Sample records for uropathogenic escherichia coli

  1. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Flagella Aid in Efficient Urinary Tract Colonization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly J. Wright; Patrick C. Seed; Scott J. Hultgren

    2005-01-01

    In the murine model of urinary tract infections (UTI), cystitis by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) occurs through an intimate relationship with the bladder superficial umbrella cell entailing cycles of adher- ence, invasion, intracellular bacterial community (IBC) formation, and dispersal (fluxing) from the intracel- lular environment. IBC dispersal is a key step that results in the spread of bacteria over the

  2. Transcriptome of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli during Urinary Tract Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A. Snyder; Brian J. Haugen; Eric L. Buckles; C. Virginia Lockatell; David E. Johnson; Michael S. Donnenberg; Rodney A. Welch; Harry L. T. Mobley

    2004-01-01

    A uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073-specific DNA microarray that includes each open reading frame was used to analyze the transcriptome of CFT073 bacteria isolated directly from the urine of infected CBA\\/J mice. The in vivo expression profiles were compared to that of E. coli CFT073 grown statically to exponential phase in rich medium, revealing the strategies this pathogen uses in

  3. Proteomic analysis of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cash, Phillip

    2014-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common of bacterial infections in humans. Although a number of Gram-negative bacteria can cause UTIs, most cases are due to infection by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Genomic studies have shown that UPEC encode a number of specialized activities that allow the bacteria to initiate and maintain infections in the environment of the urinary tract. Proteomic analyses have complemented the genomic data and have documented differential patterns of protein synthesis for bacteria growing ex vivo in human urine or recovered directly from the urinary tracts of infected mice. These studies provide valuable insights into the molecular basis of UPEC pathogenesis and have aided the identification of putative vaccine targets. Despite the substantial progress that has been achieved, many future challenges remain in the application of proteomics to provide a comprehensive view of bacterial pathogenesis in both acute and chronic UTIs. PMID:24393038

  4. Measuring the forces involved in polyvalent adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Measuring the forces involved in polyvalent adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to mannose from the interaction of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to molecularly well defined models of cellular, Escherichia coli [the primary causative agent of urinary tract infections (3, 4)] use the FimH adhesin located

  5. The Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Escherichia coli Strain 83972 Outcompetes Uropathogenic E. coli Strains in Human Urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viktoria Roos; Glen C. Ulett; Mark A. Schembri; Per Klemm

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which causes symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI), very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the human urinary tract. The prototype ABU E. coli strain 83972 was originally isolated from a girl who had carried it asymptomatically

  6. Morphological plasticity promotes resistance to phagocyte killing of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Dennis J; Li, Birong; Casper, Travis; Partida-Sanchez, Santiago; Hunstad, David A; Hultgren, Scott J; Justice, Sheryl S

    2011-05-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli proceed through a complex intracellular developmental pathway that includes multiple morphological changes. During intracellular growth within Toll-like receptor 4-activated superficial bladder epithelial cells, a subpopulation of uropathogenic E. coli initiates SulA-mediated filamentation. In this study, we directly investigated the role of bacterial morphology in the survival of uropathogenic E. coli from killing by phagocytes. We initially determined that both polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages are recruited to murine bladder epithelium at times coincident with extracellular bacillary and filamentous uropathogenic E. coli. We further determined that bacillary uropathogenic E. coli were preferentially destroyed when mixed uropathogenic E. coli populations were challenged with cultured murine macrophages in vitro. Consistent with studies using elliptical-shaped polymers, the initial point of contact between the phagocyte and filamentous uropathogenic E. coli influenced the efficacy of internalization. These findings demonstrate that filamentous morphology provides a selective advantage for uropathogenic E. coli evasion of killing by phagocytes and defines a mechanism for the essential role for SulA during bacterial cystitis. Thus, morphological plasticity can be viewed as a distinct class of mechanism used by bacterial pathogens to subvert host immunity. PMID:21182979

  7. Defining Genomic Islands and Uropathogen-Specific Genes in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli?

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Amanda L.; Rasko, David A.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2007-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are responsible for the majority of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, which can present clinically as cystitis or pyelonephritis. UPEC strain CFT073, isolated from the blood of a patient with acute pyelonephritis, was most cytotoxic and most virulent in mice among our strain collection. Based on the genome sequence of CFT073, microarrays were utilized in comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis of a panel of uropathogenic and fecal/commensal E. coli isolates. Genomic DNA from seven UPEC (three pyelonephritis and four cystitis) isolates and three fecal/commensal strains, including K-12 MG1655, was hybridized to the CFT073 microarray. The CFT073 genome contains 5,379 genes; CGH analysis revealed that 2,820 (52.4%) of these genes were common to all 11 E. coli strains, yet only 173 UPEC-specific genes were found by CGH to be present in all UPEC strains but in none of the fecal/commensal strains. When the sequences of three additional sequenced UPEC strains (UTI89, 536, and F11) and a commensal strain (HS) were added to the analysis, 131 genes present in all UPEC strains but in no fecal/commensal strains were identified. Seven previously unrecognized genomic islands (>30 kb) were delineated by CGH in addition to the three known pathogenicity islands. These genomic islands comprise 672 kb of the 5,231-kb (12.8%) genome, demonstrating the importance of horizontal transfer for UPEC and the mosaic structure of the genome. UPEC strains contain a greater number of iron acquisition systems than do fecal/commensal strains, which is reflective of the adaptation to the iron-limiting urinary tract environment. Each strain displayed distinct differences in the number and type of known virulence factors. The large number of hypothetical genes in the CFT073 genome, especially those shown to be UPEC specific, strongly suggests that many urovirulence factors remain uncharacterized. PMID:17351047

  8. Bacteriophages with the Ability to Degrade Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Chibeu, Andrew; Lingohr, Erika J.; Masson, Luke; Manges, Amee; Harel, Josée; Ackermann, Hans-W.; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Boerlin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. UTIs are usually managed with antibiotic therapy, but over the years, antibiotic-resistant strains of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) have emerged. The formation of biofilms further complicates the treatment of these infections by making them resistant to killing by the host immune system as well as by antibiotics. This has encouraged research into therapy using bacteriophages (phages) as a supplement or substitute for antibiotics. In this study we characterized 253 UPEC in terms of their biofilm-forming capabilities, serotype, and antimicrobial resistance. Three phages were then isolated (vB_EcoP_ACG-C91, vB_EcoM_ACG-C40 and vB_EcoS_ACG-M12) which were able to lyse 80.5% of a subset (42) of the UPEC strains able to form biofilms. Correlation was established between phage sensitivity and specific serotypes of the UPEC strains. The phages’ genome sequences were determined and resulted in classification of vB_EcoP_ACG-C91 as a SP6likevirus, vB_EcoM_ACG-C40 as a T4likevirus and vB_EcoS_ACG-M12 as T1likevirus. We assessed the ability of the three phages to eradicate the established biofilm of one of the UPEC strains used in the study. All phages significantly reduced the biofilm within 2–12 h of incubation. PMID:22590682

  9. Functional analysis of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli R049 gene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongjing; Dong, Jie; Su, Xu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Li, Li; Lv, Likun; Guo, Liru

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the function of the novel uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) gene R049 during host infection. We infected the urinary tracts of mice with E. coli UPEC132 or the R049 deletion mutant UPEC132?R049.The mouse kidneys were harvested at 4 and 8h post-infection and screened for differentially expressed genes by microarray analysis. We identified 379 and 515 differentially expressed genes at 4 and 8 h post-infection, respectively. Thirty-four of these genes were associated with inflammatory and immune signaling pathways, including those related to mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, leukocyte transendothelial migration, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Toll-like receptor signaling, and apoptosis. Protein binding (GO 0005515) was the most prevalent molecular function in the Gene Ontology terms related to differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, R049 expression in UPEC132 is related to the early innate immune and inflammatory responses in UPEC-infected hosts. This work lays the foundation for further research on anti-infective immunity against UPEC. PMID:25644951

  10. Receptor Structure for F1C Fimbriae of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. SALAM KHAN; BERNHARD KNIEP; TOBIAS A. OELSCHLAEGER; IRMA VAN DIE; TIMO KORHONEN; JORG HACKER

    2000-01-01

    F1C fimbriae are correlated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Although F1C fimbriae mediate binding to kidney tubular cells, their receptor is not known. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time specific carbohydrate residues as receptor structure for F1C-fimbria-expressing E. coli. The binding of the F1C fimbriated recombinant E. coli strain HB101(pPIL110-54) and purified F1C fimbriae to reference glycolipids

  11. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Induces Extrinsic and Intrinsic Cascades To Initiate Urothelial Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Klumpp; Matthew T. Rycyk; Michael C. Chen; Praveen Thumbikat; Shomit Sengupta; Anthony J. Schaeffer

    2006-01-01

    A murine model of urinary tract infection identified urothelial apoptosis as a key event in the pathogenesis mediated by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), yet the mechanism of this important host response is not well characterized. We employed a culture model of UPEC-urothelium interactions to examine the biochemical events associated with urothelial apoptosis induced by the UPEC strain NU14. NU14 induced

  12. Molecular Basis of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Evasion of the Innate Immune Response in the Bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin K. Billips; Anthony J. Schaeffer; David J. Klumpp

    2008-01-01

    In the urinary tract, the innate immune system detects conserved bacterial components and responds to infection by activating the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-B, resulting in cytokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), however, has been shown to evade the host innate immune response by suppressing NF-B activation in urothelial cells, which results in decreased cytokine secretion and increased

  13. Molecular epidemiological characterization of uropathogenic escherichia coli from an outpatient urology clinic in rural Japan.

    PubMed

    Umene, Yasuyo D; Wong, Lisa K; Satoh, Tomoya; Yamane, Kunikazu; Matsui, Mari; Riley, Lee W; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Suzuki, Satowa

    2015-02-01

    In the remote Japanese community of Saku, a rural town in the Nagano Prefecture, a large proportion of outpatient urinary tract infections was caused by well-recognized globally dispersed clonal lineages of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). However, most of these strains were drug susceptible, suggesting that factors other than selection pressure account for the clonal spread of drug-susceptible UPEC. PMID:25428151

  14. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-Associated Fimbrial Gene Cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric L. Buckles; Farah K. Bahrani-Mougeot; Anita Molina; C. Virgina Lockatell; David E. Johnson; Cinthia B. Drachenberg; Valerie Burland; Fred R. Blattner; Michael S. Donnenberg

    2004-01-01

    Received 15 January 2004\\/Returned for modification 2 March 2004\\/Accepted 24 March 2004 Recently, we identified a fimbrial usher gene in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 that is absent from an E. coli laboratory strain. Analysis of the CFT073 genome indicates that this fimbrial usher gene is part of a novel fimbrial gene cluster, aufABCDEFG. Analysis of a collection of pathogenic

  15. Lifting the Mask: Identification of New Small Molecule Inhibitors of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Group 2 Capsule Biogenesis

    E-print Network

    Goller, Carlos C.; Arshad, Mehreen; Noah, James W.; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Evans, Carrie W.; Nebane, N. Miranda; Rasmussen, Lynn; Sosa, Melinda; Tower, Nichole A.; White, E. Lucile; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Porubsky, Patrick R.; Maki, Brooks E.; Rogers, Steven A.; Schoenen, Frank; Seed, Patrick C.

    2014-07-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs), with over 100 million UTIs occurring annually throughout the world. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among UPEC limits ambulatory...

  16. Carbon monoxide prevents apoptosis induced by uropathogenic Escherichia coli toxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Chen; Roshan Tofighi; Wenjie Bao; Olle Aspevall; Timo Jahnukainen; Lars E. Gustafsson; Sandra Ceccatelli; Gianni Celsi

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are often caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli). Previous studies have demonstrated that up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) may trigger a survival mechanism against renal cell death induced by E. coli toxins. The present study analyses the role of carbon monoxide (CO), an end product of HO-1, in the survival mechanism. Moreover, we identified hemolysin as

  17. Binding of Pili from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli to Membranes Secreted by Human Colonocytes and Enterocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. GOETZ; A. MAHMOOD; S. J. HULTGREN; M. J. ENGLE; K. DODSON; D. H. ALPERS

    1999-01-01

    Adhesion is one mechanism for promoting colonization and infection by pathogenic bacteria. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from the host's native colonic microflora expresses different types of adhesive organelles, including P pili that bind the a-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-b-D-galactopyranoside (Gala (1-4)Gal) moiety present in the globoseries of glycolipids on cells lining the upper urinary tract (6). Genes involved in the expression of P pili

  18. Characterisation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli from children with urinary tract infection in different countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. L. Ramos; D. T. N. Dzung; K. Stopsack; V. Jankó; M. R. Pourshafie; M. Katouli; A. Brauner

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) carry many virulence factors, including those involved in long-term survival in the urinary tract. However, their\\u000a prevalence and role among UPEC causing urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is not well studied. To further understand\\u000a the virulence characteristics of these bacteria, we investigated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance, antigen 43 genes,\\u000a curli and cellulose among UPEC

  19. Prevalence and Persistence of Escherichia coli Strains with Uropathogenic Virulence Characteristics in Sewage Treatment Plants?

    PubMed Central

    Anastasi, E. M.; Matthews, B.; Gundogdu, A.; Vollmerhausen, T. L.; Ramos, N. L.; Stratton, H.; Ahmed, W.; Katouli, M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and persistence of Escherichia coli strains in four sewage treatment plants (STPs) in a subtropical region of Queensland, Australia. In all, 264 E. coli strains were typed using a high-resolution biochemical fingerprinting method and grouped into either a single or a common biochemical phenotype (S-BPT and C-BPT, respectively). These strains were also tested for their phylogenetic groups and 12 virulence genes associated with intestinal and extraintestinal E. coli strains. Comparison of BPTs at various treatment stages indicated that certain BPTs were found in two or all treatment stages. These BPTs constituted the highest proportion of E. coli strains in each STP and belonged mainly to phylogenetic group B2 and, to a lesser extent, group D. No virulence genes associated with intestinal E. coli were found among the strains, but 157 (59.5%) strains belonging to 14 C-BPTs carried one or more virulence genes associated with uropathogenic strains. Of these, 120 (76.4%) strains belonged to seven persistent C-BPTs and were found in all four STPs. Our results indicate that certain clonal groups of E. coli with virulence characteristics of uropathogenic strains can survive the treatment processes of STPs. These strains were common to all STPs and constituted the highest proportion of the strains in different treatment tanks of each STP. PMID:20622128

  20. Activation of multiple antibiotic resistance in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains by aryloxoalcanoic acid compounds.

    PubMed

    Balagué, C; Véscovi, E G

    2001-06-01

    Clofibric and ethacrynic acids are prototypical pharmacological agents administered in the treatment of hypertrigliceridemia and as a diuretic agent, respectively. They share with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (the widely used herbicide known as 2,4-D) a chlorinated phenoxy structural moiety. These aryloxoalcanoic agents (AOAs) are mainly excreted by the renal route as unaltered or conjugated active compounds. The relatedness of these agents at the structural level and their potential effect on therapeutically treated or occupationally exposed individuals who are simultaneously undergoing a bacterial urinary tract infection led us to analyze their action on uropathogenic, clinically isolated Escherichia coli strains. We found that exposure to these compounds increases the bacterial resistance to an ample variety of antibiotics in clinical isolates of both uropathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli strains. We demonstrate that the AOAs induce an alteration of the bacterial outer membrane permeability properties by the repression of the major porin OmpF in a micF-dependent process. Furthermore, we establish that the antibiotic resistance phenotype is primarily due to the induction of the MarRAB regulatory system by the AOAs, while other regulatory pathways that also converge into micF modulation (OmpR/EnvZ, SoxRS, and Lrp) remained unaltered. The fact that AOAs give rise to uropathogenic strains with a diminished susceptibility to antimicrobials highlights the impact of frequently underestimated or ignored collateral effects of chemical agents. PMID:11353631

  1. Activation of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains by Aryloxoalcanoic Acid Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Balagué, Claudia; Véscovi, Eleonora García

    2001-01-01

    Clofibric and ethacrynic acids are prototypical pharmacological agents administered in the treatment of hypertrigliceridemia and as a diuretic agent, respectively. They share with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (the widely used herbicide known as 2,4-D) a chlorinated phenoxy structural moiety. These aryloxoalcanoic agents (AOAs) are mainly excreted by the renal route as unaltered or conjugated active compounds. The relatedness of these agents at the structural level and their potential effect on therapeutically treated or occupationally exposed individuals who are simultaneously undergoing a bacterial urinary tract infection led us to analyze their action on uropathogenic, clinically isolated Escherichia coli strains. We found that exposure to these compounds increases the bacterial resistance to an ample variety of antibiotics in clinical isolates of both uropathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli strains. We demonstrate that the AOAs induce an alteration of the bacterial outer membrane permeability properties by the repression of the major porin OmpF in a micF-dependent process. Furthermore, we establish that the antibiotic resistance phenotype is primarily due to the induction of the MarRAB regulatory system by the AOAs, while other regulatory pathways that also converge into micF modulation (OmpR/EnvZ, SoxRS, and Lrp) remained unaltered. The fact that AOAs give rise to uropathogenic strains with a diminished susceptibility to antimicrobials highlights the impact of frequently underestimated or ignored collateral effects of chemical agents. PMID:11353631

  2. Eravacycline (TP-434) Is Active In Vitro against Biofilms Formed by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Trudy H; O'Brien, William; Kerstein, Kathryn O; Sutcliffe, Joyce A

    2015-04-01

    Eravacycline (formerly TP-434) was evaluated in vitro against pre-established biofilms formed by a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Biofilms were eradicated by 0.5 ?g/ml eravacycline, which was within 2-fold of the MIC for planktonic cells. In contrast, colistin and meropenem disrupted biofilms at 32 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively, concentrations well above their respective MICs of 0.5 and 0.03 ?g/ml. Gentamicin and levofloxacin eradicated biofilms at concentrations within 2-fold of their MICs. PMID:25624334

  3. Photoluminescent Gold Nanoclusters as Sensing Probes for Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hong-Zheng; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Mong, Kwok Kong Tony; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2013-01-01

    Glycan-bound nanoprobes have been demonstrated as suitable sensing probes for bacteria containing glycan binding sites. In this study, we demonstrated a facile approach for generating glycan-bound gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). The generated AuNCs were used as sensing probes for corresponding target bacteria. Mannose-capped AuNCs (AuNCs@Mann) were generated and used as the model sensors for target bacteria. A one-step synthesis approach was employed to generate AuNCs@Mann. In this approach, an aqueous solution of tetrachloroauric acid and mannoside that functionized with a thiol group (Mann-SH) was stirred at room temperature for 48 h. The mannoside functions as reducing and capping agent. The size of the generated AuNCs@Mann is 1.95±0.27 nm, whereas the AuNCs with red photoluminescence have a maximum emission wavelength of ?630 nm (?excitation?=?375 nm). The synthesis of the AuNCs@Mann was accelerated by microwave heating, which enabled the synthesis of the AuNCs@Mann to complete within 1 h. The generated AuNCs@Mann are capable of selectively binding to the urinary tract infection isolate Escherichia coli J96 containing the mannose binding protein FimH expressed on the type 1 pili. On the basis of the naked eye observation, the limit of detection of the sensing approach is as low as ?2×106 cells/mL. PMID:23554874

  4. Oral consumption of cranberry juice cocktail inhibits molecular-scale adhesion of clinical uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yuanyuan; Pinzón-Arango, Paola A; Howell, Amy B; Camesano, Terri A

    2011-01-01

    Cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) has been shown to inhibit the formation of biofilm by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. In order to investigate whether the anti-adhesive components could reach the urinary tract after oral consumption of CJC, a volunteer was given 16?oz of either water or CJC. Urine samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after consumption of a single dose. The ability of compounds in the urine to influence bacterial adhesion was tested for six clinical uropathogenic E. coli strains, including four P-fimbriated strains (B37, CFT073, BF1023, and J96) and two strains not expressing P-fimbriae but exhibiting mannose-resistant hemagglutination (B73 and B78). A non-fimbriated strain, HB101, was used as a control. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the adhesion force between a silicon nitride probe and bacteria treated with urine samples. Within 2 hours after CJC consumption, bacteria of the clinical strains treated with the corresponding urine sample demonstrated lower adhesion forces than those treated with urine collected before CJC consumption. The adhesion forces continued decreasing with time after CJC consumption over the 8-hour measurement period. The adhesion forces of bacteria after exposure to urine collected following water consumption did not change. HB101 showed low adhesion forces following both water and CJC consumption, and these did not change over time. The AFM adhesion force measurements were consistent with the results of a hemagglutination assay, confirming that oral consumption of CJC could act against adhesion of uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:21480803

  5. Genome of Multidrug-Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain NA114 from India ?

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Tiruvayipati Suma; Kumar, Narender; Baddam, Ramani; Hussain, Arif; Nandanwar, Nishant; Jadhav, Savita; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2011-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) causes serious infections in people at risk and has a significant environmental prevalence due to contamination by human and animal excreta. In developing countries, UPEC assumes importance in certain dwellings because of poor community/personal hygiene and exposure to contaminated water or soil. We report the complete genome sequence of E. coli strain NA114 from India, a UPEC strain with a multidrug resistance phenotype and the capacity to produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. The genome sequence and comparative genomics emanating from it will be significant in under-standing the genetic makeup of diverse UPEC strains and in boosting the development of new diagnostics/vaccines. PMID:21685291

  6. Distinct isolates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli differentially affect human sperm parameters in vitro.

    PubMed

    Boguen, R; Uribe, P; Treulen, F; Villegas, J V

    2014-10-01

    Sperm motility and vitality are decreased in male genital tract infection. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are frequently associated with sperm parameter loss, but there are no reports to date regarding the effects of different E. coli isolates on human spermatozoa. The aim of this work was to compare the effect in vitro of different E. coli isolates on human sperm parameters. Normal spermatozoa were incubated with E. coli isolated from nine men with urinary tract infection. After 1 h of incubation, sperm motility, vitality and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) were measured. The E. coli isolates were serotyped with specific antisera. Sperm motility was decreased with five of nine E. coli isolates. Two UPEC were typed as O6 strains, and they did not decrease sperm motility in the same experimental conditions as the other five isolates, despite the described high pathogenicity of the O6 strain in urogenital infections. Neither UPEC analysed affected vitality or ??m. UPEC isolates were shown to be heterogeneous in their effects, suggesting the need to characterise the pattern defining the pathogenicity of E. coli on human spermatozoa. PMID:24079260

  7. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Induces Serum Amyloid A in Mice following Urinary Tract and Systemic Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Erman, Andreja; Lakota, Katja; Mrak-Poljsak, Katjusa; Blango, Matthew G.; Krizan-Hergouth, Veronika; Mulvey, Matthew A.; Sodin-Semrl, Snezna; Veranic, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein involved in the homeostasis of inflammatory responses and appears to be a vital host defense component with protective anti-infective properties. SAA expression remains poorly defined in many tissues, including the urinary tract which often faces bacterial challenge. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are usually caused by strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and frequently occur among otherwise healthy individuals, many of whom experience bouts of recurrent and relapsing infections despite the use of antibiotics. To date, whether SAA is present in the infected urothelium and whether or not the induction of SAA can protect the host against UPEC is unclear. Here we show, using mouse models coupled with immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative RT-PCR, that delivery of UPEC either directly into the urinary tract via catheterization or systemically via intraperitoneal injection triggers the expression of SAA. As measured by ELISA, serum levels of SAA1/2 were also transiently elevated in response to UTI, but circulating SAA3 levels were only up-regulated substantially following intraperitoneal inoculation of UPEC. In in vitro assays, physiological relevant levels of SAA1/2 did not affect the growth or viability of UPEC, but were able to block biofilm formation by the uropathogens. We suggest that SAA functions as a critical host defense against UTIs, preventing the formation of biofilms both upon and within the urothelium and possibly providing clinicians with a sensitive serological marker for UTI. PMID:22427910

  8. Colicin E2 Expression in Lactobacillus brevis DT24, A Vaginal Probiotic Isolate, against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Disha

    2014-01-01

    Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to combat the urinary tract infection in women. During menstruation elevated protein concentration and increase in oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations with decrease in vaginal Lactobacilli all together contribute to urinary tract infections. Lactobacillus species are a predominant member of the vaginal microflora and are critical in the prevention of a number of urogenital diseases. In order to increase antimicrobial potential of vaginal Lactobacilli, bacteriocin colicin E2 which has specific activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been overexpressed in vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24. Recombinant Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 showed much higher inhibitory activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli than wild type L. brevis DT24 in vitro. Efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24 expressing colicin E2 protein is required for further in vivo evaluation. PMID:24649377

  9. Tetracycline rapidly reaches all the constituent cells of uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, G.; Wood, P.; Dixon, L.; Keyhan, M.; Matin, A.; Demain, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a method for visualizing Escherichia coli cells that are exposed to tetracycline in a biofilm, based on a previous report that liposomes containing the E. coli TetR(B) protein fluoresce when exposed to this antibiotic. By our method, cells devoid of TetR(B) also exhibited tetracycline-dependent fluorescence. At 50 microg of tetracycline ml(-1), planktonic cells of a uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain developed maximal fluorescence after 7.5 to 10 min of exposure. A similar behavior was exhibited by cells in a 24- or 48-h UPEC biofilm, as examined by confocal laser microscopy, regardless of whether they lined empty spaces or occupied densely packed regions. Further, a comparison of phase-contrast and fluorescent images of corresponding biofilm zones showed that all the cells fluoresced. Thus, all the biofilm cells were exposed to tetracycline and there were no pockets within the biofilm where the antibiotic failed to reach. It also appeared unlikely that niches of reduced exposure to the antibiotic existed within the biofilms.

  10. Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokó?-??towska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2012-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095

  11. Alkaloids Modulate Motility, Biofilm Formation and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Dusane, Devendra H.; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Asadishad, Bahareh; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing natural compounds have shown promise in the treatment of microbial infections. However, practical application of many of these compounds is pending a mechanistic understanding of their mode of action. We investigated the effect of two alkaloids, piperine (found in black pepper) and reserpine (found in Indian snakeroot), on the ability of the uropathogenic bacterium Escherichia coli CFT073 to colonize abiotic surfaces. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of both compounds (0.5 to 10 µg/mL) decreased bacterial swarming and swimming motilities and increased biofilm formation. qRT-PCR revealed a decrease in the expression of the flagellar gene (fliC) and motility genes (motA and motB) along with an increased expression of adhesin genes (fimA, papA, uvrY). Interestingly, piperine increased penetration of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and azithromycin into E. coli CFT073 biofilms and consequently enhanced the ability of these antibiotics to disperse pre-established biofilms. The findings suggest that these alkaloids can potentially affect bacterial colonization by hampering bacterial motility and may aid in the treatment of infection by increasing antibiotic penetration in biofilms. PMID:25391152

  12. Alkaloids modulate motility, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dusane, Devendra H; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Asadishad, Bahareh; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing natural compounds have shown promise in the treatment of microbial infections. However, practical application of many of these compounds is pending a mechanistic understanding of their mode of action. We investigated the effect of two alkaloids, piperine (found in black pepper) and reserpine (found in Indian snakeroot), on the ability of the uropathogenic bacterium Escherichia coli CFT073 to colonize abiotic surfaces. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of both compounds (0.5 to 10 µg/mL) decreased bacterial swarming and swimming motilities and increased biofilm formation. qRT-PCR revealed a decrease in the expression of the flagellar gene (fliC) and motility genes (motA and motB) along with an increased expression of adhesin genes (fimA, papA, uvrY). Interestingly, piperine increased penetration of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and azithromycin into E. coli CFT073 biofilms and consequently enhanced the ability of these antibiotics to disperse pre-established biofilms. The findings suggest that these alkaloids can potentially affect bacterial colonization by hampering bacterial motility and may aid in the treatment of infection by increasing antibiotic penetration in biofilms. PMID:25391152

  13. Drug resistance and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli from Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanchun; Zhao, Shengyuan; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Chen, Min; Ni, Yuxing; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Zelin; He, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the major cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). In the present study, 198 E. coli isolates from patients with UTIs in Shanghai in 2008 were examined by susceptibility testing, with an extremely high number (153/198) showing multidrug resistance (MDR). And, the expression of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) reached 48.5% (96/198). The resistance rates to penicillins, fluoroquinolone, folate pathway inhibitors and first- and second-generation cephalosporins were high. Molecular analyses showed that the CTX-M-9 group (70/96) was the most common CTX-M group among UPEC, followed by the CTX-M-1 group (27/96). Phylogenetic group D accounted for 42.4% (84/198) of the isolates, exhibiting the highest ESBLs (50/84) and MDR (75/84) rates. Virulence genes were present in a significantly high proportion in the phylogenetic group B2 isolates, except for the afaBC gene. The ESBL-producing strains analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were clustered into six groups at a cutoff of 67%. Notably, the findings that afaBC was specific to phylogenetic group D and PFGE group I and was correlated with the CTX-M-9 group were different from a previous report. In conclusion, knowledge of antimicrobial resistance data and virulence factors may enable clinicians to tailor empirical antibiotic treatments for UTIs. PMID:24984795

  14. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Iran: Serogroup distributions, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections with global expansion. These infections are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Methods Totally, 123 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from UTIs patients, using bacterial culture method were subjected to polymerase chain reactions for detection of various O- serogroups, some urovirulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and resistance to 13 different antibiotics. Results According to data, the distribution of O1, O2, O6, O7 and O16 serogroups were 2.43%, besides O22, O75 and O83 serogroups were 1.62%. Furthermore, the distribution of O4, O8, O15, O21 and O25 serogroups were 5.69%, 3.25%, 21.13%, 4.06% and 26.01%, respectively. Overall, the fim virulence gene had the highest (86.17%) while the usp virulence gene had the lowest distributions of virulence genes in UPEC strains isolated from UTIs patients. The vat and sen virulence genes were not detected in any UPEC strains. Totally, aadA1 (52.84%), and qnr (46.34%) were the most prevalent antibiotic resistance genes while the distribution of cat1 (15.44%), cmlA (15.44%) and dfrA1 (21.95%) were the least. Resistance to penicillin (100%) and tetracycline (73.98%) had the highest while resistance to nitrofurantoin (5.69%) and trimethoprim (16.26%) had the lowest frequencies. Conclusions This study indicated that the UPEC strains which harbored the high numbers of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes had the high ability to cause diseases that are resistant to most antibiotics. In the current situation, it seems that the administration of penicillin and tetracycline for the treatment of UTIs is vain. PMID:23627669

  15. YbcL of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Suppresses Transepithelial Neutrophil Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Megan E.; Loughman, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains suppress the acute inflammatory response in the urinary tract to ensure access to the intracellular uroepithelial niche that supports the propagation of infection. Our understanding of this initial cross talk between host and pathogen is incomplete. Here we report the identification of a previously uncharacterized periplasmic protein, YbcL, encoded by UPEC that contributes to immune modulation in the urinary tract by suppressing acute neutrophil migration. In contrast to wild-type UPEC, an isogenic strain lacking ybcL expression (UTI89 ?ybcL) failed to suppress transepithelial polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) migration in vitro, a defect complemented by expressing ybcL episomally. YbcL homologs are present in many E. coli genomes; expression of the YbcL variant encoded by nonpathogenic E. coli K-12 strain MG1655 (YbcLMG) failed to complement the UTI89 ?ybcL defect, whereas expression of the UPEC YbcL variant (YbcLUTI) in MG1655 conferred the capacity for suppressing PMN migration. This phenotypic difference was due to a single amino acid difference (V78T) between the two YbcL homologs, and a majority of clinical UPEC strains examined were found to encode the suppressive YbcL variant. Purified YbcLUTI protein suppressed PMN migration in response to live or killed MG1655, and YbcLUTI was detected in the supernatant during UPEC infection of bladder epithelial cells or PMNs. Lastly, early PMN influx to murine bladder tissue was augmented upon in vivo infection with UTI89 ?ybcL compared with wild-type UPEC. Our findings demonstrate a role for UPEC YbcL in suppression of the innate immune response during urinary tract infection. PMID:22966043

  16. The role of F9 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Ulett, Glen C; Mabbett, Amanda N; Fung, Khe C; Webb, Richard I; Schembri, Mark A

    2007-07-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the developed world. The major factors associated with virulence of UPEC are fimbrial adhesins, which mediate attachment to specific receptors, enhance persistence and trigger innate host responses. UPEC produce a range of fimbrial adhesins, with type 1 and P fimbriae of the chaperone-usher subclass being the best characterized. The prototype UPEC strain CFT073 contains ten gene clusters that contain genes characteristic of this class of fimbriae. However, only five of these gene clusters have been characterized in detail. In this study the F9 fimbrial gene cluster (c1931-c1936) from CFT073 has been characterized. The F9 fimbriae-encoding genes were PCR amplified, cloned and expressed in a K-12 background devoid of type 1 fimbriae. While F9 fimbrial expression was not associated with any haemagglutination or cellular adherence properties, a role in biofilm formation was observed. E. coli K-12 cells expressing F9 fimbriae produced a dense and uniform biofilm in both microtitre plate and continuous-flow biofilm model systems. In wild-type UPEC CFT073, expression of the F9 major subunit-encoding gene was detected during exponential growth in M9 minimal medium. F9 expression could also be detected following selection and enrichment for pellicle growth in a CFT073fim foc double mutant. The F9 genes appear to be common in UPEC and other types of pathogenic E. coli. However, their precise contribution to disease remains to be determined. PMID:17600076

  17. Comparison of Adhesin Genes and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities between Uropathogenic and Intestinal Commensal Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaohua; Hu, Fupin; Wu, Shi; Ye, Xinyu; Zhu, Demei; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Minggui

    2013-01-01

    The presence of adhesins is arguably an important determinant of pathogenicity for Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested by agar dilution method, fifteen adhesin genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was analyzed in 70 UPEC isolates and 41 commensal E. coli strains. Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) was determined with confirmatory test. The prevalence of ESBL-producers in UPEC (53%, 37/70) was higher than the commensal intestinal isolates (7%, 3/41), and 97% (36/37) of the ESBL-producing UPEC harbored blaCTX-M genes. afa was present in 36% (10/28) UPEC isolates from recurrent lower urinary tract infection (UTI), and none in the acute pyelonephritis, acute uncomplicated cystitis or commensal strains (P<0.0001). papG was detected in 28% (20/70) of UPEC isolates, while 5% (2/41) of the commensal strains were papG positive (P?=?0.0025), and the prevalence of papG was significantly higher in acute pyelonephritis group (71%) than the other two UTI groups (P<0.0001). The prevalence of flu, yqi, yadN and ygiL was significantly higher in UPEC isolates than in the commensal strains. ESBL-producing UPEC showed a lower prevalence of adhesin genes compared with non-ESBL-producing strains. The MLST profiles were different between UPEC and commensal strains, with ST131 (19%, 13/70) and ST10 (20%, 8/41) being the most common MLSTs, respectively. This study demonstrated that several adhesin genes were more prevalent in UPEC isolates than in commensal E. coli, and afa may be associated with recurrent lower UTI whereas papG is more frequently associated with acute pyelonephritis. PMID:23593422

  18. Estrogenic Modulation of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection Pathogenesis in a Murine Menopause Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caihong; Symington, Jane W.; Ma, Emily; Cao, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), annually affect over 13 million patients in the United States. Menopausal women are disproportionally susceptible, suggesting estrogen deficiency is a significant risk factor for chronic and recurrent UTI. How estrogen status governs susceptibility to UTIs remains unknown, and whether hormone therapy protects against UTIs remains controversial. Here, we used a mouse model of surgical menopause by ovariectomy and demonstrate a protective role for estrogen in UTI pathogenesis. We found that ovariectomized mice had significantly higher bacteriuria, a more robust inflammatory response, and increased production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) upon UPEC infection compared to sham-operated controls. We further show that response of the urothelial stem cell niche to infection, normally activated to restore homeostasis after infection, was aberrant in ovariectomized mice with defective superficial urothelial cell differentiation. Finally, UPEC-infected ovariectomized mice showed a significant increase in quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs, which reside in the urothelium and can seed recurrent infections. Importantly, this and other ovariectomy-induced outcomes of UTI were reversible upon estrogen supplementation. Together, our findings establish ovariectomized mice as a model for UTIs in menopausal women and pinpoint specific events during course of infection that are most susceptible to estrogen deficiency. These findings have profound implications for the understanding of the role of estrogen and estrogen therapy in bladder health and pathogen defense mechanisms and open the door for prophylaxis for menopausal women with recurrent UTIs. PMID:23264047

  19. The Cpx Stress Response System Potentiates the Fitness and Virulence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Irina; Norton, J. Paul; Barber, Amelia E.; Ott, Elizabeth M.; Dhakal, Bijaya K.; Kulesus, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    Strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the primary cause of urinary tract infections, representing one of the most widespread and successful groups of pathogens on the planet. To colonize and persist within the urinary tract, UPEC must be able to sense and respond appropriately to environmental stresses, many of which can compromise the bacterial envelope. The Cpx two-component envelope stress response system is comprised of the inner membrane histidine kinase CpxA, the cytosolic response regulator CpxR, and the periplasmic auxiliary factor CpxP. Here, by using deletion mutants along with mouse and zebrafish infection models, we show that the Cpx system is critical to the fitness and virulence of two reference UPEC strains, the cystitis isolate UTI89 and the urosepsis isolate CFT073. Specifically, deletion of the cpxRA operon impaired the ability of UTI89 to colonize the murine bladder and greatly reduced the virulence of CFT073 during both systemic and localized infections within zebrafish embryos. These defects coincided with diminished host cell invasion by UTI89 and increased sensitivity of both strains to complement-mediated killing and the aminoglycoside antibiotic amikacin. Results obtained with the cpxP deletion mutants were more complicated, indicating variable strain-dependent and niche-specific requirements for this well-conserved auxiliary factor. PMID:23429541

  20. Characterization of a Dipartite Iron Uptake System from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain F11*

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Doreen; Chan, Anson C. K.; Murphy, Michael E. P.; Lilie, Hauke; Grass, Gregor; Nies, Dietrich H.

    2011-01-01

    In the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain F11, in silico genome analysis revealed the dicistronic iron uptake operon fetMP, which is under iron-regulated control mediated by the Fur regulator. The expression of fetMP in a mutant strain lacking known iron uptake systems improved growth under iron depletion and increased cellular iron accumulation. FetM is a member of the iron/lead transporter superfamily and is essential for iron uptake by the Fet system. FetP is a periplasmic protein that enhanced iron uptake by FetM. Recombinant FetP bound Cu(II) and the iron analog Mn(II) at distinct sites. The crystal structure of the FetP dimer reveals a copper site in each FetP subunit that adopts two conformations: CuA with a tetrahedral geometry composed of His44, Met90, His97, and His127, and CuB, a second degenerate octahedral geometry with the addition of Glu46. The copper ions of each site occupy distinct positions and are separated by ?1.3 ?. Nearby, a putative additional Cu(I) binding site is proposed as an electron source that may function with CuA/CuB displacement to reduce Fe(III) for transport by FetM. Together, these data indicate that FetMP is an additional iron uptake system composed of a putative iron permease and an iron-scavenging and potentially iron-reducing periplasmic protein. PMID:21596746

  1. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates with different virulence genes content exhibit similar pathologic influence on Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Jamil M A S; Mansour, Samira R; Elshahedy, Mohammed S; Rabie, Tarik E; Azab, Adel M H

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli are the major causative agent of urinary tract infection--they may simultaneously express a number of virulence factors to cause disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between virulence factors content of fifteen UPEC isolates and their pathogenic potential. The isolates belonged to the five serotypes O78:K80, O114:K90, O142:K86, O164 and O157. Nine of the virulence factors have been explored, ibeA, pap, sfa/foc, cnfl, hly, fyuA, pil, ompT and traT. Virulence factors profiling of the isolates revealed a different content ranging from 22% to 100% of the virulence genes explored. The pathogenic capacity of all fifteen isolates when tested on Vero cells showed that the cytotoxicity for all tested strains on Vero cells was approximately equal and enhanced after growth in syncase broth, leading mainly to cell lysis. The toxic effects reduced slightly after heat treatment of the toxin, and greatly after formalin detoxification, but not all the deleterious effect was abolished. Endotoxin also has cytotoxic effects on Vero cells, but longer time is needed for cytolysis which is greatly diminished with formalin treatment. In conclusion, our study revealed that pathogenic strains of UPEC can exert their pathogenic effect on live cells or system with limited virulence factors gene content. PMID:25033661

  2. Role of Capsule and O Antigen in the Virulence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sohinee; Ulett, Glen C.; Totsika, Makrina; Phan, Minh-Duy; Schembri, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans, with uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) the leading causative organism. UPEC has a number of virulence factors that enable it to overcome host defenses within the urinary tract and establish infection. The O antigen and the capsular polysaccharide are two such factors that provide a survival advantage to UPEC. Here we describe the application of the rpsL counter selection system to construct capsule (kpsD) and O antigen (waaL) mutants and complemented derivatives of three reference UPEC strains: CFT073 (O6:K2:H1), RS218 (O18:K1:H7) and 1177 (O1:K1:H7). We observed that while the O1, O6 and O18 antigens were required for survival in human serum, the role of the capsule was less clear and linked to O antigen type. In contrast, both the K1 and K2 capsular antigens provided a survival advantage to UPEC in whole blood. In the mouse urinary tract, mutation of the O6 antigen significantly attenuated CFT073 bladder colonization. Overall, this study contrasts the role of capsule and O antigen in three common UPEC serotypes using defined mutant and complemented strains. The combined mutagenesis-complementation strategy can be applied to study other virulence factors with complex functions both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24722484

  3. Temperature Control of Fimbriation Circuit Switch in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Quantitative Analysis via Automated Model Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Myers, Chris J.; Samoilov, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) represent the predominant cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). A key UPEC molecular virulence mechanism is type 1 fimbriae, whose expression is controlled by the orientation of an invertible chromosomal DNA element—the fim switch. Temperature has been shown to act as a major regulator of fim switching behavior and is overall an important indicator as well as functional feature of many urologic diseases, including UPEC host-pathogen interaction dynamics. Given this panoptic physiological role of temperature during UTI progression and notable empirical challenges to its direct in vivo studies, in silico modeling of corresponding biochemical and biophysical mechanisms essential to UPEC pathogenicity may significantly aid our understanding of the underlying disease processes. However, rigorous computational analysis of biological systems, such as fim switch temperature control circuit, has hereto presented a notoriously demanding problem due to both the substantial complexity of the gene regulatory networks involved as well as their often characteristically discrete and stochastic dynamics. To address these issues, we have developed an approach that enables automated multiscale abstraction of biological system descriptions based on reaction kinetics. Implemented as a computational tool, this method has allowed us to efficiently analyze the modular organization and behavior of the E. coli fimbriation switch circuit at different temperature settings, thus facilitating new insights into this mode of UPEC molecular virulence regulation. In particular, our results suggest that, with respect to its role in shutting down fimbriae expression, the primary function of FimB recombinase may be to effect a controlled down-regulation (rather than increase) of the ON-to-OFF fim switching rate via temperature-dependent suppression of competing dynamics mediated by recombinase FimE. Our computational analysis further implies that this down-regulation mechanism could be particularly significant inside the host environment, thus potentially contributing further understanding toward the development of novel therapeutic approaches to UPEC-caused UTIs. PMID:20361050

  4. Antibiotic resistance pattern among common bacterial uropathogens with a special reference to ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Acharya, N. Srinivas; Buddhapriya, D.; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: The resistance of bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI) to commonly prescribed antibiotics is increasing both in developing as well as in developed countries. Resistance has emerged even to more potent antimicrobial agents. The present study was undertaken to report the current antibiotic resistance pattern among common bacterial uropathogens isolated in a tertiary care hospital in south India, with a special reference to ciprofloxacin. Methods: A total of 19,050 consecutive urine samples were cultured and pathogens isolated were identified by standard methods. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. The clinical and demographic profile of the patients was noted. Results: Of the 19,050 samples, 62 per cent were sterile, 26.01 per cent showed significant growth, 2.3 per cent showed insignificant growth and 9.6 per cent were found contaminated. Significant association (P<0.001) of prior use of antibiotics in males, UTI in adults, gynaecological surgery in females, obstructive uropathy in males and complicated UTI in females with the occurrence of UTI with ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli was noted. Significant association was noted in females with prior antibiotics, with prior urological surgery and in males with prior complicated UTI. There was no significant association with diabetes mellitus with the occurrence of UTI with ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli. Fluoroquinolone resistance was found to increase with age. Interpretations & conclusions: Ciprofloxacin resistance has emerged due to its frequent use. This resistance was seen more in the in-patients, elderly males and females. Also the resistance to other antibiotics was also high. Increasing antibiotic resistance trends indicate that it is imperative to rationalize the use of antimicrobials in the community and also use these conservatively. PMID:23287133

  5. Involvement of Mismatch Repair in the Reciprocal Control of Motility and Adherence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lauren A.; Simmons, Lyle A.

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae and flagella, two surface organelles critical for colonization of the urinary tract by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), mediate opposing virulence objectives. Type 1 fimbriae facilitate adhesion to mucosal cells and promote bacterial persistence in the urinary tract, while flagella propel bacteria through urine and along mucous layers during ascension to the upper urinary tract. Using a transposon screen of the E. coli CFT073 fim locked-ON (L-ON) mutant, a construct that constitutively expresses type 1 fimbriae and represses motility, we identified six mutants that exhibited a partial restoration of motility. Among these six mutated genes was mutS, which encodes a component of the methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) system. When complemented with mutS in trans, motility was again repressed. To determine whether the MMR system, in general, is involved in this reciprocal control, we characterized the effects of gene deletions of other MMR components on UPEC motility. Isogenic deletions of mutS, mutH, and mutL were constructed in both wild-type CFT073 and fim L-ON backgrounds. All MMR mutants showed an increase in motility in the wild-type background, and ?mutH and ?mutS mutations increased motility in the fim L-ON background. Cochallenge of the wild-type strain with an MMR-defective strain showed a subtle but significant competitive advantage in the bladder and spleen for the MMR mutant using the murine model of ascending urinary tract infection after 48 h. Our findings demonstrate that the MMR system generally affects the reciprocal regulation of motility and adherence and thus could contribute to UPEC pathogenesis during urinary tract infections. PMID:22473602

  6. Molecular typing of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from Korean children with urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ki Wook; Kim, Do Soo; Kim, Wonyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the molecular types of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) by using conventional phylogrouping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and fimH genotyping. Methods Samples of patients younger than 18 years of age were collected from the Chung-Ang University Hospital over 2 years. Conventional phylogenetic grouping for UPEC strains was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bacterial strain sequence types (STs) were classified on the basis of the results of partial sequencing of seven housekeeping genes. In addition, we analyzed nucleotide variations in a 424-base pair fragment of fimH, a major virulence factor in UPEC. Results Sixty-four UPEC isolates were analyzed in this study. Phylogenetic grouping revealed that group B2 was the most common type (n=54, 84%). We identified 16 distinctive STs using MLST. The most common STs were ST95 (35.9%), ST73 (15.6%), ST131 (12.5%), ST69 (7.8%), and ST14 (6.3%). Fourteen fimH allele types were identified, of which 11 had been previously reported, and the remaining three were identified in this study. f1 (n=28, 45.2%) was found to be the most common allele type, followed by f6 and f9 (n=7, 11.3% each). Comparative analysis of the results from the three different molecular typing techniques revealed that both MLST and fimH typing generated more discriminatory UPEC types than did PCR-based phylogrouping. Conclusion We characterized UPEC molecular types isolated from Korean children by MLST and fimH genotyping. fimH genotyping might serve as a useful molecular test for large epidemiologic studies of UPEC isolates. PMID:25729395

  7. PafR, a Novel Transcription Regulator, Is Important for Pathogenesis in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Mordechai; Watad, Mobarak; Smith, Sara N.; Alteri, Christopher J.; Gordon, Noa; Rosenshine, Ilan; Mobley, Harry L.

