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1

Learning Objects: A User-Centered Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design research systematically creates or improves processes, products, and programs through an iterative progression connecting practice and theory (Reinking, 2008; van den Akker, 2006). Developing a new instructional systems design (ISD) processes through design research is necessary when new technologies emerge that challenge existing practices…

Branon, Rovy F., III

2011-01-01

2

User-Centered Design of Online Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

User-centered design (UCD) is gaining popularity in both the educational and business sectors. This is due to the fact that UCD sheds light on the entire process of analyzing, planning, designing, developing, using, evaluating, and maintaining computer-based learning. "User-Centered Design of Online Learning Communities" explains how computers can…

Lambropoulos, Niki, Ed.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.

2007-01-01

3

A study of the role of user-centered design methods in design team projects  

E-print Network

User-centered approaches to design can guide teams toward an understanding of users and aid teams in better posing design problems. This paper investigates the role of user-centered design approaches in design process and ...

Lai, Justin Y.

4

User-Centered Graphical User Interface Design for GIS  

E-print Network

User-Centered Graphical User Interface Design for GIS April 1991 David P. Lanter NCGIA Department for Geographic Information and Analysis Report 91-6 #12;User-Centered Graphical User Interface Design for GIS of GIS systems. User-Centered Design The problem of making GIS useful to people is a user interface

California at Santa Barbara, University of

5

Applying a User-centered Approach to Interactive Visualisation Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Analysing users in their context of work and finding out how and why they use different information resources is essential\\u000a to provide interactive visualisation systems that match their goals and needs. Designers should actively involve the intended\\u000a users throughout the whole process. This chapter presents a user-centered approach for the design of interactive visualisation\\u000a systems. We describe three phases of

Ingo Wassink; Olga Kulyk; Betsy van Dijk; Gerrit van der Veer; Paul van der Vet

2009-01-01

6

User-Centered Design through Learner-Centered Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article initially demonstrates the parallels between the learner-centered approach in education and the user-centered approach in design disciplines. Afterward, a course on human factors that applies learner-centered methods to teach user-centered design is introduced. The focus is on three tasks to identify the application of theoretical and…

Altay, Burçak

2014-01-01

7

User-Centered Design and Evaluation of Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a structured, iterative methodology for user-centered design and evaluation of VE user interaction. We recommend performing (1) user task analysis followed by (2) expert guidelines-based evaluation, (3) formative user-centered evaluation, and finally (4) comparative evaluation. In this article we first give the motivation and background for our methodology, then we describe each technique in some detail. We applied

Joseph L. Gabbard; Deborah Hix; J. Edward Swan II

1999-01-01

8

Teaching User-Centered Design in New Product Marketing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thanks in part to groundbreaking work by companies such as Apple and IDEO, there has been growing interest in design as a way to improve the odds of new product success. This paper describes a user-centered design workshop developed for a new product marketing course. The workshop included exercises designed to explain and illustrate the…

Love, Edwin; Stone, Donn E.; Wilton, Taine

2011-01-01

9

User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University…

Bordac, Sarah; Rainwater, Jean

2008-01-01

10

Usability Studies and User-Centered Design in Digital Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital libraries continue to flourish. At the same time, the principles of user-centered design and the practice of usability testing have been growing in popularity, spreading their influence into the library sphere. This article explores the confluence of these two trends by surveying the current literature on usability studies of digital…

Comeaux, David J.

2008-01-01

11

Real-World User-Centered Design: The Michigan Workforce Background Check System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Michigan Workforce Background Check system demonstrates how an iterative user-centered design (UCD) process enhances organizational\\u000a level communication practices and efficiency. Well-designed information communication technology is an essential component\\u000a of effective public health management. Usability and accessibility testing informed subsequent design and development. The\\u000a iterative improvement in the background check application demonstrates that UCD should be a component of public

Sarah J. Swierenga; Fuad Abujarad; Toni A. Dennis; Lori A. Post

12

An Empirical Study on Integrating Agile and User Centered Design  

E-print Network

challenges. Agile Software Development Processes; User Centred Design; Agile User Centred Design Integration 1. INTRODUCTION Agile methods are lightweight software development methods that tackle perceived. They are iterative and are used to develop software incrementally. Different Agile processes implement these ideas

Cairns, Paul

13

Designing User-Centered Web Applications in Web Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

As designers struggle to develop Web applications “in Web time,” they are under the added pressure of delivering usability. The author describes her company's successful transformation to user-driven processes for designing e-commerce applications. She also offers strategies for introducing human factors methods into a reluctant development organization

Molly Hammar Cloyd

2001-01-01

14

Technology Transfer Challenges: A Case Study of User-Centered Design in NASA's Systems Engineering Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Stage (US) section of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ares I rocket will require internal access platforms for maintenance tasks performed by humans inside the vehicle. Tasks will occur during expensive critical path operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) including vehicle stacking and launch preparation activities. Platforms must be translated through a small human access hatch, installed in an enclosed worksite environment, support the weight of ground operators and be removed before flight - and their design must minimize additional vehicle mass at attachment points. This paper describes the application of a user-centered conceptual design process and the unique challenges encountered within NASA's systems engineering culture focused on requirements and "heritage hardware". The NASA design team at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) initiated the user-centered design process by studying heritage internal access kits and proposing new design concepts during brainstorming sessions. Simultaneously, they partnered with the Technology Transfer/Innovative Partnerships Program to research inflatable structures and dynamic scaffolding solutions that could enable ground operator access. While this creative, technology-oriented exploration was encouraged by upper management, some design stakeholders consistently opposed ideas utilizing novel, untested equipment. Subsequent collaboration with an engineering consulting firm improved the technical credibility of several options, however, there was continued resistance from team members focused on meeting system requirements with pre-certified hardware. After a six-month idea-generating phase, an intensive six-week effort produced viable design concepts that justified additional vehicle mass while optimizing the human factors of platform installation and use. Although these selected final concepts closely resemble heritage internal access platforms, challenges from the application of the user-centered process provided valuable lessons for improving future collaborative conceptual design efforts.

Quick, Jason

2009-01-01

15

NGDS User Centered Design Meeting the Needs of the Geothermal Community  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure the widest and greatest utility of IT and software projects designed for geothermal reservoir engineer- ing the full consideration of end users’ task and workflow needs must be evaluated. This paper describes the user-centered design (UCD) approach taken in the development of a user interface (UI) solution for the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This development process has been research based, highly collabora- tive, and incorporates state-of-the-art practices to ensure a quality user experience. Work is continuing on the interface, including future usability tests to further refine the interfaces as the overall system is developed.

Boyd, Suzanne [Anthro-Tech, Inc; Zheng, Sam [Siemens Corporation; Patten, Kim [Arizona Geological Survey; Blackman, Harold [Boise State University

2013-10-01

16

NGDS USER CENTERED DESIGN MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure the widest and greatest utility of IT and software projects designed for geothermal reservoir engineering the full consideration of end users’ task and workflow needs must be evaluated. This paper describes the user-centered design (UCD) approach taken in the development of a user interface (UI) solution for the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This development process has been researched based, highly collaborative, and incorporates state-of-the-art practices to ensure a quality user experience. Work is continuing on the interface, including future usability tests to further refine the interfaces as the overall system is developed.

Boyd, Suzanne [Anthro-Tech; Zheng, Sam Xianjun [Siemens Corporation; Patten, Kim [Arizona Geological Survey; Blackman, Harold [Boise State University

2013-01-01

17

Original Paper User-Centered Design of a Digital Knowledge Medium to  

E-print Network

, Toronto, ON, Canada 2 Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy Department; Health Policy, Management the fields of human-computer interaction and occupational therapy. Keywords User-centered design; information

Toronto, University of

18

User-Centered Design of a Web Site for Library and Information Science Students: Heuristic Evaluation and Usability Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the life cycle of a library Web site created with a user-centered design process to serve a graduate school of library and information science (LIS). Findings based on a heuristic evaluation and usability study were applied in an iterative redesign of the site to better serve the needs of this special academic library population. Recommendations for design

Laura Manzari; Jeremiah Trinidad-Christensen

19

User-centered virtual environment design for virtual rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As physical and cognitive rehabilitation protocols utilizing virtual environments transition from single applications to comprehensive rehabilitation programs there is a need for a new design cycle methodology. Current human-computer interaction designs focus on usability without benchmarking technology within a user-in-the-loop design cycle. The field of virtual rehabilitation is unique in that determining the efficacy of this genre of computer-aided

Cali M Fidopiastis; Albert A Rizzo; Jannick P Rolland

2010-01-01

20

User centered design evaluation of the grocery store environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies challenges experienced by older adults within the grocery retail\\u000aenvironment. Evaluation of design features is based on user input to identify areas that work well versus those that could benefit from replacement, enhancement or redesign. The objective is to promote greater independence in the task of grocery shopping. Results from this study are of interest to design

Shelley A. Steenblock

2010-01-01

21

A review of user-centered design for diabetes-related consumer health informatics technologies.  

PubMed

User-centered design (UCD) is well recognized as an effective human factor engineering strategy for designing ease of use in the total customer experience with products and information technology that has been applied specifically to health care information technology systems. We conducted a literature review to analyze the current research regarding the use of UCD methods and principles to support the development or evaluation of diabetes-related consumer health informatics technology (CHIT) initiatives. Findings indicate that (1) UCD activities have been applied across the technology development life cycle stages, (2) there are benefits to incorporating UCD to better inform CHIT development in this area, and (3) the degree of adoption of the UCD process is quite uneven across diabetes CHIT studies. In addition, few to no studies report on methods used across all phases of the life cycle with process detail. To address that void, the Appendix provides an illustrative case study example of UCD techniques across development stages. PMID:23911188

LeRouge, Cynthia; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

2013-07-01

22

Interfacing Media: User-Centered Design for Media-Rich Web Sites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses multimedia Web site design that may include images, animations, audio, and video. Highlights include interfaces that stress user-centered design; using only relevant media; placing high-demand content on secondary pages and keeping the home page simpler; providing information about the media; considering users with disabilities; and user…

Horton, Sarah

2000-01-01

23

A Method for User Centering Systematic Product Development Aimed at Industrial Design Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instead of limiting the introduction and stimulus for new concept creation to lists of specifications, industrial design students seem to prefer to be encouraged by ideas in context. A new method that specifically tackles human activity to foster the creation of user centered concepts of new products was developed and is presented in this article.…

Coelho, Denis A.

2010-01-01

24

User-Centered Design (UCD) applied to the identification and modification of unsustainable practices.  

PubMed

Metropolitan Autonomous University, Cuajimalpa Unit (UAM-C) has as one of its main themes, researching and teaching of sustainability. In it, the Bachelor of Design program considers among its teaching approaches those of User-Centered Design and Eco-design as important issues, this explains the interest in addressing the areas in which both approaches can be articulated to reduce unsustainable practices through the design of messages, environments and products. PMID:22317621

Lucila, Mercado Colin; Alejandro, Rodea Chávez

2012-01-01

25

Improving the quality of numerical software through user-centered design  

SciTech Connect

The software interface - whether graphical, command-oriented, menu-driven, or in the form of subroutine calls - shapes the user`s perception of what software can do. It also establishes upper bounds on software usability. Numerical software interfaces typically are based on the designer`s understanding of how the software should be used. That is a poor foundation for usability, since the features that are ``instinctively right`` from the developer`s perspective are often the very ones that technical programmers find most objectionable or most difficult to learn. This paper discusses how numerical software interfaces can be improved by involving users more actively in design, a process known as user-centered design (UCD). While UCD requires extra organization and effort, it results in much higher levels of usability and can actually reduce software costs. This is true not just for graphical user interfaces, but for all software interfaces. Examples show how UCD improved the usability of a subroutine library, a command language, and an invocation interface.

Pancake, C. M., Oregon State University

1998-06-01

26

Integration of Extreme Programming and User-Centered Design: Lessons Learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important factors for the success of a software application is user acceptance by having a usable user interface.\\u000a Since summer 2007 in our project regarding mobile phone application, we have combined Extreme Programming and User-Centered\\u000a Design methodologies aiming to deliver usable and useful software. The HCI instruments we have integrated are: user studies,\\u000a personas, usability expert

Zahid Hussain; Harald Milchrahm; Sara Shahzad; Wolfgang Slany; Manfred Tscheligi; Peter Wolkerstorfer

2009-01-01

27

A new user-centered design approach: a hair washing assistive device design for users with shoulder mobility restriction.  

PubMed

This study utilized a user-centered design approach as the foundation for a new Assistive Device (AD) design process. Observation and evaluation results from a Usability Context Analysis (UCA) was used to improve the analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT Analysis) and the matrix of Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses, and Strengths (TOWS matrix), resulting in two assistive device design methods named AD-SWOT and AD-TOWS. Thus, an AD-design process, tailored for designing assistive devices, was both established and tested. Owing to the information gained from using the design processes and evaluating product efficiency with various cases in the early part of the research, it was decided to use the AD-design process for the entire design process. Using this process, an adjustable hair washer for physically disabled individuals to wash their hair using normal postures was developed. Furthermore, the method derived in this study can also be applied to users suffering from single-sided shoulder-joint mobility disabilities, such as frontal flexion, scapular plan elevation, and restricted abductors. PMID:19232409

Wu, Fong-Gong; Ma, Min-Yuan; Chang, Ro-Han

2009-09-01

28

User-centered virtual environment assessment and design for cognitive rehabilitation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual environment (VE) design for cognitive rehabilitation necessitates a new methodology to ensure the validity of the resulting rehabilitation assessment. We propose that benchmarking the VE system technology utilizing a user-centered approach should precede the VE construction. Further, user performance baselines should be measured throughout testing as a control for adaptive effects that may confound the metrics chosen to evaluate the rehabilitation treatment. To support these claims we present data obtained from two modules of a user-centered head-mounted display (HMD) assessment battery, specifically resolution visual acuity and stereoacuity. Resolution visual acuity and stereoacuity assessments provide information about the image quality achieved by an HMD based upon its unique system parameters. When applying a user-centered approach, we were able to quantify limitations in the VE system components (e.g., low microdisplay resolution) and separately point to user characteristics (e.g., changes in dark focus) that may introduce error in the evaluation of VE based rehabilitation protocols. Based on these results, we provide guidelines for calibrating and benchmarking HMDs. In addition, we discuss potential extensions of the assessment to address higher level usability issues. We intend to test the proposed framework within the Human Experience Modeler (HEM), a testbed created at the University of Central Florida to evaluate technologies that may enhance cognitive rehabilitation effectiveness. Preliminary results of a feasibility pilot study conducted with a memory impaired participant showed that the HEM provides the control and repeatability needed to conduct such technology comparisons. Further, the HEM affords the opportunity to integrate new brain imaging technologies (i.e., functional Near Infrared Imaging) to evaluate brain plasticity associated with VE based cognitive rehabilitation.

Fidopiastis, Cali Michael

29

THE DESIGNER'S SITUATION AWARENESS TOOLKIT: SUPPORT FOR USER-CENTERED DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing systems to support SA involves three phases: an analysis of SA requirements, the application of SA-oriented design principles, and the measurement of SA during design evaluation. The Designer's Situation Awareness Toolkit (DeSAT) provides support to the designer for each phase of this process through both tutorials and application specific tools. The tutorials cover the Goal Directed Task Analysis (GDTA)

Debra G. Jones; Mica R. Endsley; Mark Bolstad; Gil Estes

30

Integrating Agile and User-Centered Design A Systematic Mapping and Review of Evaluation and Validation Studies of Agile-UX  

E-print Network

.maurer}@ucalgary.ca Abstract--Agile software engineering and user-centered design are two important development processes. INTRODUCTION The many benefits of Agile Software Engineering have led to it becoming a mainstream development methodology [1]. However, Agile on its own does not necessarily address the usability of the software product

Maurer, Frank

31

Scaffolding the design of accessible eLearning content: a user-centered approach and cognitive perspective.  

PubMed

There exist various guidelines for facilitating the design, preparation, and deployment of accessible eLearning applications and contents. However, such guidelines prevalently address accessibility in a rather technical sense, without giving sufficient consideration to the cognitive aspects and issues related to the use of eLearning materials by learners with disabilities. In this paper we describe how a user-centered design process was applied to develop a method and set of guidelines for didactical experts to scaffold their creation of accessible eLearning content, based on a more sound approach to accessibility. The paper also discusses possible design solutions for tools supporting eLearning content authors in the adoption and application of the proposed approach. PMID:18421489

Catarci, Tiziana; De Giovanni, Loredana; Gabrielli, Silvia; Kimani, Stephen; Mirabella, Valeria

2008-08-01

32

Bringing the Field into Focus: User-centered Design of a Patient Expertise Locator  

PubMed Central

Managing personal aspects of health is challenging for many patients, particularly those facing a serious condition such as cancer. Finding experienced patients, who can share their knowledge from managing a similar health situation, is of tremendous value. Users of health-related social software form a large base of such knowledge, yet these tools often lack features needed to locate peers with expertise. Informed directly by our field work with breast cancer patients, we designed a patient expertise locator for users of online health communities. Using feedback from two focus groups with breast cancer survivors, we took our design through two iterations. Focus groups concluded that expertise locating features proved useful for extending social software. They guided design enhancements by suggesting granular user control through (1) multiple mechanisms to identify expertise, (2) detailed user profiles to select expertise, and (3) varied collaboration levels. Our user-centered approach links field work to design through close collaboration with patients. By illustrating trade-offs made when sharing sensitive health information, our findings inform the incorporation of expertise locating features into social software for patients. PMID:21243114

Civan-Hartzler, Andrea; McDonald, David W.; Powell, Chris; Skeels, Meredith M; Mukai, Marlee; Pratt, Wanda

2010-01-01

33

Extreme User Centered Design: Methodology for Eliciting and Ranking Requirements in User-Centered New Product Development: Case Studies from Honduras and the Central African Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing appropriate technology for people in developing countries is a complex challenge. An unclear aspect of this design is fully understanding and ranking end user requirements, and then creatively designing a user-pulled product. Many methods have been proposed, but each omits end users as integral to the design process. Instead, designers identify the needs, ask the intermediary customers to rank

Gregory D. Bixler

2011-01-01

34

Agile Methods and User-Centered Design: How These Two Methodologies Are Being Successfully Integrated In Industry  

E-print Network

Agile Methods and User-Centered Design: How These Two Methodologies Are Being Successfully A core principle of Agile development is to satisfy the customer by providing valuable software that is usable. Recently there has been some evidence that suggests using Agile methods alone does not ensure

Sillito, Jonathan

35

Infant feeding: the interfaces between interaction design and cognitive ergonomics in user-centered design.  

