella spp. were further assessed in referral laboratory. Isolated pathogens were identified by standard biochemical and serologic tests and antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out by disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 1086 specimens were obtained and 58 samples suspicious of Shigella were specifically evaluated. The most prevalent isolated pathogen was Shigella sonnei (26/58) followed by E. coli (25/58) and Shigella flexneri (3/58). A large number of isolated bacteria were resistant to co-trimoxazole (Shigella spp: 100%, E. coli: 80%), azithromycin (Shigella spp: 70.4%, E. coli: 44.0%), ceftriaxone (Shigella spp: 88.9%, E. coli: 56.0%) and cefixime (Shigella spp: 85.2%, E. coli: 68.0%). About88.3% of S. sonnei isolates, one S. flexneri isolate, and 56% of E. coli strains were resistant to at least three antibiotic classes (multidrug resistant). Conclusion: Due to high levels of resistance to recommended and commonly used antibiotics for diarrhea, continuous monitoring of antibiotic resistance seems essential for determining best options of empirical therapy. PMID:25002896

  13. coliBASE: an online database for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Khan, Arshad M.; Pallen, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    We have constructed coliBASE, a database for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella comparative genomics available online at http://colibase.bham.ac.uk. Unlike other E.coli databases, which focus on the laboratory model strain K12, coliBASE is intended to reflect the full diversity of E.coli and its relatives. The database contains comparative data including whole genome alignments and lists of putative orthologous genes, together with numerous analytical tools and links to existing online resources. The data are stored in a relational database, accessible by a number of user-friendly search methods and graphical browsers. The database schema is generic and can easily be applied to other bacterial genomes. Two such databases, CampyDB (for the analysis of Campylobacter spp.) and ClostriDB (for Clostridium spp.) are also available at http://campy.bham.ac.uk and http://clostri.bham.ac.uk, respectively. An example of the power of E.coli comparative analyses such as those available through coliBASE is presented. PMID:14681417

  14. Studies on the Chick-lethal Toxin of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Truscott, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    A toxin which is lethal for two week old chicks has been recovered from strains of Escherichia coli O78:K80 of bovine and avian origin and from avian isolates of serogroups O2, O45 and O109. The toxin is heat-labile, antigenic, high in protein, inactivated by pronase, trypsin, amylase, and pancreatic lipase. The toxin may be precipitated by ammonium sulfate or TCA treatment from the supernatant obtained by repeated centrifugation of sonicated cells. Considerable purification has been obtained by column chromatography using Sepharose 6B. PMID:4270809

  15. Ribosomal crystalline arrays of large subunits from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Clark, M W; Leonard, K; Lake, J A

    1982-05-28

    Crystalline sheets of the 50S ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli have been formed in vitro. Electron micrographs of these arrays diffract to 35-angstrom resolution. The lattice parameters of the crystals are a = 330 +/- 20 angstroms, b = 330 +/- 30 angstroms, and alpha = 123 degrees +/- 5 degrees, and the space group is most likely p21. These arrays of ribosomal subunits are sufficiently ordered to resolve such known features of the large ribosomal subunit as the L7/L12 stalk and the central protuberance. PMID:7043735

  16. Biochemical and cultural characteristics of invasive Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R M; Toledo, M R; Trabulsi, L R

    1980-01-01

    The biochemical characteristics of 97 invasive Escherichia coli strains of different O serogroups were studied. Considered as a group, the behavior of the strains was quite variable. However, none of them decarboxylated lysine and all but seven strains, belonging to the O124 serogroup, were nonmotile. The growth of 25 strains obtained on MacConkey, salmonella-shigella, xylose-lysine-desoxycholate, and Hektoen enteric agars was compared. MacConkey and Hektoen enteric agars yielded the highest average growth for these strains, whereas salmonella-shigella agar had the lowest average counts. PMID:6991526

  17. L Tyrosine production by deregulated strains of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina Lütke-Eversloh; Gregory Stephanopoulos

    2007-01-01

    The excretion of the aromatic amino acid l-tyrosine was achieved by manipulating three gene targets in the wild-type Escherichia coli K12: The feedback-inhibition-resistant (fbr) derivatives of aroG and tyrA were expressed on a low-copy-number vector, and the TyrR-mediated regulation of the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis was\\u000a eliminated by deleting the tyrR gene. The generation of this l-tyrosine producer, strain T1,

  18. Multiple defects in Escherichia coli mutants lacking HU protein.

    PubMed Central

    Huisman, O; Faelen, M; Girard, D; Jaffé, A; Toussaint, A; Rouvičre-Yaniv, J

    1989-01-01

    The HU protein isolated from Escherichia coli, composed of two partially homologous subunits, alpha and beta, shares some of the properties of eucaryotic histones and is a major constituent of the bacterial nucleoid. We report here the construction of double mutants totally lacking both subunits of HU protein. These mutants exhibited poor growth and a perturbation of cell division, resulting in the formation of anucleate cells. In the absence of HU, phage Mu was unable to grow, to lysogenize, or to carry out transposition. Images PMID:2544551

  19. Genome-scale genetic engineering in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jaehwan; Cho, Namjin; Jung, Daehee; Bang, Duhee

    2013-11-01

    Genome engineering has been developed to create useful strains for biological studies and industrial uses. However, a continuous challenge remained in the field: technical limitations in high-throughput screening and precise manipulation of strains. Today, technical improvements have made genome engineering more rapid and efficient. This review introduces recent advances in genome engineering technologies applied to Escherichia coli as well as multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE), a recent technique proposed as a powerful toolkit due to its straightforward process, rapid experimental procedures, and highly efficient properties. PMID:23624241

  20. Crystal structure of GnsA from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yong; Zhan, Lihong; Gao, Zengqiang; Privé, Gilbert G; Dong, Yuhui

    2015-06-19

    Escherichia Coli GnsA is a regulator of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis and functions as a suppressor of both a secG null mutation and fabA6 mutations. GnsA may also be a toxin with the cognate antitoxin YmcE. Here we report the crystal structure of GnsA to 1.8 Ĺ. GnsA forms a V shaped hairpin structure that is tightly associated into a homodimer. Our comprehensive structural study suggests that GnsA is structurally similar to an outer membrane protein, suggesting a function of protein binding. PMID:25839658

  1. Molecular Evolution of the Escherichia Coli Chromosome. III. Clonal Frames

    PubMed Central

    Milkman, R.; Bridges, M. M.

    1990-01-01

    PCR fragments, 1500-bp, from 15 previously sequenced regions in the Escherichia coli chromosome have been compared by restriction analysis in a large set of wild (ECOR) strains. Prior published observations of segmental clonality are confirmed: each of several sequence types is shared by a number of strains. The rate of recombinational replacement and the average size of the replacements are estimated in a set of closely related strains in which a clonal frame is dotted with occasional stretches of DNA belonging to other clones. A clonal hierarchy is described. Some new comparative sequencing data are presented. PMID:1979037

  2. [Hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Cristina; Goldstein, Jorge; Silberstein, Claudia; Zotta, Elsa; Belardo, Marcela; Repetto, Horacio A

    2008-10-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, plaquetopenia and kidney damage. It is the leading cause of acute renal failure in pediatric age and the second for chronic renal failure. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is the first etiologic agent of HUS being its main reservoir cattle and transmitted via contaminated food. At present, there is no specific treatment to reduce the progression of HUS. The study of the mechanisms by which STEC infects and Shiga toxin induces HUS can help to find new strategies to prevent this disease. PMID:19030644

  3. Genetic characterization of moaB mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kozmin, Stanislav G; Schaaper, Roel M

    2013-09-01

    The moaABCDE operon of Escherichia coli encodes enzymes essential for the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco). However, the role of the moaB gene within this operon has remained enigmatic. Here, we have investigated the effect of moaB defects on two phenotypes diagnostic for Moco-deficiency: chlorate-resistance and sensitivity to the base analog 6-N-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP). We found that transposon insertions in moaB caused partial Moco-deficiency associated with chlorate-resistance, but not for HAP-sensitivity. On the other hand, in-frame deletions of moaB, or moaB overexpression, had no effect on either phenotype. Our combined data are consistent with the lack of any role for MoaB in Moco biosynthesis in E. coli. PMID:23680484

  4. Global Analysis of Extracytoplasmic Stress Signaling in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bury-Moné, Stéphanie; Nomane, Yanoura; Reymond, Nancie; Barbet, Romain; Jacquet, Eric; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Jacq, Annick; Bouloc, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The Bae, Cpx, Psp, Rcs, and ?E pathways constitute the Escherichia coli signaling systems that detect and respond to alterations of the bacterial envelope. Contributions of these systems to stress response have previously been examined individually; however, the possible interconnections between these pathways are unknown. Here we investigate the dynamics between the five stress response pathways by determining the specificities of each system with respect to signal-inducing conditions, and monitoring global transcriptional changes in response to transient overexpression of each of the effectors. Our studies show that different extracytoplasmic stress conditions elicit a combined response of these pathways. Involvement of the five pathways in the various tested stress conditions is explained by our unexpected finding that transcriptional responses induced by the individual systems show little overlap. The extracytoplasmic stress signaling pathways in E. coli thus regulate mainly complementary functions whose discrete contributions are integrated to mount the full adaptive response. PMID:19763168

  5. Stringent control of peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, E E; Ramey, W D

    1976-01-01

    [3H]Diaminopimelic acid (Dap) was incorporated exclusively into peptidoglycan by Escherichia coli strains auxotrophic for both lysine and Dap. The rate of [3H]Dap incorporation by stringent (rel+) strains was significantly decreased when cells were deprived of required amino acids. The addition of chloramphenicol to amino acid-starved rel+ cultured stimulated both peptidoglycan and ribonucleic acid synthesis. In contrast, a relaxed (relA) derivative incorporated [3H]Dap at comparable rates in the presence or absence of required amino acids. Physiologically significant concentrations of guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) inhibited the in vitro synthesis of both carrier lipid-linked intermediate and peptidoglycan catalyzed by a particulate enzyme system. The degree of inhibition was dependent on the concentration of ppGpp in the reaction mixture. Thus, the results of in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that peptidoglycan synthesis is stringently controlled in E. coli. PMID:783130

  6. Biocatalytically active silCoat-composites entrapping viable Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, A; Thum, O; Ansorge-Schumacher, M B

    2014-02-01

    Application of whole cells in industrial processes requires high catalytic activity, manageability, and viability under technical conditions, which can in principle be accomplished by appropriate immobilization. Here, we report the identification of carrier material allowing exceptionally efficient adsorptive binding of Escherichia coli whole cells hosting catalytically active carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR2). With the immobilizates, composite formation with both hydrophobic and hydrophilized silicone was achieved, yielding advanced silCoat-material and HYsilCoat-material, respectively. HYsilCoat-whole cells were viable preparations with a cell loading up to 400 mg(E. coli)?·?g(-1)(carrier) and considerably lower leaching than native immobilizates. SilCoat-whole cells performed particularly well in neat substrate exhibiting distinctly increased catalytic activity. PMID:24257838

  7. Splenic abscess: Plasmodium vivax with secondary Escherichia coli infection.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Laxmikant Ramkumarsingh; Rajendran, Ranjith; Pandey, Santosh Kumar; Aggarwal, Amitesh

    2015-04-01

    Splenic abscess is a rare clinical entity as described in literature. The incidence is in the range of 0.14-0.7% and it has a high mortality rate. Hence, it is important to know its clinical presentation and complications, so that it can be treated early. We report a 40-year-old diabetic man who presented with fever with chills and rigor for the last 9 days and heaviness in the left hypochondrium for the last 6 days. He was initially diagnosed as having splenomegaly due to Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax), but was later found to have a splenic abscess due to Escherichia coli (E. coli). This was successfully managed by catheter drainage (CD) and antibiotic treatment. PMID:25505193

  8. Chelocardin-Inducible Resistance in Escherichia coli Bearing R Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Chabbert, Yves A.; Scavizzi, Maurice R.

    1976-01-01

    Two plasmid-linked tetracycline resistance characters, tet A and tet B, were distinguishable in part, according to the level of resistance they conferred to minocycline (<3 ?g/ml for tet A; >6 ?g/ml for tet B). Escherichia coli K-12 strains that harbored the tet B character were also resistant to tetracycline but susceptible to chelocardin. In such tet B strains, subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline could induce resistance to chelocardin as well as to otherwise inhibitory concentrations of tetracyclines. Chelocardin itself was ineffective as an inducer and therefore could be used to select constitutively resistant mutants. E. coli K-12 strains harboring the tet A character were also resistant to tetracycline and susceptible to chelocardin; tetracycline did not induce resistance to chelocardin in these strains. Images PMID:769671

  9. Escherichia coli and Community-acquired Gastroenteritis, Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bordun, Anne-Marie; Tauschek, Marija; Bennett-Wood, Vicki R.; Russell, Jacinta; Oppedisano, Frances; Lister, Nicole A.; Bettelheim, Karl A.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Sinclair, Martha I.; Hellard, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a study to determine the effects of water filtration on the incidence of community-acquired gastroenteritis in Melbourne, Australia, we examined fecal samples from patients with gastroenteritis and asymptomatic persons for diarrheagenic strains of Escherichia coli. Atypical strains of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) were the most frequently identified pathogens of all bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents in patients with gastroenteritis. Moreover, atypical EPEC were more common in patients with gastroenteritis (89 [12.8%] of 696) than in asymptomatic persons (11 [2.3%] of 489, p < 0.0001). Twenty-two random isolates of atypical EPEC that were characterized further showed marked heterogeneity in terms of serotype, genetic subtype, and carriage of virulence-associated determinants. Apart from the surface protein, intimin, no virulence determinant or phenotype was uniformly present in atypical EPEC strains. This study shows that atypical EPEC are an important cause of gastroenteritis in Melbourne. PMID:15504266

  10. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection and Prolonged Diarrhea in Children

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Rang N.; Taylor, Louise S.; Tauschek, Marija

    2006-01-01

    Some clinical isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) lack bundle-forming pili and are termed atypical EPEC. The aim of this study was to determine if atypical EPEC are pathogens by comparing the clinical features of patients infected with atypical EPEC with those of children infected with other causative agents of diarrhea. Fecal samples obtained from children attending the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne for investigation of diarrhea were examined for adenovirus, rotavirus, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., protozoa, and pathogenic E. coli. Clinical data were obtained by using a standardized pro forma and analyzed separately. Patients infected with atypical EPEC experienced mild, nondehydrating, and noninflammatory diarrhea that was not particularly associated with fever, vomiting, or abdominal pain. However, the duration of diarrhea in patients infected with atypical EPEC was significantly longer than that caused by the other species or where no pathogens were identified. Infection with atypical EPEC is associated with prolonged diarrhea. PMID:16704807

  11. Escherichia coli response to exogenous pyrophosphate and analogs.

    PubMed

    Biville, Francis; Oshima, Taku; Mori, Hirotada; Kawagoe, Yuya; Bouvet, Odile; Rager, Marie-Noëlle; Perrotte-Piquemal, Marina; Danchin, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    The addition of exogenous pyrophosphate increases the growth yield and cAMP synthesis in stationary phase when Escherichia coli is grown in minimal medium. Pyrophosphate increases the yield by altering the enterobactin uptake system. We studied the physiological effects and examined how the E. coli transcriptome was modified when two structural analogs of pyrophosphate were added to the growth medium. Methylenediphosphonic acid or a high concentration of iron had the same positive effects as pyrophosphate on growth yield, cAMP synthesis and the repression of Fur-regulated genes. In contrast, imidodiphosphate did not affect these cellular processes significantly. The transcriptome modifications generated by pyrophosphate or methylenediphosphonic acid were more similar than those generated by imidodiphosphate or excess iron. The transcriptome data also indicated that processes other than iron uptake might be involved in the cellular response to exogenous pyrophosphate or methylenediphosphonic acid. PMID:12673060

  12. Mounting of Escherichia coli spheroplasts for AFM imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Claretta J [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; Allison, David P [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

    2005-11-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the location of numerous, chemically specific transporters and recognition elements. Investigation of this membrane in vivo by atomic force microscopy (AFM) requires removal of the cell wall and stable immobilization of the spheroplast. AFM images demonstrate that spheroplasts can be secured with warm gelatin applied to the mica substrate just before the addition of a spheroplast suspension. The resulting preparation can be repeatedly imaged by AFM over the course of several hours. Confocal fluorescence imaging confirms the association of the spheroplasts with the gelatin layer. Gelatin molecules are known to reorder into a network after heating. Entrapment within this gelatin network is believed to be responsible for the immobilization of spheroplasts on mica.

  13. Engineered polyketide biosynthesis and biocatalysis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xue; Wang, Peng

    2010-01-01

    Polyketides are important bioactive natural products biosynthesized by bacteria, fungi, and plants. The enzymes that synthesize polyketides are collectively referred to as polyketide synthases (PKSs). Because many of the natural hosts that produce polyketides are difficult to culture or manipulate, establishing a universal heterologous host that is genetically tractable has become an important goal toward the engineered biosynthesis of polyketides and analogues. Here, we summarize the recent progresses in engineering Escherichia coli as a heterologous host for reconstituting PKSs of different types. Our increased understanding of PKS enzymology and structural biology, combined with new tools in protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology, has firmly established E. coli as a powerful host for producing polyketides. PMID:20853106

  14. Heterologous biosynthesis of costunolide in Escherichia coli and yield improvement.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hua; Zhuang, Yi-Bin; Li, E-E; Bi, Hui-Ping; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Tao

    2015-06-01

    Costunolide, the main bioactive compound of the medicinal plant, Radix Aucklandiae, is a sesquiterpene lactone (SL) and has a broad range of biological activities. It is also a precursor of many biologically-active SLs and is a branching point in the biosynthesis of SLs. Here we have reconstituted the costunolide biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli by co-expression of three genes (GAS, GAO, LsCOS) involved in costunolide biosynthesis and eight genes involved in converting acetyl-CoA into farnesyl diphosphate from mevalonate pathway. Costunolide production was then detected. By screening and optimization of cultured medium and inducing temperature, costunolide yield was up to 100 mg l(-1) in E. coli. PMID:25700819

  15. Cellulosic hydrolysate toxicity and tolerance mechanisms in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Tirzah Y; Sandoval, Nicholas R; Gill, Ryan T

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable production of biofuels will require the efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. A key barrier involves the creation of growth-inhibitory compounds by chemical pretreatment steps, which ultimately reduce the efficiency of fermentative microbial biocatalysts. The primary toxins include organic acids, furan derivatives, and phenolic compounds. Weak acids enter the cell and dissociate, resulting in a drop in intracellular pH as well as various anion-specific effects on metabolism. Furan derivatives, dehydration products of hexose and pentose sugars, have been shown to hinder fermentative enzyme function. Phenolic compounds, formed from lignin, can disrupt membranes and are hypothesized to interfere with the function of intracellular hydrophobic targets. This review covers mechanisms of toxicity and tolerance for these compounds with a specific focus on the important industrial organism Escherichia coli. Recent efforts to engineer E. coli for improved tolerance to these toxins are also discussed. PMID:19832972

  16. Expression of a proline-enriched protein in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, T.T.; Cooney, C.L.; Gomez, R.F.