    2014-01-01

    The metV genomic island in the chromosome of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) encodes a putative transcription factor and a sugar permease of the phosphotransferase system (PTS), which are predicted to compose a Bgl-like sensory system. The presence of these two genes, hereby termed pafR and pafP, respectively, has been previously shown to correlate with isolates causing clinical syndromes. We show here that deletion of both genes impairs the ability of the resulting mutant to infect the CBA/J mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection compared to that of the parent strain, CFT073. Expressing the two genes in trans in the two-gene knockout mutant complemented full virulence. Deletion of either gene individually generated the same phenotype as the double knockout, indicating that both pafR and pafP are important to pathogenesis. We screened numerous environmental conditions but failed to detect expression from the promoter that precedes the paf genes in vitro, suggesting that they are in vivo induced (ivi). Although PafR is shown here to be capable of functioning as a transcriptional antiterminator, its targets in the UPEC genome are not known. Using microarray analysis, we have shown that expression of PafR from a heterologous promoter in CFT073 affects expression of genes related to bacterial virulence, biofilm formation, and metabolism. Expression of PafR also inhibits biofilm formation and motility. Taken together, our results suggest that the paf genes are implicated in pathogenesis and that PafR controls virulence genes, in particular biofilm formation genes. PMID:25069986

  8. Pilicide ec240 Disrupts Virulence Circuits in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Sarah E.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Chorell, Erik; Dodson, Karen W.; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Conover, Matt S.; Livny, Jonathan; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chaperone-usher pathway (CUP) pili are extracellular organelles produced by Gram-negative bacteria that mediate bacterial pathogenesis. Small-molecule inhibitors of CUP pili, termed pilicides, were rationally designed and shown to inhibit type 1 or P piliation. Here, we show that pilicide ec240 decreased the levels of type 1, P, and S piliation. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses using the cystitis isolate UTI89 revealed that ec240 dysregulated CUP pili and decreased motility. Paradoxically, the transcript levels of P and S pilus genes were increased during growth in ec240, even though the level of P and S piliation decreased. In contrast, the most downregulated transcripts after growth in ec240 were from the type 1 pilus genes. Type 1 pilus expression is controlled by inversion of the fimS promoter element, which can oscillate between phase on and phase off orientations. ec240 induced the fimS phase off orientation, and this effect was necessary for the majority of ec240’s inhibition of type 1 piliation. ec240 increased levels of the transcriptional regulators SfaB and PapB, which were shown to induce the fimS promoter phase off orientation. Furthermore, the effect of ec240 on motility was abolished in the absence of the SfaB, PapB, SfaX, and PapX regulators. In contrast to the effects of ec240, deletion of the type 1 pilus operon led to increased S and P piliation and motility. Thus, ec240 dysregulated several uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) virulence factors through different mechanisms and independent of its effects on type 1 pilus biogenesis and may have potential as an antivirulence compound. PMID:25352623

  9. Kinetics of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Metapopulation Movement during Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Matthew S.; Lane, M. Chelsea; Vigil, Patrick D.; Smith, Sara N.; Walk, Seth T.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The urinary tract is one of the most frequent sites of bacterial infection in humans. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are the leading cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and are responsible for greater than 80% of uncomplicated cases in adults. Infection of the urinary tract occurs in an ascending manner, with colonization of the bladder leading to possible kidney infection and bacteremia. The goal of this study was to examine the population dynamics of UPEC in vivo using a murine model of ascending UTI. To track individual UPEC lineages within a host, we constructed 10 isogenic clones of UPEC strain CFT073 by inserting unique signature tag sequences between the pstS and glmS genes at the attTn7 chromosomal site. Mice were transurethrally inoculated with a mixture containing equal numbers of unique clones. After 4 and 48 h, the tags present in the bladders, kidneys, and spleens of infected mice were enumerated using tag-specific primers and quantitative real-time PCR. The results indicated that kidney infection and bacteremia associated with UTI are most likely the result of multiple rounds of ascension and dissemination from motile UPEC subpopulations, with a distinct bottleneck existing between the kidney and bloodstream. The abundance of tagged lineages became more variable as infection progressed, especially after bacterial ascension to the upper urinary tract. Analysis of the population kinetics of UPEC during UTI revealed metapopulation dynamics, with lineages that constantly increased and decreased in abundance as they migrated from one organ to another. PMID:22318320

  10. Genome-Wide Detection of Fitness Genes in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli during Systemic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Smith, Sara N.; Spurbeck, Rachel R.; Kole, Monica M.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2013-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a leading etiological agent of bacteremia in humans. Virulence mechanisms of UPEC in the context of urinary tract infections have been subjected to extensive research. However, understanding of the fitness mechanisms used by UPEC during bacteremia and systemic infection is limited. A forward genetic screen was utilized to detect transposon insertion mutants with fitness defects during colonization of mouse spleens. An inoculum comprised of 360,000 transposon mutants in the UPEC strain CFT073, cultured from the blood of a patient with pyelonephritis, was used to inoculate mice intravenously. Transposon insertion sites in the inoculum (input) and bacteria colonizing the spleen (output) were identified using high-throughput sequencing of transposon-chromosome junctions. Using frequencies of representation of each insertion mutant in the input and output samples, 242 candidate fitness genes were identified. Co-infection experiments with each of 11 defined mutants and the wild-type strain demonstrated that 82% (9 of 11) of the tested candidate fitness genes were required for optimal fitness in a mouse model of systemic infection. Genes involved in biosynthesis of poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (pgaABCD), major and minor pilin of a type IV pilus (c2394 and c2395), oligopeptide uptake periplasmic-binding protein (oppA), sensitive to antimicrobial peptides (sapABCDF), putative outer membrane receptor (yddB), zinc metallopeptidase (pqqL), a shikimate pathway gene (c1220) and autotransporter serine proteases (pic and vat) were further characterized. Here, we report the first genome-wide identification of genes that contribute to fitness in UPEC during systemic infection in a mammalian host. These fitness factors may represent targets for developing novel therapeutics against UPEC. PMID:24339777

  11. Molecular mechanisms for the subversion of MyD88 signaling by TcpC from virulent uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Greg A.; Cirl, Christine; Jiang, Jiansheng; Chen, Kang; Waldhuber, Anna; Smith, Patrick; Römmler, Franziska; Snyder, Nathaniel; Fresquez, Theresa; Dürr, Susanne; Tjandra, Nico; Miethke, Thomas; Xiao, Tsan Sam

    2013-01-01

    The Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains are crucial signaling modules during innate immune responses involving the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and IL-1 receptor (IL-1R). Myeloid differential factor 88 (MyD88) is a central TIR domain-containing adapter molecule responsible for nearly all TLR-mediated signaling and is targeted by a TIR domain-containing protein C (TcpC) from virulent uropathogenic Escherichia coli, a common human pathogen. The mechanism of such molecular antagonism has remained elusive. We present the crystal structure of the MyD88 TIR domain with distinct loop conformations that underscore the functional specialization of the adapter, receptor, and microbial TIR domains. Our structural analyses shed light on the genetic mutations at these loops as well as the Poc site. We demonstrate that TcpC directly associates with MyD88 and TLR4 through its predicted DD and BB loops to impair the TLR-induced cytokine induction. Furthermore, NMR titration experiments identify the unique CD, DE, and EE loops from MyD88 at the TcpC-interacting surface, suggesting that TcpC specifically engages these MyD88 structural elements for immune suppression. These findings thus provide a molecular basis for the subversion of TLR signaling by the uropathogenic E. coli virulence factor TcpC and furnish a framework for the design of novel therapeutic agents that modulate immune activation. PMID:23569230

  12. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli -induced neutrophil adhesion to urinary epithelium is strain-specific and mediated by CD11b\\/CD18

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Rao; C. Murdoch; J. R. Johnson; G. S. Evans; A. Finn

    2001-01-01

    Adherence of Escherichia coli to urinary tract epithelium induces neutrophil migration across the uroepithelium to combat bacterial infection. Neutrophil\\u000a adherence to the apical membrane of uroepithelial cells may be an important factor for bacterial clearance. We used an in\\u000a vitro model of urinary tract infection to examine the effects of uropathogenic E. coli on neutrophil adhesion to the uroepithelial cell

  13. The FimH Gene in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated From Patients With Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hojati, Zohreh; Zamanzad, Behnam; Hashemzadeh, Morteza; Molaie, Razieh; Gholipour, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of main health problems caused by many microorganisms, including uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC strains are the most frequent pathogens responsible for 85% and 50% of community and hospital acquired UTIs, respectively. UPEC strains have special virulence factors, including type 1 fimbriae, which can result in worsening of UTIs. Objectives: This study was performed to detect type 1 fimbriae (the FimH gene) among UPEC strains by molecular method. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 isolated E. coli strains from patients with UTI were identified using biochemical tests and then evaluated for the FimH gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Results: The UPEC isolates were identified using biochemical tests and were screened by PCR. The fimH gene was amplified using specific primers and showed a band about 164 bp. The FimH gene was found in 130 isolates (92.8%) of the UPEC strains. Of 130 isolates positive for the FimH gene, 62 (47.7%) and 68 (52.3%) belonged to hospitalized patients and outpatients, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that more than 90% of E. coli isolates harbored the FimH gene. The high binding ability of FimH could result in the increased pathogenicity of E. coli; thus, FimH could be used as a possible diagnostic marker and/or vaccine candidate.

  14. OCCURRENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT UROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI CLONAL GROUP A IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isolates of Escherichia coli belonging to clonal group A (CGA), a recently described disseminated cause of drug-resistant urinary tract infections in humans, were present in four of seven sewage effluents collected from geographically dispersed areas of the United States. ...

  15. Gene clusters encoding the cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1, Prs-fimbriae and ?-hemolysin form the pathogenicity island II of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain J96

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Blum; Vincenzo Falbo; Alfredo Caprioli; Jörg Hacker

    1995-01-01

    The uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain J96 (04:K6) is able to produce four adherence factors [P-fimbriae (pap and prs), F1C-fimbriae (foc) and Type 1-fimbriae (fim)], two ?-hemolysins (hfyI and II) and the cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (cnf1). Using phenotypic test systems and genotypic analysis, it has been shown that the mutant strain J96-M1 has lost the hlyII, prs and cnf1

  16. Nutritional requirements for growth of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in human urine.

    PubMed

    Hull, R A; Hull, S I

    1997-05-01

    Enrichment with D-cycloserine was used to identify Escherichia coli auxotrophic mutants that exhibited limited growth in human urine. Bacterial synthesis of guanine, arginine, and glutamine was found to be required for optimal growth in urine. Mutants that required leucine, methionine, serine, phenylalanine, or proline also exhibited reduced growth in urine. Several other nutritional mutants, including nicotinamide auxotrophs, which are found frequently among cystitis isolates, exhibited normal growth in urine. PMID:9125589

  17. The Association of Virulence Determinants of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli With Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Sara; Kargar, Mohammad; Solhjoo, Kavous; Najafi, Akram; Ghorbani-Dalini, Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains of Escherichia coli has raised considerable interest in understanding the diversity and epidemiology of E. coli infections in humans. Virulence factors of E. coli determine the specific infections caused by this microorganism. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of eight E. coli virulence factors and their association with antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI). Patients and Methods: One thousand patients with UTI were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Antimicrobial susceptibility was examined by disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. After DNA extraction, the materials were probed by PCR for eight virulence factors genes, namely fimH, hly, iucC, ibeA, sfa/foc, neuC, papC, and afa genes. Results: The frequency of virulence factors papC, afa, sfa/foc, fimH, hly, neuC, ibeA, and iucC were 53.3%, 51.7%, 53.3%, 56.7%, 23.3%, 31.7%, 20%, and 73.3%, respectively. In addition, there was a high degree resistance to cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid while a high degree of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin was detected. There was a statistically significant association between fimH gene and resistance to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.006), nalidixic acid (P = 0.025), and cotrimoxazole (P = 0.02). Such associations were found between ibeA gene and amikacin (P = 0.02) and cotrimoxazole (P = 0.02) as well as between afa gene and gentamycin (P = 0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that E. coli isolated from patients with UTI had eight virulence factors with high frequencies. Moreover, these results alleged a direct connection between virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in E. coli. PMID:25147722

  18. The Repeat-In-Toxin Family Member TosA Mediates Adherence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Survival during Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Patrick D.; Wiles, Travis J.; Engstrom, Michael D.; Prasov, Lev; Mulvey, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is responsible for the majority of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) and represents the most common bacterial infection in adults. UPEC utilizes a wide range of virulence factors to colonize the host, including the novel repeat-in-toxin (RTX) protein TosA, which is specifically expressed in the host urinary tract and contributes significantly to the virulence and survival of UPEC. tosA, found in strains within the B2 phylogenetic subgroup of E. coli, serves as a marker for strains that also contain a large number of well-characterized UPEC virulence factors. The presence of tosA in an E. coli isolate predicts successful colonization of the murine model of ascending UTI, regardless of the source of the isolate. Here, a detailed analysis of the function of tosA revealed that this gene is transcriptionally linked to genes encoding a conserved type 1 secretion system similar to other RTX family members. TosA localized to the cell surface and was found to mediate (i) adherence to host cells derived from the upper urinary tract and (ii) survival in disseminated infections and (iii) to enhance lethality during sepsis (as assessed in two different animal models of infection). An experimental vaccine, using purified TosA, protected vaccinated animals against urosepsis. From this work, it was concluded that TosA belongs to a novel group of RTX proteins that mediate adherence and host damage during UTI and urosepsis and could be a novel target for the development of therapeutics to treat ascending UTIs. PMID:22083710

  19. Urinary tract infection drives genome instability in uropathogenic Escherichia coli and necessitates translesion synthesis DNA polymerase IV for virulence

    PubMed Central

    Gawel, Damian

    2011-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) produces ?80% of community-acquired UTI, the second most common infection in humans. During UTI, UPEC has a complex life cycle, replicating and persisting in intracellular and extracellular niches. Host and environmental stresses may affect the integrity of the UPEC genome and threaten its viability. We determined how the host inflammatory response during UTI drives UPEC genome instability and evaluated the role of multiple factors of genome replication and repair for their roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and thus virulence during UTI. The urinary tract environment enhanced the mutation frequency of UPEC ?100-fold relative to in vitro levels. Abrogation of inflammation through a host TLR4-signaling defect significantly reduced the mutation frequency, demonstrating in the importance of the host response as a driver of UPEC genome instability. Inflammation induces the bacterial SOS response, leading to the hypothesis that the UPEC SOS-inducible translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases would be key factors in UPEC genome instability during UTI. However, while the TLS DNA polymerases enhanced in vitro, they did not increase in vivo mutagenesis. Although it is not a source of enhanced mutagenesis in vivo, the TLS DNA polymerase IV was critical for the survival of UPEC during UTI during an active inflammatory assault. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of a TLS DNA polymerase being critical for UPEC survival during urinary tract infection and points to independent mechanisms for genome instability and the maintenance of genome replication of UPEC under host inflammatory stress. PMID:21597325

  20. Heme acquisition is facilitated by a novel receptor Hma and required by uropathogenic Escherichia coli for kidney infection

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Erin C.; Mobley, Harry L.T.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Iron acquisition, mediated by specific outer membrane receptors, is critical for colonization of the urinary tract by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). The role of specific iron sources in vivo, however, remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified a 79 kDa heme receptor, heme acquisition protein Hma, and established that it functions independently of ChuA to mediate hemin uptake by UPEC strain CFT073. We demonstrated that expression of hma promotes TonB-dependent hemin utilization and the Hma protein binds hemin with high affinity (Kd=8 ?M). Hma, however, lacks conserved His residues shown to mediate heme uptake by other bacterial receptors. In contrast, we identified Tyr126 as a residue necessary for Hmamediated hemin utilization. In a murine co-infection model of UTI, an isogenic hma mutant was outcompeted by wildtype CFT073 in the kidneys (P<0.001) and spleens (P<0.0001) of infected mice, indicating its expression provided a competitive advantage in these organs. Furthermore, a hma chuA double mutant, which is unable to utilize hemin, was unable to colonize the kidneys to wildtype levels during independent infection (P=0.02). Thus, we demonstrate that UPEC requires heme for kidney colonization and that uptake of this iron source is mediated, in part, by the novel receptor, Hma. PMID:19019144

  1. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated From Hospitalized Patients in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Neamati, Foroogh; Firoozeh, Farzaneh; Saffari, Mahmood; Zibaei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), as the most important cause of UTI, are associated with a number of virulence factors. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the virulence associated determinants as well as their patterns of antibiotic resistance in UPEC isolated from hospitalized patients with UTI. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 E. coli isolates were collected from patients with UTI from December 2012 to June 2013 in Kashan, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility screening of 12 antibiotics was determined using disk diffusion method. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect virulence-related genes in UPEC strains. The purified PCR products were sequenced. Results: Of the total 150 UPEC isolates, 111 (74%) were multidrug-resistant. High resistance was observed against ampicillin (81.3%), nalidixic acid (71.3%), cotrimoxazole (64.7%) and ciprofloxacin (61.3%), respectively. Eighty-four out of the 150 isolates showed resistance against the extended spectrum cephalosporins. Totally, virulence genes were detected in 126 (84%) UPEC isolates .The PCR results identified the traT gene in (74%), PAIs markers in (61.3%) and the pap gene in (16.6%) of the isolates. Conclusions: The traT gene and PAI markers were highly prevalent among UPEC strains isolated from patients in Kashan, Iran; therefore these determinants could be used as targets for prophylactic interventions. Also there was a high level of resistance against the antibiotics commonly used for urinary tract infection treatment. To reach better therapeutic outcomes, treatment regimens have to be modified.

  2. Quantification of filamentation by uropathogenic Escherichia coli during experimental bladder cell infection by using semi-automated image analysis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kasper; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Andersen, Thomas Emil

    2015-02-01

    Several rod-shaped pathogens including Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Klebsiella pneumonia are capable of adopting highly filamentous cell shapes under certain circumstances. This phenomenon occurs as a result of continued cell elongation during growth without the usual septation into single rod-shaped cells. Evidence has emerged over the past decade suggesting that this morphological transformation is controlled and reversible and provides selective advantages under certain growth conditions, such as during infection in humans. In order to identify the factors which induce filamentation of bacterial pathogens and study the advantages of bacterial morphological plasticity, methods are needed to accurately quantify changes in bacterial cell shape. In this study, we present a method for quantification of bacterial filamentation based on automatic detection and measurement of bacterial units in focus-stacked microscopy images. Used in combination with a flow-chamber based in vitro cystitis model, we study the factors involved in filament formation by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) during infection. The influence of substratum surface, intracellular proliferation and flow media on UPEC filamentation is evaluated. We show that reversible UPEC filamentation during cystitis is not dependent on intracellular infection, which previous studies have suggested. Instead, we find that filamentation can be induced by contact with surfaces, both biological and artificial. Lastly our data indicate that UPEC filamentation is induced by trace-amounts of specific components in urine, rather than being a generic stress-response to high urine salt concentrations. The study shows that the combined methodology is generally useful for investigation of bacterial morphological transitions during cell infection. PMID:25546841

  3. OmpR regulation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli fimB gene in an acidic/high osmolality environment

    PubMed Central

    Rentschler, Ann E.; Lovrich, Steven D.; Fitton, Robert; Enos-Berlage, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) causes more than 90?% of all human urinary tract infections through type 1 piliated UPEC cells binding to bladder epithelial cells. The FimB and FimE site-specific recombinases orient the fimS element containing the fimA structural gene promoter. Regulation of fimB and fimE depends on environmental pH and osmolality. The EnvZ/OmpR two-component system affects osmoregulation in E. coli. To ascertain if OmpR directly regulated the fimB gene promoters, gel mobility shift and DNase I footprinting experiments were performed using OmpR or phosphorylated OmpR (OmpR-P) mixed with the fimB promoter regions of UPEC strain NU149. Both OmpR-P and OmpR bound weakly to one fimB promoter. Because there was weak binding to one fimB promoter, strain NU149 was grown in different pH and osmolality environments, and total RNAs were extracted from each population and converted to cDNAs. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR showed no differences in ompR transcription among the different growth conditions. Conversely, Western blots showed a significant increase in OmpR protein in UPEC cells grown in a combined low pH/high osmolality environment versus a neutral pH/high osmolality environment. In a high osmolality environment, the ompR mutant expressed more fimB transcripts and Phase-ON positioning of the fimS element as well as higher type 1 pili levels than wild-type cells. Together these results suggest that OmpR may be post-transcriptionally regulated in UPEC cells growing in a low pH/high osmolality environment, which regulates fimB in UPEC. PMID:23175504

  4. Frequency and distribution of uropathogenic Escherichia coli adhesins: a clinical correlation over 2,000 cases.

    PubMed

    Dalet, F; Segovia, T; Del Río, G

    1991-01-01

    In order to determine the pathogenic responsibility of Escherichia coli adhesins (ADHs) in urinary infections (UI), 2,000 different patients suffering different clinical urinary and male sexual gland infections were monitored. The ADHs were determined by agglutination techniques with human and guinea-pig red blood cells, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and latex sensitized with GAL-GAL. In uncomplicated UIs, the possession of ADH is the main invasion mechanism for E. coli. The rate of E. coli ADH strains is very high (89%) in acute cases (727 of 818 cases: 310 of 362 cystitis; 104 of 113 recidivant cystitis; 120 of 126 pyelonephritis; 158 of 173 prostatitis, and 34 of 43 orchiepididymitis) and rare (10%) in asymptomatic or chronic cases (24 of 235 cases: 14 of 148 bacteriurias; 8 of 74 prostatitis, and 2 of 13 orchiepididymitis). A close relation is established between the presence of ADH and clinical symptoms. 90% (218 of 242) of acute cases with systemic symptoms are due to MR-type ADH strains, especially the P subtype. 71% (409 of 576) of acute cases with local symptoms are due to MS-type ADH strains. In complicated UIs the expression of ADH is not an essential condition for the invasion of the urinary apparatus. It has been strongly suggested that males are significantly more resistant to UI, both in the tract and parenchyma, than women. It can be deduced that the underlying disease is more liable to UI the lower the adherence level shown by isolated strains. Thus catheters, reflux and neurogenic bladder are, by far, more aggressive alterations than the prostatic adenoma, vesical tumor or lithiasis. PMID:1680692

  5. In vitro selection of resistance to pradofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in canine uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Lazzaroni, Caterina; Aly, Sherine A; Thungrat, Kamoltip; Boothe, Dawn M

    2014-12-01

    This study explored and compared the mechanisms and selective concentration of resistance between a 3rd (pradofloxacin) and 2nd (ciprofloxacin) generation fluoroquinolone. Pradofloxacin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants were selected by stepwise exposure of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to escalating concentrations of pradofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The sequence of the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) and the transcriptional regulator soxS were analyzed, and efflux pump AcrAB-TolC activity was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). First-step mutants reduced the fluoroquinolone sensitivity and one mutant bore a single substitution in gyrA. Four of six second-step mutants expressed ciprofloxacin resistance, and displayed additional mutations in gyrA and/or parC, while these mutants retained susceptibility to pradofloxacin. All the third-step mutants were fluoroquinolone resistant, and each expressed multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes. Further, they displayed resistance to all antibacterials tested except cefotaxime, ceftazidime and meropenem. The number of mutations in QRDR of gyrA and parC correlated with fluoroquinolone MICs. Mutations in parC were not common in pradofloxacin-associated mutants. Moreover, one second- and one third-step ciprofloxacin-associated mutants bore both mutations at position 12 (Ala12Ser) and 78 (Met78Leu) in the soxS gene, yet no mutations in the soxS gene were detected in the pradofloxacin-selected mutants. Altogether, these results demonstrated that resistance emerged relatively more rapidly in 2nd compared to 3rd generation fluoroquinolones. Point mutations in gyrA were a key mechanism of resistance to pradofloxacin, and overexpression of efflux pump gene acrB played a potential role in the emergence of MDR phenotypes identified in this study. PMID:25465666

  6. Crystal structure of c5321: a protective antigen present in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains displaying an SLR fold

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens led, among other efforts, to the application of subtractive reverse vaccinology for the identification of antigens present in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains but absent or variable in non-pathogenic strains, in a quest for a broadly protective Escherichia coli vaccine. The protein coded by locus c5321 from CFT073 E. coli was identified as one of nine potential vaccine candidates against ExPEC and was able to confer protection with an efficacy of 33% in a mouse model of sepsis. c5321 (known also as EsiB) lacks functional annotation and structurally belongs to the Sel1-like repeat (SLR) family. Herein, as part of the general characterization of this potential antigen, we have focused on its structural properties. Results We report the 1.74 Å-resolution crystal structure of c5321 from CFT073 E. coli determined by Se-Met SAD phasing. The structure is composed of 11 SLR units in a topological organisation that highly resembles that found in HcpC from Helicobacter pylori, with the main difference residing in how the super-helical fold is stabilised. The stabilising effect of disulfide bridges in HcpC is replaced in c5321 by a strengthening of the inter-repeat hydrophobic core. A metal-ion binding site, uncharacteristic of SLR proteins, is detected between SLR units 3 and 4 in the region of the inter-repeat hydrophobic core. Crystal contacts are observed between the C-terminal tail of one molecule and the C-terminal amphipathic groove of a neighbouring one, resembling interactions between ligand and proteins containing tetratricopeptide-like repeats. Conclusions The structure of antigen c5321 presents a mode of stabilization of the SLR fold different from that observed in close homologs of known structure. The location of the metal-ion binding site and the observed crystal contacts suggest a potential role in regulation of conformational flexibility and interaction with yet unidentified target proteins, respectively. These findings open new perspectives in both antigen design and for the identification of a functional role for this protective antigen. PMID:24099525

  7. DNA sequences of three papA genes from uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains: evidence of structural and serological conservation.

    PubMed

    Denich, K; Blyn, L B; Craiu, A; Braaten, B A; Hardy, J; Low, D A; O'Hanley, P D

    1991-11-01

    Pyelonephritis-associated pili (Pap) are important in the pathogenesis of ascending, unobstructive Escherichia coli-caused renal infections because these surface bacterial organelles mediate digalactoside-specific binding to host uroepithelial cells. Pap are composed of many different polypeptides, of which only the tip proteins mediate specific binding. The PapA moiety polymerizes to form the bulk of the pilus structure and has been employed in vaccines despite its lack of Gal alpha(1-4)Gal receptor specificity. Animal recipients of PapA pilus-based vaccines are protected against experimental pyelonephritis caused by homologous and heterologous Gal-Gal-binding uropathogenic E. coli strains. Specific PapA immunoglobulin G antibodies in urine are correlated with protection in these infection models. The nucleotide sequences of the gene encoding PapA were determined for three E. coli clones expressing F7(1), F7(2), and F9 pili and were compared with corresponding sequences for other F serotypes. Specific rabbit antisera were employed in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to study the cross-reactivity between Gal-Gal pili purified from recombinant strains expressing F7(1), F7(2), F9, or F13 pili and among 60 Gal-Gal-binding wild-type strains. We present data which corroborate the concept that papA genes are highly homologous and encode proteins which exhibit greater than 70% homology among pili of different serotypes. The differences primarily occur in the cysteine-cysteine loop and variable regions and constitute the basis for serological diversity of these pili. Although there are differences in primary structures among these pili, antisera raised against pili of one serotype cross-reacted frequently with many other Gal-Gal pili of different serotypes. Furthermore, antisera raised against pili of the F13 serotype cross-reacted strongly or moderately with 52 (86%) of 60 wild-type Gal-Gal-binding E. coli strains. These data suggest that there are common immunogenic domains among these proteins. These additional data further support the hypothesis that broadly cross-protective PapA pilus vaccines for the immunoprophylaxis of pyelonephritis might be developed. PMID:1682251

  8. Adhesive Fiber Stratification in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Biofilms Unveils Oxygen-Mediated Control of Type 1 Pili.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kyle A; Moore, Jessica L; Eberly, Allison R; Good, James A D; Shaffer, Carrie L; Zaver, Himesh; Almqvist, Fredrik; Skaar, Eric P; Caprioli, Richard M; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial biofilms account for a significant number of hospital-acquired infections and complicate treatment options, because bacteria within biofilms are generally more tolerant to antibiotic treatment. This resilience is attributed to transient bacterial subpopulations that arise in response to variations in the microenvironment surrounding the biofilm. Here, we probed the spatial proteome of surface-associated single-species biofilms formed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the major causative agent of community-acquired and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to analyze the spatial proteome of intact biofilms in situ. MALDI-TOF IMS revealed protein species exhibiting distinct localizations within surface-associated UPEC biofilms, including two adhesive fibers critical for UPEC biofilm formation and virulence: type 1 pili (Fim) localized exclusively to the air-exposed region, while curli amyloid fibers localized to the air-liquid interface. Comparison of cells grown aerobically, fermentatively, or utilizing an alternative terminal electron acceptor showed that the phase-variable fim promoter switched to the "OFF" orientation under oxygen-deplete conditions, leading to marked reduction of type 1 pili on the bacterial cell surface. Conversely, S pili whose expression is inversely related to fim expression were up-regulated under anoxic conditions. Tethering the fim promoter in the "ON" orientation in anaerobically grown cells only restored type 1 pili production in the presence of an alternative terminal electron acceptor beyond oxygen. Together these data support the presence of at least two regulatory mechanisms controlling fim expression in response to oxygen availability and may contribute to the stratification of extracellular matrix components within the biofilm. MALDI IMS facilitated the discovery of these mechanisms, and we have demonstrated that this technology can be used to interrogate subpopulations within bacterial biofilms. PMID:25738819

  9. Identification of in vivo-induced antigens including an RTX family exoprotein required for uropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Patrick D; Alteri, Christopher J; Mobley, Harry L T

    2011-06-01

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) are caused most commonly by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Whole-genome screening approaches, including transcriptomic, proteomic, and signature-tagged mutagenesis, have shown that UPEC highly expresses or requires genes for translational machinery, capsule, lipopolysaccharide, type 1 fimbriae, and iron acquisition systems during UTI. To identify additional genes expressed by UPEC during UTI, an immunoscreening approach termed in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) was employed to identify antigens produced during experimental infection that are not produced during in vitro culture. An inducible protein expression library, constructed from genomic DNA isolated from UPEC strain CFT073, was screened using exhaustively adsorbed pooled sera from 20 chronically infected female CBA/J mice. Using this approach, we identified 93 antigens induced by UPEC in vivo. A representative subset of these genes was tested by quantitative PCR for expression by CFT073 in vivo and during growth in human urine or LB medium in vitro; proWX, narJI, lolA, lolD, tosA (upxA), c2432, katG, ydhX, kpsS, and yddQ were poorly expressed in vitro but highly expressed in vivo. Of these, tosA, a gene encoding a predicted repeat-in-toxin family member, was expressed exclusively during UTI. Deletion of tosA in UPEC strain CFT073 resulted in significant attenuation in bladder and kidney infections during ascending UTI. By screening for in vivo-induced antigens, we identified a novel UPEC virulence factor and additional proteins that could be useful as potential vaccine targets. PMID:21422188

  10. Lifting the Mask: Identification of New Small Molecule Inhibitors of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Group 2 Capsule Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Noah, James W.; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Evans, Carrie W.; Nebane, N. Miranda; Rasmussen, Lynn; Sosa, Melinda; Tower, Nichole A.; White, E. Lucile; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Porubsky, Patrick; Maki, Brooks E.; Rogers, Steven A.; Schoenen, Frank; Seed, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs), with over 100 million UTIs occurring annually throughout the world. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among UPEC limits ambulatory care options, delays effective treatment, and may increase overall morbidity and mortality from complications such as urosepsis. The polysaccharide capsules of UPEC are an attractive target a therapeutic, based on their importance in defense against the host immune responses; however, the large number of antigenic types has limited their incorporation into vaccine development. The objective of this study was to identify small-molecule inhibitors of UPEC capsule biogenesis. A large-scale screening effort entailing 338,740 compounds was conducted in a cell-based, phenotypic screen for inhibition of capsule biogenesis in UPEC. The primary and concentration-response assays yielded 29 putative inhibitors of capsule biogenesis, of which 6 were selected for further studies. Secondary confirmatory assays identified two highly active agents, named DU003 and DU011, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 1.0 µM and 0.69 µM, respectively. Confirmatory assays for capsular antigen and biochemical measurement of capsular sugars verified the inhibitory action of both compounds and demonstrated minimal toxicity and off-target effects. Serum sensitivity assays demonstrated that both compounds produced significant bacterial death upon exposure to active human serum. DU011 administration in mice provided near complete protection against a lethal systemic infection with the prototypic UPEC K1 isolate UTI89. This work has provided a conceptually new class of molecules to combat UPEC infection, and future studies will establish the molecular basis for their action along with efficacy in UTI and other UPEC infections. PMID:24983234

  11. Adhesive Fiber Stratification in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Biofilms Unveils Oxygen-Mediated Control of Type 1 Pili

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Kyle A.; Moore, Jessica L.; Eberly, Allison R.; Good, James A. D.; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Zaver, Himesh; Almqvist, Fredrik; Skaar, Eric P.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms account for a significant number of hospital-acquired infections and complicate treatment options, because bacteria within biofilms are generally more tolerant to antibiotic treatment. This resilience is attributed to transient bacterial subpopulations that arise in response to variations in the microenvironment surrounding the biofilm. Here, we probed the spatial proteome of surface-associated single-species biofilms formed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the major causative agent of community-acquired and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to analyze the spatial proteome of intact biofilms in situ. MALDI-TOF IMS revealed protein species exhibiting distinct localizations within surface-associated UPEC biofilms, including two adhesive fibers critical for UPEC biofilm formation and virulence: type 1 pili (Fim) localized exclusively to the air-exposed region, while curli amyloid fibers localized to the air-liquid interface. Comparison of cells grown aerobically, fermentatively, or utilizing an alternative terminal electron acceptor showed that the phase-variable fim promoter switched to the “OFF” orientation under oxygen-deplete conditions, leading to marked reduction of type 1 pili on the bacterial cell surface. Conversely, S pili whose expression is inversely related to fim expression were up-regulated under anoxic conditions. Tethering the fim promoter in the “ON” orientation in anaerobically grown cells only restored type 1 pili production in the presence of an alternative terminal electron acceptor beyond oxygen. Together these data support the presence of at least two regulatory mechanisms controlling fim expression in response to oxygen availability and may contribute to the stratification of extracellular matrix components within the biofilm. MALDI IMS facilitated the discovery of these mechanisms, and we have demonstrated that this technology can be used to interrogate subpopulations within bacterial biofilms. PMID:25738819

  12. Effect of glucose and pH on uropathogenic and non-uropathogenic Escherichia coli: studies with urine from diabetic and non-diabetic individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. GEERLINGS; E. C. BROUWER; W. GAASTRA; J. VERHOEF; A. I. M. HOEPELMAN

    1999-01-01

    It is generally assumed that one of the reasons why diabetics are more susceptible to urinary tract infections than non-diabetics is their 'sweet urine'. However, very little information is available on this subject. Therefore, the growth rates of different Escherichia coli strains were studied in human urine with and without added glucose and with and without a constant pH, and

  13. Impact of UV and Peracetic Acid Disinfection on the Prevalence of Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Wastewater Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Basanta Kumar; Khairallah, Ramzi; Bibi, Kareem; Mazza, Alberto; Gehr, Ronald; Masson, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater discharges may increase the populations of pathogens, including Escherichia coli, and of antimicrobial-resistant strains in receiving waters. This study investigated the impact of UV and peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most abundant E. coli pathotype in municipal wastewaters. Laboratory disinfection experiments were conducted on wastewater treated by physicochemical, activated sludge, or biofiltration processes; 1,766 E. coli isolates were obtained for the evaluation. The target disinfection level was 200 CFU/100 ml, resulting in UV and PAA doses of 7 to 30 mJ/cm2 and 0.9 to 2.0 mg/liter, respectively. The proportions of UPECs were reduced in all samples after disinfection, with an average reduction by UV of 55% (range, 22% to 80%) and by PAA of 52% (range, 11% to 100%). Analysis of urovirulence genes revealed that the decline in the UPEC populations was not associated with any particular virulence factor. A positive association was found between the occurrence of urovirulence and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). However, the changes in the prevalence of ARGs in potential UPECs were different following disinfection, i.e., UV appears to have had no effect, while PAA significantly reduced the ARG levels. Thus, this study showed that both UV and PAA disinfections reduced the proportion of UPECs and that PAA disinfection also reduced the proportion of antimicrobial resistance gene-carrying UPEC pathotypes in municipal wastewaters. PMID:24727265

  14. F9 Fimbriae of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Are Expressed at Low Temperature and Recognise Gal?1-3GlcNAc-Containing Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Wurpel, Daniël J.; Totsika, Makrina; Allsopp, Luke P.; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E.; Day, Christopher J.; Peters, Kate M.; Sarkar, Sohinee; Ulett, Glen C.; Yang, Ji; Tiralongo, Joe; Strugnell, Richard A.; Jennings, Michael P.; Schembri, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading causative agent of urinary tract infections (UTI) in the developed world. Among the major virulence factors of UPEC, surface expressed adhesins mediate attachment and tissue tropism. UPEC strains typically possess a range of adhesins, with type 1 fimbriae and P fimbriae of the chaperone-usher class the best characterised. We previously identified and characterised F9 as a new chaperone-usher fimbrial type that mediates biofilm formation. However, the regulation and specific role of F9 fimbriae remained to be determined in the context of wild-type clinical UPEC strains. In this study we have assessed the distribution and genetic context of the f9 operon among diverse E. coli lineages and pathotypes and demonstrated that f9 genes are significantly more conserved in a UPEC strain collection in comparison to the well-defined E. coli reference (ECOR) collection. In the prototypic UPEC strain CFT073, the global regulator protein H-NS was identified as a transcriptional repressor of f9 gene expression at 37°C through its ability to bind directly to the f9 promoter region. F9 fimbriae expression was demonstrated at 20°C, representing the first evidence of functional F9 fimbriae expression by wild-type E. coli. Finally, glycan array analysis demonstrated that F9 fimbriae recognise and bind to terminal Gal?1-3GlcNAc structures. PMID:24671091

  15. In vivo mRNA profiling of uropathogenic Escherichia coli from diverse phylogroups reveals common and group-specific gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Piotr; Muthukumarasamy, Uthayakumar; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Bielecka, Agata; Pohl, Sarah; Schanz, Ansgar; Niemeyer, Ute; Oumeraci, Tonio; von Neuhoff, Nils; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Häussler, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    mRNA profiling of pathogens during the course of human infections gives detailed information on the expression levels of relevant genes that drive pathogenicity and adaptation and at the same time allows for the delineation of phylogenetic relatedness of pathogens that cause specific diseases. In this study, we used mRNA sequencing to acquire information on the expression of Escherichia coli pathogenicity genes during urinary tract infections (UTI) in humans and to assign the UTI-associated E. coli isolates to different phylogenetic groups. Whereas the in vivo gene expression profiles of the majority of genes were conserved among 21 E. coli strains in the urine of elderly patients suffering from an acute UTI, the specific gene expression profiles of the flexible genomes was diverse and reflected phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, genes transcribed in vivo relative to laboratory media included well-described virulence factors, small regulatory RNAs, as well as genes not previously linked to bacterial virulence. Knowledge on relevant transcriptional responses that drive pathogenicity and adaptation of isolates to the human host might lead to the introduction of a virulence typing strategy into clinical microbiology, potentially facilitating management and prevention of the disease. Importance: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are very common; at least half of all women experience UTI, most of which are caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. In this study, we applied massive parallel cDNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to provide unbiased, deep, and accurate insight into the nature and the dimension of the uropathogenic E. coli gene expression profile during an acute UTI within the human host. This work was undertaken to identify key players in physiological adaptation processes and, hence, potential targets for new infection prevention and therapy interventions specifically aimed at sabotaging bacterial adaptation to the human host. PMID:25096872

  16. Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase/AmpC-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli from HIV patients: do they have a low virulence score?

    PubMed

    Padmavathy, Kesavaram; Padma, Krishnan; Rajasekaran, Sikhamani

    2013-03-01

    Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) production and quinolone resistance are often associated in enterobacteria. Prior exposure to 3G cephalosporins/quinolones accelerates the risk of resistance to both these groups of antibiotics. Hence, information on the antimicrobial resistance pattern of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates is important to better formulate the guidelines for the empirical therapy of urinary tract infection in the context of HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of ESBL/AmpC and fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance among urinary E. coli isolates and to establish the association of extraintestinal virulence and phylogenetic distribution with antibiotic resistance and host immunocompromisation. Accordingly, 118 urinary Escherichia coli isolates from HIV (n = 76) and non-HIV antenatal patients (n = 42) from Chennai, South India, were analysed for the presence of five virulence-associated genes (VAGs): pap, sfa/foc, afa/dra, iutA and kpsMII. Compared with the susceptible HIV isolates, the majority of the ESBL(+)AmpC(+)FQ(R) isolates harboured iutA (66.7%) and pap (40%). The FQ-resistant HIV isolates were significantly enriched for iutA (67.8%) and kpsMII (47.5%) and qualified as UPEC (54.2%), while a majority of the FQ-susceptible isolates from the non-HIV patients were found to harbour pap (48.4%), sfa/foc (41.9%) and kpsMII (48.4%) and were classified as UPEC (40.5%). We conclude that antibiotic-resistant (ESBL(+)AmpC(+)and/or FQ(R)) phylogroup D isolates with limited virulence are competent enough to establish infections in HIV patients, while among non-HIV patients, an array of virulence factors is essential for E. coli to overcome host defences irrespective of antibiotic resistance. PMID:23161767

  17. A Unique Arabinose 5-Phosphate Isomerase Found within a Genomic Island Associated with the Uropathogenicity of Escherichia coli CFT073 ?

    PubMed Central

    Mosberg, Joshua A.; Yep, Alejandra; Meredith, Timothy C.; Smith, Sara; Wang, Pan-Fen; Holler, Tod P.; Mobley, Harry L. T.; Woodard, Ronald W.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that deletion of genes c3405 to c3410 from PAI-metV, a genomic island from Escherichia coli CFT073, results in a strain that fails to compete with wild-type CFT073 after a transurethral cochallenge in mice and is deficient in the ability to independently colonize the mouse kidney. Our analysis of c3405 to c3410 suggests that these genes constitute an operon with a role in the internalization and utilization of an unknown carbohydrate. This operon is not found in E. coli K-12 but is present in a small number of pathogenic E. coli and Shigella boydii strains. One of the genes, c3406, encodes a protein with significant homology to the sugar isomerase domain of arabinose 5-phosphate isomerases but lacking the tandem cystathionine beta-synthase domains found in the other arabinose 5-phosphate isomerases of E. coli. We prepared recombinant c3406 protein, found it to possess arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase activity, and characterized this activity in detail. We also constructed a c3406 deletion mutant of E. coli CFT073 and demonstrated that this deletion mutant was still able to compete with wild-type CFT073 in a transurethral cochallenge in mice and could colonize the mouse kidney. These results demonstrate that the presence of c3406 is not essential for a pathogenic phenotype. PMID:21498648

  18. In vitro potency and efficacy favor later generation fluoroquinolones for treatment of canine and feline Escherichia coli uropathogens in the United States.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Boothe, Dawn M; Jin, Yaping; Thungrat, Kamoltip

    2013-02-01

    Information regarding in vitro activity of newer fluoroquinolones (FQs) is limited despite increasing resistance in canine or feline pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). This study describes in vitro potency and efficacy toward E. coli of seven FQs grouped according to similarities in chemical structure: enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, orbifloxacin (first-group), levofloxacin, marbofloxacin (second-group) and pradofloxacin, moxifloxacin (third-group; latest S, S-pyrrolidino-piperidine at C-7). Potency measures included minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (geometric mean MIC, MIC(50), MIC(90)); and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) for FQ susceptible isolates only. In vitro efficacy measures included relative susceptibility (MIC(BP-S):MIC) or resistance (MIC:MIC(BP-R)) and mutant selection window (MSW) (MPC:MIC). For enrofloxacin susceptible isolates, mean MIC (?g/ml) was least for each third-group drug and ciprofloxacin and greatest for enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin (P = 0.006). For enrofloxacin susceptible isolates, MPC were below MIC:MIC(BP-R) and least for pradofloxacin (0.29 ± 0.16 ?g/ml) and greatest for enrofloxacin (1.55 ± 0.55 ?g/ml) (P = 0.006). MSW was least for pradofloxacin (55 ± 30) and greatest for ciprofloxacin (152 ± 76) (P = 0.0024). MIC(BP-S):MIC was greatest (P = 0.025) for pradofloxacin (190.1 ± 0.61) and least for enrofloxacin (23.53 ± 0.83). For FQ susceptible isolates, FQs MIC:MIC(BP-R) may serve as a surrogate for MPC. Because in vitro efficacy was greatest for pradofloxacin; it might be preferred for treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) associated with FQ susceptible E. coli uropathogens. PMID:23136054

  19. Distribution of virulence genes and multiple drug-resistant patterns amongst different phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Derakhshandeh, A; Firouzi, R; Motamedifar, M; Motamedi Boroojeni, A; Bahadori, M; Arabshahi, S; Novinrooz, A; Heidari, S

    2015-02-01

    A total of 85 Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates were screened against ceftiofur, oxacillin, nitrofurantoin and lincospectin using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, following CLSI guidelines. Prevalence of virulent factor genes amongst the isolates was determined by PCR, using gene-specific primers against the different virulent factors. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software. The prevalence of traT, ompT, Iss, malX and ibeA genes was 47.1%, 38.8%, 20%, 16.5% and 9.4%, respectively. The most prevalent gene in group A and D was traT, whilst in group B2 was Iss. The highest resistance has been shown against oxacillin (98.8%), followed by ceftiofur (77.6%), whilst resistance to lincospectin (2.4%) and nitrofurantoin (12.9%) had the lowest frequencies. Multidrug resistance was shown in 82.35% of the isolates, whilst this study recommend lincospectin and nitrofurantoin as choice drugs for treatment, but more investigation of the bacterial pathogenicity associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) may contribute to a better medical intervention. PMID:25355175

  20. [Distribution of phylogenetic groups and virulence factors in CTX-M-15 ?-lactamase-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients in the community of Mérida, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Millán, Ysheth; Hernández, Erick; Millán, Beatriz; Araque, María

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the distribution of phylogenetic groups and the genetic detection of virulence factors in CTX-M-15 ?-lactamase-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains were analyzed. Twenty eight strains were isolated between January 2009 and July 2011 from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) who attended the Public Health Laboratory at Mérida, Venezuela. Determination of phylogenetic groups and detection of six virulence genes, fimH, fyuA, kpsMTII, usp, PAI and papAH, were performed by PCR amplification. Fifteen of the 28 isolates were mainly located in the phylogenetic group A, followed by B2 (12/28) and D (1/28). No direct relationship between the severity or recurrence of UTI and the distribution of phylogroups was observed. All studied virulence factors were found in group B2 strains with the highest frequency. The prevalent virulence profile included the combination of three main genes: fimH, kpsMTII and fyuA and, to a lesser extent, the presence of other determinants such as usp, PAI and/or papAH. These results indicate that virulent UPEC incorporated three important properties: adhesion, iron uptake and evasion of phagocytosis, which favored the production of recurrent UTI. This is the first report describing the association of phylogenetic groups with the potential virulence of CTX-M-15 ?-lactamase producing UPEC strains in Venezuela. PMID:25444124

  1. Intranasal immunization with fusion protein MrpH·FimH and MPL adjuvant confers protection against urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Oloomi, Mana; Jafari, Anis; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Proteus mirabilis are among the most common infections in the world. Currently there are no vaccines available to confer protection against UTI in humans. In this study, the immune responses and protection of FimH of UPEC with MrpH antigen of P. mirabilis in different vaccine formulations with and without MPL adjuvant were assessed. Mice intranasally immunized with the novel fusion protein MrpH·FimH induced a significant increase in IgG and IgA in serum, nasal wash, vaginal wash, and urine samples. Mice immunized with fusion MrpH·FimH also showed a significant boost in cellular immunity. Addition of MPL as the adjuvant enhanced FimH and MrpH specific humoral and cellular responses in both systemic and mucosal samples. Vaccination with MrpH·FimH alone or in combination with MPL showed the highest efficiency in clearing bladder and kidney infections in mice challenged with UPEC and P. mirabilis. These findings may indicate that the protection observed correlates with the systemic, mucosal and cellular immune responses induced by vaccination with these preparations. Our data suggest MrpH·FimH fusion protein with or without MPL as adjuvant could be potential vaccine candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. These data altogether are promising and these formulations are good candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. PMID:25562574

  2. Multifunctional nature of P fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: mutations in fsoE and fsoF influence fimbrial binding to renal tubuli and immobilized fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, B; van Die, I; Kramer, C; Kuusela, P; Holthöfer, H; Tarkkanen, A M; Virkola, R; Riegman, N; Bergmans, H; Hoekstra, W

    1991-12-01

    P fimbriae of the F7(1) serotype of Escherichia coli are composed of a major subunit, FsoA, and of three minor proteins named FsoG, FsoE, and FsoF. FsoG is the Gal alpha(1-4)Gal-specific lectin. We assessed mutated recombinant strains each deficient in one fimbrial component for adhesion to frozen sections of rat cortical kidney and to fibronectin immobilized on glass. Rat kidney lacks the Gal alpha(1-4)Gal-containing glycolipids. The fsoG mutant strain was as adhesive to sections of rat kidney and to fibronectin-coated glass as was the recombinant strain expressing the complete fso gene cluster. The fsoA mutant strain was highly adhesive to fibronectin and to kidney sections. In the rat kidney, the adhesion of these strains was predominantly localized to sites of basolateral membranes of tubuli. The fsoE and the fsoF mutant strains were slightly less adhesive to kidney structures and failed to adhere to fibronectin. The fsoE, fsoF double mutant strain adhered neither to fibronectin nor to kidney sections. None of the fso recombinant strains reacted with soluble fibronectin, suggesting that the interaction is dependent on the conformation of the fibronectin molecules. Recombinant strains expressing the F7(2), F8, F11, F13, and F14 serovariants of the P fimbria also showed adherence to immobilized fibronectin. The results show that in addition to binding to globoseries of glycolipids via the G protein, the P fimbriae of uropathogenic E. coli exhibit a tissue-binding property influenced by fsoE and fsoF gene products and with affinity for basolateral membranes and fibronectin. PMID:1687325

  3. Quantitative studies of the binding of the class II PapG adhesin from uropathogenic Escherichia coli to oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Andreas; Ohlsson, Jörgen; Dodson, Karen W; Hultgren, Scott J; Nilsson, Ulf; Kihlberg, Jan

    2003-05-15

    Binding of the class II PapG adhesin, found at the tip of filamentous pili on Escherichia coli, to the carbohydrate moiety of globoseries glycolipids in the human kidney is a key step in development of pyelonephritis, a severe form of urinary tract infection. An assay based on surface plasmon resonance for quantification of the binding of the class II PapG adhesin to oligosaccharides has been developed. Using this assay dissociation constants ranging from 80 to 540 microM were determined for binding of the PapG adhesin to di-pentasaccharide fragments from the globoseries of glycolipids. A series of galabiose derivatives, modified at the anomeric position, O-2' or O-3', was also investigated. The anomeric position appeared to be the most promising for development of improved inhibitors of PapG-mediated adhesion of E. coli. p-Methoxyphenyl galabioside was found to be most potent (K(d)=140 microM), and binds to PapG almost as well as the Forssman pentasaccharide. PMID:12713835

  4. Necrosis Is the Dominant Cell Death Pathway in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Elicited Epididymo-Orchitis and Is Responsible for Damage of Rat Testis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yongning; Bhushan, Sudhanshu; Tchatalbachev, Svetlin; Marconi, Marcelo; Bergmann, Martin; Weidner, Wolfgang; Chakraborty, Trinad; Meinhardt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Male infertility is a frequent medical condition, compromising approximately one in twenty men, with infections of the reproductive tract constituting a major etiological factor. Bacterial epididymo-orchitis results in acute inflammation most often caused by ascending canalicular infections from the urethra via the continuous male excurrent ductal system. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) represent a relevant pathogen in urogenital tract infections. To explore how bacteria can cause damage and cell loss and thus impair fertility, an in vivo epididymo-orchitis model was employed in rats by injecting UPEC strain CFT073 into the vas deference in close proximity to the epididymis. Seven days post infection bacteria were found predominantly in the testicular interstitial space. UPEC infection resulted in severe impairment of spermatogenesis by germ cell loss, damage of testicular somatic cells, a decrease in sperm numbers and a significant increase in TUNEL (+) cells. Activation of caspase-8 (extrinsic apoptotic pathway), caspase-3/?6 (intrinsic apoptotic pathway), caspase-1 (pyroptosis pathway) and the presence of 180 bp DNA fragments, all of which serve as indicators of the classical apoptotic pathway, were not observed in infected testis. Notably, electron microscopical examination revealed degenerative features of Sertoli cells (SC) in UPEC infected testis. Furthermore, the passive release of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), as an indication of necrosis, was observed in vivo in infected testis. Thus, necrosis appears to be the dominant cell death pathway in UPEC infected testis. Substantial necrotic changes seen in Sertoli cells will contribute to impaired spermatogenesis by loss of function in supporting the dependent germ cells. PMID:23301002

  5. Antibodies against Hemolysin and Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1 (CNF1) Reduce Bladder Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Urinary Tract Infection with Toxigenic Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark A; Weingarten, Rebecca A; Russo, Lisa M; Ventura, Christy L; O'Brien, Alison D

    2015-04-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading cause of cystitis. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) and hemolysin (Hly) are toxins made by approximately 50% of UPEC isolates. CNF1 and Hly contribute to the robust inflammatory response in the bladders of mice challenged with UPEC strain CP9. We hypothesized that antibodies against CNF1 and/or Hly would reduce cystitis caused by CP9. To test this theory, we immunized female C3H/HeOuJ mice subcutaneously with a genetically derived Hly toxoid or genetically derived CNF1 toxoid plus sublethal doses of CNF1. We collected serum and observed increasing titers of specific and neutralizing antibodies against Hly or CNF1 over time. We challenged the mice intraurethrally with CP9 and euthanized them 24 h later. We observed 10-fold lower bacterial titers in the urine of Hly-immunized mice than in that of sham-immunized mice but no difference in kidney bacterial titers. Immunized mice also exhibited significantly less cystitis than sham-immunized mice. In CNF1-vaccinated mice, we detected neither a difference in urine or kidney bacterial titers nor a reduction in the severity of cystitis versus that of sham-immunized mice. We then passively administered an anti-CNF1 monoclonal antibody intraperitoneally to female C3H/HeOuJ mice prior to intraurethral challenge with CP9. Upon challenge, we noted no difference in colonization of the urine or kidney; however, cystitis was reduced significantly in mice treated with the anti-CNF1 antibody versus that in the bladders of mice given an isotype control antibody. Taken together, our data demonstrate that antibodies against CNF1 or Hly reduce the bladder pathology caused by UPEC. PMID:25667267

  6. Sexually transmitted Escherichia coli urethritis and orchiepididymitis.

    PubMed

    Dan, Michael; Gottesman, Tamar; Schwartz, Orna; Tsivian, Alexander; Gophna, Uri; Rokney, Assaf

    2012-01-01

    We describe herein a case of uropathogenic Escherichia coli urethritis and orchiepididymitis in a heterosexual man, which he had acquired sexually from his girlfriend. The identity of the genital isolates from both partners was confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. PMID:22183838

  7. [Prevalence of beta-lactamase CTX-M-15 in phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from patients in the community of Merida, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Erick; Araque, María; Millán, Ysheth; Millán, Beatriz; Vielma, Silvana

    2014-03-01

    In this study we determined the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolated from patients in the community. Twenty one UPEC strains with reduced susceptibility to broad-spectrum cephalosporins were collected between January 2009 and July 2010, from patients with urinary tract infection who attended the Public Health Laboratory in Mérida, Venezuela. Genotypic characterization determined that all UPEC strains harbored blaBLEEs genes: 76.2% of the strains showed the presence of a single ESBL-producer gene, represented by blaCTX-M-15, whereas 23.8% of UPEC showed various combinations of bla genes (blacCTX-M-15 + blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15 + blaSHV and blaSHV + blaTEM-1). In this study, 61.9% of the isolates were placed in phylogroup A and the remaining strains were assigned to group B2 (38.1%). There was no evidence of spread of a particular UPEC clone; only seven strains belonged to a clonal group with an index of similarity greater than 85%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of blxCTX-M-15 in UPEC from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections, which shows that Venezuela is also part of the so-called CTX-M-15 pandemic. The findings in this study, as well as its clinical and epidemiological implications, lead to the need for monitoring and controlling the spread of CTX-M-15 producing UPECs, not only regionally, but also nationwide. PMID:24758100

  8. Molecular organisation of the genes involved in the production of F7 2 fimbriae, causing mannose resistant haemagglutination, of a uropathogenic Escherichia coli 06:K2:H1:F7 strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irma van Die; Ingrid van Megen; Wiel Hoekstra; Hans Bergmans

    1984-01-01

    The genes responsible for the formation of the F72 fimbriae of the uropathogenic E. coli strain AD110 (O6:K2:H1:F7) have been cloned on the recombinant plasmid pPIL110-35 (Van Die et al. 1983). The F72 fimbriae, like the F71 fimbriae of AD110, are responsible for mannose resistant haemagglutination (MRHA).