PubMed

This text presents a discussion on the process of developing interactive products focused on infant behavior, which result was an interactive game for encouraging infant feeding. For that, it describes the use of cognitive psychology concepts added to interaction design methodology. Through this project, this article sustains how the cooperative use of these concepts provides adherent solutions to users' needs, whichever they are. Besides that, it verifies the closeness of those methodologies to boundary areas of knowledge, such as design focused on user and ergonomics. PMID:22316864

Lima, Flavia; Araújo, Lilian Kely

2012-01-01

36

Skills needed by user-centered design practitioners in real software development environments: report on the CHI'92 workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-centered design (UCD) of human-computer interfaces--including task flow and documentation---is gaining acceptance in software development organizations. But managers who want their organizations to start using UCD often do not know what characteristics to look for, in candidates for hiring or retraining to fill UCD roles; this article can help. It has the recommendations from participants in a CHI '92 conference

Tom Dayton; Pamela A. Burke; Andrew M. Cohill; Kate Ehrlich; Richard L. Henneman; John Karat; Mike Sellers; Mary R. Smith

1993-01-01

37

ISTANBUL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NEW USER-CENTERED METHODS FOR DESIGN INNOVATION  

E-print Network

.4. Innovation as a Process 35 3.4.1. New Product Development 36 3.4.2. Product Design and Development 37 3 FOR DESIGN INNOVATION: A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF EMERGING METHODS IN INNOVATIVE PRODUCT DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT M of the 'Innovation' Concept 16 3.2. The Theory of Innovation: A Historical and Theoretical Overview 17 3

Mutlu, Bilge

38

User centered design of context aware cell phones in human-centric systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

User research in software development and engineering design processes has gained unprecedented popularity due to the realization that knowing about users, their preferences, characteristics, and environments is highly useful in the design of effective user and human centric systems. Current human centric systems are intelligent, responsive, emotive and aware, and their capabilities and applications continue to increase rapidly. Due to

Ashish Godbole; Seung-yun Kim

2010-01-01

39

A Systematic Web-Course Development Process: User-Centered Requirements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the developmental needs for Web-based courses, focusing on content, user interface, and pedagogy. Studies the Web course development process as a system, explores various stages in the process, and includes graphs and tables designed to be used as management tools for the effective development of Web-based courses. (Author/LRW)

Liu, Ming-Chou

2001-01-01

40

The User-Centered Design as Novel Perspective for Evaluating the Usability of BCI-Controlled Applications  

PubMed Central

Albeit research on brain-computer interfaces (BCI) for controlling applications has expanded tremendously, we still face a translational gap when bringing BCI to end-users. To bridge this gap, we adapted the user-centered design (UCD) to BCI research and development which implies a shift from focusing on single aspects, such as accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR), to a more holistic user experience. The UCD implements an iterative process between end-users and developers based on a valid evaluation procedure. Within the UCD framework usability of a device can be defined with regard to its effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. We operationalized these aspects to evaluate BCI-controlled applications. Effectiveness was regarded equivalent to accuracy of selections and efficiency to the amount of information transferred per time unit and the effort invested (workload). Satisfaction was assessed with questionnaires and visual-analogue scales. These metrics have been successfully applied to several BCI-controlled applications for communication and entertainment, which were evaluated by end-users with severe motor impairment. Results of four studies, involving a total of N?=?19 end-users revealed: effectiveness was moderate to high; efficiency in terms of ITR was low to high and workload low to medium; depending on the match between user and technology, and type of application satisfaction was moderate to high. The here suggested evaluation metrics within the framework of the UCD proved to be an applicable and informative approach to evaluate BCI controlled applications, and end-users with severe impairment and in the locked-in state were able to participate in this process. PMID:25469774

Kübler, Andrea; Holz, Elisa M.; Riccio, Angela; Zickler, Claudia; Kaufmann, Tobias; Kleih, Sonja C.; Staiger-Sälzer, Pit; Desideri, Lorenzo; Hoogerwerf, Evert-Jan; Mattia, Donatella

2014-01-01

41

A Web-Based Program for Informal Caregivers of Persons With Alzheimer’s Disease: An Iterative User-Centered Design  

PubMed Central

Background Web-based programs have been developed for informal caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s disease (PWAD). However, these programs can prove difficult to adopt, especially for older people, who are less familiar with the Internet than other populations. Despite the fundamental role of usability testing in promoting caregivers’ correct use and adoption of these programs, to our knowledge, this is the first study describing this process before evaluating a program for caregivers of PWAD in a randomized clinical trial. Objective The objective of the study was to describe the development process of a fully automated Web-based program for caregivers of PWAD, aiming to reduce caregivers’ stress, and based on the user-centered design approach. Methods There were 49 participants (12 health care professionals, 6 caregivers, and 31 healthy older adults) that were involved in a double iterative design allowing for the adaptation of program content and for the enhancement of website usability. This process included three component parts: (1) project team workshops, (2) a proof of concept, and (3) two usability tests. The usability tests were based on a mixed methodology using behavioral analysis, semistructured interviews, and a usability questionnaire. Results The user-centered design approach provided valuable guidelines to adapt the content and design of the program, and to improve website usability. The professionals, caregivers (mainly spouses), and older adults considered that our project met the needs of isolated caregivers. Participants underlined that contact between caregivers would be desirable. During usability observations, the mistakes of users were also due to ergonomics issues from Internet browsers and computer interfaces. Moreover, negative self-stereotyping was evidenced, when comparing interviews and results of behavioral analysis. Conclusions Face-to-face psycho-educational programs may be used as a basis for Web-based programs. Nevertheless, a user-centered design approach involving targeted users (or their representatives) remains crucial for their correct use and adoption. For future user-centered design studies, we recommend to involve end-users from preconception stages, using a mixed research method in usability evaluations, and implementing pilot studies to evaluate acceptability and feasibility of programs. PMID:25263541

Moulin, Florence; Wrobel, Jérémy; Batrancourt, Bénédicte; Plichart, Matthieu; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

2014-01-01

42

SportScope: a user-centered design for baseball fans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1995 Apple Design Project asked students to design a system that would bridge the gulf between the physical and virtual worlds. SportScope, a system which augments the user's experience at a professional baseball game, was designed for this project. A binocular-like video scope is the centerpiece of the design, enabling baseball fans to obtain up-to-the-minute information from objects within

David S. Cortright

1996-01-01

43

User-Centered Design and Evaluation of a Real-Time Battlefield Visualization Virtual Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever-increasing power of computers and hardware render- ing systems has, to date, primarily motivated the creation of visually rich and perceptually realistic virtual environment (VE) applications. Comparatively very little effort has been expended on the user interaction components of VEs. As a result, VE user interfaces are often poorly designed and are rarely evaluated with users. Although usability engineering

Deborah Hix; J. Edward Swan II; Joseph L. Gabbard; Mike Mcgee; Jim Durbin; Tony King

1999-01-01

44

User centered game design: evaluating massive multiplayer online role playing games for second language acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike recreational games, serious games do more than entertain the player. Serious games promote acquisition of information and skills that are valued in both the virtual world and the real world. The challenge is to design and develop serious games that simultaneously create an enjoyable experience for the player as the player develops or improves her skill set as a

Yolanda A. Rankin; McKenzie McNeal; Marcus W. Shute; Bruce Gooch

2008-01-01

45

The Evolving User-Centered Design of the Algorithm Visualization Storyboarder Christopher Hundhausen  

E-print Network

inordinate amounts of time generating data values for their algorithms--a process in which they had to per domain version of the software suitable for use in a "stu- dio-based" computer science course. Through Firmly rooted in the real-world activity of constructing a "visualization storyboard" [1] out of simple

Hundhausen, Chris

46

Experiences of Multidisciplinary Development Team Members During User-Centered Design of Telecare Products and Services: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background User-centered design (UCD) methodologies can help take the needs and requirements of potential end-users into account during the development of innovative telecare products and services. Understanding how members of multidisciplinary development teams experience the UCD process might help to gain insight into factors that members with different backgrounds consider critical during the development of telecare products and services. Objective The primary objective of this study was to explore how members of multidisciplinary development teams experienced the UCD process of telecare products and services. The secondary objective was to identify differences and similarities in the barriers and facilitators they experienced. Methods Twenty-five members of multidisciplinary development teams of four Research and Development (R&D) projects participated in this study. The R&D projects aimed to develop telecare products and services that can support self-management in elderly people or patients with chronic conditions. Seven participants were representatives of end-users (elderly persons or patients with chronic conditions), three were professional end-users (geriatrician and nurses), five were engineers, four were managers (of R&D companies or engineering teams), and six were researchers. All participants were interviewed by a researcher who was not part of their own development team. The following topics were discussed during the interviews: (1) aim of the project, (2) role of the participant, (3) experiences during the development process, (4) points of improvement, and (5) what the project meant to the participant. Results Experiences of participants related to the following themes: (1) creating a development team, (2) expectations regarding responsibilities and roles, (3) translating user requirements into technical requirements, (4) technical challenges, (5) evaluation of developed products and services, and (6) valorization. Multidisciplinary team members from different backgrounds often reported similar experienced barriers (eg, different members of the development team speak a “different language”) and facilitators (eg, team members should voice expectations at the start of the project to prevent miscommunication at a later stage). However, some experienced barriers and facilitators were reported only by certain groups of participants. For example, only managers reported the experience that having different ideas about what a good business case is within one development team was a barrier, whereas only end-users emphasized the facilitating role of project management in end-user participation and the importance of continuous feedback from researchers on input of end-users. Conclusions Many similarities seem to exist between the experienced barriers and facilitators of members of multidisciplinary development teams during UCD of telecare products and services. However, differences in experiences between team members from various backgrounds exist as well. Insights into these similarities and differences can improve understanding between team members from different backgrounds, which can optimize collaboration during the development of telecare products and services. PMID:24840245

2014-01-01

47

Peleg et al. Page 1 of 32 User-centered Design of a DSS Using Multi-Perspective Methodologies to Study Users' Interactions with the  

E-print Network

et al. Page 3 of 32 User-centered Design of a DSS 3 INTRODUCTION Foot-wound infection and ulceration, the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons developed a guideline for diagnosing and managing diabetic foot care [3] focused on adapting the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons' guideline to local

Peleg, Mor

48

Community-based participatory research and user-centered design in a diabetes medication information and decision tool  

PubMed Central

Background Together, community-based participatory research (CBPR), usercentered design (UCD) and health information technology (HIT) offer promising approaches to improve health disparities in low-resource settings. Objectives This article describes the application of CBPR and UCD principles to the development of iDecide/Decido, an interactive, tailored, web-based diabetes medication education and decision support tool delivered by community health workers (CHWs) to African-American and Latino participants with diabetes in Southwest and Eastside Detroit. The decision aid is offered in English or Spanish and is delivered on an iPad in participants’ homes. Methods The overlapping principles of CBPR and UCD used to develop iDecide/Decido include: a user-focused or community approach; equitable academic and community partnership in all study phases; an iterative development process that relies on input from all stakeholders; and a program experience that is specified, adapted, and implemented with the target community. Results Collaboration between community members, researchers, and developers is especially evident in the program’s design concept, animations, pictographs, issue cards, goal setting, tailoring, and additional CHW tools. Conclusions Applying the principles of CBPR and UCD can be successfully employed in developing health information tools that are easy to use and understand, interactive, and target health disparities. PMID:23793248

Henderson, Vida A; Barr, Kathryn LC; An, Lawrence C; Guajardo, Claudia; Newhouse, William; Mase, Rebecca; Heisler, Michele

2014-01-01

49

The Development of a Mobile Monitoring and Feedback Tool to Stimulate Physical Activity of People With a Chronic Disease in Primary Care: A User-Centered Design  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity is an important aspect in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or type-2 diabetes. A monitoring and feedback tool combined with guidance by a primary care provider might be a successful method to enhance the level of physical activity in these patients. As a prerequisite for useful technology, it is important to involve the end-users in the design process from an early stage. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the user requirements for a tool to stimulate physical activity, embedded in primary care practice. The leading principle of this tool is to change behavior by self-monitoring, goal-setting, and feedback. Methods The research team collected qualitative data among 15 patients, 16 care professionals, and several experts. A prototype was developed in three stages. In stage 1, the literature was searched to identify end-users and context. In stage 2, the literature, experts and patient representatives were consulted to set up a use case with the general idea of the innovation. In stage 3, individual interviews and focus groups were held to identify the end-user requirements. Based on these requirements a prototype was built by the engineering team. Results The development process has led to a tool that generally meets the requirements of the end-users. A tri-axial activity sensor, worn on the hip, is connected by Bluetooth to a smartphone. In an app, quantitative feedback is given about the amount of activity and goals reached by means of graphical visualization, and an image shows a sun when the goal is reached. Overviews about activity per half an hour, per day, week, and month are provided. In the menu of the app and on a secured website, patients can enter information in individual sessions or read feedback messages generated by the system. The practice nurse can see the results of all patients on a secure webpage and can then discuss the results and set personalized goals in consultation with the patient. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a user-centered approach brings in valuable details (such as the requirements for feedback in activity minutes per day) to improve the fit between the user, technology, and the organization of care, which is important for the usability and acceptability of the tool. The tool embedded in primary care will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:25099556

Verwey, Renée; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Tange, Huibert; van der Weijden, Trudy; de Witte, Luc

2013-01-01

50

Toward a User-Centered Academic Library Home Page  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past decade, academic libraries have struggled with the design of an effective library home page. Since librarians' mental models of information architecture differ from those of their patrons, usability assessments are necessary in designing a user-centered home page. This study details a usability sequence of card sort and paper and…

McHale, Nina

2008-01-01

51

A question of trust: user-centered design requirements for an informatics intervention to promote the sexual health of African-American youth  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated the user requirements of African-American youth (aged 14–24?years) to inform the design of a culturally appropriate, network-based informatics intervention for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Materials and Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with 75 African-American youth from a city with high HIV/STI prevalence. Data analyses involved coding using qualitative content analysis procedures and memo writing. Results Unexpectedly, the majority of participants’ design recommendations concerned trust. Youth expressed distrust towards people and groups, which was amplified within the context of information technology-mediated interactions about HIV/STI. Participants expressed distrust in the reliability of condoms and the accuracy of HIV tests. They questioned the benevolence of many institutions, and some rejected authoritative HIV/STI information. Therefore, reputational information, including rumor, influenced HIV/STI-related decision making. Participants’ design requirements also focused on trust-related concerns. Accordingly, we developed a novel trust-centered design framework to guide intervention design. Discussion Current approaches to online trust for health informatics do not consider group-level trusting patterns. Yet, trust was the central intervention-relevant issue among African-American youth, suggesting an important focus for culturally informed design. Our design framework incorporates: intervention objectives (eg, network embeddedness, participation); functional specifications (eg, decision support, collective action, credible question and answer services); and interaction design (eg, member control, offline network linkages, optional anonymity). Conclusions Trust is a critical focus for HIV/STI informatics interventions for young African Americans. Our design framework offers practical, culturally relevant, and systematic guidance to designers to reach this underserved group better. PMID:23512830

Veinot, Tiffany C; Campbell, Terrance R; Kruger, Daniel J; Grodzinski, Alison

2013-01-01

52

User-centered design of a web-based self-management site for individuals with type 2 diabetes – providing a sense of control and community  

PubMed Central

Background To design and test a web-based self-management tool for patients with type 2 diabetes for its usability and feasibility. Methods An evidence-based, theory-driven website was created for patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-three patients with type 2 diabetes aged???25 years were recruited from 2 diabetes care centers in Toronto, Canada. We employed focus group methodology to assess acceptability, sustainability, strengths and weaknesses of the self-management website. Based on these results, revisions were made to the website. Three cycles of individual usability testing sessions using cognitive task analysis were conducted with patients with type 2 diabetes. Revisions to the website were made based on results from this testing. Results We identified five themes concerning participants’ experiences of health care and related unmet needs: 1) Desire for information and for greater access to timely and personalized care to gain a sense of control of their disease; 2) Desire for community (sharing experiences with others) to fulfill practical and emotional needs; 3) Potential roles of an online self-management website in self-empowerment, behavior change, self-management and health care delivery; 4) Importance of a patient-centered perspective in presenting content (e.g. common assumptions, medical nomenclature, language, messaging, sociocultural context); 5) Barriers and facilitators to use of a self-management website (including perceived relevance of content, incorporation into usual routine, availability for goal-directed use, usability issues). Conclusions Participants outlined a series of unmet health care needs, and stated that they wanted timely access to tailored knowledge about their condition, mechanisms to control and track their disease, and opportunities to share experiences with other patients. These findings have implications for patients with type 2 diabetes of diverse ages, socioeconomic backgrounds, and disease severity, as well as to the design of other computer-based resources for chronic disease management. PMID:25056379

2014-01-01

53

Technical Communication User-Centered Design  

E-print Network

> Reminder: Switch to CD to show the game #12;What is Usability Testing? > A methodology used to test and interviewing the user while they actually work. > Example: · Observing users search for medical information

Heller, Barbara

54

Webgrep: Web Webgrep: User Centered Web Personalization  

E-print Network

Webgrep: Web Webgrep: User Centered Web Personalization y Hironobu Aoki yy Jiro Tanaka y Master and Electronics,University of Tsukuba WWW Web Web Webgrep Webgrep 1 Web Web Web Web Web [1] My Yahoo! [2] MyNetscape [3] amazon.com [4] Web Web 2 Web Web |1| #12;1. Web 2. 3. 4. Web WWWC [5] Web Auto [6] Web 1 2 Web 3

Tanaka, Jiro

55

Development of a user-centered health information service system for depressive symptom management.  