    1982-03-01

    The feasibility of expressing repeated synthetic codons in bacterial cells was demonstrated by showing that repeated codons for proline were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant DNA technology was used to clone synthetic polydeoxyguanylate: polydeoxycytidylate into the PstI site of plasmid pBR322. Recombinant plasmid pGC139 was shown by means of HaeIII restriction digestion to contain approximately 41 cloned base pairs; the cloned sequence was expressed as a fusion to an ampicillinase protein. The resulting protein, enriched in proline, was expressed from plasmid in pGC139 in E. coli maxicells. Extension of this technology could lead to improvement in the production of amino acids and to nutritional enrichment of single-cell protein. (Refs. 12).

  17. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Quinol Binding Site of Escherichia coli Nitrate Reductase A*

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Quinol Binding Site of Escherichia coli Nitrate of Escherichia coli nitrate re- ductase A (NarGHI) in complex with pentachlorophenol has been determined to 2.0 Ĺ of resolution. We have shown that pentachlorophenol is a potent inhibitor of quinol:nitrate oxidoreductase

  18. Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Chickens with Colisepticemia in Tabriz Province, Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reducing the enormous losses caused by Escherichia coli infections (colibacillosis) in Iran poultry industry. In this investigation fifty avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains isolated from broiler chickens with colisepticemia and examined for susceptibility to antimicrobials of veterinary and human significance. In vitro antibiotic activities of 3 2 antibiotic substances against the

  19. Review article Escherichia coli as a pathogen in dogs and cats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Escherichia coli as a pathogen in dogs and cats Lothar Beutin Robert Koch; accepted 17December 1998) Abstraet-Certain strains of Escherichia coli behave as pathogens in dogs and cats were clearly associated with enteric disease in young dogs. ETEC isolates from diar- rhoeic dogs were

  20. Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein is uncommonly effective at promoting the solubility

    E-print Network

    Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein is uncommonly effective at promoting the solubility of a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, obtaining the protein in a soluble, biologically active form-prone polypeptide to a highly soluble partner. To study this phenomenon in greater detail, we compared the ability

  1. Structure of the Heme d of Penicillium vitale and Escherichia coli Catalases*

    E-print Network

    Structure of the Heme d of Penicillium vitale and Escherichia coli Catalases* (Received-hydroxychlorin -spirolactone has been found in the crystal structures of Penicillium vitale catalase and Escherichia coli catalase hydroperoxidase II (HPII). The absolute stereochemistry of the two heme d chiral car- bon atoms

  2. Enhanced Hydrogen Production in Escherichia coli Through Chemical Mutagenesis, Gene Deletion, and Transposon Mutagenesis

    E-print Network

    Garzon Sanabria, Andrea Juliana

    2011-08-08

    ENHANCED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI THROUGH CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS, GENE DELETION, AND TRANSPOSON MUTAGENESIS A Thesis by ANDREA JULIANA GARZON SANABRIA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2010 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering ENHANCED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI THROUGH CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS, GENE DELETION...

  3. SHORT REPORT Open Access Escherichia coli BdcA controls biofilm dispersal in

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    SHORT REPORT Open Access Escherichia coli BdcA controls biofilm dispersal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that BdcA controls Escherichia coli biofilm dispersal by binding the ubiquitous bacterial signal cyclic by increasing motility, decreasing aggregation, and decreasing production of biofilm adhesins. Findings: Here we

  4. A generic protocol for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using a

    E-print Network

    A generic protocol for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli for the overproduction and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. The strategy utilizes a dual His6 the yield and solubility of the target protein; and (iii) the large-scale production and purification

  5. Research review paper Genome-scale genetic engineering in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Bang, Duhee

    Research review paper Genome-scale genetic engineering in Escherichia coli Jaehwan Jeong 1 , Namjin cells. Escherichia coli has been a particularly good model organism for bac- terial genome engineering Keywords: Genome engineering Red recombination Multiplex automated genome engineering Genome engineering

  6. Functional Interrelationships in the Alkaline Phosphatase Superfamily: Phosphodiesterase Activity of Escherichia coli Alkaline Phosphatase

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    Functional Interrelationships in the Alkaline Phosphatase Superfamily: Phosphodiesterase Activity of Escherichia coli Alkaline Phosphatase Patrick J. O'Brien and Daniel Herschlag* Department of BiochemistryVised Manuscript ReceiVed March 15, 2001 ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a proficient

  7. The MukF subunit of Escherichia coli condensin: architecture and functional relationship to kleisins

    E-print Network

    Berger, James M.

    The MukF subunit of Escherichia coli condensin: architecture and functional relationship to kleisins Rachel Fennell-Fezzie, Scott D Gradia, David Akey and James M Berger* Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA The Escherichia coli MukB, MukE, and MukF

  8. Adhesive Escherichia coli in inflammatory bowel disease and infective diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, D. A.; Axon, A. T.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical features of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are similar to those of infections of the bowel, although their cause is uncertain. Many bacteria that cause intestinal diseases adhere to the gut mucosa, and adhesion of pathogenic Escherichia coli is resistant to D-mannose. The adhesive properties of isolates of E coli were assessed by assay of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells with mannose added. The isolates were obtained from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (50 with a relapse of ulcerative colitis, nine with ulcerative colitis in remission, 13 with Crohn's disease, and 11 with infectious diarrhoea not due to E coli) and 22 controls. The median index of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (the proportion of cells with more than 50 adherent bacteria) for E coli from patients with ulcerative colitis in relapse was significantly higher (43%) than that for controls (5%) and patients with infectious diarrhoea (14%). The index was not significantly different among isolates from patients with ulcerative colitis in relapse, Crohn's disease (53%), and ulcerative colitis in remission (30%). If an index of adhesion of greater than 25% is taken as indicating an adhesive strain 86% of isolates of E coli from patients with inflammatory bowel disease were adhesive compared with 27% from patients with infective diarrhoea and none from controls. The adhesive properties of the isolates from patients with inflammatory bowel disease were similar to those of pathogenic intestinal E coli, raising the possibility that they may have a role in the pathogenesis of the condition; the smaller proportion of adhesive isolates in patients with infective diarrhoea due to other bacteria suggests that the organism may be of primary importance rather than arising secondarily. Images a PMID:3044496

  9. Emergence of imipenem resistance in clinical Escherichia coli during therapy.

    PubMed

    Oteo, Jesús; Delgado-Iribarren, Alberto; Vega, Dolores; Bautista, Verónica; Rodríguez, María Cruz; Velasco, María; Saavedra, José María; Pérez-Vázquez, María; García-Cobos, Silvia; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Campos, José

    2008-12-01

    The molecular epidemiology and the mechanisms of resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from two patients infected by imipenem-resistant strains are reported in this study. From one patient, three closely related consecutive isolates of E. coli were recovered; the first was carbapenem-susceptible but acquired imipenem resistance after treatment with ertapenem, and the third isolate was again imipenem-susceptible. An additional imipenem-resistant isolate was recovered from another patient who received imipenem. The genetic relatedness of the E. coli isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with XbaI. Standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions were used to amplify several beta-lactamase genes coding for carbapenemases, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated AmpC; the E. coli ampC gene promoter was also amplified and sequenced. Primers OmpF-F/OmpF-R and OmpC-F/OmpC-R were used to amplify the ompF and ompC genes. The outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles were studied by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Imipenem-resistant E. coli isolates did not produce carbapenemases but lacked the two major OMPs OmpF and OmpC and had ampC promoter mutations; in addition, one of the imipenem-resistant isolates produced the CMY-2 cephalosporinase, whilst the other produced the new CTX-M-67 ESBL. Carbapenem resistance in this study was associated with lack of expression of OmpF and OmpC porins. Additional mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance, such as plasmid-mediated AmpC and ESBL production, were also found. Development of carbapenem resistance in a CTX-M-67-producing E. coli is first described in this study. PMID:18775649

  10. Direct cadaverine production from cellobiose using ?-glucosidase displaying Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the one-step production of cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) from cellobiose using an Escherichia coli strain displaying ?-glucosidase (BGL) on its cell surface. L-lysine decarboxylase (CadA) derived from E. coli and BGL from Thermobifida fusca YX (Tfu0937) fused to the anchor protein Blc from E. coli were co-expressed using E. coli as a host. The expression of CadA was confirmed by Western blotting and BGL activity on the cell surface was evaluated using pNPG as a substrate. Growth on cellobiose as the sole carbon source was also achieved. The OD600 value of the BGL and CadA co-expressing strain was 8.0 after 48 h cultivation, which is higher than that obtained by growth on glucose (5.4 after 48 h cultivation). The engineered strain produced cadaverine from cellobiose more effectively than from glucose: 6.1 mM after 48 h from 28 g/L of consumed cellobiose, vs. 3.3 mM from 20 g/L of consumed glucose. PMID:24206923

  11. Engineered isoprenoid pathway enhances astaxanthin production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, C W; Oh, M K; Liao, J C

    1999-01-20

    The isoprenoid pathway is a versatile biosynthetic network leading to over 23,000 compounds. Similar to other biosynthetic pathways, the production of isoprenoids in microorganisms is controlled by the supply of precursors, among other factors. To engineer a host that has the capability to supply geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), a common precursor of isoprenoids, we cloned and overexpressed isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) isomerase (encoded by idi) from Escherichia coli and GGPP synthase (encoded by gps) from the archaebacterium Archaeoglobus fulgidus. The latter was shown to be a multifunctional enzyme converting dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to GGPP. These two genes and the gene cluster (crtBIYZW) of the marine bacterium Agrobacterium aurantiacum were introduced into E. coli to produce astaxanthin, an orange pigment and antioxidant. This metabolically engineered strain produces astaxanthin 50 times higher than values reported before. To determine the rate-controlling steps in GGPP production, the IDI-GPS pathway was compared with another construct containing idi, ispA (encoding farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase in E. coli), and crtE (encoding GGPP synthase from Erwinia uredovora). Results show that the conversion from FPP to GGPP is the first bottleneck, followed sequentially by IPP isomerization and FPP synthesis. Removal of these bottlenecks results in an E. coli strain providing sufficient precursors for in vivo synthesis of isoprenoids. PMID:10099534

  12. Transcription, Processing, and Function of CRISPR Cassettes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pougach, Ksenia; Semenova, Ekaterina; Bogdanova, Ekaterina; Datsenko, Kirill A.; Djordjevic, Marko; Wanner, Barry L.; Severinov, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas, bacterial and archaeal systems of interference with foreign genetic elements such as viruses or plasmids, consist of DNA loci called CRISPR cassettes (a set of variable spacers regularly separated by palindromic repeats) and associated cas genes. When a CRISPR spacer sequence exactly matches a sequence in a viral genome, the cell can become resistant to the virus. The CRISPR/Cas systems function through small RNAs originating from longer CRISPR cassette transcripts. While laboratory strains of Escherichia coli contain a functional CRISPR/Cas system (as judged by appearance of phage resistance at conditions of artificial co-overexpression of Cas genes and a CRISPR cassette engineered to target a ? phage), no natural phage resistance due to CRISPR system function was observed in this best-studied organism and no E. coli CRISPR spacer matches sequences of well-studied E. coli phages. To better understand the apparently “silent” E. coli CRISPR/Cas system, we systematically characterized processed transcripts from CRISPR cassettes. Using an engineered strain with genomically located spacer matching phage ? we show that endogenous levels of CRISPR cassette and cas genes expression allow only weak protection against infection with the phage. However, derepression of the CRISPR/Cas system by disruption of the hns gene leads to high level of protection. PMID:20624226

  13. Low intensity infrared laser induces filamentation in Escherichia coli cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Presta, G. A.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.

    2011-10-01

    Low intensity continuous wave and pulsed emission modes laser is used in treating many diseases and the resulting biostimulative effect on tissues has been described, yet the photobiological basis is not well understood. The aim of this wok was to evaluate, using bacterial filamentation assay, effects of laser on Escherichia coli cultures in exponential and stationary growth phase. E. coli cultures, proficient and deficient on DNA repair, in exponential and stationary growth phase, were exposed to low intensity infrared laser, aliquots were spread onto microscopic slides, stained by Gram method, visualized by optical microscopy, photographed and percentage of bacterial filamentation were determined. Low intensity infrared laser with therapeutic fluencies and different emission modes can induce bacterial filamentation in cultures of E. coli wild type, fpg/ mutM, endonuclease III and exonuclease III mutants in exponential and stationary growth phase. This study showed induction of bacterial, filamentation in E. coli cultures expose to low intensity infrared laser and attention to laser therapy protocols, which should take into account fluencies, wavelengths, tissue conditions, and genetic characteristics of cells before beginning treatment.

  14. Magnetically-Actuated Escherichia coli System for Micro Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauback, S.; Brown, E.; Pérez-Guzman, L.; Peace, C.; Pierce, C.; Lower, B. H.; Lower, S. K.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2015-03-01

    Technologies that control matter at the nano- and micro-scale are crucial for developing new engineered materials and devices. While the more traditional approaches for such manipulations often depend on lithographic fabrication, they can be expanded upon by taking advantage of the biological systems within a living cell which also operate on the nano- and micro- scale. In this study, a system is being developed to functionalize a targeted location on the surface of a chip with the protein AmCyan from transformed Escherichia coli cells. Using established methods in molecular biology where a plasmid with the amcyan gene sequence is inserted into the cell, E. coli are engineered to express the AmCyan protein on their outer surface. In order to transport the cells to the targeted location, the transformed E. coli are labeled with superparamagnetic micro-beads which exert directed forces on the cells in an external field. Preliminary results of the protein expression on E. coli, the transport of the cell through weak magnetic fields to targeted locations and the potential to transfer protein from the cell to the chip surface will be presented.

  15. Dynamic Transcriptional Response of Escherichia coli to Inclusion Body Formation

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Faraz; Fernando, Lawrence P.; Salazar, Mary Alice; Powell, Rhonda R.; Bruce, Terri F.; Harcum, Sarah W.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is used intensively for recombinant protein production, but one key challenge with recombinant E. coli is the tendency of recombinant proteins to misfold and aggregate into insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs). IBs contain high concentrations of inactive recombinant protein that require recovery steps to salvage a functional recombinant protein. Currently, no universally effective method exists to prevent IB formation in recombinant E. coli. In this study, DNA microarrays were used to compare the E. coli gene expression response dynamics to soluble and insoluble recombinant protein production. As expected and previously reported, the classical heat-shock genes had increased expression due to IB formation, including protein folding chaperones and proteases. Gene expression levels for protein synthesis-related and energy-synthesis pathways were also increased. Many transmembrane transporter and corresponding catabolic pathways genes had decreased expression for substrates not present in the culture medium. Additionally, putative genes represented over one-third of the genes identified to have significant expression changes due to IB formation, indicating many important cellular responses to IB formation still need to be characterized. Interestingly, cells grown in 3% ethanol had significantly reduced gene expression responses due to IB formation. Taken together, these results indicate that IB formation is complex, stimulates the heat-shock response, increases protein and energy synthesis needs, and streamlines transport and catabolic processes, while ethanol diminished all of these responses. PMID:24338599

  16. 40 CFR 180.1301 - Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific bacteriophages; temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific bacteriophages...Tolerances § 180.1301 Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific bacteriophages...bacteriophages that are specific to Escherichia coli O157:H7,...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1301 - Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific bacteriophages; temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific bacteriophages...Tolerances § 180.1301 Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific bacteriophages...bacteriophages that are specific to Escherichia coli O157:H7,...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1301 - Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific bacteriophages; temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific bacteriophages...Tolerances § 180.1301 Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific bacteriophages...bacteriophages that are specific to Escherichia coli O157:H7,...

  19. Research on killing Escherichia Coli by reactive oxygen species based on strong ionization discharging plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. J.; Tian, Y. P.; Li, R. H.; Gao, J. Y.; Cai, L. J.; Zhang, Z. T.

    2013-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species solution produced by strong ionization discharging plasma was used to kill Escherichia coli by spraying. Several effect factors such as pH value, solution temperature, spraying time and exposure time were observed in this study, and their effects on killing rate of Escherichia coli were discussed and analysed. Results show that the treating efficiency of ROS solution for Escherichia coli is higher in alkaline solution than that in acid solution. The killing rate of Escherichia coli increases while the spraying time and exposure time are longer and the temperature is lower. The effects of different factors on killing rate of Escherichia coli are as follows: spraying time > pH value > exposure time > solution temperature.