  9. Characteristics and prevalence within serogroup O4 of a J96-like clonal group of uropathogenic Escherichia coli O4:H5 containing the class I and class III alleles of papG.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J R; Stapleton, A E; Russo, T A; Scheutz, F; Brown, J J; Maslow, J N

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of a geographically dispersed clonal group of Escherichia coli O4:H5 that includes prototypic uropathogenic strain J96 prompted us to determine the prevalence of J96-like strains within serogroup O4 and to further assess the characteristics of such strains. We used O:K:H;F serotyping, PCR-based genomic fingerprinting, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), and PCR detection of the three papG alleles and of the cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (cnf1) and aerobactin (aer) gene sequences to characterize the 15 O4 strains among 336 E. coli isolates from three clinical collections (187 from mixed-source bacteremia, 75 from urosepsis, and 74 from acute cystitis). J96-like strains constituted approximately half of the O4 strains, or 2% of the total population. In contrast to other O4 strains, the J96-like strains characteristically exhibited specific group III capsular antigens, the H5 flagellar and F13 fimbrial antigens, a distinctive PCR genomic fingerprint, the class III papG allele (plus, in 50% of strains, the enigmatic class I papG allele), and cnf1 but lacked aer. A subset of these strains was remarkably homogeneous with respect to all these characteristics and exhibited a distinctive PFGE fingerprint and MLEE pattern. These findings clarify the epidemiological relevance of J96 as a model extraintestinal pathogen, provide further evidence of the class I papG allele outside of strain J96, and offer insights into the evolution of E. coli serogroup O4. PMID:9169745

  10. A Conserved PapB Family Member, TosR, Regulates Expression of the Uropathogenic Escherichia coli RTX Nonfimbrial Adhesin TosA while Conserved LuxR Family Members TosE and TosF Suppress Motility

    PubMed Central

    Engstrom, Michael D.; Alteri, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    A heterogeneous subset of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains, referred to as uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), causes most uncomplicated urinary tract infections. However, no core set of virulence factors exists among UPEC strains. Instead, the focus of the analysis of urovirulence has shifted to studying broad classes of virulence factors and the interactions between them. For example, the RTX nonfimbrial adhesin TosA mediates adherence to host cells derived from the upper urinary tract. The associated tos operon is well expressed in vivo but poorly expressed in vitro and encodes TosCBD, a predicted type 1 secretion system. TosR and TosEF are PapB and LuxR family transcription factors, respectively; however, no role has been assigned to these potential regulators. Thus, the focus of this study was to determine how TosR and TosEF regulate tosA and affect the reciprocal expression of adhesins and flagella. Among a collection of sequenced UPEC strains, 32% (101/317) were found to encode TosA, and nearly all strains (91% [92/101]) simultaneously carried the putative regulatory genes. Deletion of tosR alleviates tosA repression. The tos promoter was localized upstream of tosR using transcriptional fusions of putative promoter regions with lacZ. TosR binds to this region, affecting a gel shift. A 100-bp fragment 220 to 319 bp upstream of tosR inhibits binding, suggesting localization of the TosR binding site. TosEF, on the other hand, downmodulate motility when overexpressed by preventing the expression of fliC, encoding flagellin. Deletion of tosEF increased motility. Thus, we present an additional example of the reciprocal control of adherence and motility. PMID:24935980

  11. Dosage effect on uropathogenic Escherichia coli anti-adhesion activity in urine following consumption of cranberry powder standardized for proanthocyanidin content: a multicentric randomized double blind study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ingestion of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) has traditionally been utilized for prevention of urinary tract infections. The proanthocyanidins (PACs) in cranberry, in particular the A-type linkages have been implicated as important inhibitors of primarily P-fimbriated E. coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Additional experiments were required to investigate the persistence in urine samples over a broader time period, to determine the most effective dose per day and to determine if the urinary anti-adhesion effect following cranberry is detected within volunteers of different origins. Methods Two separate bioassays (a mannose-resistant hemagglutination assay and an original new human T24 epithelial cell-line assay) have assessed the ex-vivo urinary bacterial anti-adhesion activity on urines samples collected from 32 volunteers from Japan, Hungary, Spain and France in a randomized, double-blind versus placebo study. An in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans model was used to evaluate the influence of cranberry regimen on the virulence of E. coli strain. Results The results indicated a significant bacterial anti-adhesion activity in urine samples collected from volunteers that consumed cranberry powder compared to placebo (p < 0.001). This inhibition was clearly dose-dependent, prolonged (until 24 h with 72 mg of PAC) and increasing with the amount of PAC equivalents consumed in each cranberry powder regimen. An in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans model showed that cranberry acted against bacterial virulence: E. coli strain presented a reduced ability to kill worms after a growth in urines samples of patients who took cranberry capsules. This effect is particularly important with the regimen of 72 mg of PAC. Conclusions Administration of PAC-standardized cranberry powder at dosages containing 72 mg of PAC per day may offer some protection against bacterial adhesion and virulence in the urinary tract. This effect may offer a nyctohemeral protection. PMID:20398248

  12. The Genome Sequence of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strain O1:K1:H7 Shares Strong Similarities with Human Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli Genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Johnson; Subhashinie Kariyawasam; Yvonne Wannemuehler; Paul Mangiamele; Sara J. Johnson; Curt Doetkott; Jerod A. Skyberg; Aaron M. Lynne; James R. Johnson; Lisa K. Nolan

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains that cause disease outside the intestine are known as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and include human uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). Regard- less of host of origin, ExPEC strains share many traits. It has been suggested that these commonalities may enable APEC to cause disease in humans. Here, we begin to

  13. Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Nataro; Harry L. T. Mobley; James B. Kaper

    2004-01-01

    Few microorganisms are as versatile as Escherichia coli. An important member of the normal intestinal microflora of humans and other mammals, E. coli has also been widely exploited as a cloning host in recombinant DNA technology. But E. coli is more than just a laboratory workhorse or harmless intestinal inhabitant; it can also be a highly versatile, and frequently deadly,

  14. Comparison of Escherichia coli isolates implicated in human urinary tract infection and avian colibacillosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kylie E. Rodriguez-Siek; Catherine W. Giddings; Curt Doetkott; Timothy J. Johnson; Mohamed K. Fakhr; Lisa K. Nolan

    2005-01-01

    Since avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) and human uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) may encounter similar challenges when establishing infection in extraintestinal locations, they may share a similar content of virulence genes and capacity to cause disease. In the present study, 524 APEC and 200 UPEC isolates were compared by their content of virulence genes, phylogenetic group, and other traits. The

  15. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nataro, James P.; Kaper, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens. PMID:9457432

  16. PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...

  17. Dynamic restacking of Escherichia Coli P-pili

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Lugmaier; Staffan Schedin; Ferdinand Kühner; Martin Benoit

    2008-01-01

    P-pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli mediate the attachment to epithelial cells in the human urinary tract and kidney and therefore play an important role in\\u000a infection. A better understanding of this mechanism could help to prevent bacteria from spreading but also provides interesting\\u000a insights into molecular mechanics for future nanotech applications. The helical rod design of P-pili provides an efficient

  18. Community behavior and amyloid-associated phenotypes among a panel of uropathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji Youn; Pinkner, Jerome S; Cegelski, Lynette

    2014-01-10

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the major causative agents of urinary tract infection and engage in a coordinated genetic and molecular cascade to colonize the urinary tract. Disrupting the assembly and/or function of virulence factors and bacterial biofilms has emerged as an attractive target for the development of new therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat urinary tract infection, particularly in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance among human pathogens. UPEC vary widely in their genetic and molecular phenotypes and more data are needed to understand the features that distinguish isolates as more or less virulent and as more robust biofilm formers or poor biofilm formers. Curli are extracellular functional amyloid fibers produced by E. coli that contribute to pathogenesis and influence the host response during urinary tract infection (UTI). We have examined the production of curli and curli-associated phenotypes including biofilm formation among a specific panel of human clinical UPEC that has been studied extensively in the mouse model of UTI. Motility, curli production, and curli-associated biofilm formation attached to plastic were the most prevalent behaviors, shared by most clinical isolates. We discuss these results in the context on the previously reported behavior and phenotypes of these isolates in the murine cystitis model in vivo. PMID:24239885

  19. Rapid and sensitive detection of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli from urine samples using a genotyping DNA microarray

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolei Yu; Milorad Susa; Jan Weile; Cornelius Knabbe; Rolf D. Schmid; Till T. Bachmann

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans, with Escherichia coli being the major cause of infection. Fluoroquinolone resistance of uropathogenic E. coli has increased significantly over the last decade. In this study a microarray-based assay was developed and applied, which provides a rapid, sensitive and specific detection of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli in urine. The

  20. Escherichia coli biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Beloin, Christophe; Roux, Agnès; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a predominant species among facultative anaerobic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract. Both its frequent community lifestyle and the availability of a wide array of genetic tools contributed to establish E. coli as a relevant model organism for the study of surface colonization. Several key factors, including different extracellular appendages, are implicated in E. coli surface colonization and their expression and activity are finely regulated, both in space and time, to ensure productive events leading to mature biofilm formation. This chapter will present known molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm development in both commensal and pathogenic E. coli. PMID:18453280

  1. Article de synthse Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article de synthèse Escherichia coli entéropathogènes du lapin D Licois INRA, Station de pathologie diarrhée, chez l'homme ou l'animal. Escherichia coli/ entéropathogène / entérohémorragique / lapin Summary ― Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from the rabbit. Intestinal pathology is the main cause

  2. Molecular organisation of the genes involved in the production of F7(2) fimbriae, causing mannose-resistant haemagglutination, of a uropathogenic Escherichia coli 06:K2:H1:F7 strain.

    PubMed

    van Die, I; van Megen, I; Hoekstra, W; Bergmans, H

    1984-01-01

    The genes responsible for the formation of the F7 (2) fimbriae of the uropathogenic E. coli strain AD110 (O6:K2:H1: F7 ) have been cloned on the recombinant plasmid pPIL110 -35 (Van Die et al. 1983). The F7 (2) fimbriae, like the F7 (1) fimbriae of AD110 , are responsible for mannose resistant haemagglutination ( MRHA ). The molecular organisation of the genes of pPIL110 -35 involved in the expression of MRHA was studied by: (a) analysis of transposon gamma delta and Tn5 insertion mutants. Mutations that cause an MRHA -deficient phenotype were located in discrete groups within an 11.5 kb restriction fragment of pPIL110 -35, separated by insertion mutations that do not inactivate MRHA . (b) complementation experiments. Restriction fragments of pPIL110 -35 subcloned in the vector pBR322 were tested for their ability to complement transposon insertion mutations in the corresponding regions of pPIL110 -35. Five complementation groups were distinguished. Five genes (designated A-E) involved in the expression of MRHA can be distinguished by these results. The products of these genes were analysed in minicells. The results indicate that gene B codes for a 75 K dalton protein, gene C for a 23 K dalton protein and gene E for a 36 K dalton protein. No product of gene D was observed. Gene A probably codes for the 17 K dalton subunit polypeptide of the F7 (2) fimbriae, as will be discussed. PMID:6146091

  3. Genetic recombination. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, F.W.

    1987-02-01

    The molecular pathways of gene recombination are explored and compared in studies of the model organisms, Escherichia coli and phase lambda. In the discussion of data from these studies it seems that recombination varies with the genetic idiosyncrasies of the organism and may also vary within a single organism.

  4. Hydrophilic Domain II of Escherichia coli Dr Fimbriae Facilitates Cell Invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Das; Audrey Hart-Van Tassell; Petri T. Urvil; Susan Lea; David Pettigrew; K. L. Anderson; Alfred Samet; Jozef Kur; Steve Matthews; Stella Nowicki; Vsevolod Popov; Pawel Goluszko; Bogdan J. Nowicki

    2005-01-01

    Uropathogenic and diarrheal Escherichia coli strains expressing adhesins of the Dr family bind to decay- accelerating factor, invade epithelial cells, preferentially infect children and pregnant women, and may be associated with chronic or recurrent infections. Thus far, no fimbrial domain(s) that facilitates cell invasion has been identified. We used alanine scanning mutagenesis to replace selected amino acids in hydrophilic domain

  5. In vitro binding of type 1-fimbriated Escherichia coli to uroplakins Ia and Ib: Relation to urinary tract infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue-Ru Wu; Tung-Tien Sun

    1996-01-01

    Urinary tract infections, caused mainly by Escherichia coli, are among the most common infectious diseases. Most isolates of the uropathogenic E. coli can express type 1 and P fimbriae containing adhesins that recognize cell receptors. While P fimbriae recognize kidney glycolipid receptors and are involved in pyelonephritis, the urothelial receptors for type 1 fimbriae were not identified. We show that

  6. Capture of uropathogenic E. coli by using synthetic glycan ligands specific for the pap-pilus.

    PubMed

    Yosief, Hailemichael O; Weiss, Alison A; Iyer, Suri S

    2013-01-21

    Biotinylated mono- and biantennary di-/trisaccharides were synthesized to evaluate their ability to capture E. coli strains that express pilus types with different receptor specificities. The synthesized biotinylated di-/trisaccharides contain Gal?(1?4)Gal, Gal?(1?4)GalNHAc, GalNHAc?(1?4)Gal, Gal?(1?4)Gal?(1?4)Glc and GalNHAc?(1?4)Gal?(1?4)Glc as carbohydrate epitopes. These biotinylated oligosaccharides were immobilized on streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and incubated with different strains of live E. coli. Capturing ability was assessed by using a luciferase assay that detects bacterial ATP. The trisaccharides containing Gal?(1?4)Gal?(1?4)Glc and the disaccharides containing Gal?(1?4)Gal as the epitopes exhibited strong capturing ability for uropathogenic E. coli strains with the pap pilus genotype, including CFT073, J96 and J96 pilE. The same ligands failed to capture E. coli strains with fim, prs, or foc genotypes. Uropathogenic CFT073 was also captured moderately by biantennary disaccharides containing a GalNHAc moiety at the reducing end; however, other saccharides containing GalNHAc at the nonreducing end did not capture the CFT073 strain. These synthetic glycoconjugates could potentially be adapted as rapid diagnostic agents to differentiate between different E. coli pathovars. PMID:23307594

  7. Review article Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) Maryvonne Dho-Moulina John Morris Inra/Elscvier, Paris. avian / Escherichia coli / virulence / fimbriae / capsule / aerobactin.int-a. li- #12;Résumé-Escherichia coli pathogènes aviaires (APEC). Les Escherichia coli pathogènes aviaires

  8. Biological and immunological characterization of pili of Escherichia coli (serotypes 01, 02, and 078) pathogenic to poultry

    E-print Network

    Suwanichkul, Adisak

    1986-01-01

    . de Ree, J. M. , P. Schwi 1 lens, and J. F. van den Bosch. Monoclonal antibodies that recognize the P fimbriae F7, F72, F9, and Fll from uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 50:900-904. 1985. 9. Dominick, M. A. , M. J. F. Schmerr, and A. E...

  9. Antibiotic Resistance in Uropathogenic E. Coli Strains Isolated from Non-Hospitalized Patients in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ihsan; Kumar, Neeraj; Ahmed, Safia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study multidrug-resistance in Uropathogenic E. Coli (UPEC) isolated from non-hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: Altogether, 250 bacterial samples were collected from non-hospitalized patients. Their identifications were done on basis of Gram-staining, colony morphology, biochemical testing and PCR. Susceptibility testing was performed by using standard protocols which were recommended by CLSI. Statistical analysis: For comparisons, statistical analysis was performed by using software, Graphpad Prism 5.0 Results: In total, 32% (n = 80) of the isolates were identified as E. Coli strains and their susceptibility patterns for different antibiotics were determined. The data indicated least resistance against tazocin [(TZP) -1.25%], amikacin [(AK) -1.8%], tigecycline [(TGC)- 2.5%] and nitrofurantoin [(F) -3.75%]. For both minocycline (MH) and sulzone (SUL), resistance rate was 5%, for gentamicin (CN), it was 16.25%, while higher resistances were observed against cephalothine [(KF)- 70%], cefotaxime [(CTX) -58.5%], ceftazidime [(CAZ)- 57.5%], cefepime [(FEP) -55%], cefuroxime and cefixime [(CXM) (CFM)- 53.75 %]. Resistance against ciprofloxacin (CIP) was 57.5%, for norfloxacine (NOR), it was 52.5% and incase of sparfloxacin (SPX), it remained 55%. High percentage of the isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole [(SXT) -86%] and Amoxicillin [AMX-CLA (AMC)- 76%]. No resistance against meropenem (MEM) was observed. Conclusion: Highest level of drug-resistance was observed against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) among clinical isolates of uropathogenic E. Coli collected from non-hospitalized patients. PMID:25386430

  10. BarA-UvrY Two-Component System Regulates Virulence of Uropathogenic E. coli CFT073

    PubMed Central

    Palaniyandi, Senthilkumar; Mitra, Arindam; Herren, Christopher D.; Lockatell, C. Virginia; Johnson, David E.; Zhu, Xiaoping; Mukhopadhyay, Suman

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), a member of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, cause ?80% of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) in humans. UPEC initiates its colonization in epithelial cells lining the urinary tract with a complicated life cycle, replicating and persisting in intracellular and extracellular niches. Consequently, UPEC causes cystitis and more severe form of pyelonephritis. To further understand the virulence characteristics of UPEC, we investigated the roles of BarA-UvrY two-component system (TCS) in regulating UPEC virulence. Our results showed that mutation of BarA-UvrY TCS significantly decreased the virulence of UPEC CFT073, as assessed by mouse urinary tract infection, chicken embryo killing assay, and cytotoxicity assay on human kidney and uroepithelial cell lines. Furthermore, mutation of either barA or uvrY gene reduced the production of hemolysin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8). The virulence phenotype was restored similar to that of wild-type by complementation of either barA or uvrY gene in trans. In addition, we discussed a possible link between the BarA-UvrY TCS and CsrA in positively and negatively controlling virulence in UPEC. Overall, this study provides the evidences for BarA-UvrY TCS regulates the virulence of UPEC CFT073 and may point to mechanisms by which virulence regulations are observed in different ways may control the long-term survival of UPEC in the urinary tract. PMID:22363626

  11. Escherichia coli proteomics and bioinformatics

    E-print Network

    Niu, Lili

    2009-05-15

    ESCHERICHIA COLI PROTEOMICS AND BIOINFORMATICS A Dissertation by LILI NIU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY... May 2007 Major Subject: Biochemistry ESCHERICHIA COLI PROTEOMICS AND BIOINFORMATICS A Dissertation by LILI NIU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  12. Host-Pathogen Checkpoints and Population Bottlenecks in Persistent and Intracellular Uropathogenic E. coli Bladder Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Thomas J.; Totsika, Makrina; Mansfield, Kylie J.; Moore, Kate H.; Schembri, Mark A.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder infections affect millions of people yearly, and recurrent symptomatic infections (cystitis) are very common. The rapid increase in infections caused by multi-drug resistant uropathogens threatens to make recurrent cystitis an increasingly troubling public health concern. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) cause the vast majority of bladder infections. Upon entry into the lower urinary tract, UPEC face obstacles to colonization that constitute population bottlenecks, reducing diversity and selecting for fit clones. A critical mucosal barrier to bladder infection is the epithelium (urothelium). UPEC bypass this barrier when they invade urothelial cells and form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs), a process which requires type 1 pili. IBCs are transient in nature, occurring primarily during acute infection. Chronic bladder infection is common and can be either latent, in the form of the Quiescent Intracellular Reservoir (QIR), or active, in the form of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB/ABU) or chronic cystitis. In mice, the fate of bladder infection: QIR, ASB, or chronic cystitis, is determined within the first 24 hours of infection and constitutes a putative host-pathogen mucosal checkpoint that contributes to susceptibility to recurrent cystitis. Knowledge of these checkpoints and bottlenecks is critical for our understanding of bladder infection and efforts to devise novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:22404313

  13. Review article Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in farm animals Béla Nagy* Péter Zs. Fekete to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) typically appear as severe watery diarrhoea during the first few daysC novell.vnu-i.hu Résumé - Escherichia coli entérotoxigène (ETEC) chez les animaux de la ferme. L

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Competitive interactions in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Riley, Margaret

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Competitive interactions in Escherichia coli populations: the role of bacteriocins Escherichia coli strains were generated, each carrying a DNA-degrading bacteriocin (colicins E2 and E7). Using exclusion; Escherichia coli; bacteriocin; structured environment Introduction Without question, bacteriocins

  15. EXTRAINTESTINAL PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI (EXPEC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) possess virulence traits that allow them to invade, colonize, and induce disease in bodily sites outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Human diseases caused by ExPEC include urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, surgic...

  16. Identification of Escherichia coli Genes Associated with Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Bin-Hsu; Chang, Yung-Fu; Scaria, Joy; Chang, Chih-Ching; Chou, Li-Wei; Tien, Ni; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Tseng, Chin-Chung; Wang, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Chao-Chin; Hsu, Yuan-Man

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). E. coli genes epidemiologically associated with UTIs are potentially valuable in developing strategies for treating and/or preventing such infections as well as differentiating uropathogenic E. coli from nonuropathogenic E. coli. To identify E. coli genes associated with UTIs in humans, we combined microarray-based and PCR-based analyses to investigate different E. coli source groups derived from feces of healthy humans and from patients with cystitis, pyelonephritis, or urosepsis. The cjrABC-senB gene cluster, sivH, sisA, sisB, eco274, and fbpB, were identified to be associated with UTIs. Of these, cjrABC-senB, sisA, sisB, and fbpB are known to be involved in urovirulence in the mouse model of ascending UTI. Our results provide evidence to support their roles as urovirulence factors in human UTIs. In addition, the newly identified UTI-associated genes were mainly found in members of phylogenetic groups B2 and/or D. PMID:22075599

  17. Physicochemical characterization of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Harkes; H. C. van der Mei; P. G. Rouxhet; J. Dankert; H. J. BrJSSCHER; J. Feijen

    1992-01-01

    EightEscherichia coli strains were characterized by determining their adhesion to xylene, surface free energy, zeta potential, relative surface\\u000a charge, and their chemical composition. The latter was done by applying X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared\\u000a spectroscopy (IR). No relationship between the adhesion to xylene and the water contact angles of these strains was found.\\u000a Three strains had significantly lower surface

  18. Multidrug resistance and extended-spectrum ?-lactamases genes among Escherichia coli from patients with urinary tract infections in Northwestern Libya

    PubMed Central

    Abujnah, Abubaker A.; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Sabri, Mohamed A. M.; El-Mohammady, Hanan; Khalek, Rania A.; Ghenghesh, Khalifa S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Multidrug resistance (MDR) and emergence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) that mediate resistance to ?-lactam drugs among Escherichia coli and other uropathogens have been reported worldwide. However, there is little information on the detection of ESBLs genes in E. coli from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Arab countries using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in Libya such information is lacking. Methods All patients attending Zawiya Teaching Hospital in Zawiya city between November 2012 and June 2013 suspected of having UTIs and from whom midstream urine samples were taken as part of the clinical workup were included in this prospective study. Samples were examined for uropathogens by standard bacteriological procedures. VITEK-2 automated microbiology system was used to identify the isolated uropathogens and determine the susceptibility of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates to antimicrobials. In addition, phenotypically ESBLs-positive E. coli isolates were tested for ESBLs genes by PCR. Results The present study enrolled 1,790 patients with UTIs. Uropathogens were found in 371 (20.7%) urine specimens examined. Mixed pathogens were detected in two specimens with 373 total pathogens isolated. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were the predominant uropathogens at 55.8% (208/373) and 18.5% (69/373), respectively. Other pathogens were detected in 25.7% (96/373) of urine samples. Of the E. coli and Klebsiella spp. tested, 69.2 and 100% were resistant to ampicillin, 6.7 and 33.3% to ceftriaxone, and 23.1 and 17.4% to ciprofloxacin, respectively. MDR (resistance to ?3 antimicrobial groups) was found in 69 (33.2%) of E. coli and in 29 (42%) of Klebsiella spp. isolates. ESBLs were detected phenotypically in 14 (6.7%) of E. coli and in 15 (21.7%) of Klebsiella spp. isolates. Thirteen out of the 14 phenotypically ESBL-positive E. coli were positive for ESBL genes by PCR. bla TEM gene was detected in seven isolates, bla OXA gene in 10 isolates and bla CTX-M gene in six isolates. bla SHV gene was not detected in the present study. Conclusion The isolation of MDR ESBL-producing uropathogens undoubtedly will limit the choices clinicians have to treat their patients with UTIs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveillance studies on antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of ESBLs among uropathogens to guide the clinical treatment of UTIs in Libya in the future. PMID:25651907

  19. Genetic analysis of complex gene clusters in Escherichia coli: the genetic analysis of F72 fimbrial genes.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, W P; van Die, I M; Bergmans, J E

    1984-01-01

    Cloning techniques make it possible to accommodate bacterial genes on vector DNA molecules. On that basis the investigation of bacterial structures and functions got new impetus. The potentials of molecular genetics for detailed analysis of bacterial structures are illustrated in this paper for the gene cluster involved in the expression of F72 fimbriae associated with a uropathogenic Escherichia coli O6:K2:H1:F7 strain. PMID:6152146

  20. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Shigella Strains Are Not Clones of Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Hao, Bailin

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH Shigella Strains Are Not Clones of Escherichia coli but Sister Species Available online 29 December 2012 KEYWORDS Shigella; Escherichia coli; Prokaryote phylogeny and taxonomy; Composition vector; CVTree Abstract Shigella species and Escherichia coli are closely related organisms. Early

  1. The Escherichia coli Peripheral Inner Membrane Proteome*S

    E-print Network

    Economou, Tassos

    The Escherichia coli Peripheral Inner Membrane Proteome*S Malvina Papanastasiou, Georgia Escherichia coli using a multidisciplinary approach. Initially, we extensively re-an- notated the theoretical- romolecular complexes, and modification and degradation of poplypeptides. Escherichia coli, a model organism

  2. The Escherichia coli BarA-UvrY Two-Component System Is Needed for Efficient Switching between Glycolytic and Gluconeogenic Carbon Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna-Karin Pernestig; Dimitris Georgellis; Tony Romeo; Kazushi Suzuki; Henrik Tomenius; Staffan Normark; Ojar Melefors

    2003-01-01

    The Escherichia coli BarA and UvrY proteins were recently demonstrated to constitute a novel two-compo- nent system, although its function has remained largely elusive. Here we show that mutations in the sensor kinase gene, barA, or the response regulator gene, uvrY, in uropathogenic E. coli drastically affect survival in long-term competition cultures. Using media with gluconeogenic carbon sources, the mutants

  3. SEROLOGICAL CROSS-REACTIONS BETWEEN ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 AND OTHER SPECIES OF THE GENUS ESCHERICHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia hermannii, a sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia, has been reported to be agglutinated by Escherichia coli 0157 and four sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia: . hermannii (24 isolates), Escherichia fergusonii (12 isolates), Escherichia vul...

  4. Galleria mellonella Infection Model Demonstrates High Lethality of ST69 and ST127 Uropathogenic E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Alghoribi, Majed F.; Gibreel, Tarek M.; Dodgson, Andrew R.; Beatson, Scott A.; Upton, Mathew

    2014-01-01

    Galleria mellonella larvae are an alternative in vivo model for investigating bacterial pathogenicity. Here, we examined the pathogenicity of 71 isolates from five leading uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) lineages using G. mellonella larvae. Larvae were challenged with a range of inoculum doses to determine the 50% lethal dose (LD50) and for analysis of survival outcome using Kaplan-Meier plots. Virulence was correlated with carriage of a panel of 29 virulence factors (VF). Larvae inoculated with ST69 and ST127 isolates (104 colony-forming units/larvae) showed significantly higher mortality rates than those infected with ST73, ST95 and ST131 isolates, killing 50% of the larvae within 24 hours. Interestingly, ST131 isolates were the least virulent. We observed that ST127 isolates are significantly associated with a higher VF-score than isolates of all other STs tested (P?0.0001), including ST69 (P<0.02), but one ST127 isolate (strain EC18) was avirulent. Comparative genomic analyses with virulent ST127 strains revealed an IS1 mediated deletion in the O-antigen cluster in strain EC18, which is likely to explain the lack of virulence in the larvae infection model. Virulence in the larvae was not correlated with serotype or phylogenetic group. This study illustrates that G. mellonella are an excellent tool for investigation of the virulence of UPEC strains. The findings also support our suggestion that the incidence of ST127 strains should be monitored, as these isolates have not yet been widely reported, but they clearly have a pathogenic potential greater than that of more widely recognised clones, including ST73, ST95 or ST131. PMID:25061819

  5. Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide Escherichia coli growth, chemical, composition, and cellular envelope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Hooten, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a herbicide widely used in the world and mainly excreted by the renal route in exposed humans and animals. Herbicides can affect other nontarget organisms, such as Escherichia coli. We observed that a single exposure to 1 mM 2,4-D diminished growth and total protein content in all E. coli strains tested in vitro. In addition, successive exposures to 0.01 mM 2,4-D had a toxic effect decreasing growth up to early stationary phase. Uropathogenic E. coli adhere to epithelial cells mediated by fimbriae, adhesins, and hydrophobic properties. 2,4-D exposure of uropathogenic E. coli demonstrated altered hydrophobicity and fimbriation. Hydrophobicity index values obtained by partition in p-xylene/water were 300-420% higher in exposed cells than in control ones. Furthermore, values of hemagglutination titer, protein contents in fimbrial crude extract, and electron microscopy demonstrated a significant diminution of fimbriation in treated cells. Other envelope alterations could be detected, such as lipoperoxidation, evidenced by decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids and increased lipid degradation products (malonaldehyde), and motility diminution. These alterations decreased cell adherence to erythrocytes, indicating a diminished pathogenic capacity of the 2,4-D-exposed E. coli. ?? 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Improvement of Escherichia coli growth by kaolinite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elise Courvoisier; Sam Dukan

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the impacts of clay minerals on microorganisms is essential to a complete understanding of microbially-mediated processes. Information available in this regard remains scarce. Using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model bacterium, we investigated the effect of kaolinite on various growth parameters. This clay mineral significantly affected maximal growth rate and yield of the E. coli-strain (MG 1655)

  7. Escherichia coli O157 and Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Escherichia coli O157 and Children E scherichia coli is a common bacterium that is normally present in the human intestine. There ... illness is bloody diarrhea. SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF E COLI INFECTION •Severe stomach cramps •Diarrhea (often bloody) •Vomiting • ...

  8. Negative Chemotaxis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Wung-Wai; Adler, Julius

    1974-01-01

    Several methods for detecting or measuring negative chemotaxis are described. Using these, we have surveyed a number of chemicals for their ability to repel Escherichia coli. Although most of the repellents are harmful compounds, harmfulness is neither necessary nor sufficient to make a compound a repellent. The repellents can be grouped into at least nine classes according to (i) competition experiments, (ii) mutants lacking certain of the negative taxes, and (iii) their chemical structure. The specificity of each class was studied. It is suggested that each class corresponds to a distinct chemoreceptor. Generally, non-chemotactic mutants lack both positive and negative chemotaxis, and l-methionine is required for both kinds of taxis. Repellents at very low concentrations are not attractants, and attractants at very high concentrations are not repellents. Images PMID:4597449

  9. Comparative Genomics of Escherichia coli Strains Causing Urinary Tract Infections ? †

    PubMed Central

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria; Schembri, Mark A.; Klemm, Per

    2011-01-01

    The virulence determinants of uropathogenic Escherichia coli have been studied extensively over the years, but relatively little is known about what differentiates isolates causing various types of urinary tract infections. In this study, we compared the genomic profiles of 45 strains from a range of different clinical backgrounds, i.e., urosepsis, pyelonephritis, cystitis, and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), using comparative genomic hybridization analysis. A microarray based on 31 complete E. coli sequences was used. It emerged that there is little correlation between the genotypes of the strains and their disease categories but strong correlation between the genotype and the phylogenetic group association. Also, very few genetic differences may exist between isolates causing symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. Only relatively few genes that could potentially differentiate between the individual disease categories were identified. Among these were two genomic islands, namely, pathogenicity island (PAI)-CFT073-serU and PAI-CFT073-pheU, which were significantly more associated with the pyelonephritis and urosepsis isolates than with the ABU and cystitis isolates. These two islands harbor genes encoding virulence factors, such as P fimbriae (pyelonephritis-associated fimbriae) and an important immunomodulatory protein, TcpC. It seems that both urovirulence and growth fitness can be attributed to an assortment of genes rather than to a specific gene set. Taken together, urovirulence and fitness are the results of the interplay of a mixture of factors taken from a rich menu of genes. PMID:21421782

  10. Recombinant collagen production optimization in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Whittemore, Brett A

    2005-01-01

    An Escherichia coli-based collagen-production process was used to investigate several process optimization objectives for use at the industrial scale. The effect of cooling on fermentation growth kinetics was studied, with ...

  11. A draft genome of Escherichia coli sequence type 127 strain 2009-46

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli are a frequent cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) and are thought to have a foodborne origin. E. coli with sequence type 127 (ST127) are emerging pathogens increasingly implicated as a cause of urinary tract infections (UTI) globally. A ST127 isolate (2009-46) resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim was recovered from the urine of a 56 year old patient with a UTI from a hospital in Sydney, Australia and was characterised here. Results We sequenced the genome of Escherichia coli 2009-46 using the Illumina Nextera XT and MiSeq technologies. Assembly of the sequence data reconstructed a 5.14 Mbp genome in 89 scaffolds with an N50 of 161 kbp. The genome has extensive similarity to other sequenced uropathogenic E. coli genomes, but also has several genes that are potentially related to virulence and pathogenicity that are not present in the reference E. coli strain. Conclusion E. coli 2009-46 is a multiple antibiotic resistant, phylogroup B2 isolate recovered from a patient with a UTI. This is the first description of a drug resistant E. coli ST127 in Australia. PMID:25197321

  12. Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates from Hospital Inpatients or Outpatients with Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Toval, Francisco; Köhler, Christian-Daniel; Vogel, Ulrich; Wagenlehner, Florian; Mellmann, Alexander; Fruth, Angelika; Schmidt, M. Alexander; Karch, Helge; Bielaszewska, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common cause of community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). Isolates from uncomplicated community-acquired UTIs express a variety of virulence traits that promote the efficient colonization of the urinary tract. In contrast, nosocomial UTIs can be caused by E. coli strains that differ in their virulence traits from the community-acquired UTI isolates. UPEC virulence markers are used to distinguish these facultative extraintestinal pathogens, which belong to the intestinal flora of many healthy individuals, from intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC). IPEC is a diarrheagenic pathogen with a characteristic virulence gene set that is absent in UPEC. Here, we characterized 265 isolates from patients with UTIs during inpatient or outpatient treatment at a hospital regarding their phylogenies and IPEC or UPEC virulence traits. Interestingly, 28 of these isolates (10.6%) carried typical IPEC virulence genes that are characteristic of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), although IPEC is not considered a uropathogen. Twenty-three isolates harbored the astA gene coding for the EAEC heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1), and most of them carried virulence genes that are characteristic of UPEC and/or EAEC. Our results indicate that UPEC isolates from hospital patients differ from archetypal community-acquired isolates from uncomplicated UTIs by their spectrum of virulence traits. They represent a diverse group, including EAEC, as well as other IPEC pathotypes, which in addition contain typical UPEC virulence genes. The combination of typical extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and IPEC virulence determinants in some isolates demonstrates the marked genome plasticity of E. coli and calls for a reevaluation of the strict pathotype classification of EAEC. PMID:24478469

  13. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  14. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  15. Murein segregation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro, M A; Quintela, J C; Höltje, J V; Schwarz, H

    1997-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (murein) segregation has been studied by means of a new labeling method. The method relies on the ability of Escherichia coli cells to incorporate D-Cys into macromolecular murein. The incorporation depends on a periplasmic amino acid exchange reaction. At low concentrations, D-Cys is innocuous to the cell. The distribution of modified murein in purified sacculi can be traced and visualized by immunodetection of the -SH groups by fluorescence and electron microscopy techniques. Analysis of murein segregation in wild-type and cell division mutant strains revealed that murein in polar caps is metabolically inert and is segregated in a conservative fashion. Elongation of the sacculus apparently occurs by diffuse insertion of precursors over the cylindrical part of the cell surface. At the initiation of cell division, there is a FtsZ-dependent localized activation of murein synthesis at the potential division sites. Penicillin-binding protein 3 and the products of the division genes ftsA and ftsQ are dispensable for the activation of division sites. As a consequence, under restrictive conditions ftsA,ftsI,or ftsQ mutants generate filamentous sacculi with rings of all-new murein at the positions where septa would otherwise develop. PMID:9139895

  16. Succinate production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Chandresh; Martínez, Irene; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N.

    2012-01-01

    Succinate has been recognized as an important platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. While a number of organisms are capable of succinate production naturally, this review focuses on the engineering of Escherichia coli for production of the four-carbon dicarboxylic acid. Important features of a succinate production system are to achieve optimal balance of reducing equivalents generated by consumption of the feedstock, while maximizing the amount of carbon that is channeled to the product. Aerobic and anaerobic production strains have been developed and applied to production from glucose as well as other abundant carbon sources. Metabolic engineering methods and strain evolution have been used and supplemented by the recent application of systems biology and in silico modeling tools to construct optimal production strains. The metabolic capacity of the production strain, as well as the requirement for efficient recovery of succinate and the reliability of the performance under scale-up are important in the overall process. The costs of the overall biorefinery compatible process will determine the economical commercialization of succinate and its impact in larger chemical markets. PMID:21932253

  17. Succinate production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thakker, Chandresh; Martínez, Irene; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2012-02-01

    Succinate has been recognized as an important platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. While a number of organisms are capable of succinate production naturally, this review focuses on the engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of four-carbon dicarboxylic acid. Important features of a succinate production system are to achieve an optimal balance of reducing equivalents generated by consumption of the feedstock, while maximizing the amount of carbon channeled into the product. Aerobic and anaerobic production strains have been developed and applied to production from glucose and other abundant carbon sources. Metabolic engineering methods and strain evolution have been used and supplemented by the recent application of systems biology and in silico modeling tools to construct optimal production strains. The metabolic capacity of the production strain, the requirement for efficient recovery of succinate, and the reliability of the performance under scaleup are important in the overall process. The costs of the overall biorefinery-compatible process will determine the economic commercialization of succinate and its impact in larger chemical markets. PMID:21932253

  18. Urinary bactericidal activity of single doses (250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg) of levofloxacin against fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary E. Stein; Sharon L. Schooley; David P. Nicolau

    2008-01-01

    Increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones in uropathogens has become a clinical concern. The purpose of this study was to analyse the urinary bactericidal activity (UBA) of levofloxacin against fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Escherichia coli. Ten healthy adult subjects (aged 23–60 years) received single doses of levofloxacin (250, 500, 750 and 1000mg) and then blood and urine samples were collected in intervals (0–1.5,

  19. EM2006K-33 revised Identification of forces shaping the commensal Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    1 EM2006K-33 revised Identification of forces shaping the commensal Escherichia coli genetic title: Commensal Escherichia coli ecological structure Key words: Escherichia coli, commensal, animal forces shaping the Escherichia coli intraspecies ecological structure, we have characterized in terms

  20. Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J R

    1991-01-01

    Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are characterized by the expression of distinctive bacterial properties, products, or structures referred to as virulence factors because they help the organism overcome host defenses and colonize or invade the urinary tract. Virulence factors of recognized importance in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) include adhesins (P fimbriae, certain other mannose-resistant adhesins, and type 1 fimbriae), the aerobactin system, hemolysin, K capsule, and resistance to serum killing. This review summarizes the virtual explosion of information regarding the epidemiology, biochemistry, mechanisms of action, and genetic basis of these urovirulence factors that has occurred in the past decade and identifies areas in need of further study. Virulence factor expression is more common among certain genetically related groups of E. coli which constitute virulent clones within the larger E. coli population. In general, the more virulence factors a strain expresses, the more severe an infection it is able to cause. Certain virulence factors specifically favor the development of pyelonephritis, others favor cystitis, and others favor asymptomatic bacteriuria. The currently defined virulence factors clearly contribute to the virulence of wild-type strains but are usually insufficient in themselves to transform an avirulent organism into a pathogen, demonstrating that other as-yet-undefined virulence properties await discovery. Virulence factor testing is a useful epidemiological and research tool but as yet has no defined clinical role. Immunological and biochemical anti-virulence factor interventions are effective in animal models of UTI and hold promise for the prevention of UTI in humans. Images PMID:1672263

  1. Structure and function of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbriae from differing assembly pathways

    E-print Network

    Mortezaei, Narges; Shao, Paul P; Shirdel, Mariam; Singh, Bhupender; McVeigh, Annette; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Savarino, Stephen J; Andersson, Magnus; Bullitt, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the major bacterial cause of diarrhea in young children in developing countries and in travelers, causing significant mortality in children. Adhesive fimbriae are a prime virulence factor for ETEC, initiating colonization of the small intestinal epithelium. Similar to other Gram-negative bacteria, ETEC express one or more diverse fimbriae, some assembled by the chaperone-usher pathway and others by the alternate chaperone pathway. Here we elucidate structural and biophysical aspects and adaptations of each fimbrial type to its respective host niche. CS20 fimbriae are compared to CFA/I fimbriae, which are two ETEC fimbriae assembled via different pathways, and to Pfimbriae from uropathogenic E. coli. Many fimbriae unwind from their native helical filament to an extended linear conformation under force, thereby sustaining adhesion by reducing load at the point of contact between the bacterium and the target cell. CFA/I fimbriae require the least force to un...

  2. Pathogenic Escherichia coli Found in Sewage Treatment Plants and Environmental Waters

    PubMed Central

    Anastasi, E. M.; Matthews, B.; Stratton, H. M.

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that some Escherichia coli strains with uropathogenic properties survived treatment stages of sewage treatment plants (STPs), suggesting that they may be released into the environment. We investigated the presence of such strains in the surrounding environmental waters of four STPs from which these persistent strains were isolated. In all, 264 E. coli isolates were collected from 129 receiving water sites in a 20-km radius surrounding STPs. We also included 93 E. coli strains collected from 18 animal species for comparison. Isolates were typed using a high-resolution biochemical fingerprinting method (the PhPlate system), and grouped into common (C) types. One hundred forty-seven (56%) environmental isolates were identical to strains found in STPs' final effluents. Of these, 140 (95%) carried virulence genes (VGs) associated with intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC) or uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and were found in a variety of sites within areas sampled. Of the remaining 117 environmental strains not identical to STP strains, 105 belonged to 18 C types and 102 of them carried VGs found among IPEC or UPEC strains. These strains belonged mainly to phylogenetic groups A (A0 and A1) and B1 and to a lesser extent B22, B23, D1, and D2. Eight of 18 environmental C types, comprising 50 isolates, were also identical to bird strains. The presence of a high percentage of environmental E. coli in waters near STPs carrying VGs associated with IPEC and UPEC suggests that they may have derived from STP effluents and other nonpoint sources. PMID:22660714

  3. In-stream Escherichia coli Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, P.; Soupir, M.

    2013-12-01

    Elevated levels of pathogenic bacteria indicators such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) in streams are a serious concern. Controlling E. coli levels in streams requires improving our existing understanding of fate and transport of E. coli at watershed scale. In-stream E. coli concentrations are potentially linked to non-point pollution sources (i.e., agricultural land). Water of a natural stream can receive E. coli by either through overland flow (via runoff from cropland) or resuspension from the streambed to the water column. Calculating in-stream total E. coli loads requires estimation of particle attached bacteria as well free floating E. coli transport. Currently water quality models commonly used for predicting E. coli levels in stream water have limited capability for predicting E. coli levels in the water column as well as in the streambed sediment. The challenges in calculating in-stream E. coli levels include difficulties in modeling the complex interactions between sediment particles and E. coli. Here we have developed a watershed scale model (integrated with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)), which involves calculation of particle attached E. coli, to predict in-stream E. coli concentrations. The proposed model predicts E. coli levels in streambed bed sediment as well as in the water column. An extensive in-stream E. coli monitoring was carried out to verify the model predictions, and results indicate that the model performed well. The study proposed here will improve understanding on in-stream bacterial contamination, and help improving existing water quality models for predicting pathogenic bacteria levels in ambient water bodies.

  4. Heteropathogenic virulence and phylogeny reveal phased pathogenic metamorphosis in Escherichia coli O2:H6

    PubMed Central

    Bielaszewska, Martina; Schiller, Roswitha; Lammers, Lydia; Bauwens, Andreas; Fruth, Angelika; Middendorf, Barbara; Schmidt, M Alexander; Tarr, Phillip I; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Karch, Helge; Mellmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic and intestinal pathogenic (diarrheagenic) Escherichia coli differ phylogenetically and by virulence profiles. Classic theory teaches simple linear descent in this species, where non-pathogens acquire virulence traits and emerge as pathogens. However, diarrheagenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O2:H6 not only possess and express virulence factors associated with diarrheagenic and uropathogenic E. coli but also cause diarrhea and urinary tract infections. These organisms are phylogenetically positioned between members of an intestinal pathogenic group (STEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. STEC O2:H6 is, therefore, a ‘heteropathogen,’ and the first such hybrid virulent E. coli identified. The phylogeny of these E. coli and the repertoire of virulence traits they possess compel consideration of an alternate view of pathogen emergence, whereby one pathogroup of E. coli undergoes phased metamorphosis into another. By understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of bacterial pathogens, rational strategies for counteracting their detrimental effects on humans can be developed. Subject Categories Microbiology, Virology & Host Pathogen Interaction PMID:24413188

  5. Budget Analysis of Escherichia coli at a Southern Lake Michigan

    E-print Network

    Budget Analysis of Escherichia coli at a Southern Lake Michigan Beach P R A M O D T H U P A K I, 2009. Escherichia coli (EC) concentrations at two beaches impacted by river plume dynamics in southern bacteria such as Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (1). Coastal water quality has a significant

  6. Parallel Evolutionary Dynamics of Adaptive Diversification in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Doebeli, Michael

    Parallel Evolutionary Dynamics of Adaptive Diversification in Escherichia coli Matthew D. Herron1 sources caused initially isogenic populations of the bacterium Escherichia coli to diversify into two Diversification in Escherichia coli. PLoS Biol 11(2): e1001490. doi:10.1371/ journal.pbio.1001490 Academic Editor

  7. FtsZ From Escherichia coli, Azotobacter vinelandii, and Thermotoga

    E-print Network

    Erickson, Harold P.

    FtsZ From Escherichia coli, Azotobacter vinelandii, and Thermotoga maritima--Quantitation, GTP and Azotobacter vinelandii and expressed the proteins (TmFtsZ and AzFtsZ) in Escherichia coli. We compared as well, as Escherichia coli FtsZ (EcFtsZ) can assemble in vitro into protofilament sheets with a lattice

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Escherichia coli transcription factor YncC

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Escherichia coli transcription factor YncC (McbR) regulates colanic acid, USA Quorum-sensing signal autoinducer 2 (AI-2) stimulates Escherichia coli biofilm formation through Escherichia coli biofilm development is a complex process with at least five developmental stages; initial

  9. Four products from Escherichia coli pseudogenes increase hydrogen production q

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Four products from Escherichia coli pseudogenes increase hydrogen production q Mohd Zulkhairi Mohd Escherichia coli pseudogene ydfW ypdJ yqiG ylcE a b s t r a c t Pseudogenes are considered to be nonfunctional genes that lack a physiological role. By screening 3985 Escherichia coli mutants using chemochromic

  10. Miniseries: Illustrating the Machinery of Life Escherichia coli*

    E-print Network

    Economou, Tassos

    Miniseries: Illustrating the Machinery of Life Escherichia coli* Received for publication, August that support a recent textbook illustration of an Escherichia coli cell. The image magnifies a portion of life.'' This is how I began my 1991 article that presented several illustrations of Escherichia coli [1

  11. Research Note--Prevalence of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in the

    E-print Network

    Singer, Randall

    Research Note-- Prevalence of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in the Broiler House Environment J. S sampling of Escherichia coli from broiler house litter and bird lesions of either cellulitis´n--Prevalencia de Escherichia coli pato´geno en el medio ambiente de los galpones de pollo de engorde. Se tomaron

  12. Secretory Production of Human Leptin in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Secretory Production of Human Leptin in Escherichia coli Ki Jun Jeong, Sang Yup Lee Department homeostasis. In this study, human leptin was pro- duced and secreted efficiently in Escherichia coli using peptide; secre- tion; DsbA; Escherichia coli; protein production INTRODUCTION Human leptin, the product

  13. Proteomic analysis of thioredoxin-targeted proteins in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Charles C.