PubMed

A user-centered, Web-based depressive symptoms management system might be particularly useful in Korea, where those who seek mental health care face stigmatizing and where personal computers and the Internet have reached saturation levels. The purpose of this article is to describe the development process of a Web-based system for depressive symptom management through user-centered design principles. Our design process included four distinct phases: a needs assessment, analysis, design/development/testing, and the application release. The final revised website was released with the URL address, "http://www.baejy.com/smiles/". In the 3 years since the site was made available publicly, it is notable that 161,604 Koreans have accessed this website, either for educational purposes or for managing their depressive symptoms. A Web-based depressive symptom management system with a high degree of usability was developed. This website can be used to assess depressive symptoms and to serve as an intervention strategy to improve mental health. PMID:19519707

Bae, Jeongyee; Wolpin, Seth; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Sowoo; Yoon, Sookhee; An, Kyungeh

2009-06-01

56

Students and faculty come together in Human Centered Design & Engineering (HCDE) to focus on understanding human needs and interests as they solve the engineering problems our world is facing. From user-centered design to human-computer interaction, we  

E-print Network

, nonprofit organizations, and academia. hcde.uw.edu #12;Human Centered Design & Engineering Education HumanStudents and faculty come together in Human Centered Design & Engineering (HCDE) to focus on understanding human needs and interests as they solve the engineering problems our world is facing. From user

57

A User-Centered Cooperative Information System for Medical Imaging Diagnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a cooperative information system for remote medical imaging diagnosis. General computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) problems addressed are definition of a procedure for the design of user-centered cooperative systems (conceptual level); and improvement of user feedback and optimization of the communication bandwidth in highly…

Gomez, Enrique J.; Quiles, Jose A.; Sanz, Marcos F.; del Pozo, Francisco

1998-01-01

58

A User-Centered Interface for Information Exploration in a Heterogeneous Digital Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for the design of new user interfaces for digital libraries and describes SenseMaker, a user-centered interface for information retrieval in a heterogeneous digital library. Topics include iterative bundling of articles and citations; evaluation results; increasing fluidity between browsing and searching; and filtering.…

Baldonado, Michelle Q. Wang

2000-01-01

59

Measuring the User Experience on a Large Scale: User-Centered Metrics for Web Applications  

E-print Network

-driven and user-centered. The framework and process have generalized to enough of our company's own products analytics, web applications, log analysis. ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2 [Information interfaces and presentation]: User Interfaces--benchmarking, evaluation/methodology. General Terms Experimentation, Human

Tomkins, Andrew

60

User-Centered Evaluation of Adaptive and Adaptable Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive and adaptable systems provide tailored output to various users in various contexts. While adaptive systems base their output on implicit inferences, adaptable systems use explicitly provided information. Since the presentation or output of these systems is adapted, standard user-centered evaluation methods do not produce results that can be easily generalized. This calls for a reflection on the appropriateness of

Lex S. van Velsen; Geest van der Thea M; Rob F. Klaassen

2009-01-01

61

Fiia: user-centered development of adaptive groupware systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive groupware systems support changes in users' locations, devices, roles and collaborative structure. Developing such systems is difficult due to the complex distributed systems programming in- volved. In this paper, we introduce Fiia, a novel architectural style for groupware. Fiia is user-centered, in that it allows easy specifi- cation of groupware structured around users' settings, devices and applications, and where

Christopher Wolfe; T. C. Nicholas Graham; W. Greg Phillips; Banani Roy

2009-01-01

62

NETL - Supercomputing: NETL Simulation Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

ScienceCinema

NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC, integrates one of the world's largest high-performance computers with an advanced visualization center. The SBEUC offers a collaborative environment among researchers at NETL sites and those working through the NETL-Regional University Alliance.

None

2014-06-16

63

NETL - Supercomputing: NETL Simulation Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

SciTech Connect

NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC, integrates one of the world's largest high-performance computers with an advanced visualization center. The SBEUC offers a collaborative environment among researchers at NETL sites and those working through the NETL-Regional University Alliance.

None

2013-09-30

64

User-centered development of a pervasive healthcare application  

E-print Network

User-centered development of a pervasive healthcare application Andreas Butz University of Munich on and can hold ad- ditional paper, such as printouts of laboratory results inside of them. With the rise, or replaced by standardized entries. With the globally increasing cost pressure in the health sector

65

Breakthrough: NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

SciTech Connect

The National Energy Technology Laboratory relies on supercomputers to develop many novel ideas that become tomorrow's energy solutions. Supercomputers provide a cost-effective, efficient platform for research and usher technologies into widespread use faster to bring benefits to the nation. In 2013, Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz dedicated NETL's new supercomputer, the Simulation Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC. The SBEUC is dedicated to fossil energy research and is a collaborative tool for all of NETL and our regional university partners.

Guenther, Chris

2013-09-26

66

Breakthrough: NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

ScienceCinema

The National Energy Technology Laboratory relies on supercomputers to develop many novel ideas that become tomorrow's energy solutions. Supercomputers provide a cost-effective, efficient platform for research and usher technologies into widespread use faster to bring benefits to the nation. In 2013, Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz dedicated NETL's new supercomputer, the Simulation Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC. The SBEUC is dedicated to fossil energy research and is a collaborative tool for all of NETL and our regional university partners.

Guenther, Chris

2014-05-21

67

Evolving the scope of user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

this article I only want tomention two of the 17 parts included in ISO 9241.These parts present a kind of high-level guidancethat we do not commonly associate with the term"standard," and cover principles for good dialoguedesign (Part 10) and guidance on how to specify andevaluate usability in different contexts (Part 11).Part 10 is titled "Dialogue Principles," and includesthe following seven

John Karat

1997-01-01

68

User-Centered Design Proposals for Prototyping Haptic User Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of applications for haptic user interfaces is wide, but although haptics offer unique qualities to user interfaces,\\u000a the rate of adoption and implementation of haptics in commercialized products is relatively low. The challenges of building\\u000a low-cost flexible prototypes with haptics in the early stages of product development are believed to be a contributing factor\\u000a to this. This paper

Hans V. Bjelland; Kristian Tangeland

2007-01-01

69

User-Centered Evaluation of Technosocial Predictive Analytics  

SciTech Connect

In today’s technology filled world, it is absolutely essential to show the utility of new software, especially software that brings entirely new capabilities to potential users. In the case of technosocial predictive analytics, researchers are developing software capabilities to augment human reasoning and cognition. Getting acceptance and buy-in from analysts and decision makers will not be an easy task. In this position paper, we discuss an approach we are taking for user-centered evaluation that we believe will result in adoption of technosocial predictive software by the intelligence community.

Scholtz, Jean C.; Whiting, Mark A.

2009-03-23

70

User-Centered Evaluation of Technosocial Predictive Analytic Systems  

SciTech Connect

In today’s technology filled world, it is absolutely essential to show the utility of new software, especially software that brings entirely new capabilities to potential users. In the case of technosocial predictive analytics, researchers are developing software capabilities to augment human reasoning and cognition. Getting acceptance and buy-in from analysts and decision makers will not be an easy task. In this position paper, we discuss an approach we are taking for user-centered evaluation that we believe will result in facilitating the adoption of technosocial predictive software by the intelligence community.

Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

2009-03-23

71

11/8/2006 Christian Tominski -Event-Based Visualization for User-Centered Visual Analysis  

E-print Network

11/8/2006 Christian Tominski - Event-Based Visualization for User-Centered Visual Analysis 1 Event-Based Visualization for User-Centered Visual Analysis Christian Tominski University of Rostock November 8th, 2006 #12;11/8/2006 Christian Tominski - Event-Based Visualization for User-Centered Visual Analysis 2 Classic vs. Event

Tominski, Christian

72

User-Centered Indexing for Adaptive Information Access  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are focusing on information access tasks characterized by large volume of hypermedia connected technical documents, a need for rapid and effective access to familiar information, and long-term interaction with evolving information. The problem for technical users is to build and maintain a personalized task-oriented model of the information to quickly access relevant information. We propose a solution which provides user-centered adaptive information retrieval and navigation. This solution supports users in customizing information access over time. It is complementary to information discovery methods which provide access to new information, since it lets users customize future access to previously found information. It relies on a technique, called Adaptive Relevance Network, which creates and maintains a complex indexing structure to represent personal user's information access maps organized by concepts. This technique is integrated within the Adaptive HyperMan system, which helps NASA Space Shuttle flight controllers organize and access large amount of information. It allows users to select and mark any part of a document as interesting, and to index that part with user-defined concepts. Users can then do subsequent retrieval of marked portions of documents. This functionality allows users to define and access personal collections of information, which are dynamically computed. The system also supports collaborative review by letting users share group access maps. The adaptive relevance network provides long-term adaptation based both on usage and on explicit user input. The indexing structure is dynamic and evolves over time. Leading and generalization support flexible retrieval of information under similar concepts. The network is geared towards more recent information access, and automatically manages its size in order to maintain rapid access when scaling up to large hypermedia space. We present results of simulated learning experiments.

Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie

1996-01-01

73

User-centered development of a smart phone mobile application delivering personalized real-time advice on sun protection.  

PubMed

Smart phones are changing health communication for Americans. User-centered production of a mobile application for sun protection is reported. Focus groups (n?=?16 adults) provided input on the mobile application concept. Four rounds of usability testing were conducted with 22 adults to develop the interface. An iterative programming procedure moved from a specification document to the final mobile application, named Solar Cell. Adults desired a variety of sun protection advice, identified few barriers to use and were willing to input personal data. The Solar Cell prototype was improved from round 1 (seven of 12 tasks completed) to round 2 (11 of 12 task completed) of usability testing and was interoperable across handsets and networks. The fully produced version was revised during testing. Adults rated Solar Cell as highly user friendly (mean?=?5.06). The user-centered process produced a mobile application that should help many adults manage sun safety. PMID:24058385

Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Lantz, Kathleen; Buller, Mary Klein

2013-09-01

74

Web Development with JavaScript and HTML5 Program An eight-week in-depth program focused on user-centered Web development  

E-print Network

Web Development with JavaScript and HTML5 Program An eight-week in-depth program focused on user-centered Web development Overview DePaul University's Web Development with JavaScript and HTML5 is designed-centered websites using JavaScript, HTML5, and related leading-edge technologies such as CSS3. These technologies

Schaefer, Marcus

75

DESIGNING PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Designing for the environment requires consideration of environmental impacts. The Generalized WAR Algorithm is the methodology that allows the user to evaluate the potential environmental impact of the design of a chemical process. In this methodology, chemicals are assigned val...

76

Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

2012-01-01

77

AUser-Centered Approach to Object-Oriented User Interface Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This chapter emphasizes user-centered design as the essential process for developing usable systems. User-centered design tries to strengthen the creative aspects of user interface design. However, this does not fit very well with the more structured, architecture-centered nature of object-oriented development methodologies. Several problems associated with object-oriented techniques have been observed in development projects in practice. In this chapter,

Jan Gulliksen; Bengt Göransson; Magnus Lif

78

User centered image management system for digital libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Libraries handle ever more digital images. Ancient documents, books, manuscripts are digitized, image processing tools extract and assign keywords to the obtained images, but a manual annotation is almost always essential. Manual image annotation and keyword based image search is a difficult and hardly formalizable problem. In this paper we present a model and a system which addresses this issue.

Zoltán Iszlai; Elöd Egyed-zsigmond

2006-01-01

79

Incorporating User Centered Requirement Engineering into Agile Software Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agile Software Engineering approaches gain more and more popularity in today's development organizations. The need for usable products is also a growing factor for organizations. Thus, their development processes have to react on this demand and have to offer approaches to integrate the factor \\

Markus Düchting; Dirk Zimmermann; Karsten Nebe

2007-01-01

80

Mechanical design of process systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text shows how to design equipment\\/components using techniques available in heat transfer, hydraulics, and static and dynamic analyses. Chemical, mechanical, civil, and nuclear engineers in the petrochemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, power generation, and ship-building industries will find insights into solving process system design problems. All the techniques and data are ''field tested,'' and some are published here for the

Escoe

1986-01-01

81

Effects of organizational scheme and labeling on task performance in product-centered and user-centered retail Web sites.  

PubMed

As companies increase the quantity of information they provide through their Web sites, it is critical that content is structured with an appropriate architecture. However, resource constraints often limit the ability of companies to apply all Web design principles completely. This study quantifies the effects of two major information architecture principles in a controlled study that isolates the incremental effects of organizational scheme and labeling on user performance and satisfaction. Sixty participants with a wide range of Internet and on-line shopping experience were recruited to complete a series of shopping tasks on a prototype retail shopping Web site. User-centered labels provided a significant benefit in performance and satisfaction over labels obtained through company-centered methods. User-centered organization did not result in improved performance except when the label quality was poor. Significant interactions suggest specific guidelines for allocating resources in Web site design. Applications of this research include the design of Web sites for any commercial application, particularly E-commerce. PMID:15151158

Resnick, Marc L; Sanchez, Julian

2004-01-01

82

Evaluation of Ecological Interface Design for Nuclear Process Control: Situation Awareness Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We determine whether an ecological interface display for nuclear power plant operations supports improved situation awareness over traditional and user-centered displays in a realistic environment. Background: Ecological interface design (EID) has not yet been fully evaluated with real operators facing realistic scenarios. Method: Ecological displays were evaluated alongside traditional and user-centered “advanced” displays in a full-scope nuclear power plant

Catherine M. Burns; Gyrd Skraaning Jr.; Greg A. Jamieson; Nathan Lau; Jordanna Kwok; Robin Welch; Gisle Andresen

2008-01-01

83

A Design Process for Lovotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We refer to human-robot relationships as Lovotics. In this paper a design process for Lovotics is presented. In order to invoke these relationships, technological solutions can only take us so far. Design played an important role in order to engage users to explore the possibilities of bi-directional, human-robot love. We conducted a user-centric study in order to understand these factors and incorporate them into our design. The key issues of design for developing a strong emotional connection between robots and humans are investigated. A questionnaire is proposed and based on the results of this a robot with minimal design is developed.

Aghaebrahimi Samani, Hooman; Cheok, Adrian David; Tharakan, Mili John; Koh, Jeffrey; Fernando, Newton

84

New Roadway Safety Institute focuses on user-centered safety solutions for multiple modes  

E-print Network

to emergency medical services (EMS) following a serious crash is a long-standing rural safety problemNew Roadway Safety Institute focuses on user-centered safety solutions for multiple modes Institute of transportation innovation April 2014 Catalystcts.umn.edu The new Roadway Safety Institute, a $10.4 million

Levinson, David M.

85

Beyond Foucault: Toward a User-Centered Approach to Sexual Harassment Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how United States national policy regarding sexual harassment exemplifies the Foucauldian paradigm in its attempt to regulate sexuality through seemingly authorless texts. Proposes a user-centered approach to policy drafting that values the knowledge of workers as users and makers of workplace policy. Argues that regulation through such…

Ranney, Frances J.

2000-01-01

86

Why Value is Everything: A User-Centered Approach to Internet Quality of Service and Pricing  

E-print Network

Why Value is Everything: A User-Centered Approach to Internet Quality of Service and Pricing Anna Bouch and M. Angela Sasse Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street of quality. Price alone cannot be used to regulate demand for QoS. 1 Introduction The number of Internet

Sasse, Angela

87

Hydroforming design and process advisor  

SciTech Connect

The hydroforming process involves hydraulically forming components by conforming them to the inner contours of a die. These contours can be complex and can often cause the material being formed to be stressed to rupture. Considerable process knowledge and materials modeling expertise is required to design hydroform dies and hydroformed parts that are readily formed without being overly stressed. For this CRADA, materials properties for steel tubes subjected to hydraulic stresses were collected; algorithms were developed which combined the materials properties data with process knowledge; and a user friendly graphical interface was utilized to make the system usable by a design engineer. A prototype hydroforming advisor was completed and delivered to GM. The technical objectives of the CRADA were met allowing for the development of an intelligent design systems, prediction of forming properties related to hydroforming, simulation and modeling of process execution, and design optimization. The design advisor allows a rapid and seamless approach to integration an otherwise enormous and onerous task of analysis and evaluation.

Greer, J.T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ni, C.M. [General Motors Corp., Warren, MI (United States). GM Technical Center

1996-10-10

88

GRA model driven design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Government Reference Architecture (GRA) was to define a modular, open systems architecture that fostered reuse and technology insertion refresh with modular components and product line variants. A graphical model-driven development (MDD) approach was chosen to support rapid design and development of work products that could be quickly leveraged by radio developers within existing development processes with

Tom Rittenbach; Hiroshi Satake; Eric Redding; Karen Perry; M. Thawani; C. Dietrich; R. Thandee

2010-01-01

89

Process Design in Process Control Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was designed to expose students to the complexities of designing an instrumentation and control system for the overall plant design. Project objectives, format, and student activities, accomplishments, and shortcomings are described. (JN)

Karim, M. Nazmul

1984-01-01

90

Leveraging Site Search and Analytics to Maintain a User-Centered Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Web design is a necessarily iterative process. During the process, it can be difficult to balance the interests and focus of the library site experts and their novice users. It can also be easy to lose focus on the main goals of site use and become wrapped up in the process of design or coding or in the internal politics of site design. Just as…

Mitchell, Erik

2011-01-01

91

Automation of Design Engineering Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method, and a computer program that helps to implement the method, have been developed to automate and systematize the retention and retrieval of all the written records generated during the process of designing a complex engineering system. It cannot be emphasized strongly enough that all the written records as used here is meant to be taken literally: it signifies not only final drawings and final engineering calculations but also such ancillary documents as minutes of meetings, memoranda, requests for design changes, approval and review documents, and reports of tests. One important purpose served by the method is to make the records readily available to all involved users via their computer workstations from one computer archive while eliminating the need for voluminous paper files stored in different places. Another important purpose served by the method is to facilitate the work of engineers who are charged with sustaining the system and were not involved in the original design decisions. The method helps the sustaining engineers to retrieve information that enables them to retrace the reasoning that led to the original design decisions, thereby helping them to understand the system better and to make informed engineering choices pertaining to maintenance and/or modifications of the system. The software used to implement the method is written in Microsoft Access. All of the documents pertaining to the design of a given system are stored in one relational database in such a manner that they can be related to each other via a single tracking number.