  20. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of cystatin against selected strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Szpak, Maciej; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Polanowski, Antoni; Gburek, Jakub; Go??b, Krzysztof; Juszczy?ska, Katarzyna; Janik, Paulina; Malicki, Adam; Szyplik, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the antibacterial activity of hen egg white cystatin against selected Escherichia coli strains. We used a monomeric solution of hen egg white cystatin in bovine serum albumin (BSA) with added phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and three test strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 23811, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The effect of cystatin against the tested strains was determined on the basis of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and survival curves of the microorganisms in a cystatin-containing environment during incubation at various temperatures. Our study confirmed the activity of cystatin against the analyzed Escherichia coli strains. taining environment, as compared to control samples incubated in a ovocystatin-deficient medium. Depending on the incubation temperature (20 degrees C or 37 degrees C) the reduction persisted up to 12 hours after incubation. PMID:25403072

  1. Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks, United States, 1982-2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josefa M. Rangel; Phyllis H. Sparling; Collen Crowe; Patricia M. Griffin; David L. Swerdlow

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes 73,000 illnesses in the United States annually. We reviewed E. coli O157 out- breaks reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to better understand the epidemiology of E. coli O157. E. coli O157 outbreaks (>2 cases of E. coli O157 infection with a common epidemiologic exposure) reported to CDC from 1982 to 2002 were

  2. Enhanced ?-aminobutyric acid-forming activity of recombinant glutamate decarboxylase (gadA) from Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi WangYinqiang; Yinqiang Xin; Feng Zhang; Zhiyong Feng; Jin Fu; Lan Luo; Zhimin Yin

    2011-01-01

    ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important bioactive regulator, and its biosynthesis is primarily through the ?-decarboxylation of glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). The procedures to obtain GABA by bioconvertion with high activity\\u000a recombinant Escherichia coli GAD have been seldom understood. In this study, Escherichia coli GAD (gadA) was highly expressed (about 70–75% of total protein) as soluble protein in Escherichia

  3. Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli secretes plasmid encoded toxin.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Rita C; Melo, Keyde C M; Rossato, Sarita S; Barbosa, Camila M; Corręa, Lívia M; Elias, Waldir P; Piazza, Roxane M F

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid encoded toxin (Pet) is a serine protease originally described in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) prototype strain 042 whose entire characterization was essentially obtained from studies performed with the purified toxin. Here we show that Pet is not exclusive to EAEC. Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strains, isolated from diarrhea cases, express Pet and its detection in supernatants of infected HEp-2 cells coincides with the appearance of cell damage, which, in turn, were similar to those described with purified Pet. Pet secretion and the cytotoxic effects are time and culture medium dependent. In presence of DMEM supplemented with tryptone cell rounding and detachment were observed after just 5 h of incubation with the bacteria. In the absence of tryptone, the cytotoxic effects were detected only after 24 h of infection. We also show that, in addition to the prototype EAEC, other pet+ EAEC strains, also isolated from diarrhea cases, induce cellular damage in the same degree as the aEPEC. The cytotoxic effects of EAEC and aEPEC strains were significantly reduced in the presence of a serine protease inhibitor or anti-Pet IgG serum. Our results show a common aspect between the aEPEC and EAEC and provide the first evidence pointing to a role of Pet in aEPEC pathogenesis. PMID:24949475

  4. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Secretes Plasmid Encoded Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Rita C.; Melo, Keyde C. M.; Rossato, Sarita S.; Barbosa, Camila M.; Corręa, Lívia M.; Elias, Waldir P.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid encoded toxin (Pet) is a serine protease originally described in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) prototype strain 042 whose entire characterization was essentially obtained from studies performed with the purified toxin. Here we show that Pet is not exclusive to EAEC. Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strains, isolated from diarrhea cases, express Pet and its detection in supernatants of infected HEp-2 cells coincides with the appearance of cell damage, which, in turn, were similar to those described with purified Pet. Pet secretion and the cytotoxic effects are time and culture medium dependent. In presence of DMEM supplemented with tryptone cell rounding and detachment were observed after just 5?h of incubation with the bacteria. In the absence of tryptone, the cytotoxic effects were detected only after 24?h of infection. We also show that, in addition to the prototype EAEC, other pet+ EAEC strains, also isolated from diarrhea cases, induce cellular damage in the same degree as the aEPEC. The cytotoxic effects of EAEC and aEPEC strains were significantly reduced in the presence of a serine protease inhibitor or anti-Pet IgG serum. Our results show a common aspect between the aEPEC and EAEC and provide the first evidence pointing to a role of Pet in aEPEC pathogenesis. PMID:24949475

  5. Codon Optimisation Is Key for Pernisine Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Šnajder, Marko; Miheli?, Marko; Turk, Dušan; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    Background Pernisine is an extracellular serine protease from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1. Low yields from the natural host and expression problems in heterologous hosts have limited the potential applications of pernisine in industry. Methodology/ Principal Findings The challenges of pernisine overexpression in Escherichia coli were overcome by codon preference optimisation and de-novo DNA synthesis. The following forms of the pernisine gene were cloned into the pMCSGx series of vectors and expressed in E. coli cells: wild-type (pernisinewt), codon-optimised (pernisineco), and codon-optimised with a S355A mutation of a predicted active site (pernisineS355Aco). The fusion-tagged pernisines were purified using fast protein liquid chromatography equipped with Ni2+ chelate and gel filtration chromatography columns. The identities of the resultant proteins were confirmed with N-terminal sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and immunodetection. Pernisinewt was not expressed in E. coli at detectable levels, while pernisineco and pernisineS355Aco were expressed and purified as 55-kDa proforms with yields of around 10 mg per litre E. coli culture. After heat activation of purified pernisine, the proteolytic activity of the mature pernisineco was confirmed using zymography, at a molecular weight of 36 kDa, while the mutant pernisineS355Aco remained inactive. Enzymatic performances of pernisine evaluated under different temperatures and pHs demonstrate that the optimal enzymatic activity of the recombinant pernisine is ca. 100°C and pH 7.0, respectively. Conclusions/ Significance These data demonstrate that codon optimisation is crucial for pernisine overexpression in E. coli, and that the proposed catalytic Ser355 has an important role in pernisine activity, but not in its activation process. Pernisine is activated by autoproteolytical cleavage of its N-terminal proregion. We have also confirmed that the recombinant pernisine retains the characteristics of native pernisine, as a calcium modulated thermostable serine protease. PMID:25856104

  6. Nucleotide sequence of an Escherichia coli chromosomal hemolysin.

    PubMed Central

    Felmlee, T; Pellett, S; Welch, R A

    1985-01-01

    We determined the DNA sequence of an 8,211-base-pair region encompassing the chromosomal hemolysin, molecularly cloned from an O4 serotype strain of Escherichia coli. All four hemolysin cistrons (transcriptional order, C, A, B, and D) were encoded on the same DNA strand, and their predicted molecular masses were, respectively, 19.7, 109.8, 79.9, and 54.6 kilodaltons. The identification of pSF4000-encoded polypeptides in E. coli minicells corroborated the assignment of the predicted polypeptides for hlyC, hlyA, and hlyD. However, based on the minicell results, two polypeptides appeared to be encoded on the hlyB region, one similar in size to the predicted molecular mass of 79.9 kilodaltons, and the other a smaller 46-kilodalton polypeptide. The four hemolysin gene displayed similar codon usage, which is atypical for E. coli. This reflects the low guanine-plus-cytosine content (40.2%) of the hemolysin DNA sequence and suggests the non-E. coli origin of the hemolysin determinant. In vitro-derived deletions of the hemolysin recombinant plasmid pSF4000 indicated that a region between 433 and 301 base pairs upstream of the putative start of hlyC is necessary for hemolysin synthesis. Based on the DNA sequence, a stem-loop transcription terminator-like structure (a 16-base-pair stem followed by seven uridylates) in the mRNA was predicted distal to the C-terminal end of hlyA. A model for the general transcriptional organization of the E. coli hemolysin determinant is presented. Images PMID:3891743

  7. F'-plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli to Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Mergeay, M; Gerits, J

    1978-01-01

    Various F' plasmids of Escherichia coli K-12 could be transferred into mutants of the soil strain 6.2, classified herein as a Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype IV. This strain was previously found to receive Flac plasmid (N. Datta and R.W. Hedges, J. Gen Microbiol. 70:453-460, 1972). ilv, leu, met, arg, and his auxotrophs were complemented by plasmids carrying isofunctional genes; trp mutants were not complemented or were very poorly complemented. The frequency of transfer was 10(-5). Subsequent transfer into other P. fluorescens recipients was of the same order of magnitude. Some transconjugants were unable to act as donors, and these did not lose the received information if subcultured on nonselective media. Use of F' plasmids helped to discriminate metabolic blocks in P. fluorescens. In particular, metA, metB, and argH mutants were so distinguished. In addition, F131 plasmid carrying the his operon and a supD mutation could partially relieve the auxotrophy of thr, ilv, and metA13 mutants, suggesting functional expression of E. coli tRNA in P. fluorescens. In P. fluorescens metA Rifr mutants carrying the F110 plasmid, which carried the E. coli metA gene and the E. coli rifs allele, sensitivity to rifampin was found to be dominant at least temporarily over resistance. This suggests interaction of E. coli and P. fluorescens subunits of RNA polymerase. his mutations were also complemented by composite P plasmids containing the his-nif region of Klebsiella pneumoniae (plasmids FN68 and RP41). nif expression could be detected by acetylene reduction in some his+ transconjugants. The frequency of transfer of these P plasmids was 5 X 10(-4). PMID:97267

  8. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in drinking water from private water supplies in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franciska M. Schets; Ronald Italiaander; Leo Heijnen; Saskia A. Rutjes; Willem K. van der Zwaluw; Ana Maria de Roda Husman

    2005-01-01

    The microbiological quality of drinking water from 144 private water supplies in the Netherlands was tested and additionally the occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 was examined. Faecal indicators were enumerated by using standard membrane filtration methods. The presence of E. coli O157 was determined using a specific enrichment method. Eleven percent of the samples contained faecal indicators whereas E. coli

  9. Mouse in vivo neutralization of Escherichia coli Shiga toxin 2 with monoclonal antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) food contaminations pose serious health and food safety concerns, and have been the subject of massive food recalls. Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-producing E. coli has been identified as the major cause of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), the most severe di...

  10. SENSITIVE DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 BY THE USE OF IMMUNOMAGNETIC AND FLUORESCENT BEADS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To meet the needs of food safety, a rapid and sensitive fluorescent sandwich method for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef was developed. Immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) coated with anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibodies were used to capture and concentrate E. coli O157:H7 present in gro...

  11. A glimpse of Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in soils from eastern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is an important food-borne pathogen, which continues to be a major public health concern worldwide. It is known that E. coli O157:H7 survive in soil environment might result in the contamination of fresh produce or water source. To investigate how the soils...

  12. Resistance of various shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli to electrolyzed oxidizing water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resistance of thirty two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and six major serotypes of non-O157 Shiga toxin- producing E. coli (STEC) plus E. coli O104 was tested against Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water using two different methods; modified AOAC 955.16 sequential inoculation method and minim...

  13. Complete Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Strains 1303 and ECC-1470 Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Witten, Anika; Scheutz, Flemming; Schukken, Ynte; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the leading causative agent of acute bovine mastitis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli O70:H32 strain 1303, isolated from an acute case of bovine mastitis, and E. coli Ont:Hnt strain ECC-1470, isolated from a persistent infection. PMID:25814601

  14. Diet, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, and cattle, a review after 10 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli are commensal bacteria that can account for up to 1% of the bacterial population of the gut. Ruminant animals are reservoirs of the pathogenic bacteria E. coli strain O157:H7 and approximately 30% of feedlot cattle shed E. coli O157:H7. Feedlot and high-producing dairy cattle are ...

  15. Organised Genome Dynamics in the Escherichia coli Species Results in Highly Diverse Adaptive Paths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Touchon; Claire Hoede; Olivier Tenaillon; Valérie Barbe; Simon Baeriswyl; Philippe Bidet; Edouard Bingen; Stéphane Bonacorsi; Christiane Bouchier; Odile Bouvet; Alexandra Calteau; Hélčne Chiapello; Olivier Clermont; Stéphane Cruveiller; Antoine Danchin; Médéric Diard; Carole Dossat; Meriem El Karoui; Eric Frapy; Louis Garry; Jean Marc Ghigo; Anne Marie Gilles; James Johnson; Chantal Le Bouguénec; Mathilde Lescat; Sophie Mangenot; Vanessa Martinez-Jéhanne; Ivan Matic; Xavier Nassif; Sophie Oztas; Marie Agnčs Petit; Christophe Pichon; Zoé Rouy; Claude Saint Ruf; Dominique Schneider; Jérôme Tourret; Benoit Vacherie; David Vallenet; Claudine Médigue; Eduardo P. C. Rocha; Erick Denamur

    2009-01-01

    The Escherichia coli species represents one of the best-studied model organisms, but also encompasses a variety of commensal and pathogenic strains that diversify by high rates of genetic change. We uniformly (re-) annotated the genomes of 20 commensal and pathogenic E. coli strains and one strain of E. fergusonii (the closest E. coli related species), including seven that we sequenced

  16. Detection of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in Fecal Samples in Meat Goats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Ray; Madden, Uford; Brooks-Walter, Alexis

    2004-01-01

    Studies have reported the isolation of Escherichia coli (E. coli)O157:H7 from pork, lamb and poultry products, and from other animals including deer, horses, dogs, birds and humans. There is limited or no information on the presence of the organism in goats. The objectives of this study were to determine if E. coli O157:H7 was naturally occurring…

  17. Comparison of the Small Molecule Metabolic Enzymes of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Jardine; Julian Gough; Cyrus Chothia; Sarah A. Teichmann

    2002-01-01

    The comparison of the small molecule metabolism pathways in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) shows that 271 enzymes are common to both organisms. These common enzymes involve 384 gene products in E. coli and 390 in yeast, which are between one half and two thirds of the gene products of small molecule metabolism in E. coli and yeast, respectively.

  18. DETERMINATION OF PLASMID DNA CONCENTRATION MAINTAINED BY NONCULTURABLE ESCHERICHIA COLI IN MARINE MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of plasmid pBR322 DNA in nonculturable Escherichia coli JM83 was measured to determine whether the plasmid concentration changed during survival of E. coli in marine and estuarine water. . coli JM83 containing the plasmid pBR322 was placed in both sterile seawat...

  19. Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from dairy cows with mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Velusamy Srinivasan; Barbara E. Gillespie; Mark J. Lewis; Lien T. Nguyen; Susan I. Headrick; Ynte H. Schukken; Stephen P. Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, susceptibility to 26 antimicrobial agents used in veterinary and human medicine, and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes of Escherichia coli isolated from cows with mastitis were evaluated. Among 135 E. coli isolates, PFGE analysis revealed 85 different genetic patterns. All E. coli were resistant to two or more antimicrobials in different combinations. Most E.

  20. Cellular Responses and Proteomic Analysis of Escherichia coli Exposed to Green Tea Polyphenols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Cho; N. L. Schiller; H. Y. Kahng; K. H. Oh

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the cellular response and proteomic analysis of Escherichia coli exposed to tea polyphenols (TPP) extracted from Korean green tea (Camellia sinensis L). TPP showed a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on E. coli. Analysis of cell-membrane fatty acids of E. coli cultures treated with TPP identified unique changes in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids,

  1. Sigma S-dependent antioxidant defense protects stationary-phase Escherichia coli against the bactericidal antibiotic gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Hung; Singh, Rachna; Benoit, Michael; Keyhan, Mimi; Sylvester, Matthew; Hsieh, Michael; Thathireddy, Anuradha; Hsieh, Yi-Ju; Matin, A C

    2014-10-01

    Stationary-phase bacteria are important in disease. The ?(s)-regulated general stress response helps them become resistant to disinfectants, but the role of ?(s) in bacterial antibiotic resistance has not been elucidated. Loss of ?(s) rendered stationary-phase Escherichia coli more sensitive to the bactericidal antibiotic gentamicin (Gm), and proteomic analysis suggested involvement of a weakened antioxidant defense. Use of the psfiA genetic reporter, 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF) dye, and Amplex Red showed that Gm generated more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mutant. HPF measurements can be distorted by cell elongation, but Gm did not affect stationary-phase cell dimensions. Coadministration of the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) decreased drug lethality particularly in the mutant, as did Gm treatment under anaerobic conditions that prevent ROS formation. Greater oxidative stress, due to insufficient quenching of endogenous ROS and/or respiration-linked electron leakage, therefore contributed to the greater sensitivity of the mutant; infection by a uropathogenic strain in mice showed this to be the case also in vivo. Disruption of antioxidant defense by eliminating the quencher proteins, SodA/SodB and KatE/SodA, or the pentose phosphate pathway proteins, Zwf/Gnd and TalA, which provide NADPH for ROS decomposition, also generated greater oxidative stress and killing by Gm. Thus, besides its established mode of action, Gm also kills stationary-phase bacteria by generating oxidative stress, and targeting the antioxidant defense of E. coli can enhance its efficacy. Relevant aspects of the current controversy on the role of ROS in killing by bactericidal drugs of exponential-phase bacteria, which represent a different physiological state, are discussed. PMID:25070093

  2. Escherichia coli diversity in the lower intestinal tract of humans.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David M; O'Brien, Claire L; Pavli, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies examining the clonal diversity of Escherichia coli populations within humans have been based on faecal isolates. In this study E.?coli were isolated from biopsies taken from the terminal ileum, ascending, transverse and descending colon, and rectum of 69 individuals. Multiple isolates from each biopsy were characterized using Rep-PCR. An average of 3.5 genotypes were recovered per host, and in hosts with two or more strains, the phylogroup membership of the second most abundant strain was significantly more likely to be the same as the dominant strain. There was no indication of a non-random distribution of E.?coli phylogroups among the regions of the lower intestine. In hosts with multiple genotypes, as defined by Repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR, genotypes were non-randomly distributed among gut regions in over half the individuals. The phylogroup membership of an individual's numerically dominant strain explained some of the variation in the extent to which strains within an individual were heterogeneously distributed, with most heterogeneity observed when the numerically dominant strain belonged to phylogroups E or F, and the least when the dominant strain belonged to phylogroup B2. The results of this study support previous studies on pigs that demonstrated faecal sampling underestimates the genotype diversity present within a host. PMID:26034010

  3. Colibri: a functional data base for the Escherichia coli genome.

    PubMed Central

    Médigue, C; Viari, A; Hénaut, A; Danchin, A

    1993-01-01

    Several data libraries have been created to organize all the data obtained worldwide about the Escherichia coli genome. Because the known data now amount to more than 40% of the whole genome sequence, it has become necessary to organize the data in such a way that appropriate procedures can associate knowledge produced by experiments about each gene to its position on the chromosome and its relation to other relevant genes, for example. In addition, global properties of genes, affected by the introduction of new entries, should be present as appropriate description fields. A data base, implemented on Macintosh by using the data base management system 4th Dimension, is described. It is constructed around a core constituted by known contigs of E. coli sequences and links data collected in general libraries (unmodified) to data associated with evolving knowledge (with modifiable fields). Biologically significant results obtained through the coupling of appropriate procedures (learning or statistical data analysis) are presented. The data base is available through a 4th Dimension runtime and through FTP on Internet. It has been regularly updated and will be systematically linked to other E. coli data bases (M. Kroger, R. Wahl, G. Schachtel, and P. Rice, Nucleic Acids Res. 20(Suppl.):2119-2144, 1992; K. E. Rudd, W. Miller, C. Werner, J. Ostell, C. Tolstoshev, and S. G. Satterfield, Nucleic Acids Res. 19:637-647, 1991) in the near future. Images PMID:8246843