    Proteomic analysis of thioredoxin-targeted proteins in Escherichia coli Jaya K. Kumar, Stanley present a comprehensive analysis of the thioredoxin-linked Escherichia coli proteome by using tandem in a reaction catalyzed by thioredoxin reductase (4). Originally isolated from Escherichia coli in 1964

  14. DETECTING ENTEROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS OF PORCINE ORIGIN

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    DETECTING ENTEROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS OF PORCINE ORIGIN 1. Correlations between 0 VILLEJUIF, France _ Résumé DEPISTAGE DES SOUCHES D'ESCHERICHIA COLI ENTEROPATHOGENES D'ORIGINE PORGINE. - 1 tests biologiques (cellules Y1 et souriceau nouveau-né) à partir de 67 souches d'Escherichia coli

  15. Light-powering Escherichia coli with proteorhodopsin Jessica M. Walter*

    E-print Network

    Liphardt, Jan

    Light-powering Escherichia coli with proteorhodopsin Jessica M. Walter* , Derek Greenfield respira- tion is inhibited by depleting oxygen or by the respiratory poison azide, Escherichia coli cells cellular pmf and, thus, viability. Proteorhodopsin allows Escherichia coli cells to withstand environmental

  16. Molecular Archaeology of the Escherichia coli Genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey G. Lawrence; Howard Ochman

    1998-01-01

    The availability of the complete sequence of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 provides the first opportunity to assess the overall impact of horizontal genetic transfer on the evolution of bacterial genomes. We found that 755 of 4,288 ORFs (547.8 kb) have been introduced into the E. coli genome in at least 234 lateral transfer events since this species diverged from the

  17. Post-irradiation Recovery of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Lee; R. O. Sinnhuber

    1965-01-01

    RADIATION sensitivity of Escherichia coli strains is influenced by conditions for growth prior to and after radiation exposure. Stapleton and Engel1 have shown that E. coli B\\/r (CSH) grown in a buffered-peptone medium developed higher X-ray resistance. The cells grown in rich medium, however, might have become more exacting in their nutritional requirements and their recovery was limited on basal

  18. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.…

  19. Leaner and meaner genomes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ussery, David W

    2006-01-01

    A 'better' Escherichia coli K-12 genome has recently been engineered in which about 15% of the genome has been removed by planned deletions. Comparison with related bacterial genomes that have undergone a natural reduction in size suggests that there is plenty of scope for yet more deletions. PMID:17076878

  20. Drug-resistant Diarrheogenic Escherichia coli, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cerna, Jorge F.; Paheco-Gil, Leova; Velázquez, Raúl F.; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Torres, Javier; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2005-01-01

    Diarrheogenic Escherichia coli isolates from 45 (73%) of 62 hospitalized patients were resistant to common antimicrobial drugs. Sixty-two percent were multidrug resistant, and >70% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin. Ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were uniformly active. Effective and safe oral agents are needed to treat children with bacterial diarrhea. PMID:16102327

  1. A Survey for Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Asymptomatic Free-Ranging Parrots

    PubMed Central

    Becker Saidenberg, André; Robaldo Guedes, Neiva Maria; Fernandes Seixas, Gláucia Helena; da Costa Allgayer, Mariangela; Pacífico de Assis, Erica; Fabio Silveira, Luis; Anne Melville, Priscilla; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2012-01-01

    Parrots in captivity are frequently affected by Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections. The objective of this study was to collect information on the carrier state for E. coli pathotypes in asymptomatic free-ranging parrots. Cloacal swabs were collected from nestlings of Hyacinth, Lear's macaws and Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for virulence factors commonly found in enteropathogenic, avian pathogenic, and uropathogenic E. coli strains. In total, 44 samples were cultured and E. coli isolates were yielded, from which DNA was extracted and processed by PCR. Genes commonly found in APEC isolates from Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws were expressed in 14 of these 44 samples. One atypical EPEC isolate was obtained from a sample from Lear's macaw. The most commonly found gene was the increased serum survival (iss) gene. This is the first report, that describes such pathotypes in asymptomatic free-living parrots. The findings of this study suggest the presence of a stable host/parasite relationship at the time of the sampling brings a new understanding to the role that E. coli plays in captive and wild parrots. Such information can be used to improve husbandry protocols as well as help conservation efforts of free-living populations. PMID:23738135

  2. Escherichia coli in Europe: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Allocati, Nerino; Masulli, Michele; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.; Di Ilio, Carmine

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli remains one of the most frequent causes of several common bacterial infections in humans and animals. E. coli is the prominent cause of enteritis, urinary tract infection, septicaemia and other clinical infections, such as neonatal meningitis. E. coli is also prominently associated with diarrhoea in pet and farm animals. The therapeutic treatment of E. coli infections is threatened by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli strains is increasing worldwide principally due to the spread of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids. The rise of multidrug-resistant strains of E. coli also occurs in Europe. Therefore, the spread of resistance in E. coli is an increasing public health concern in European countries. This paper summarizes the current status of E. coli strains clinically relevant in European countries. Furthermore, therapeutic interventions and strategies to prevent and control infections are presented and discussed. The article also provides an overview of the current knowledge concerning promising alternative therapies against E. coli diseases. PMID:24287850

  3. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Escherichia coli Are Live Biotherapeutics for UTI

    PubMed Central

    Yaggie, Ryan E.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Klumpp, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) account for approximately 8 million clinic visits annually with symptoms that include acute pelvic pain, dysuria, and irritative voiding. Empiric UTI management with antimicrobials is complicated by increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens, but live biotherapeutics products (LBPs), such as asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) strains of E. coli, offer the potential to circumvent antimicrobial resistance. Here we evaluated ASB E. coli as LBPs, relative to ciprofloxacin, for efficacy against infection and visceral pain in a murine UTI model. Visceral pain was quantified as tactile allodynia of the pelvic region in response to mechanical stimulation with von Frey filaments. Whereas ciprofloxacin promoted clearance of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), it did not reduce pelvic tactile allodynia, a measure of visceral pain. In contrast, ASB E. coli administered intravesically or intravaginally provided comparable reduction of allodynia similar to intravesical lidocaine. Moreover, ASB E. coli were similarly effective against UTI allodynia induced by Proteus mirabilis, Enterococccus faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Therefore, ASB E. coli have anti-infective activity comparable to the current standard of care yet also provide superior analgesia. These studies suggest that ASB E. coli represent novel LBPs for UTI symptoms. PMID:25405579

  4. Identification of Genes Important for Growth of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Escherichia coli in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Vejborg, Rebecca M.; de Evgrafov, Mari R.; Phan, Minh Duy; Totsika, Makrina; Schembri, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most important etiological agent of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Unlike uropathogenic E. coli, which causes symptomatic infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) E. coli strains typically lack essential virulence factors and colonize the bladder in the absence of symptoms. While ABU E. coli can persist in the bladder for long periods of time, little is known about the genetic determinants required for its growth and fitness in urine. To identify such genes, we have employed a transposon mutagenesis approach using the prototypic ABU E. coli strain 83972 and the clinical ABU E. coli strain VR89. Six genes involved in the biosynthesis of various amino acids and nucleobases were identified (carB, argE, argC, purA, metE, and ilvC), and site-specific mutants were subsequently constructed in E. coli 83972 and E. coli VR89 for each of these genes. In all cases, these mutants exhibited reduced growth rates and final cell densities in human urine. The growth defects could be complemented in trans as well as by supplementation with the appropriate amino acid or nucleobase. When assessed in vivo in a mouse model, E. coli 83972carAB and 83972argC showed a significantly reduced competitive advantage in the bladder and/or kidney during coinoculation experiments with the parent strain, whereas 83972metE and 83972ilvC did not. Taken together, our data have identified several biosynthesis pathways as new important fitness factors associated with the growth of ABU E. coli in human urine. PMID:22753377

  5. Preventing urinary tract infection: progress toward an effective Escherichia coli vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Brumbaugh, Ariel R; Mobley, Harry LT

    2012-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common, with nearly half of all women experiencing at least one UTI in their lifetime. This high frequency of infection results in huge annual economic costs, decreased workforce productivity and high patient morbidity. At least 80% of these infections are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC can reside side by side with commensal strains in the gastrointestinal tract and gain access to the bladder via colonization of the urethra. Antibiotics represent the current standard treatment for UTI; however, even after treatment, patients frequently suffer from recurrent infection with the same or different strains. In addition, successful long-term treatment has been complicated by a rise in both the number of antibiotic-resistant strains and the prevalence of antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. As a result, preventative approaches to UTI, such as vaccination, have been sought. This review summarizes recent advances in UPEC vaccine development and outlines future directions for the field. PMID:22873125

  6. Escherichia coli Biofilms Have an Organized and Complex Extracellular Matrix Structure

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chia; Zhou, Yizhou; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Dodson, Karen W.; Crowley, Jan R.; Heuser, John; Chapman, Matthew R.; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Henderson, Jeffrey P.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, and their resilience is derived in part from a complex extracellular matrix that can be tailored to meet environmental demands. Although common developmental stages leading to biofilm formation have been described, how the extracellular components are organized to allow three-dimensional biofilm development is not well understood. Here we show that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains produce a biofilm with a highly ordered and complex extracellular matrix (ECM). We used electron microscopy (EM) techniques to image floating biofilms (pellicles) formed by UPEC. EM revealed intricately constructed substructures within the ECM that encase individual, spatially segregated bacteria with a distinctive morphology. Mutational and biochemical analyses of these biofilms confirmed curli as a major matrix component and revealed important roles for cellulose, flagella, and type 1 pili in pellicle integrity and ECM infrastructure. Collectively, the findings of this study elucidated that UPEC pellicles have a highly organized ultrastructure that varies spatially across the multicellular community. PMID:24023384

  7. Controlling the Shape of Filamentous Cells of Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Weibel, Douglas B.

    Controlling the Shape of Filamentous Cells of Escherichia coli Shoji Takeuchi,, Willow R. Di of Escherichia coli with defined shapes, including crescents, zigzags, sinusoids, and spirals. The procedure into solution. This paper describes a technique for controlling the shape of filamentous cells of Escherichia

  8. Hydrogen production by recombinant Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez?Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best?studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E.?coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole?cell systems and cell?free systems are compared. PMID:21895995

  9. Escherichia coli as a genetic tool.

    PubMed Central

    Datta, N.

    1985-01-01

    The study of Escherichia coli and its plasmids and bacteriophages has provided a vast body of genetical information, much of it relevant to the whole of biology. This was true even before the development of the new techniques, for cloning and analysing DNA, that have revolutionized biological research during the past decade. Thousands of millions of dollars are now invested in industrial uses of these techniques, which all depend on discoveries made in the course of academic research on E. coli. Much of the background of knowledge necessary for the cloning and expression of genetically engineered information, as well as the techniques themselves, came from work with this organism. PMID:3005394

  10. Motility influences biofilm architecture in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas K. Wood; Andrés F. González Barrios; Moshe Herzberg; Jintae Lee

    2006-01-01

    Eight Escherichia coli strains were studied in minimal medium with a continuous flow system using confocal microscopy. K12 wild-type strains ATCC 25404 and MG1655 formed the best biofilms (?43 ?m thick, 21 to 34% surface coverage). JM109, DH5?, and MG1655 motA formed intermediate biofilms (?13 ?m thick, 41 to 58% surface coverage). BW25113, MG1655 qseB, and MG1655 fliA had poor biofilms (surface

  11. Production of glycoprotein vaccines in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Ihssen; Michael Kowarik; Sandro Dilettoso; Cyril Tanner; Michael Wacker; Linda Thöny-Meyer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conjugate vaccines in which polysaccharide antigens are covalently linked to carrier proteins belong to the most effective and safest vaccines against bacterial pathogens. State-of-the art production of conjugate vaccines using chemical methods is a laborious, multi-step process. In vivo enzymatic coupling using the general glycosylation pathway of Campylobacter jejuni in recombinant Escherichia coli has been suggested as a simpler

  12. Structureactivity relationship of fluoroquinolone in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soondeuk Lee; Taeho Park; Yeonhee Lee

    1998-01-01

    Structure-activity relationship of 20 fluoroquinolones was studied using the susceptible and 4 resistantEscherichia coli which were developed against 4 fluoroquinolones [ciprofloxacin (1), KR-10755 (6), norfloxacin (2), and ofloxacin (3)] in\\u000a our laboratory. The C-7 and C-8 substituents of fluoroquinolone were important in various functions such as the inhibitory\\u000a activity on DNA gyrase, permeability, and efflux. Among 20 fluoroquinolones, compounds with

  13. Natural plasmid transformation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Suh-Der; Fang, Suh-Sen; Chen, Mei-Jye; Chien, Jun-Yi; Lee, Chih-Chun; Tsen, Darwin Han-Lin

    2002-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli does not have a natural transformation process, strains of E. coli can incorporate extracellular plasmids into cytoplasm 'naturally' at low frequencies. A standard method was developed in which stationary phase cells were concentrated, mixed with plasmids, and then plated on agar plates with nutrients which allowed cells to grow. Transformed cells could then be selected by harvesting cells and plating again on selective agar plates. Competence developed in the lag phase, but disappeared during exponential growth. As more plasmids were added to the cell suspension, the number of transformants increased, eventually reaching a plateau. Supercoiled monomeric or linear concatemeric DNA could transform cells, while linear monomeric DNA could not. Plasmid transformation was not related to conjugation and was recA-independent. Most of the E. coli strains surveyed had this process. All tested plasmids, except pACYC184, could transform E. coli. Insertion of a DNA fragment containing the ampicillin resistance gene into pACYC184 made the plasmid transformable. By inserting random 20-base-pair oligonucleotides into pACYC184 and selecting for transformable plasmids, a most frequent sequence was identified. This sequence resembled the bacterial interspersed medium repetitive sequence of E. coli, suggesting the existence of a recognition sequence. We conclude that plasmid natural transformation exists in E. coli. PMID:12065899

  14. Adhesion to and Invasion of HeLa Cells by Pathogenic Escherichia coli Carrying the afa-3 Gene Cluster Are Mediated by the AfaE and AfaD Proteins, Respectively

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MABEL JOUVE; MARIE-ISABELLE GARCIA; PASCALE COURCOUX; AGNES LABIGNE; PIERRE GOUNON; CHANTAL LE BOUGUENEC; Station Centrale; Unitede Pathogenie

    1997-01-01

    The afa-3 gene cluster, expressed by uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli strains, deter- mines the formation of an afimbrial adhesive sheath composed of the AfaD and AfaE-III adhesins. The adherence to HeLa cells by recombinant HB101 strains producing both or only one of these two adhesins was investigated. Ultrastructural analyses of the interaction and gentamicin protection assays showed adherence to

  15. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255 Escherichia coli serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  16. COMPARATIVE RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCI TO CHLORINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium were inactivated by free chlorine and monochloramine. ndigenous E. coli and enterococci in wastewater effluents were also inactivated. elective bacteriological media specifically designed for the enumeration of the target...

  17. Role of Deoxyribose Catabolism in Colonization of the Murine Intestine by Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains ?

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Jéhanne, Vanessa; du Merle, Laurence; Bernier-Fébreau, Christine; Usein, Codruta; Gassama-Sow, Amy; Wane, Abdul-Aziz; Gouali, Malika; Damian, Maria; Aïdara-Kane, Awa; Germani, Yves; Fontanet, Arnaud; Coddeville, Bernadette; Guérardel, Yann; Le Bouguénec, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    We previously suggested that the ability to metabolize deoxyribose, a phenotype encoded by the deoK operon, is associated with the pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli strains. Carbohydrate metabolism is thought to provide the nutritional support required for E. coli to colonize the intestine. We therefore investigated the role of deoxyribose catabolism in the colonization of the gut, which acts as a reservoir, by pathogenic E. coli strains. Molecular and biochemical characterization of 1,221 E. coli clones from various collections showed this biochemical trait to be common in the E. coli species (33.6%). However, multivariate analysis evidenced a higher prevalence of sugar-metabolizing E. coli clones in the stools of patients from countries in which intestinal diseases are endemic. Diarrhea processes frequently involve the destruction of intestinal epithelia, so it is plausible that such clones may be positively selected for in intestines containing abundant DNA, and consequently deoxyribose. Statistical analysis also indicated that symptomatic clinical disorders and the presence of virulence factors specific to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli were significantly associated with an increased risk of biological samples and clones testing positive for deoxyribose. Using the streptomycin-treated-mouse model of intestinal colonization, we demonstrated the involvement of the deoK operon in gut colonization by two pathogenic isolates (one enteroaggregative and one uropathogenic strain). These results, indicating that deoxyribose availability promotes pathogenic E. coli growth during host colonization, suggest that the acquisition of this trait may be an evolutionary step enabling these pathogens to colonize and persist in the mammalian intestine. PMID:19168744

  18. Biodegradation of Aromatic Compounds by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eduardo; Ferrández, Abel; Prieto, María A.; García, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli has long been recognized as the best-understood living organism, little was known about its abilities to use aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. This review gives an extensive overview of the current knowledge of the catabolism of aromatic compounds by E. coli. After giving a general overview of the aromatic compounds that E. coli strains encounter and mineralize in the different habitats that they colonize, we provide an up-to-date status report on the genes and proteins involved in the catabolism of such compounds, namely, several aromatic acids (phenylacetic acid, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phenylpropionic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acid) and amines (phenylethylamine, tyramine, and dopamine). Other enzymatic activities acting on aromatic compounds in E. coli are also reviewed and evaluated. The review also reflects the present impact of genomic research and how the analysis of the whole E. coli genome reveals novel aromatic catabolic functions. Moreover, evolutionary considerations derived from sequence comparisons between the aromatic catabolic clusters of E. coli and homologous clusters from an increasing number of bacteria are also discussed. The recent progress in the understanding of the fundamentals that govern the degradation of aromatic compounds in E. coli makes this bacterium a very useful model system to decipher biochemical, genetic, evolutionary, and ecological aspects of the catabolism of such compounds. In the last part of the review, we discuss strategies and concepts to metabolically engineer E. coli to suit specific needs for biodegradation and biotransformation of aromatics and we provide several examples based on selected studies. Finally, conclusions derived from this review may serve as a lead for future research and applications. PMID:11729263

  19. [Transformation of phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Mengrong; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Shuangping; Shi, Guiyang

    2014-10-01

    We constructed several recombinant Escherichia coli strains to transform phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS system) and compared the characteristics of growth and metabolism of the mutants. We knocked-out the key genes ptsI and ptsG in PTS system by using Red homologous recombination in E. coli and meanwhile we also knocked-in the glucose facilitator gene glf from Zymomonas mobilis in the E. coli chromosome. Recombinant E. coli strains were constructed and the effects of cell growth, glucose consumption and acetic acid accumulation were also evaluated in all recombinant strains. The deletion of gene ptsG and ptsI inactivated some PTS system functions and inhibited the growth ability of the cell. Expressing the gene glf can help recombinant E. coli strains re-absorb the glucose through Glf-Glk (glucose facilitator-glucokinase) pathway as it can use ATP to phosphorylate glucose and transport into cell. This pathway can improve the availability of glucose and also reduce the accumulation of acetic acid; it can also broaden the carbon flux in the metabolism pathway. PMID:25726581

  20. Hydrophilic domain II of Escherichia coli Dr fimbriae facilitates cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Das, Margaret; Hart-Van Tassell, Audrey; Urvil, Petri T; Lea, Susan; Pettigrew, David; Anderson, K L; Samet, Alfred; Kur, Jozef; Matthews, Steve; Nowicki, Stella; Popov, Vsevolod; Goluszko, Pawel; Nowicki, Bogdan J

    2005-09-01

    Uropathogenic and diarrheal Escherichia coli strains expressing adhesins of the Dr family bind to decay-accelerating factor, invade epithelial cells, preferentially infect children and pregnant women, and may be associated with chronic or recurrent infections. Thus far, no fimbrial domain(s) that facilitates cell invasion has been identified. We used alanine scanning mutagenesis to replace selected amino acids in hydrophilic domain II of the structural fimbrial subunit DraE and evaluated recombinant mutant DraE for attachment, invasion, and intracellular compartmentalization. The mutation of amino acids V28, T31, G33, Q34, T36, and P40 of DraE reduced or abolished HeLa cell invasion but did not affect attachment. Electron micrographs showed a stepwise entry and fusion of vacuoles containing Escherichia coli mutants T36A and Q34A or corresponding beads with lysosomes, whereas vacuoles with wild-type Dr adhesin showed no fusion. Mutants T31A and Q34A, which were deficient in invasion, appeared to display a reduced capacity for clustering decay-accelerating factor. Our findings suggest that hydrophilic domain II may be involved in cell entry. These data are consistent with the interpretation that in HeLa cells the binding and invasion phenotypes of Dr fimbriae may be separated. PMID:16113333

  1. Core and Panmetabolism in Escherichia coli? †

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Gilles; Sabarly, Victor; Bourguignon, Pierre-Yves; Durot, Maxime; Le Fèvre, François; Mornico, Damien; Vallenet, David; Bouvet, Odile; Denamur, Erick; Schachter, Vincent; Médigue, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli exhibits a wide range of lifestyles encompassing commensalism and various pathogenic behaviors which its highly dynamic genome contributes to develop. How environmental and host factors shape the genetic structure of E. coli strains remains, however, largely unknown. Following a previous study of E. coli genomic diversity, we investigated its diversity at the metabolic level by building and analyzing the genome-scale metabolic networks of 29 E. coli strains (8 commensal and 21 pathogenic strains, including 6 Shigella strains). Using a tailor-made reconstruction strategy, we significantly improved the completeness and accuracy of the metabolic networks over default automatic reconstruction processes. Among the 1,545 reactions forming E. coli panmetabolism, 885 reactions were common to all strains. This high proportion of core reactions (57%) was found to be in sharp contrast to the low proportion (13%) of core genes in the E. coli pangenome, suggesting less diversity of metabolic functions compared to that of all gene functions. Core reactions were significantly overrepresented among biosynthetic reactions compared to the more variable degradation processes. Differences between metabolic networks were found to follow E. coli phylogeny rather than pathogenic phenotypes, except for Shigella networks, which were significantly more distant from the others. This suggests that most metabolic changes in non-Shigella strains were not driven by their pathogenic phenotypes. Using a supervised method, we were yet able to identify small sets of reactions related to pathogenicity or commensalism. The quality of our reconstructed networks also makes them reliable bases for building metabolic models. PMID:21239590

  2. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Lina, Taslima T.; Khajanchi, Bijay K.; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Mahmood, Belal; Akter, Mahmuda; Banik, Atanu; Alim, Rumana; Navarro, Armando; Perez, Gabriel; Cravioto, Alejandro; Talukder, Kaisar A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance to cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae is mainly due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Little is known about ESBL-producing bacteria in Bangladesh. Therefore, the study presents results of phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from hospitals in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 339 E. coli isolated from patients with urinary tract and wound infections attending three different medical hospitals in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh between 2003–2007 were screened for ESBL-production by the double disk diffusion test. Isolates with ESBL-phenotype were further characterized by antibiotic susceptibility testing, PCR and sequencing of different ?-lactamase and virulence genes, serotyping, and XbaI-macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results We identified 40 E. coli with ESBL phenotype. These isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, cefepime, and nalidixic acid but remained susceptible to imipenem. All but one isolate were additionally resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 3 isolates were resistant to cefoxitin. ESBL genes of blaCTX-M-1-group were detected in all isolates; blaTEM-type and blaOXA-1-type genes were detected in 33 (82.5%) and 19 (47.5%) isolates, respectively. Virulence genes that are present in diarrhoeagenic E. coli were not found. Class-1 integron was present in 20 (50%) isolates. All the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates harbored plasmids ranging between 1.1 and 120 MDa. PFGE-typing revealed 26 different pulsotypes, but identical pulsotype showed 6 isolates of serotype O25:H4. Conclusion The prevalence of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli isolates appears to be high and the majority of the isolates were positive for blaCTX-M. Although there was genetic heterogeneity among isolates, presence of a cluster of isolates belonging to serotype O25:H4 indicates dissemination of the pandemic uropathogenic E. coli clone in Bangladesh. PMID:25302491

  3. Molecular analysis of type 3 fimbrial genes from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Citrobacter species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the United States and is caused by a range of uropathogens. Biofilm formation by uropathogens that cause CAUTI is often mediated by cell surface structures such as fimbriae. In this study, we characterised the genes encoding type 3 fimbriae from CAUTI strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter koseri and Citrobacter freundii. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the type 3 fimbrial genes (mrkABCD) from 39 strains revealed they clustered into five distinct clades (A-E) ranging from one to twenty-three members. The majority of sequences grouped in clade A, which was represented by the mrk gene cluster from the genome sequenced K. pneumoniae MGH78578. The E. coli and K. pneumoniae mrkABCD gene sequences clustered together in two distinct clades, supporting previous evidence for the occurrence of inter-genera lateral gene transfer. All of the strains examined caused type 3 fimbriae mediated agglutination of tannic acid treated human erythrocytes despite sequence variation in the mrkD-encoding adhesin gene. Type 3 fimbriae deletion mutants were constructed in 13 representative strains and were used to demonstrate a direct role for type 3 fimbriae in biofilm formation. Conclusions The expression of functional type 3 fimbriae is common to many Gram-negative pathogens that cause CAUTI and is strongly associated with biofilm growth. Our data provides additional evidence for the spread of type 3 fimbrial genes by lateral gene transfer. Further work is now required to substantiate the clade structure reported here by examining more strains as well as other bacterial genera that make type 3 fimbriae and cause CAUTI. PMID:20576143

  4. S-Nitrosylation Signaling in Escherichia coli

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ivan Gusarov (New York University School of Medicine; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology REV)

    2012-06-12

    Most bacteria generate nitric oxide (NO) either aerobically by NO synthases or anaerobically from nitrite. Far from being a mere by-product of nitrate respiration, bacterial NO has diverse physiological roles. Many proteins undergo NO-mediated posttranslational modification (S-nitrosylation) in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli. The regulation of one such protein, OxyR, represents a redox signaling paradigm in which the same transcription factor controls different protective genes depending on its S-nitrosylation versus S-oxidation status. We discuss a structural model that may explain the remarkable stability and specificity of OxyR S-nitrosylation.

  5. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Lestari, Endang Sri; Severin, Juliëtte A.; Kershof, Irma M.; Mertaniasih, Ni Made; Purwanta, Marijam; Hadi, Usman; Johnson, James R.; Verbrugh, Henri A.

    2005-01-01

    In a recent, population-based survey of 3,996 persons in Indonesia, fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli was prevalent in the fecal flora of 6% of patients at hospital admission and 23% of patients at discharge, but not among healthy relatives or patients visiting primary healthcare centers (2%). Molecular typing showed extensive genetic diversity with only limited clonality among isolates. This finding suggests that independent selection of resistant mutants occurs frequently. FQ-resistant isolates exhibited a higher rate of spontaneous mutation, but sparser virulence profiles, than FQ-susceptible isolates from the same population. The resistant isolates belonged predominantly to phylogenetic groups A (57%) and B1 (22%) but also to the moderately virulent group D (20%). Hypervirulent strains from the B2 cluster were underrepresented (1%). Because FQ-resistant E. coli can cause disease, especially nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients, spread of such strains must be stopped. PMID:16229763

  6. Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.

  7. Accumulation of Tetracyclines by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    De Zeeuw, John R.

    1968-01-01

    The net accumulation of tetracyclines by Escherichia coli as a function of concentration was shown to be biphasic. At concentrations less than the bacteriostatic levels, the mode of uptake was not azide-sensitive and was considered to be physical adsorption on the cell surface. At concentrations above the minimal inhibitory level, a second, azide-sensitive, uptake component was functional in addition to the surface adsorption process. This second energy-requiring mode was judged to represent penetration of the cytoplasmic membrane by tetracycline molecules to their sites of inhibitory action. Each mode for a given tetracycline and culture is expressed algebraically by a characteristic Freundlich equation. Resistance in E. coli is shown to be a result of diminished transport of antibiotic. However, this resistance was due not to a reduction or loss of a transport mechanism but rather to a requirement for higher antibiotic concentrations before the second mode of uptake could become operative. PMID:4867743

  8. Engineering the Escherichia coli Fermentative Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orencio-Trejo, M.; Utrilla, J.; Fernández-Sandoval, M. T.; Huerta-Beristain, G.; Gosset, G.; Martinez, A.

    Fermentative metabolism constitutes a fundamental cellular capacity for industrial biocatalysis. Escherichia coli is an important microorganism in the field of metabolic engineering for its well-known molecular characteristics and its rapid growth. It can adapt to different growth conditions and is able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Through the use of metabolic pathway engineering and bioprocessing techniques, it is possible to explore the fundamental cellular properties and to exploit its capacity to be applied as industrial biocatalysts to produce a wide array of chemicals. The objective of this chapter is to review the metabolic engineering efforts carried out with E. coli by manipulating the central carbon metabolism and fermentative pathways to obtain strains that produce metabolites with high titers, such as ethanol, alanine, lactate and succinate.

  9. [DNA supercoiling and topoisomerases in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Eichelmann, M C; Camacho-Carranza, R

    1995-01-01

    The chromosomal DNA of all cells is under helical tension or supercoiling. There are two classes of DNA supercoiling: plectonemic and toroidal. Plectonemic supercoiling is generated by the action of DNA topoisomerases, while toroidal supercoiling is generated by DNA-protein interactions and by topoisomerase activitities. DNA supercoiling plays an important role in replication, repair, recombination, transposition and transcription. DNA topoisomerases type I are ATP-independent enzymes that cut one DNA strand and relax supercoiled molecules. DNA topoisomerases type II requiere ATP, cut both DNA strands and supercoil relaxed molecules. All organisms have more than one topoisomerase of each, type I and type II. Escherichia coli has two topoisomerases type I: topoisomerase I and topoisomerase III and two topoisomerases type II: topoisomerase II or gyrase and topoisomerase IV. In this review we discuss the concept of DNA supercoiling and present current knowledge on E. coli DNA topoisomerases. PMID:8850348

  10. Designed phosphoprotein recognition in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Nicholas; Gassaway, Brandon M; Haimovich, Adrian D; Isaacs, Farren J; Rinehart, Jesse; Regan, Lynne

    2014-11-21

    Protein phosphorylation is a central biological mechanism for cellular adaptation to environmental changes. Dysregulation of phosphorylation signaling is implicated in a wide variety of diseases. Thus, the ability to detect and quantify protein phosphorylation is highly desirable for both diagnostic and research applications. Here we present a general strategy for detecting phosphopeptide-protein interactions in Escherichia coli. We first redesign a model tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein to recognize phosphoserine in a sequence-specific fashion and characterize the interaction with its target phosphopeptide in vitro. We then combine in vivo site-specific incorporation of phosphoserine with split mCherry assembly to observe the designed phosphopeptide-protein interaction specificity in E. coli. This in vivo strategy for detecting and characterizing phosphopeptide-protein interactions has numerous potential applications for the study of natural interactions and the design of novel ones. PMID:25272187

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain BL21

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Lee, Sang Jun

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli strain BL21 is one of the widely used bacterial hosts for high-level recombinant protein production and for other applications. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a commercial version of the Escherichia coli BL21 strain. PMID:25792055

  12. Escherichia coli antibodies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Tabaqchali; D P ODonoghue; K A Bettelheim

    1978-01-01

    Sera from 30 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (16 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 14 with ulcerative colitis (UC) were assayed for the presence of antibodies against 159 Escherichia coli O-antigens and compared with sera from 16 matched control subjects. The majority of patients with IBD had agglutinating antibodies to a higher number of Escherichia coli O-antigens and in

  13. Chemical Organizations in the Central Sugar Metabolism of Escherichia Coli

    E-print Network

    Dittrich, Peter

    1 Chemical Organizations in the Central Sugar Metabolism of Escherichia Coli Florian Centler represent po- tential steady state compositions of the system. When applied to a model of sugar metabolism, network analysis, stoichiometry, systems biology, sugar metabolism, Escherichia coli 1.1 Introduction

  14. Engineering Escherichia coli for methanol conversion.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jonas E N; Meyer, Fabian; Litsanov, Boris; Kiefer, Patrick; Potthoff, Eva; Heux, Stéphanie; Quax, Wim J; Wendisch, Volker F; Brautaset, Trygve; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vorholt, Julia A

    2015-03-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria utilize methanol and other reduced one-carbon compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. For this purpose, these bacteria evolved a number of specialized enzymes and pathways. Here, we used a synthetic biology approach to select and introduce a set of "methylotrophy genes" into Escherichia coli based on in silico considerations and flux balance analysis to enable methanol dissimilation and assimilation. We determined that the most promising approach allowing the utilization of methanol was the implementation of NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase and the establishment of the ribulose monophosphate cycle by expressing the genes for hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (Hps) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (Phi). To test for the best-performing enzymes in the heterologous host, a number of enzyme candidates from different donor organisms were selected and systematically analyzed for their in vitro and in vivo activities in E. coli. Among these, Mdh2, Hps and Phi originating from Bacillus methanolicus were found to be the most effective. Labeling experiments using (13)C methanol with E. coli producing these enzymes showed up to 40% incorporation of methanol into central metabolites. The presence of the endogenous glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation pathway of E. coli did not adversely affect the methanol conversion rate. Taken together, the results of this study represent a major advancement towards establishing synthetic methylotrophs by gene transfer. PMID:25596507

  15. Comparison of Escherichia coli isolates implicated in human urinary tract infection and avian colibacillosis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Siek, Kylie E; Giddings, Catherine W; Doetkott, Curt; Johnson, Timothy J; Fakhr, Mohamed K; Nolan, Lisa K

    2005-06-01

    Since avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) and human uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) may encounter similar challenges when establishing infection in extraintestinal locations, they may share a similar content of virulence genes and capacity to cause disease. In the present study, 524 APEC and 200 UPEC isolates were compared by their content of virulence genes, phylogenetic group, and other traits. The two groups showed substantial overlap in terms of their serogroups, phylogenetic groups and virulence genotypes, including their possession of certain genes associated with large transmissible plasmids of APEC. Based on these results, the propensity of both groups to cause extraintestinal infections, and a well-documented ability of avian E. coli to spread to human beings, the potential for APEC to act as human UPEC or as a reservoir of virulence genes for UPEC should be considered. However, significant differences in the prevalence of the traits occurred across the two groups, suggesting that if APEC are involved in human urinary tract infections, they are not involved in all of them. PMID:15942016

  16. Inhibition of quorum sensing mediated biofilm development and virulence in uropathogens by Hyptis suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Salini, Ramesh; Sindhulakshmi, Muthukrishnan; Poongothai, Thirumaran; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common nosocomial infections, accounting for about 40 % of all hospital-acquired infections. The bacterial spectrum of nosocomial UTIs is broad and the treatment of UTIs is becoming difficult owing to the emergence of drug resistance. Therefore, it is reasonable to investigate novel and alternative therapeutic strategies to treat UTIs. Since UTIs are caused by uropathogens with quorum sensing (QS)-dependent biofilm forming abilities, interruption of QS systems may be a novel approach to combat drug resistance. In the present study, a methanol extract (and hexane extract derived from it) of the medicinal plant Hyptis suaveolens (L.) were shown to have anti-QS activity against the biosensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12472). Furthermore, the hexane extract of H. suaveolens (HEHS) inhibited biofilm formation by uropathogens such as Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. HEHS promotes the loosening of biofilm architecture and strongly inhibits in vitro biofilm formation by uropathogens, which was more apparent from microscopic images. In addition to this, HEHS reduces the production of QS-dependent virulence factors like protease and hemolysin, along with motility. The partial purification and GC-MS analysis of the active fraction revealed the presence of several therapeutically important compounds which may synergistically act on the uropathogens and possibly reduce the QS-dependent phenotypes. These findings suggest HEHS as potential phytotherapeutic agent which can be employed to formulate protective strategies against biofilm linked infections caused by uropathogens. PMID:25656290

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of NDM-5-Producing Escherichia coli Sequence Type 648 and Genetic Context of blaNDM-5 in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wailan, Alexander M; Paterson, David L; Caffery, Michael; Sowden, David; Sidjabat, Hanna E

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli sequence type 648 (ST648) possessing blaNDM-5 from a 55-year-old female in Australia with a history of travel to India. The plasmid-mediated blaNDM-5 was in a genetic context nearly identical to that of the GenBank entry of an IncX3 blaNDM-5 plasmid previously reported from India (Klebsiella pneumoniae MGR-K194). PMID:25858833

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of NDM-5-Producing Escherichia coli Sequence Type 648 and Genetic Context of blaNDM-5 in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wailan, Alexander M.; Paterson, David L.; Caffery, Michael; Sowden, David

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli sequence type 648 (ST648) possessing blaNDM-5 from a 55-year-old female in Australia with a history of travel to India. The plasmid-mediated blaNDM-5 was in a genetic context nearly identical to that of the GenBank entry of an IncX3 blaNDM-5 plasmid previously reported from India (Klebsiella pneumoniae MGR-K194). PMID:25858833

  19. Prevalence and risk factor analysis of resistant Escherichia coli urinary tract infections in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Abby M.; Weant, Kyle A.; Baker, Stephanie N.

    Background Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a frequent uropathogen in urinary tract infections (UTI). Widespread resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) and increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones amongst these isolates has been recognized. There are limited data demonstrating risk factors for resistance to both SMX-TMP and fluoroquinolones. Objective This study was conducted to assess for the prevalence of community resistance amongst E. coli isolates to SMX-TMP and levofloxacin in ambulatory patients discharged from the emergency department (ED). Methods Adults presenting for evaluation and discharged from the ED with a diagnosis of an E. coli UTI were retrospectively reviewed. Utilizing demographic and clinical data the prevalence of E. coli resistance and risk factors associated with SMX-TMP- and fluoroquinolone-resistant infection were determined. Results Among the 222 patients, the mean rates of E. coli susceptibility to levofloxacin and SMX-TMP were 82.4% and 72.5%, respectively. Significant risk factors for resistance to SMX-TMP included prior antibiotic use (p=0.04) and prior diagnosis of UTI (p= 0.01). Significant risk factors for resistance to levofloxacin included: male gender, age, presence of hypertension, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, nursing home resident, previous antibiotic use, previous diagnosis of UTI, existence of renal or genitourinary abnormalities, and prior surgical procedures (p <0.05 for all comparisons). The number of hospital days prior to initial ED evaluation (p<0.001) was determined to be a predictive factor in hospital and ED readmission. Conclusions These results suggest that conventional approaches to monitoring for patterns of susceptibility may be inadequate. It is imperative that practitioners develop novel approaches to identifying patients with risk factors for resistance. Identification of risk factors from this evaluation should prompt providers to scrutinize the use of these agents in the setting of patients presenting with an uncomplicated UTI in the ED. PMID:24155856

  20. Production of glycoprotein vaccines in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Conjugate vaccines in which polysaccharide antigens are covalently linked to carrier proteins belong to the most effective and safest vaccines against bacterial pathogens. State-of-the art production of conjugate vaccines using chemical methods is a laborious, multi-step process. In vivo enzymatic coupling using the general glycosylation pathway of Campylobacter jejuni in recombinant Escherichia coli has been suggested as a simpler method for producing conjugate vaccines. In this study we describe the in vivo biosynthesis of two novel conjugate vaccine candidates against Shigella dysenteriae type 1, an important bacterial pathogen causing severe gastro-intestinal disease states mainly in developing countries. Results Two different periplasmic carrier proteins, AcrA from C. jejuni and a toxoid form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin were glycosylated with Shigella O antigens in E. coli. Starting from shake flask cultivation in standard complex medium a lab-scale fed-batch process was developed for glycoconjugate production. It was found that efficiency of glycosylation but not carrier protein expression was highly susceptible to the physiological state at induction. After induction glycoconjugates generally appeared later than unglycosylated carrier protein, suggesting that glycosylation was the rate-limiting step for synthesis of conjugate vaccines in E. coli. Glycoconjugate synthesis, in particular expression of oligosaccharyltransferase PglB, strongly inhibited growth of E. coli cells after induction, making it necessary to separate biomass growth and recombinant protein expression phases. With a simple pulse and linear feed strategy and the use of semi-defined glycerol medium, volumetric glycoconjugate yield was increased 30 to 50-fold. Conclusions The presented data demonstrate that glycosylated proteins can be produced in recombinant E. coli at a larger scale. The described methodologies constitute an important step towards cost-effective in vivo production of conjugate vaccines, which in future may be used for combating severe infectious diseases, particularly in developing countries. PMID:20701771

  1. Sources of Escherichia coli in a Coastal Subtropical Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HELENA M. SOLO-GABRIELE; MELINDA A. WOLFERT; TIMOTHY R. DESMARAIS; CAROL J. PALMER

    2000-01-01

    Sources of Escherichia coli in a coastal waterway located in Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., were evaluated. The study consisted of an extensive program of field measurements designed to capture spatial and temporal variations in E. coli concentrations as well as experiments conducted under laboratory-controlled conditions. E. coli from environmental samples was enumerated by using a defined substrate technology (Colilert-18). Field sampling

  2. Phylogenetic Analysis of Enteroaggregative and Diffusely Adherent Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN R. CZECZULIN; THOMAS S. WHITTAM; IAN R. HENDERSON; FERNANDO NAVARRO-GARCIA; JAMES P. NATARO

    1999-01-01

    The phylogenetics of the various pathotypes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli are not completely understood. In this study, we identified several plasmid and chromosomal genes in the pathogenic enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) prototype strain 042 and determined the prevalence of these loci among EAEC and diffusely adherent E. coli strains. The distribution of these genes is analyzed within an evolutionary framework

  3. Review article Secretion of virulence factors by Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Secretion of virulence factors by Escherichia coli Bernard China* Fréderic Goffaux with their host, pathogenic strains of E. coli need to secrete some virulence factors which can modify the metabolism of host cells, contributing to disease. Since E. coli is a Gram-negative bacteria, this secretion

  4. Engineering a Reduced Escherichia coli Genome

    PubMed Central

    Kolisnychenko, Vitaliy; Plunkett, Guy; Herring, Christopher D.; Fehér, Tamás; Pósfai, János; Blattner, Frederick R.; Pósfai, György

    2002-01-01

    Our goal is to construct an improved Escherichia coli to serve both as a better model organism and as a more useful technological tool for genome science. We developed techniques for precise genomic surgery and applied them to deleting the largest K-islands of E. coli, identified by comparative genomics as recent horizontal acquisitions to the genome. They are loaded with cryptic prophages, transposons, damaged genes, and genes of unknown function. Our method leaves no scars or markers behind and can be applied sequentially. Twelve K-islands were successfully deleted, resulting in an 8.1% reduced genome size, a 9.3% reduction of gene count, and elimination of 24 of the 44 transposable elements of E. coli. These are particularly detrimental because they can mutagenize the genome or transpose into clones being propagated for sequencing, as happened in 18 places of the draft human genome sequence. We found no change in the growth rate on minimal medium, confirming the nonessential nature of these islands. This demonstration of feasibility opens the way for constructing a maximally reduced strain, which will provide a clean background for functional genomics studies, a more efficient background for use in biotechnology applications, and a unique tool for studies of genome stability and evolution. [Sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the DNA Data Bank of Japan, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, and GenBank databases under accession nos. AF402780, AF402779, and AF406953, respectively.] PMID:11932248

  5. Comparison of 61 sequenced Escherichia coli genomes.

    PubMed

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David W

    2010-11-01

    Escherichia coli is an important component of the biosphere and is an ideal model for studies of processes involved in bacterial genome evolution. Sixty-one publically available E. coli and Shigella spp. sequenced genomes are compared, using basic methods to produce phylogenetic and proteomics trees, and to identify the pan- and core genomes of this set of sequenced strains. A hierarchical clustering of variable genes allowed clear separation of the strains into clusters, including known pathotypes; clinically relevant serotypes can also be resolved in this way. In contrast, when in silico MLST was performed, many of the various strains appear jumbled and less well resolved. The predicted pan-genome comprises 15,741 gene families, and only 993 (6%) of the families are represented in every genome, comprising the core genome. The variable or 'accessory' genes thus make up more than 90% of the pan-genome and about 80% of a typical genome; some of these variable genes tend to be co-localized on genomic islands. The diversity within the species E. coli, and the overlap in gene content between this and related species, suggests a continuum rather than sharp species borders in this group of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:20623278

  6. Comparison of 61 Sequenced Escherichia coli Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Wassenaar, Trudy M.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli is an important component of the biosphere and is an ideal model for studies of processes involved in bacterial genome evolution. Sixty-one publically available E. coli and Shigella spp. sequenced genomes are compared, using basic methods to produce phylogenetic and proteomics trees, and to identify the pan- and core genomes of this set of sequenced strains. A hierarchical clustering of variable genes allowed clear separation of the strains into clusters, including known pathotypes; clinically relevant serotypes can also be resolved in this way. In contrast, when in silico MLST was performed, many of the various strains appear jumbled and less well resolved. The predicted pan-genome comprises 15,741 gene families, and only 993 (6%) of the families are represented in every genome, comprising the core genome. The variable or ‘accessory’ genes thus make up more than 90% of the pan-genome and about 80% of a typical genome; some of these variable genes tend to be co-localized on genomic islands. The diversity within the species E. coli, and the overlap in gene content between this and related species, suggests a continuum rather than sharp species borders in this group of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:20623278

  7. STUDIES ON THE LACTASE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    Knopfmacher, H P; Salle, A J

    1941-01-20

    A "lactase solution" was prepared from Escherichia coli. The mechanism of its action has been studied and changes in the rate of hydrolysis under various conditions investigated. The hydrolysis of lactose by the enzyme approximates the course of reaction of the integrated Michaelis-Menten equation. One molecule of enzyme combines with one molecule of substrate. E. coli lactase is readily inactivated at pH 5.0, and its optimal activity at 36 degrees C. is reached between pH 7.0 and pH 7.5. The optimal temperature for its action was found to be 46 degrees C. when determinations were carried out after an incubation period of 30 minutes. Its inactivation by heat follows the course of a first order reaction, and the critical thermal increment between the temperatures of 45 degrees C. and 53 degrees C. was calculated to be 56,400 calories per mol. The enzyme is activated by potassium cyanide, sodium sulfide, and cysteine, and irreversibly inactivated by mercuric chloride, silver nitrate, and iodine. After inactivation with copper sulfate partial reactivation is possible, while the slight inhibition brought about by hydrogen peroxide is completely reversible. The possible structure of the active groups of E. coli lactase as compared with other enzymes has been discussed. PMID:19873223

  8. Guanylate kinase of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Gentry, D; Bengra, C; Ikehara, K; Cashel, M

    1993-07-01

    We have identified the gene gmk, in the same operon as rpoZ, spoT, and recG at about 82 minutes on the Escherichia coli chromosome. The gmk (GMP kinase) gene encodes a peptide of 23,592 Da, possessing extensive similarity to the amino acid sequence of guanylate kinase from yeast. To confirm that gmk truly encodes guanylate kinase and to explore some of its enzymatic features, we have overproduced the product of gmk and purified it to homogeneity. Unlike guanylate kinases purified from eukaryotic sources, E. coli guanylate kinase is multimeric, and ionic conditions dictate its protomeric state; under low ionic conditions it appears to be a tetramer while under high ionic conditions it is a dimer. Kinetic analysis reveals that guanylate kinase, again, unlike eukaryotic guanylate kinases, binds GMP cooperatively and that the observed cooperatively changes with ionic strength. These results indicate that, despite extensive sequence similarity to its eukaryotic counterparts, E. coli guanylate kinase is structurally and enzymatically different. PMID:8390989

  9. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates

    E-print Network

    Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of medium published online 12 August 2002 Abstract The Escherichia coli fabGEc gene and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhl protein reductase; Escherichia coli FabG; Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlG; Escherichia coli 1. Introduction

  10. Phylogenetic grouping and pathotypic comparison of urine and fecal Escherichia coli isolates from children with urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Navidinia, Masoumeh; Peerayeh, Shahin Najar; Fallah, Fatemeh; Bakhshi, Bita; Sajadinia, Raheleh Sadat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic background and to assess hlyD (involved in the secretion of haemolysin A) and intI1 (encoding a class 1 integrase) in Escherichia coli isolates derived from urinary and fecal specimens. A total of 200 E. coli isolates was collected from patients presenting with urinary tract infection (UTI) during September 2009 to September 2010 and screened for hlyD and intI1 genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis showed that E. coli is composed of four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) and that uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates mainly belong to groups B2 (54%) and D (34%) whereas group A (44%) and D (26%) are predominant among commensal E. coli isolates. In this study, hlyD was present in 26% of UPEC and 2% of commensal E. coli isolates. However, hemolytic activity was detected for 42% of UPEC and 6% of commensal E. coli isolates (p < 0.05). intI1 gene was more frequently expressed in UPEC (24%) in comparison with commensal E. coli isolates (12%). Resistance to aztreonam, co-trimoxazole and cefpodoxime were frequently found among UPEC isolates whereas commensal E. coli isolates were commonly resistant to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid and cefotaxime. Concluding, a considerable difference between UPEC and commensal E. coli isolates was observed regarding their phylogenetic groups, presence of class 1 integron and hlyD gene, hemolysin activity and resistance pattern. The detection of class 1 integrons and hlyD gene was higher among UPEC compared with commensal E. coli isolates. These findings may contribute for a better understanding of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of UPEC. PMID:25242935

  11. Structural Sampling of Glycan Interaction Profiles Reveals Mucosal Receptors for Fimbrial Adhesins of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lonardi, Emanuela; Moonens, Kristof; Buts, Lieven; de Boer, Arjen R.; Olsson, Johan D. M.; Weiss, Manfred S.; Fabre, Emeline; Guérardel, Yann; Deelder, André M.; Oscarson, Stefan; Wuhrer, Manfred; Bouckaert, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Fimbriae are long, proteinaceous adhesion organelles expressed on the bacterial envelope, evolutionarily adapted by Escherichia coli strains for the colonization of epithelial linings. Using glycan arrays of the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG), the lectin domains were screened of the fimbrial adhesins F17G and FedF from enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and of the FimH adhesin from uropathogenic E. coli. This has led to the discovery of a more specific receptor for F17G, GlcNAc?1,3Gal. No significant differences emerged from the glycan binding profiles of the F17G lectin domains from five different E. coli strains. However, strain-dependent amino acid variations, predominantly towards the positively charged arginine, were indicated by sulfate binding in FedF and F17G crystal structures. For FedF, no significant binders could be observed on the CFG glycan array. Hence, a shotgun array was generated from microvilli scrapings of the distal jejunum of a 3-week old piglet about to be weaned. On this array, the blood group A type 1 hexasaccharide emerged as a receptor for the FedF lectin domain and remarkably also for F18-fimbriated E. coli. F17G was found to selectively recognize glycan species with a terminal GlcNAc, typifying intestinal mucins. In conclusion, F17G and FedF recognize long glycan sequences that could only be identified using the shotgun approach. Interestingly, ETEC strains display a large capacity to adapt their fimbrial adhesins to ecological niches via charge-driven interactions, congruent with binding to thick mucosal surfaces displaying an acidic gradient along the intestinal tract. PMID:24833052

  12. Pathogenic Escherichia coli strain discrimination using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Rehse, Steven J.

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli strain discrimination using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy A pathogenic strain of bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic E. coli or EHEC , has been analyzed with both nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses to identify the Escherichia coli bacterium.10­12 E. coli

  13. Dispensability of Escherichia coli's latent pathways

    E-print Network

    Cornelius, Sean P; Motter, Adilson E; 10.1073/pnas.1009772108

    2011-01-01

    Gene-knockout experiments on single-cell organisms have established that expression of a substantial fraction of genes is not needed for optimal growth. This problem acquired a new dimension with the recent discovery that environmental and genetic perturbations of the bacterium Escherichia coli are followed by the temporary activation of a large number of latent metabolic pathways, which suggests the hypothesis that temporarily activated reactions impact growth and hence facilitate adaptation in the presence of perturbations. Here we test this hypothesis computationally and find, surprisingly, that the availability of latent pathways consistently offers no growth advantage, and tends in fact to inhibit growth after genetic perturbations. This is shown to be true even for latent pathways with a known function in alternate conditions, thus extending the significance of this adverse effect beyond apparently nonessential genes. These findings raise the possibility that latent pathway activation is in fact derivat...