Torrey, Glenn; Sawasky, Gerald; Courey, Karim

2004-01-01

92

Design process management for CAD frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new mechanism for planning and managing the VLSI design process. This m.xhanism signifiantiy enhances the capabilities of Cm frameworks, relieving designers from dealing with low level details, thereby allowing lhem to concentrate on the more innovative aspects of design. A model for representing design processes is described. A prototype design process rnanageq called Minerva, that uses this

Margarida F. Jacome; Stephen W. Director

1992-01-01

93

Design Thinking in Elementary Students' Collaborative Lamp Designing Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design and Technology education is potentially a rich environment for successful learning, if the management of the whole design process is emphasised, and students' design thinking is promoted. The aim of the present study was to unfold the collaborative design process of one team of elementary students, in order to understand their multimodal…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

94

Material and processes selection in conceptual design  

E-print Network

Materials and manufacturing processes are an integral part of the design of a product. The need to combine materials and manufacturing processes selection during the early stages of the design has previously been realized. The work that generally...

Krishnakumar, Karthikeyan

2005-02-17

95

Research opportunities and facilities at ORNL`s residual stress user center  

SciTech Connect

The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program at ORNL was established to help solve high-temperature materials problems that limit the efficiency and reliability of advanced energy-conversion systems. Both proprietary and nonproprietary research can be conducted within the user program. The facilities are open to researchers in US industry, universities, and federal laboratories. The Residual Stress User Center (RSUC), one of the six HTML user centers, was recently established and consists of two high precision x-ray diffraction systems for measurement of residual strain and texture. Both biaxial and triaxial residual strain data can be collected. Attachments to the diffraction system include a position sensitive detector and a laser specimen positioning system. The RSUC has capabilities for electropolishing and strain measurement with strain gauges. A complementary neutron diffraction facility has recently been developed and demonstrated at the High Flux Isotope Reactor at ORNL. The neutron diffraction facility enables mapping of macro residual stresses throughout the volume of a component, complementing the near surface stress measurements available by x-ray diffraction. The neutron facility has been proposed as an addition to the RSUC.

Hubbard, C.R.; Watkins, T.R.; Kozaczek, K.; Wang, X.-L.; Spooner, S.

1994-09-01

96

The twilight envelope: a user-centered approach to describing roadway illumination at night.  

PubMed

Visual recognition functions, such as acuity and contrast sensitivity, deteriorate rapidly over the declining luminances found during civil twilight. Thus civil twilight, a critical part of the transition between daylight and darkness, represents lighting conditions that may be useful to describe artificial illumination. Automotive headlamps project a three-dimensional beam that ranges from illumination levels comparable to daylight at the vehicle to the dark limit of civil twilight (3.3 1x) at some distance ahead. This twilight envelope is characterized as a distance beyond which foveal visual functions are severely impaired, and thus it provides a general, functional description of the useful extent of the headlamp beam. This user-centered approach to describing illumination is useful for characterizing visibility when driving at night or in other artificially lit environments. This paper discusses the twilight envelope approach and its application to intervehicle variations in headlamp systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include user-centered description of artificial illumination and driver/pedestrian safety education. PMID:12002010

Andre, J; Owens, D A

2001-01-01

97

RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION  

E-print Network

RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION Richard Hardin1 , K.K. Choi1 , and Christoph 52242-1527 Keywords: Casting Process Design, Optimization, Reliability-Based Design Optimization Abstract Optimum casting designs are unreliable without consideration of the statistical and physical

Beckermann, Christoph

98

Designing Asynchronous Microprocessors Design Process Overview  

E-print Network

:= gpr[i :rx ]; opy := gpr[i :ry]; opz := OP(i :opcode)(opx ; opy); pc := PCOP(i :opcode)(pc; opx ; opy); gpr[i :rz ] := opz ] #15; Details of OP and PCOP from ISA spec- i#12;cation. #15; Designer's job is de: the fetch loop. i PCUNIT DECODE IMEM i.op, opx pc 5 Fetch Loop Compilation 1. *[ i := imem[pc]; opx := gpr

Martin, Alain

99

The Importance of User-Centered Design: Exploring Findings and Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the rising number of information resources available, it is increasingly important for digital libraries and archives to create usable services that meet their users' needs. Seeking input from users at all stages of development can help achieve this goal. This article briefly defines four methodologies for gathering user input: focus groups,…

Lack, Rosalie

2006-01-01

100

A user-centered approach for designing and developing spatiotemporal crime analysis tools  

E-print Network

and Groves 1989), as the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of a community illuminate the etiology the potential for GIScience techniques to identify and explicate clusters and trends in crime, many police

Klippel, Alexander

101

User centered design of the digital book: why looking backward can help us move forward  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is emerging from the digital book revolution is a state of technology that has brought new affordances to the book, such as search, hyperlinking, personalization, dynamic content, 24/7 access, automated indexing and summarizing, aggregated content, and new modes of reading and access. These could solve some of the issues users have with the static content of traditional bound volumes, but the technology so far has staunchly ignored the tried and true technologies of books, such as infinite resolution, high contrast, low glare, haptic navigation, typographic niceties, and the rights of first sale to borrow, lend, or resell a work. By exploring a survey of literature, reviews, and user tests, I intend to address the point of how the current concept of the digital book is an inappropriate tool for the user and the task of reading, and as a result not been enthusiastically embraced by the market. The collected evidence indicates that it is impossible to forget our past in our quest for the future, and that technology can help us to unite the disparate realities of analog and digital to create a truly digital book.

Wallis, Jillian C.

2006-02-01

102

User-centered system design in an aging society : an integrated study on technology adoption  

E-print Network

The aging of the population is an important global phenomenon that is bringing changes and challenges to various areas of society. Technology has been explored as one way to cope with the complexities and uncertainties ...

Lee, Chaiwoo

2014-01-01

103

User Centered System Design. Part II: Collected Papers from the UCSD HMI Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a collection of 11 recent papers by the Human-Machine Interaction Group at the University of California, San Diego. The following papers are included: (1) "Stages and Levels in Human-Machine Interaction," Donald A. Norman; (2) "The Nature of Expertise in UNIX," Stephen W. Draper; (3) "Users in the Real World," David Owen; (4)…

California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla. Inst. for Cognitive Science.

104

Developing an advanced `tool' for the clinician; using industrial design and interface design together to bring technology into the hand of the user  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion is given on the unique, user-centered design process applied in developing a portable blood gas analysis device. The designers using this process actively and continually drew upon the knowledge and experiences of people who will ultimately use the product. The outcome is a `tool' that enables people in medical settings to perform a task previously unavailable to them,

T. Belden; W. L. Sembrowich; D. W. Deetz; F. A. Solomon

1993-01-01

105

Managing Analysis Models in the Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of large, complex space systems depends on significant model-based support for exploration of the design space. Integrated models predict system performance in mission-relevant terms given design descriptions and multiple physics-based numerical models. Both the design activities and the modeling activities warrant explicit process definitions and active process management to protect the project from excessive risk. Software and systems engineering processes have been formalized and similar formal process activities are under development for design engineering and integrated modeling. JPL is establishing a modeling process to define development and application of such system-level models.

Briggs, Clark

2006-01-01

106

Optimal design of solidification processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal design algorithm is presented for the analysis of general solidification processes, and is demonstrated for the growth of GaAs crystals in a Bridgman furnace. The system is optimal in the sense that the prespecified temperature distribution in the solidifying materials is obtained to maximize product quality. The optimization uses traditional numerical programming techniques which require the evaluation of cost and constraint functions and their sensitivities. The finite element method is incorporated to analyze the crystal solidification problem, evaluate the cost and constraint functions, and compute the sensitivities. These techniques are demonstrated in the crystal growth application by determining an optimal furnace wall temperature distribution to obtain the desired temperature profile in the crystal, and hence to maximize the crystal's quality. Several numerical optimization algorithms are studied to determine the proper convergence criteria, effective 1-D search strategies, appropriate forms of the cost and constraint functions, etc. In particular, we incorporate the conjugate gradient and quasi-Newton methods for unconstrained problems. The efficiency and effectiveness of each algorithm is presented in the example problem.

Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.

1991-01-01

107

Design Expert's Participation in Elementary Students' Collaborative Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of the present study was to provide insights into how disciplinary expertise might be infused into Design and Technology classrooms and how authentic processes based on professional design practices might be constructed. We describe elementary students' collaborative lamp designing process, where the leadership was provided by a…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

108

Product quality driven food process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords<\\/i><\\/b>: Conceptual Process Design, Delft Design Matrix, Food design, modelling, Bakery Production, Dynamic Optimization, Multi Objective Optimization, Baking.<\\/div>
 <\\/div>
Since product quality has been considered as the important parameter in the food development, therefore this thesis is advancing food process innovation by introducing procedures for food process design which start from the product quality. The procedure was coined as Product

M. Hadiyanto

2007-01-01

109

Informing Geospatial Toolset Design: Understanding the Process of Cancer Data Exploration and Analysis  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing need for new methods and tools that support knowledge construction from complex geospatial datasets related to public health. This study is part of a larger effort to develop, implement, and test such methods and tools. To be successful, the design of methods and tools must be grounded in a solid understanding of the work practices within the domain of use; the research reported here focuses on developing that understanding. We adopted a user-centered approach to toolset design where we investigated the work of cancer researchers and used the results of that investigation as inputs into the development of design guidelines for new geovisualization and spatial analysis tools. Specifically, we conducted key informant interviews focused on use, or potential use, of geographic information, methods, and tools and complemented this with a systematic analysis of published, peer-reviewed articles on geospatial cancer research. Results were used to characterize the typical process of analysis, to identify fundamental differences between intensive users of geospatial methods and infrequent users, and to outline key stages in analysis and tasks within the stages that methods and tools must support. Our findings inform design and implementation decisions for visual and analytic tools that support cancer prevention and control research and they provide insight into the processes used by cancer researchers for addressing the challenges of geographic factors in public health research and policy. PMID:18060824

Bhowmick, Tanuka; Griffin, Amy L.; MacEachren, Alan M.; Kluhsman, Brenda C.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

2008-01-01

110

Promoting Teacher Adoption of GIS Using Teacher-Centered and Teacher-Friendly Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a case study that employed user-centered design to develop training tutorials for helping middle school social studies teachers use Web-based GIS in their classrooms. This study placed teachers in the center of the design process in planning, designing, and developing the tutorials. This article describes how…

Hong, Jung Eun

2014-01-01

111

Graphic Design in Libraries: A Conceptual Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing successful library services requires efficient and effective communication with users; therefore, it is important that content creators who develop visual materials understand key components of design and, specifically, develop a holistic graphic design process. Graphic design, as a form of visual communication, is the process of…

Ruiz, Miguel

2014-01-01

112

Service Learning Course Designation: Proposed Process  

E-print Network

UW-Madison Service Learning Course Designation: Proposed Process March 3, 2011 Courses and course sections that are requested for designation as service learning opportunities in the Course Guide that designation. Note that a service learning designation is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED due to Risk Management

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

113

Digital fabrication in the architectural design process  

E-print Network

Digital fabrication is affecting the architectural design process due to the increasingly important role it has in the fabrication of architectural models. Many design professionals, professors, and students have experienced ...

Seely, Jennifer C. K., 1975-

2004-01-01

114

NASA System Engineering Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

Roman, Jose

2011-01-01

115

Perceptions of Instructional Design Process Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional design is a process that is creative, active, iterative and complex; however, many diagrams of instructional design are interpreted as stifling, passive, lock-step and simple because of the visual elements used to model the process. The purpose of this study was to determine the expressed perceptions of the types of flow diagrams…

Branch, Robert Maribe

116

A Study on User Centered Game Evaluation Guideline Based on the MIPA Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to identify the relative benefits of the usability checklist and to investigate how the\\u000a identified usability problems varied by groups. From our experience, there are no structured game frameworks for user interface\\u000a design. This is why evaluation methods are important in the game development process. The MIPA framework can perform efficient\\u000a evaluations and correctly

Jinah Lee; Im Chang-young

2009-01-01

117

User-Centered Digital Library Project Phase 2: User Testing with Teachers and Students with Disabilities. Evaluation Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the User-Centered Digital Library Project, conducted by the National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) at WGBH, was to adapt the Teachers' Domain online digital library to enable teachers and students with disabilities to more readily use the resources in science classrooms. NCAM added accessibility features such as captions and audio…

Moeller, Babette

2010-01-01

118

Enhancing Learning Management Systems Utility for Blind Students: A Task-Oriented, User-Centered, Multi-Method Evaluation Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a novel task-oriented, user-centered, multi-method evaluation (TUME) technique and shows how it is useful in providing a more complete, practical and solution-oriented assessment of the accessibility and usability of Learning Management Systems (LMS) for blind and visually impaired (BVI) students. Novel components of TUME…

Babu, Rakesh; Singh, Rahul

2013-01-01

119

Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96  

SciTech Connect

This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

NONE

1996-06-01

120

Engineering design: A cognitive process approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intent of this dissertation was to identify the cognitive processes used by advanced pre-engineering students to solve complex engineering design problems. Students in technology and engineering education classrooms are often taught to use an ideal engineering design process that has been generated mostly by educators and curriculum developers. However, the review of literature showed that it is unclear as to how advanced pre-engineering students cognitively navigate solving a complex and multifaceted problem from beginning to end. Additionally, it was unclear how a student thinks and acts throughout their design process and how this affects the viability of their solution. Therefore, Research Objective 1 was to identify the fundamental cognitive processes students use to design, construct, and evaluate operational solutions to engineering design problems. Research Objective 2 was to determine identifiers within student cognitive processes for monitoring aptitude to successfully design, construct, and evaluate technological solutions. Lastly, Research Objective 3 was to create a conceptual technological and engineering problem-solving model integrating student cognitive processes for the improved development of problem-solving abilities. The methodology of this study included multiple forms of data collection. The participants were first given a survey to determine their prior experience with engineering and to provide a description of the subjects being studied. The participants were then presented an engineering design challenge to solve individually. While they completed the challenge, the participants verbalized their thoughts using an established "think aloud" method. These verbalizations were captured along with participant observational recordings using point-of-view camera technology. Additionally, the participant design journals, design artifacts, solution effectiveness data, and teacher evaluations were collected for analysis to help achieve the research objectives of this study. Two independent coders then coded the video/audio recordings and the additional design data using Halfin's (1973) 17 mental processes for technological problem-solving. The results of this study indicated that the participants employed a wide array of mental processes when solving engineering design challenges. However, the findings provide a general analysis of the number of times participants employed each mental process, as well as the amount of time consumed employing the various mental processes through the different stages of the engineering design process. The results indicated many similarities between the students solving the problem, which may highlight voids in current technology and engineering education curricula. Additionally, the findings showed differences between the processes employed by participants that created the most successful solutions and the participants who developed the least effective solutions. Upon comparing and contrasting these processes, recommendations for instructional strategies to enhance a student's capability for solving engineering design problems were developed. The results also indicated that students, when left without teacher intervention, use a simplified and more natural process to solve design challenges than the 12-step engineering design process reported in much of the literature. Lastly, these data indicated that students followed two different approaches to solving the design problem. Some students employed a sequential and logical approach, while others employed a nebulous, solution centered trial-and-error approach to solving the problem. In this study the participants who were more sequential had better performing solutions. Examining these two approaches and the student cognition data enabled the researcher to generate a conceptual engineering design model for the improved teaching and development of engineering design problem solving.

Strimel, Greg Joseph

121

Chemical Process Design: An Integrated Teaching Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a one-semester senior plant design/laboratory course, focusing on course structure, student projects, laboratory assignments, and course evaluation. Includes discussion of laboratory exercises related to process waste water and sludge. (SK)

Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

1982-01-01

122

Environmental Review and the Design Build Process  

E-print Network

Environmental Review and the Design Build Process MnDOT Stewardship Conference to have an environmental team as part of the project · Required to develop an environmental management plan and provide training to workers · Required to host open

Minnesota, University of

123

Numerical simulations supporting the process design of ring rolling processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of radial-axial ring rolling (RAR) the motions of all tools are usually defined prior to simulation in the preprocessing step. However, the real process holds up to 8 degrees of freedom (DOF) that are controlled by industrial control systems according to actual sensor values and preselected control strategies. Since the histories of the motions are unknown before the experiment and are dependent on sensor data, the conventional FEA cannot represent the process before experiment. In order to enable the usage of FEA in the process design stage, this approach integrates the industrially applied control algorithms of the real process including all relevant sensors and actuators into the FE model of ring rolling. Additionally, the process design of a novel process 'the axial profiling', in which a profiled roll is used for rolling axially profiled rings, is supported by FEA. Using this approach suitable control strategies can be tested in virtual environment before processing.

Jenkouk, V.; Hirt, G.; Seitz, J.

2013-05-01

124

The Engineering Process in Construction & Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that high-impact activities in science and math classes promote positive attitudinal shifts in students. By implementing high-impact activities, such as designing a school and a skate park, mathematical thinking can be linked to the engineering design process. This hands-on approach, when possible, to demonstrate or…

Stoner, Melissa A.; Stuby, Kristin T.; Szczepanski, Susan

2013-01-01

125

DESIGN MODEL FOR THE OVERLAND FLOW PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A design model in the 'Process Design Manual, Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater' was verified as to removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and further developed to include removal of total suspended solids, ammonia, and total organic carbon by this field investigation. T...