  4. Characterization of the YdeO Regulon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Yuki; Oshima, Taku; Ishihama, Akira; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Enterobacteria are able to survive under stressful conditions within animals, such as acidic conditions in the stomach, bile salts during transfer to the intestine and anaerobic conditions within the intestine. The glutamate-dependent (GAD) system plays a major role in acid resistance in Escherichia coli, and expression of the GAD system is controlled by the regulatory cascade consisting of EvgAS > YdeO > GadE. To understand the YdeO regulon in vivo, we used ChIP-chip to interrogate the E. coli genome for candidate YdeO binding sites. All of the seven operons identified by ChIP-chip as being potentially regulated by YdeO were confirmed as being under the direct control of YdeO using RT-qPCR, EMSA, DNaseI-footprinting and reporter assays. Within this YdeO regulon, we identified four stress-response transcription factors, DctR, NhaR, GadE, and GadW and enzymes for anaerobic respiration. Both GadE and GadW are involved in regulation of the GAD system and NhaR is an activator for the sodium/proton antiporter gene. In conjunction with co-transcribed Slp, DctR is involved in protection against metabolic endoproducts under acidic conditions. Taken all together, we suggest that YdeO is a key regulator of E. coli survival in both acidic and anaerobic conditions. PMID:25375160

  5. Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in estuarine environments.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, M W; Kator, H

    1988-12-01

    Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in estuarine waters was compared over a variety of seasonal temperatures during in situ exposure in diffusion chambers. Sublethal stress was measured by both selective-versus-resuscitative enumeration procedures and an electrochemical detection method. E. coli and Salmonella spp. test suspensions, prepared to minimize sublethal injury, were exposed in a shallow tidal creek and at a site 7.1 km further downriver. Bacterial die-off and sublethal stress in filtered estuarine water were inversely related to water temperature. Salmonella spp. populations exhibited significantly less die-off and stress than did E. coli at water temperatures of less than 10 degrees C. Although the most pronounced reductions (ca. 3 log units) in test bacteria occurred during seasonally warm temperatures in the presence of the autochthonous microbiota, 10(2) to 10(4) test cells per ml remained after 2 weeks of exposure to temperatures of greater than 15 degrees C. Reductions in test bacteria were associated with increases in the densities of microflagellates and plaque-forming microorganisms. These studies demonstrated the survival potential of enteric bacteria in estuarine waters and showed that survival was a function of interacting biological and physical factors. PMID:3066291

  6. Rapid Method for Escherichia coli in the Cuyahoga River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Amie M.G.

    2007-01-01

    This study is a continuation of a previous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project in cooperation with the National Park Service at Cuyahoga Valley National Park in Brecksville, Ohio. A rapid (1-hour) method for detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water was tested and compared to the standard (24-hour) method for determining E. coli concentrations. Environmental data were collected to determine turbidity, rainfall, and streamflow at the time of sampling. In the previous study (2004-5), data collected were used to develop predictive models to determine recreational water quality in the river at two sites within the park. Data collected during this continued study (2006) were used to test these models. At Jaite, a centrally located site within the park, the model correctly predicted exceedances or nonexceedances of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency maximum for recreational water quality in 80 percent of samples. At Old Portage, a site near the upstream boundary of the park, the model correctly predicted recreational water quality in 58 percent of samples. All of the data collected in 2004-6 will be used to develop more accurate models for use in future studies. Analysis and discussion of model results are scheduled to be included in an upcoming USGS Scientific Investigations Report.

  7. Regulation of neutrophil phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao-Liang; Wu, Semon; Tsai, Tzung-Chieh; Wang, Lu-Kai; Tsai, Fu-Ming

    2014-12-01

    Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have been used to ease the symptoms of schizophrenia. APDs have recently been reported to regulate the immune response. Our previous studies revealed that the atypical APDs risperidone and clozapine and the typical APD haloperidol can inhibit the phagocytic ability of macrophages. Our research next determined the effects of APDs on the phagocytic ability of neutrophils, which are the most abundant type of white blood cells in mammals. Here we provide evidence that clozapine and haloperidol can induce increased phagocytic uptake of Escherichia coli by differentiated HL-60 cells and by purified human neutrophils. Furthermore, clozapine and haloperidol can increase the myeloperoxidase activity and IL-8 production in neutrophils. Our results also show that clozapine can inhibit E. coli survival within differentiated HL-60 cells. Furthermore, clozapine and haloperidol are shown to enhance cell surface Mac-1 expression and the activated AKT signaling pathway in purified neutrophils exposed to E. coli. These results indicate that clozapine and haloperidol can increase the phagocytic ability of neutrophils by increasing AKT activation when cells are exposed to bacteria. PMID:25448498

  8. Nascentome Analysis Uncovers Futile Protein Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Koreaki; Chadani, Yuhei; Nakamori, Kenta; Chiba, Shinobu; Akiyama, Yoshinori; Abo, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Although co-translational biological processes attract much attention, no general and easy method has been available to detect cellular nascent polypeptide chains, which we propose to call collectively a “nascentome.” We developed a method to selectively detect polypeptide portions of cellular polypeptidyl-tRNAs and used it to study the generality of the quality control reactions that rescue dead-end translation complexes. To detect nascent polypeptides, having their growing ends covalently attached to a tRNA, cellular extracts are separated by SDS-PAGE in two dimensions, first with the peptidyl-tRNA ester bonds preserved and subsequently after their in-gel cleavage. Pulse-labeled nascent polypeptides of Escherichia coli form a characteristic line below the main diagonal line, because each of them had contained a tRNA of nearly uniform size in the first-dimension electrophoresis but not in the second-dimension. The detection of nascent polypeptides, separately from any translation-completed polypeptides or degradation products thereof, allows us to follow their fates to gain deeper insights into protein biogenesis and quality control pathways. It was revealed that polypeptidyl-tRNAs were significantly stabilized in E. coli upon dysfunction of the tmRNA-ArfA ribosome-rescuing system, whose function had only been studied previously using model constructs. Our results suggest that E. coli cells are intrinsically producing aberrant translation products, which are normally eliminated by the ribosome-rescuing mechanisms. PMID:22162769

  9. Microaerobic Conversion of Glycerol to Ethanol in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Matthew S.; Li, Mai; Black, Ryan W.; Le, Thao Q.; Puthli, Sharon; Campbell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol has become a desirable feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals due to its availability and low price, but many barriers to commercialization remain. Previous investigators have made significant improvements in the yield of ethanol from glycerol. We have developed a fermentation process for the efficient microaerobic conversion of glycerol to ethanol by Escherichia coli that presents solutions to several other barriers to commercialization: rate, titer, specific productivity, use of inducers, use of antibiotics, and safety. To increase the rate, titer, and specific productivity to commercially relevant levels, we constructed a plasmid that overexpressed glycerol uptake genes dhaKLM, gldA, and glpK, as well as the ethanol pathway gene adhE. To eliminate the cost of inducers and antibiotics from the fermentation, we used the adhE and icd promoters from E. coli in our plasmid, and we implemented glycerol addiction to retain the plasmid. To address the safety issue of off-gas flammability, we optimized the fermentation process with reduced-oxygen sparge gas to ensure that the off-gas remained nonflammable. These advances represent significant progress toward the commercialization of an E. coli-based glycerol-to-ethanol process. PMID:24584248

  10. The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rajagopala, Seesandra V; Sikorski, Patricia; Kumar, Ashwani; Mosca, Roberto; Vlasblom, James; Arnold, Roland; Franca-Koh, Jonathan; Pakala, Suman B; Phanse, Sadhna; Ceol, Arnaud; Häuser, Roman; Siszler, Gabriella; Wuchty, Stefan; Emili, Andrew; Babu, Mohan; Aloy, Patrick; Pieper, Rembert; Uetz, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Efforts to map the Escherichia coli interactome have identified several hundred macromolecular complexes, but direct binary protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have not been surveyed on a large scale. Here we performed yeast two-hybrid screens of 3,305 baits against 3,606 preys (?70% of the E. coli proteome) in duplicate to generate a map of 2,234 interactions, which approximately doubles the number of known binary PPIs in E. coli. Integration of binary PPI and genetic-interaction data revealed functional dependencies among components involved in cellular processes, including envelope integrity, flagellum assembly and protein quality control. Many of the binary interactions that we could map in multiprotein complexes were informative regarding internal topology of complexes and indicated that interactions in complexes are substantially more conserved than those interactions connecting different complexes. This resource will be useful for inferring bacterial gene function and provides a draft reference of the basic physical wiring network of this evolutionarily important model microbe. PMID:24561554

  11. Engineering Escherichia coli for canthaxanthin and astaxanthin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qiong; Tao, Luan

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a non-carotenogenic bacterium that could synthesize farnesyl pyrophosphate precursor through the isoprenoid pathway. Carotenoid production in E. coli requires heterologous expression of carotenoid synthesis genes. The carotenoid synthesis operons are assembled from genes isolated from carotenogenic bacterial sources. Expression of the different operons yields different carotenoid titers. The operons containing the idi gene give more than fivefold higher carotenoid titers than the operons lacking the idi gene. The carotenoid modification genes encoding ketolases and hydroxylases are incorporated into the operons for canthaxanthin and astaxanthin production. The ketolases and hydroxylases from different bacterial sources produce astaxanthin of different purity relative to the total carotenoids. Expression of the ketolases and hydroxylases closer to the promoter appears to give higher astaxanthin purity than expression farther from the promoter at the end of the operons. Balanced expression of ketolases and hydroxylases is critical to achieve high astaxanthin purity. Here, we describe methods to assemble carotenoid biosynthesis operons from carotenogenic gene clusters isolated from different bacterial sources and evaluate canthaxanthin or astaxanthin production in E. coli. PMID:22623300

  12. PI3K/Akt pathway restricts epithelial adhesion of Dr+ Escherichia coli by down-regulating the expression of Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF)

    PubMed Central

    Banadakoppa, Manu; Goluszko, Pawel; Liebenthal, Daniel; Nowicki, Bogdan J.; Nowicki, Stella; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    The urogenital microbial infection in pregnancy is an important cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains which express Dr fimbriae (Dr+) are associated with unique gestational virulence and they utilize cell surface decay accelerating factor (DAF or CD55) as one of the cellular receptor before invading the epithelial cells. Previous studies in our laboratory established that nitric oxide reduces the rate of E. coli invasion by delocalizing the DAF protein from cell surface lipid rafts and down-regulating its expression. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/ protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) cell signal pathway plays an important role in host-microbe interaction because many bacteria including E. coli activate this pathway in order to establish infection. In the present study we showed that the PI3K/Akt pathway negatively regulates the expression of DAF on the epithelial cell surface and thus inhibits the adhesion of Dr+ E. coli to epithelial cells. Initially, using two human cell lines Ishikawa and HeLa which differ in constitutive activity of PI3K/Akt we showed that DAF levels were associated with the PI3K/Akt pathway. We then showed that the DAF gene expression was up-regulated and the Dr+ E. coli adhesion increased after the suppression of PI3K/Akt pathway in Ishikawa cells using inhibitor LY-294002, and a plasmid which allowed the expression of PI3K/Akt regulatory protein PTEN. The down-regulation of PTEN protein using PTEN-specific siRNA activated the PI3K/Akt pathway, down-regulated the DAF and decreased the adhesion of Dr+ E. coli. We conclude that the PI3K/Akt pathway regulated the DAF expression in a nitric oxide independent manner. PMID:24599886

  13. Functional heterogeneity of type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sokurenko, E V; Courtney, H S; Abraham, S N; Klemm, P; Hasty, D L

    1992-01-01

    Escherichia coli and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae express surface fibrillar structures, fimbriae, that promote bacterial adhesion to host receptors. Type 1 fimbriae possess a lectinlike component, FimH, that is commonly thought to cause binding to mannose-containing oligosaccharides of host receptors. Since adhesion of type 1 fimbriated organisms are inhibited by mannose, the reactions are described as mannose sensitive (MS). We have studied the adhesion of the type 1 fimbriated CSH-50 strain of E. coli (which expresses only type 1 fimbriae) to fibronectin (FN). E. coli CSH-50 does not bind detectable amounts of soluble FN but adheres well to immobilized plasma or cellular FN. This adhesion was inhibited by mannose-containing saccharides. By using purified domains of FN, it was found that E. coli CSH-50 adheres primarily to the amino-terminal and gelatin-binding domains, only one of which is glycosylated, in an MS fashion. Binding of the mannose-specific lectin concanavalin A to FN and ovalbumin was eliminated or reduced, respectively, by incubation with periodate or endoglycosidase. Adhesion of E. coli CSH-50 to ovalbumin was reduced by these treatments, but adhesion to FN was unaffected. E. coli CSH-50 also adheres to a synthetic peptide copying a portion of the amino-terminal FN domain (FNsp1) in an MS fashion. Purified CSH-50 fimbriae bound to immobilized FN and FNsp1 in an MS fashion and inhibited adhesion of intact organisms. However, fimbriae purified from HB101 (pPKL4), a recombinant strain harboring the entire type 1 fim gene locus and expressing functional type 1 fimbriae, neither bound to FN or FNsp1 nor inhibited E. coli adhesion to immobilized FN or FNsp1. These novel findings suggest that there are two forms of type 1 MS fimbriae. One form exhibits only the well-known MS lectinlike activity that requires a substratum of mannose-containing glycoproteins. The other form exhibits not only the MS lectinlike activity but also binds to nonglycosylated regions of proteins in an MS manner. Images PMID:1356930

  14. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Other E. coli Strains Share Physiological Properties Associated with Intestinal Colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli isolates(72 commensal and 10 O157:H7 isolates) were compared with regard to physiological and growth parameters related to their ability to survive and persist in the gastrointestinal tract and found to be similar. We propose that in nonhuman hosts E. coli O157:H7 strains function ...

  15. Preventing Foodborne Illness: Escherichia coli 0157:H7

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This two-page, Center for Disease Control brochure provides excellent summary information on what E. coli 0157:H7 is, why it is a problem, how it is spread, and includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. Available in HTML or ASCII text, this is a good introduction to the subject. Escherichia coli refers to a diverse family of hundreds of bacteria, many of which are permanent residents of human intestines, serving a beneficial purpose in digestion. The potentially deadly strain that has received recent publicity was first described in 1982, and is known as E. coli O157:H7. This strain of the bacteria produces a substance known as Vero-cytotoxin, which can cause severe illness, characterized by bloody diarrhea and occasional kidney failure in children and the elderly. Symptoms normally appear between three to six days after ingestion of the bacteria. Most illness associated with E. coli has been traced to eating undercooked, contaminated ground beef, although it can also be transmitted via person-to-person contact, by eating raw milk, contaminated vegetables or apple cider, and by swimming in or drinking sewage-contaminated water. The organism lives in the intestine of healthy cattle, and meat can become contaminated during slaughter. Because grinding mixes the bacteria into the product, ground meats represent a greater threat than do whole cuts. Contaminated meat looks and smells normal. Raw milk can be contaminated from bacteria present on a cow's udder. It appears that even small amounts of this organism can cause severe illness.

  16. Specific Electromagnetic Effects of Microwave Radiation on Escherichia coli?

    PubMed Central

    Shamis, Yury; Taube, Alex; Mitik-Dineva, Natasa; Croft, Rodney; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of microwave (MW) radiation applied under a sublethal temperature on Escherichia coli. The experiments were conducted at a frequency of 18 GHz and at a temperature below 40°C to avoid the thermal degradation of bacterial cells during exposure. The absorbed power was calculated to be 1,500 kW/m3, and the electric field was determined to be 300 V/m. Both values were theoretically confirmed using CST Microwave Studio 3D Electromagnetic Simulation Software. As a negative control, E. coli cells were also thermally heated to temperatures up to 40°C using Peltier plate heating. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis performed immediately after MW exposure revealed that the E. coli cells exhibited a cell morphology significantly different from that of the negative controls. This MW effect, however, appeared to be temporary, as following a further 10-min elapsed period, the cell morphology appeared to revert to a state that was identical to that of the untreated controls. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed that fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated dextran (150 kDa) was taken up by the MW-treated cells, suggesting that pores had formed within the cell membrane. Cell viability experiments revealed that the MW treatment was not bactericidal, since 88% of the cells were recovered after radiation. It is proposed that one of the effects of exposing E. coli cells to MW radiation under sublethal temperature conditions is that the cell surface undergoes a modification that is electrokinetic in nature, resulting in a reversible MW-induced poration of the cell membrane. PMID:21378041

  17. Isobutyraldehyde production from Escherichia coli by removing aldehyde reductase activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing global demand and reliance on petroleum-derived chemicals will necessitate alternative sources for chemical feedstocks. Currently, 99% of chemical feedstocks are derived from petroleum and natural gas. Renewable methods for producing important chemical feedstocks largely remain unaddressed. Synthetic biology enables the renewable production of various chemicals from microorganisms by constructing unique metabolic pathways. Here, we engineer Escherichia coli for the production of isobutyraldehyde, which can be readily converted to various hydrocarbons currently derived from petroleum such as isobutyric acid, acetal, oxime and imine using existing chemical catalysis. Isobutyraldehyde can be readily stripped from cultures during production, which reduces toxic effects of isobutyraldehyde. Results We adopted the isobutanol pathway previously constructed in E. coli, neglecting the last step in the pathway where isobutyraldehyde is converted to isobutanol. However, this strain still overwhelmingly produced isobutanol (1.5?g/L/OD600 (isobutanol) vs 0.14?g/L/OD600 (isobutyraldehyde)). Next, we deleted yqhD which encodes a broad-substrate range aldehyde reductase known to be active toward isobutyraldehyde. This strain produced isobutanol and isobutyraldehyde at a near 1:1 ratio, indicating further native isobutyraldehyde reductase (IBR) activity in E. coli. To further eliminate isobutanol formation, we set out to identify and remove the remaining IBRs from the E. coli genome. We identified 7 annotated genes coding for IBRs that could be active toward isobutyraldehyde: adhP, eutG, yiaY, yjgB, betA, fucO, eutE. Individual deletions of the genes yielded only marginal improvements. Therefore, we sequentially deleted all seven of the genes and assessed production. The combined deletions greatly increased isobutyraldehyde production (1.5?g/L/OD600) and decreased isobutanol production (0.4?g/L/OD600). By assessing production by overexpression of each candidate IBR, we reveal that AdhP, EutG, YjgB, and FucO are active toward isobutyraldehyde. Finally, we assessed long-term isobutyraldehyde production of our best strain containing a total of 15 gene deletions using a gas stripping system with in situ product removal, resulting in a final titer of 35?g/L after 5?days. Conclusions In this work, we optimized E. coli for the production of the important chemical feedstock isobutyraldehyde by the removal of IBRs. Long-term production yielded industrially relevant titers of isobutyraldehyde with in situ product removal. The mutational load imparted on E. coli in this work demonstrates the versatility of metabolic engineering for strain improvements. PMID:22731523

  18. Phenotypic bistability in Escherichia coli's central carbon metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kotte, Oliver; Volkmer, Benjamin; Radzikowski, Jakub L; Heinemann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in intracellular molecule abundance can lead to distinct, coexisting phenotypes in isogenic populations. Although metabolism continuously adapts to unpredictable environmental changes, and although bistability was found in certain substrate-uptake pathways, central carbon metabolism is thought to operate deterministically. Here, we combine experiment and theory to demonstrate that a clonal Escherichia coli population splits into two stochastically generated phenotypic subpopulations after glucose-gluconeogenic substrate shifts. Most cells refrain from growth, entering a dormant persister state that manifests as a lag phase in the population growth curve. The subpopulation-generating mechanism resides at the metabolic core, overarches the metabolic and transcriptional networks, and only allows the growth of cells initially achieving sufficiently high gluconeogenic flux. Thus, central metabolism does not ensure the gluconeogenic growth of individual cells, but uses a population-level adaptation resulting in responsive diversification upon nutrient changes. PMID:24987115

  19. Chromatographic Analysis of the Escherichia coli Polysialic Acid Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Susan M.; Vimr, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Polysialic acid capsules are the major virulence factors in Escherichia coli K1, K92, and groups B and C meningococci. The sialic acid monomers (2-keto-3-deoxy-5-acetamido-7,8,9-d-glycero-d-galacto-nonulosonic acids) comprising these homopolymeric polysaccharide chains can be selectively modified with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxy-benzene to produce highly fluorescent quinoxalinone derivatives distinguished by their elution times during reverse phase chromatography. Here, we describe methods to release the constituent capsular polysialic acid monomers, detect, and quantify them by sensitive fluorometry. There are relatively few 2-keto acids in bacteria, making it possible to rapidly analyze samples even without prior purification of capsular polysaccharides. PMID:23299731

  20. Structure of the Cyclomodulin Cif from Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Y.; Jubelin, G; Taieb, F; Nougayrčde, J; Oswald, E; Stebbins, C

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens have evolved a sophisticated arsenal of virulence factors to modulate host cell biology. Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) use a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) to inject microbial proteins into host cells. The T3SS effector cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) produced by EPEC and EHEC is able to block host eukaryotic cell-cycle progression. We present here a crystal structure of Cif, revealing it to be a divergent member of the superfamily of enzymes including cysteine proteases and acetyltransferases that share a common catalytic triad. Mutation of these conserved active site residues abolishes the ability of Cif to block cell-cycle progression. Finally, we demonstrate that irreversible cysteine protease inhibitors do not abolish the Cif cytopathic effect, suggesting that another enzymatic activity may underlie the biological activity of this virulence factor.