  14. Evolution of transcription factors and the gene regulatory network in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Babu, M. Madan

    Evolution of transcription factors and the gene regulatory network in Escherichia coli M. Madan Escherichia coli. In order to gain insight into the evolution of the E.coli regula- tory network, we analysed

  15. Nucleotide excision repair in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, B

    1990-01-01

    One of the best-studied DNA repair pathways is nucleotide excision repair, a process consisting of DNA damage recognition, incision, excision, repair resynthesis, and DNA ligation. Escherichia coli has served as a model organism for the study of this process. Recently, many of the proteins that mediate E. coli nucleotide excision have been purified to homogeneity; this had led to a molecular description of this repair pathway. One of the key repair enzymes of this pathway is the UvrABC nuclease complex. The individual subunits of this enzyme cooperate in a complex series of partial reactions to bind to and incise the DNA near a damaged nucleotide. The UvrABC complex displays a remarkable substrate diversity. Defining the structural features of DNA lesions that provide the specificity for damage recognition by the UvrABC complex is of great importance, since it represents a unique form of protein-DNA interaction. Using a number of in vitro assays, researchers have been able to elucidate the action mechanism of the UvrABC nuclease complex. Current research is devoted to understanding how these complex events are mediated within the living cell. PMID:2181258

  16. Biosynthesis of ethylene glycol in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaiwei; Ramos, Kristine Rose M; Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Nisola, Grace M; Lee, Won-Keun; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2013-04-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is an important platform chemical with steadily expanding global demand. Its commercial production is currently limited to fossil resources; no biosynthesis route has been delineated. Herein, a biosynthesis route for EG production from D-xylose is reported. This route consists of four steps: D-xylose???D-xylonate???2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate???glycoaldehyde???EG. Respective enzymes, D-xylose dehydrogenase, D-xylonate dehydratase, 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate aldolase, and glycoaldehyde reductase, were assembled. The route was implemented in a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli, in which the D-xylose???D-xylulose reaction was prevented by disrupting the D-xylose isomerase gene. The most efficient construct produced 11.7 g?L(-1) of EG from 40.0 g?L(-1) of D-xylose. Glycolate is a carbon-competing by-product during EG production in E. coli; blockage of glycoaldehyde???glycolate reaction was also performed by disrupting the gene encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase, but from this approach, EG productivity was not improved but rather led to D-xylonate accumulation. To channel more carbon flux towards EG than the glycolate pathway, further systematic metabolic engineering and fermentation optimization studies are still required to improve EG productivity. PMID:23233208

  17. Chemotaxis Toward Sugars in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Julius; Hazelbauer, Gerald L.; Dahl, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Using a quantitative assay for measuring chemotaxis, we tested a variety of sugars and sugar derivatives for their ability to attract Escherichia coli bacteria. The most effective attractants, i.e., those that have thresholds near 10?5 M or below, are N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, 6-deoxy-d-glucose, d-fructose, d-fucose, 1-d-glycerol-?-d-galactoside, galactitol, d-galactose, d-glucosamine, d-glucose, ?-d-glucose-1-phosphate, lactose, maltose, d-mannitol, d-mannose, methyl-?-d-galactoside, methyl-?-d-glucoside, d-ribose, d-sorbitol, and trehalose. Lactose, and probably d-glucose-1-phosphate, are attractive only after conversion to the free monosaccharide, while the other attractants do not require breakdown for taxis. Nine different chemoreceptors are involved in detecting these various attractants. They are called the N-acetyl-glucosamine, fructose, galactose, glucose, maltose, mannitol, ribose, sorbitol, and trehalose chemoreceptors; the specificity of each was studied. The chemoreceptors, with the exception of the one for d-glucose, are inducible. The galactose-binding protein serves as the recognition component of the galactose chemoreceptor. E. coli also has osmotically shockable binding activities for maltose and d-ribose, and these appear to serve as the recognition components for the corresponding chemoreceptors. PMID:4580570

  18. Induction of radioresistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, E C; Achey, P M

    1975-01-01

    The effect of prior treatment by inducing agents on the radioresistance of cells of Escherichia coli has been studied. In order to separate the induction process from the radiation-damage process, cells were first treated with inducing agents such as ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation, or nalidixic acid, allowed to become induced by incubation for 50 min and then given rifampin to prevent further induction. They were then tested for radiation sensitivity. It was found that all strains tested except recA-, lex-, and recB showed very apparent protection. Induction by UV had the most effect and by nalidixic acid the least. The time course of development of protection was observed in one case: it is 50% established in 15 min. The absence of effect in recA- and lex- is explainable by the fact that these cells cannot be induced, for example, for prophage or the inducible inhibitor of post-irradiation DNA degradation. We suggest that the inducible inhibitor of postirradiation DNA degradation is one factor in a recovery system possessed by E. coli cells. PMID:1103984

  19. Independence of replisomes in Escherichia coli chromosomalreplication

    SciTech Connect

    Breier, Adam M.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R.

    2005-03-13

    In Escherichia coli DNA replication is carried out by the coordinated action of the proteins within a replisome. After replication initiation, the two bidirectionally oriented replisomes from a single origin are colocalized into higher-order structures termed replication factories. The factory model postulated that the two replisomes are also functionally coupled. We tested this hypothesis by using DNA combing and whole-genome microarrays. Nascent DNA surrounding oriC in single, combed chromosomes showed instead that one replisome, usually the leftward one, was significantly ahead of the other 70% of the time. We next used microarrays to follow replication throughout the genome by measuring DNA copy number. We found in multiple E. coli strains that the replisomes are independent, with the leftward replisome ahead of the rightward one. The size of the bias was strain-specific, varying from 50 to 130 kb in the array results. When we artificially blocked one replisome, the other continued unabated, again demonstrating independence. We suggest an improved version of the factory model that retains the advantages of threading DNA through colocalized replisomes at about equal rates, but allows the cell flexibility to overcome obstacles encountered during elongation.

  20. Surface Expression of ?-Transaminase in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, Martin; Muraleedharan, Madhu Nair

    2014-01-01

    Chiral amines are important for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, and there is rapidly growing interest to use transaminases for their synthesis. Since the cost of the enzyme is an important factor for process economy, the use of whole-cell biocatalysts is attractive, since expensive purification and immobilization steps can be avoided. Display of the protein on the cell surface provides a possible way to reduce the mass transfer limitations of such biocatalysts. However, transaminases need to dimerize in order to become active, and furthermore, they require the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate; consequently, successful transaminase surface expression has not been reported thus far. In this work, we produced an Arthrobacter citreus ?-transaminase in Escherichia coli using a surface display vector based on the autotransporter adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA-I), which has previously been used for display of dimeric proteins. The correct localization of the transaminase in the E. coli outer membrane and its orientation toward the cell exterior were verified. Furthermore, transaminase activity was detected exclusively in the outer membrane protein fraction, showing that successful dimerization had occurred. The transaminase was found to be present in both full-length and proteolytically degraded forms. The removal of this proteolysis is considered to be the main obstacle to achieving sufficient whole-cell transaminase activity. PMID:24487538

  1. The extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Upadhyaya, Bimal Babu; Fritz, Joëlle V; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Desai, Mahesh S; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Huang, David; Baumuratov, Aidos; Wang, Kai; Galas, David; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but they also play roles in inter-kingdom exchanges and pathogenicity. To date, released products, such as small molecules, DNA, peptides, and proteins, have been well studied in bacteria. However, the bacterial extracellular RNA complement has so far not been comprehensively characterized. Here, we have analyzed, using a combination of physical characterization and high-throughput sequencing, the extracellular RNA complement of both outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-associated and OMV-free RNA of the enteric Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655 and have compared it to its intracellular RNA complement. Our results demonstrate that a large part of the extracellular RNA complement is in the size range between 15 and 40 nucleotides and is derived from specific intracellular RNAs. Furthermore, RNA is associated with OMVs and the relative abundances of RNA biotypes in the intracellular, OMV and OMV-free fractions are distinct. Apart from rRNA fragments, a significant portion of the extracellular RNA complement is composed of specific cleavage products of functionally important structural noncoding RNAs, including tRNAs, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA, and tmRNA. In addition, the extracellular RNA pool includes RNA biotypes from cryptic prophages, intergenic, and coding regions, of which some are so far uncharacterised, for example, transcripts mapping to the fimA-fimL and ves-spy intergenic regions. Our study provides the first detailed characterization of the extracellular RNA complement of the enteric model bacterium E. coli. Analogous to findings in eukaryotes, our results suggest the selective export of specific RNA biotypes by E. coli, which in turn indicates a potential role for extracellular bacterial RNAs in intercellular communication. PMID:25611733

  2. Emergence of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Outpatient Urinary Escherichia coli Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke Johnson; Allison Sabel; William J. Burman; Rachel M. Everhart; Marcie Rome; Thomas D. MacKenzie; Jeanne Rozwadowski; Philip S. Mehler; Connie Savor Price

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundBecause of high rates of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance in Escherichia coli, Denver Health switched to levofloxacin as the initial therapy for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 1999. We evaluated the effects of that switch 6 years later.

  3. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  4. Escherichia coli in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases: An update on adherent invasive Escherichia coli pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Garcia-Gil, Librado Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli), and particularly the adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) pathotype, has been increasingly implicated in the ethiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). E. coli strains with similar pathogenic features to AIEC have been associated with other intestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer, and coeliac disease, but AIEC prevalence in these diseases remains largely unexplored. Since AIEC was described one decade ago, substantial progress has been made in deciphering its mechanisms of pathogenicity. However, the molecular bases that characterize the phenotypic properties of this pathotype are still not well resolved. A review of studies focused on E. coli populations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is presented here and we discuss about the putative role of this species on each IBD subtype. Given the relevance of AIEC in CD pathogenesis, we present the latest research findings concerning AIEC host-microbe interactions and pathogenicity. We also review the existing data regarding the prevalence and abundance of AIEC in CD and its association with other intestinal diseases from humans and animals, in order to discuss the AIEC disease- and host-specificity. Finally, we highlight the fact that dietary components frequently found in industrialized countries may enhance AIEC colonization in the gut, which merits further investigation and the implementation of preventative measures. PMID:25133024

  5. Infected hepatic Echinococcus cyst presenting as recurrent Escherichia coli empyema.

    PubMed

    Chang, R; Higgins, M; DiLisio, R; Hawasli, A; Camaro, L G; Khatib, R

    1993-03-01

    An 81-year-old man, previously a shepherd in Italy, presented with recurrent Escherichia coli empyema over an 8-month period. His empyema was caused by an infected, nonviable hepatic Echinococcus cyst that eroded the diaphragm and led to intermittent spillage and pleural seeding. This case demonstrates that when dealing with Escherichia coli empyema, a subdiaphragmatic source ought to be suspected, and among immigrants from areas with prevalent hydatid disease, infected hepatic Echinococcus cyst might rarely be the cause. PMID:8452451

  6. RAPID GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASE ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid test procedure for the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase was developed for the detection of Escherichia coli. he assay procedure was able to confirm the presence of E. coli in enteric broth cultures with a 95 percent specificity for both pure cultures and environmental sampl...

  7. Genetic engineering of ethanol production in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. O. Ingram; T. Conway; D. P. Clark; G. W. Sewell; J. F. Preston

    1987-01-01

    The genes encoding essential enzymes of the fermentative pathway for ethanol production in Zymomonas mobilis, an obligately ethanologenic bacterium, were inserted into Escherichia coli under the control of a common promoter. Alcohol dehydrogenase II and pyruvate decarboxylase from Z. mobilis were expressed at high levels in E. coli, resulting in increased cell growth and the production of ethanol as the

  8. Relationship among fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in various foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilal B. Do?an-Halkman; ?brahim Çak?r; Fikret Keven; Randy W. Worobo; A. Kadir Halkman

    2003-01-01

    For much of the twentieth century, coliform bacteria and especially Escherichia coli have been used as indicators of possible post-processing contamination and the presence of E. coli as an indicator of fecal contamination in foods. In this study, 500 foods in 10 different groups, mainly dairy products, delicatessen products, salads, spices, cream cakes and fresh fruit and vegetable samples, were

  9. Detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in chicken rinse carcasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Asensi; E. M. F. dos Reis; E. M. Del Aguila; D. dos P. Rodrigues; J. T. Silva; V. M. F. Paschoalin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to optimize a multiplex PCR in order to detect the incidence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in chicken carcasses, eliminating a pre-culture enrichment step and the pathogen isolation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 30 chicken rinse carcasses were analysed by standard microbiological methods, and the isolates were identified by biochemical and serological tests.

  10. ESCHERICHIA COLI O ANTIGEN TYPING USING DNA MICROARRAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA microarrays were developed for rapid identification of different serogroups of Escherichia coli in a single platform. Oligonucleotides, as well as PCR products from genes in the O-antigen gene clusters of E. coli serogroups O7, O104, O111, and O157 were spotted onto glass slides. This was foll...

  11. Repair System for Noncanonical Purines in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas E. Burgis; Jason J. Brucker; Richard P. Cunningham

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of Escherichia coli strains deficient in molybdopterin biosynthesis (moa) to the purine base N-6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP) is mutagenic and toxic. We show that moa mutants exposed to HAP also exhibit elevated mutagenesis, a hyperrecombination phenotype, and increased SOS induction. The E. coli rdgB gene encodes a protein homologous to a deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate pyrophosphatase from Methanococ- cus jannaschii that shows a

  12. Transport of multiple Escherichia coli strains in saturated porous media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lutterodt

    2012-01-01

    The deviation of bacteria transport and deposition patterns on grains in porous media from theory has resulted in the inability to accurately predict transport distances in aquifers, with consequences of polluting drinking water sources (springs, boreholes and wells). Due to the importance of Escherichia coli (E. coli) as an indicator of faecal contamination of drinking water supplies, this thesis research

  13. DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 USING IMMUNO BEADS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new fluorescent sandwich method for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was developed. Streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and fluorescence beads were used to react with biotinylated anti E. coli O157 antibodies to form the immuno magnetic beads (IMB) and immuno fluorescence beads (IFB), resp...

  14. Curli Fibers Mediate Internalization of Escherichia coli by Eukaryotic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Gophna; M. Barlev; R. Seijffers; T. A. Oelschlager; J. Hacker; E. Z. Ron

    2001-01-01

    Curli fibers are adhesive surface fibers expressed by Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica that bind several host extracellular matrix and contact phase proteins and were assumed to have a role in pathogenesis. The results presented here suggest that one such role is internalization into host cells. An E. coli K-12 strain transformed with a low-copy vector containing the gene cluster

  15. Escherichia coli Response to Exogenous Pyrophosphate and Analogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Biville; Taku Oshima; Hirotada Mori; Yuya Kawagoe; Odile Bouvet; Marie-Noëlle Rager; Marina Perrotte-Piquemal; Antoine Danchin

    2003-01-01

    The addition of exogenous pyrophosphate increases the growth yield and cAMP synthesis in stationary phase when Escherichia coli is grown in minimal medium. Pyrophosphate increases the yield by altering the enterobactin uptake system. We studied the physiological effects and examined how the E. coli transcriptome was modified when two structural analogs of pyrophosphate were added to the growth medium. Methylenediphosphonic

  16. Metabolomic and transcriptomic stress response of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Szymon Jozefczuk; Sebastian Klie; Gareth Catchpole; Jedrzej Szymanski; Alvaro Cuadros-Inostroza; Dirk Steinhauser; Joachim Selbig; Lothar Willmitzer

    2010-01-01

    Environmental fluctuations lead to a rapid adjustment of the physiology of Escherichia coli, necessitating changes on every level of the underlying cellular and molecular network. Thus far, the majority of global analyses of E. coli stress responses have been limited to just one level, gene expression. Here, we incorporate the metabolite composition together with gene expression data to provide a

  17. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli in tropical seafood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Kumar; A. Parvathi; I. Karunasagar

    2005-01-01

    Summary The occurrence and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli in tropical seafood was studied. A 3-tube MPN method was used for determining the level of faecal contamination of fresh and processed seafood. Of the 188 samples tested which included finfish, shellfish, water and ice, 155 were positive for the presence of faecal coliforms following incubation at 44.5 °C. However, E. coli

  18. Mutual Enhancement of Virulence by Enterotoxigenic and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. Crane; Shilpa S. Choudhari; Tonniele M. Naeher; Michael E. Duffey

    2006-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are common causes of diar- rhea in children in developing countries. Dual infections with both pathogens have been noted fairly frequently in studies of diarrhea around the world. In previous laboratory work, we noted that cholera toxin and forskolin markedly potentiated EPEC-induced ATP release from the host cell, and this potentiated

  19. The Escherichia coli Peripheral Inner Membrane Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Papanastasiou, Malvina; Orfanoudaki, Georgia; Koukaki, Marina; Kountourakis, Nikos; Sardis, Marios Frantzeskos; Aivaliotis, Michalis; Karamanou, Spyridoula; Economou, Anastassios

    2013-01-01

    Biological membranes are essential for cell viability. Their functional characteristics strongly depend on their protein content, which consists of transmembrane (integral) and peripherally associated membrane proteins. Both integral and peripheral inner membrane proteins mediate a plethora of biological processes. Whereas transmembrane proteins have characteristic hydrophobic stretches and can be predicted using bioinformatics approaches, peripheral inner membrane proteins are hydrophilic, exist in equilibria with soluble pools, and carry no discernible membrane targeting signals. We experimentally determined the cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome of the model organism Escherichia coli using a multidisciplinary approach. Initially, we extensively re-annotated the theoretical proteome regarding subcellular localization using literature searches, manual curation, and multi-combinatorial bioinformatics searches of the available databases. Next we used sequential biochemical fractionations coupled to direct identification of individual proteins and protein complexes using high resolution mass spectrometry. We determined that the proposed cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies a previously unsuspected ?19% of the basic E. coli BL21(DE3) proteome, and the detected peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies ?25% of the estimated expressed proteome of this cell grown in LB medium to mid-log phase. This value might increase when fleeting interactions, not studied here, are taken into account. Several proteins previously regarded as exclusively cytoplasmic bind membranes avidly. Many of these proteins are organized in functional or/and structural oligomeric complexes that bind to the membrane with multiple interactions. Identified proteins cover the full spectrum of biological activities, and more than half of them are essential. Our data suggest that the cytoplasmic proteome displays remarkably dynamic and extensive communication with biological membrane surfaces that we are only beginning to decipher. PMID:23230279

  20. The N-degradome of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Humbard, Matthew A.; Surkov, Serhiy; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Jenkins, Lisa M.; Maurizi, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The N-end rule is a conserved mechanism found in Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes for marking proteins to be degraded by ATP-dependent proteases. Specific N-terminal amino acids (N-degrons) are sufficient to target a protein to the degradation machinery. In Escherichia coli, the adaptor ClpS binds an N-degron and delivers the protein to ClpAP for degradation. As ClpS recognizes N-terminal Phe, Trp, Tyr, and Leu, which are not found at the N terminus of proteins translated and processed by the canonical pathway, proteins must be post-translationally modified to expose an N-degron. One modification is catalyzed by Aat, an enzyme that adds leucine or phenylalanine to proteins with N-terminal lysine or arginine; however, such proteins are also not generated by the canonical protein synthesis pathway. Thus, the mechanisms producing N-degrons in proteins and the frequency of their occurrence largely remain a mystery. To address these issues, we used a ClpS affinity column to isolate interacting proteins from E. coli cell lysates under non-denaturing conditions. We identified more than 100 proteins that differentially bound to a column charged with wild-type ClpS and eluted with a peptide bearing an N-degron. Thirty-two of 37 determined N-terminal peptides had N-degrons. Most of the proteins were N-terminally truncated by endoproteases or exopeptidases, and many were further modified by Aat. The identities of the proteins point to possible physiological roles for the N-end rule in cell division, translation, transcription, and DNA replication and reveal widespread proteolytic processing of cellular proteins to generate N-end rule substrates. PMID:23960079

  1. Methane production from kitchen waste using Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, S; Joseph, Kurian; Sukumaran, V

    2007-04-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain isolated from biogas plant sludge was examined for its ability to enhance biogas from kitchen waste during solid phase anaerobic digestion. The laboratory experiments were conducted for total solid concentrations of 20% and 22%. Kitchen waste was characterized for physico-chemical parameters and laboratory experiments were conducted with and without E. coli strain. It was found that the reactor with E. coli produced 17% more biogas than the reactors that are operated without E. coli strain. PMID:18476402

  2. Involvement of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV in tolerance of cytotoxic alkylating DNA lesions in vivo

    E-print Network

    1 Involvement of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV in tolerance of cytotoxic alkylating DNA coli DNA polymerase IV Key words: Escherichia coli, dinB, alkylation damage, DNA repair Corresponding Escherichia coli PolIV, a DNA polymerase capable to catalyze synthesis past replication- blocking DNA lesions

  3. Recovery of recombinant Escherichia coli by chitosan-conjugated magnetite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Honda; Atsushi Kawabe; Masashige Shinkai; Takeshi Kobayashi

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic separation of a recombinant Escherichia coli harboring the ?-galactosidase gene was investigated. We prepared a chitosan-conjugated magnetite (chitosan-mag) that disperses well in aqueous solution. After adding it to a cell suspension, it can recover various microorganisms including E. coli as the precipitant within only 1min. Over 90% of E. coli cells were recovered in a wide pH range from

  4. Recombinant Production of Native Proteins from Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsutomu Arakawa; Tiansheng Li; Linda O. Narhi

    \\u000a The production of large quantities of proteins became possible with the advent of recombinant DNA technology, and the subsequent\\u000a expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) (Itakura, 1977). Recombinant proteins are produced in E. coli cytoplasm at high concentrations in a very different environment than that in which they are normally expressed. Their structure,\\u000a stability and solubility are

  5. Environmental Controls on the Fate of Escherichia coli in Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Habteselassie; M. Bischoff; E. Blume; B. Applegate; B. Reuhs; S. Brouder; R. F. Turco

    2008-01-01

    An improved understanding of factors that influence the survival and\\/or growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in soil is essential to allow the formation of land management practices to control the spread of the pathogenic strains\\u000a of the bacteria, whose transmission to fresh produce is a threat to food safety. Persistence of E. coli in soils held at different water

  6. Enzymatically Active and Inactive Phosphodiesterases and Diguanylate Cyclases Are Involved in Regulation of Motility or Sessility in Escherichia coli CFT073

    PubMed Central

    Spurbeck, Rachel R.; Tarrien, Rebecca J.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intracellular concentration of cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), a second messenger molecule, is regulated in bacteria by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) (synthesizing c-di-GMP) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs) (degrading c-di-GMP). c-di-GMP concentration ([c-di-GMP]) affects motility and sessility in a reciprocal fashion; high [c-di-GMP] typically inhibits motility and promotes sessility. A c-di-GMP sensor domain, PilZ, also regulates motility and sessility. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli regulates these processes during infection; motility is necessary for ascending the urinary tract, while sessility is essential for colonization of anatomical sites. Here, we constructed and screened 32 mutants containing deletions of genes encoding each PDE (n = 11), DGC (n = 13), PilZ (n = 2), and both PDE and DGC (n = 6) domains for defects in motility, biofilm formation, and adherence for the prototypical pyelonephritis isolate E. coli CFT073. Three of 32 mutations affected motility, all of which were in genes encoding enzymatically inactive PDEs. Four PDEs, eight DGCs, four PDE/DGCs, and one PilZ regulated biofilm formation in a medium-specific manner. Adherence to bladder epithelial cells was regulated by [c-di-GMP]. Four PDEs, one DGC, and three PDE/DGCs repress adherence and four DGCs and one PDE/DGC stimulate adherence. Thus, specific effectors of [c-di-GMP] and catalytically inactive DGCs and PDEs regulate adherence and motility in uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23047748

  7. Regulation of the Escherichia coli lrp gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q; Wu, J; Friedberg, D; Plakto, J; Calvo, J M

    1994-01-01

    Lrp (leucine-responsive regulatory protein) is a major Escherichia coli regulatory protein which regulates expression of a number of operons, some negatively and some positively. This work relates to a characterization of lrp, the gene encoding Lrp. Nucleotide sequencing established that the coding regions of lrp and trxB (encoding thioredoxin reductase) are separated by 543 bp and that the two genes are transcribed in opposite directions. In addition, we used primer extension, deletion analyses, and lrp-lacZ transcriptional fusions to delineate the promoter and regulatory region of the lrp operon. The lrp promoter is located 267 nucleotides upstream of the translational start codon of the lrp gene. In comparison with a wild-type strain, expression of the lrp operon was increased about 3-fold in a strain lacking Lrp and decreased about 10-fold in a strain overproducing Lrp. As observed from DNA mobility shift and DNase I footprinting analyses, Lrp binds to one or more sites within the region -80 to -32 relative to the start point of lrp transcription. A mutational analysis indicated that this same region is at least partly required for repression of lrp expression in vivo. These results demonstrate that autogenous regulation of lrp involves Lrp acting directly to cause repression of lrp transcription. Images PMID:8144448

  8. Membrane cytochromes of Escherichia coli chl mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, N R; Bragg, P D

    1983-01-01

    The cytochromes present in the membranes of Escherichia coli cells having defects in the formate dehydrogenase-nitrate reductase system have been analyzed by spectroscopic, redox titration, and enzyme fractionation techniques. Four phenotypic classes differing in cytochrome composition were recognized. Class I is represented by strains with defects in the synthesis or insertion of molybdenum cofactor. Cytochromes of the formate dehydrogenase-nitrate reductase pathway are present. Class II strains map in the chlC-chlI region. The cytochrome associated with nitrate reductase (cytochrome bnr) is absent in these strains, whereas that associated with formate dehydrogenase (cytochrome bfdh) is the major cytochrome in the membranes. Class III strains lack both cytochromes bfdh and bnr but overproduce cytochrome d of the aerobic pathway even under anaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. Class III strains have defects in the regulation of cytochrome synthesis. An fdhA mutant produced cytochrome bnr but lacked cytochrome bfdh. These results support the view that chlI (narI) is the structural gene for cytochrome bnr and that chlC (narG) and chlI(narI) are in the same operon, and they provide evidence of the complexity of the regulation of cytochrome synthesis. PMID:6302081

  9. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. Focus is on the two final steps in alcohol synthesis, which are catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde CoA dehydrogenase. We have isolated a series of mutations affecting the expression of these enzymes. Some of these mutations are in the structural genes for these enzymes; others affect the regulation of the adh operon. We have recently cloned the genes coding for these enzymes and are now studying the effect of multiple copies of the adh gene on fermentative growth and its regulation. A recently invented technique, proton suicide has allowed the selection of a variety of novel mutants affecting fermentation which are presently being characterized. We have isolated a comprehensive collection of operon fusions in which the lacZ structural gene is fused to promoters that are inactive aerobically but active anaerobically. Although these genes (like adh) are only expressed under anaerobic conditions, the level of induction varies from two-fold to nearly 100-fold. The nitrogen source, medium pH, nature of the buffer, presence of alternative electron acceptors (e.g., nitrate), and other factors exert a great effect on the expression of many of these genes. In the near future we will investigate control mechanisms common to the adh operon and other anaerobically regulated genes.

  10. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczykowski, S C; Dixon, D A; Eggleston, A K; Lauder, S D; Rehrauer, W M

    1994-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a fundamental biological process. Biochemical understanding of this process is most advanced for Escherichia coli. At least 25 gene products are involved in promoting genetic exchange. At present, this includes the RecA, RecBCD (exonuclease V), RecE (exonuclease VIII), RecF, RecG, RecJ, RecN, RecOR, RecQ, RecT, RuvAB, RuvC, SbcCD, and SSB proteins, as well as DNA polymerase I, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase I, DNA ligase, and DNA helicases. The activities displayed by these enzymes include homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, helicase, branch migration, Holliday junction binding and cleavage, nuclease, ATPase, topoisomerase, DNA binding, ATP binding, polymerase, and ligase, and, collectively, they define biochemical events that are essential for efficient recombination. In addition to these needed proteins, a cis-acting recombination hot spot known as Chi (chi: 5'-GCTGGTGG-3') plays a crucial regulatory function. The biochemical steps that comprise homologous recombination can be formally divided into four parts: (i) processing of DNA molecules into suitable recombination substrates, (ii) homologous pairing of the DNA partners and the exchange of DNA strands, (iii) extension of the nascent DNA heteroduplex; and (iv) resolution of the resulting crossover structure. This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. Images PMID:7968921

  11. Virulence regulons of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Munson, George P

    2013-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is frequently associated with travelers' diarrhea and is a leading cause of infant and childhood mortality in developing countries. Disease is dependent upon the orchestrated expression of enterotoxins, flexible adhesive pili, and other virulence factors. Both the heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST-H) enterotoxins are regulated at the level of transcription by cAMP-receptor protein which represses the expression of LT while activating expression of ST-H. The expression of many different serotypes of adhesive pili is regulated by Rns, a member of the AraC family that represents a subgroup of conserved virulence regulators from several enteric pathogens. These Rns-like regulators recognize similar DNA binding sites, and a compiled sequence logo suggests they may bind DNA through both major and minor groove interactions. These regulators are also tempting targets for novel therapeutics because they play pivotal roles during infection. To that end, high-throughput screens have begun to identify compounds that inhibit the activity of these regulators, predominately by interfering with DNA binding. PMID:24203442

  12. Colonization factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, T P Vipin; Sakellaris, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of life-threatening diarrheal disease around the world. The major aspects of ETEC virulence are colonization of the small intestine and the secretion of enterotoxins which elicit diarrhea. Intestinal colonization is mediated, in part, by adhesins displayed on the bacterial cell surface. As colonization of the intestine is the critical first step in the establishment of an infection, it represents a potential point of intervention for the prevention of infections. Therefore, colonization factors (CFs) have been important subjects of research in the field of ETEC virulence. Research in this field has revealed that ETEC possesses a large array of serologically distinct CFs that differ in composition, structure, and function. Most ETEC CFs are pili (fimbriae) or related fibrous structures, while other adhesins are simple outer membrane proteins lacking any macromolecular structure. This chapter reviews the genetics, structure, function, and regulation of ETEC CFs and how such studies have contributed to our understanding of ETEC virulence and opened up potential opportunities for the development of preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:25596032

  13. Mutagenesis in Escherichia coli lacking catalase.

    PubMed

    Abril, N; Pueyo, C

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 strains completely lacking catalase activity due to mutations in katG, katE, and katF genes were constructed in order to assess the role of hydrogen peroxide in mutagenesis. Mutagenesis was monitored by selecting forward mutations to L-arabinose resistance. Lethality was measured at experimental conditions equivalent to those of the mutant yield by using a mixed culture of pairs of isogenic strains distinguished by their differential nutritional requirements. Deficiency in katG, katE, and katF genes leads to an enhanced spontaneous mutation rate as well as an enhanced sensitivity to both the lethal and mutagenic effects of hydrogen peroxide or an H2O2-generating mixture of compounds, such as coffee. To compare further the responses of the catalase-deficient bacteria to those of catalase-proficient counterparts, other genotoxins were analyzed. Both catalase-deficient and catalase-proficient strains were equally mutated by MMS, 4-NQO, and ultraviolet light. It is concluded that the bacterial strains and the mutagenicity tests described in the paper represent a useful tool to study the role of H2O2 in mutagenesis. PMID:2192882

  14. A virulent parent with probiotic progeny: comparative genomics of Escherichia coli strains CFT073, Nissle 1917 and ABU 83972.

    PubMed

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Friis, Carsten; Hancock, Viktoria; Schembri, Mark A; Klemm, Per

    2010-05-01

    Escherichia coli is a highly versatile species encompassing a diverse spectrum of strains, i.e. from highly virulent isolates causing serious infectious diseases to commensals and probiotic strains. Although much is known about bacterial pathogenicity in E. coli, the understanding of which genetic determinants differentiates a virulent from an avirulent strain still remains limited. In this study we designed a new comparative genomic hybridization microarray based on 31 sequenced E. coli strains and used it to compare two E. coli strains used as prophylactic agents (i.e. Nissle 1917 and 83972) with the highly virulent uropathogen CFT073. Only relatively minor genetic variations were found between the isolates, suggesting that the three strains may have originated from the same virulent ancestral parent. Interestingly, Nissle 1917 (a gut commensal strain) was more similar to CFT073 with respect to genotype and phenotype than 83972 (an asymptomatic bacteriuria strain). The study indicates that genetic variations (e.g. mutations) and expression differences, rather than genomic content per se, contribute to the divergence in disease-causing ability between these strains. This has implications for the use of virulence factors in epidemiological research, and emphasizes the need for more comparative genomic studies of closely related strains to compare their virulence potential. PMID:20354866

  15. Caenorhabditis elegans as a simple model to study phenotypic and genetic virulence determinants of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strains

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strains Caenorhabditis elegans as a simple model to study phenotypic and genotypic determinants of pathogenicity of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in Caenorhabditis elegans Virulence of extraintestinal

  16. First report of Escherichia coli O157 among Iraqi children.

    PubMed

    Shebib, Z A; Abdul Ghani, Z G; Mahdi, L Kh

    2003-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, especially E. coli O157, and other enteropathogens among 200 children with bloody diarrhoea and 100 age-matched controls at two Baghdad hospitals. Bacterial and parasitic agents were found in 39.5% and 28.5% of cases, respectively; no pathogen was detected in 32%. E. coli O157 was identified in 11.5% and more than one pathogen was found in 15.5% of cases. The most common pathogens were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (5%); E. coli other than E. coli O157 or EPEC (15%); Entamoeba histolytica (25%) and Giardia lamblia (3.5%). All isolates of E. coli O157:H7 were sensitive to cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and nalidixic acid and resistant to erythromycin, polymyxin B and vancomycin. Resistance to 6 or more antimicrobial agents was common (50% of isolates). PMID:15562746

  17. First report on class 1 integrons and Trimethoprim-resistance genes from dfrA group in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) from the Aleppo area in Syria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Assil, Bodour; Mahfoud, Maysa; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) introduces advantageous genetic elements into pathogenic bacteria using tools such as class1 integrons. This study aimed at investigating the distribution of these integrons among uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolated from patients in Aleppo, Syria. It also set to uncover the frequencies of the clinically relevant DfrA1 and DfrA17,7, as well as various associations leading to reduced susceptibility. This study involved 75 Trimethoprim-resistant E. coli isolates from in- and outpatients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) from 3 major hospitals in Aleppo. Bacterial identification, resistance and extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL) production testing were performed according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Detection of integrons and DfrA genes was done using PCR and statistical significance was inferred through ?2 (Fisher’s) test. Class1 integrons were detected in 54.6% of isolates while DfrA1 and DfrA17,7 were found in 16% and 70.6% of tested samples respectively. Furthermore, only DfrA17,7 were strongly associated with class1 integrons, as were reduced susceptibility to the majority of individual antibiotics, multidrug resistance and ESBL production. This study demonstrated the high prevalence of class1 integrons among UPEC strains in Aleppo, Syria, as well as their significant associations with MDR. This data give information for local healthcare provision using antibiotic chemotherapy. PMID:23956949

  18. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  19. Binding specificity of Escherichia coli trigger factor

    PubMed Central

    Patzelt, Holger; Rüdiger, Stefan; Brehmer, Dirk; Kramer, Günter; Vorderwülbecke, Sonja; Schaffitzel, Elke; Waitz, Andreas; Hesterkamp, Thomas; Dong, Liying; Schneider-Mergener, Jens; Bukau, Bernd; Deuerling, Elke

    2001-01-01

    The ribosome-associated chaperone trigger factor (TF) assists the folding of newly synthesized cytosolic proteins in Escherichia coli. Here, we determined the substrate specificity of TF by examining its binding to 2842 membrane-coupled 13meric peptides. The binding motif of TF was identified as a stretch of eight amino acids, enriched in basic and aromatic residues and with a positive net charge. Fluorescence spectroscopy verified that TF exhibited a comparable substrate specificity for peptides in solution. The affinity to peptides in solution was low, indicating that TF requires ribosome association to create high local concentrations of nascent polypeptide substrates for productive interaction in vivo. Binding to membrane-coupled peptides occurred through the central peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) domain of TF, however, independently of prolyl residues. Crosslinking experiments showed that a TF fragment containing the PPIase domain linked to the ribosome via the N-terminal domain is sufficient for interaction with nascent polypeptide substrates. Homology modeling of the PPIase domain revealed a conserved FKBP(FK506-binding protein)-like binding pocket composed of exposed aromatic residues embedded in a groove with negative surface charge. The features of this groove complement well the determined substrate specificity of TF. Moreover, a mutation (E178V) in this putative substrate binding groove known to enhance PPIase activity also enhanced TF's association with a prolyl-free model peptide in solution and with nascent polypeptides. This result suggests that both prolyl-independent binding of peptide substrates and peptidyl-prolyl isomerization involve the same binding site. PMID:11724963

  20. S-Methylmethionine Metabolism in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thanbichler, Martin; Neuhierl, Bernhard; Böck, August

    1999-01-01

    Selenium-accumulating Astragalus spp. contain an enzyme which specifically transfers a methyl group from S-methylmethionine to the selenol of selenocysteine, thus converting it to a nontoxic, since nonproteinogenic, amino acid. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of this enzyme revealed that Escherichia coli possesses a protein (YagD) which shares high sequence similarity with the enzyme. The properties and physiological role of YagD were investigated. YagD is an S-methylmethionine: homocysteine methyltransferase which also accepts selenohomocysteine as a substrate. Mutants in yagD which also possess defects in metE and metH are unable to utilize S-methylmethionine for growth, whereas a metE metH double mutant still grows on S-methylmethionine. Upstream of yagD and overlapping with its reading frame is a gene (ykfD) which, when inactivated, also blocks growth on methylmethionine in a metE metH genetic background. Since it displays sequence similarities with amino acid permeases it appears to be the transporter for S-methylmethionine. Methionine but not S-methylmethionine in the medium reduces the amount of yagD protein. This and the existence of four MET box motifs upstream of yfkD indicate that the two genes are members of the methionine regulon. The physiological roles of the ykfD and yagD products appear to reside in the acquisition of S-methylmethionine, which is an abundant plant product, and its utilization for methionine biosynthesis. PMID:9882684

  1. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Superinfection Enhances the Severity of Mouse Bladder Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Drew J.; Conover, Matt S.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) afflict over 9 million women in America every year, often necessitating long-term prophylactic antibiotics. One risk factor for UTI is frequent sexual intercourse, which dramatically increases the risk of UTI. The mechanism behind this increased risk is unknown; however, bacteriuria increases immediately after sexual intercourse episodes, suggesting that physical manipulation introduces periurethral flora into the urinary tract. In this paper, we investigated whether superinfection (repeat introduction of bacteria) resulted in increased risk of severe UTI, manifesting as persistent bacteriuria, high titer bladder bacterial burdens and chronic inflammation, an outcome referred to as chronic cystitis. Chronic cystitis represents unchecked luminal bacterial replication and is defined histologically by urothelial hyperplasia and submucosal lymphoid aggregates, a histological pattern similar to that seen in humans suffering chronic UTI. C57BL/6J mice are resistant to chronic cystitis after a single infection; however, they developed persistent bacteriuria and chronic cystitis when superinfected 24 hours apart. Elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), keratinocyte cytokine (KC/CXCL1), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the serum of C57BL/6J mice prior to the second infection predicted the development of chronic cystitis. These same cytokines have been found to precede chronic cystitis in singly infected C3H/HeN mice. Furthermore, inoculating C3H/HeN mice twice within a six-hour period doubled the proportion of mice that developed chronic cystitis. Intracellular bacterial replication, regulated hemolysin (HlyA) expression, and caspase 1/11 activation were essential for this increase. Microarrays conducted at four weeks post inoculation in both mouse strains revealed upregulation of IL-1 and antimicrobial peptides during chronic cystitis. These data suggest a mechanism by which caspase-1/11 activation and IL-1 secretion could predispose certain women to recurrent UTI after frequent intercourse, a predisposition predictable by several serum biomarkers in two murine models. PMID:25569799

  2. Review article Pathogenic diversity of Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    and systemic infections in humans and other animals. The spectrum of diseases caused by E. coli is due termed pathogenicity islands (PAls) that are absent from the genomes of commen- sal E. coli strains. PAls are likely to have been transferred horizontally and may have integrated into the E. coli chromosome through

  3. Gene doctoring: a method for recombineering in laboratory and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Homologous recombination mediated by the ?-Red genes is a common method for making chromosomal modifications in Escherichia coli. Several protocols have been developed that differ in the mechanisms by which DNA, carrying regions homologous to the chromosome, are delivered into the cell. A common technique is to electroporate linear DNA fragments into cells. Alternatively, DNA fragments are generated in vivo by digestion of a donor plasmid with a nuclease that does not cleave the host genome. In both cases the ?-Red gene products recombine homologous regions carried on the linear DNA fragments with the chromosome. We have successfully used both techniques to generate chromosomal mutations in E. coli K-12 strains. However, we have had limited success with these ?-Red based recombination techniques in pathogenic E. coli strains, which has led us to develop an enhanced protocol for recombineering in such strains. Results Our goal was to develop a high-throughput recombineering system, primarily for the coupling of genes to epitope tags, which could also be used for deletion of genes in both pathogenic and K-12 E. coli strains. To that end we have designed a series of donor plasmids for use with the ?-Red recombination system, which when cleaved in vivo by the I-SceI meganuclease generate a discrete linear DNA fragment, allowing for C-terminal tagging of chromosomal genes with a 6 × His, 3 × FLAG, 4 × ProteinA or GFP tag or for the deletion of chromosomal regions. We have enhanced existing protocols and technologies by inclusion of a cassette conferring kanamycin resistance and, crucially, by including the sacB gene on the donor plasmid, so that all but true recombinants are counter-selected on kanamycin and sucrose containing media, thus eliminating the need for extensive screening. This method has the added advantage of limiting the exposure of cells to the potential damaging effects of the ?-Red system, which can lead to unwanted secondary alterations to the chromosome. Conclusion We have developed a counter-selective recombineering technique for epitope tagging or for deleting genes in E. coli. We have demonstrated the versatility of the technique by modifying the chromosome of the enterohaemorrhagic O157:H7 (EHEC), uropathogenic CFT073 (UPEC), enteroaggregative O42 (EAEC) and enterotoxigenic H10407 (ETEC) E. coli strains as well as in K-12 laboratory strains. PMID:20003185

  4. Oligomerization of the lysr-type transcriptional regulators in Escherichia Coli

    E-print Network

    Knapp, Gwendowlyn Sue

    2009-05-15

    ....................................................................................... 101 V RESISTANCE TO METHOTREXATE DUE TO AcrAB- DEPENDENT EXPORT FROM Escherichia coli............................... 103 Overview ........................................................................................ 103...

  5. Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of canine uropathogens at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Teaching Hospital, 2002–2007

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Katherine R.; Rubin, Joseph E.; Chirino-Trejo, M.; Dowling, Patricia M.

    2008-01-01

    Between January 2002 and June 2007, uropathogens were isolated from 473 of 1557 canine urine samples submitted to Prairie Diagnostic Services from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Culture and susceptibility results were analyzed, retrospectively, to estimate the prevalence of common bacterial uropathogens in dogs with urinary tract infections and to identify changes in antimicrobial resistance. The most common pathogens identified were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus intermedius, Enterococcus spp., and Proteus spp. Antimicrobial resistance increased during the study period, particularly among recurrent E. coli isolates. Using the formula to help select rational antimicrobial therapy (FRAT), bacterial isolates were most likely to be susceptible to gentamicin, fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and groups 4 and 5 (third generation) cephalosporins. PMID:19119366

  6. A Genome-Wide Analysis of Promoter-Mediated Phenotypic Noise in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    A Genome-Wide Analysis of Promoter-Mediated Phenotypic Noise in Escherichia coli Olin K. Silander1 with genes' functional attributes, using data for over 60% of all promoters in Escherichia coli. We find in Escherichia coli. PLoS Genet 8(1): e1002443. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002443 Editor: Ivan Matic, Universite

  7. ENZYMATIC PROCESSING OF REPLICATION INTERMEDIATES THAT OCCUR FOLLOWING UV-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI

    E-print Network

    Courcelle, Justin

    IN ESCHERICHIA COLI By Janet Renee Donaldson A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of Mississippi State PROCESSING OF REPLICATION INTERMEDIATES THAT OCCUR FOLLOWING UV-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI PROCESSING OF REPLICATION INTERMEDIATES THAT OCCUR FOLLOWING UV-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI Pages

  8. Cofactor Binding to Escherichia coli D-3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase Induces Multiple Conformations Which Alter

    E-print Network

    Grant, Gregory

    Cofactor Binding to Escherichia coli D-3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase Induces Multiple of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 The inhibition of Escherichia coli D-3-phosphoglycer- ate dehydrogenase (PGDH, EC 1.1.1.95)1 from Escherichia coli catalyzes the first committed step in the phosphorylated

  9. Iron limitation induces SpoT-dependent accumulation of ppGpp in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Iron limitation induces SpoT-dependent accumulation of ppGpp in Escherichia coli D. Vinella1*, C Summary In Escherichia coli the -lactam mecillinam specifically inhibits penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP the limitation. #12;3 juin 8, 2006 Introduction The Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli has evolved various

  10. 612 Biophysical Journal Volume 85 July 2003 612622 Why the Phosphotransferase System of Escherichia coli Escapes

    E-print Network

    Peletier, Mark

    of Escherichia coli Escapes Diffusion Limitation Christof Francke,*y Pieter W. Postma,* Hans V. Westerhoff:glucose phosphotransferase system (glucose-PTS) of Escherichia coli in silicon cells of various magnitudes. For a cell eukaryotic cells. A typical Escherichia coli B/r cell has dimensions of ;1 3 3 mm (Nanninga, 1998), whereas

  11. Uncharacterized Escherichia coli proteins YdjA and YhjY are related to biohydrogen production

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Uncharacterized Escherichia coli proteins YdjA and YhjY are related to biohydrogen production Mohd: Biohydrogen Escherichia coli ydjA yhjY FHL inactivation a b s t r a c t Biohydrogen has gained importance and efficiency of biohydrogen production from various microorganisms and substrates. Here, Escherichia coli

  12. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in surface waters of southern

    E-print Network

    Selinger, Brent

    Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in surface waters of southern Alberta. To address these concerns, we conducted a 2-year study to estimate the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 afin d'évaluer la prévalence de Escherichia coli O157:H7 et de Salmonella spp. dans les eaux de surface

  13. Selection Footprint in the FimH Adhesin Shows Pathoadaptive Niche Differentiation in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Chattopadhyay, Sujay

    -adaptive, or pathoadaptive, mutations in the Escherichia coli gene encoding FimH--the major, mannose-sensitive adhesin protein of Escherichia coli, mutations in which are pathoadaptive for uropatho- genic E. coli clonesSelection Footprint in the FimH Adhesin Shows Pathoadaptive Niche Differentiation in Escherichia

  14. ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH DIARRHŒA: MANNOSE-RESISTANT HAEMAGGLUTINATION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH DIARRHŒA: MANNOSE-RESISTANT HAEMAGGLUTINATION souches de Escherichia coli isolées des veaux diarrhéiques. La détection de l'antigène K99, en 84 souches de Escherichia coli, a été effectuée par le Brush-Border, l'hémagglutination avec et sans mannose et

  15. SLECTION ET PERSISTANCE, DANS LA FLORE FCALE DE VEAUX DE BOUCHERIE, DE ESCHERICHIA COLI

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SÉLECTION ET PERSISTANCE, DANS LA FLORE FÉCALE DE VEAUX DE BOUCHERIE, DE ESCHERICHIA COLI RÉSISTANT of oxytetracycline on the resistance of fecal Escherichia coli to the following antibacterial agents: ampicillin (Ap flore fécale, de souches d'Escherichia coli résistantes à cet antibiotique (Mitsuhashi, 1979). Ces sou

  16. Motility of Escherichia coli cells in clusters formed by chemotactic aggregation

    E-print Network

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    Motility of Escherichia coli cells in clusters formed by chemotactic aggregation Nikhil Mittal of Escherichia coli under conditions of certain cellular stresses excrete attractants. Cells of chemotactic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., have been studied in great detail (1­3). For our purposes, the following

  17. Chemosensing in Escherichia coli: Two regimes of two-state receptors

    E-print Network

    Meir, Yigal

    Chemosensing in Escherichia coli: Two regimes of two-state receptors Juan E. Keymer* , Robert G, 2005 (received for review August 26, 2005) The chemotaxis network in Escherichia coli is remarkable The chemotaxis network in Escherichia coli is the best studied signal-transduction network of any living organism

  18. Proteome analysis of factor for inversion stimulation (Fis) overproduction in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    Proteome analysis of factor for inversion stimulation (Fis) overproduction in Escherichia coli The factor-for-inversion stimulation protein (Fis) is a global regulatory protein in Escherichia coli protein precursor, and ketol-acid reductoisomerase. Keywords: Proteome analysis / Fis / Escherichia coli

  19. Brief Original Article Multiple contaminations of chickens with Campylobacter, Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Brief Original Article Multiple contaminations of chickens with Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella are mainly caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked poultry meat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella

  20. Escherichia coli: a brief review of diarrheagenic pathotypes and their role in diarrheal diseases in Iran

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Escherichia coli: a brief review of diarrheagenic pathotypes and their role in diarrheal diseases, Tehran. 2 Bacteriology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran. 3 National Escherichia coli, Aslani MM Address: Molecular Biology Unit, Pasteur Institute of Iran. National Escherichia coli Reference

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Identification of stress-related proteins in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Identification of stress-related proteins in Escherichia coli using the pollutant observed in Escherichia coli; for example, a rapid shift from low to high temperatures induces biofilm formation has also been demonstrated Keywords cis-dichloroethylene, Escherichia coli, hydrogen

  2. Reprogramming of Escherichia coli K-12 Metabolism during the Initial Phase of Transition from an Anaerobic

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Mike P.