126

HYNOL PROCESS ENGINEERING: PROCESS CONFIGURATION, SITE PLAN, AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the design of the hydropyrolysis reactor system of the Hynol process. (NOTE: A bench scale methanol production facility is being constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing methanol from biomass using the Hynol process. The plant is bein...

127

Negotiation processes, Evolutionary Systems Design, and NEGOTIATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A negotiation accord is often the result of an intense, laborious, and evolutionary negotiation process. During this process, disputing parties are confronted with goal, judgment, and outcome conflict. This article demonstrates the utility of a conflict resolution framework—Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD)—by using a Negotiation Support System. ESD seeks to guide negotiators to move their individual goals and judgments in such

Tung X. Bui; Melvin F. Shakun

1996-01-01

128

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01

129

Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP) is a collection of software tools that allow the efficient aerodynamic design and analysis of planar (two-dimensional and axisymmetric) inlets. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. A major element in PINDAP is a Fortran 90 code named PINDAP that can establish the parametric design of the inlet and efficiently model the geometry and generate the grid for CFD analysis with design changes to those parameters. The use of PINDAP is demonstrated for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic inlets.

Slater, John W.; Gruber, Christopher R.

2005-01-01

130

Design of penicillin fermentation process simulation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time monitoring for batch process attracts increasing attention. It can ensure safety and provide products with consistent quality. The design of simulation system of batch process fault diagnosis is of great significance. In this paper, penicillin fermentation, a typical non-linear, dynamic, multi-stage batch production process, is taken as the research object. A visual human-machine interactive simulation software system based on Windows operation system is developed. The simulation system can provide an effective platform for the research of batch process fault diagnosis.

Qi, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Zhonghu; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Wenqi

2011-10-01

131

Automation of the aircraft design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing use of the computer to automate the aerospace product development and engineering process is examined with emphasis on structural analysis and design. Examples of systems of computer programs in aerospace and other industries are reviewed and related to the characteristics of aircraft design in its conceptual, preliminary, and detailed phases. Problems with current procedures are identified, and potential improvements from optimum utilization of integrated disciplinary computer programs by a man/computer team are indicated.

Heldenfels, R. R.

1974-01-01

132

Functionally graded materials: Design, processing and applications  

SciTech Connect

In a Functionally Graded Material (FGM), the composition and structure gradually change over volume, resulting in corresponding changes in the properties of the material. By applying the many possibilities inherent in the FGM concept, it is anticipated that materials will be improved and new functions for them created. A comprehensive description of design, modeling, processing, and evaluation of FGMs as well as their applications is covered in this book. The contents include: lessons from nature; graded microstructures; modeling and design; characterization of properties; processing and fabrication; applications; and summary and outlook.

Miyamoto, Y. [ed.] [Osaka Univ. (JP); Kaysser, W.A.; Rabin, B.H.; Kawasaki, A.; Ford, R.G. [eds.

1999-09-01

133

Process Design and Operation for Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

of this technology are illustrated by the following case studies: Case study 1: Design of Tar Sands Expansion Plant. Applying the Pinch approach to a new production unit before the design has been frozen maximizes the extent to which savings can be achieved... to be developed with the optimum amount of heat recovery. Some surprising results have been obtained by using this approach: A recent study of a major tar sands processing facility expansion project showed that the contractor's initial design had too much...

Rossiter, A. P.; Nath, R.; Yell, M. D.

134

Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems  

E-print Network

, and low t~rature cryogenics. Often the refrigeration system design (a complex problem) is completed in total isolation with no regard for the surrounding process. However, process synthesis technologv can help solve this problem even for existing... Cryogenics Gas Separation. Low Temperature Metallurgy. Bianedical Mechanical canpression refrigeration systems canprise better than 951. of the ITarket in the Un ited States. These systems are the rrost versati Ie wIth the widest operating flexibility...

Witherell, W. D.

135

Combining Design Patterns and Elements of Social Computing for the Design of User Centered Online Help Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many current (online) help systems fail because users refuse to use them or, even if they do so, they do not perceive them as helpful. There is an obvious gap between the intentions of the help content authors and the achievement of objectives concerning the perceived usefulness by help users. Problems may be divided into psychological and…

Heckner, Markus; Schworm, Silke; Wolff, Christian

2010-01-01

136

Mimicry of natural material designs and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological structural materials, although composed of unremarkable substances synthesized at low temperatures, often exhibit superior mechanical properties. In particular, the quality in which nearly all biologically derived materials excel is toughness. The advantageous mechanical properties are attributable to the hierarchical, composite, structural arrangements common to biological systems. Materials scientists and engineers have increasingly recognized that biological designs or processing approaches

G. M. Bond; R. H. Richman; W. P. McNaughton

1995-01-01

137

Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

2015-01-01

138

Integral evolutionary design, integrated to early stage of architectural design process  

E-print Network

architectural design process, environmental parameters. Abstract: This paper tackles the exploration: evolutionary design optimization, creative evolutionary design, evolutionary art and evolutionary artificial1 Integral evolutionary design, integrated to early stage of architectural design process

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

Design of intelligent controllers for exothermal processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical Industries such as resin or soap manufacturing industries have reaction systems which work with at least two chemicals. Mixing of chemicals even at room temperature can create the process of exothermic reaction. This processes produces a sudden increase of heat energy within the mixture. The quantity of heat and the dynamics of heat generation are unknown, unpredictable and time varying. Proper control of heat has to be accomplished in order to achieve a high quality of product. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled heat causes another unusable product and the process may damage materials and systems and even human being may be harmed. Controlling of heat due to exothermic reaction cannot be achieved using conventional control methods such as PID control, identification and control etc. All of the conventional methods require at least approximate mathematical model of the exothermic process. Modeling an exothermal process is yet to be properly conceived. This paper discusses a design methodology for controlling such a process. A pilot plant of a reaction system has been constructed and utilized for designing and incorporating the proposed fuzzy logic based intelligent controller. Both the conventional and then an adaptive form of fuzzy logic control were used in testing the performance. The test results ensure the effectiveness of controllers in controlling exothermic heat.

Nagarajan, Ramachandran; Yaacob, Sazali

2001-10-01

140

User centered and ontology based information retrieval system for life sciences  

PubMed Central

Background Because of the increasing number of electronic resources, designing efficient tools to retrieve and exploit them is a major challenge. Some improvements have been offered by semantic Web technologies and applications based on domain ontologies. In life science, for instance, the Gene Ontology is widely exploited in genomic applications and the Medical Subject Headings is the basis of biomedical publications indexation and information retrieval process proposed by PubMed. However current search engines suffer from two main drawbacks: there is limited user interaction with the list of retrieved resources and no explanation for their adequacy to the query is provided. Users may thus be confused by the selection and have no idea on how to adapt their queries so that the results match their expectations. Results This paper describes an information retrieval system that relies on domain ontology to widen the set of relevant documents that is retrieved and that uses a graphical rendering of query results to favor user interactions. Semantic proximities between ontology concepts and aggregating models are used to assess documents adequacy with respect to a query. The selection of documents is displayed in a semantic map to provide graphical indications that make explicit to what extent they match the user's query; this man/machine interface favors a more interactive and iterative exploration of data corpus, by facilitating query concepts weighting and visual explanation. We illustrate the benefit of using this information retrieval system on two case studies one of which aiming at collecting human genes related to transcription factors involved in hemopoiesis pathway. Conclusions The ontology based information retrieval system described in this paper (OBIRS) is freely available at: http://www.ontotoolkit.mines-ales.fr/ObirsClient/. This environment is a first step towards a user centred application in which the system enlightens relevant information to provide decision help. PMID:22373375

2012-01-01

141

The design of a nanolithographic process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research delineates the design of a nanolithographic process for nanometer scale surface patterning. The process involves the combination of serial atomic force microscope (AFM) based nanolithography with the parallel patterning capabilities of soft lithography. The union of these two techniques provides for a unique approach to nanoscale patterning that establishes a research knowledge base and tools for future research and prototyping. To successfully design this process a number of separate research investigations were undertaken. A custom 3-axis AFM with feedback control on three positioning axes of nanometer precision was designed in order to execute nanolithographic research. This AFM system integrates a computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) environment to allow for the direct synthesis of nanostructures and patterns using a virtual design interface. This AFM instrument was leveraged primarily to study anodization nanolithography (ANL), a nanoscale patterning technique used to generate local surface oxide layers on metals and semiconductors. Defining research focused on the automated generation of complex oxide nanoscale patterns as directed by CAD/CAM design as well as the implementation of tip-sample current feedback control during ANL to increase oxide uniformity. Concurrently, research was conducted concerning soft lithography, primarily in microcontact printing (muCP), and pertinent experimental and analytic techniques and procedures were investigated. Due to the masking abilities of the resulting oxide patterns from ANL, the results of AFM based patterning experiments are coupled with micromachining techniques to create higher aspect ratio structures at the nanoscale. These relief structures are used as master pattern molds for polymeric stamp formation to reproduce the original in a parallel fashion using muCP stamp formation and patterning. This new method of master fabrication provides for a useful alternative to conventional techniques for soft lithographic stamp formation and patterning.

Johannes, Matthew Steven

142

Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time  

SciTech Connect

Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

Haug, R.T.

1986-09-01

143

Conceptual design of carbon nanotube processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotubes, discovered in 1991, are a new form of pure carbon that is perfectly straight tubules with diameter in nanometers,\\u000a length in microns. The conceptual designs of two processes are described for the industrial-scale production of carbon nanotubes\\u000a that are based on available laboratory synthesis techniques and purification methods. Two laboratory-scale catalytic chemical\\u000a vapor deposition reactors were selected for

Adedeji E. Agboola; Ralph W. Pike; T. A. Hertwig; Helen H. Lou

2007-01-01

144

Mimicry of natural material designs and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological structural materials, although composed of unremarkable substances synthesized at low temperatures, often exhibit\\u000a superior mechanical properties. In particular, the quality in which nearly all biologically derived materials excel is toughness.\\u000a The advantageous mechanical properties are attributable to the hierarchical, composite, structural arrangements common to\\u000a biological systems. Materials scientists and engineers have increasingly recognized that biological designs or processing\\u000a approaches

G. M. Bond; R. H. Richman; W. P. McNaughton

1995-01-01

145

Process Considerations in Surface Condenser Design  

E-print Network

reference to their impact upon the equipment design. Let's look at some examples. Titanium is generally perceived to be an expensive material. The process engineer specifies what may be considered to be a more economical alternative. The superior... resistance of titanium to both corrosion and erosion allows for the use of very thin walled tubing. In addition, the maximum velocity that the cheaper material will accommodate is much lower than that permitted with titanium. The result of using...

Polley, G. T.; Terranova, A.; Capel, A. C. P.

146

Chip Design Process Optimization Based on Design Quality Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the managing of product development projects is increasingly challenging. Especially the IC design of ASICs with both analog and digital components (mixed-signal design) is becoming more and more complex, while the time-to-market window narrows at the same time. Still, high quality standards must be fulfilled. Projects and their status are becoming less transparent due to this complexity. This makes the planning and execution of projects rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need for efficient project control. A main challenge is the objective evaluation of the current development status. Are all requirements successfully verified? Are all intermediate goals achieved? Companies often develop special solutions that are not reusable in other projects. This makes the quality measurement process itself less efficient and produces too much overhead. The method proposed in this paper is a contribution to solve these issues. It is applied at a German design house for analog mixed-signal IC design. This paper presents the results of a case study and introduces an optimized project scheduling on the basis of quality assessment results.

Häusler, Stefan; Blaschke, Jana; Sebeke, Christian; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Hahn, Axel

2010-06-01

147

Computer-aided software development process design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

1989-01-01

148

METRICS: a system architecture for design process optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe METRICS, a system to recover design productivity via new infrastructure for design process optimization. METRICS seeks to treat system design and implementation as a science, rather than an art. A key precept is that measuring a design process is a prerequisite to optimizing it and continuously achieving maximum productivity. METRICS (i) unobtrusively gathers characteristics of design artifacts, design

S. Fenstermaker; David George; Andrew B. Kahng; Stefanus Mantik; B. Thielges

2000-01-01

149

Reliability Methods for Shield Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space operations. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. An important component of this technology is the estimation of two most commonly identified uncertainties in radiation shield design, the shielding properties of materials used and the understanding of the biological response of the astronaut to the radiation leaking through the materials into the living space. The largest uncertainty, of course, is in the biological response to especially high charge and energy (HZE) ions of the galactic cosmic rays. These uncertainties are blended with the optimization design procedure to formulate reliability-based methods for shield design processes. The details of the methods will be discussed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.

2002-01-01

150

Quantitative evolutionary design of nutrient processing: Glucose  

PubMed Central

Quantitative evolutionary design involves the numerical relationships, evolved through natural selection, of biological capacities to each other and to natural loads. Here we study the relation of nutrient-processing capacities of the intestine and of organs beyond it (such as liver and kidneys) to each other and to natural loads of nutrients normally consumed. To control experimentally the rate of nutrient delivery to organs beyond the intestine, we administered nutrients directly into the veins of rats by the method of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Control rats consuming the TPN solution by mouth ingested glucose at 42 mmol/day and processed it completely, as gauged by negligible appearance of glucose in urine and feces. Experimental rats receiving TPN were able to process infused glucose completely at rates up to 92 mmol/day. At higher infusion rates, they were unable to process further glucose, as gauged by rises in serum and urinary glucose levels and serum osmolality. At the highest infusion rates, they exhibited diuresis, dehydration, and both decreased weight gain and survival. These symptoms closely resemble the human diabetic condition known as nonketotic hypertonicity. Thus, a rat's body has a safety factor of 2.2 (=92/42) for glucose processing: it can process glucose at a rate 2.2 times its voluntary intake. This safety factor represents apparent excess capacity that may have evolved to process other nutrients converted into glucose, to minimize the risk of loads swamping capacities, to handle suddenly increased nutrient requirements, or to effect rapid mobilization of glucose. PMID:12077313

Steyermark, Anthony C.; Lam, Mandy M.; Diamond, Jared

2002-01-01

151

Saving Material with Systematic Process Designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global competition is forcing the stamping industry to further increase quality, to shorten time-to-market and to reduce total cost. Continuous balancing between these classical time-cost-quality targets throughout the product development cycle is required to ensure future economical success. In today's industrial practice, die layout standards are typically assumed to implicitly ensure the balancing of company specific time-cost-quality targets. Although die layout standards are a very successful approach, there are two methodical disadvantages. First, the capabilities for tool design have to be continuously adapted to technological innovations; e.g. to take advantage of the full forming capability of new materials. Secondly, the great variety of die design aspects have to be reduced to a generic rule or guideline; e.g. binder shape, draw-in conditions or the use of drawbeads. Therefore, it is important to not overlook cost or quality opportunities when applying die design standards. This paper describes a systematic workflow with focus on minimizing material consumption. The starting point of the investigation is a full process plan for a typical structural part. All requirements are definedaccording to a predefined set of die design standards with industrial relevance are fulfilled. In a first step binder and addendum geometry is systematically checked for material saving potentials. In a second step, blank shape and draw-in are adjusted to meet thinning, wrinkling and springback targets for a minimum blank solution. Finally the identified die layout is validated with respect to production robustness versus splits, wrinkles and springback. For all three steps the applied methodology is based on finite element simulation combined with a stochastical variation of input variables. With the proposed workflow a well-balanced (time-cost-quality) production process assuring minimal material consumption can be achieved.

Kerausch, M.

2011-08-01

152

Software design for panoramic astronomical pipeline processing  

E-print Network

We describe the software requirement and design specifications for all-sky panoramic astronomical pipelines. The described software aims to meet the specific needs of super-wide angle optics, and includes cosmic-ray hit rejection, image compression, star recognition, sky opacity analysis, transient detection and a web server allowing access to real-time and archived data. The presented software is being regularly used for the pipeline processing of 11 all-sky cameras located in some of the world's premier observatories. We encourage all-sky camera operators to use our software and/or our hosting services and become part of the global Night Sky Live network.

Lior Shamir; Robert J. Nemiroff; David O. Torrey; Wellesley E. Pereira

2005-11-23

153

User-centered development of a Virtual Research Environment to support Collaborative Research Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the user-centred development process within the Collaborative Research Events on the Web (CREW) project, funded under the JISC Virtual Research Environments (VRE) programme. After presenting the project, its aims and the functionality of the CREW VRE, we focus on the user engagement approach, grounded in the method of co-realisation. We describe the different research settings and requirements

Meik Poschen; Michael Daw; Rob Procter; Martin Turner; Terry Hanley; Roger Slack; Mike Jones; Rebecca Jones; Anja Le Blanc; Nikki Rogers; Andrew Rowley; Tobias Schiebeck; Damian Steer; Caroline Williams

154

The process model to aid innovation of products conceptual design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, designers often pay little attention to integrated innovation during the design process of products. In addition, the product assistance design systems mainly focus on the detailed design phrase and the construction function of mathematics models are often been neglected. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a conceptual design process model to aid multi-stage innovation of product

Wenqiang Li; Yan Li; Jian Wang; Xiaoying Liu

2010-01-01

155

The Autogenetic Design Theory: An evolutionary view of the design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design activity is the substantial activity within the product development process. The purpose of the Autogenetic Design Theory (ADT) is to view the genesis of a product during the design process as an analogy to the (technical) evolution of living creatures, to describe the design process as a continuous development process of technique and technology, and, by this, to

Sándor Vajna; Steffen Clement; André Jordan; Tibor Bercsey

2005-01-01

156

Parametric Design within an Atomic Design Process (ADP) applied to Spacecraft Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes research investigating the development of a model for the initial design of complex systems, with application to spacecraft design. The design model is called an atomic design process (ADP) and contains four fundamental stages (specifications, configurations, trade studies and drivers) that constitute the minimum steps of an iterative process that helps designers find a feasible solution. Representative design models from the aerospace industry are reviewed and are compared with the proposed model. The design model's relevance, adaptability and scalability features are evaluated through a focused design task exercise with two undergraduate teams and a long-term design exercise performed by a spacecraft payload team. The implementation of the design model is explained in the context in which the model has been researched. This context includes the organization (a student-run research laboratory at the University of Michigan), its culture (academically oriented), members that have used the design model and the description of the information technology elements meant to provide support while using the model. This support includes a custom-built information management system that consolidates relevant information that is currently being used in the organization. The information is divided in three domains: personnel development history, technical knowledge base and laboratory operations. The focused study with teams making use of the design model to complete an engineering design exercise consists of the conceptual design of an autonomous system, including a carrier and a deployable lander that form the payload of a rocket with an altitude range of over 1000 meters. Detailed results from each of the stages of the design process while implementing the model are presented, and an increase in awareness of good design practices in the teams while using the model are explained. A long-term investigation using the design model consisting of the successful characterization of an imaging system for a spacecraft is presented. The spacecraft is designed to take digital color images from low Earth orbit. The dominant drivers from each stage of the design process are indicated as they were identified, with the accompanying hardware development leading to the final configuration that comprises the flight spacecraft.