  1. Programming a Pavlovian-like conditioning circuit in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haoqian; Lin, Min; Shi, Handuo; Ji, Weiyue; Huang, Longwen; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Shen, Shan; Gao, Rencheng; Wu, Shuke; Tian, Chengzhe; Yang, Zhenglin; Zhang, Guosheng; He, Siheng; Wang, Hao; Saw, Tiffany; Chen, Yiwei; Ouyang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic genetic circuits are programmed in living cells to perform predetermined cellular functions. However, designing higher-order genetic circuits for sophisticated cellular activities remains a substantial challenge. Here we program a genetic circuit that executes Pavlovian-like conditioning, an archetypical sequential-logic function, in Escherichia coli. The circuit design is first specified by the subfunctions that are necessary for the single simultaneous conditioning, and is further genetically implemented using four function modules. During this process, quantitative analysis is applied to the optimization of the modules and fine-tuning of the interconnections. Analogous to classical Pavlovian conditioning, the resultant circuit enables the cells to respond to a certain stimulus only after a conditioning process. We show that, although the conditioning is digital in single cells, a dynamically progressive conditioning process emerges at the population level. This circuit, together with its rational design strategy, is a key step towards the implementation of more sophisticated cellular computing.

  2. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli diarrhea in hospitalized children in Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Moyenuddin, M; Rahman, K M

    1985-01-01

    The role of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was evaluated in a group of children with endemic diarrhea admitted to Dhaka Shishu Hospital in Dacca, Bangladesh. EPEC was detected in fecal samples of 23% of 104 cases and 8% of 74 concurrent control children. The most commonly isolated EPEC strains were serogroups O20a, O20c:K61; O20a, O20b:K84; O26:K60; and O18a, O18c:K77. Except for O26:K60, these groups had not been reported from Bangladesh. On testing for enterotoxin production, only two strains (serogroups O26:K60, O18a, and O18c:K77) were enterotoxigenic. None was enteroinvasive as tested in the guinea pig conjunctivitis model. Our study supports the concept that EPEC may be an important cause of endemic diarrhea in Bangladesh. PMID:3902881

  3. A Case of a Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seung-Hak; Kim, Jung-Beom; Park, Yong-Bae; Park, Mi-Sun; Chae, Hiun Suk

    2011-01-01

    We encountered a patient with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with persistent isolation of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) for 3 weeks despite of having no clinical symptoms. STEC has been recognized as an important food-borne pathogen that causes severe diseases such as HUS. We characterized this STEC strain via a polymerase chain reaction, reverse-passive latex agglutination and the slide agglutination method. In this STEC strain, stx2 (shiga toxin), eaeA, tir, iha (adherence genes), espADB (type III secretion genes), and hlyA, ehxA, clyA (hemolysin genes) were present. The O antigen of the strain was non-typable. PMID:22028174

  4. Engineering Escherichia coli for fumaric acid production from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhiwen; Tang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Xueming

    2014-12-01

    The evolved mutant Escherichia coli E2 previously developed for succinate production from glycerol was engineered in this study for fumaric acid production under aerobic conditions. Through deletion of three fumarases, 3.65g/L fumaric acid was produced with the yield of 0.25mol/mol glycerol and a large amount of acetate was accumulated as the main byproduct. In order to reduce acetate production several strategies were attempted, among which increasing the flux of the anaplerotic pathways through overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene ppc or the glyoxylate shunt operon aceBA effectively reduced acetate and improved fumaric acid production. In fed-batch culture, the resulting strain EF02(pSCppc) produced 41.5g/L fumaric acid from glycerol with 70% of the maximum theoretical yield and an overall productivity of 0.51g/L/h. PMID:25463785

  5. Termination structures in the Escherichia coli chromosome replication fork trap.

    PubMed

    Duggin, Iain G; Bell, Stephen D

    2009-04-01

    The Escherichia coli chromosome contains two opposed sets of unidirectional DNA replication pause (Ter) sites that, according to the replication fork trap theory, control the termination of chromosome replication by restricting replication fork fusion to the terminus region. In contrast, a recent hypothesis suggested that termination occurs at the dif locus instead. Using two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, we examined DNA replication intermediates at the Ter sites and at dif in wild-type cells. Two definitive signatures of site-specific termination--specific replication fork arrest and converging replication forks--were clearly detected at Ter sites, but not at dif. We also detected a significant pause during the latter stages of replication fork convergence at Ter sites. Quantification of fork pausing at the Ter sites in both their native chromosomal context and the plasmid context further supported the fork trap model. PMID:19233209

  6. Intramolecular dynamics of structure of alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazhul, Vladimir M.; Mjakinnik, Igor V.; Volkova, Alena N.

    1995-01-01

    The luminescent analysis with nano- and millisecond time resolution of intramolecular dynamics of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase was carried out. The effect of pH within the range 7.2 - 9.0, thermal inactivation, limited proteolysis by trypsin, binding of pyrophosphate, interconversion of enzyme and apoenzyme, the replacement of Zn2+ and Mg2+ in the active site by Cd2+ and Ni2+ on the spectral and kinetic parameters of luminescence was investigated. The essential changes of the level of nano- and millisecond dynamics of protein structure were found to correlate with the shift of enzymatic activity. The importance of small- and large-scale flexibility of protein structure for the act of enzymatic catalysis realization was shown.

  7. Detergent (sodium dodecyl sulfate) shock proteins in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Adamowicz, M.; Kelley, P.M.; Nickerson, K.W. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The protein composition of Escherichia coli W3110 grown in the presence and absence of 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In SDS-grown cells, at least 4 proteins were turned on, 13 were turned off, 15 were elevated, and 15 were depressed. The 19 unique and elevated SDS-induced spots constituted 7.91% of the total 35S-labeled protein. There was no apparent overlap between these 19 detergent (SDS) stress proteins and those of other known bacterial stress responses. The detergent stress stimulon is a distinct and independent stimulon. Its physiological relevance probably derives from the presence of bile salts in animal gastrointestinal tracts.

  8. Engineering Escherichia coli to synthesize free fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Lennen, Rebecca M.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid metabolism has received significant attention as a route for producing high-energy density, liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleochemicals from renewable feedstocks. If microbes can be engineered to produce these compounds at yields that approach the theoretical limits of 0.3–0.4 g/g glucose, then processes can be developed to replace current petrochemical technologies. Here, we review recent metabolic engineering efforts to maximize production of free fatty acids (FFA) in Escherichia coli, the first step towards production of downstream products. To date, metabolic engineers have succeeded in achieving higher yields of FFA than any downstream products. Regulation of fatty acid metabolism and the physiological effects of fatty acid production will also be reviewed from the perspective of identifying future engineering targets. PMID:23102412

  9. Phenotypic bistability in Escherichia coli's central carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kotte, Oliver; Volkmer, Benjamin; Radzikowski, Jakub L; Heinemann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in intracellular molecule abundance can lead to distinct, coexisting phenotypes in isogenic populations. Although metabolism continuously adapts to unpredictable environmental changes, and although bistability was found in certain substrate-uptake pathways, central carbon metabolism is thought to operate deterministically. Here, we combine experiment and theory to demonstrate that a clonal Escherichia coli population splits into two stochastically generated phenotypic subpopulations after glucose-gluconeogenic substrate shifts. Most cells refrain from growth, entering a dormant persister state that manifests as a lag phase in the population growth curve. The subpopulation-generating mechanism resides at the metabolic core, overarches the metabolic and transcriptional networks, and only allows the growth of cells initially achieving sufficiently high gluconeogenic flux. Thus, central metabolism does not ensure the gluconeogenic growth of individual cells, but uses a population-level adaptation resulting in responsive diversification upon nutrient changes. PMID:24987115

  10. Production of human tetraspanin proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tarry, Michael; Skaar, Karin; Heijne, Gunnar von; Draheim, Roger R; Högbom, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Tetraspanins are found in multicellular eukaryotes and are generally thought to act as scaffolding proteins, localizing multiple proteins to a specific region of the cell membrane. Activities for tetraspanins have been identified in several fundamental processes such as motility, cell adhesion, proliferation and viral entry. Tetraspanins are also key players in cancer development and progression. However, structural and biochemical information on tetraspanins is decidely limited, due in no small part to the difficulties associated with expressing eukaryotic membrane proteins. In this study, we have used GFP fusions of a library of human tetraspanin proteins to identify growth conditions for expression in Escherichia coli. Three tetraspanin-GFP proteins could be produced at high enough levels to allow subsequent purification, paving the way for future structural and biochemical studies. PMID:22381464

  11. Bloody coli: a Gene Cocktail in Escherichia coli O104:H4

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Fernando; Tobes, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A recent study published in mBio [Y. H. Grad et al., mBio 4(1):e00452-12, 2013] indicates that a rapid introgressive evolution has occurred in Escherichia coli O104:H4 by sequential acquisition of foreign genetic material involving pathogenicity traits. O104 genetic promiscuity cannot be readily explained by high population sizes. However, extensive interactions leading to cumulative assemblies of pathogenicity genes might be assured by small K-strategist populations exploiting particular intestinal niches. Next-generation sequencing technologies will be critical to detect particular “gene cocktails” as potentially pathogenic ensembles and to predict the risk of future outbreaks. PMID:23422408

  12. Mutator specificity of Escherichia coli alkB117 allele.

    PubMed

    Nieminuszczy, Jadwiga; Janion, Celina; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta

    2006-01-01

    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein encoded by alkB gene was recently found to repair cytotoxic DNA lesions 1-methyladenine (1-meA) and 3-methylcytosine (3-meC) by using a novel iron-catalysed oxidative demethylation mechanism that protects the cell from the toxic effects of methylating agents. Mutation in alkB results in increased sensitivity to MMS and elevated level of MMS-induced mutations. The aim of this study was to analyse the mutational specificity of alkB117 in a system developed by J.H. Miller involving two sets of E. coli lacZ mutants, CC101-106 allowing the identification of base pair substitutions, and CC107-CC111 indicating frameshift mutations. Of the six possible base substitutions, the presence of alkB117 allele led to an increased level of GC-->AT transitions and GC-->TA and AT-->TA transversions. After MMS treatment the level of GC-->AT transitions increased the most, 22-fold. Among frameshift mutations, the most numerous were -2CG, -1G, and -1A deletions and +1G insertion. MMS treatment appreciably increased all of the above types of frameshifts, with additional appearance of the +1A insertion. PMID:16733554

  13. Understanding carbon catabolite repression in Escherichia coli using quantitative models.

    PubMed

    Kremling, A; Geiselmann, J; Ropers, D; de Jong, H

    2015-02-01

    Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) controls the order in which different carbon sources are metabolized. Although this system is one of the paradigms of the regulation of gene expression in bacteria, the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. CCR involves the coordination of different subsystems of the cell that are responsible for the uptake of carbon sources, their breakdown for the production of energy and precursors, and the conversion of the latter to biomass. The complexity of this integrated system, with regulatory mechanisms cutting across metabolism, gene expression, and signaling, and that are subject to global physical and physiological constraints, has motivated important modeling efforts over the past four decades, especially in the enterobacterium Escherichia coli. Different hypotheses concerning the dynamic functioning of the system have been explored by a variety of modeling approaches. We review these studies and summarize their contributions to the quantitative understanding of CCR, focusing on diauxic growth in E. coli. Moreover, we propose a highly simplified representation of diauxic growth that makes it possible to bring out the salient features of the models proposed in the literature and confront and compare the explanations they provide. PMID:25475882

  14. Association between Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance in Escherichia coli?

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Miika; Nyberg, Solja T.; Huovinen, Pentti; Paakkari, Pirkko; Hakanen, Antti J.

    2009-01-01

    During a 9-year study period from 1997 through 2005, the association between antimicrobial resistance rates in Escherichia coli and outpatient antimicrobial consumption was investigated in 20 hospital districts in Finland. A total of 754,293 E. coli isolates, mainly from urine samples, were tested for antimicrobial resistance in 26 clinical microbiology laboratories. The following antimicrobials were studied: ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pivmecillinam, and nitrofurantoin. We applied a protocol used in earlier studies in which the level of antimicrobial consumption over 1 year was compared with the level of resistance in the next year. Statistically significant associations were found for nitrofurantoin use versus nitrofurantoin resistance (P < 0.0001), cephalosporin use versus nitrofurantoin resistance (P = 0.0293), amoxicillin use versus fluoroquinolone resistance (P = 0.0031), and fluoroquinolone use versus ampicillin resistance (P = 0.0046). Interestingly, we found only a few associations between resistance and antimicrobial consumption. The majority of the associations studied were not significant, including the association between fluoroquinolone use and fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:19104012

  15. Temperature-sensitive autolysis-defective mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Harkness, R E; Ishiguro, E E

    1983-01-01

    Two independently isolated temperature-sensitive autolysis-defective mutants of Escherichia coli LD5 (thi lysA dapD) were characterized. The mutants were isolated by screening the survivors of a three-step enrichment process involving sequential treatments with bactericidal concentrations of D-cycloserine, benzyl-penicillin, and D-cycloserine at 42 degrees C. Cultures of the mutants underwent autolysis during beta-lactam treatment, D-cycloserine treatment, or diaminopimelic acid deprivation at 30 degrees C. The same treatments at 42 degrees C inhibited growth but did not induce lysis of the mutants. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of selected beta-lactam antibiotics and D-cycloserine were identical for the parent and mutant strains at both 30 and 42 degrees C. Both mutants failed to form colonies at 42 degrees C, and both gave rise to spontaneous temperature-resistant revertants. The revertants exhibited the normal lytic response when treated with D-cycloserine and beta-lactams or when deprived of diaminopimelic acid at 42 degrees C. The basis for the autolysis-defective phenotype of these mutants could not be determined. However, a nonspecific in vitro assay for peptidoglycan hydrolase activity in cell-free extracts indicated that both mutants were deficient in a peptidoglycan hydrolase. Both mutations were localized to the 56- to 61-min region of the E. coli chromosome by F' complementation. PMID:6134714

  16. Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase expression is cell cycle regulated.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, L; Fuchs, J A

    1992-01-01

    The expression of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase in Escherichia coli was investigated in cultures synchronized by obtaining the smallest cells in a population after sucrose gradient centrifugation. Specific activity of ribonucleotide reductase and DNA initiation were found to increase in parallel, periodically as a function of the cell cycle. The expression of nrd was also determined in cells synchronized by periodic repeated doubling in a phosphate limited medium. Antibodies directed against the B2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase were raised in a rabbit and purified. Immunoprecipitation of the B2 subunit and RNA-DNA dot blot hybridization assays were developed and employed to determine the expression of ribonucleotide reductase translational and transcriptional products during the cell cycle. Both of nrd-mRNA and B2 subunit expression were found to increase each generation at approximately the same time DNA synthesis was initiated and then to decrease back to the basal level shortly after DNA initiation. These results provided evidence of cell cycle dependent regulation of ribonucleotide reductase in E. coli. When the upstream regulatory region of nrd was fused to a promoterless lacZ gene on a single copy plasmid, lac-mRNA and beta-galactosidase were found to be synthesized in parallel to nrd expression from the chromosomal operon. When nrd sequences surrounding the promoter were removed from this construct, lac-mRNA and beta-galactosidase synthesis were no longer cell cycle regulated. Images PMID:1384814

  17. Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Olsen, Katharina E. P.; Struve, Carsten; Petersen, Andreas Munk

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) represents a heterogeneous group of E. coli strains. The pathogenicity and clinical relevance of these bacteria are still controversial. In this review, we describe the clinical significance of EAEC regarding patterns of infection in humans, transmission, reservoirs, and symptoms. Manifestations associated with EAEC infection include watery diarrhea, mucoid diarrhea, low-grade fever, nausea, tenesmus, and borborygmi. In early studies, EAEC was considered to be an opportunistic pathogen associated with diarrhea in HIV patients and in malnourished children in developing countries. In recent studies, associations with traveler's diarrhea, the occurrence of diarrhea cases in industrialized countries, and outbreaks of diarrhea in Europe and Asia have been reported. In the spring of 2011, a large outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and hemorrhagic colitis occurred in Germany due to an EAEC O104:H4 strain, causing 54 deaths and 855 cases of HUS. This strain produces the potent Shiga toxin along with the aggregative fimbriae. An outbreak of urinary tract infection associated with EAEC in Copenhagen, Denmark, occurred in 1991; this involved extensive production of biofilm, an important characteristic of the pathogenicity of EAEC. However, the heterogeneity of EAEC continues to complicate diagnostics and also our understanding of pathogenicity. PMID:24982324