    Reprogramming of Escherichia coli K-12 Metabolism during the Initial Phase of Transition from anaerobe Escherichia coli K-12 provides an ideal system for exploring this process. Methods and Findings) Reprogramming of Escherichia coli K-12 Metabolism during the Initial Phase of Transition from an Anaerobic

  3. The affinity of the FimH fimbrial adhesin is receptor-driven and quasi-independent of Escherichia coli pathotypes

    PubMed Central

    Bouckaert, Julie; Mackenzie, Jenny; de Paz, José L; Chipwaza, Beatrice; Choudhury, Devapriya; Zavialov, Anton; Mannerstedt, Karin; Anderson, Jennifer; Piérard, Denis; Wyns, Lode; Seeberger, Peter H; Oscarson, Stefan; De Greve, Henri; Knight, Stefan D

    2006-01-01

    Type-1 fimbriae are important virulence factors for the establishment of Escherichia coli urinary tract infections. Bacterial adhesion to the high-mannosylated uroplakin Ia glycoprotein receptors of bladder epithelium is mediated by the FimH adhesin. Previous studies have attributed differences in mannose-sensitive adhesion phenotypes between faecal and uropathogenic E. coli to sequence variation in the FimH receptor-binding domain. We find that FimH variants from uropathogenic, faecal and enterohaemorrhagic isolates express the same specificities and affinities for high-mannose structures. The only exceptions are FimHs from O157 strains that carry a mutation (Asn135Lys) in the mannose-binding pocket that abolishes all binding. A high-mannose microarray shows that all substructures are bound by FimH and that the largest oligomannose is not necessarily the best binder. Affinity measurements demonstrate a strong preference towards oligomannosides exposing Man?1-3Man at their non-reducing end. Binding is further enhanced by the ?1-4-linkage to GlcNAc, where binding is 100-fold better than that of ?-d-mannose. Man?1-3Man?1-4GlcNAc, a major oligosaccharide present in the urine of ?-mannosidosis patients, thus constitutes a well-defined FimH epitope. Differences in affinities for high-mannose structures are at least 10-fold larger than differences in numbers of adherent bacteria between faecal and uropathogenic strains. Our results imply that the carbohydrate expression profile of targeted host tissues and of natural inhibitors in urine, such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, are stronger determinants of adhesion than FimH variation. PMID:16930149

  4. Cattle water troughs as reservoirs of Escherichia coli O157.

    PubMed

    LeJeune, J T; Besser, T E; Hancock, D D

    2001-07-01

    Environmental survival of Escherichia coli O157 may play an important role in the persistence and dissemination of this organism on farms. The survival of culturable and infectious E. coli O157 was studied using microcosms simulating cattle water troughs. Culturable E. coli O157 survived for at least 245 days in the microcosm sediments. Furthermore, E. coli O157 strains surviving more than 6 months in contaminated microcosms were infectious to a group of 10-week-old calves. Fecal excretion of E. coli O157 by these calves persisted for 87 days after challenge. Water trough sediments contaminated with feces from cattle excreting E. coli O157 may serve as a long-term reservoir of this organism on farms and a source of infection for cattle. PMID:11425721

  5. Cattle Water Troughs as Reservoirs of Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    LeJeune, Jeffrey T.; Besser, Thomas E.; Hancock, Dale D.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental survival of Escherichia coli O157 may play an important role in the persistence and dissemination of this organism on farms. The survival of culturable and infectious E. coli O157 was studied using microcosms simulating cattle water troughs. Culturable E. coli O157 survived for at least 245 days in the microcosm sediments. Furthermore, E. coli O157 strains surviving more than 6 months in contaminated microcosms were infectious to a group of 10-week-old calves. Fecal excretion of E. coli O157 by these calves persisted for 87 days after challenge. Water trough sediments contaminated with feces from cattle excreting E. coli O157 may serve as a long-term reservoir of this organism on farms and a source of infection for cattle. PMID:11425721

  6. Prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae urinary isolates in a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the major bacterial pathogens being isolated and reported from mid stream urine (MSU) specimens, globally. These uropathogens are mostly implicated as the major extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, severely limiting the therapeutic management in cases of urinary tract infections. Limited studies had been reported from Nepal investigating the ESBL producers among uropathogens. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL producing E.coli and K. pneumoniae in urinary isolates at a centrally located major tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Methods Between September 2011 and May 2012, during the nine months period, 6308 MSU specimens were collected aseptically from the same number of clinically suspected patients of urinary tract infections. The samples were cultured on MacConkey agar and blood agar. The isolates with significant bacteriuria (105 CFU / ml) were identified based on standard laboratory procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out using various antimicrobial discs alongwith ceftriaxone on E.coli and K. pneumoniae isolates by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method as per the recommendations of CLSI. On initial screening with ceftriaxone (30 ?g) disc showing resistance was then confirmed for ESBL production by phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test (PCDDT) using ceftazidime (30 ug) and ceftazidime + clavulanic acid (30 ?g + 10ug) disc as per guidelines of CLSI (2011). Results Out of a total of 6308 MSU specimens investigated for significant bacteriuria, E.coli isolates were 444 (7.04%) and K.pneuminiae were 145 (2.3%) making a total of 589 (9.34%). Initial screening with ceftriaxone disc revealed 155 isolates of E.coli and 70 isolates of K.pneumoniae to be resistant. Further testing by PCDDT method showed 60/444 (=13.51%) of E. coli and 24/145 (=16.55%) of K. pneumoniae isolates to be confirmed ESBL producers. These ESBL – producer uropathogens showed high degree of resistance to ceftriaxone (100.0%), amoxycillin, fluoroquinolones and co-trimoxazole. Conclusion An emerging and moderately high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae was observed and confirmed in the urinary isolates investigated. It is essential to have a regular and routine monitoring of ESBL producing clinical isolates in laboratory practice. PMID:24274894

  7. Demonstration of exopolysaccharide production by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan D. Junkins; Michael P. Doyle

    1992-01-01

    EnterohemorrhagicEscherichia coli O157:H7 produces visibly slimy colonies when grown on Sorbitol\\/MacConkey or Maloney's agar plates at room temperature, indicative of exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Eighteen of 27 (67%) wild-typeE. coli O157:H7 isolates produced enough EPS to be visually distinguishable. Of five strains that showed no visible EPS production on these media, four (80%) did produce slimy colonies on media containing higher

  8. Differentiation of Escherichia coli Pathotypes by Oligonucleotide Spotted Array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raghavan U. M. Palaniappan; Yu Zhang; David Chiu; Alfonso Torres; Chobi DebRoy; Thomas S. Whittam; Yung-Fu Chang

    2006-01-01

    Received 27 July 2005\\/Returned for modification 28 September 2005\\/Accepted 11 January 2006 To accurately determine the pathotypes of Escherichia coli strains, a comprehensive assessment of each strain that targets multiple genes is required. A new approach to the identification and characterization of E. coli pathotypes was developed by constructing gene-specific probes (70-mers) for not only the virulence genes associated with

  9. Expression of biologically active recombinant equine interferon-? in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Bai; Tiegang Tong; Guangliang Liu; Weiye Chen; Weijun Zhang; Qun Wang; Tao Yang; Zhigao Bu; Donglai Wu

    2010-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-?) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is recognized as an important modulator of the immune response. To date, there is no report that prokaryocyte-derived recombinant equine IFN-? has antiviral activity. In this report, the gene coding equine IFN-? (EIFN-?) mature protein was cloned into pET-28a (+) and the recombinant EIFN-? was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The

  10. Display of green fluorescent protein on Escherichia coli cell surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huidong Shi; Wei Wen Su

    2001-01-01

    In this study, expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP) on the external surface of Escherichia coli was achieved by construction of a fusion protein between Lpp-OmpA hybrid and a GFP variant, GFPmut2. The GFP was fused in frame to the carboxyl-terminus of Lpp-OmpA fusion previously shown to direct various other heterologous proteins to E. coli cell surface. Western blot analysis

  11. The Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick R. Blattner; Guy Plunkett III; Craig A. Bloch; Nicole T. Perna; Valerie Burland; Monica Riley; Julio Collado-Vides; Jeremy D. Glasner; Christopher K. Rode; George F. Mayhew; Jason Gregor; Nelson Wayne Davis; Heather A. Kirkpatrick; Michael A. Goeden; Debra J. Rose; Bob Mau; Ying Shao

    2007-01-01

    The 4,639,221- base pair sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 is presented. Of 4288 protein-coding genes annotated, 38 percent have no attributed function. Comparison with five other sequenced microbes reveals ubiquitous as well as narrowly distributed gene families; many families of similar genes within E. coli are also evident. The largest family of paralogous proteins contains 80 ABC transporters. The genome

  12. Characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli strains from ruminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Jurado; Pilar Horcajo

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-seven fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains from ruminants (according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines) were screened by molecular methods for mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA and parC genes and for the presence of the qnrA gene. One of the strains studied was an enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain potentially pathogenic for humans. Three E.

  13. Deactivation of Escherichia coli by the plasma needle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. J. Sladek; E. Stoffels

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a parameter study on deactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) by means of a non-thermal plasma (plasma needle). The plasma needle is a small-sized (1 mm) atmospheric glow sustained by radio-frequency excitation. This plasma will be used to disinfect heat-sensitive objects; one of the intended applications is in vivo deactivation of dental bacteria: destruction of

  14. Pharmacodynamic profiling of commonly prescribed antimicrobial drugs against Escherichia coli isolates from urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Cuba, Gabriel Trova; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; Patekoski, Katya Silva; Luchesi, Lucimila Jorge; Kiffer, Carlos Roberto Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Since antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens against current first line agents has affected the management of severe urinary tract infection, we determined the likelihood that antibiotic regimens achieve bactericidal pharmacodynamic exposures using Monte Carlo simulation for five antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, piperacillin/tazobactam, ertapenem, and meropenem) commonly prescribed as initial empirical treatment of inpatients with severe community acquired urinary tract infections. Minimum inhibitory concentration determination by Etest was performed for 205 Brazilian community urinary tract infection Escherichia coli strains from 2008 to 2012 and 74 E. coli bloodstream strains recovered from a surveillance study. Pharmacodynamic exposure was modeled via a 5000 subject Monte Carlo simulation. All isolates were susceptible to ertapenem and meropenem. Piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin showed 100%, 97.5% and 83.3% susceptibility among outpatient isolates and 98.6%, 75.7% and 64.3% among inpatient isolates, respectively. Against outpatient isolates, all drugs except ciprofloxacin (82.7% in aggressive and 77.6% in conservative scenarios) achieved high cumulative fraction of response: carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam cumulative fraction of responses were close to 100%, and ceftriaxone cumulative fraction of response was 97.5%. Similar results were observed against inpatients isolates for carbapenems (100%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (98.4%), whereas ceftriaxone achieved only 76.9% bactericidal cumulative fraction of response and ciprofloxacin 61.9% (aggressive scenario) and 56.7% (conservative scenario) respectively. Based on this model, standard doses of beta-lactams were predicted to deliver sufficient pharmacodynamic exposure for outpatients. However, ceftriaxone should be avoided for inpatients and ciprofloxacin empirical prescription should be avoided in both inpatients and outpatients with complicated urinary tract infection. PMID:24731938

  15. AVIAN DISEASES 46:4852, 2002 Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli from Cellulitis or

    E-print Network

    Singer, Randall

    48 AVIAN DISEASES 46:48­52, 2002 Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli from Cellulitis. This study was designed to compare virulence factors of cellulitis-derived Escherichia coli to colisepticemic E. coli in order to clarify whether E. coli associated with cellulitis comprise a unique subset

  16. Escherichia coli K88 adhesion : A comparison of Chinese and Large White piglets

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Escherichia coli K88 adhesion : A comparison of Chinese and Large White piglets J.P. CHAPPUIS : K88 adhesion, E. coli, pig, genetic resistance. Résumé L'attachement de Escherichia coli K88, maintained in plastic film isolators. Shortly after successive oral inoculations of 2 E. coli strains, one K

  17. Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in Asia: epidemiology and management.

    PubMed

    Sidjabat, Hanna E; Paterson, David L

    2015-05-01

    Escherichia coli has become multiresistant by way of production of a variety of ?-lactamases. The prevalence of CTX-M-producing E. coli has reached 60-79% in certain parts of Asia. The acquisition of CTX-M plasmids by E. coli sequence type 131, a successful clone of E. coli, has caused further dissemination of CTX-M-producing E. coli. The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing E. coli, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, and New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM)-producing E. coli has been increasing in Asia. K. pneumoniae carbapenemase and NDM have now been found in E. coli sequence type 131. The occurrence of NDM-producing E. coli is a major concern particularly in the Indian subcontinent, but now elsewhere in Asia as well. There are multiple reasons why antibiotic resistance in E. coli in Asia has reached such extreme levels. Approaches beyond antibiotic therapy, such as prevention of antibiotic resistance by antibiotic stewardship and protecting natural microbiome, are strategies to avoid further spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:25805210

  18. Bacteriophage conversion of heat-labile enterotoxin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Y; Murphy, J R

    1978-01-01

    A temperate phage designated obeta1 (omicron beta) was mitomycin C induced and isolated from heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)-producing Escherichia coli E2631-C2. Phage obeta1 infected the nonlysogenic, nontoxigenic, mitomycin C-sensitive strain of E. coli K-12 (CSH38) and converted it to lysogeny and enterotoxigenicity. After the establishment of lysogeny, E. coli CSH38(obeta1) produced produced LT and phage particles at maximal levels following mitomycin C induction. The LT Tox+ character is carried by the temperate phage obeta1. PMID:338578

  19. An integrated database to support research on Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Dunham, G.; Matsuda, Hideo; Michaels, G.; Taylor, R.; Overbeek, R.; Rudd, K.E. [National Inst. of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Ginsburg, A.; Joerg, D.; Kazic, T. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Genetics; Hagstrom, R.; Zawada, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Smith, C.; Yoshida, Kaoru [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    We have used logic programming to design and implement a prototype database of genomic information for the model bacterial organism Escherichia coli. This report presents the fundamental database primitives that can be used to access and manipulate data relating to the E. coli genome. The present system, combined with a tutorial manual, provides immediate access to the integrated knowledge base for E. coli chromosome data. It also serves as the foundation for development of more user-friendly interfaces that have the same retrieval power and high-level tools to analyze complex chromosome organization.

  20. YeeO from Escherichia coli exports flavins.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins help maintain cellular homeostasis by secreting metabolic wastes. Flavins may occur as cellular waste products, with their production and secretion providing potential benefit for industrial applications related to biofuel cells. Here we find that MATE protein YeeO from Escherichia coli exports both flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Significant amounts of flavins were trapped intracellularly when YeeO was produced indicating transport limits secretion of flavins. Wild-type E. coli secreted 3 flavins (riboflavin, FMN, and FAD), so E. coli likely produces additional flavin transporters. PMID:25482085

  1. Alteration of Escherichia coli Topoisomerase IV to Novobiocin Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine D. Hardy; Nicholas R. Cozzarelli

    2003-01-01

    DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV (topo IV) are the two essential type II topoisomerases of Escherichia coli. Gyrase is responsible for maintaining negative supercoiling of the bacterial chromosome, whereas topo IV's primary role is in disentangling daughter chromosomes following DNA replication. Coumarins, such as novobiocin, are wide-spectrum antimicrobial agents that primarily interfere with DNA gyrase. In this work we designed

  2. Salmonella typhimurium intercepts Escherichia coli signaling to enhance antibiotic tolerance

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    Salmonella typhimurium intercepts Escherichia coli signaling to enhance antibiotic tolerance Nicole Salmonella typhimurium increases its antibiotic toler- ance in response to indole, even though S. typhimurium might be detected and used by both commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Although there is increasing

  3. Recombinant protein folding and misfolding in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirna Mujacic; François Baneyx

    2004-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen enormous progress in the understanding of the mechanisms used by the enteric bacterium Escherichia coli to promote protein folding, support protein translocation and handle protein misfolding. Insights from these studies have been exploited to tackle the problems of inclusion body formation, proteolytic degradation and disulfide bond generation that have long impeded the production of

  4. Escherichia coli antibodies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tabaqchali, S; O'Donoghue, D P; Bettelheim, K A

    1978-01-01

    Sera from 30 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (16 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 14 with ulcerative colitis (UC) were assayed for the presence of antibodies against 159 Escherichia coli O-antigens and compared with sera from 16 matched control subjects. The majority of patients with IBD had agglutinating antibodies to a higher number of Escherichia coli O-antigens and in higher titres than the control group. The number of positive agglutinins was O-33 mean 13.8 in CD, O-26 mean 7.9 for UC, and O-7 mean 1.5 in controls. Eight patients with IBD and arthropathy had antibodies to fewer O-antigens (O-7 mean 3.2). The antibodies were in the IgG and IgM, in titres corresponding to original values. No specific O-serotypes were associated with IBD. Common serotypes, R-plasmid carrying serotypes, and those associated with shigella-like adult diarrhoea were detected. O14 was detected only in five patients and O119 in none. There was no correlation between the number of Escherichia coli agglutinins and the site and severity of the disease or type of therapy. It is suggested that the presence of the high numbers of Escherichia coli antibodies is secondary to the disease process and is unlikely to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, but may play a role in the perpetuation of the disease and in the extraintestinal complications. PMID:344155

  5. Expression of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans origin of replication in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlings, D.E.; Pretorius, I.; Woods, D.R.

    1984-05-01

    A cryptic plasmid from an autotrophically grown arsenic-resistant strain of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was isolated and cloned into pBR325. The origin of replication of pBR325 was deleted, and the recombinant plasmid was shown to replicate in Escherichia coli, using an origin of replication located on the Thiobacillus plasmid.

  6. Combating enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infections: the way forward

    PubMed Central

    Donnenberg, Michael S.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2015-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains continue to cause severe and sometimes fatal infantile diarrhea, particularly in Africa. Increased efforts at diagnosis, defining the clinical spectrum of disease, understanding pathogenic mechanisms, and delineating immune responses are desperately needed to develop new strategies to combat EPEC. PMID:23815982

  7. Original article Resistance of Escherichia coli growing as biofilms

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Resistance of Escherichia coli growing as biofilms to disinfectants C Ntsama) Summary ― The bactericidal activity of various disinfectants (cationic or amphoteric surfactants in a continuous culture system. The bacteria tested on germ-carriers or included in biofilms were more resistant

  8. Original article Inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fermented goat's milk (LP) system has been reported to inhibit the production of acid by lactic starter cultures and can result in the survival and growth of acid-adapted enteropathogens in LP-activated fermented milk. The aim

  9. DNA cloning by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youming Zhang; Joep P. P. Muyrers; Giuseppe Testa; A. Francis Stewart

    2000-01-01

    The cloning of foreign DNA in Escherichia coli episomes is a cornerstone of molecular biology. The pioneering work in the early 1970s, using DNA ligases to paste DNA into episomal vectors, is still the most widely used approach. Here we describe a different principle, using ET recombination, for directed cloning and subcloning, which offers a variety of advantages. Most prominently,

  10. Protein Mobility in the Cytoplasm of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL B. ELOWITZ; MICHAEL G. SURETTE; PIERRE-ETIENNE WOLF; JEFFRY B. STOCK; STANISLAS LEIBLER

    1999-01-01

    The rate of protein diffusion in bacterial cytoplasm may constrain a variety of cellular functions and limit the rates of many biochemical reactions in vivo. In this paper, we report noninvasive measurements of the apparent diffusion coefficient of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. These measurements were made in two ways: by photobleaching of GFP fluorescence

  11. Clocking Out: Modeling Phage-Induced Lysis of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian L. Ryan; Andrew D. Rutenberg

    2007-01-01

    Phage lyses the host Escherichia coli at a precisely scheduled time after induction. Lysis timing is determined by the action of phage holins, which are small proteins that induce hole formation in the bacterium's cytoplasmic membrane. We present a two-stage nucleation model of lysis timing, with the nucle- ation of condensed holin rafts on the inner membrane followed by the

  12. Secretory and extracellular production of recombinant proteins using Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Choi; S. Y. Lee

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most widely used hosts for the production of recombinant proteins. However, there are often problems in recovering substantial yields of correctly folded proteins. One approach to solve these problems is to have recombinant proteins secreted into the periplasmic space or culture medium. The secretory production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as simplicity

  13. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by titanium dioxide photocatalytic oxidation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Titanium dioxide in the anatase crystalline form was used as a photocatalyst to generate hydroxyl radicals in a flowthrough water reactor. Experiments were performed on pure cultures of Escherichia coli in dechlorinated tap water and a surface water sample to evaluate the disinfe...

  14. Temperature Affects Stoichiometry and Biochemical Composition of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James B. Cotner; Wataru Makino; Bopaiah A. Biddanda

    2006-01-01

    Temperature is a master variable controlling biochemical processes in organisms, and its effects are manifested on many organizational levels in organisms and ecosystems. We examined the effects of temperature on the biochemical composition and stoichiometry of a model heterotrophic bacterium, Escherichia coli K-12, held at constant growth rate in chemostats. Increasing temperature led to increased cellular organic carbon (C) and

  15. Molecular basis of base substitution hotspots in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Coulondre; Jeffrey H. Miller; Philip J. Farabaugh; Walter Gilbert

    1978-01-01

    In the lacI gene of Escherichia coli spontaneous base substitution hotspots occur at 5-methylcytosine residues. The hotspots disappear when the respective cytosines are not methylated. We suggest that the hotspots may result from the spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine to thymine, which is not excised by the enzyme DNA-uracil glycosidase.

  16. Strategies for efficient production of heterologous proteins in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jana; J. K. Deb

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the number of recombinant proteins used for therapeutic applications has increased dramatically. Production of these proteins has a remarkable demand in the market. Escherichia coli offers a means for the rapid and economical production of recombinant proteins. These advantages, coupled with a wealth of biochemical and genetic knowledge, have enabled the production of such economically therapeutic proteins

  17. Nontoxicity of an oil shale process water to Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Adams, J C

    1985-04-01

    The survival of Escherichia coli in the presence of an oil shale process water was studied over a five day period. The organism survived better in the presence of one or ten percent concentration of the process water than it did in distilled or tap water. Water chemistry of the diluent appeared to be important to the survival of the organism. PMID:3892236

  18. What's for Dinner?: Entner-Doudoroff Metabolism in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. PEEKHAUS; T. CONWAY

    1998-01-01

    The Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway was first discovered in 1952 in Pseudomonas saccharophila (21) and several years later was shown to be present in Escherichia coli (23). Although generally considered to be restricted to gram-negative bacteria, the ED pathway is present in all three phylogenetic domains, including the most deeply rooted Archaea (18). The ubiquity of the ED pathway suggests that

  19. Pathway Choice in Glutamate Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT B. HELLING

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli has two primary pathways for glutamate synthesis. The glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GOGAT) pathway is essential for synthesis at low ammonium concentration and for regulation of the glutamine pool. The glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) pathway is important during glucose-limited growth. It has been hypothesized that GDH is favored when the organism is stressed for energy, because the enzyme does not

  20. Microcalorimetric study on the aerobic growth of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Li Xie; Hong Wang; Song Sheng Qu

    1995-01-01

    By using an LKB-2277 Bioactivity Monitor, complete thermograms of aerobic growth at 37°C have been obtained for Escherichia coli. The amount of glucose consumed Sc has been measured by the glucose oxidase method, and its relationship with the quantities of heat evolved Qt has been studied. Different linear relationships exist at different phases of Qt and Sc, indicating that there

  1. Global Functional Atlas of Escherichia coli Encompassing Previously Uncharacterized

    E-print Network

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans). Many map to distant clades such as Archaea pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional

  2. |Research Focus In search of the minimal Escherichia coli genome

    E-print Network

    Conway, Tyrrell

    for a `second human genome project' to compile an inventory of the genomes of the human microflora, Stanley|Research Focus In search of the minimal Escherichia coli genome Darren J. Smalley, Marvin Whiteley and Tyrrell Conway Advanced Center for Genome Technology, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Siphophage Seurat

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Dung P.; Lessor, Lauren E.; Hernandez, Adriana C.

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in developing countries. Bacteriophage therapy has the potential to aid in the prevention and treatment of ETEC-related illness. To that end, we present here the complete genome of ETEC siphophage Seurat and describe its major features. PMID:25720682

  4. An SOS Response Induced by High Pressure in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abram Aertsen; Rob Van Houdt; Kristof Vanoirbeek; Chris W. Michiels

    2004-01-01

    Although pressure is an important environmental parameter in microbial niches such as the deep sea and is furthermore used in food preservation to inactivate microorganisms, the fundamental understanding of its effects on bacteria remains fragmentary. Our group recently initiated differential fluorescence induction screening to search for pressure-induced Escherichia coli promoters and has already reported induction of the heat shock regulon.

  5. SOS Response Induces Persistence to Fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Dörr; Kim Lewis; Marin Vulic ´

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria can survive antibiotic treatment without acquiring heritable antibiotic resistance. We investigated persistence to the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli. Our data show that a majority of persisters to ciprofloxacin were formed upon exposure to the antibiotic, in a manner dependent on the SOS gene network. These findings reveal an active and inducible mechanism of persister formation mediated by the

  6. Lethal effect of ? DNA terminase in recombination deficient Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helios Murialdo

    1988-01-01

    ? DNA terminase is the enzyme that catalyses the cleavage of ? DNA concatemers into genome-size molecules and packages them into the capsid. The cleavage (DNA maturation) takes place in a specific site in the phage DNA called cos. Either one of two Escherichia coli proteins, integration host factor (IHF) and terminase host factor (THF), is required, in addition to

  7. Spontaneous mutagenesis associated with nucleotide excision repair in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimiko Hasegawa; Kaoru Yoshiyama; Hisaji Maki

    2008-01-01

    The vast majority of spontaneous mutations occurring in Escherichia coli are thought to be derived from spontaneous DNA lesions, which include oxidative base damage. Systems for removing intrinsic mutagens and repairing DNA lesions contribute to the suppression of spontaneous mutations. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a general DNA repair system that eliminates various kinds of lesions from DNA. We therefore

  8. PCR-ELISA detection of Escherichia coli in milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Daly; T. Collier; S. Doyle

    2002-01-01

    P. D A L Y , T. C O L L I E R A N D S. D O Y L E. 2002. Aims: The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable molecular procedure for the detection of Escherichia coli in milk. Methods and Results: Robust and expeditious DNA extraction and PCR techniques were evaluated using Enzyme-Linked

  9. Septicaemia caused by cysteine-requiring isolates of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. TAPSALL; C. J. McIVER

    1986-01-01

    Summary. The clinical and bacteriological findings in five cases of septicaemia with cysteine-requiring isolates of Escherichia coli are reported. Infections with these nutritionally-dependent organisms have been found previously in the urinary tract only, associated usually with chronic rather than acute conditions. The urinary tract was considered to be the source of the septicaemia in our patients and that site should

  10. Superoxide Imposes Leakage of Sulfite from Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludmil Benov; Irwin Fridovich

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia coli,which lacks the cytosolic superoxide dismutases, exhibits several nutritional auxotrophies when growing aerobically. The cysteine\\/methionine requirement, which is one of these, was previously shown to be due to leakage from the cells, and accumulation in the medium, of a metabolic intermediate on the biosynthetic route to these amino acids. The parental strain does not significantly accumulate this compound. It

  11. Visualizing multiple constrictions in spheroidal Escherichia coli cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arieh Zaritsky; Anton Van Geel; Itzhak Fishov; Evelien Pas; Monica Einav; Conrad L. Woldringh

    1999-01-01

    An Escherichia coli cell grows by elongation and divides in a perpendicular plane. Alternating planes of successive divisions in three dimensions can only be ascertained when multiple constrictions exist simultaneously in large, spheroidal cells (with extended constriction process), if the division signals are enhanced. Large, spheroidal cells are obtained by a brief mecillinam treatment, and more frequent divisions are achieved

  12. The Kinetics of the Mating Process in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. HAYES

    1957-01-01

    SUMMARY: When broth cultures of donor (HfrH) and recipient (F-) strains of Escherichia coli K-12 are mixed, zygotes are formed by the transfer of part of the donor chromosome to the recipient cell. The donor parent thus becomes dispensable as soon as transfer is accomplished. The kinetics of zygote formation can therefore be studied by treating samples, removed at intervals

  13. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and life threatening chronic diarrhoea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M Hill; A D Phillips; J A Walker-Smith

    1991-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection is not generally thought to cause severe diarrhoea after the neonatal period. Patients admitted to Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children over the three years (1984-7) with diarrhoea and EPEC infection were reviewed. Clinical details, features of small intestinal mucosa, and treatment were recorded in those who developed chronic diarrhoea with failure to thrive. Twenty six

  14. Invasive Escherichia coli are a feature of Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maiko Sasaki; Shanti V Sitaraman; Brian A Babbin; Peter Gerner-Smidt; Efrain M Ribot; Nancy Garrett; Joel A Alpern; Adil Akyildiz; Arianne L Theiss; Asma Nusrat; Jan-Michael A Klapproth

    2007-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are idiopathic inflammatory conditions of the gut. Our goal was to investigate if invasive Escherichia coli strains were present in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Bacterial strains were isolated from biopsy material obtained from normal controls, and patients with a clinical diagnosis of CD and UC. Invasive bacteria were characterized by gentamicin

  15. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

  16. Global Incidence of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli ST131

    PubMed Central

    Peirano, Gisele; Bradford, Patricia A.; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M.; Badal, Robert E.; Hackel, Meredith; Hoban, Daryl J.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized Escherichia coli ST131 isolates among 116 carbapenemase-producing strains. Of isolates from 16 countries collected during 2008–2013, 35% belonged to ST131 and were associated with blaKPC, H30 lineage, and virotype C. This study documents worldwide incidents of resistance to “last resort” antimicrobial drugs among a common pathogen in a successful sequence type. PMID:25340464

  17. Adhesion of Human and Animal Escherichia coli Strains in Association with Their Virulence-Associated Genes and Phylogenetic Origins

    PubMed Central

    Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

  18. Adhesion of human and animal Escherichia coli strains in association with their virulence-associated genes and phylogenetic origins.

    PubMed

    Frömmel, Ulrike; Lehmann, Werner; Rödiger, Stefan; Böhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jörg; Weinreich, Jörg; Groß, Julia; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Zinke, Olaf; Ansorge, Hermann; Vogel, Steffen; Klemm, Per; Wex, Thomas; Schröder, Christian; Wieler, Lothar H; Schierack, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Intestinal colonization is influenced by the ability of the bacterium to inhabit a niche, which is based on the expression of colonization factors. Escherichia coli carries a broad range of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) which contribute to intestinal (inVAGs) and extraintestinal (exVAGs) infection. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that inVAGs and exVAGs support intestinal colonization. We developed new screening tools to genotypically and phenotypically characterize E. coli isolates originating in humans, domestic pigs, and 17 wild mammal and avian species. We analyzed 317 isolates for the occurrence of 44 VAGs using a novel multiplex PCR microbead assay (MPMA) and for adhesion to four epithelial cell lines using a new adhesion assay. We correlated data for the definition of new adhesion genes. inVAGs were identified only sporadically, particularly in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and the European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus). The prevalence of exVAGs depended on isolation from a specific host. Human uropathogenic E. coli isolates carried exVAGs with the highest prevalence, followed by badger (Meles meles) and roe deer isolates. Adhesion was found to be very diverse. Adhesion was specific to cells, host, and tissue, though it was also unspecific. Occurrence of the following VAGs was associated with a higher rate of adhesion to one or more cell lines: afa-dra, daaD, tsh, vat, ibeA, fyuA, mat, sfa-foc, malX, pic, irp2, and papC. In summary, we established new screening methods which enabled us to characterize large numbers of E. coli isolates. We defined reservoirs for potential pathogenic E. coli. We also identified a very broad range of colonization strategies and defined potential new adhesion genes. PMID:23872574

  19. Enhancing the Antibiotic Antibacterial Effect by Sub Lethal Tellurite Concentrations: Tellurite and Cefotaxime Act Synergistically in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Quiroz, Roberto C.; Muñoz-Villagrán, Claudia M.; de la Torre, Erick; Tantaleán, Juan C.; Vásquez, Claudio C.; Pérez-Donoso, José M.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria during the last decades has become a public health concern worldwide. Aiming to explore new alternatives to treat antibiotic-resistant bacteria and given that the tellurium oxyanion tellurite is highly toxic for most microorganisms, we evaluated the ability of sub lethal tellurite concentrations to strengthen the effect of several antibiotics. Tellurite, at nM or µM concentrations, increased importantly the toxicity of defined antibacterials. This was observed with both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, irrespective of the antibiotic or tellurite tolerance of the particular microorganism. The tellurite-mediated antibiotic-potentiating effect occurs in laboratory and clinical, uropathogenic Escherichia coli, especially with antibiotics disturbing the cell wall (ampicillin, cefotaxime) or protein synthesis (tetracycline, chloramphenicol, gentamicin). In particular, the effect of tellurite on the activity of the clinically-relevant, third-generation cephalosporin (cefotaxime), was evaluated. Cell viability assays showed that tellurite and cefotaxime act synergistically against E. coli. In conclusion, using tellurite like an adjuvant could be of great help to cope with several multi-resistant pathogens. PMID:22536386

  20. Differential effects and interactions of endogenous and horizontally acquired H-NS-like proteins in pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Claudia M; Schneider, György; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Emödy, Levente; Hacker, Jörg; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

    2010-01-01

    The nucleoid-associated protein H-NS is important for gene regulation in Escherichia coli. We have studied H-NS interaction with StpA and an uncharacterized H-NS-like protein, Hfp, in the uropathogenic E. coli isolate 536 that expresses all three nucleoid-associated proteins. We found distinct interactions of the three proteins at the protein level, resulting in the formation of heteromers, as well as differences in their gene expression at the transcriptional level. Mutants lacking either StpA or Hfp alone did not exhibit a phenotype at 37°C, which is consistent with a low level of expression at that temperature. Expression of the hfp and stpA genes was found to be induced by apparently diametrical conditions, and StpA and Hfp levels could be correlated to modulatory effects on the expression of different H-NS targets, the bgl operon and operons for virulence factors such as fimbriae and capsular polysaccharide. The hns/hfp and hns/stpA double mutants displayed severe growth defects at low and high temperatures respectively. Our findings demonstrated different requirements for the alternative H-NS/Hfp/StpA combinations under these growth conditions. We propose that Hfp and StpA have distinct functions and roles in a dynamic pool of nucleoid-associated proteins that is adapting to requirements in a particular environment. PMID:19968792

  1. Proteomic analysis of Escherichia coli associated with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew; van Rooyen, Jan-Pierre; Argo, Evelyn; Cash, Phillip

    2011-06-01

    Escherichia coli is a major cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) where the initial infection arises from bacteria originating in the bowel. However, significant differences are observed between the genomes of intestinal and urinary E. coli strains with the latter possessing many adaptations that promote growth in the urinary tract. To define further the adaptation of urinary E. coli isolates, the cellular proteomes of 41 E. coli strains, collected from cases of UTIs or random faecal samples, were compared by 2-D gel electrophoresis and principal component analysis. The data indicated that individual patients carried relatively homogenous E. coli populations, as defined by their cellular proteomes, but the populations were distinct between patients. For one patient, E. coli, isolated during two recurrent infections 3 months apart, were indistinguishable, indicating that for this patient the infections were possibly caused by the same bacterial population. To understand the basis of the discrimination of the bacteria, selected protein spots were identified by peptide fragment fingerprinting. The identified proteins were involved in a variety of metabolic and structural roles. The data obtained for these E. coli strains provide a basis from which to target key bacterial proteins for further investigation into E. coli pathogenesis. PMID:21598392

  2. Abundance of culturable versus viable Escherichia coli in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Servais, Pierre; Prats, Josué; Passerat, Julien; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara

    2009-07-01

    Approved methods traditionally used for Escherichia coli enumeration in waters are culture-based. However, these methods can underestimate the E. coli abundance in aquatic systems because they do not take into account cells that remain viable but have lost the ability to grow in or on culture media. We investigated, in freshwater samples, the abundance of (i) culturable E. coli, enumerated by the most probable number microplate method and (ii) viable E. coli, estimated using a procedure called DVC-FISH, which couples fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and a viability testing technique (direct viable count (DVC)). The ratio of culturable to viable E. coli was close to 1 in highly contaminated waters (samples with a high concentration of culturable E. coli), but decreased drastically for weakly contaminated samples. This indicates a large fraction of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) E. coli in the latter samples. Microcosm experiments showed that some environmental factors, such as nutrient scarcity and solar irradiation, could lead to the presence of a high proportion of VBNC E. coli. PMID:19767865

  3. [Acute diarrheal disease caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal Escherichia coli pathogens are leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years in Latin America, Africa and Asia and a leading cause of death in children living in poorest communities in Africa and South East Asia. Studies on the role of E. coli pathogens in childhood diarrhea in Colombia and other countries in Latin America are limited due to the lack of detection assays in clinical laboratories at the main urban medical centers. Recent studies report that enterotoxigenic E. coli is the most common E. coli pathogens associated with diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. Other E. coli pathotypes have been detected in children with diarrhea including enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative, shiga-toxin producing and diffusely adherent E. coli. It was also found that meat and vegetables at retail stores are contaminated with Shiga-toxin producing E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli, suggesting that food products are involved in transmission and infection of the susceptible host. More studies are necessary to evaluate the mechanisms of transmission, the impact on the epidemiology of diarrheal disease, and management strategies and prevention of these pathogens affecting the pediatric population in Colombia. PMID:25491457

  4. Fate of Escherichia coli during Ensiling of Wheat and Corn†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.; Sela, S.; Gamburg, M.; Pinto, R.; Weinberg, Z. G.

    2005-01-01

    A recombinant Escherichia coli strain carrying a plasmid with an antibiotic resistance marker and expressing the green fluorescent protein was inoculated at a concentration of 3.8 × 108 CFU/g into direct-cut wheat (348 g of dry matter kg?1), wilted wheat (450 g of dry matter kg?1), and corn (375 g of dry matter kg?1). The forages were ensiled in mini-silos. The treatments included control (no E. coli added), application of tagged E. coli, and delayed sealing of the inoculated wheat. Three silos per treatment were sampled on predetermined dates, and the numbers of E. coli were determined on Chromocult TBX medium with or without kanamycin. Colonies presumptively identified as E. coli were also tested for fluorescence activity. Addition of E. coli at the time of ensiling resulted in a more rapid decrease in the pH but had almost no effect on the chemical composition of the final silages or their aerobic stability. E. coli disappeared from the silages when the pH decreased below 5.0. It persisted longer in silages of wilted wheat, in which the pH declined more slowly. Control silages of all crops also contained bacteria, presumptively identified as E. coli, that were resistant to the antibiotic, which suggests that some epiphytic strains are naturally resistant to antibiotics. PMID:16151100

  5. EcoCyc: Enyclopedia of Escherichia coli Genes and Metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Karp, P D; Riley, M; Paley, S M; Pellegrini-Toole, A; Krummenacker, M

    1997-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Genes and Metabolism (EcoCyc) is a database that combines information about the genome and the intermediary metabolism of Escherichia coli. It describes 2970 genes of E.coli, 547 enzymes encoded by these genes, 702 metabolic reactions that occur in E.coli and the organization of these reactions into 107 metabolic pathways. The EcoCyc graphical user interface allows scientists to query and explore the EcoCyc database using visualization tools such as genomic-map browsers and automatic layouts of metabolic pathways. EcoCyc spans the space from sequence to function to allow scientists to investigate an unusually broad range of questions. EcoCyc can be thought of as both an electronic review article because of its copious references to the primary literature, and as an in silicio model of E.coli metabolism that can be probed and analyzed through computational means. PMID:9016502

  6. Engineered Synthetic Pathway for Isopropanol Production in Escherichia coli? †

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, T.; Atsumi, S.; Liao, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    A synthetic pathway was engineered in Escherichia coli to produce isopropanol by expressing various combinations of genes from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, E. coli K-12 MG1655, Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B593, and Thermoanaerobacter brockii HTD4. The strain with the combination of C. acetobutylicum thl (acetyl-coenzyme A [CoA] acetyltransferase), E. coli atoAD (acetoacetyl-CoA transferase), C. acetobutylicum adc (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and C. beijerinckii adh (secondary alcohol dehydrogenase) achieved the highest titer. This strain produced 81.6 mM isopropanol in shake flasks with a yield of 43.5% (mol/mol) in the production phase. To our knowledge, this work is the first to produce isopropanol in E. coli, and the titer exceeded that from the native producers. PMID:17933911

  7. The Repeatability of Adaptive Radiation During Long-Term Experimental Evolution of Escherichia coli in a

    E-print Network

    Doebeli, Michael

    The Repeatability of Adaptive Radiation During Long- Term Experimental Evolution of Escherichia radiation, we performed a selection experiment by evolving twelve independent microcosms of Escherichia coli) The Repeatability of Adaptive Radiation During Long-Term Experimental Evolution of Escherichia coli in a Multiple

  8. Minimal Reaction Sets for Escherichia coli Metabolism under Different Growth Requirements and Uptake Environments

    E-print Network

    Maranas, Costas

    ARTICLES Minimal Reaction Sets for Escherichia coli Metabolism under Different Growth Requirements growth rates on different substrates is introduced and applied to a flux balance model of the Escherichia and Haemophilus influenzae must be mem- bers of a minimal genome. Interestingly, only 6 out of 26 Escherichia coli

  9. Transcriptome-based determination of multiple transcription regulator activities in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Sabatti, Chiara

    network connectiv- ity. We used Escherichia coli carbon source transition from glucose to acetate the Escherichia coli transition from glucose to acetate media as an example. When switching from a glycolyticTranscriptome-based determination of multiple transcription regulator activities in Escherichia

  10. In vivo translation rates can substantially delay the cotranslational folding of the Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Morimoto, Richard

    results indicate that, at in vivo translation rates, about one-third of the Escherichia coli cytosolic in Escherichia coli's proteome. systems biology | synonymous codons | chemical kinetics | chaperone | aggregationIn vivo translation rates can substantially delay the cotranslational folding of the Escherichia

  11. Resistance and virulence factors of Escherichia coli isolated from chicken.

    PubMed

    Pavlickova, Silvie; Dolezalova, Magda; Holko, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    Chicken meat has become an important part of the human diet and besides contamination by pathogenic Escherichia coli there is a risk of antibiotic resistance spreading via the food chain. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of resistance against eight antibiotics and the presence of 14 virulence factors among 75 Escherichia coli strains isolated from chicken meat in the Czech Republic after classification into phylogenetic groups by the multiplex PCR method. More than half of strains belonged to A phylogroup, next frequently represented was B1 phylogroup, which suggests the commensal strains. The other strains were classified into phylogroups B2 and D, which had more virulence factors. Almost half of all E. coli strains were resistant to at least one of eight-tested antibiotics. A multidrug resistance was observed in 13% of strains. The most prevalent virulence genes were iucD, iss and tsh. None of genes encoding toxins was detected. Most of E. coli strains isolated from chicken meat can be considered as nonpathogenic on the basis of analysis of virulence factors, antibiotic resistance and phylogroups assignment. It can provide a useful tool for prediction of a potential risk from food contaminated by E. coli. PMID:25844863

  12. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, Germán L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant proteins. Its use as a cell factory is well-established and it has become the most popular expression platform. For this reason, there are many molecular tools and protocols at hand for the high-level production of heterologous proteins, such as a vast catalog of expression plasmids, a great number of engineered strains and many cultivation strategies. We review the different approaches for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in E. coli and discuss recent progress in this ever-growing field. PMID:24860555

  13. Uncoupler Resistance in Escherichia coli: the Role of Cellular Respiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PHILIP G. QUIRK; MICHAEL R. JONES; ROBERT S. HAWORTH; R. BRIAN BEECHEY; IAIN D. CAMPBELL

    1989-01-01

    Bioenergetic properties of a mutant strain of Escherichia coli K12 designated TUV, which is resistant to the protonophoric uncoupling agent 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2-trifluoromethylbenzimid- azole (TTFB) have been compared with those of its non-resistant parent, E. coli K12 Doc-S. Strain TUV grew and respired some 20-30% faster than strain Doc-S, and was cross-resistant to carbonylcyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone and triphenyltin, but not to 2,4- dinitrophenol.

  14. Molecular Characterization of the EhaG and UpaG Trimeric Autotransporter Proteins from Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Totsika, Makrina; Wells, Timothy J.; Beloin, Christophe; Valle, Jaione; Allsopp, Luke P.; King, Nathan P.; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter proteins (TAAs) are important virulence factors of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. A common feature of most TAAs is the ability to mediate adherence to eukaryotic cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins via a cell surface-exposed passenger domain. Here we describe the characterization of EhaG, a TAA identified from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7. EhaG is a positional orthologue of the recently characterized UpaG TAA from uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Similarly to UpaG, EhaG localized at the bacterial cell surface and promoted cell aggregation, biofilm formation, and adherence to a range of ECM proteins. However, the two orthologues display differential cellular binding: EhaG mediates specific adhesion to colorectal epithelial cells while UpaG promotes specific binding to bladder epithelial cells. The EhaG and UpaG TAAs contain extensive sequence divergence in their respective passenger domains that could account for these differences. Indeed, sequence analyses of UpaG and EhaG homologues from several E. coli genomes revealed grouping of the proteins in clades almost exclusively represented by distinct E. coli pathotypes. The expression of EhaG (in EHEC) and UpaG (in UPEC) was also investigated and shown to be significantly enhanced in an hns isogenic mutant, suggesting that H-NS acts as a negative regulator of both TAAs. Thus, while the EhaG and UpaG TAAs contain some conserved binding and regulatory features, they also possess important differences that correlate with the distinct pathogenic lifestyles of EHEC and UPEC. PMID:22286983

  15. Use of Genetically Engineered Escherichia coli to Monitor Ingestion, Loss, and Transfer of Bacteria in Termites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Husseneder; J. K. Grace; D. E. Oishi

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli was transformed with a recombinant plasmid (pEGFP) containing the genes for ampicillin resistance and Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Escherichia coli expressing GFP ( E. coli\\/GFP+) was then fed to workers of the termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The transformed bacteria in the termite guts were detected by growing the gut flora under selective conditions and then checking

  16. Soil wetting state and preferential transport of Escherichia coli in clay soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Tallon; B. C. Si; D. Korber; X. Guo

    Tallon, L. K., Si, B. C., Korber, D. and Guo, X. 2007. Soil wetting state and preferential transport of Escherichia coli in clay soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 87: 61-72. Transport of Escherichia coli (E. coli) through soil to drinking and recreational water may pose a serious health risk. The objective of this study was to determine how initial preferred

  17. Persistence of cellulitis-associated Escherichia coli DNA ngerprints in successive broiler

    E-print Network

    Singer, Randall

    Persistence of cellulitis-associated Escherichia coli DNA ®ngerprints in successive broiler chicken in revised form 31 March 2000; accepted 31 March 2000 Abstract Avian cellulitis in broiler chickens is primarily caused by Escherichia coli. Previous research found that the E. coli isolates of cellulitis origin

  18. FRQUENCE DE ESCHERICHIA COLI ENTROPATHOGNE K99+ ST+ ET DU ROTAVIRUS DANS LES DIARRHES NONATALES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FRÉQUENCE DE ESCHERICHIA COLI ENTÉROPATHOGÈNE K99+ ST+ ET DU ROTAVIRUS DANS LES DIARRHÉES variée et complexe. Les trois, agents les plus fréquemment invo- qués sont Escherichia coli died. On the first visit, rota- virus was found in faeces of 11 diarrhoeic calves and E. coli K99+ ST

  19. Design and Diversity in Bacterial Chemotaxis: A Comparative Study in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Fernando, Chrisantha

    Design and Diversity in Bacterial Chemotaxis: A Comparative Study in Escherichia coli and Bacillus such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, swimming alternates between smooth runs and reorientating tumbles, in particular the feedback control structure, is also conserved. The bacterial chemotaxis pathways in E. coli

  20. Escherichia coli identification and strain discrimination using nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Rehse, Steven J.

    Escherichia coli identification and strain discrimination using nanosecond laser-induced breakdown April 2007 Three strains of Escherichia coli, one strain of environmental mold, and one strain and E. coli strains. This analysis showed efficient discrimination between laser-induced breakdown

  1. LETTER TO THE EDITOR Aminoacylated tmRNA from Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LETTER TO THE EDITOR Aminoacylated tmRNA from Escherichia coli interacts with prokaryoticRNAs (10Sa RNAs) are unique because they function, at least in Escherichia coli, both as tRNA and mRNA (for frame coding for 9 to 27 amino acids, depending on the species+ E. coli tmRNA mediates re- cycling

  2. Inactivation of Escherichia coli using atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahata, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ohyama, Ryu-ichiro; Ito, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    An atmospheric-pressure argon (Ar) plasma jet was applied to the inactivation of Escherichia coli. The Ar plasma jet was generated at a frequency of 10 kHz, an applied voltage of 10 kV, and an Ar gas flow rate of 10 L/min at atmospheric pressure. E. coli cells seeded on an agar medium in a Petri dish were inactivated by Ar plasma jet irradiation for 1 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that E. coli cells were killed because their cell wall and membrane were disrupted. To determine the causes of the disruption of the cell wall and membrane of E. coli, we performed the following experiments: the measurement of the surface temperature of an agar medium using a thermograph, the analysis of an emission spectrum of a plasma jet obtained using a multichannel spectrometer, and the determination of the distribution of the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated on an agar medium by plasma jet irradiation using semiquantitative test strips. Moreover, H2O2 solutions of different concentrations were dropped onto an agar medium seeded with E. coli cells to examine the contribution of H2O2 to the death of E. coli. The results of these experiments showed that the cell wall and membrane of E. coli were disrupted by electrons in the plasma jet, as well as by electroneutral excited nitrogen molecules (N2) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals in the periphery of the plasma jet.

  3. Acs is essential for propionate utilization in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengying; Gu, Jing; Wang, Xude; Zhang, Xian-En; Deng, Jiaoyu

    2014-07-01

    Bacteria like Escherichia coli can use propionate as sole carbon and energy source. All pathways for degradation of propionate start with propionyl-CoA. However, pathways of propionyl-CoA synthesis from propionate and their regulation mechanisms have not been carefully examined in E. coli. In this study, roles of the acetyl-CoA synthetase encoding gene acs and the NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase encoding gene cobB on propionate utilization in E. coli were investigated. Results from biochemical analysis showed that, reversible acetylation also modulates the propionyl-CoA synthetase activity of Acs. Subsequent genetic analysis revealed that, deletion of acs in E. coli results in blockage of propionate utilization, suggesting that acs is essential for propionate utilization in E. coli. Besides, deletion of cobB in E. coli also results in growth defect, but only under lower concentrations of propionate (5mM and 10mM propionate), suggesting the existence of other propionyl-CoA synthesis pathways. In combination with previous observations, our data implies that, for propionate utilization in E. coli, a primary amount of propionyl-CoA seems to be required, which is synthesized by Acs. PMID:24835953

  4. Fitness of Escherichia coli during Urinary Tract Infection Requires Gluconeogenesis and the TCA Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Alteri, Christopher J.; Smith, Sara N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial pathogenesis studies traditionally encompass dissection of virulence properties such as the bacterium's ability to elaborate toxins, adhere to and invade host cells, cause tissue damage, or otherwise disrupt normal host immune and cellular functions. In contrast, bacterial metabolism during infection has only been recently appreciated to contribute to persistence as much as their virulence properties. In this study, we used comparative proteomics to investigate the expression of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) cytoplasmic proteins during growth in the urinary tract environment and systematic disruption of central metabolic pathways to better understand bacterial metabolism during infection. Using two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and tandem mass spectrometry, it was found that UPEC differentially expresses 84 cytoplasmic proteins between growth in LB medium and growth in human urine (P<0.005). Proteins induced during growth in urine included those involved in the import of short peptides and enzymes required for the transport and catabolism of sialic acid, gluconate, and the pentose sugars xylose and arabinose. Proteins required for the biosynthesis of arginine and serine along with the enzyme agmatinase that is used to produce the polyamine putrescine were also up-regulated in urine. To complement these data, we constructed mutants in these genes and created mutants defective in each central metabolic pathway and tested the relative fitness of these UPEC mutants in vivo in an infection model. Import of peptides, gluconeogenesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle are required for E. coli fitness during urinary tract infection while glycolysis, both the non-oxidative and oxidative branches of the pentose phosphate pathway, and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway were dispensable in vivo. These findings suggest that peptides and amino acids are the primary carbon source for E. coli during infection of the urinary tract. Because anaplerosis, or using central pathways to replenish metabolic intermediates, is required for UPEC fitness in vivo, we propose that central metabolic pathways of bacteria could be considered critical components of virulence for pathogenic microbes. PMID:19478872

  5. Antibodies to Escherichia coli in chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Simjee, A E; Hamilton-Miller, J M; Thomas, H C; Brumfitt, W; Sherlock, S

    1975-01-01

    Patients with chronic active hepatitis or alcoholic cirrhosis have serum antibodies to many more serotypes of Escherichia coli than do patients with primary biliary cirrhosis or cryptogenic cirrhosis, or normal controls. They also have antibodies against more serotypes than cirrhotic patients with a portacaval shunt. These observations suggest that factors other than shunting of blood away from the liver are responsible for the increased range of antibodies. These factors are discussed. There was no correlation between the number of serotypes to which antibodies were present and the serum immunoglobulin concentration. In three patients, each with chronic active hepatitis, the antibodies were predominantly of the IgM class, while the elevation of globulin in general was mainly due to increased IgG and IgA levels. Antibodies to Escherichia coli, therefore, probably contribute only a small part of the increased globulin levels found in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:1104410

  6. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in captive black-footed ferrets.