Ramos Alarcon, Rafael

157

Flexible processing and the design of grammar.  

PubMed

We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This "sign-based" conception of grammar has provided precise solutions to the key problems long thought to motivate movement-based analyses, has supported three decades of computational research developing large-scale grammar implementations, and is now beginning to play a role in computational psycholinguistics research that explores the use of underspecification in the incremental computation of partial meanings. PMID:25385276

Sag, Ivan A; Wasow, Thomas

2015-02-01

158

System design of ELITE power processing unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electric Propulsion Insertion Transfer Experiment (ELITE) is a space mission planned for the mid 1990s in which technological readiness will be demonstrated for electric orbit transfer vehicles (EOTVs). A system-level design of the power processing unit (PPU), which conditions solar array power for the arcjet thruster, was performed to optimize performance with respect to reliability, power output, efficiency, specific mass, and radiation hardness. The PPU system consists of multiphased parallel switchmode converters, configured as current sources, connected directly from the array to the thruster. The PPU control system includes a solar array peak power tracker (PPT) to maximize the power delivered to the thruster regardless of variations in array characteristics. A stability analysis has been performed to verify that the system is stable despite the nonlinear negative impedance of the PPU input and the arcjet thruster. Performance specifications are given to provide the required spacecraft capability with existing technology.

Caldwell, David J.

159

Design of Nanomaterial Synthesis by Aerosol Processes  

PubMed Central

Aerosol synthesis of materials is a vibrant field of particle technology and chemical reaction engineering. Examples include the manufacture of carbon blacks, fumed SiO2, pigmentary TiO2, ZnO vulcanizing catalysts, filamentary Ni, and optical fibers, materials that impact transportation, construction, pharmaceuticals, energy, and communications. Parallel to this, development of novel, scalable aerosol processes has enabled synthesis of new functional nanomaterials (e.g., catalysts, biomaterials, electroceramics) and devices (e.g., gas sensors). This review provides an access point for engineers to the multiscale design of aerosol reactors for the synthesis of nanomaterials using continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics models spanning 10 and 15 orders of magnitude in length and time, respectively. Key design features are the rapid chemistry; the high particle concentrations but low volume fractions; the attainment of a self-preserving particle size distribution by coagulation; the ratio of the characteristic times of coagulation and sintering, which controls the extent of particle aggregation; and the narrowing of the aggregate primary particle size distribution by sintering. PMID:22468598

Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

2013-01-01

160

Design of nanomaterial synthesis by aerosol processes.  

PubMed

Aerosol synthesis of materials is a vibrant field of particle technology and chemical reaction engineering. Examples include the manufacture of carbon blacks, fumed SiO(2), pigmentary TiO(2), ZnO vulcanizing catalysts, filamentary Ni, and optical fibers, materials that impact transportation, construction, pharmaceuticals, energy, and communications. Parallel to this, development of novel, scalable aerosol processes has enabled synthesis of new functional nanomaterials (e.g., catalysts, biomaterials, electroceramics) and devices (e.g., gas sensors). This review provides an access point for engineers to the multiscale design of aerosol reactors for the synthesis of nanomaterials using continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics models spanning 10 and 15 orders of magnitude in length and time, respectively. Key design features are the rapid chemistry; the high particle concentrations but low volume fractions; the attainment of a self-preserving particle size distribution by coagulation; the ratio of the characteristic times of coagulation and sintering, which controls the extent of particle aggregation; and the narrowing of the aggregate primary particle size distribution by sintering. PMID:22468598

Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

2012-01-01

161

Integrating Agile Development Processes and User Centred Design-  

E-print Network

: Agile Software Development Processes, User Centred De- sign, Agile User Centred Design Integration, Usability Maturity Models, Maturity Models. 1 Introduction Agile methods are lightweight softwareIntegrating Agile Development Processes and User Centred Design- A Place for Usability Maturity

Cairns, Paul

162

Integrated Design of Chemical Processes and Utility Systems  

E-print Network

The pinch concept for integrated heat recovery networks has recently become established in chemical process design. This paper presents an overview of the concept and shows how it has now been extended to total process design (reactors, separators...

Linnhoff, B.

163

Process-Based Cost Modeling to Support Target Value Design  

E-print Network

that cover design, fabrication, packaging, transportation,the processes of design, bidding, packaging, transportation,design, assembly, and installation. This standardization also reduces potential for manufacturer’s mistakes in packaging and

Nguyen, Hung Viet

2010-01-01

164

Audio-visual frameworks for design process representation  

E-print Network

The design process is based on a recursive and iterative feedback between a designer's ideas and their physical representation. In most practices, this feedback takes place upon one single medium, which endows the designer ...

Soares, Gonçalo Ducla, 1977-

2004-01-01

165

Modeling and simulation for process and safeguards system design  

SciTech Connect

A computer modeling and simulation approach that meets the needs of both the process and safeguards system designers is described. The results have been useful to Westinghouse Hanford Company process designers in optimizing the process scenario and operating scheme of the Secure Automated Fabrication line. The combined process/measurements model will serve as the basis for design of the safeguards system. Integration of the process design and the safeguards system design should result in a smoothly operating process that is easier to safeguard.

Gutmacher, R.G.; Kern, E.A.; Duncan, D.R.; Benecke, M.W.

1983-01-01

166

Creativity Processes of Students in the Design Studio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The creative process is a multifaceted and dynamic path of thinking required to execute a project in design-based disciplines. The goal of this research was to test a model outlining the creative design process by investigating student experiences in a design project assignment. The study used an exploratory design to collect data from student…

Huber, Amy Mattingly; Leigh, Katharine E.; Tremblay, Kenneth R., Jr.

2012-01-01

167

POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF HIERARCHICAL PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Hierarchical methods are often used in the conceptual stages of process design to synthesize and evaluate process alternatives. In this work, the methods of hierarchical process design will be focused on environmental aspects. In particular, the design methods will be coupled to ...

168

EARLY PROCESS DESIGN EXPERIENCES FOR ENGINEERING STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically traditional engineering schools emphasize design in the upper level engineering courses. Students experience open-ended engineering design in their senior capstone course. The College of Engineering at Rowan University has integrated engineering design at all levels of the curriculum. Students are exposed to the study of engineering design as early as their freshman year. In the first semester of the

Kauser Jahan; Stephanie Farrell; Robert P. Hesketh

2002-01-01

169

Universal Design: Process, Principles, and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing any product or environment involves the consideration of many factors, including aesthetics, engineering options, environmental issues, safety concerns, industry standards, and cost. Typically, designers focus their attention on the average user. In contrast, universal design (UD), according to the Center for Universal Design," is the…

Burgstahler, Sheryl

2009-01-01

170

Launch Vehicle Design Process: Characterization, Technical Integration, and Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering design is a challenging activity for any product. Since launch vehicles are highly complex and interconnected and have extreme energy densities, their design represents a challenge of the highest order. The purpose of this document is to delineate and clarify the design process associated with the launch vehicle for space flight transportation. The goal is to define and characterize a baseline for the space transportation design process. This baseline can be used as a basis for improving effectiveness and efficiency of the design process. The baseline characterization is achieved via compartmentalization and technical integration of subsystems, design functions, and discipline functions. First, a global design process overview is provided in order to show responsibility, interactions, and connectivity of overall aspects of the design process. Then design essentials are delineated in order to emphasize necessary features of the design process that are sometimes overlooked. Finally the design process characterization is presented. This is accomplished by considering project technical framework, technical integration, process description (technical integration model, subsystem tree, design/discipline planes, decision gates, and tasks), and the design sequence. Also included in the document are a snapshot relating to process improvements, illustrations of the process, a survey of recommendations from experienced practitioners in aerospace, lessons learned, references, and a bibliography.

Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Humphries, W. R.

2001-01-01

171

Automatic optimal feeder design in steel casting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for automatic optimal feeder design in steel casting processes is presented. The initial design is the casting part (without feeders) which is placed in a suitable mold box. Design of each feeder contains the following steps: determination of the feeder-neck connection point on the casting surface, initial feeder design, feeder shape optimization and feeder topology optimization. Completing designing

Rohallah Tavakoli; Parviz Davami

2008-01-01

172

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR STRIPPING OF ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Procedures and correlations for designing and costing stripping towers for the removal of organics from aqueous streams are presented. The emphasis is on practical methods suitable for engineering estimates. The designs cover steam strippers with and without condensers and reflux...

173

Collaborative Product Design Process Integration Technology Based on Webservice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the consistency and integration about process and process data that is produced in digital product collaborative\\u000a development, digital collaborative design process model is presented, by detailed analyzing the integration requirement of\\u000a collaborative design process and data. Based on this model, the CAX\\/DFX tools which are used in collaborative design are distributed\\u000a and granule encapsulated by Federal

Shiyun Li; Tiefeng Cai

174

Design and Evaluation of a Real-World Virtual Environment for Architecture and Urban Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a user-centered design approach to the development of a Virtual Environment (VE), by utilizing an iterative, user-informed process throughout the en- tire design and development cycle. A preliminary survey was first undertaken with end- users, i.e., architects, chief engineers and decision makers of a real-world architectural and urban planning project, followed by a study of

George Drettakis; Maria Roussou; Alex Reche Martinez; Nicolas Tsingos

2007-01-01

175

Automating the design process - Progress, problems, prospects, potential.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design process for large aerospace vehicles is discussed, with particular emphasis on structural design. Problems with current procedures are identified. Then, the contributions possible from automating the design process (defined as the best combination of men and computers) are considered. Progress toward automated design in the aerospace and other communities is reviewed, including NASA studies of the potential development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD). The need for and suggested directions of future research on the design process, both technical and social, are discussed. Although much progress has been made to exploit the computer in design, it is concluded that technology is available to begin using the computer to speed communications and management as well as calculations in the design process and thus build man-computer teams that can design better, faster and cheaper.

Heldenfels, R. R.

1973-01-01

176

The Use of Computer Graphics in the Design Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This master's thesis examines applications of computer technology to the field of industrial design and ways in which technology can transform the traditional process. Following a statement of the problem, the history and applications of the fields of computer graphics and industrial design are reviewed. The traditional industrial design process

Palazzi, Maria

177

Process Design Manual for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents a procedure for the design of land treatment systems. Slow rate, rapid infiltration, and overland flow processes for the treatment of municipal wastewaters are given emphasis. The basic unit operations and unit processes are discussed in detail, and the design concepts and criteria are presented. The manual includes design

Crites, R.; And Others

178

Designing Educative Curriculum Materials: A Theoretically and Empirically Driven Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors argue for a design process in the development of educative curriculum materials that is theoretically and empirically driven. Using a design-based research approach, they describe their design process for incorporating educative features intended to promote teacher learning into existing, high-quality curriculum…

Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Arias, Anna Maria; Bismack, Amber Schultz; Marulis, Loren M.; Iwashyna, Stefanie K.

2014-01-01

179

Supercritical Fluid Extraction- Process Simulation and Design  

E-print Network

case study, we will lise data taken fro~ one experimental run to simulate process flows, energy requirements and process conditions when separating isopropyl alcohol (IPA) from water employing supercritical carbon dioxide as the solvent. The SFE...

Martin, C. L.; Seibert, A. F.

180

Conceptual Design of Continuous Processes for  

E-print Network

Section CNT-PFR Process CNT-FBR Process Feed Preparation - Mixer, Heater - Gas Compressor - Mixer/Heater - Gas Compressor Reaction - Flow Reactor - Heat Exchangers - Fluidized Bed - Heat Exchangers Purification - Filters - Oxidizer - Drier/Annealer - Centrifuge - Filters - Flotation Column - Drier

Pike, Ralph W.

181

Instructional Design and Directed Cognitive Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that the information processing model provides a promising basis on which to build a comprehensive theory of instruction. Characteristics of the major information processing constructs are outlined including attention, encoding and rehearsal, working memory, long term memory, retrieval, and metacognitive processes, and a unifying…

Bovy, Ruth Colvin

182

Lunar fiberglass: Properties and process design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Clemson University ceramic engineering design for a lunar fiberglass plant is presented. The properties of glass fibers and metal-matrix composites are examined. Lunar geology is also discussed. A raw material and site are selected based on this information. A detailed plant design is presented, and summer experiments to be carried out at Johnson Space Center are reviewed.

Dalton, Robert; Nichols, Todd

1987-01-01

183

Space bioreactor: Design/process flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

Cross, John H.

1987-01-01

184

pH-NEUTRALIZATION: INTEGRATED PROCESS AND CONTROL DESIGN  

E-print Network

pH-NEUTRALIZATION: INTEGRATED PROCESS AND CONTROL DESIGN Audun Faanes ¢¡ £ Sigurd Skogestad Keywords: Process control, pH control, Processs design, PID control 1. INTRODUCTION The pH-neutralization of acids or bases has significant industrial importance. The aim of the process is to change the pH

Skogestad, Sigurd

185

Software Creation: An Expert System for Applying Design Process Knowledge in Automatic Software Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A goal of this project is automating software design by accumulating knowl- edge and experience of human designers.CREATOR2, an experimen- tal expert system that simulates behavior of human designers by apply- ing design process knowledge is introduced.A novel point is using a unified representation scheme for the design process knowledge, composed of design rules for detailing and tacit knowledge, and

Behrouz H. FAR; Takeshi TAKIZAWA Zenya KOONO

1993-01-01

186

Understanding the Processes behind Student Designing: Cases from Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common perception of designing is that it represents a highly complex activity that is manageable by only a few. However it has also been argued that all individuals are innately capable of designing. Taking up this latter view, we explored the processes behind student designing in the context of Design and Technology (D&T), a subject taught at…

Lim, Susan Siok Hiang; Lim-Ratnam, Christina; Atencio, Matthew

2013-01-01

187

INTEGRATION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND PROCESS INTENSIFICATION IN THE DESIGN OF PROCESSES FOR UTILIZING BIOBASED GLYCEROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The expected results include an integrated process and mechanical design including a fabrication plan for the glycerol dehydration reactor, comprehensive heat and material balance, environmental impact assessment and comprehensive safety review. The resulting process design w...

188

Reducing Design Cycle Time and Cost Through Process Resequencing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In today's competitive environment, companies are under enormous pressure to reduce the time and cost of their design cycle. One method for reducing both time and cost is to develop an understanding of the flow of the design processes and the effects of the iterative subcycles that are found in complex design projects. Once these aspects are understood, the design manager can make decisions that take advantage of decomposition, concurrent engineering, and parallel processing techniques to reduce the total time and the total cost of the design cycle. One software tool that can aid in this decision-making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). The DeMAID software minimizes the feedback couplings that create iterative subcycles, groups processes into iterative subcycles, and decomposes the subcycles into a hierarchical structure. The real benefits of producing the best design in the least time and at a minimum cost are obtained from sequencing the processes in the subcycles.

Rogers, James L.

2004-01-01

189

Integrating Thermal Tools Into the Mechanical Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent of mechanical design is to deliver a hardware product that meets or exceeds customer expectations, while reducing cycle time and cost. To this end, an integrated mechanical design process enables the idea of parallel development (concurrent engineering). This represents a shift from the traditional mechanical design process. With such a concurrent process, there are significant issues that have to be identified and addressed before re-engineering the mechanical design process to facilitate concurrent engineering. These issues also assist in the integration and re-engineering of the thermal design sub-process since it resides within the entire mechanical design process. With these issues in mind, a thermal design sub-process can be re-defined in a manner that has a higher probability of acceptance, thus enabling an integrated mechanical design process. However, the actual implementation is not always problem-free. Experience in applying the thermal design sub-process to actual situations provides the evidence for improvement, but more importantly, for judging the viability and feasibility of the sub-process.

Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Siebes, Georg; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.

1999-01-01

190

Process of designing city housing in Japan  

E-print Network

pose of this thesis is to show one design approach to providing more preferable housing for users in Japan. Chapter 1 gives an overview of trends in Japanese housing construction, describes user requirements, analyzes ...

Kurokawa, Shoji

1983-01-01

191

A design optimization process for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom Program is used to develop and implement a process for design optimization. Because the relative worth of arbitrary design concepts cannot be assessed directly, comparisons must be based on designs that provide the same performance from the point of view of station users; such designs can be compared in terms of life cycle cost. Since the technology required to produce a space station is widely dispersed, a decentralized optimization process is essential. A formulation of the optimization process is provided and the mathematical models designed to facilitate its implementation are described.

Chamberlain, Robert G.; Fox, George; Duquette, William H.