  18. Enhanced Deletion Formation by Aberrant DNA Replication in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Saveson, C. J.; Lovett, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    Repeated genes and sequences are prone to genetic rearrangements including deletions. We have investigated deletion formation in Escherichia coli strains mutant for various replication functions. Deletion was selected between 787 base pair tandem repeats carried either on a ColE1-derived plasmid or on the E. coli chromosome. Only mutations in functions associated with DNA Polymerase III elevated deletion rates in our assays. Especially large increases were observed in strains mutant in dnaQ, the ? editing subunit of Pol III, and dnaB, the replication fork helicase. Mutations in several other functions also altered deletion formation: the ? polymerase (dnaE), the ? clamp loader complex (holC, dnaX), and the ? clamp (dnaN) subunits of Pol III and the primosomal proteins, dnaC and priA. Aberrant replication stimulated deletions through several pathways. Whereas the elevation in dnaB strains was mostly recA- and lexA-dependent, that in dnaQ strains was mostly recA- and lexA-independent. Deletion product analysis suggested that slipped mispairing, producing monomeric replicon products, may be preferentially increased in a dnaQ mutant and sister-strand exchange, producing dimeric replicon products, may be elevated in dnaE mutants. We conclude that aberrant Polymerase III replication can stimulate deletion events through several mechanisms of deletion and via both recA-dependent and independent pathways. PMID:9177997

  19. Porin activity in the osmotic shock fluid of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Benz, R; Boehler-Kohler, B A; Dieterle, R; Boos, W

    1978-01-01

    Osmotic shock fluid of Escherichia coli exhibited pore-forming activity. This activity could be followed by an in vitro assay based on the conductivity increase for ions due to the presence of pores in black lipid membranes. The histogram (the distribution of conductivity increments in a single pore experiment) obtained with osmotic shock fluid from E. coli was identical to the histogram obtained by detergent-solubilized porin isolated from the outer membrane. The osmotic shock fluid from porin-negative mutants also exhibited pore activity, although the histogram and ion specificity were different from those of porin. Antibodies raised against detergent-solubilized porin were able to form precipitin lines by the Ouchterlony immunodiffusion technique when shock fluids, but not detergent-solubilized porin, were used. These antibodies prevented the formation of pores when shock fluids contained porin but not when shock fluids obtained from porin-negative mutants were used. Macroscopic membrane conductivity of shock fluids due to porin exhibited a concentration dependence, in contrast to detergent-solubilized porin. These results indicate that the hydrodynamic properties of periplasmic or "soluble" porin are different from those of the detergent-solubilized porin of the outer membrane. Periplasmic porin comprises about 0.7% of total protein in the osmotic shock fluid. Images PMID:357415

  20. Wobble decoding by the Escherichia coli selenocysteine insertion machinery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianqiang; Croitoru, Victor; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Cheng, Qing; Arnér, Elias S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Selenoprotein expression in Escherichia coli redefines specific single UGA codons from translational termination to selenocysteine (Sec) insertion. This process requires the presence of a Sec Insertion Sequence (SECIS) in the mRNA, which forms a secondary structure that binds a unique Sec-specific elongation factor that catalyzes Sec insertion at the predefined UGA instead of release factor 2-mediated termination. During overproduction of recombinant selenoproteins, this process nonetheless typically results in expression of UGA-truncated products together with the production of recombinant selenoproteins. Here, we found that premature termination can be fully avoided through a SECIS-dependent Sec-mediated suppression of UGG, thereby yielding either tryptophan or Sec insertion without detectable premature truncation. The yield of recombinant selenoprotein produced with this method approached that obtained with a classical UGA codon for Sec insertion. Sec-mediated suppression of UGG thus provides a novel method for selenoprotein production, as here demonstrated with rat thioredoxin reductase. The results also reveal that the E. coli selenoprotein synthesis machinery has the inherent capability to promote wobble decoding. PMID:23982514

  1. Analysis of Heme Biosynthetic Pathways in a Recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pranawidjaja, Stephanie; Choi, Su-In; Lay, Bibiana W; Kim, Pil

    2015-06-28

    Bacterial heme was produced from a genetic-engineered Escherichia coli via the porphyrin pathway and it was useful as an iron resource for animal feed. The amount of the E. colisynthesized heme, however, was only few milligrams in a culture broth and it was not enough for industrial applications. To analyze heme biosynthetic pathways, an engineered E. coli artificially overexpressing ALA synthase (hemA from Rhodobacter sphaeroides) and pantothenate kinase (coaA gene from self geneome) was constructed as a bacterial heme-producing strain, and both the transcription levels of pathway genes and the intermediates concentrations were determined from batch and continuous cultures. Transcription levels of the pathway genes were not significantly changed among the tested conditions. Intracellular intermediate concentrations indicated that aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coenzyme A (CoA) were enhanced by the hemA-coaA co-expression. Intracellular coproporphyrinogen I and protoporphyrin IX accumulation suggested that the bottleneck steps in the heme biosynthetic pathway could be the spontaneous conversion of HMB to coproporphyrinogen I and the limited conversion of protoporphyrin IX to heme, respectively. A strategy to increase the conversion of ALA to heme is discussed based on the results. PMID:25537720

  2. Capture efficiency of Escherichia coli in fimbriae-mediated immunoimmobilization

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Zhiyong; Yang, Xinghong; Deliorman, Muhammedin; Cao, Ling; Avci, Recep

    2012-01-01

    Capturing pathogens on a sensor surface is one of the most important steps in the design of a biosensor. The efficiency of a biosensor at capturing pathogens has direct bearing on its sensitivity. In this work we investigated the capturing of Escherichia coli on substrates modified with antibodies targeting different types of fimbriae: K88ab (F4), K88ac (F4), K99 (F5), 987P (F6), F41 and CFA/I. The results suggest that all these fimbriae can be used for the efficient immobilization of living E. coli cells. The immobilization efficiency was affected by the purity and clone type of the antibody and the fimbriae expression level of the bacteria. For a specific fimbriae type, a higher immobilization efficiency was often observed with the monoclonal antibodies. Immunoimmobilization was utilized in an antibody microarray immersed in a mixed culture of pathogens to demonstrate the rapid and simultaneous label-free detection of multiple pathogens within less than an hour using a single test. The capture rate of living pathogens exceeds a single bacterium per 100×100 ?m2 area per half an hour of incubation for a bulk concentration of 105 cfu/ml. PMID:22149536

  3. Analysis of bottled water for Escherichia coli and total coliforms.

    PubMed

    Grant, M A

    1998-03-01

    U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations governing bottled water include microbiological quality guidelines based on coliform counts. Recently, a new MF medium for simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli was developed. This medium, m-ColiBlue24 (m-CB) was compared to m-Endo medium and an International Organization for Standardization standard coliform medium, lactose agar with Tergitol 7. Coliform analysis was conducted on 104 brands of bottled water from 10 countries. Some samples were additionally analyzed for heterotrophic plate count on Pseudomonas sp. populations, including P. aeruginosa. Presumptive coliform colonies were found in 5.8% of the samples with m-CB, 1.9% with m-Endo and 11.5% with lactose agar with Tergitol 7. None of the presumptive coliforms from any of the three media were verified as true coliforms in subsequent analysis. Consequently, the presumptive recovery rates actually represented false-positive error (FPE) rates. The FPE for m-CB and m-Endo were not statistically different (P < 0.05) but the FPE for lactose agar with Tergitol 7 was significantly larger. PMID:9708306

  4. Molecular response of Escherichia coli adhering onto nanoscale topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzello, Loris; Galeone, Antonio; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Virgilio; Sabella, Stefania; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Bacterial adhesion onto abiotic surfaces is an important issue in biology and medicine since understanding the bases of such interaction represents a crucial aspect in the design of safe implant devices with intrinsic antibacterial characteristics. In this framework, we investigated the effects of nanostructured metal substrates on Escherichia coli adhesion and adaptation in order to understand the bio-molecular dynamics ruling the interactions at the interface. In particular, we show how highly controlled nanostructured gold substrates impact the bacterial behavior in terms of morphological changes and lead to modifications in the expression profile of several genes, which are crucially involved in the stress response and fimbrial synthesis. These results mainly demonstrate that E. coli cells are able to sense even slight changes in surface nanotopography and to actively respond by activating stress-related pathways. At the same time, our findings highlight the possibility of designing nanoengineered substrates able to trigger specific bio-molecular effects, thus opening the perspective of smartly tuning bacterial behavior by biomaterial design.

  5. Microbial Synthesis of Myrcene by Metabolically Engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Eom, Jin-Hee; Um, Youngsoon; Kim, Yunje; Woo, Han Min

    2015-05-13

    Myrcene, a monoterpene (C10), has gathered attention as a starting material for high-value compounds, such as geraniol/linalool and (-)-menthol. Metabolic engineering has been successfully applied to produce monoterpenes, such as pinene and limonene, at high levels in microbial hosts. However, microbial synthesis of myrcene has not yet been reported. Thus, we metabolically engineered Escherichia coli for production of myrcene by introducing a heterologous mevalonate pathway and overexpressing tailoring enzymes, such as geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS) and myrcene synthase (MS). Although MSs have broad ranges of functionality for producing various monoterpenes, our engineered E. coli strains harboring MS from Quercus ilex L. produced only myrcene (1.67 ± 0.029 mg/L). Subsequent engineering resulted in higher production of myrcene by optimizing the levels of GPPS in amino-acid-enriched (EZ-rich) defined medium, where glycerol as a carbon source was used. The production level of myrcene (58.19 ± 12.13 mg/L) was enhanced by 34-fold using in situ two-phase extraction to eliminate cellular toxicity and the evaporation of myrcene. PMID:25909988

  6. In vivo immobilization of D-hydantoinase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Yu; Chien, Yi-Wen; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2014-07-01

    D-P-Hydroxyphenylglycine (D-HPG) is a precursor required for the synthesis of semi-synthetic antibiotics. This unnatural amino acid can be produced by a transformation reaction mediated by D-hydantoinase (D-HDT) and d-amidohydrolase. In this study, a method was developed to integrate production and immobilization of recombinant D-HDT in vivo. This was approached by first fusion of the gene encoding D-HDT with phaP (encoding phasin) of Ralstonia eutropha H16. The fusion gene was then expressed in the Escherichia coli strain that carried a heterologous synthetic pathway for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). As a result, d-HDT was found to associate with isolated PHA granules. Further characterization illustrated that D-HDT immobilized on PHA exhibited the maximum activity at pH 9 and 60°C and had a half-life of 95 h at 40°C. Moreover, PHA-bound d-HDT could be reused for 8 times with the conversion yield exceeding 90%. Overall, it illustrates the feasibility of this approach to facilitate in vivo immobilization of enzymes in heterologous E. coli strain, which may open a new avenue of enzyme application in industry. PMID:24508023

  7. Dissecting Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Biogenesis Using Differential Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Martorana, Alessandra M.; Motta, Sara; Di Silvestre, Dario; Falchi, Federica; Dehň, Gianni; Mauri, Pierluigi; Sperandeo, Paola; Polissi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is a complex multi-layered structure comprising an inner cytoplasmic membrane and an additional asymmetric lipid bilayer, the outer membrane, which functions as a selective permeability barrier and is essential for viability. Lipopolysaccharide, an essential glycolipid located in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane, greatly contributes to the peculiar properties exhibited by the outer membrane. This complex molecule is transported to the cell surface by a molecular machine composed of seven essential proteins LptABCDEFG that form a transenvelope complex and function as a single device. While advances in understanding the mechanisms that govern the biogenesis of the cell envelope have been recently made, only few studies are available on how bacterial cells respond to severe envelope biogenesis defects on a global scale. Here we report the use of differential proteomics based on Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) to investigate how Escherichia coli cells respond to a block of lipopolysaccharide transport to the outer membrane. We analysed the envelope proteome of a lptC conditional mutant grown under permissive and non permissive conditions and identified 123 proteins whose level is modulated upon LptC depletion. Most such proteins belong to pathways implicated in cell envelope biogenesis, peptidoglycan remodelling, cell division and protein folding. Overall these data contribute to our understanding on how E. coli cells respond to LPS transport defects to restore outer membrane functionality. PMID:24967819

  8. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertke, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    At some coastal beaches, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria can differ substantially between multiple points at the same beach at the same time. Because of this spatial variability, the recreational water quality at beaches is sometimes determined by stratifying a beach into several areas and collecting a sample from each area to analyze for the concentration of fecal-indicator bacteria. The average concentration of bacteria from those points is often used to compare to the recreational standard for advisory postings. Alternatively, if funds are limited, a single sample is collected to represent the beach. Compositing the samples collected from each section of the beach may yield equally accurate data as averaging concentrations from multiple points, at a reduced cost. In the study described herein, water samples were collected at multiple points from three Lake Erie beaches and analyzed for Escherichia coli on modified mTEC agar (EPA Method 1603). From the multiple-point samples, a composite sample (n = 116) was formed at each beach by combining equal aliquots of well-mixed water from each point. Results from this study indicate that E. coli concentrations from the arithmetic average of multiple-point samples and from composited samples are not significantly different (t = 1.59, p = 0.1139) and yield similar measures of recreational water quality; additionally, composite samples could result in a significant cost savings.

  9. Gene transcription and chromosome replication in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhou, P; Bogan, J A; Welch, K; Pickett, S R; Wang, H J; Zaritsky, A; Helmstetter, C E

    1997-01-01

    Transcript levels of several Escherichia coli genes involved in chromosome replication and cell division were measured in dnaC2(Ts) mutants synchronized for chromosome replication by temperature shifts. Levels of transcripts from four of the genes, dam, nrdA, mukB, and seqA, were reduced at a certain stage during chromosome replication. The magnitudes of the decreases were similar to those reported previously ftsQ and ftsZ (P. Zhou and C. E. Helmstetter, J. Bacteriol. 176:6100-6106, 1994) but considerably less than those seen with dnaA, gidA, and mioC (P. W. Theisen, J. E. Grimwade, A. C. Leonard, J. A. Bogan, and C. E. Helmstetter, Mol. Microbiol. 10:575-584, 1993). The decreases in transcripts appeared to correlate with the estimated time at which the genes replicated. This same conclusion was reached in studies with synchronous cultures obtained with the baby machine in those instances in which periodicities in transcript levels were clearly evident. The transcriptional levels for two genes, minE and tus, did not fluctuate significantly, whereas the transcripts for one gene, iciA, appeared to increase transiently. The results support the idea that cell cycle timing in E. coli is not governed by timed bursts of gene expression, since the overall findings summarized in this report are generally consistent with cell cycle-dependent transient inhibitions of transcription rather than stimulations. PMID:8981994

  10. Photoreactivation of Escherichia coli is impaired at high growth temperatures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Tian, Changqing; Lu, Xiaohua; Ling, Liefeng; Lv, Jun; Wu, Mingcai; Zhu, Guoping

    2015-06-01

    Photolyase repairs UV-induced lesions in DNA using light energy, which is the principle of photoreactivation. Active photolyase contains the two-electron-reduced flavin cofactor. We observed that photoreactivation of Escherichia coli was impaired at growth temperatures ?37°C, and growth in this temperature range also resulted in decreased photolyase protein levels in the cells. However, the levels of phr transcripts (encoding photolyase) were almost unchanged at the various growth temperatures. A lacZ-reporter under transcriptional control of the phr promoter showed no temperature-dependent expression. However, a translational reporter consisting of the photolyase N-terminal ?/? domain-LacZ fusion protein exhibited lower ?-galactosidase activity at high growth temperatures (37-42°C). These results indicated that the change in photolyase levels at different growth temperatures is post-transcriptional in nature. Limited proteolysis identified several susceptible cleavage sites in E. coli photolyase. In vitro differential scanning calorimetry and activity assays revealed that denaturation of active photolyase occurs at temperatures ?37°C, while apo-photolyase unfolds at temperatures ?25°C. Evidence from temperature-shift experiments also implies that active photolyase is protected from thermal unfolding and proteolysis in vivo, even at 42°C. These results suggest that thermal unfolding and proteolysis of newly synthesized apo-photolyase, but not active photolyase, is responsible for the impaired photoreactivation at high growth temperatures (37-42°C). PMID:25839748

  11. Metabolic engineering of itaconate production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vuoristo, Kiira S; Mars, Astrid E; Sangra, Jose Vidal; Springer, Jan; Eggink, Gerrit; Sanders, Johan P M; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2015-01-01

    Interest in sustainable development has led to efforts to replace petrochemical-based monomers with biomass-based ones. Itaconic acid, a C5-dicarboxylic acid, is a potential monomer for the chemical industry with many prospective applications. cis-aconitate decarboxylase (CadA) is the key enzyme of itaconate production, converting the citric acid cycle intermediate cis-aconitate into itaconate. Heterologous expression of cadA from Aspergillus terreus in Escherichia coli resulted in low CadA activities and production of trace amounts of itaconate on Luria-Bertani (LB) medium (<10 mg/L). CadA was primarily present as inclusion bodies, explaining the low activity. The activity was significantly improved by using lower cultivation temperatures and mineral medium, and this resulted in enhanced itaconate titres (240 mg/L). The itaconate titre was further increased by introducing citrate synthase and aconitase from Corynebacterium glutamicum and by deleting the genes encoding phosphate acetyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. These deletions in E. coli's central metabolism resulted in the accumulation of pyruvate, which is a precursor for itaconate biosynthesis. As a result, itaconate production in aerobic bioreactor cultures was increased up to 690 mg/L. The maximum yield obtained was 0.09 mol itaconate/mol glucose. Strategies for a further improvement of itaconate production are discussed. PMID:25277412

  12. Ultraviolet-Sensitive Mutator Strain of Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Eli C.

    1973-01-01

    An ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive mutator gene, mutU, was identified in Escherichia coli K-12. The mutation mutU4 is very close to uvrD, between metE and ilv, on the E. coli chromosome. It was recessive as a mutator and as a UV-sensitive mutation. The frequency of reversion of trpA46 on an F episome was increased by mutU4 on the chromosome. The mutator gene did not increase mutation frequencies in virulent phages or in lytically grown phage ?. The mutU4 mutation predominantly induced transitional base changes. Mutator strains were normal for recombination and host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated phage T1. They were normally resistant to methyl methanesulfonate and were slightly more sensitive to gamma irradiation than Mut+ strains. UV irradiation induced mutations in a mutU4 strain, and phage ? was UV-inducible. Double mutants containing mutU4 and recA, B, or C were extremely sensitive to UV irradiation; a mutU4 uvrA6 double mutant was only slightly more sensitive than a uvrA6 strain. The mutU4 uvrA6 and mutU4 recA, B, or C double mutants had mutation rates similar to that of a mutU4 strain. Two UV-sensitive mutators, mut-9 and mut-10, isolated by Liberfarb and Bryson in E. coli B/UV, were found to be co-transducible with ilv in the same general region as mutU4. PMID:4345920