    PubMed

    Bradley, G A; Orr, K; Reggiardo, C; Glock, R D

    2001-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with genes for heat stabile toxins Sta and STb was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract and multiple visceral organs of three adult and three juvenile black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) that died in a captive breeding colony between 24 May 1998 and 2 July 1998. Similar isolates were obtained from rectal swabs of one adult and one juvenile that were clinically ill. All were fed a diet composed of mink chow, raw rabbit meat, beef liver powder, blood meal and lard. Escherichia coli of the same toxin genotype was isolated from the mixed ration. Clinical signs included sudden death, dehydration, anorexia and diarrhea. Necropsy lesions included acute enteritis with large numbers of rod shaped bacteria microscopically visible on intestinal villi. PMID:11504237

  7. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Prevalence in Laboratory Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Swennes, Alton G.; Buckley, Ellen M.; Madden, Carolyn M.; Byrd, Charles P.; Donocoff, Rachel S.; Rodriguez, Loretta; Parry, Nicola M. A.; Fox, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit-origin enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) causes substantial diarrhea-associated morbidity and has zoonotic potential. A culture-based survey was undertaken to ascertain its prevalence. EPEC was isolated from 6/141 (4.3%) commercially-acquired laboratory rabbits. Three of these did not have diarrhea or EPEC-typical intestinal lesions; they instead had background plasmacytic intestinal inflammation. Asymptomatically infected rabbits may function as EPEC reservoirs. PMID:23391439

  8. Development of functionalised polyelectrolyte capsules using filamentous Escherichia coli cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli is one of the best studied microorganisms and finds multiple applications especially as tool in the heterologous production of interesting proteins of other organisms. The heterologous expression of special surface (S-) layer proteins caused the formation of extremely long E. coli cells which leave transparent tubes when they divide into single E. coli cells. Such natural structures are of high value as bio-templates for the development of bio-inorganic composites for many applications. In this study we used genetically modified filamentous Escherichia coli cells as template for the design of polyelectrolyte tubes that can be used as carrier for functional molecules or particles. Diversity of structures of biogenic materials has the potential to be used to construct inorganic or polymeric superior hybrid materials that reflect the form of the bio-template. Such bio-inspired materials are of great interest in diverse scientific fields like Biology, Chemistry and Material Science and can find application for the construction of functional materials or the bio-inspired synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. Results Genetically modified filamentous E. coli cells were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde and coated with alternating six layers of the polyanion polyelectrolyte poly(sodium-4styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and polycation polyelectrolyte poly(allylamine-hydrochloride) (PAH). Afterwards we dissolved the E. coli cells with 1.2% sodium hypochlorite, thus obtaining hollow polyelectrolyte tubes of 0.7 ?m in diameter and 5–50 ?m in length. For functionalisation the polyelectrolyte tubes were coated with S-layer protein polymers followed by metallisation with Pd(0) particles. These assemblies were analysed with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Conclusion The thus constructed new material offers possibilities for diverse applications like novel catalysts or metal nanowires for electrical devices. The novelty of this work is the use of filamentous E. coli templates and the use of S-layer proteins in a new material construct. PMID:23259586

  9. Genome dynamics and its impact on evolution of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich DobrindtM; M. Geddam Chowdary; G. Krumbholz; J. Hacker

    2010-01-01

    The Escherichia coli genome consists of a conserved part, the so-called core genome, which encodes essential cellular functions and of a flexible,\\u000a strain-specific part. Genes that belong to the flexible genome code for factors involved in bacterial fitness and adaptation\\u000a to different environments. Adaptation includes increase in fitness and colonization capacity. Pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic\\u000a bacteria carry mobile and

  10. Enzymatic Replication of the Origin of the Escherichia coli Chromosome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Fuller; Jon M. Kaguni; Arthur Kornberg

    1981-01-01

    An enzyme system that replicates plasmids bearing the origin of the Escherichia coli chromosome (oriC) has the following physiologically relevant features. The system (i) depends completely on low levels of exogenously furnished supercoiled oriC plasmids, (ii) uses only those plasmids that contain the intact oriC region of about 245 base pairs, (iii) initiates replication within or near the oriC sequence

  11. Localization of the Tat translocon components in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Berthelmann; Thomas Brüser

    2004-01-01

    The Tat system has the ability to translocate folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. In Escherichia coli, three functionally different translocon components have been identified, namely TatA, TatB, and TatC. These proteins were fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and their localization was determined by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. TatA-GFP was distributed in the membrane, often with

  12. Coding-Sequence Determinants of Gene Expression in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grzegorz Kudla; Andrew W. Murray; David Tollervey; Joshua B. Plotkin

    2009-01-01

    Synonymous mutations do not alter the encoded protein, but they can influence gene expression. To investigate how, we engineered a synthetic library of 154 genes that varied randomly at synonymous sites, but all encoded the same green fluorescent protein (GFP). When expressed in Escherichia coli, GFP protein levels varied 250-fold across the library. GFP messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, mRNA degradation

  13. Activation of Escherichia coli leuV Transcription by FIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILMA ROSS; JULIA SALOMON; WALTER M. HOLMES; RICHARD L. GOURSE

    1999-01-01

    The transcription factor FIS has been implicated in the regulation of several stable RNA promoters, including that for the major tRNALeu species in Escherichia coli, tRNA1 Leu . However, no evidence for direct involvement of FIS in tRNA1 Leu expression has been reported. We show here that FIS binds to a site upstream of the leuV promoter (centered at 271)

  14. Activation of glucose transport under oxidative stress in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Rungrassamee; X. Liu; P. J. Pomposiello

    2008-01-01

    Global transcription studies have identified a large number of redox-responsive genes, although the biological relevance of\\u000a this regulation has not been experimentally tested. In particular, several genes coding for enzymes involved in glucose metabolism\\u000a have been identified as redox-responsive in Escherichia coli. However, only zwf, which codes for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, has been shown experimentally to affect the cellular resistance to

  15. Cytoplasmic Protein Mobility in Osmotically Stressed Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Konopka; Kem A. Sochacki; Benjamin P. Bratton; Irina A. Shkel; M. Thomas Record; James C. Weisshaar

    2009-01-01

    Facile diffusion of globular proteins within a cytoplasm that is dense with biopolymers is essential to normal cellular biochemical activity and growth. Remarkably, Escherichia coli grows in minimal medium over a wide range of external osmolalities (0.03 to 1.8 osmol). The mean cytoplasmic biopolymer volume fraction () for such adapted cells ranges from 0.16 at 0.10 osmol to 0.36 at

  16. A physiology study of Escherichia coli overexpressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Pil

    2008-04-01

    To determine whether intracellular ATP levels can be affected, Escherichia coli overexpressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pck) or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (ppc) were grown in glucose minimal medium. The Pck-overexpressing cells showed approximately twice the intracellular ATP concentration, with 22% slower growth than the Ppc-overexpressing strain. This unexpected result of higher ATP coupled with slower growth is discussed based on transcriptome analysis. PMID:18391462

  17. Impact of rpoS Deletion on Escherichia coli Biofilms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JENNIFER L. ADAMS; ROBERT J. C. MCLEAN

    1999-01-01

    Slow growth has been hypothesized to be an essential aspect of bacterial physiology within biofilms. In order to test this hypothesis, we employed two strains of Escherichia coli, ZK126 (DlacZ rpoS1) and its isogenic DrpoS derivative, ZK1000. These strains were grown at two rates (0.033 and 0.0083 h21) in a glucose-limited chemostat which was coupled either to a modified Robbins

  18. Electric field induced bacterial flocculation of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli 042

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aloke; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Mukherjee, Partha P.; Retterer, Scott T.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.

    2011-06-01

    A response of the aggregation dynamics of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli under low magnitude steady and oscillating electric fields is presented. The presence of uniform electric fields hampered microbial adhesion and biofilm formation on a transverse glass surface, but instead promoted the formation of flocs. Extremely heterogenous distribution of live and dead cells was observed among the flocs. Moreover, floc formation was largely observed to be independent of the frequency of alternating electric fields.

  19. Characterization of a phosphotriesterase from genetically?engineered Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Karns; Alba Torrents

    1998-01-01

    A phosphotriesterase (PTE) capable of hydrolyzing organophosphate esters was purified from Escherichia coli strain DH?5? carrying a cloned opd gene from Flavobacterium. The effects of pH, temperature and metal ion concentrations on enzyme stability and activity were investigated. Optimum conditions for PTE's catalytic activity were determined to be 35°C and pH 8.5. Protein?metal equilibrium binding experiments showed that PTE could

  20. Expression of Aeromonas caviae bla genes in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameera Sayeed; Jon. R. Saunders; Clive Edwards; John E. Corkill; C. Anthony Hart

    1996-01-01

    An isolate of Aeromonas caviae 035 carried a 55.5 kb self-transfer able plasmid. Transfer of the plasmid to Escherichia coli K.12 resulted in the expression of a TEM-like ^-lactamase that was not expressed in parental A. caviae. The bla gene sequence was detectable by DNA hybridization and PCR amplification of the plasmid when extracted from parental A. caviae or from

  1. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Wild Cottontail Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, R; Glantz, P J; Anthony, R G

    1977-03-01

    Free-ranging cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) from two areas in central Pennsylvania were sampled over a 4-year period. Large numbers of coliforms were isolated from the intestinal tracts of these animals; in 136 of the 141 rabbits sampled, Escherichia coli was found to be a major component of the alimentary flora. Four serogroups (O7, O77, O73, and O103) were predominant among the isolates and were considered resistant coliflora of this species of cottontail rabbit. PMID:16345208

  2. Functional expression of an alkaline lipase in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed Rabbani; Hamid Mirmohammadsadeghi; Mohsen Ani; Koorosh Goodarzvand Chegini; Zahra Etemadifar; Fatemeh Moazen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to express and evaluate a previously cloned lipase gene. In this study, the cloned gene was\\u000a subcloned in the pET15bEscherichia coli BL21(DE3) expression system. The expression of the recombinant lipase was induced using 1 mM IPTG for 3 hours. The enzyme\\u000a activity was measured using p-nitrophenyl-decanoate as substrate. The recombinant lipase showed a

  3. Acetic acid accumulation in aerobic growth of recombinant Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Suárez; B. V. Kilikian

    2000-01-01

    A correlation between ?HAc (specific acetic acid accumulation rate) and ? (specific growth rate) for a recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 strain was defined under typical conditions to achieve high cell densities (fed-batch process, dissolved oxygen concentration higher than 30% saturation, semi-synthetic medium). The feeding rate of glucose was continuously adjusted in order to support constant values of ? (0.4, 0.3,

  4. Growth of an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in respiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lui Futatsugi; Hiromi Saito; Tomohito Kakegawa; Hiroshi Kobayashi

    1997-01-01

    An Escherichia coli mutant deficient in genes for heme biosynthesis grew in medium of initial pH 8 containing 1% tryptone and glucose under aerobic growth conditions, and its doubling time was approximately 60 min at 37°C. The growth rate was not increased under O2-limiting conditions. When the mutant was grown in medium of initial pH 6, growth stopped at the

  5. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by titanium dioxide photocatalytic oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, J C; Klostermann, P; Rice, E W; Clark, R M

    1993-01-01

    Titanium dioxide in the anatase crystalline form was used as a photocatalyst to generate hydroxyl radicals in a flowthrough water reactor. Experiments were performed on pure cultures of Escherichia coli in dechlorinated tap water and a surface water sample to evaluate the disinfection capabilities of the reactor. In water devoid of significant amounts of inorganic-radical scavengers, rapid cell death was observed with both pure cultures and members of the indigenous flora in a natural water sample. PMID:8390819

  6. Expression of cloned monkey metallothionein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Murooka, Y; Nagaoka, T

    1987-01-01

    Expression vectors were constructed in which a cDNA specifying the monkey kidney metallothionein-II (MT-II) was linked directly to the lambda PR promoter. Enhanced expression of MT-II in Escherichia coli was observed when two initiation signals were tandemly linked to the MT-II gene and the lambda cI+ host cells were induced by nalidixic acid. PMID:3103531

  7. Mechanisms Accounting for Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia K. Morgan-Linnell; Lauren Becnel Boyd; David Steffen; Lynn Zechiedrich

    2009-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone MICs are increased through the acquisition of chromosomal mutations in the genes encoding gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE), increased levels of the multidrug efflux pump AcrAB, and the plasmid-borne genes aac(6)-Ib-cr and the qnr variants in Escherichia coli .I n the accompanying report, we found that ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and norfloxacin MICs for fluo-

  8. Hepatitis A virus polyprotein processing by Escherichia coli proteases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa M. Pinto; Susana Guix; Juan F. Gonza; Santiago Caballero; Ke-Jian Guo; Enric Ribes; Albert Bosch

    2002-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) encodes a single polyprotein, which is post-translationally processed. This processing represents an essential step in capsid formation. The virus possesses only one protease, 3C, responsible for all cleavages, except for that at the VP1\\/2A junction region, which is processed by cellular proteases. In this study, data demonstrates that HAV polyprotein processing by Escherichia coli protease(s) leads

  9. Escherichia coli and Salmonella 2000: the View From Here

    PubMed Central

    Schaechter, Moselio

    2001-01-01

    Five years after the publication of the second edition of the reference book Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology, and on the eve of launching a successor venture, the editors and colleagues examine where we stand in our quest for an understanding of these organisms. The main areas selected for this brief inquiry are genomics, evolution, molecular multifunctionality, functional backups, regulation of gene expression, cell biology, sensing of the environment, and ecology. PMID:11238988

  10. Genome sequence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole T. Perna; Guy Plunkett; Valerie Burland; Bob Mau; Jeremy D. Glasner; Debra J. Rose; George F. Mayhew; Peter S. Evans; Jason Gregor; Heather A. Kirkpatrick; György Pósfai; Jeremiah Hackett; Sara Klink; Adam Boutin; Ying Shao; Leslie Miller; Erik J. Grotbeck; N. Wayne Davis; Alex Lim; Eileen T. Dimalanta; Konstantinos D. Potamousis; Jennifer Apodaca; Thomas S. Anantharaman; Jieyi Lin; Galex Yen; David C. Schwartz; Rodney A. Welch; Frederick R. Blattner

    2001-01-01

    The bacterium Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a worldwide threat to public health and has been implicated in many outbreaks of haemorrhagic colitis, some of which included fatalities caused by haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Close to 75,000 cases of O157:H7 infection are now estimated to occur annually in the United States. The severity of disease, the lack of effective treatment and the

  11. The Stringent Response and Cell Cycle Arrest in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Ferullo; Susan T. Lovett

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial stringent response, triggered by nutritional deprivation, causes an accumulation of the signaling nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp. We characterize the replication arrest that occurs during the stringent response in Escherichia coli. Wild type cells undergo a RelA-dependent arrest after treatment with serine hydroxamate to contain an integer number of chromosomes and a replication origin-to-terminus ratio of 1. The growth

  12. Biomolecular Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl), pellicle Formation (Pel) and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides) that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation. PMID:25438014

  13. Survival of Escherichia coli on strawberries grown under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Angela Laury; Svoboda, Amanda; Jie, Beatrice; Nonnecke, Gail; Mendonca, Aubrey

    2015-04-01

    Strawberries are soft fruit that are not recommended to have a post-harvest wash due to quality concerns. Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been linked to outbreaks with strawberries but little is known about the survival of E. coli during the growth cycle of strawberries. The survival of E. coli on strawberry plants during growing under greenhouses conditions was evaluated. Soil, leaves, and strawberries (if present) were artificially contaminated with an E. coli surrogate either at the time of planting, first runner removal (4 wk), second runner removal (8 wk), or one week prior to harvest. At harvest E. coli was recovered from the leaves, soil, and strawberries regardless of the contamination time. Time of contamination influenced (P < 0.05) numbers of viable E. coli on the plant. The highest survival of E. coli (P < 0.0001) was detected in soil that was contaminated at planting (4.27 log10 CFU g soil(-1)), whereas, the survival of E. coli was maximal at later contamination times (8 wk and 1 wk prior to harvest) for the leaves (4.40 and 4.68 log10 CFU g leaves(-1)) and strawberries (3.37 and 3.53 log10 CFU strawberry(-1)). Cross contamination from leaves to fruit was observed during this study, with the presence of E. coli on strawberries which had not been present at the time of contamination. These results indicate that good agricultural best practices to avoid contamination are necessary to minimize the risk of contamination of these popular fruit with enteric pathogens. Practices should include soil testing prior to harvest and avoiding contamination of the leaves. PMID:25475285

  14. Bacteriophage cocktail significantly reduces Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Chandi D.; Parks, Adam; Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Woolston, Joelle; Magnone, Joshua; Senecal, Andre; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Foods contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 cause more than 63,000 foodborne illnesses in the United States every year, resulting in a significant economic impact on medical costs and product liabilities. Efforts to reduce contamination with E. coli O157:H7 have largely focused on washing, application of various antibacterial chemicals, and gamma-irradiation, each of which has practical and environmental drawbacks. A relatively recent, environmentally-friendly approach proposed for eliminating or significantly reducing E. coli O157:H7 contamination of foods is the use of lytic bacteriophages as biocontrol agents. We found that EcoShield™, a commercially available preparation composed of three lytic bacteriophages specific for E. coli O157:H7, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the levels of the bacterium in experimentally contaminated beef by ? 94% and in lettuce by 87% after a five minute contact time. The reduced levels of bacteria were maintained for at least one week at refrigerated temperatures. However, the one-time application of EcoShield™ did not protect the foods from recontamination with E. coli O157:H7. Our results demonstrate that EcoShield™ is effective in significantly reducing contamination of beef and lettuce with E. coli O157:H7, but does not protect against potential later contamination due to, for example, unsanitary handling of the foods post processing. PMID:23275869

  15. Preharvest control of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle.

    PubMed

    LeJeune, J T; Wetzel, A N

    2007-03-01

    Bovine manure is an important source of Escherichia coli O157 contamination of the environment and foods; therefore, effective interventions targeted at reducing the prevalence and magnitude of fecal E. coli O157 excretion by live cattle (preharvest) are desirable. Preharvest intervention methods can be grouped into 3 categories: 1) exposure reduction strategies, 2) exclusion strategies, and 3) direct antipathogen strategies. Exposure reduction involves environmental management targeted at reducing bovine exposure to E. coli O157 through biosecurity and environmental niche management such as feed and drinking water hygiene, reduced exposure to insects or wildlife, and improved cleanliness of the bedding or pen floor. In the category of exclusion, we group vaccination and dietary modifications such as selection of specific feed components; feeding of prebiotics, probiotics, or both; and supplementation with competitive exclusion cultures to limit proliferation of E. coli O157 in or on exposed animals. Direct antipathogen strategies include treatment with sodium chlorate, antibiotics, bacteriophages, in addition to washing of animals before slaughter. Presently, only 1 preharvest control for E. coli O157 in cattle has been effective and has gained widespread adoption-the feeding probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus. More research into the effectiveness of parallel and simultaneous application of 1 or more preharvest control strategies, as well as the identification of new pre-harvest control methods, may provide practical means to substantially reduce the incidence of human E. coli O157-related illness by intervening at the farm level. PMID:17145967

  16. Proximity-Dependent Inhibition in Escherichia coli Isolates from Cattle?

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Ashish A.; Casavant, N. Carol; Call, Douglas R.; Besser, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel proximity-dependent inhibition phenotype of Escherichia coli that is expressed when strains are cocultured in defined minimal media. When cocultures of “inhibitor” and “target” strains approached a transition between logarithmic and stationary growth, target strain populations rapidly declined >4 log CFU per ml over a 2-h period. Inhibited strains were not affected by exposure to conditioned media from inhibitor and target strain cocultures or when the inhibitor and target strains were incubated in shared media but physically separated by a 0.4-?m-pore-size membrane. There was no evidence of lytic phage or extracellular bacteriocin involvement, unless the latter was only present at effective concentrations within immediate proximity of the inhibited cells. The inhibitory activity observed in this study was effective against a diversity of E. coli strains, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli serotype O157:H7, enterotoxigenic E. coli expressing F5 (K99) and F4 (K88) fimbriae, multidrug-resistant E. coli, and commensal E. coli. The decline in counts of target strains in coculture averaged 4.8 log CFU/ml (95% confidence interval, 4.0 to 5.5) compared to their monoculture counts. Coculture of two inhibitor strains showed mutual immunity to inhibition. These results suggest that proximity-dependent inhibition can be used by bacteria to gain a numerical advantage when populations are entering stationary phase, thus setting the stage for a competitive advantage when growth conditions improve. PMID:21296941

  17. Escherichia coli sequence type 131: epidemiology and challenges in treatment.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Zubair A; Doi, Yohei

    2014-05-01

    Escherichia coli ST131 has emerged as a global epidemic, multidrug-resistant clone of E. coli causing extra-intestinal infections. It is now highly prevalent among fluoroquinolone-resistant and CTX-M ESBL-producing E. coli isolates worldwide. Humans are likely the primary reservoir of ST131. Factors associated with its acquisition include residence in long-term care facilities and recent receipt of antimicrobial agents. E. coli ST131 causes a wide array of infections ranging from cystitis to life-threatening sepsis. Fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are no longer adequate options for empiric therapy when E. coli ST131 is suspected from risk factors and local epidemiology. Expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems are options to treat serious non-ESBL-producing E. coli ST131 infections, while carbapenems are indicated for ESBL-producing infections. There is a growing interest in reevaluating oral agents including fosfomycin and pivmecillinam for less serious infections such as uncomplicated cystitis. PMID:24694052

  18. Engineering Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 to use starch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To attain a sustainable bioeconomy, fuel, or valuable product, production must use biomass as substrate. Starch is one of the most abundant biomass resources and is present as waste or as a food and agroindustry by-product. Unfortunately, Escherichia coli, one of the most widely used microorganisms in biotechnological processes, cannot use starch as a carbon source. Results We engineered an E. coli strain capable of using starch as a substrate. The genetic design employed the native capability of the bacterium to use maltodextrins as a carbon source plus expression and secretion of its endogenous ?-amylase, AmyA, in an adapted background. Biomass production improved using 35% dissolved oxygen and pH 7.2 in a controlled bioreactor. Conclusion The engineered E. coli strain can use starch from the milieu and open the possibility of optimize the process to use agroindustrial wastes to produce biofuels and other valuable chemicals. PMID:24886307

  19. Expression in Escherichia coli: becoming faster and more complex.

    PubMed

    Vincentelli, Renaud; Romier, Christophe

    2013-06-01

    Escherichia coli is the major expression host for the production of homogeneous protein samples for structural studies. The introduction of high-throughput technologies in the last decade has further revitalized E. coli expression, with rapid assessment of different expression strategies and successful production of an ever-increasing number of proteins. In addition, miniaturization of biophysical characterizations should soon help choosing expression strategies based on quantitative and qualitative observations. Since many proteins form larger assemblies in vivo, dedicated co-expression systems for E. coli are now addressing the reconstitution of protein complexes. Yet, co-expression approaches show an increasing experimental combinatorial intricacy when considering larger complexes. The current combination of high-throughput and co-expression technologies paves the way, however, for tackling larger and more complex macromolecular assemblies. PMID:23422067

  20. Functions of the gene products of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, M

    1993-01-01

    A list of currently identified gene products of Escherichia coli is given, together with a bibliography that provides pointers to the literature on each gene product. A scheme to categorize cellular functions is used to classify the gene products of E. coli so far identified. A count shows that the numbers of genes concerned with small-molecule metabolism are on the same order as the numbers concerned with macromolecule biosynthesis and degradation. One large category is the category of tRNAs and their synthetases. Another is the category of transport elements. The categories of cell structure and cellular processes other than metabolism are smaller. Other subjects discussed are the occurrence in the E. coli genome of redundant pairs and groups of genes of identical or closely similar function, as well as variation in the degree of density of genetic information in different parts of the genome. PMID:7508076

  1. Biofilm Modifies Expression of Ribonucleotide Reductase Genes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cendra, Maria del Mar; Juárez, Antonio; Torrents, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an essential enzyme for all living organisms since is the responsible for the last step in the synthesis of the four deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs) necessary for DNA replication and repair. In this work, we have investigated the expression of the three-RNR classes (Ia, Ib and III) during Escherichia coli biofilm formation. We show the temporal and spatial importance of class Ib and III RNRs during this process in two different E. coli wild-type strains, the commensal MG1655 and the enteropathogenic and virulent E2348/69, the prototype for the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). We have established that class Ib RNR, so far considered cryptic, play and important role during biofilm formation. The implication of this RNR class under the specific growth conditions of biofilm formation is discussed. PMID:23050019

  2. Overexpression and purification of asparagine synthetase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, A; Kato, H; Nishioka, T; Oda, J

    1992-03-01

    Overexpression of the asnA gene from Escherichia coli K-12 coding for asparagine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.1) was achieved with a plasmid, pUNAd37, a derivative of pUC18, in E. coli. The plasmid was constructed by optimizing a DNA sequence between the promoter and the ribosome binding region. The enzyme, comprising ca. 15% of the total soluble protein in the E. coli cell, was readily purified to apparent homogeneity by DEAE-Cellulofine and Blue-Cellulofine column chromatographies. The amino-terminal sequence, amino acid composition, and molecular weight of the purified protein agreed with the predicted values based on the DNA sequence of the gene. Furthermore the native molecular weight measured by gel filtration confirmed that asparagine synthetase exists as a dimer of identical subunits. PMID:1369484

  3. Effect of tannins on the in viro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and in vivo growth of generic Escherichia coli excreted from steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of commercially available chestnut and mimosa tannins in vitro (experiment 1) or in vivo (experiment 2) on the growth or recovery of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or generic fecal E. coli was evaluated. In experiment 1, the mean growth rate of E. coli O157:H7, determined via the measurement o...

  4. ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Escherichia coli ????????????????????????? ISOLATION AND SCREENING OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA CAPABLE OF INHIBITING GROWTH OF SOME ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM SWINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mongkhon Punyarat; Narumol Thongwai

    One hundred and forty-seven strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from some soils, fermented foods, vegetables, fruits, milk and animal products. After cultivation in MRS broth at 37 ?C for 96 hours, each culture supernatant was evaluated its growth inhibitory activity by using a paper disc diffusion method against one strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and nine strains

  5. Blocking Yersiniabactin Import Attenuates Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Cystitis and Pyelonephritis and Represents a Novel Target To Prevent Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Brumbaugh, Ariel R; Smith, Sara N; Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Hazen, Tracy H; Rasko, David A; Mobley, Harry L T

    2015-04-01

    The emergence and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases among common bacterial pathogens are threatening our ability to treat routine hospital- and community-acquired infections. With the pipeline for new antibiotics virtually empty, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics. Bacteria require iron to establish infection, and specialized pathogen-associated iron acquisition systems like yersiniabactin, common among pathogenic species in the family Enterobacteriaceae, including multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and pathogenic Escherichia coli, represent potentially novel therapeutic targets. Although the yersiniabactin system was recently identified as a vaccine target for uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC)-mediated urinary tract infection (UTI), its contribution to UPEC pathogenesis is unknown. Using an E. coli mutant (strain 536?fyuA) unable to acquire yersiniabactin during infection, we established the yersiniabactin receptor as a UPEC virulence factor during cystitis and pyelonephritis, a fitness factor during bacteremia, and a surface-accessible target of the experimental FyuA vaccine. In addition, we determined through transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of RNA from E. coli causing cystitis in women that iron acquisition systems, including the yersiniabactin system, are highly expressed by bacteria during natural uncomplicated UTI. Given that yersiniabactin contributes to the virulence of several pathogenic species in the family Enterobacteriaceae, including UPEC, and is frequently associated with multidrug-resistant strains, it represents a promising novel target to combat antibiotic-resistant infections. PMID:25624354

  6. EXPERIMENTAL MASTITIS WITH ESCHERICHIA COLI: SEQUENTIAL RESPONSE OF LEUKOCYTES AND OPSONIC ACTIVITY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EXPERIMENTAL MASTITIS WITH ESCHERICHIA COLI: SEQUENTIAL RESPONSE OF LEUKOCYTES AND OPSONIC ACTIVITY infusion of bacteria (Hill, 1979); b) opsonic activity is required in milk to enable polymorphonuclear

  7. Autoinducer 2-based quorum sensing response of Escherichia coli to sub-therapeutic tetracycline exposure

    E-print Network

    Lu, Lingeng

    2006-10-30

    -therapeutic tetracycline, the expression of genes associated with the conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids, and the conjugal transfer of these plasmids in Escherichia coli. The studies showed that AI-2 activity increased in Tets E. coli in the presence...

  8. Global dissemination of a multidrug resistant Escherichia coli clone

    PubMed Central

    Petty, Nicola K.; Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Stanton-Cook, Mitchell; Skippington, Elizabeth; Totsika, Makrina; Forde, Brian M.; Phan, Minh-Duy; Gomes Moriel, Danilo; Peters, Kate M.; Davies, Mark; Rogers, Benjamin A.; Dougan, Gordon; Rodriguez-Baño, Jesús; Pascual, Alvaro; Pitout, Johann D. D.; Upton, Mathew; Paterson, David L.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Schembri, Mark A.; Beatson, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a globally disseminated, multidrug resistant (MDR) clone responsible for a high proportion of urinary tract and bloodstream infections. The rapid emergence and successful spread of E. coli ST131 is strongly associated with several factors, including resistance to fluoroquinolones, high virulence gene content, the possession of the type 1 fimbriae FimH30 allele, and the production of the CTX-M-15 extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL). Here, we used genome sequencing to examine the molecular epidemiology of a collection of E. coli ST131 strains isolated from six distinct geographical locations across the world spanning 2000–2011. The global phylogeny of E. coli ST131, determined from whole-genome sequence data, revealed a single lineage of E. coli ST131 distinct from other extraintestinal E. coli strains within the B2 phylogroup. Three closely related E. coli ST131 sublineages were identified, with little association to geographic origin. The majority of single-nucleotide variants associated with each of the sublineages were due to recombination in regions adjacent to mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The most prevalent sublineage of ST131 strains was characterized by fluoroquinolone resistance, and a distinct virulence factor and MGE profile. Four different variants of the CTX-M ESBL–resistance gene were identified in our ST131 strains, with acquisition of CTX-M-15 representing a defining feature of a discrete but geographically dispersed ST131 sublineage. This study confirms the global dispersal of a single E. coli ST131 clone and demonstrates the role of MGEs and recombination in the evolution of this important MDR pathogen. PMID:24706808

  9. Escherichia coli O157 and other Shiga toxin producting E. coli: detection by immunomagnetic particle-based assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome and are important food-borne pathogens that can contaminate various types of food. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service declared E. coli O157:H7 a...

  10. Dual infection with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in post-weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Wada, Y; Nakaoka, Y; Kondo, H; Nakazawa, M; Kubo, M

    1996-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhoea in pigs occurred on two farms in Hokkaido, Japan, in 1994. Four piglets aged 35 or 45 days were examined after death. At necropsy, ecchymotic haemorrhages were seen on the mucosal surface of the caecum and colon. Histopathologically, numerous Gram-negative bacilli adhered to the brush border of the small intestines, but the brush border itself was intact. Typical attaching and effacing (AE) lesions were seen in the caecum and colon. Immunohistochemically, the bacilli which adhered to the brush border gave positive results with antisera against serogroup O149 of Escherichia coli; the bacilli which caused the AE lesions, however, belonged to serogroup O45. It was concluded that the disease resulted from dual infection with attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). PMID:8729084

  11. Soil solarization reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli on cattle feedlot pen surfaces.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E

    2012-01-01

    Feedlot pen soil is a source for transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and therefore a target for preharvest strategies to reduce this pathogen in cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of soil solarization to reduce E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot surface material (FSM). A feedlot pen was identified in which naturally occurring E. coli O157:H7 was prevalent and evenly distributed in the FSM. Forty plots 3 by 3 m were randomly assigned such that five plots of each of the solarization times of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks were examined. Temperature loggers were placed 7.5 cm below the surface of each plot, and plots to be solarized were covered with clear 6-mil polyethylene. At each sampling time, five FSM samples were collected from each of five solarized and five unsolarized plots. E. coli concentrations and E. coli O157:H7 presence by immunomagnetic separation and plating were determined for each FSM sample. Initial percentages of E. coli O157:H7-positive samples in control and solarized FSM were 84 and 80%, respectively, and did not differ (P > 0.05). E. coli O157:H7 was no longer detectable by 8 weeks of solarization, but was still detected in unsolarized FSM at 10 weeks. The average initial concentration of E. coli in FSM was 5.56 log CFU/g and did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05). There was a 2.0-log decrease of E. coli after 1 week of solarization, and a >3.0-log reduction of E. coli by week 6 of solarization (P, 0.05). E. coli levels remained unchanged in unsolarized FSM (P > 0.05). Daily peak FSM temperatures were on average 8.7°C higher for solarized FSM compared with unsolarized FSM, and reached temperatures as high as 57°C. Because soil solarization reduces E. coli O157:H7, this technique may be useful for reduction of persistence and transmission of this pathogen in cattle production, in addition to remediation of E. coli O157:H7-contaminated soil used to grow food crops. PMID:22221349

  12. Analyzing the Escherichia coli Gene Expression Data by a Multilayer Adjusted Tree Organizing Map

    E-print Network

    Gruenwald, Le

    on biological data, none of them has examined the Escherichia coli (E. coli) gene expression data. This paper using the E. coli gene expression data, and a new evaluation method to assess them. The results show on clustering the E. coli gene expression data in order to identify unknown genes involved in the Acid Tolerance

  13. Predicting non-coding RNA genes in Escherichia coli with boosted genetic programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Several methods exist for predicting non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes in Escherichia coli (E.coli therefore speculate that E.coli contains more ncRNA genes than previously estimated. INTRODUCTION Non. We describe a method that uses automatic discovery of sequence patterns to predict ncRNA genes in E.coli

  14. Environmental Escherichia coli occur as natural plant growth-promoting soil bacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal; Ateequr Rehman; Puneet Singh Chauhan

    2010-01-01

    Currently, it is presumed that Escherichia coli is not a normal inhabitant of the soil. Soilborne E. coli strains were isolated from broad range of 7 geoclimatic zones of India, indicating that E. coli can survive and thrive under different extreme soil conditions. Diversity among E. coli strains from widely separated geographic regions using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR did

  15. Recent Advances in Understanding Enteric Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Croxen, Matthew A.; Law, Robyn J.; Scholz, Roland; Keeney, Kristie M.; Wlodarska, Marta

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Although Escherichia coli can be an innocuous resident of the gastrointestinal tract, it also has the pathogenic capacity to cause significant diarrheal and extraintestinal diseases. Pathogenic variants of E. coli (pathovars or pathotypes) cause much morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consequently, pathogenic E. coli is widely studied in humans, animals, food, and the environment. While there are many common features that these pathotypes employ to colonize the intestinal mucosa and cause disease, the course, onset, and complications vary significantly. Outbreaks are common in developed and developing countries, and they sometimes have fatal consequences. Many of these pathotypes are a major public health concern as they have low infectious doses and are transmitted through ubiquitous mediums, including food and water. The seriousness of pathogenic E. coli is exemplified by dedicated national and international surveillance programs that monitor and track outbreaks; unfortunately, this surveillance is often lacking in developing countries. While not all pathotypes carry the same public health profile, they all carry an enormous potential to cause disease and continue to present challenges to human health. This comprehensive review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal pathotypes of E. coli. PMID:24092857

  16. Expression analysis of cloned chromosomal segments of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, P; Hutton, M E; VanBogelen, R A; Clark, R L; Neidhardt, F C

    1993-01-01

    The novel transcription system of bacteriophage T7 was used to express Escherichia coli genes preferentially with a new low-copy-number plasmid vector, pFN476, to minimize toxic gene effects. Selected E. coli chromosomal fragments from an ordered genomic library (Y. Kohara, K. Ikiyama, and K. Isono, Cell 50:495-508, 1987) were recloned into this vector, and their genes were preferentially expressed in vivo utilizing its T7 promoter. The protein products were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. By using DNA sequence information, the gel migration was predicted for the protein products of open reading frames from these segments, and this information was used to identify gene products visualized as spots on two-dimensional gels. Even in the absence of DNA sequence information, this approach offers the opportunity to identify all gene products of E. coli and map their genes to within 10 kb on the E. coli genome; with sequence information, this approach can produce a definitive expression map of the E. coli genome. Images PMID:8349554

  17. Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli Serotypes from Cochin Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Divya P.; Durairaj, Srinivasan; Abdulla, Mohamed Hatha

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at detecting the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant serotypes of Escherichia coli in Cochin estuary, India. E. coli strains were isolated during the period January 2010–December 2011 from five different stations set at Cochin estuary. Water samples from five different stations in Cochin estuary were collected on a monthly basis for a period of two years. Isolates were serotyped, antibiogram-phenotyped for twelve antimicrobial agents, and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction for uid gene that codes for ?-D-glucuronidase. These E. coli strains from Cochin estuary were tested against twelve antibiotics to determine the prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance among them. The results revealed that more than 53.33% of the isolates were multiple antibiotic resistant. Thirteen isolates showed resistance to sulphonamides and two of them contained the sul 1 gene. Class 1 integrons were detected in two E. coli strains which were resistant to more than seven antibiotics. In the present study, O serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity, and polymerase chain reaction were employed with the purpose of establishing the present distribution of multiple antibiotic-resistant serotypes, associated with E. coli isolated from different parts of Cochin estuary. PMID:23008708

  18. The Escherichia coli Proteome: Past, Present, and Future Prospects†

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mee-Jung; Lee, Sang Yup

    2006-01-01

    Proteomics has emerged as an indispensable methodology for large-scale protein analysis in functional genomics. The Escherichia coli proteome has been extensively studied and is well defined in terms of biochemical, biological, and biotechnological data. Even before the entire E. coli proteome was fully elucidated, the largest available data set had been integrated to decipher regulatory circuits and metabolic pathways, providing valuable insights into global cellular physiology and the development of metabolic and cellular engineering strategies. With the recent advent of advanced proteomic technologies, the E. coli proteome has been used for the validation of new technologies and methodologies such as sample prefractionation, protein enrichment, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, protein detection, mass spectrometry (MS), combinatorial assays with n-dimensional chromatographies and MS, and image analysis software. These important technologies will not only provide a great amount of additional information on the E. coli proteome but also synergistically contribute to other proteomic studies. Here, we review the past development and current status of E. coli proteome research in terms of its biological, biotechnological, and methodological significance and suggest future prospects. PMID:16760308

  19. Environmental Factors Affecting Indole Production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Han, Thi Hiep; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Wood, Thomas K.; Lee, Jintae

    2011-01-01

    A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole as an intracellular signal in microbial communities. Biosynthesis of indole is well-studied, and while carbon sources and amino acids are important environmental cues for indole production in Escherichia coli, other environmental factors affecting indole production for this strain are less clear. This study demonstrates that the environmental cue pH is an important factor for indole production that further controls biofilm formation of E. coli. Moreover, E. coli produced a higher level of extracellular indole in the presence of the antibiotics ampicillin and kanamycin, and the increased indole enhanced cell survival during antibiotic stress. Additionally, we found here that temperature is another important factor for indole production; E. coli produces and accumulates a large amount of indole at 50°C, even at low cell densities. Overall, our results suggest that indole is a stable biological compound, and E. coli may utilize indole to protect itself against other microorganisms. PMID:21145393

  20. Escherichia coli ST131, an intriguing clonal group.

    PubMed

    Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Bertrand, Xavier; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2014-07-01

    In 2008, a previously unknown Escherichia coli clonal group, sequence type 131 (ST131), was identified on three continents. Today, ST131 is the predominant E. coli lineage among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolates worldwide. Retrospective studies have suggested that it may originally have risen to prominence as early as 2003. Unlike other classical group B2 ExPEC isolates, ST131 isolates are commonly reported to produce extended-spectrum ?-lactamases, such as CTX-M-15, and almost all are resistant to fluoroquinolones. Moreover, ST131 E. coli isolates are considered to be truly pathogenic, due to the spectrum of infections they cause in both community and hospital settings and the large number of virulence-associated genes they contain. ST131 isolates therefore seem to contradict the widely held view that high levels of antimicrobial resistance are necessarily associated with a fitness cost leading to a decrease in pathogenesis. Six years after the first description of E. coli ST131, this review outlines the principal traits of ST131 clonal group isolates, based on the growing body of published data, and highlights what is currently known and what we need to find out to provide public health authorities with better information to help combat ST131. PMID:24982321

  1. The Genetic Basis of Escherichia coli Pathoadaptation to Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miskinyte, Migla; Sousa, Ana; Ramiro, Ricardo S.; de Sousa, Jorge A. Moura; Kotlinowski, Jerzy; Caramalho, Iris; Magalhães, Sara; Soares, Miguel P.; Gordo, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Antagonistic interactions are likely important driving forces of the evolutionary process underlying bacterial genome complexity and diversity. We hypothesized that the ability of evolved bacteria to escape specific components of host innate immunity, such as phagocytosis and killing by macrophages (M?), is a critical trait relevant in the acquisition of bacterial virulence. Here, we used a combination of experimental evolution, phenotypic characterization, genome sequencing and mathematical modeling to address how fast, and through how many adaptive steps, a commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) acquire this virulence trait. We show that when maintained in vitro under the selective pressure of host M? commensal E. coli can evolve, in less than 500 generations, virulent clones that escape phagocytosis and M? killing in vitro, while increasing their pathogenicity in vivo, as assessed in mice. This pathoadaptive process is driven by a mechanism involving the insertion of a single transposable element into the promoter region of the E. coli yrfF gene. Moreover, transposition of the IS186 element into the promoter of Lon gene, encoding an ATP-dependent serine protease, is likely to accelerate this pathoadaptive process. Competition between clones carrying distinct beneficial mutations dominates the dynamics of the pathoadaptive process, as suggested from a mathematical model, which reproduces the observed experimental dynamics of E. coli evolution towards virulence. In conclusion, we reveal a molecular mechanism explaining how a specific component of host innate immunity can modulate microbial evolution towards pathogenicity. PMID:24348252

  2. GENETIC CONTROL OF RESTRICTION AND MODIFICATION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI1

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Herbert

    1964-01-01

    Boyer, Herbert (Yale University, New Haven, Conn.). Genetic control of restriction and modification in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:1652–1660. 1964.—Bacterial crosses with K-12 strains of Escherichia coli as Hfr donors (Hfr Hayes, Hfr Cavalli, and Hfr P4X-6) and B/r strains of E. coli as F? recipients were found to differ from crosses between K-12 Hfr donors and K-12 F? recipients in two ways: (i) recombinants (leu, pro, lac, and gal) did not appear at discrete time intervals but did appear simultaneously 30 min after matings were initiated, and (ii) the linkage of unselected markers to selected markers was reduced. Integration of a genetic region linked to the threonine locus of K-12 into the B/r genome resulted in a hybrid which no longer gave anomalous results in conjugation experiments. A similar region of the B strain was introduced into the K-12 strain, which then behaved as a typical B F? recipient. These observations are interpreted as the manifestation of host-controlled modification and restriction on the E. coli chromosome. This was verified by experiments on the restriction and modification of the bacteriophage lambda, F-lac, F-gal, and sex-factor, F1. It was found that the genetic region that controlled the mating responses of the K-12 and B/r strains also controlled the modification and restriction properties of these two strains. The genes responsible for the restricting and modifying properties of the K-12 and B strains of E. coli were found to be allelic, linked to each other, and linked to the threonine locus. PMID:14240953

  3. Effects of exogenous nutrients on polyketide biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zeng, Jia; Zhang, Shuwei; Gladwin, Tyler; Zhan, Jixun

    2015-01-01

    Heterologous hosts are important platforms for engineering natural product biosynthesis. Escherichia coli is such a host widely used for expression of various biosynthetic enzymes. While numerous studies have been focused on optimizing the expression conditions for desired functional proteins, this work describes how supplement of exogenous nutrients into the fermentation broth influences the formation of natural products in E. coli. A type III polyketide synthase gene stts from Streptomyces toxytricini NRRL 15443 was heterogeneously expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). This enzyme uses five units of malonyl-CoA to generate a polyketide 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene, which can be spontaneously oxidized into a red compound flaviolin. In this work, we manipulated the fermentation broth of E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET28a-stts by supplying different nutrients including glucose and sodium pyruvate at different concentrations, from which six flaviolin derivatives 1-6 were produced. While addition of glucose yielded the production of 1-4, supplement of sodium pyruvate into the induced broth of E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET28a-stts resulted in the synthesis of 5 and 6, suggesting that different nutrients may enable E. coli to generate different metabolites. These products were purified and structurally characterized based on the spectral data, among which 2-6 are novel compounds. These molecules were formed through addition of different moieties such as acetone and indole to the flaviolin scaffold. The concentrations of glucose and sodium pyruvate and incubation time affect the product profiles. This work demonstrates that supplement of nutrients can link certain intracellular metabolites to the engineered biosynthetic pathway to yield new products. It provides a new approach to biosynthesizing novel molecules in the commonly used heterologous host E. coli. PMID:25411046

  4. Transport of purines and deoxyadenosine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Roy-Burman, S; Visser, D W

    1975-12-25

    The characteristics of adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uracil uptake in Escherichia coli B show that each base is transported by a specific system. The data support the concept that the transport of guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uracil function without direct involvement of the respective purine or pyrimidine phosphoribosyltransferase enzymes. Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase is not demonstrable in E. coli B, and large differences are observed in the inhibitory effects of heterologous purines on the uptake of guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine as compared to the corresponding inhibitory effects reported for the soluble purine phosphoribosyltransferase enzymes of E. coli B. Additional evidence is provided by the low Km values determined for the transport of adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine relative to the corresponding Km values for the phosphoribosyltransferase enzymes. Data are presented indicating that adenine may be transported without participation of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. The stimulatory effect of glucose, the inhibitory effect of KCN, and the high intracellular to extracellular concentration gradients of the bases produced in the presence of glucose provide evidence that the transport processes are energy-dependent. The Km values for transport of the purines and uracil range from 10(-7) M to 5 X 10(-7) M. Characteristics of adenine and uracil uptake are similar in E. coli B, E. coli K-12, and a showdomycin-resistant mutant of E. coli B. Adenosine and deoxyadenosine are transported in E. coli B by independent transport systems. Adenine or hypoxanthine does not share the adenosine or deoxyadenosine transport systems as evidence by the mutual lack of competition of free bases and nucleosides on transport. The transport systems for deoxyadenosine and adenosine are defective in the mutant. PMID:1104620

  5. Contamination of beef chucks with Escherichia coli during carcass breaking.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; McGinnis, J C; Bryant, J

    2001-11-01

    Samples were obtained by swabbing the whole of the chuck portion on each of the first 500 sides that entered a beef carcass breaking process and the whole of the outer surface of each of the chuck primal cuts that were prepared from those portions. Swabs obtained from groups of 10 sides or cuts that entered or emerged from the process consecutively were combined, and the coliforms and Escherichia coli recovered from each group were enumerated. Coliforms and E. coli were recovered only sporadically from groups of sides at log total numbers of 4.0 and 3.5 log CFU/500 sides, respectively. Coliforms were recovered from three and E. coli from none of the first six groups of cuts. Coliforms and E. coli were recovered from all subsequent groups of cuts, initially at log numbers mostly <3 log CFU/10 cuts, but ultimately at log numbers mostly >3 log CFU/10 cuts. The log total numbers of coliforms and E. coli recovered from cuts were >6.0 and 5.5 log CFU/500 cuts, respectively. After the breaking of about 600 sides, samples were obtained by swabbing a table onto which the part of the side that included the chuck portion was deposited after it was cut from the hanging side, and the belt that was used for conveying chucks. The numbers of coliforms and E. coli recovered from the table and conveyor belt were comparable with the numbers recovered from sides and cuts, respectively. Those findings show that most of the coliforms and E. coli recovered from the cuts were not present on carcass sides but that they originated largely from the cut conveying equipment. PMID:11726167

  6. Glucosylation of Isoflavonoids in Engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Parajuli, Prakash; Koirala, Niranjan; Lee, Joo Ho; Park, Yong Il; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-01-01

    A glycosyltransferase, YjiC, from Bacillus licheniformis has been used for the modification of the commercially available isoflavonoids genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin. The in vitro glycosylation reaction, using UDP-?-D-glucose as a donor for the glucose moiety and aforementioned four acceptor molecules, showed the prominent glycosylation at 4? and 7 hydroxyl groups, but not at the 5th hydroxyl group of the A-ring, resulting in the production of genistein 4?-O-?-D-glucoside, genistein 7-O-?-D-glucoside (genistin), genistein 4?,7-O-?-D-diglucoside, biochanin A-7-O-?-D-glucoside (sissotrin), daidzein 4?-O-?-D-glucoside, daidzein 7-O-?-D-glucoside (daidzin), daidzein 4?, 7-O-?-D-diglucoside, and formononetin 7-O-?-D-glucoside (ononin). The structures of all the products were elucidated using high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array and high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR QTOFESI/MS) analysis, and were compared with commercially available standard compounds. Significantly higher bioconversion rates of all four isoflavonoids was observed in both in vitro as well as in vivo bioconversion reactions. The in vivo fermentation of the isoflavonoids by applying engineered E. coli BL21(DE3)/?pgi?zwf?ushA overexpressing phosphoglucomutase (pgm) and glucose 1-phosphate uridyltransferase (galU), along with YjiC, found more than 60% average conversion of 200 ?M of supplemented isoflavonoids, without any additional UDP-?-D-glucose added in fermentation medium, which could be very beneficial to large scale industrial production of isoflavonoid glucosides. PMID:24599002

  7. Persistent Colonization of Sheep by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Other E. coli Pathotypes

    PubMed Central

    Cornick, N. A.; Booher, S. L.; Casey, T. A.; Moon, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of food-borne illness in humans. Ruminants appear to be more frequently colonized by STEC than are other animals, but the reason(s) for this is unknown. We compared the frequency, magnitude, duration, and transmissibility of colonization of sheep by E. coli O157:H7 to that by other pathotypes of E. coli. Young adult sheep were simultaneously inoculated with a cocktail consisting of two strains of E. coli O157:H7, two strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and one strain of enteropathogenic E. coli. Both STEC strains and ETEC 2041 were given at either 107 or 1010 CFU/strain/animal. The other strains were given only at 1010 CFU/strain. We found no consistent differences among pathotypes in the frequency, magnitude, and transmissibility of colonization. However, the STEC strains tended to persist to 2 weeks and 2 months postinoculation more frequently than did the other pathotypes. The tendency for persistence of the STEC strains was apparent following an inoculation dose of either 107 or 1010 CFU. One of the ETEC strains also persisted when inoculated at 1010 CFU. However, in contrast to the STEC strains, it did not persist when inoculated at 107 CFU. These results support the hypothesis that STEC is better adapted to persist in the alimentary tracts of sheep than are other pathotypes of E. coli. PMID:11055945

  8. MinD and MinE Interact with Anionic Phospholipids and Regulate Division Plane Formation in Escherichia coli*S

    E-print Network

    Weibel, Douglas B.

    in Escherichia coli*S Received for publication,August 3, 2012, and in revised form, September 22, 2012 Published machinery in Escherichia coli cells. Previous studies identified that interactions of Min, kinetics, and ATPase activity of E. coli MinD, MinE, and MinDE binding to supported lipid bilayers

  9. Escherichia coli O 157: outbreak in a day nursery.

    PubMed

    Allaby, M A; Mayon-White, R

    1995-01-01

    Seventeen out of 54 preschool children at a day nursery became infected with Escherichia coli O 157. The nursery outbreak formed part of a wider community outbreak, whose source was not identified. Epidemiological investigation suggested that the nursery outbreak resulted from person to person spread. Children with diarrhoea or a positive faecal specimen were excluded until their symptoms had resolved and one negative faecal specimen had been obtained. Children who were asymptomatic throughout were not excluded. This policy appeared to be effective in preventing further spread of infection within the nursery. PMID:7531569

  10. Characterization of Pyridoxine Auxotrophs of Escherichia coli: P1 Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Walter B.