1990-01-01

192

Launch Vehicle Design Process Description and Training Formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A primary NASA priority is to reduce the cost and improve the effectiveness of launching payloads into space. As a consequence, significant improvements are being sought in the effectiveness, cost, and schedule of the launch vehicle design process. In order to provide a basis for understanding and improving the current design process, a model has been developed for this complex, interactive process, as reported in the references. This model requires further expansion in some specific design functions. Also, a training course for less-experienced engineers is needed to provide understanding of the process, to provide guidance for its effective implementation, and to provide a basis for major improvements in launch vehicle design process technology. The objective of this activity is to expand the description of the design process to include all pertinent design functions, and to develop a detailed outline of a training course on the design process for launch vehicles for use in educating engineers whose experience with the process has been minimal. Building on a previously-developed partial design process description, parallel sections have been written for the Avionics Design Function, the Materials Design Function, and the Manufacturing Design Function. Upon inclusion of these results, the total process description will be released as a NASA TP. The design function sections herein include descriptions of the design function responsibilities, interfaces, interactive processes, decisions (gates), and tasks. Associated figures include design function planes, gates, and tasks, along with other pertinent graphics. Also included is an expanded discussion of how the design process is divided, or compartmentalized, into manageable parts to achieve efficient and effective design. A detailed outline for an intensive two-day course on the launch vehicle design process has been developed herein, and is available for further expansion. The course is in an interactive lecture/workshop format to engage the participants in active learning. The course addresses the breadth and depth of the process, requirements, phases, participants, multidisciplinary aspects, tasks, critical elements,as well as providing guidance from previous lessons learned. The participants are led to develop their own understanding of the current process and how it can be improved. Included are course objectives and a session-by-session outline of course content. Also included is an initial identification of visual aid requirements.

Atherton, James; Morris, Charles; Settle, Gray; Teal, Marion; Schuerer, Paul; Blair, James; Ryan, Robert; Schutzenhofer, Luke

1999-01-01

193

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH FUGITIVE AND OPEN EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the economics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. ...

194

Metallurgical Process Design A tribute to Douglas' conceptual design approach  

E-print Network

the need for their disposal. One alternative to waste dumping consists of removal of hazardous contaminants of assessing the feasibility of a novel low waste process capable of eliminating unwanted, hazardous waste background is introduced next. Conventional stainless steel manufacturing leads to unavoidable waste streams

Linninger, Andreas A.

195

Exploring chaos to model the design process  

E-print Network

phystcal configuration anil manufactunny process The variable. physical configuration, contains informntion regarding the pliys- icnl 1'orm of the solution. 'Iliis is llot to be confused v;ith the shallower nienrung of niere shape bistcarl...

Sharkawy, Ahmed

1990-01-01

196

Designing and implementing auxiliary operational processes  

E-print Network

Amazon.com, one of the largest and most profitable online retailers, has been experiencing such dramatic growth rates that it must continually update and modify its fulfillment process in order to meet customer demand for ...

Smith, Zachary R

2008-01-01

197

Language design for distributed stream processing  

E-print Network

Applications that combine live data streams with embedded, parallel, and distributed processing are becoming more commonplace. WaveScript is a domain-specific language that brings high-level, type-safe, garbage-collected ...

Newton, Ryan Rhodes, 1980-

2009-01-01

198

Pharmaceutical tablet compaction : product and process design  

E-print Network

This thesis explores how tablet performance is affected by microstructure, and how microstructure can be controlled by selection of excipients and compaction parameters. A systematic strategy for formulation and process ...

Pore, Mridula

2009-01-01

199

Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

Meyer, D. D.

1979-01-01

200

Multivariate statistical regression methods for process modelling and experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, various multivariate statistical regression methods are investigated for estimating process models from the process input-output data. These identified models are to be used for designing model based controllers and experimental optimisation of multivariate processes. The following issues are explored: (i) identification of finite impulse response models for model based control; (ii) multi-output identification for multivariate processes; (iii)

Bhupinder Singh Dayal

1996-01-01

201

Multivariate Statistical Regression Methods for Process Modelling and Experimental Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, various multivariate statistical regression methods are investigated for estimating process models from the process input-output data. These identified models are to be used for designing model based controllers and experimental optimisation of multivariate processes. The following issues are explored: (i) identification of finite impulse response models for model based control; (ii) multi-output identification tor multivariate processes; (iii)

Bhupinder Singh Dayal

1996-01-01

202

A Process-Integrated Conceptual Design Environment for Chemical Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process industries (chemicals, food, oil, ...) are characterized by - - continuous or batch -- processes of material transformation. The design of such processes, and their mapping to the available equipment (plants composed of production units in which reactions take place), is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environ- mental impact.

Matthias Jarke; Thomas List; Klaus Weidenhaupt

1999-01-01

203

Using Statistical Thinking and Designed Experiments to Understand Process Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a series of four case studies, this article illustrates the integration of statistical process control and designed experiments. For such an integration to be effective, this article points out the need to use statistical process control (SPC) as a tool for active process study, rather than simply as a method for maintaining and controlling processes. The use of SPC

Mary G. Leitnaker; Antony Cooper

2005-01-01

204

Automatic design of fixtures for machining processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of fixtures is to locate and hold workpieces for machining, assembly, inspection and other operations. The essential criteria in fixture design are accuracy and repeatability of workpiece location, and lack of interference between fixture elements and tools. Other criteria of fixtures may include ease of loading and unloading workpieces, light weight, low cost and rigidity.^ In this study

Yon-Chun Chou

1988-01-01

205

Processes and Knowledge in Designing Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from a study of problem solving in the domain of instructional design are presented. Subjects were eight teacher trainees who were recent graduates of or were enrolled in the Stanford Teacher Education Program at Stanford University (California). Subjects studied a computer-based tutorial--the VST2000--about a fictitious vehicle. The…

Greeno, James G.; And Others

206

77 FR 41248 - Disaster Designation Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for a Secretarial disaster designation, it...not result in a reduction in burden hours...the threat of a disaster. Production losses...there has been a reduction county-wide of...severe, general disaster conditions including...hurricane, or earthquake. (b)...

2012-07-13

207

Optimal Design and Operational Planning of Responsive Process Supply Chains  

E-print Network

Optimal Design and Operational Planning of Responsive Process Supply Chains Fengqi You and Ignacio of optimal design and operational planning of multi-echelon, multi-site process supply chain networks (PSCNs-offs between the economics and responsiveness of the supply chain network. The model produces a Pareto

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

208

Optimal design of single and multiple stage activated sludge processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes a rational approach to minimum cost design of an integrated activated sludge process which includes activated sludge reactor, secondary clarifier and sludge recycle. The cost of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge produced is also considered. Procedures for optimal design of both single and multiple stage activated sludge processes, considering construction and operational costs are developed. Biomass

Ajay Aggarwal; Vinod Tare

1988-01-01

209

Design flow for implementing image processing in FPGAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design flow for implementing a dynamic gamma algorithm in an FPGA is described. Real-time video processing makes enormous demands on processing resources. An FPGA solution offers some advantages over commercial video chip and DSP implementation alternatives. The traditional approach to FPGA development involves a system engineer designing, modeling and verifying an algorithm and writing a specification. A hardware engineer

M. Trakalo; G. Giles

2007-01-01

210

THE GAS TURBINE ENGINE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN PROCESS - AN INTEGRATED APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design process of gas turbine engines is complex, involving mw engineering disciplines. Aerodynamics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, materials science, component design, and structural analysis are a few of the fields employed when down selecting an appropriate engine configuration. Because of the complexity involved, it is critical to have a process that narrows engine options without missing the \\

Jeffrey M. Stricker; Wright-Patterson AFB

1998-01-01

211

QoS-Based Design Process for Pervasive Computing Applications  

E-print Network

QoS-Based Design Process for Pervasive Computing Applications Christine Louberry LIUPPA IUT de the recurrent problem of QoS management in pervasive computing due to resource limits, context changes and users' requirements. We propose a QoS- driven design process allowing managing applications limits and particularities

212

FEM-based progressive drawing process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progressive drawing die is the most formidable and thus among the most difficult of all progressive dies. A FEM-based progressive\\u000a drawing die analysis and design method is proposed in this study and demonstrated on forming an automotive lighting component\\u000a bulb shield. FEM simulation prediction not only matches well on both thinning and strain, but also helps to remove surface\\u000a distortion.

Z. Q. Sheng; R. Taylor; M. Strazzanti

2008-01-01

213

Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

1971-01-01

214

Low complexity digital signal processing system design techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexity reduction in the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) system design has been of particular interest since lower computational complexity leads to high performance and low power design. In this work, we present low complexity DSP design techniques. The first part of this work is about low complexity finite impulse response (FIR) filter and discrete cosine transform (DCT) architectures based on

Jong-sun Park

2005-01-01

215

Design for manufacturing meets advanced process control: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanometer IC designs are increasingly challenged to achieve manufacturing closure, i.e., being fabricated with high product yield due to feature miniaturizations and process variations. Realizing the critical importance of addressing manufacturability\\/yield during design (which is loosely termed as DFM, design for manufacturing), there has been a surge of research activities recently from both academia and industry under the “DFM” umbrella.

David Z. Pan; Peng Yu; Minsik Cho; Anand Ramalingam; Kiwoon Kim; Anand Rajaram; Sean X. Shi

2008-01-01

216

Methodologies for Involving Older Adults in the Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older people provide much greater challenges to user-centred design than more traditional user groups. It is also very important to encourage (often young) designers to develop a relationship with, and an empathy for, older users. It is recommended that older users be fully integrated into the design process. Researchers, however, need to take care to be sensitive to the characteristics,

Alan F. Newell; John L. Arnott; Alex Carmichael; Maggie Morgan

2007-01-01

217

The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design  

SciTech Connect

The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G. [CD & W Inc., Laramie, WY (United States)

2004-05-01

218

76 FR 70368 - Disaster Designation Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...process for disaster determinations in the case of certain drought occurrences, the proposed...a) U.S. Drought Monitor. In the case of severe or extreme drought, as defined...authority to the SED may be revoked. In all cases, DAFP may reverse any SED...

2011-11-14

219

Adding Users to the Website Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

Tomeo, Megan L.

2012-01-01

220

A user-based design process for Web sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on Phase II of a two-part project to identify and implement user-based design criteria in World Wide Web sites. The test site is a Web page for the academic business community. As an alternative to existing, largely ad hoc design processes, the authors developed a user-based design process, gathering user input at three different times in the

Eileen G. Abelse; Marilyn Domas White; Karla Hahn

1998-01-01

221

A user-based design process for Web sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on Phase II of a two-part project to identify and implement user-based design criteria in World Wide Web sites. The test site is a Web page for the academic business community. As an alternative to existing, largely ad hoc design processes, the authors developed a user-based design process, gathering user input at three different times in the

Eileen G. Abels; Marilyn Domas White; Karla Hahn

1999-01-01

222

Ceramic processing: Experimental design and optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this paper are to: (1) gain insight into the processing of ceramics and how green processing can affect the properties of ceramics; (2) investigate the technique of slip casting; (3) learn how heat treatment and temperature contribute to density, strength, and effects of under and over firing to ceramic properties; (4) experience some of the problems inherent in testing brittle materials and learn about the statistical nature of the strength of ceramics; (5) investigate orthogonal arrays as tools to examine the effect of many experimental parameters using a minimum number of experiments; (6) recognize appropriate uses for clay based ceramics; and (7) measure several different properties important to ceramic use and optimize them for a given application.

Weiser, Martin W.; Lauben, David N.; Madrid, Philip

1992-01-01

223

Monitoring and controlling design process using control charts and process sigma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to establish a means to control the design process in engineering organization that produce engineering deliverables for construction projects. The intended control is to deliver construction packages on time and within budget while controlling productivity of engineers and support staff involved in the design process. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Control charts have been used

Salah Eldin Adam Hamza

2009-01-01

224

Towards proactive safety in design: a comparison of safety integration approaches in two design processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to optimize understanding of how safety and, more generally, human factors are considered at design stage in an industrial context. The practical aim is to provide assistance during early design stages to improve design process quality. Integration of safety integration in design is studied in two different industrial contexts; specifically, the printing sector and

C. De La Garza; Elie Fadier

2005-01-01

225

[Embedded system design of color-blind image processing].  

PubMed

An ARM-based embedded system design schemes is proposed for the color-blind image processing system. The hardware and software of the embedded color-blind image processing system are designed using ARM core processor. Besides, a simple and convenient interface is implemented. This system supplies a general hardware platform for the applications of color-blind image processing algorithms, so that it may bring convenience for the test and rectification of color blindness. PMID:21553537

Wang, Eric; Ma, Yu; Wang, Yuanyuan

2011-01-01

226

GAMMA: a fast prototype design, build, and test process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an integrated computer-based process which implements an engineer's logic design into an assembled and tested printed circuit prototype module in a very short time frame. This time frame represents a significant improvement over traditional design, build, and test processes. Key innovations which made the dramatic time-to-market improvement possible include transition to a fully networked, paperless process, with

Louise T. Lemaire

1985-01-01

227

Design of an array processing unit for an array processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effort was made to design a small and cheap array processing unit (APU) to be used in a major distributed process array processor system for digital signal-processing applications. From the task definition and environment analysis, a design is presented. The unit, based on the Texas TMS 32020 and Intel 80186 is of the load-and-forget type and provides efficient memory

E. D. S. Moreira; R. N. Zobel

1988-01-01

228

ChBE 4505/4525 Chemical Process Design/Biochemical Process Design Basic Curriculum and Learning Outcomes.  

E-print Network

. Appreciate the importance of maintaining high ethical principles in process design. (Student Outcomes: f, g. Understand the importance of selecting reaction paths that do not involve toxic or hazardous chemicals. Economic evaluation of process designs, applications of a) net present value b) time value of money c

Sherrill, David

229

Inferring Design Environment (IDE) : "(re) shaping a design pattern as a learning process"  

E-print Network

This proposal examines the Design process through developing a dialog or game-like graphic software environment. Inferring Design Environment (IDE) is a concept sketch that assimilates a dialog or turn-taking game onto a ...

Gunji, Akira

2005-01-01

230

Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.  

PubMed

Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. PMID:21624834

Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

2011-09-01

231

Designing a process for executing projects under an international agreement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Projects executed under an international agreement require special arrangements in order to operate within confines of regulations issued by the State Department and the Commerce Department. In order to communicate enterprise-level guidance and procedural information uniformly to projects based on interpretations that carry the weight of institutional authority, a process was developed. This paper provides a script for designing processes in general, using this particular process for context. While the context is incidental, the method described is applicable to any process in general. The paper will expound on novel features utilized for dissemination of the procedural details over the Internet following such process design.

Mohan, S. N.

2003-01-01

232

Context-Aware Design for Process Flexibility and Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's organizations face continuous and unprecedented changes in their business environment. Traditional process design tools tend to be inflexible and can only support rigidly defined processes (e.g., order processing in the supply chain). This considerably restricts their real-world applications value, especially in the dynamic and…

Yao, Wen

2012-01-01

233

Stamping process design using FEA in conjunction with orthogonal regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process design technique is presented for the formability assessment of sheet metal stamping parts and feasibility analysis of process conditions. The proposed approach is based on numerical simulation of stamping processes by using explicit – incremental and implicit – iterative finite element techniques. The influence of the numeric model parameters are investigated with factor analysis and described with response

Mehmet Firat; Osman H. Mete; Umit Kocabicak; Murat Ozsoy

2010-01-01

234

Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The sequential manner in which materials and processes for a manufactured product are selected is inherently less than optimal. Designers` tendency to choose processes and materials with which they are familiar exacerbate this problem. A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach is presented.

Kleban, S.D.

1998-07-01

235

Nursing job process analysis from viewpoint of process design by job diagram.  

PubMed

Recently Japan demands more and more quality assurance in clinical practice. Several aspects of issues have been discussed to provide significant suggestions for nursing quality assurance. In the quality management field, Process Design, which is known to contribute to quality assurance, is an important frame. This study attempts to analyze the nursing job process from the viewpoint of process design. As a result, some knowledge on the nursing job process could be comprehended. Process analysis from the viewpoint of Process Design is considered significant in nursing practice and further improvement of its technique and application is a challenge for the future. PMID:17102465

Dannoue, Hideo; Tsuru, Satoko; Munechika, Masahiko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

2006-01-01

236

Reload design process at Yankee Atomic Electric Company  

SciTech Connect

Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) performs reload design and licensing for their nuclear power plants: Yankee Rowe, Maine Yankee, and Vermont Yankee. Significant savings in labor and computer costs have been achieved in the reload design process by the use of the SIMULATE nodal code using the CASMO assembly burnup code or LEOPARD pin cell burnup code inputs to replace the PDQ diffusion theory code in many required calculations for the Yankee Rowe and Maine Yankee pressurized water reactors (PWRs). An efficient process has evolved for the design of reloads for the Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR). Due to the major differences in the core design of the three plants, different reload design processes have evolved for each plant.

Weader, R.J.

1986-01-01

237

Computer-aided Tooling Design for Manufacturing Processes  

E-print Network

Tooling design for manufacturing processes refers to direct tooling for making a part such as molds and dies for injection molded parts and metal stampings, or for supporting machining operations such as jigs and fixtures. ...

Nee, Andrew Y. C.

238

Altering Design Decisions to Better Suit Facilities Management Processes  

E-print Network

Research work reported in this paper tackles the communication between processes of both facilities management (FM) and design, showing the effect of such communication on the capability of newly built facilities in supporting organizations...

Jawdeh, H. B.; Abudul-Malak, M. A.; Wood, G.

2010-01-01

239

Material evaluation and selection processes to enable design for manufacture  

E-print Network

In order to optimize product designs it is necessary to quickly evaluate many candidate materials in terms of performance and processing costs. Evaluation using physical prototypes yields concrete results but is time ...

Abler, Craig Bennett, 1975-

2006-01-01

240

Multiple beam offset antenna design processes. [MSAT antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both RF design steps and performance evaluation processes of multiple beam offset parabolic reflectors are described. Attempts are made to present the general methodology with a demonstration of the final results.