  13. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-01-01

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless “stored” growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan. PMID:24821776

  14. Modifying thermostability of appA from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weihua; Qiao, Dairong; Huang, Min; Yang, Ge; Xu, Hui; Cao, Yi

    2010-10-01

    In order to improve the thermostability of Escherichia coli AppA phytase, Error-prone PCR was used to randomize mutagenesis appA gene, and a gene mutation library was constructed. A mutant I408L was selected from the library by the method of high-throughput screening with 4-methyl-umbelliferylphosphate (4-MUP). The appA gene of the mutant was cloned and expressed in E. coli Origami (DE3). The recombinant protein was purified by Ni-affinity chromatography, and the enzymatic features were analyzed. The results indicated that AppA phytase activities of mutant I408L and wild-type (WT) strain remained at 51.3 and 28%, respectively, after treatment at 85°C for 5 min. It means that the thermostability enhancement of AppA phytase I408L was 23.3% more as compared with WT. The K (m) of both phytase were 0.18 and 0.25 mM, respectively, which indicated that the catalyzing efficiency of I408L was improved. AppA phytase of mutant I408L showed a significant enhancement against trypsin, which was nearly three times compared with WT. In addition, AppA phytase of mutant could be activated by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+); in contrast, it could be inhibited by Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), and K(+) in varying degrees, and the enzymatic activity was almost lost the presence of Fe(3+) and Zn(2+). It appears that screening thermotolerant phytase of E. coli by high throughput screening with a fluorescence substrate is a fast, simple, and effective method. The mutant I408L obtained in this study could be used for the large-scale commercial production of phytase. PMID:20213104

  15. Optimizing Escherichia coli's metabolism for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, Ismael U.

    In the last few years there have been many publications about applications that center on the generation of electrons from bacterial cells. These applications take advantage of the catabolic diversity of microbes to generate electrical power. The practicality of these applications depends on the microorganism's ability to effectively donate electrons, either directly to the electrode or indirectly through the use of a mediator. After establishing the limitations of electrical output in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) imposed by the bacterial cells, a spectrophotometric assay measuring the indirect reduction of the electronophore neutral red via iron reduction was used to measure electron production from Escherichia coli resting cells. Using this assay I identified NADH dehydrogenase I as a likely site of neutral red reduction. The only previously reported site of interaction between E. coli cells and NR is at the hydrogenases. Although we cannot rule out the possibility that NR is reduced by soluble hydrogenases in the cytoplasm, this previous report indicated that hydrogenase activity does not account for all of the NR reduction activity. Supporting this, data in this thesis suggest that the hydrogenases play a small role in NR reduction. It seems that NR reduction is largely taking place within the cytoplasmic membrane of the bacterial cells, serving as a substrate of enzymes that typically reduce quinones. Furthermore, it seems that under the experimental conditions used here, E. coli's catabolism of glucose is rather inefficient. Instead of using the complete TCA cycle, the bacterial cells are carrying out fermentation, leading to incomplete oxidation of the fuel and low yields of electrons. The results obtained from the TC31 strain suggest that eliminating fermentation pathways to improve NR reduction was the correct approach. Following up on this a new strain was created, KN02, which, in addition to the mutations on strain TC31, lacks acetate kinase activity.

  16. Escherichia coli is unable to produce pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ).

    PubMed

    Matsushita, K; Arents, J C; Bader, R; Yamada, M; Adachi, O; Postma, P W

    1997-10-01

    Many bacteria can synthesize the cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor of several dehydrogenases, including glucose dehydrogenase (GCD). Among the enteric bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae has been shown to contain the genes required for PQQ biosynthesis. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium were thought to be unable to synthesize PQQ but it has been reported that strain EF260, a derivative of E. coli FB8, can synthesize PQQ after mutation and can oxidize glucose to gluconate via the GCD/PQQ pathway (F. Biville, E. Turlin & F. Gasser, 1991, J Gen Microbiol 137, 1775-1782). We have re-investigated this claim and conclude that it is most likely erroneous. (i) Strain EF260, isolated originally by Biville and coworkers, was unable to synthesize a holo-enzyme GCD unless PQQ was supplied to the growth medium. No GCD activity could be detected in membrane fractions. (ii) The amount of PQQ detected in the growth medium of EF260 was very low and not very different from that found in a medium with its parent strain or in a medium containing no cells. (iii) EF260 cells were unable to produce gluconate from glucose via the PQQ/GCD pathway. (iv) Introduction of a gcd::Cm deletion in EF260, eliminating GCD, did not affect glucose metabolism. This suggested a pathway for glucose metabolism other than the PQQ/GCD pathway. (v) Glucose uptake and metabolism in EF260 involved a low-affinity transport system of unknown identity, followed most likely by phosphorylation via glucokinase. It is concluded that E. coli cannot synthesize PQQ and that it lacks genes required for PQQ biosynthesis. PMID:9353919

  17. High-yield anthocyanin biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yajun; Li, Zhen; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2008-05-01

    Anthocyanins are red, purple, or blue plant water-soluble pigments. In the past two decades, anthocyanins have received extensive studies for their anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, and cardioprotective properties. In the present study, anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes from different plant species were characterized and employed for pathway construction leading from inexpensive precursors such as flavanones and flavan-3-ols to anthocyanins in Escherichia coli. The recombinant E. coli cells successfully achieved milligram level production of two anthocyanins, pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside (0.98 mg/L) and cyanidin 3-O-gluside (2.07 mg/L) from their respective flavanone precursors naringenin and eriodictyol. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was produced at even higher yields (16.1 mg/L) from its flavan-3-ol, (+)-catechin precursor. Further studies demonstrated that availability of the glucosyl donor, UDP-glucose, was the key metabolic limitation, while product instability at normal pH was also identified as a barrier for production improvement. Therefore, various optimization strategies were employed for enhancing the homogenous synthesis of UDP-glucose in the host cells while at the same time stabilizing the final anthocyanin product. Such optimizations included culture medium pH adjustment, the creation of fusion proteins and the rational manipulation of E. coli metabolic network for improving the intracellular UDP-glucose metabolic pool. As a result, production of pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside at 78.9 mg/L and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside at 70.7 mg/L was achieved from their precursor flavan-3-ols without supplementation with extracellular UDP-glucose. These results demonstrate the efficient production of the core anthocyanins for the first time and open the possibility for their commercialization for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. PMID:18023053

  18. Engineered biosynthesis of an ansamycin polyketide precursor in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Rude, Mathew A.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-01-01

    Ansamycins such as rifamycin, ansamitocin, and geldanamycin are an important class of polyketide natural products. Their biosynthetic pathways are especially complex because they involve the formation of 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA) followed by backbone assembly by a hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase. We have reconstituted the ability to synthesize 2,6-dimethyl-3,5,7-trihydroxy-7-(3?-amino-5?-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4-heptadienoic acid (P8/1-OG), an intermediate in rifamycin biosynthesis, in an extensively manipulated strain of Escherichia coli. The parent strain, BAP1, contains the sfp phosphopantetheinyl transferase gene from Bacillus subtilis, which posttranslationally modifies polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase modules. AHBA biosynthesis in this host required introduction of seven genes from Amycolatopsis mediterranei, which produces rifamycin, and Actinosynnema pretiosum, which produces ansamitocin. Because the four-module RifA protein (530 kDa) from the rifamycin synthetase could not be efficiently produced in an intact form in E. coli, it was genetically split into two bimodular proteins separated by matched linker pairs to facilitate efficient inter-polypeptide transfer of a biosynthetic intermediate. A derivative of BAP1 was engineered that harbors the AHBA biosynthetic operon, the bicistronic RifA construct and the pccB and accA1 genes from Streptomyces coelicolor, which enable methylmalonyl-CoA biosynthesis. Fermentation of this strain of E. coli yielded P8/1-OG, an N-acetyl P8/1-OG analog, and AHBA. In addition to providing a fundamentally new route to shikimate and ansamycin-type compounds, this result enables further genetic manipulation of AHBA-derived polyketide natural products with unprecedented power. PMID:12888623

  19. Binding of collagens to an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Visai, L.; Speziale, P.; Bozzini, S. (Univ. of Pavia (Italy))

    1990-02-01

    An enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli, B34289c, has been shown to bind the N-terminal region of fibronectin with high affinity. We now report that this strain also binds collagen. The binding of 125I-labeled type II collagen to bacteria was time dependent and reversible. Bacteria expressed a limited number of collagen receptors (2.2 x 10(4) per cell) and bound collagen with a Kd of 20 nM. All collagen types tested (I to V) as well as all tested cyanogen bromide-generated peptides (alpha 1(I)CB2, alpha 1(I)CB3, alpha 1(I)CB7, alpha 1(I)CB8, and alpha 2(I)CB4) were recognized by bacterial receptors, as demonstrated by the ability of these proteins to inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled collagen to bacteria. Of several unlabeled proteins tested in competition experiments, fibronectin and its N-terminal region strongly inhibited binding of the radiolabeled collagen to E. coli cells. Conversely, collagen competed with an 125I-labeled 28-kilodalton fibronectin fragment for bacterial binding. Collagen bound to bacteria could be displaced by excess amounts of either unlabeled fibronectin or its N-terminal fragment. Similarly, collagen could displace 125I-labeled N-terminal peptide of fibronectin bound to the bacterial cell surface. Bacteria grown at 41 degrees C or in the presence of glucose did not express collagen or fibronectin receptors. These results indicate the presence of specific binding sites for collagen on the surface of E. coli cells and furthermore that the collagen and fibronectin binding sites are located in close proximity, possibly on the same structure.

  20. Recombinational construction in Escherichia coli of infectious adenoviral?genomes

    PubMed Central

    Crouzet, Joël; Naudin, Laurent; Orsini, Cécile; Vigne, Emmanuelle; Ferrero, Lucy; Le Roux, Aude; Benoit, Patrick; Latta, Martine; Torrent, Christophe; Branellec, Didier; Denčfle, Patrice; Mayaux, Jean-François; Perricaudet, Michel; Yeh, Patrice

    1997-01-01

    A two-step gene replacement procedure was developed that generates infectious adenoviral genomes through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. As a prerequisite, a human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived genome was first introduced as a PacI restriction fragment into an incP-derived replicon which, in contrast to ColE1-derivatives (e.g., pBR322 or pUC plasmids), is functional in a polA mutant of E. coli. Any modification can be introduced at will following two consecutive homologous recombinations between the incP/Ad5 replicon and the ColE1 plasmid. The overall procedure requires only the in vitro engineering of the ColE1-derivative by flanking the desired modification with small stretches of identical sequences. In the first step, a cointegrate between the tetracycline-resistant incP/Ad5 replicon and the kanamycin-resistant ColE1-derivative is selected by growing the polA host in the presence of both antibiotics. Resolution of this cointegrate is further selected in sucrose growth conditions due to the loss of a conditional suicide marker (the sacB gene of Bacillus subtilis) present in the ColE1 plasmid, leading to unmodified and modified incP/Ad5 replicons that can be differentiated upon restriction analysis. Consecutive rounds of this two-step cloning procedure allowed the introduction of multiple independent modifications within the virus genome, with no requirement for an intermediate virus. The potential of this procedure is demonstrated by the recovery of several E1E3E4-deleted adenoviruses following transfection of the corresponding E. coli-derived genomes in IGRP2 cells. PMID:9037067

  1. Improving Microbial Biogasoline Production in Escherichia coli Using Tolerance Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Jee Loon; Jensen, Heather M.; Dahl, Robert H.; George, Kevin; Keasling, Jay D.; Lee, Taek Soon; Leong, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Engineering microbial hosts for the production of fungible fuels requires mitigation of limitations posed on the production capacity. One such limitation arises from the inherent toxicity of solvent-like biofuel compounds to production strains, such as Escherichia coli. Here we show the importance of host engineering for the production of short-chain alcohols by studying the overexpression of genes upregulated in response to exogenous isopentenol. Using systems biology data, we selected 40 genes that were upregulated following isopentenol exposure and subsequently overexpressed them in E. coli. Overexpression of several of these candidates improved tolerance to exogenously added isopentenol. Genes conferring isopentenol tolerance phenotypes belonged to diverse functional groups, such as oxidative stress response (soxS, fpr, and nrdH), general stress response (metR, yqhD, and gidB), heat shock-related response (ibpA), and transport (mdlB). To determine if these genes could also improve isopentenol production, we coexpressed the tolerance-enhancing genes individually with an isopentenol production pathway. Our data show that expression of 6 of the 8 candidates improved the production of isopentenol in E. coli, with the methionine biosynthesis regulator MetR improving the titer for isopentenol production by 55%. Additionally, expression of MdlB, an ABC transporter, facilitated a 12% improvement in isopentenol production. To our knowledge, MdlB is the first example of a transporter that can be used to improve production of a short-chain alcohol and provides a valuable new avenue for host engineering in biogasoline production. PMID:25370492

  2. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    PubMed

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the potential for industrial application. To our knowledge, this represents the most effective engineered microbial system for propionate production with titers and yields comparable to those achieved by anaerobic batch cultivation of various native propionate-producing strains of Propionibacteria. PMID:25948049

  3. Genetic Basis of Persister Tolerance to Aminoglycosides in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Yue; Lazinski, David; Rowe, Sarah; Camilli, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Persisters are dormant variants that form a subpopulation of drug-tolerant cells largely responsible for the recalcitrance of chronic infections. However, our understanding of the genetic basis of antibiotic tolerance remains incomplete. In this study, we applied transposon sequencing (Tn-Seq) to systematically investigate the mechanism of aminoglycoside tolerance in Escherichia coli. We constructed a highly saturated transposon library that covered the majority of E. coli genes and promoter regions and exposed a stationary-phase culture to a lethal dose of gentamicin. Tn-Seq was performed to evaluate the survival of each mutant to gentamicin exposure. We found that the disruption of several distinct pathways affected gentamicin tolerance. We identified 105 disrupted gene/promoter regions with a more than 5-fold reduction in gentamicin tolerance and 37 genes with a more than 5-fold increased tolerance. Functional cluster analysis suggests that deficiency in motility and amino acid synthesis significantly diminished persisters tolerant to gentamicin, without changing the MIC. Amino acid auxotrophs, including serine, threonine, glutamine, and tryptophan auxotrophs, exhibit strongly decreased tolerance to gentamicin, which cannot be restored by supplying the corresponding amino acids to the culture. Interestingly, supplying these amino acids to wild-type E. coli sensitizes stationary-phase cells to gentamicin, possibly through the inhibition of amino acid synthesis. In addition, we found that the deletion of amino acid synthesis genes significantly increases gentamicin uptake in stationary phase, while the deletion of flagellar genes does not affect gentamicin uptake. We conclude that activation of motility and amino acid biosynthesis contributes to the formation of persisters tolerant to gentamicin. PMID:25852159

  4. Escherichia coli mutants induced by multi-ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiqing; Luo, Liaofu

    2012-11-01

    Wild-type Escherichia coli K12 strain W3110 was irradiated by 10 keV nitrogen ions. Specifically, irradiation was performed six times by N(+) ions, followed by the selection of lac constitutive mutants, and each time a stable S55 mutant was produced. By sequencing the whole genome, the fine map of S55 was completed. Compared with reference sequences, a total of eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), two insertions and deletions (Indels), and nine structural variations (SVs) were found in the S55 genome. Among the 18 SNPs, 11 are transversional from A, T or C to G, accounting for 55.6% of point mutations. GCCA insertion occurs in the target gene lacI. Four SNPs, including three in rlpB and one in ygbN, are connected with cell envelope and transport. All nine structural variations of S55 are deletions and contain insertion sequence (IS) elements. Six deleted SVs contain disrupted ISs, nonfunctional pseudogenes, and one more 23 252 bp SV in the Rac prophage region. Overall, our results show that deletion bias observed in E. coli K12 genome evolution is generally related to the deletion of some nonfunctional regions. Furthermore, since ISs are unstable factors in a genome, the multi-ion irradiations that caused these deleted fragments in S55 turn out to be beneficial to genome stability, generating a wider mutational spectrum. Thus, it is possible that the mutation of these genes increases the ability of the E. coli genome to resist etch and damage caused by ion irradiation. PMID:23111758

  5. Diazo transfer and click chemistry in the solid phase syntheses of lysine-based glycodendrimers as antagonists against Escherichia coli FimH.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Alex; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Roy, René

    2012-03-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli infections, ultimately leading to cystitis and pyelonephritis, are initially mediated by the adhesion of the bacterial FimH to the transmembrane glycoprotein uroplakin-1a present at the surface of urothelial cells. The adhesion is based on the recognition and high avidity binding between the high-mannose glycans of the uroplakin and the FimH, a mannose-specific lectin located at the tip of type 1 fimbriae. We found that synthetic multiantennary mannopyranosides glycodendrons, harboring triazole functionality at the anomeric position, were potent hemagglutination inhibitors of guinea pig erythrocytes and E. coli. A mannosylated dendrimer exposing up to sixteen sugar residues showed an HAI titer of 1 ?M and was thus 500-fold more potent than the corresponding monovalent methyl ?-d-mannopyranoside. The synthesis of the glycodendrons involved highly efficient solid-phase synthesis of branched l-lysine scaffolds, diazo transfer reaction on the terminal amine residues, and 1,3-dipolar copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition using propargyl ?-d-mannopyranoside. PMID:22201286

  6. Antibacterial activity of ?-terpineol may induce morphostructural alterations in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Shi, Chaofeng; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Peng, Lianci; Kang, Shuai; Li, Zhengwen

    2014-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of ?-terpineol from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N. Chao leaf essential oils were studied with special reference to the mechanism of inhibiting the standard strain of Escherichia coli (CMCC (B) 44102) growth at ultrastructural level. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill curves of ?-terpineol were determined; Escherichia coli was treated with ?-terpineol and observed under a transmission electron microscope. The MIC and MBC values of ?-terpineol were all 0.78 ?L/mL, and time-kill curves showed the concentration-dependent. Under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Escherichia coli exposed to MIC levels of ?-terpineol exhibited decreased cell size and irregular cell shape, cell wall and cell membrane were ruptured, nucleus cytoplasm was reduced and nuclear area gathered aside. Results suggest that ?-terpineol has excellent antibacterial activity and could induce morphological changes of Escherichia coli. PMID:25763048

  7. Pathway to allostery: differential routes for allosteric communication in phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli 

    E-print Network

    Paricharttanakul, Nilubol Monique

    2005-02-17

    Phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli (EcPFK) is allosterically regulated by MgADP and phospho(enol)pyruvate (PEP). Both molecules compete for binding to the same allosteric site, however, MgADP activates and PEP ...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain W25K

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Liu, Gang; Yin, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Li, Tiejun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Peng, Yuanyi; Hardwidge, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and newly weaned pigs. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of ETEC strain W25K, which causes diarrhea in piglets. PMID:24970825

  9. Surface Characteristics and Adhesion Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7: Role of Extracellular Macromolecules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface macromolecule cleavage experiments were conducted on enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells to investigate the influence of these macromolecules on cell surface properties. Electrophoretic mobility, hydrophobicity, and titration experiments were carried out on proteinase K treate...