    1969-01-01

    Pyridoxine mutants of Escherichia coli B, previously divided into a minimum of six groups by cross-feeding tests, were characterized by transduction studies performed with phage P1bt. The results of these studies allowed division of pyridoxine mutants into five unlinked groups and set the minimum number of enzymes between pyridoxal phosphate and a metabolite common to other pathways at six or seven, with the probable maximum at ten. One group was shown to be linked to thr, leu, and pyrA. PMID:4887517

  11. Construction, expression, and characterization of recombinant hirudin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bi, Q; Zhang, J; Huang, Y; Su, H; Zhou, X; Zhu, S

    2001-07-01

    The mutant gene of HV2-K47 was obtained by polymerase chain reaction-directed mutagenesis and expressed in Escherichia coli. Many elements that could affect its expression level were compared. The product was purified to homogeneity via three chromatographic steps--ion exchange, gel filtration, and reverse phase chromatography--on the AKTA Explorer System. The anti-thrombin activity of HV2-K47 is much higher than that of recombinant HV2. Some properties and expression conditions were investigated systematically, which would be useful for further studies of hirudin and other small proteins. PMID:11665804

  12. Escherichia coli RNA polymerase core and holoenzyme structures

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Robert D.; Orlova, Elena V.; Gowen, Brent; Buck, Martin; van Heel, Marin

    2000-01-01

    Multisubunit RNA polymerase is an essential enzyme for regulated gene expression. Here we report two Escherichia coli RNA polymerase structures: an 11.0 ? structure of the core RNA polymerase and a 9.5 ? structure of the ?70 holoenzyme. Both structures were obtained by cryo-electron microscopy and angular reconstitution. Core RNA polymerase exists in an open conformation. Extensive conformational changes occur between the core and the holoenzyme forms of the RNA polymerase, which are largely associated with movements in ??. All common RNA polymerase subunits (?2, ?, ??) could be localized in both structures, thus suggesting the position of ?70 in the holoenzyme. PMID:11118218

  13. Metal ion content of Escherichia coli versus cell age.

    PubMed Central

    Kung, F C; Raymond, J; Glaser, D A

    1976-01-01

    The potassium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc ion content of cells in exponential and synchronously growing cultures of Escherichia coli B/r was determined with an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Cellular potassium, calcium, and magnesium content increased smoothly during the cell cycle, but cellular zinc showed a steplike increase about 10 to 15 min after cell division in a culture having a doubling time of 47 min. The possible role of cellular zinc in the control of cell division is discussed. PMID:780340

  14. Multiple defects in Escherichia coli mutants lacking HU protein.

    PubMed Central

    Huisman, O; Faelen, M; Girard, D; Jaffé, A; Toussaint, A; Rouvière-Yaniv, J

    1989-01-01

    The HU protein isolated from Escherichia coli, composed of two partially homologous subunits, alpha and beta, shares some of the properties of eucaryotic histones and is a major constituent of the bacterial nucleoid. We report here the construction of double mutants totally lacking both subunits of HU protein. These mutants exhibited poor growth and a perturbation of cell division, resulting in the formation of anucleate cells. In the absence of HU, phage Mu was unable to grow, to lysogenize, or to carry out transposition. Images PMID:2544551

  15. Adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelium in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann, A; Wilson, M R

    1975-01-01

    Two porcine strains of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, one possessing K88 antigen and one lacking K88, were orally inoculated into conventional neonatal piglets. Athough both strains caused severe diarrhea, only the K88-possessing strain was able to proliferate in the anterior small intestine. Both K88-possessing and K88-lacking strains were found in large numbers in the posterior small intestine and, using fluorescent antibodies and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, were found adhering to the epitheial surface in these regions. The presence of an unusual surface structure on the bacterial cell of the K88-lacking strain was described. Images PMID:1104479

  16. Structure of the Escherichia coli S10 ribosomal protein operon.

    PubMed Central

    Zurawski, G; Zurawski, S M

    1985-01-01

    The complete structure of the Escherichia coli S10 ribosomal protein operon is presented. Based on the DNA sequence, the deduced order of the 11 genes in the operon is rpsJ, rplC, rplD, rplW, rplB, rpsS, rplV, rpsC, rplP, rpmC, rpsQ. The estimated transcribed length of the operon is 5181 base pairs. Putative sequences involved in ribosome binding are discussed. The DNA sequence data corrects several errors in previously determined protein sequence data. PMID:3892488

  17. Escherichia coli response to exogenous pyrophosphate and analogs.

    PubMed

    Biville, Francis; Oshima, Taku; Mori, Hirotada; Kawagoe, Yuya; Bouvet, Odile; Rager, Marie-Noëlle; Perrotte-Piquemal, Marina; Danchin, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    The addition of exogenous pyrophosphate increases the growth yield and cAMP synthesis in stationary phase when Escherichia coli is grown in minimal medium. Pyrophosphate increases the yield by altering the enterobactin uptake system. We studied the physiological effects and examined how the E. coli transcriptome was modified when two structural analogs of pyrophosphate were added to the growth medium. Methylenediphosphonic acid or a high concentration of iron had the same positive effects as pyrophosphate on growth yield, cAMP synthesis and the repression of Fur-regulated genes. In contrast, imidodiphosphate did not affect these cellular processes significantly. The transcriptome modifications generated by pyrophosphate or methylenediphosphonic acid were more similar than those generated by imidodiphosphate or excess iron. The transcriptome data also indicated that processes other than iron uptake might be involved in the cellular response to exogenous pyrophosphate or methylenediphosphonic acid. PMID:12673060

  18. Engineering of NADPH regenerators in Escherichia coli for enhanced biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Heong; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Efficient regeneration of NADPH is one of the limiting factors that constrain the productivity of biotransformation processes. In order to increase the availability of NADPH for enhanced biotransformation by engineered Escherichia coli, modulation of the pentose phosphate pathway and amplification of the transhydrogenases system have been conventionally attempted as primary solutions. Recently, other approaches for stimulating NADPH regeneration during glycolysis, such as replacement of native glyceradehdye-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) with NADP-dependent GAPDH from Clostridium acetobutylicum and introduction of NADH kinase catalyzing direct phosphorylation of NADH to NADPH from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were attempted and resulted in remarkable impacts on NADPH-dependent bioprocesses. This review summarizes several metabolic engineering approaches used for improving the NADPH regenerating capacity in engineered E. coli for whole-cell-based bioprocesses and discusses the key features and progress of those attempts. PMID:23420268

  19. Density gradient enrichment of Escherichia coli lpxL mutants.

    PubMed

    Six, David A; Lambert, Bliss; Raetz, Christian R H; Doerrler, William T

    2012-07-01

    We previously described enrichment of conditional Escherichia coli msbA mutants defective in lipopolysaccharide export using Ludox density gradients (Doerrler WT (2007) Appl Environ Microbiol 73; 7992-7996). Here, we use this approach to isolate and characterize temperature-sensitive lpxL mutants. LpxL is a late acyltransferase of the pathway of lipid A biosynthesis (The Raetz Pathway). Sequencing the lpxL gene from the mutants revealed the presence of both missense and nonsense mutations. The missense mutations include several in close proximity to the enzyme's active site or conserved residues (E137K, H132Y, G168D). These data demonstrate that Ludox gradients can be used to efficiently isolate conditional E. coli mutants with defects in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and provide insight into the enzymatic mechanism of LpxL. PMID:22554681

  20. Global Analysis of Extracytoplasmic Stress Signaling in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bury-Moné, Stéphanie; Nomane, Yanoura; Reymond, Nancie; Barbet, Romain; Jacquet, Eric; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Jacq, Annick; Bouloc, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The Bae, Cpx, Psp, Rcs, and ?E pathways constitute the Escherichia coli signaling systems that detect and respond to alterations of the bacterial envelope. Contributions of these systems to stress response have previously been examined individually; however, the possible interconnections between these pathways are unknown. Here we investigate the dynamics between the five stress response pathways by determining the specificities of each system with respect to signal-inducing conditions, and monitoring global transcriptional changes in response to transient overexpression of each of the effectors. Our studies show that different extracytoplasmic stress conditions elicit a combined response of these pathways. Involvement of the five pathways in the various tested stress conditions is explained by our unexpected finding that transcriptional responses induced by the individual systems show little overlap. The extracytoplasmic stress signaling pathways in E. coli thus regulate mainly complementary functions whose discrete contributions are integrated to mount the full adaptive response. PMID:19763168

  1. Continuous-sterilization system that uses photosemiconductor powders. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, T.; Tomoda, R.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, N.; Komine, T.

    1988-06-01

    We report a novel photochemical sterilization system in which Escherichia coli cells were sterilized with photosemiconductor powders (titanium oxide). For sterilization that could be used in practice, it was necessary to separate the TiO/sub 2/ powders from the cell suspension. Therefore, semiconductor powders were immobilized on acetylcellulose membranes. We constructed a continuous-sterilization system consisting of TiO/sub 2/-immobilized acetylcellulose membrane reactor, a mercury lamp, and a masterflex pump. As a result, under the various sterilization conditions examined, E.coli (10/sup 2/ cells per ml) was sterilized to < 1% survival when the cell suspension flowed in this system at a mean residence time of 16.0 min under irradiation (1800 microeinsteins/m/sup 2/ per s). We found that this system was reusable.

  2. Nanomechanical motion of Escherichia coli adhered to a surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissandrello, C.; Inci, F.; Francom, M.; Paul, M. R.; Demirci, U.; Ekinci, K. L.

    2014-09-01

    Nanomechanical motion of bacteria adhered to a chemically functionalized silicon surface is studied by means of a microcantilever. A non-specific binding agent is used to attach Escherichia coli (E. coli) to the surface of a silicon microcantilever. The microcantilever is kept in a liquid medium, and its nanomechanical fluctuations are monitored using an optical displacement transducer. The motion of the bacteria couples efficiently to the microcantilever well below its resonance frequency, causing a measurable increase in the microcantilever fluctuations. In the time domain, the fluctuations exhibit large-amplitude low-frequency oscillations. In corresponding frequency-domain measurements, it is observed that the mechanical energy is focused at low frequencies with a 1/f?-type power law. A basic physical model is used for explaining the observed spectral distribution of the mechanical energy. These results lay the groundwork for understanding the motion of microorganisms adhered to surfaces and for developing micromechanical sensors for bacteria.

  3. Impact of cranberry on Escherichia coli cellular surface characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Brandy J. [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Code 6900, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)], E-mail: brandy.white@nrl.navy.mil; Lin Baochuan; Dinderman, Michael A. [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Code 6900, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Rubin, Robert A. [Independent Researcher, 8620 Portafino Place, Whittier, CA 90603 (United States); Malanoski, Anthony P.; Ligler, Frances S. [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Code 6900, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2008-12-19

    The anti-adhesive effects of cranberry have been attributed to both interactions of its components with the surface of bacterial cells and to inhibition of p-fimbriae expression. Previous reports also suggested that the presence of cranberry juice changed the Gram stain characteristics of Escherichia coli. Here, we show that the morphology of E. coli is changed when grown in the presence of juice or extract from Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry). Gene expression analysis indicates the down regulation of flagellar basal body rod and motor proteins. Consistent with this finding and previous reports, the SEM images indicate a decrease in the visible p-fimbriae. The iodine used in Gram-staining protocols was found to interact differently with the bacterial membrane when cells were cultured in spiked media. Slight alterations in the Gram stain protocol demonstrated that culturing in the presence of cranberry juice does not change the Gram stain characteristics contradicting other reports.

  4. Splenic abscess: Plasmodium vivax with secondary Escherichia coli infection.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Laxmikant Ramkumarsingh; Rajendran, Ranjith; Pandey, Santosh Kumar; Aggarwal, Amitesh

    2015-04-01

    Splenic abscess is a rare clinical entity as described in literature. The incidence is in the range of 0.14-0.7% and it has a high mortality rate. Hence, it is important to know its clinical presentation and complications, so that it can be treated early. We report a 40-year-old diabetic man who presented with fever with chills and rigor for the last 9 days and heaviness in the left hypochondrium for the last 6 days. He was initially diagnosed as having splenomegaly due to Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax), but was later found to have a splenic abscess due to Escherichia coli (E. coli). This was successfully managed by catheter drainage (CD) and antibiotic treatment. PMID:25505193

  5. Nanomechanical motion of Escherichia coli adhered to a surface.

    PubMed

    Lissandrello, C; Inci, F; Francom, M; Paul, M R; Demirci, U; Ekinci, K L

    2014-09-15

    Nanomechanical motion of bacteria adhered to a chemically functionalized silicon surface is studied by means of a microcantilever. A non-specific binding agent is used to attach Escherichia coli (E. coli) to the surface of a silicon microcantilever. The microcantilever is kept in a liquid medium, and its nanomechanical fluctuations are monitored using an optical displacement transducer. The motion of the bacteria couples efficiently to the microcantilever well below its resonance frequency, causing a measurable increase in the microcantilever fluctuations. In the time domain, the fluctuations exhibit large-amplitude low-frequency oscillations. In corresponding frequency-domain measurements, it is observed that the mechanical energy is focused at low frequencies with a 1/f(?) -type power law. A basic physical model is used for explaining the observed spectral distribution of the mechanical energy. These results lay the groundwork for understanding the motion of microorganisms adhered to surfaces and for developing micromechanical sensors for bacteria. PMID:25316924

  6. Examining the feasibility of bulk commodity production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Claudia E; Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel; Krömer, Jens O

    2012-04-01

    Escherichia coli is currently used by many research institutions and companies around the world as a platform organism for the development of bio-based production processes for bulk biochemicals. A given bulk biochemical bioprocess must be economically competitive with current production routes. Ideally the viability of each bioprocess should be evaluated prior to commencing research, both by metabolic network analysis (to determine the maximum theoretical yield of a given biocatalyst) and by techno-economic analysis (TEA; to determine the conditions required to make the bioprocess cost-competitive). However, these steps are rarely performed. Here we examine theoretical yields and review available TEA for bulk biochemical production in E. coli. In addition, we examine fermentation feedstocks and review recent strain engineering approaches to achieve industrially-relevant production, using examples for which TEA has been performed: ethanol, poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, and 1,3-propanediol. PMID:22160295

  7. Photodynamic inactivation of recombinant bioluminescent Escherichia coli by cationic porphyrins under artificial and solar irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliana Alves; Carla M. B. Carvalho; João P. C. Tomé; Maria A. F. Faustino; Maria G. P. M. S. Neves; Augusto C. Tomé; José A. S. Cavaleiro; Ângela Cunha; Sónia Mendo; Adelaide Almeida

    2008-01-01

    A faster and simpler method to monitor the photoinactivation process of Escherichia coli involving the use of recombinant bioluminescent bacteria is described here. Escherichia coli cells were transformed with luxCDABE genes from the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the recombinant bioluminescent indicator strain was used to assess, in real time, the effect of three cationic meso-substituted porphyrin derivatives on

  8. Expression of the Escherichia coli lacZ Gene on a Plasmid Vector in a Cyanobacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Buzby; Ronald D. Porter; S. Edward Stevens

    1985-01-01

    A biphasic plasmid vector was used to introduce the Escherichia coli K-12 lac operon into the unicellular cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6. The PR-6 transformants expressed beta -galactosidase at nearly as high a level as did Escherichia coli transformants. In order to accomplish this, it was necessary to obtain PR-6 mutants that could be transformed by plasmids with unmodified recognition sites

  9. Tunable Stochastic Pulsing in the Escherichia coli Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Network from Interlinked

    E-print Network

    Dunlop, Mary

    Tunable Stochastic Pulsing in the Escherichia coli Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Network from a stochastic model of the multiple antibiotic resistance network of Escherichia coli and show that it can Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Network from Interlinked Positive and Negative Feedback Loops. PLoS Comput

  10. Review article Escherichia coli as a pathogen in dogs and cats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Escherichia coli as a pathogen in dogs and cats Lothar Beutin Robert Koch; accepted 17December 1998) Abstraet-Certain strains of Escherichia coli behave as pathogens in dogs and cats were clearly associated with enteric disease in young dogs. ETEC isolates from diar- rhoeic dogs were

  11. Specificity of a Monoclonal Antibody for Alkaline Phosphatase in Escherichia coli and Shigella Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. TRINELY; C. MIELCAREK; F. GAVINI; C. CARON; D. IZARD

    The specificity of monoclonal antibody 2E5 for the alkaline phosphatase of Escherichia coli was studied against the alkaline phosphatases of 251 other bacterial strains. The organisms used included members of the six species of the genus Escherichia (E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, E. blattae, E. vulneris, E. adecarboxylata), 41 species representing the family Enterobacteriaceae, and, in addition, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,

  12. Variation of the folding and dynamics of the Escherichia coli chromosome with growth conditions

    E-print Network

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    Variation of the folding and dynamics of the Escherichia coli chromosome with growth conditions Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA. Summary We examine whether the Escherichia coli an inducible GFP fusion to the nucleoid-associated protein Fis to non- specifically decorate the entire

  13. 760 Biochemical Society Transactions (2007) Volume 35, part 4 Neurotensin receptor type 1: Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Watts, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    : Escherichia coli expression, purification, characterization and biophysical study P.J. Harding*, H. Attrill and purified in an active form. To this end, rat NTS1 has been expressed in Escherichia coli in an active resonance. Abbreviations used: CFP, cyan fluorescent protein; GFP, green fluorescent protein; GPCR, G

  14. Cell cycle analysis of plasmid-containing Escherichia coli HB 101 populations with flow cytometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Seo; J. E. Bailey

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between cell mass and cell number dynamics for bacteria such as Escherichia coli depends on the cell cycle parameters C and D. Effects of plasmid copy number on these cell cycle parameters have been studied for Escherichia coli HB101 containing pMB1 plasmids propagated at different copy numbers ranging from 12 to 122. Determination of cell cycle and cell

  15. Inhibition of the ATPase activity of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by magnesium fluoride

    E-print Network

    Zulfiqar Ahmad

    Inhibition of the ATPase activity of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by magnesium fluoride Zulfiqar activity of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by magnesium fluoride (MgFx) was studied. Wild-type F1-ATPase synthesis mechanism; Magnesium fluoride; ATPase inhibition; Transition state analog 1. Introduction ATP

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SHEDDING OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SALMONELLA SPP. IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal samples were obtained in replicate from lactating (LAC; n = 60) and non-lactating (NLAC; n = 60) Holstein cows to determine the influence of time of day (AM vs PM), parity, and lactation phase [ 60 d in milk (DIM)] on shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), Escherichia coli (EC),...

  17. Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Chickens with Colisepticemia in Tabriz Province, Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reducing the enormous losses caused by Escherichia coli infections (colibacillosis) in Iran poultry industry. In this investigation fifty avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains isolated from broiler chickens with colisepticemia and examined for susceptibility to antimicrobials of veterinary and human significance. In vitro antibiotic activities of 3 2 antibiotic substances against the

  18. Translocation and thermal inactivation of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli in non-intact beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared translocation of genetically-marked strains of serotype O157:H7 Escherichia coli (ECOH) to non-O157:H7 Shiga-Toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) following blade tenderization of beef subprimals and the subsequent lethality of these pathogens following cooking of steaks prepared from ...

  19. Genomic transcriptional response to loss of chromosomal supercoiling in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J Peter; Javier Arsuaga; Adam M Breier; Arkady B Khodursky; Patrick O Brown; Nicholas R Cozzarelli

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The chromosome of Escherichia coli is maintained in a negatively supercoiled state, and supercoiling levels are affected by growth phase and a variety of environmental stimuli. In turn, supercoiling influences local DNA structure and can affect gene expression. We used microarrays representing nearly the entire genome of Escherichia coli MG1655 to examine the dynamics of chromosome structure. RESULTS: We

  20. Domain Organization of Escherichia coli Transcript Cleavage Factors GreA and GreB*

    E-print Network

    Sali, Andrej

    Domain Organization of Escherichia coli Transcript Cleavage Factors GreA and GreB* (Received University, New York, New York 10021 The GreA and GreB proteins of Escherichia coli in- duce cleavage activity and the GreA or GreB specificity of transcript cleavage is determined by the N-terminal domain

  1. Streptokinase: cloning, expression, and excretion by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Malke, H; Ferretti, J J

    1984-01-01

    Genomic DNA from Streptococcus equisimilis strain H46A was cloned in Escherichia coli by using the bacteriophage lambda replacement vector L47 and an in vitro packaging system. A casein/plasminogen overlay technique was used to screen the phage bank for recombinants carrying the streptokinase gene ( skc ). The gene was present with a frequency of 1 in 836 recombinants, and 10 independent clones containing skc were isolated and physically characterized. One recombinant clone was used to subclone skc in E. coli plasmid vectors. Plasmid pMF2 [10.4 kilobases (kb)] consisting of pACYC184 with a 6.4-kb H46A DNA fragment in the EcoRI site and pMF5 (6.9 kb) carrying a 2.5-kb fragment in the Pst I site of pBR322 were among the recombinant plasmids determining streptokinase production in three different E. coli host strains. Expression of skc was independent of its orientation in either vector, indicating that its own promoter was present and functional in E. coli. However, expression in pBR322 was more efficient in one orientation than in the other, suggesting that one or both of the bla gene promoters contributed to skc expression. Several lines of evidence, including proof obtained by the immunodiffusion technique, established the identity of E. coli streptokinase. Testing cell-free culture supernatant fluids, osmotic shock fluids, and sonicates of osmotically shocked cells for streptokinase activity revealed the substance to be present in all three principal locations, indicating that E. coli cells were capable of releasing substantial amounts of streptokinase into the culture medium. Images PMID:6374659

  2. Transcription, Processing, and Function of CRISPR Cassettes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pougach, Ksenia; Semenova, Ekaterina; Bogdanova, Ekaterina; Datsenko, Kirill A.; Djordjevic, Marko; Wanner, Barry L.; Severinov, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas, bacterial and archaeal systems of interference with foreign genetic elements such as viruses or plasmids, consist of DNA loci called CRISPR cassettes (a set of variable spacers regularly separated by palindromic repeats) and associated cas genes. When a CRISPR spacer sequence exactly matches a sequence in a viral genome, the cell can become resistant to the virus. The CRISPR/Cas systems function through small RNAs originating from longer CRISPR cassette transcripts. While laboratory strains of Escherichia coli contain a functional CRISPR/Cas system (as judged by appearance of phage resistance at conditions of artificial co-overexpression of Cas genes and a CRISPR cassette engineered to target a ? phage), no natural phage resistance due to CRISPR system function was observed in this best-studied organism and no E. coli CRISPR spacer matches sequences of well-studied E. coli phages. To better understand the apparently “silent” E. coli CRISPR/Cas system, we systematically characterized processed transcripts from CRISPR cassettes. Using an engineered strain with genomically located spacer matching phage ? we show that endogenous levels of CRISPR cassette and cas genes expression allow only weak protection against infection with the phage. However, derepression of the CRISPR/Cas system by disruption of the hns gene leads to high level of protection. PMID:20624226

  3. Demonstration of exopolysaccharide production by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Junkins, A D; Doyle, M P

    1992-07-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 produces visibly slimy colonies when grown on Sorbitol/MacConkey or Maloney's agar plates at room temperature, indicative of exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Eighteen of 27 (67%) wild-type E. coli O157:H7 isolates produced enough EPS to be visually distinguishable. Of five strains that showed no visible EPS production on these media, four (80%) did produce slimy colonies on media containing higher salt concentrations. Measurements of EPS production by colorimetric determination of uronic acid indicated that EPS production was affected by growth temperature, atmosphere, and medium. Wild-type E. coli O157:H7 strain 932 produced the greatest amounts of EPS when grown anaerobically at 37 degrees C, whereas its plasmid-cured derivative 932P produced large quantities of EPS when grown aerobically at room temperature. Electron micrographs revealed thin, flexible fibers extending from the bacterial cell surface. Cells of strain 932P grown aerobically at room temperature were completely encased in a thick EPS matrix. Chemical analysis of purified EPS revealed that it is very similar or identical to colanic acid. E. coli O157:H7 adheres better to INT 407 cells when grown under conditions that favor high EPS production than when grown under conditions that repress EPS production. PMID:1369498

  4. L-tyrosine production by deregulated strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lütke-Eversloh, Tina; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2007-05-01

    The excretion of the aromatic amino acid L: -tyrosine was achieved by manipulating three gene targets in the wild-type Escherichia coli K12: The feedback-inhibition-resistant (fbr) derivatives of aroG and tyrA were expressed on a low-copy-number vector, and the TyrR-mediated regulation of the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis was eliminated by deleting the tyrR gene. The generation of this L: -tyrosine producer, strain T1, was based only on the deregulation of the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway, but no structural genes in the genome were affected. A second tyrosine over-producing strain, E. coli T2, was generated considering the possible limitation of precursor substrates. To enhance the availability of the two precursor substrates phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate, the ppsA and the tktA genes were over-expressed in the strain T1 background, increasing L: -tyrosine production by 80% in 50-ml batch cultures. Fed-batch fermentations revealed that L: -tyrosine production was tightly correlated with cell growth, exhibiting the maximum productivity at the end of the exponential growth phase. The final L: -tyrosine concentrations were 3.8 g/l for E. coli T1 and 9.7 g/l for E. coli T2 with a yield of L: -tyrosine per glucose of 0.037 g/g (T1) and 0.102 g/g (T2), respectively. PMID:17221195

  5. Characterization of a second lysine decarboxylase isolated from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Y; Kojima, H; Tanaka, T; Takatsuka, Y; Kamio, Y

    1997-01-01

    We report here on the existence of a new gene for lysine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli K-12. The hybridization experiments with a cadA probe at low stringency showed that the homologous region of cadA was located in lambda Kohara phage clone 6F5 at 4.7 min on the E. coli chromosome. We cloned the 5.0-kb HindIII fragment of this phage clone and sequenced the homologous region of cadA. This region contained a 2,139-nucleotide open reading frame encoding a 713-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 80,589. Overexpression of the protein and determination of its N-terminal amino acid sequence defined the translational start site of this gene. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69.4% identity to that of lysine decarboxylase encoded by cadA at 93.7 min on the E. coli chromosome. In addition, the level of lysine decarboxylase activity increased in strains carrying multiple copies of the gene. Therefore, the gene encoding this lysine decarboxylase was designated Idc. Analysis of the lysine decarboxylase activity of strains containing cadA, ldc, or cadA ldc mutations indicated that ldc was weakly expressed under various conditions but is a functional gene in E. coli. PMID:9226257

  6. Direct cadaverine production from cellobiose using ?-glucosidase displaying Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the one-step production of cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) from cellobiose using an Escherichia coli strain displaying ?-glucosidase (BGL) on its cell surface. L-lysine decarboxylase (CadA) derived from E. coli and BGL from Thermobifida fusca YX (Tfu0937) fused to the anchor protein Blc from E. coli were co-expressed using E. coli as a host. The expression of CadA was confirmed by Western blotting and BGL activity on the cell surface was evaluated using pNPG as a substrate. Growth on cellobiose as the sole carbon source was also achieved. The OD600 value of the BGL and CadA co-expressing strain was 8.0 after 48 h cultivation, which is higher than that obtained by growth on glucose (5.4 after 48 h cultivation). The engineered strain produced cadaverine from cellobiose more effectively than from glucose: 6.1 mM after 48 h from 28 g/L of consumed cellobiose, vs. 3.3 mM from 20 g/L of consumed glucose. PMID:24206923

  7. Dynamic transcriptional response of Escherichia coli to inclusion body formation.

    PubMed

    Baig, Faraz; Fernando, Lawrence P; Salazar, Mary Alice; Powell, Rhonda R; Bruce, Terri F; Harcum, Sarah W

    2014-05-01

    Escherichia coli is used intensively for recombinant protein production, but one key challenge with recombinant E. coli is the tendency of recombinant proteins to misfold and aggregate into insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs). IBs contain high concentrations of inactive recombinant protein that require recovery steps to salvage a functional recombinant protein. Currently, no universally effective method exists to prevent IB formation in recombinant E. coli. In this study, DNA microarrays were used to compare the E. coli gene expression response dynamics to soluble and insoluble recombinant protein production. As expected and previously reported, the classical heat-shock genes had increased expression due to IB formation, including protein folding chaperones and proteases. Gene expression levels for protein synthesis-related and energy-synthesis pathways were also increased. Many transmembrane transporter and corresponding catabolic pathways genes had decreased expression for substrates not present in the culture medium. Additionally, putative genes represented over one-third of the genes identified to have significant expression changes due to IB formation, indicating many important cellular responses to IB formation still need to be characterized. Interestingly, cells grown in 3% ethanol had significantly reduced gene expression responses due to IB formation. Taken together, these results indicate that IB formation is complex, stimulates the heat-shock response, increases protein and energy synthesis needs, and streamlines transport and catabolic processes, while ethanol diminished all of these responses. PMID:24338599

  8. Modeling Escherichia coli removal in constructed wetlands under pulse loading.

    PubMed

    Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Adhikari, Umesh; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Harrigan, Timothy; Reinhold, Dawn M

    2014-03-01

    Manure-borne pathogens are a threat to water quality and have resulted in disease outbreaks globally. Land application of livestock manure to croplands may result in pathogen transport through surface runoff and tile drains, eventually entering water bodies such as rivers and wetlands. The goal of this study was to develop a robust model for estimating the pathogen removal in surface flow wetlands under pulse loading conditions. A new modeling approach was used to describe Escherichia coli removal in pulse-loaded constructed wetlands using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS). Several ANFIS models were developed and validated using experimental data under pulse loading over two seasons (winter and summer). In addition to ANFIS, a mechanistic fecal coliform removal model was validated using the same sets of experimental data. The results showed that the ANFIS model significantly improved the ability to describe the dynamics of E. coli removal under pulse loading. The mechanistic model performed poorly as demonstrated by lower coefficient of determination and higher root mean squared error compared to the ANFIS models. The E. coli concentrations corresponding to the inflection points on the tracer study were keys to improving the predictability of the E. coli removal model. PMID:24231031

  9. Characterization of murine monoclonal antibodies to Escherichia coli J5.

    PubMed Central

    Miner, K M; Manyak, C L; Williams, E; Jackson, J; Jewell, M; Gammon, M T; Ehrenfreund, C; Hayes, E; Callahan, L T; Zweerink, H

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-eight independently derived monoclonal antibodies (MAb) directed against Escherichia coli J5 endotoxin were produced and characterized. Each MAb exhibited a specific titer by both radioimmunoassay and passive hemagglutination assay. Most of the MAb were of the immunoglobulin G isotype; however, several immunoglobulin M antibodies and one immunoglobulin A antibody were produced. When characterized for their capacity to cross-react with purified endotoxin preparations from several gram-negative bacteria, 22 MAb exhibited no cross-reactivity; 6 demonstrated a limited capacity to cross-react with other endotoxin preparations. When characterized for their capacity to react with the intact organism instead of the purified endotoxin the pattern of cross-reactivity was quite different. Most of the MAb were able to react with Salmonella minnesota Re595. Eighteen were able to react with E. coli O111:B4 (the parent strain of E. coli J5), 13 MAb reacted weakly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 3 reacted weakly with Klebsiella pneumonia. The data imply that MAb generated against E. coli J5 endotoxin demonstrate greater cross-reactivity when assayed against the whole bacterium than when assayed against the corresponding purified endotoxin. We were unable to demonstrate that any of the 28 MAb could passively protect mice against lethal endotoxin challenge. PMID:3514463

  10. CRISPR-Cas Functional Module Exchange in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Almendros, Cristóbal; Mojica, Francisco J. M.; Díez-Villaseñor, César; Guzmán, Noemí M.; García-Martínez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (cas) genes constitute the CRISPR-Cas systems found in the Bacteria and Archaea domains. At least in some strains they provide an efficient barrier against transmissible genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses. Two CRISPR-Cas systems have been identified in Escherichia coli, pertaining to subtypes I-E (cas-E genes) and I-F (cas-F genes), respectively. In order to unveil the evolutionary dynamics of such systems, we analyzed the sequence variations in the CRISPR-Cas loci of a collection of 131 E. coli strains. Our results show that the strain grouping inferred from these CRISPR data slightly differs from the phylogeny of the species, suggesting the occurrence of recombinational events between CRISPR arrays. Moreover, we determined that the primary cas-E genes of E. coli were altogether replaced with a substantially different variant in a minor group of strains that include K-12. Insertion elements play an important role in this variability. This result underlines the interchange capacity of CRISPR-Cas constituents and hints that at least some functional aspects documented for the K-12 system may not apply to the vast majority of E. coli strains. PMID:24473126

  11. Association of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Hemolysin with Serotypes of Shiga-Like-Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli of Human and Bovine Origins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARLTON GYLES; ROGER JOHNSON; ANLI GAO; KIM ZIEBELL; DENIS PIERARD; STOJANKA ALEKSIC; PATRICK BOERLIN

    1998-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) hemolysin gene ehxA could be used as an indicator of pathogenicity in Shiga-like-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (SLTEC) isolates. The isolates in a collection of 770 SLTEC strains of human and bovine origins were assigned to group 1 (230 human and 138 bovine SLTEC isolates belonging to serotypes frequently implicated in

  12. Inefficient replication reduces RecA-mediated repair of UV-damaged plasmids introduced into competent Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Courcelle, Justin

    into competent Escherichia coli H.A. Jeiranian , C.T. Courcelle, J. Courcelle Department of Biology, Portland Keywords: Transformation Escherichia coli Nucleotide excision repair recA recF recBC a b s t r a c t Transformation of Escherichia coli with purified plasmids containing DNA damage is fre- quently used as a tool

  13. Dynamic structures in Escherichia coli: Spontaneous formation of MinE rings and MinD polar zones

    E-print Network

    Meir, Yigal

    Dynamic structures in Escherichia coli: Spontaneous formation of MinE rings and MinD polar zones, 2003 (received for review June 26, 2003) In Escherichia coli, division site selection is regulated role in proper chromosome and plasmid partitioning. In Escherichia coli, two systems are known

  14. Sigma S-Dependent Antioxidant Defense Protects Stationary-Phase Escherichia coli against the Bactericidal Antibiotic Gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-Hung; Singh, Rachna; Benoit, Michael; Keyhan, Mimi; Sylvester, Matthew; Hsieh, Michael; Thathireddy, Anuradha; Hsieh, Yi-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Stationary-phase bacteria are important in disease. The ?s-regulated general stress response helps them become resistant to disinfectants, but the role of ?s in bacterial antibiotic resistance has not been elucidated. Loss of ?s rendered stationary-phase Escherichia coli more sensitive to the bactericidal antibiotic gentamicin (Gm), and proteomic analysis suggested involvement of a weakened antioxidant defense. Use of the psfiA genetic reporter, 3?-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF) dye, and Amplex Red showed that Gm generated more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mutant. HPF measurements can be distorted by cell elongation, but Gm did not affect stationary-phase cell dimensions. Coadministration of the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) decreased drug lethality particularly in the mutant, as did Gm treatment under anaerobic conditions that prevent ROS formation. Greater oxidative stress, due to insufficient quenching of endogenous ROS and/or respiration-linked electron leakage, therefore contributed to the greater sensitivity of the mutant; infection by a uropathogenic strain in mice showed this to be the case also in vivo. Disruption of antioxidant defense by eliminating the quencher proteins, SodA/SodB and KatE/SodA, or the pentose phosphate pathway proteins, Zwf/Gnd and TalA, which provide NADPH for ROS decomposition, also generated greater oxidative stress and killing by Gm. Thus, besides its established mode of action, Gm also kills stationary-phase bacteria by generating oxidative stress, and targeting the antioxidant defense of E. coli can enhance its efficacy. Relevant aspects of the current controversy on the role of ROS in killing by bactericidal drugs of exponential-phase bacteria, which represent a different physiological state, are discussed. PMID:25070093

  15. Induction of SOS genes of Escherichia coli by chromium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Llagostera, M.; Garrido, S.; Guerrero, R.; Barbe, J.

    1986-01-01

    The induction of several SOS genes of Escherichia coli such as recA, umuC, and sfiA by hexavalent (K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/, K/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/, and CrO/sub 3/) and trivalent (CrCl/sub 3/, Cr(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, and (CH/sub 3/COO)/sub 3/Cr) compounds of chromium was studied. Induction was measured as ..beta..-galactosidase activity, using lacZ gene fusions under the control region of different SOS genes. The hexavalent chromium forms induced the genes responsible for massive synthesis of RecA protein, error-prone repair, and inhibition of cell division. On the other hand, the trivalent chromium compounds were unable to induce any of the SOS genes tested. Individual assay of hexavalent chromium compounds showed that K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ was a stronger inducing agent of those three SOS genes tested than K/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/, which, in turn, was stronger than CrO/sub 3/. All this data led to the conclusion that hexavalent chromium compounds, but not trivalent, are proficient agents of induction of the SOS system and can produce indirect mutagenesis in Escherichia coli.

  16. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Secretes Plasmid Encoded Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Rita C.; Melo, Keyde C. M.; Rossato, Sarita S.; Barbosa, Camila M.; Corrêa, Lívia M.; Elias, Waldir P.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid encoded toxin (Pet) is a serine protease originally described in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) prototype strain 042 whose entire characterization was essentially obtained from studies performed with the purified toxin. Here we show that Pet is not exclusive to EAEC. Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strains, isolated from diarrhea cases, express Pet and its detection in supernatants of infected HEp-2 cells coincides with the appearance of cell damage, which, in turn, were similar to those described with purified Pet. Pet secretion and the cytotoxic effects are time and culture medium dependent. In presence of DMEM supplemented with tryptone cell rounding and detachment were observed after just 5?h of incubation with the bacteria. In the absence of tryptone, the cytotoxic effects were detected only after 24?h of infection. We also show that, in addition to the prototype EAEC, other pet+ EAEC strains, also isolated from diarrhea cases, induce cellular damage in the same degree as the aEPEC. The cytotoxic effects of EAEC and aEPEC strains were significantly reduced in the presence of a serine protease inhibitor or anti-Pet IgG serum. Our results show a common aspect between the aEPEC and EAEC and provide the first evidence pointing to a role of Pet in aEPEC pathogenesis. PMID:24949475

  17. Antibacterial Action of Selenium-Enriched Probiotics Against Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiajun Yang; Kehe Huang; Shunyi Qin; Xianshi Wu; Zhiping Zhao; Fu Chen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory activity of selenium-enriched probiotics against pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) in vitro and in vivo. Escherichia coli was co-cultured in vitro with each probiotic strain individually, and a mixture of the four strains and its population was\\u000a counted at various time points. We also collected a cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) of each probiotic

  18. Characterization of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7.

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, S; March, S B; Ahmed, R; Bezanson, G S; Kasatiya, S

    1988-01-01

    A total of 174 strains of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 representing human isolates obtained from outbreaks and sporadic cases of hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and nonbloody diarrheal illnesses as well as from asymptomatic carriers across Canada and the United States were examined. E. coli serotype O157:H7 possessed distinct biochemical markers, a 100% negative reaction for beta-glucuronidase and sorbitol, and a 100% positive reaction for raffinose and dulcitol; all strains otherwise were biochemically typical of E. coli. The vast majority (97%) of the strains were susceptible to commonly used antimicrobial agents. All strains produced readily detectable levels of Verotoxin; however, with polymyxin extraction, nearly 50% of the strains showed up to a 10-fold increase in the toxin level. None were found to mediate hemagglutination of human group A erythrocytes with or without D-mannose. The majority (approximately 70%) of the strains showed localized and diffuse adherence to HEp-2 cells and Henle 407 cells, and the adherence patterns were not very different from those observed among other E. coli strains. Twenty phage types were recognized, with phage types 1 and 2 accounting for 65% of the test strains. Plasmid analysis indicated three basic plasmid profiles: profile I was characterized by 68.7- and 4.2-megadalton (MDa) plasmids (62% of strains), profile II was characterized by 66.2- and 1.8-MDa plasmids (20% of strains), and profile III was characterized by a 62.5-MDa plasmid (18% of strains). A small number (19%) of the strains carried at least one additional plasmid over the basic complements, and these could be considered to constitute a miscellaneous category. None of the above-described characteristics of E. coli serotype O157:H7 could be directly correlated with one another, with the nature of infection, or with the geographical distribution of strains. Images PMID:3053758

  19. Nucleotide sequence of an Escherichia coli chromosomal hemolysin.

    PubMed Central

    Felmlee, T; Pellett, S; Welch, R A

    1985-01-01

    We determined the DNA sequence of an 8,211-base-pair region encompassing the chromosomal hemolysin, molecularly cloned from an O4 serotype strain of Escherichia coli. All four hemolysin cistrons (transcriptional order, C, A, B, and D) were encoded on the same DNA strand, and their predicted molecular masses were, respectively, 19.7, 109.8, 79.9, and 54.6 kilodaltons. The identification of pSF4000-encoded polypeptides in E. coli minicells corroborated the assignment of the predicted polypeptides for hlyC, hlyA, and hlyD. However, based on the minicell results, two polypeptides appeared to be encoded on the hlyB region, one similar in size to the predicted molecular mass of 79.9 kilodaltons, and the other a smaller 46-kilodalton polypeptide. The four hemolysin gene displayed similar codon usage, which is atypical for E. coli. This reflects the low guanine-plus-cytosine content (40.2%) of the hemolysin DNA sequence and suggests the non-E. coli origin of the hemolysin determinant. In vitro-derived deletions of the hemolysin recombinant plasmid pSF4000 indicated that a region between 433 and 301 base pairs upstream of the putative start of hlyC is necessary for hemolysin synthesis. Based on the DNA sequence, a stem-loop transcription terminator-like structure (a 16-base-pair stem followed by seven uridylates) in the mRNA was predicted distal to the C-terminal end of hlyA. A model for the general transcriptional organization of the E. coli hemolysin determinant is presented. Images PMID:3891743

  20. Codon Optimisation Is Key for Pernisine Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Šnajder, Marko; Miheli?, Marko; Turk, Dušan; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    Background Pernisine is an extracellular serine protease from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1. Low yields from the natural host and expression problems in heterologous hosts have limited the potential applications of pernisine in industry. Methodology/ Principal Findings The challenges of pernisine overexpression in Escherichia coli were overcome by codon preference optimisation and de-novo DNA synthesis. The following forms of the pernisine gene were cloned into the pMCSGx series of vectors and expressed in E. coli cells: wild-type (pernisinewt), codon-optimised (pernisineco), and codon-optimised with a S355A mutation of a predicted active site (pernisineS355Aco). The fusion-tagged pernisines were purified using fast protein liquid chromatography equipped with Ni2+ chelate and gel filtration chromatography columns. The identities of the resultant proteins were confirmed with N-terminal sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and immunodetection. Pernisinewt was not expressed in E. coli at detectable levels, while pernisineco and pernisineS355Aco were expressed and purified as 55-kDa proforms with yields of around 10 mg per litre E. coli culture. After heat activation of purified pernisine, the proteolytic activity of the mature pernisineco was confirmed using zymography, at a molecular weight of 36 kDa, while the mutant pernisineS355Aco remained inactive. Enzymatic performances of pernisine evaluated under different temperatures and pHs demonstrate that the optimal enzymatic activity of the recombinant pernisine is ca. 100°C and pH 7.0, respectively. Conclusions/ Significance These data demonstrate that codon optimisation is crucial for pernisine overexpression in E. coli, and that the proposed catalytic Ser355 has an important role in pernisine activity, but not in its activation process. Pernisine is activated by autoproteolytical cleavage of its N-terminal proregion. We have also confirmed that the recombinant pernisine retains the characteristics of native pernisine, as a calcium modulated thermostable serine protease. PMID:25856104

  1. Preharvest Evaluation of Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Organic and Conventional Produce Grown by Minnesota Farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AVIK MUKHERJEE; DORINDA SPEH; ELIZABETH DYCK; FRANCISCO DIEZ-GONZALEZ

    Microbiological analyses of fresh fruits and vegetables produced by organic and conventional farmers in Minnesota were conducted to determine the coliform count and the prevalence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7. A total of 476 and 129 produce samples were collected from 32 organic and 8 conventional farms, respectively. The samples included tomatoes, leafy greens, lettuce, green peppers,

  2. Finished Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 Strain HMS174 (ATCC 47011)

    PubMed Central

    Mairhofer, Juergen; Krempl, Peter M.; Thallinger, Gerhard G.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli strain K-12 substrain HMS174 is an engineered descendant of the E. coli K-12 wild-type strain. Like its ancestor, it is an important organism in biotechnological research and is used in fermentation processes for heterologous protein production. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli HMS174 (ATCC 47011). PMID:25414489

  3. Cellular Responses and Proteomic Analysis of Escherichia coli Exposed to Green Tea Polyphenols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Cho; N. L. Schiller; H. Y. Kahng; K. H. Oh

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the cellular response and proteomic analysis of Escherichia coli exposed to tea polyphenols (TPP) extracted from Korean green tea (Camellia sinensis L). TPP showed a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on E. coli. Analysis of cell-membrane fatty acids of E. coli cultures treated with TPP identified unique changes in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids,

  4. The Need and New Tools for Surveillance of Escherichia coli Pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asalapuram R. Pavankumar; Krishnan Sankaran

    2008-01-01

    Summary Among foodborne pathogens, diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli is of major concern beca- use of its commensal status, abundance in the natural environment, and ability to acquire virulence determinants by horizontal gene transfer from other microbes. From enterotoxi- genic E. coli (ETEC) strains to the more virulent enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), the me- chanisms of pathogenicity within this species are intriguing.

  5. A homolog of an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, C. M.; White, F. F.; Heaton, L. A.; Guikema, J. A.; Leach, J. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae gene with sequence similarity to an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene (phoS) produces a periplasmic protein of apparent M(r) 35,000 when expressed in E. coli. Amino terminal sequencing revealed that a signal peptide is removed during transport to the periplasm in E. coli.

  6. Genotypic diversity of escherichia coli isolates from environmental sources and the influence on transport behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a dominant intestinal commensal organism, an important fecal indicator bacterium (FIB), a pathogen and a target for microbial source tracking (MST). Strain level differences (genotypic and phenotypic) in E. coli influence its fate and transport and therefore have import...

  7. Escherichia coli diversity in livestock manures and agriculturally impacted stream waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a dominant intestinal commensal organism, an important fecal indicator bacterium (FIB), a pathogen and a target for microbial source tracking (MST). Strain level differences (genotypic and phenotypic) influence E. coli fate and transport and therefore have important imp...

  8. Escherichia coli detection by GFP-labeled lysozyme-inactivated T4 bacteriophage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasunori Tanji; Chiaki Furukawa; Suk-Hyun Na; Tomonori Hijikata; Kazuhiko Miyanaga; Hajime Unno

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli has been used as an indicator of the fecal contamination of water and food, identifying potential health hazards. In this study, an E. coli-specific bacteriophage, T4, was used to detect E. coli bacteria. The T4 phage small outer capsid (SOC) protein was used to present green fluorescent protein (GFP), an easily detectable marker protein, on the phage capsid.

  9. An auto-inducible Escherichia coli lysis system controlled by magnesium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoming Zhang; Zhiming Pan; Qiang Fang; Jiayu Zheng; Maozhi Hu; Xinan Jiao

    2009-01-01

    The Escherichia coli (E. coli) prokaryotic expression system is widely used in the field of biology. The currently adopted processes for inducing cell wall rupture, in order to release the target protein, are complex and cumbersome. We developed an auto-inducible E. coli lysis system that is regulated by exogenous magnesium ion (Mg2+) concentration. This system is composed of a strictly

  10. Chemical and gravity dependent factors affecting Escherichia coli lag phase termination

    E-print Network

    Elms, Rene ?Davina

    2002-01-01

    concentration gradients. The organism used for this study was Escherichia coli ATCC 4157. Acetic acid was not found in the extracellular environment of E. coli at the end of lag phase. Lactic acid was found in the extracellular environment of E. coli...

  11. Detection of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in Fecal Samples in Meat Goats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Ray; Madden, Uford; Brooks-Walter, Alexis

    2004-01-01

    Studies have reported the isolation of Escherichia coli (E. coli)O157:H7 from pork, lamb and poultry products, and from other animals including deer, horses, dogs, birds and humans. There is limited or no information on the presence of the organism in goats. The objectives of this study were to determine if E. coli O157:H7 was naturally occurring…

  12. Effects of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli on microvillar membrane proteins during organ culture of rabbit intestinal mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Embaye; C A Hart; J N Fletcher; J R Saunders; R M Batt

    1992-01-01

    This study examines the effects of an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli on microvillar membrane proteins during organ culture of rabbit ileal explants. Explants maintained with enteropathogenic E coli showed brush border effacement affecting approximately 50% of enterocytes, and where enteropathogenic E coli were closely adherent to the enterocyte surface microvilli were apparently being shed as vesicles. The microvillar membrane enzymes alkaline

  13. DETERMINATION OF PLASMID DNA CONCENTRATION MAINTAINED BY NONCULTURABLE ESCHERICHIA COLI IN MARINE MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of plasmid pBR322 DNA in nonculturable Escherichia coli JM83 was measured to determine whether the plasmid concentration changed during survival of E. coli in marine and estuarine water. . coli JM83 containing the plasmid pBR322 was placed in both sterile seawat...

  14. Diet, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, and cattle, a review after 10 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli are commensal bacteria that can account for up to 1% of the bacterial population of the gut. Ruminant animals are reservoirs of the pathogenic bacteria E. coli strain O157:H7 and approximately 30% of feedlot cattle shed E. coli O157:H7. Feedlot and high-producing dairy cattle are ...

  15. SURVIVAL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 IN SOIL AND ON LETTUCE AFTER FUMIGATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term persistence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 in soil and in the rhizosphere of many crops is relatively unknown. Many groups have voiced concerns about the safety of land application of manure and the potential for food and water contamination by E. coli O157:H7 from agricultural runo...

  16. Quantification of persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in contrasting soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 in the environment is a major concern to vegetable and fruit growers where farms and livestock production are in close proximity. The objectives were to determine the effects of preplant fumigation treatment on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in two ...

  17. Effect of salt concentrations on the growth of heat-stressed and unstressed Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Abdulkarim; A. B. Fatimah; J. G. Anderson

    The effect sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) concentration on the growth of Escherichia coli cells cultivated at 37 and 44°C was studied in an effort to understand the importance of the salts and glucose in medium to the growth of E. coli. A turbidimetric method was used to measure the growth of E. coli after a 24 hours

  18. High Rates of Escherichia coli Transmission between Livestock and Humans in Rural Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Innocent B. Rwego; Thomas R. Gillespie; Gilbert Isabirye-Basuta; Tony L. Goldberg

    Escherichia coli is a zoonotic bacterium that is important to both public health and livestock economics. To date, most studies of zoonotic E. coli transmission have been conducted in developed nations with industrial- ized agricultural economies. In this study, E. coli bacteria were collected from people and livestock in two communities in rural western Uganda in order to investigate patterns

  19. Dietary interactions and interventions affecting Escherichia coli 0157 colonization and shedding in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157 is an important foodborne pathogen affecting human health and the beef cattle industry. Contamination of carcasses at slaughter is correlated to the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle feces. Many associations have been made between dietary factors and E. coli O157 prevalenc...

  20. Comparison of whole genome sequences from human and non-human Escherichia coli O26 strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 is the second leading E. coli serogroup responsible for human illness outbreaks behind E. coli O157:H7. Recent outbreaks have been linked to emerging pathogenic O26:H11 strains harboring stx2 only. Cattle have been recognized as an important reserv...