  10. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  11. Protocol: Precision engineering of plant gene loci by homologous recombination cloning in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Roden, Laura C; Gottgens, Berthold; Mutasa-Gottgens, Effie S

    2005-09-29

    of genetic engineering tools, based on homologous recombination cloning in Escherichia coli, which are free from the constraints imposed by the availability of suitably positioned restriction sites. Here we describe the basis for homologous recombination...

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli from food and animals in Lagos, Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Foodborne bacteria are often associated with human infections; these infections can become more complicated to treat if the bacteria are also resistant to antimicrobials. In this study, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli among food producing ...

  13. Enterococcus and Escherichia coli fecal source apportionment with microbial source tracking genetic markers - is it feasible?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution is measured in surface waters using culture-based measurements of enterococci and Escherichia coli bacteria. Source apportionment of these two fecal indicator bacteria is an urgent need for prioritizing remediation efforts and quantifying health risks associated...

  14. Escherichia coli class Ib ribonucleotide reductase contains a dimanganese(III)-tyrosyl radical cofactor in vivo

    E-print Network

    Cotruvo, Joseph Alfred

    Escherichia coli class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) converts nucleoside 5?-diphosphates to deoxynucleoside 5?-diphosphates in iron-limited and oxidative stress conditions. We have recently demonstrated in vitro that ...

  15. An active dimanganese(III)-tyrosyl radical cofactor in Escherichia coli class Ib ribonucleotide reductase

    E-print Network

    Cotruvo, Joseph Alfred

    Escherichia coli class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) converts nucleoside 5?-diphosphates to deoxynucleoside 5?-diphosphates and is expressed under iron-limited and oxidative stress conditions. This RNR is composed of ...

  16. DETOXIFICATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES BY IMMOBILIZED ESCHERICHIA COLI EXPRESSING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE ON CELL SURFACE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An improved whole-cell technology for detoxifying organophosphate nerve agents was recently developed based on genetically engineered Escherichia coli with organophosphorus hydrolase anchored on the surface. This article reports the immobilization of these novel biocatalys...

  17. Novel function and regulation of mutagenic DNA polymerases in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Jarosz, Daniel F

    2007-01-01

    The observation that mutations in the Escherichia coli genes umuC+ and umuD+ abolish mutagenesis induced by UV-light strongly supported the counterintuitive notion that such mutagenesis is an active rather than passive ...

  18. Insights on Escherichia coli biofilm formation and inhibition from whole-transcriptome profiling

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Minireview Insights on Escherichia coli biofilm formation and inhibition from whole University, College Station, TX 77843-3122, USA. Summary Biofilms transform independent cells into specialized cell communities. Here are presented some insights into biofilm formation ascertained

  19. Effect of natural antimicrobials against Salmonella, Escherichia coli o157:h7 and Listeria monocytogenes 

    E-print Network

    Cuervo Pliego, Mary Pia

    2009-05-15

    Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes are pathogens that have caught the attention of federal agencies and researchers due to their great economic impact when illnesses occur. To reduce the presence of these pathogens...

  20. IMPACT OF MICROBIAL DIVERSITY ON RAPID DETECTION OF ENTEROHEMORRHAGIC ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SURFACE WATERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli are a physiologically, immunologically and genetically diverse collection of strains that pose a serious water-borne threat to human health. Consequently, rapid assays are needed that consistently detect water-borne enterohemorrhagic strains while excluding closel...

  1. Importance of the Maintenance Pathway in the Regulation of the Activity of Escherichia coli Ribonucleotide Reductase

    E-print Network

    Hristova, Daniela

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides in all organisms. The Escherichia coli class Ia RNR is composed of ? and ? subunits that form an ?[subscript 2]?[subscript 2] ...

  2. ‹drar Örneklerinden ‹zole Edilen Toplum ve Hastane Kaynakl› Escherichia coli Sufllar›nda Antibiyotik Direnci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Füsun Zeynep; Onur KAYA; Güler YAYLI

    2004-01-01

    Gerek toplum kaynakl› gerekse hastane kaynakl› üriner sistem infeksiyonlar›nda en s›k izo- le edilen etken Escherichia coli'dir. Bu çal›flma, bölgemizdeki Escherichia coli sufllar›n›n çe- flitli antibiyotiklere direnç durumlar›n›n belirlenmesi ve ampirik tedavi seçeneklerinde yol gösterici olmas› amac›yla yap›lm›flt›r. 129 toplum kökenli, 120 hastane kökenli suflun, \\

  3. Cloning of an endoglucanase gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens var. cellulosa into Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Lejeune; Charles Colson; Douglas E. Eveleigh

    1986-01-01

    Summary An endoglucanase chromosomal gene from the cellulolyticPseudomonas fluorescens var.cellulosa (NCIB 10462) was cloned inEscherichia coli. Chromosomal DNA was partially digested with the restriction enzymeEcoRI and ligated into the broad host-range, mobilizable plasmid pSUP104 that had been linearized with the same enzyme. After transformation ofEscherichia coli, and endoglucanase-positive clone was detected in situ by use of the Congo-red assay procedure.

  4. Direction of Chain Elongation in the Formation of Escherichia coli Ribosomal Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun Ao Iwata; Hideko Kaji

    1971-01-01

    Ribosomal proteins were isolated from logarithmically growing Escherichia coli cells given [14C]-alanine for short periods. Surprisingly, the specific activity of alanine at the NH2-terminal end was higher than that of alanine released by carboxypeptidase A digestion of the ribosomal protein. To determine the direction of chain elongation more precisely, Escherichia coli cells were grown with [3H]amino acids, and [14C]amino acids

  5. A new plasmidic cefotaximase in a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bauernfeind; S. Schweighart; H. Grimm

    1990-01-01

    Summary Escherichia coli GRI was isolated from an ear exudate of a newborn. The strain was highly resistant to cefotaxime (MIC 128 mg\\/l). Resistance to cefotaxime and the majority of ß-lactam antibiotics was readily transferred to anEscherichia coli recipient strain. Both the wild type and the transconjugant strains are different in their resistance phenotype from TEM-3 ß-cefotaximase producers by higher

  6. Effects of essential oils from medicinal plants used in Brazil against epec and etec Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Delarmelina; G. M. Figueira

    Effects of essential oils from medicinal plants used in brazil against epec and etec escherichia coli . Essential oils obtained from leaves of 28 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened against anti- enteropathogenic (EPEC) and anti-enterotoxigenic (ETEC) Escherichia coli. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined. Among

  7. Low intensity infrared laser effects on Escherichia coli cultures and plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Teixeira, A. F.; Presta, G. A.; Geller, M.; Valença, S. S.; Paoli, F.

    2012-10-01

    Biostimulative effect of low intensity laser in tissues has been described on a photobiological basis and clinical protocols are recommended for treatment of various diseases. The aim of this work was to evaluate effects of laser exposure on the survival of Escherichia coli cultures and plasmid topological forms. Escherichia coli cultures and plasmids were exposed to infrared laser to study bacterial survival and electrophoretic profile, respectively. Data indicate low intensity infrared laser: (i) had no effect on E. coli wild type, endonuclease IV, exonuclease III, formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase/MutM protein and endonuclease III deficient cultures, but decreased the survival of E. coli UvrA protein deficient cultures; (ii) there was no alteration in the electrophoretic profile of plasmids. Exposure to low intensity infrared laser decreases survival of Escherichia coli cultures deficient in nucleotide excision repair of DNA and this effect could depend on fluences, wavelength and tissues conditions.

  8. Scalable production of biliverdin IX? by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biliverdin IX? is produced when heme undergoes reductive ring cleavage at the ?-methene bridge catalyzed by heme oxygenase. It is subsequently reduced by biliverdin reductase to bilirubin IX? which is a potent endogenous antioxidant. Biliverdin IX?, through interaction with biliverdin reductase, also initiates signaling pathways leading to anti-inflammatory responses and suppression of cellular pro-inflammatory events. The use of biliverdin IX? as a cytoprotective therapeutic has been suggested, but its clinical development and use is currently limited by insufficient quantity, uncertain purity, and derivation from mammalian materials. To address these limitations, methods to produce, recover and purify biliverdin IX? from bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli were investigated and developed. Results Recombinant E. coli strains BL21(HO1) and BL21(mHO1) expressing cyanobacterial heme oxygenase gene ho1 and a sequence modified version (mho1) optimized for E. coli expression, respectively, were constructed and shown to produce biliverdin IX? in batch and fed-batch bioreactor cultures. Strain BL21(mHO1) produced roughly twice the amount of biliverdin IX? than did strain BL21(HO1). Lactose either alone or in combination with glycerol supported consistent biliverdin IX? production by strain BL21(mHO1) (up to an average of 23. 5mg L-1 culture) in fed-batch mode and production by strain BL21 (HO1) in batch-mode was scalable to 100L bioreactor culture volumes. Synthesis of the modified ho1 gene protein product was determined, and identity of the enzyme reaction product as biliverdin IX? was confirmed by spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses and its ability to serve as a substrate for human biliverdin reductase A. Conclusions Methods for the scalable production, recovery, and purification of biliverdin IX? by E. coli were developed based on expression of a cyanobacterial ho1 gene. The purity of the produced biliverdin IX? and its ability to serve as substrate for human biliverdin reductase A suggest its potential as a clinically useful therapeutic. PMID:23176158

  9. Molecular characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from stools samples and food products in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rúgeles, Laura Cristina; Bai, Jing; Martínez, Aída Juliana; Vanegas, María Consuelo; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar Gilberto

    2010-04-15

    The prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in childhood diarrhea and the role of contaminated food products in disease transmission in Colombia are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to identify E. coli pathotypes, including E. coli O157:H7, from 108 stool samples from children with acute diarrhea, 38 meat samples and 38 vegetable samples. Multiplex PCR and Bax Dupont systems were used for E. coli pathotype detection. Eighteen (9.8%) E. coli diarrheagenic pathotypes were detected among all clinical and food product samples tested. Four different pathotypes were identified from clinical samples, including enteroaggregative E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, shiga-toxin producing E. coli, and enteropathogenic E. coli. Food product samples were positive for enteroaggregative and shiga-toxin producing E. coli, suggesting that meat and vegetables may be involved in transmission of these E. coli pathotypes in the community. Most E. coli strains identified belong to the phylogenetic groups A and B1, known to be associated with intestinal rather than extraintestinal E. coli clones. Our data is the first molecular E. coli report that confirms the presence of E. coli pathotypes circulating in Colombia among children with diarrhea and food products for human consumption. Implementation of multiplex PCR technology in Latin America and other countries with limited resources may provide an important epidemiological tool for the surveillance of E. coli pathotypes from clinical isolates as well as from water and food product samples. PMID:20153069

  10. Prevalence and geographical distribution of Escherichia coli O157 in India: a 10-year survey.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Kumar, Yashwant; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-04-01

    Escherichia coli colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract and produces a variety of diseases. Escherichia coli O157 is one of the most important pathogenic strains reported from food-borne illnesses leading to enterohemorrhagic colitis. The National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre is a national reference centre for Salmonella and Escherichia for India; it receives samples from research laboratories, hospitals and institutions for serological identification. The present study is an epidemiological survey of E. coli O157 in different regions of India. The data are based on samples received from humans, food items, animals and the environment. A total of 17 093 isolates cultured from samples were received during the 10-year period of which 5678 were from human sources. Thirty (0.5%) human samples were positive for E. coli O157. A significantly high percentage of E. coli O157 were isolated from meat (0.9%, 13/1376), milk and milk products (1.8%, 10/553), seafood (8.4%, 16/190) and water (1.6%, 8/486). The isolates were found to be distributed among domestic and wild animals, and the maximum number of isolates of E. coli O157 was detected in samples received from coastal belt areas. Escherichia coli O157 is widely distributed among humans and animals, food and environment in different geographical regions of India. PMID:18321544

  11. Fungal ?-1,3-Glucan Increases Ofloxacin Tolerance of Escherichia coli in a Polymicrobial E. coli/Candida albicans Biofilm.

    PubMed

    De Brucker, Katrijn; Tan, Yulong; Vints, Katlijn; De Cremer, Kaat; Braem, Annabel; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan; Vleugels, Jef; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2015-06-01

    In the past, biofilm-related research has focused mainly on axenic biofilms. However, in nature, biofilms are often composed of multiple species, and the resulting polymicrobial interactions influence industrially and clinically relevant outcomes such as performance and drug resistance. In this study, we show that Escherichia coli does not affect Candida albicans tolerance to amphotericin or caspofungin in an E. coli/C. albicans biofilm. In contrast, ofloxacin tolerance of E. coli is significantly increased in a polymicrobial E. coli/C. albicans biofilm compared to its tolerance in an axenic E. coli biofilm. The increased ofloxacin tolerance of E. coli is mainly biofilm specific, as ofloxacin tolerance of E. coli is less pronounced in polymicrobial E. coli/C. albicans planktonic cultures. Moreover, we found that ofloxacin tolerance of E. coli decreased significantly when E. coli/C. albicans biofilms were treated with matrix-degrading enzymes such as the ?-1,3-glucan-degrading enzyme lyticase. In line with a role for ?-1,3-glucan in mediating ofloxacin tolerance of E. coli in a biofilm, we found that ofloxacin tolerance of E. coli increased even more in E. coli/C. albicans biofilms consisting of a high-?-1,3-glucan-producing C. albicans mutant. In addition, exogenous addition of laminarin, a polysaccharide composed mainly of poly-?-1,3-glucan, to an E. coli biofilm also resulted in increased ofloxacin tolerance. All these data indicate that ?-1,3-glucan from C. albicans increases ofloxacin tolerance of E. coli in an E. coli/C. albicans biofilm. PMID:25753645

  12. Effects of intravenous Escherichia coli dose on the pathophysiological response of colostrum-fed Jersey calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of the present study were to characterize the dose dependency of an intravenous Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge in colostrum-fed Jersey calves and to identify biochemical markers indicative of septicemia. Eighteen 3-wk old colostrum-fed Jersey calves were completely randomized to 1 o...

  13. Expression Analysis of Up-Regulated Genes Responding to Plumbagin in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenn-Wei Chen; Chang-Ming Sun; Wei-Lun Sheng; Yu-Chen Wang; Wan-Jr Syu

    2006-01-01

    Plumbagin is found in many medicinal plants and has been reported to have antimicrobial activities. We examined the molecular responses of Escherichia coli to plumbagin by using a proteomic approach to search for bacterial genes up-regulated by the drug. The protein profile obtained was compared with that of E. coli without the plumbagin treatment. Subsequent analyses of the induced proteins

  14. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in surface waters of southern

    E-print Network

    Selinger, Brent

    Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in surface waters of southern Alberta and Salmonella spp. in surface water within the basin. This study is the first of its kind to identify E. coli O and Salmonella spp. in water samples was 0.9% (n = 1483) and 6.2% (n = 1429), respectively. While data examined

  15. Survival of Escherichia coli 0157 in a soil protozoan: implications for disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Barker; Tom J Humphrey; Michael W. R Brown

    1999-01-01

    Intra-protozoal growth of bacterial pathogens has been associated with increased environmental survival, virulence and resistance to biocides and antibiotics. Using laboratory microcosms we have shown that Escherichia coli 0157 survives and replicates in a common environmental protozoan, Acanthamoeba polyphaga. As protozoa are widely distributed in soils and effluents, they may constitute an important environmental reservoir for transmission of E. coli

  16. Self-Organization of the Escherichia coli Chemotaxis Network Imaged with Super-Resolution Light Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Greenfield; Ann L. McEvoy; Hari Shroff; Gavin E. Crooks; Ned S. Wingreen; Eric Betzig; Jan Liphardt

    2009-01-01

    The Escherichia coli chemotaxis network is a model system for biological signal processing. In E. coli, transmembrane receptors responsible for signal transduction assemble into large clusters containing several thousand proteins. These sensory clusters have been observed at cell poles and future division sites. Despite extensive study, it remains unclear how chemotaxis clusters form, what controls cluster size and density, and

  17. Expression in Escherichia coli of the native cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    PubMed

    Sazhenskiy, Vladislav; Zaritsky, Arieh; Itsko, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The gene cyt1Aa is one of the genes in the complex determining the mosquito larvicidity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Previous cloning in Escherichia coli resulted in a 48-bp addition upstream, encoding a chimera. Here, cyt1Aa was recloned without the artifact, and its toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae and host E. coli cells was retested. PMID:20348307

  18. DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI IN WATER USING A COLORIMETRIC GENE PROBE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A commercially available DNA hydribization assay (Gene-trak , Framingham, MA. USA) was compared with the EC-MUG procedure for the detection of Escherichia coli in water. The gene probe gave positive responses for pure cultures of E. coli 0157:H7, E. fergusonii, Shigella sonnei, S...

  19. Biofilm formation as a novel phenotypic feature of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarita Martinez-Medina; Plínio Naves; Jorge Blanco; Xavier Aldeguer; Jesus E Blanco; Miguel Blanco; Carmen Ponte; Francisco Soriano; Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud; L Jesus Garcia-Gil

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is a high morbidity chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) has been recently implicated in the origin and perpetuation of CD. Because bacterial biofilms in the gut mucosa are suspected to play a role in CD and biofilm formation is a feature of certain pathogenic E. coli strains, we compared the biofilm

  20. Proteomic analysis reveals protein expression differences in Escherichia coli strains associated with persistent versus transient mastitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. Typically this infection is transient in nature, causing an infection that lasts 2-3 days. However, in a minority of cases, E. coli has been shown to cause a persistent intramammary infection. The mechanisms that allow for...