1982-01-01

241

GREENING OF OXIDATION CATALYSIS THROUGH IMPROVED CATALYST AND PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Greening of Oxidation Catalysis Through Improved Catalysts and Process Design Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas Becker, and Raymond Smith United State Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W...

242

Decision support tools for environmentally conscious chemical process design  

E-print Network

The environment has emerged as an important determinant of the performance of the modern chemical industry. Process engineering in the 21st century needs to evolve to include environmental issues as part of the design ...

Cano Ruiz, José Alejandro, 1969-

1999-01-01

243

Rates of reaction and process design data for the Hydrocarb Process  

SciTech Connect

In support of studies for developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb Process, experimental and process design data are reported. The experimental work includes the hydropryolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a tubular reactor. The rates of reaction and conversion were obtained at temperature and pressure conditions pertaining to a Hydrocarb Process design. A Process Simulation Computer Model was used to design the process and obtain complete energy and mass balances. Multiple feedstocks including biomass with natural gas and biomass with coal were evaluated. Additional feedstocks including green waste, sewage sludge and digester gas were also evaluated for a pilot plant unit.

Steinberg, M.; Kobayashi, Atsushi (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Tung, Yuanki (Hydrocarb Corp., New York, NY (United States))

1992-08-01

244

Vertically integrated computer aided design for device plasma processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed a computer aided design concept concerning vertically integrated CAD for device processing, VicAddress[1] as a long-range objective of the design of a low temperature plasma processing used for a multi-layer semiconductor manufacturing, by considering plasma\\/interface\\/surface\\/device-structure. That is, these are a series of modelings of a plasma structure, profile evolution, charging in a patterned wafer, and device damage

T. Makabe; K. Maeshige

2001-01-01

245

Design, control and in situ visualization of gas nitriding processes.  

PubMed

The article presents a complex system of design, in situ visualization and control of the commonly used surface treatment process: the gas nitriding process. In the computer design conception, analytical mathematical models and artificial intelligence methods were used. As a result, possibilities were obtained of the poly-optimization and poly-parametric simulations of the course of the process combined with a visualization of the value changes of the process parameters in the function of time, as well as possibilities to predict the properties of nitrided layers. For in situ visualization of the growth of the nitrided layer, computer procedures were developed which make use of the results of the correlations of direct and differential voltage and time runs of the process result sensor (magnetic sensor), with the proper layer growth stage. Computer procedures make it possible to combine, in the duration of the process, the registered voltage and time runs with the models of the process. PMID:22315536

Ratajski, Jerzy; Olik, Roman; Suszko, Tomasz; Dobrodziej, Jerzy; Michalski, Jerzy

2010-01-01

246

Designing School Accountability Systems: Towards a Framework and Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents three different views of accountability to address state needs as their departments of education design, improve, or review their state accountability and reporting systems. The first of three sections presents the system-design decision process as a linear sequence of ten steps from defining the purposes of the…

Gong, Brian

247

The technical, process, and business considerations for engineering design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Worcester Polytechnic Institute Electrical and Computer Engineering Department has added a new course, titled ECE Design, EE 2799. This course focuses on teaching students the process steps associated with designing new products, as well as the business implications of the decisions they make. During the course students not only learn about the business of engineering, but they also must

Len Polizzotto; William R. Michalson

2001-01-01

248

Analog Integrated Circuits Design for Processing Physiological Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analog integrated circuits (ICs) designed for processing physiological signals are important building blocks of wearable and implantable medical devices used for health monitoring or restoring lost body functions. Due to the nature of physiological signals and the corresponding application scenarios, the ICs designed for these applications should have low power consumption, low cutoff frequency, and low input-referred noise. In this

Yan Li; Carmen C. Y. Poon; Yuan-Ting Zhang

2010-01-01

249

Risk Informed Design as Part of the Systems Engineering Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the importance of Risk Informed Design (RID) as an important feature of the systems engineering process. RID is based on the principle that risk is a design commodity such as mass, volume, cost or power. It also reviews Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) as it is used in the product life cycle in the development of NASA's Constellation Program.

Deckert, George

2010-01-01

250

Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics: Design Issues in Optical Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This recent addition to the Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics series aims to present the characteristic engineering problems encountered in the design of electro-optical systems concerned with signal processing. It does this through the presentation of the work of six groups of workers in the field. The book provides a good insight into the general nature of the design problems

1996-01-01

251

METHODS FOR INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN DECISIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this cooperative agreement was to postulate a means by which an engineer could routinely include environmental considerations in day-to-day conceptual design problems; a means that could easily integrate with existing design processes, and thus avoid massive retr...

252

Theory and Practice Meets in Industrial Process Design Educational Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Software engineer should see himself as a business process designer in enterprise resource planning system (ERP) re-engineering\\u000a project. Software engineers and managers should have design dialogue. The objective of this paper is to discuss the motives\\u000a to study the design research in connection of management education in order to envision and understand the soft human issues\\u000a in the management context.

Heli Aramo-Immonen; Tarja Toikka

2010-01-01

253

Reducing the complexity of the software design process with object-oriented design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing software is a complex process. How object-oriented design (OOD), coupled with formalized documentation and tailored object diagraming techniques, can reduce the complexity of the software design process is described and illustrated. The described OOD methodology uses a hierarchical decomposition approach in which parent objects are decomposed into layers of lower level child objects. A method of tracking the assignment of requirements to design components is also included. Increases in the reusability, portability, and maintainability of the resulting products are also discussed. This method was built on a combination of existing technology, teaching experience, consulting experience, and feedback from design method users. The discussed concepts are applicable to hierarchal OOD processes in general. Emphasis is placed on improving the design process by documenting the details of the procedures involved and incorporating improvements into those procedures as they are developed.

Schuler, M. P.

1991-01-01

254

Sketching in Design Journals: An Analysis of Visual Representations in the Product Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the sketching behavior of designers and the role of sketching in the design process. Observations from a descriptive study of sketches provided in design journals, characterized by a protocol measuring sketching activities, are presented. A distinction is made between journals that are entirely tangible and those that contain…

Lau, Kimberly; Oehlberg, Lora; Agogino, Alice

2009-01-01

255

Sketching in Design Journals: an Analysis of Visual Representations in the Product Design Process  

E-print Network

concepts, conveying ideas, and recording and sharing relevant design information. However, sketching is a broad categorization, and there are many different ways that designers visually represent their ideas ideas or develop previous ideas in more detail throughout the design process. Sketches may be done

Agogino, Alice M.

256

Theory and Practice Meets in Industrial Process Design -Educational Perspective-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software engineer should see himself as a business process designer in enterprise resource planning system (ERP) re-engineering project. Software engineers and managers should have design dialogue. The objective of this paper is to discuss the motives to study the design research in connection of management education in order to envision and understand the soft human issues in the management context. Second goal is to develop means of practicing social skills between designers and managers. This article explores the affective components of design thinking in industrial management domain. In the conceptual part of this paper are discussed concepts of network and project economy, creativity, communication, use of metaphors, and design thinking. Finally is introduced empirical research plan and first empirical results from design method experiments among the multi-disciplined groups of the master-level students of industrial engineering and management and software engineering.

Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Toikka, Tarja

257

DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH OPEN AND FUGITIVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the conomics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. Th...

258

Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

1972-01-01

259

A course in environmentally conscious chemical process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

To uniquely equip students with the active knowledge and the ability to implement pollution prevention technology, we have developed a design-oriented senior-level elective course on minimizing the environmental impact of chemical manufacturing processes. The objectives of the course are to educate students on the real costs of operating processes that release pollutants to the environment, to provide them with strategies

Joan F. Brennecke; Mark A. Stadtherr

2000-01-01

260

COMPUTER ASSISTED PRELIMINARY DESIGN FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESS SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to develop an interactive computer program to aid the design engineer in evaluating the performance and cost for any proposed drinking water treatment system consisting of individual unit processes. The 25 unit process models currently in the program ...

261

Parasitic Aware Process Variation Tolerant Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a parasitic aware, process variation tolerant optimization methodology that may be applied to nanoscale circuits to ensure better yield. A current- starved voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is treated as a case study and to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first VCO design that accounts for both parasitic degradation and process variation

Dhruva Ghai; Saraju P. Mohanty; Elias Kougianos

2008-01-01

262

The importance of business process modeling in software systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite diligent efforts made by the software engineering community, the failure of software projects keeps increasing at an alarming rate. After two decades of this problem reoccurring, one of the leading causes for the high failure rate is still poor process modeling (requirements' specification). Therefore both researchers and practitioners recognize the importance of business process modeling in understanding and designing

Joseph Barjis

2008-01-01

263

Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach facilitates the product design and manufacturing process. Using a Windows-based computer video display and a data base of materials and their properties, the designer can ascertain the preferred composition of two parts based on various operating/environmental constraints such as load, temperature, lifetime, etc. Optimum joinder of the two parts may simultaneously be determined using a joining process data base based upon the selected composition of the components as well as the operating/environmental constraints.

Kleban, Stephen D.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.

2000-08-16

264

A new design concept for an automated peanut processing facility  

SciTech Connect

Peanut quality is a major concern in all phases of the peanut industry from production to manufacturing. Postharvest processing of peanuts can have profound effects on the quality and safety of peanut food products. Curing is a key step in postharvest processing. Curing peanuts improperly can significantly reduce quality, and result in significant losses to both farmers and processors. The conventional drying system designed in the 1960`s is still being used in the processing of the peanuts today. The objectives of this paper is to design and develop a new automated peanut drying system for dry climates capable of handling approximately 20 million lbm of peanuts per harvest season.

Ertas, A.; Tanju, B.T. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Fair, W.T. [Long Shot, Inc., Seminole, TX (United States); Butts, C. [National Peanut Research Lab., Dawson, GA (United States)

1996-12-31

265

Systematic procedure for designing processes with multiple environmental objectives.  

PubMed

Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and the complicated analysis of multidimensional results. In this paper, a novel systematic procedure is presented for designing processes with multiple environmental objectives. This procedure has four steps: initialization, screening, evaluation, and visualization. The first two steps are used for systematic problem formulation based on mass and energy estimation and order of magnitude analysis. In the third step, an efficient parallel multiobjective steady-state genetic algorithm is applied to design environmentally benign and economically viable processes and to provide more accurate and uniform Pareto optimal solutions. In the last step a new visualization technique for illustrating multiple objectives and their design parameters on the same diagram is developed. Through these integrated steps the decision-maker can easily determine design alternatives with respect to his or her preferences. Most importantly, this technique is independent of the number of objectives and design parameters. As a case study, acetic acid recovery from aqueous waste mixtures is investigated by minimizing eight potential environmental impacts and maximizing total profit. After applying the systematic procedure, the most preferred design alternatives and their design parameters are easily identified. PMID:15871282

Kim, Ki-Joo; Smith, Raymond L

2005-04-01

266

Information Flow in the Launch Vehicle Design/Analysis Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of a team effort aimed at defining the information flow between disciplines at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engaged in the design of space launch vehicles. The information flow is modeled at a first level and is described using three types of templates: an N x N diagram, discipline flow diagrams, and discipline task descriptions. It is intended to provide engineers with an understanding of the connections between what they do and where it fits in the overall design process of the project. It is also intended to provide design managers with a better understanding of information flow in the launch vehicle design cycle.

Humphries, W. R., Sr.; Holland, W.; Bishop, R.

1999-01-01

267

Design flow for implementing image processing in FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design flow for implementing a dynamic gamma algorithm in an FPGA is described. Real-time video processing makes enormous demands on processing resources. An FPGA solution offers some advantages over commercial video chip and DSP implementation alternatives. The traditional approach to FPGA development involves a system engineer designing, modeling and verifying an algorithm and writing a specification. A hardware engineer uses the specification as a basis for coding in VHDL and testing the algorithm in the FPGA with supporting electronics. This process is work intensive and the verification of the image processing algorithm executing on the FPGA does not occur until late in the program. The described design process allows the system engineer to design and verify a true VHDL version of the algorithm, executing in an FPGA. This process yields reduced risk and development time. The process is achieved by using Xilinx System Generator in conjunction with Simulink® from The MathWorks. System Generator is a tool that bridges the gap between the high level modeling environment and the digital world of the FPGA. System Generator is used to develop the dynamic gamma algorithm for the contrast enhancement of a candidate display product. The results of this effort are to increase the dynamic range of the displayed video, resulting in a more useful image for the user.

Trakalo, M.; Giles, G.

2007-04-01

268

Feature-based metal stamping part and process design. Part II: stamping process planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In metal stamping development, stamping process planning plays quite an important role for the related die design. As mentioned in Part-I [Feature-based metal stamping part and process design. Part 1: stampability evaluation, 2007, 45, 2673–2695], the feature can encapsulate comprehensive engineering information; this paper proposes to realize stamping process planning based on feature mapping. A feature mapping system, between a

Dunbing Tang; Benhe Gao

2007-01-01

269

Mould design and casting process improvement on vibrator shell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrator shell is a part with complex structure. While the vibrator shell is designed and manufactured by traditional sand casting process, more than 80% castings are found the defects of porosity, shrinkage and pouring-shortage at the top. Aiming to the problems in traditional sand casting, this paper focused on the improvement of castings structure and the optimization of casting process. Designing process bar in the gate-channel region which is connected with the gate in castings is used to improve the castings structure, and low speed filling and solidification under high pressure are adopted to optimize the casting process which is finished by self-made four-column type hydraulic machine equipped. It can be seen that the castings quality can be greatly improved by process improvement.

Zhang, Lipan; Fang, Ligao; Chen, Zhong; Song, Kai

2011-12-01

270

Design of a Pu-238 Waste Incineration Process  

SciTech Connect

Combustible Pu-238 waste is generated as a result of normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored there. As part of the long-term plan to process the stored waste and current waste in preparation for future disposition, a Pu-238 incineration process is being cold-tested at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The incineration process consists of a continuous-feed preparation system, a two-stage, electrically fired incinerator, and a filtration off-gas system. Process equipment has been designed, fabricated, and installed for nonradioactive testing and cold run-in. Design features to maximize the ability to remotely maintain the equipment were incorporated into the process. Interlock, alarm, and control functions are provided by a programmable controller. Cold testing is scheduled to be completed in 1986.

Charlesworth, D.L.

2001-05-29

271

Pervaporation-based hybrid process: a review of process design, applications and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervaporation is one of the developing membrane technologies that can be used for various industrial applications but for a predefined task, the optimal process design is unlikely to consist solely of pervaporation. Often the optimised solution becomes a hybrid process combining pervaporation with one or more other separation technologies. A distinction will be made between hybrid and integrated processes. Hybrid

Frank Lipnizki; Robert W Field; Po-Kiong Ten

1999-01-01

272

Expert Design of Industrial Systems: Formalizing the Design Process Douglas A. Bodner, T. Govindaraj, Karthik N. Karathur, Natalie F. Zerangue,  

E-print Network

, ethnographic studies, industrial systems design, formalized design process. 1. Introduction Design research. Our approach is to study expert designers as they design facilities, focusing on warehouses in the design process. In this paper, we describe our research methodology, based on the concept of ethnographic

273

Design of launch systems using continuous improvement process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to identify a systematic process for improving ground operations for future launch systems. This approach is based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) continuous improvement process. While the continuous improvement process is normally identified with making incremental changes to an existing system, it can be used on new systems if they use past experience as a knowledge base. In the case of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the Space Shuttle operations provide many lessons. The TQM methodology used for this paper will be borrowed from the United States Air Force 'Quality Air Force' Program. There is a general overview of the continuous improvement process, with concentration on the formulation phase. During this phase critical analyses are conducted to determine the strategy and goals for the remaining development process. These analyses include analyzing the mission from the customers point of view, developing an operations concept for the future, assessing current capabilities and determining the gap to be closed between current capabilities and future needs and requirements. A brief analyses of the RLV, relative to the Space Shuttle, will be used to illustrate the concept. Using the continuous improvement design concept has many advantages. These include a customer oriented process which will develop a more marketable product and a better integration of operations and systems during the design phase. But, the use of TQM techniques will require changes, including more discipline in the design process and more emphasis on data gathering for operational systems. The benefits will far outweigh the additional effort.

Brown, Richard W.

1995-01-01

274

Digitally mediated design : using computer programming to develop a personal design process  

E-print Network

This thesis is based on the proposal that the current system of architectural design education confuses product and process. Students are assessed through, and therefore concentrate on, the former whilst the latter is left ...

Yakeley, Megan (Megan Webster), 1966-

2000-01-01

275

SenseMS: a user-centered approach to enrich the messaging experience for teens by non-verbal means  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the user study and design of a concept to improve mobile messaging for teens. A study of current mobile phone use by teens (16-18) showed that, while they prefer communicating by Short Message Service (SMS), they miss expressiveness in this application. An enhanced SMS application, SenseMS, is designed to support affective communication. An evaluation of a SenseMS

Alia K. Amin; B. T. A. Kersten; Olga A. Kulyk; P. H. Pelgrim; C. M. Wang; Panos Markopoulos

2005-01-01

276

That's Entertainment! Designing Streaming, Multimedia Web Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the use of streaming multimedia narratives in web entertainment. Based on experience gained during the user centered design of a website for art and culture, we provide evidence that users want and like \\

Clare-marie Karat; John Karat; John Vergo; Claudio S. Pinhanez; Doug Riecken; Thomas Cofino

2002-01-01

277

Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review  

SciTech Connect

The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1980-01-07

278

A Digital Methodology for the Design Process of Aerospace Assemblies with Sustainable Composite Processes & Manufacture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well established benefits of composite materials are driving a significant shift in design and manufacture strategies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Thermoplastic composites have advantages over the traditional thermosetting materials with regards to sustainability and environmental impact, features which are becoming increasingly pertinent in the aerospace arena. However, when sustainability and environmental impact are considered as design drivers, integrated methods for part design and product development must be developed so that any benefits of sustainable composite material systems can be assessed during the design process. These methods must include mechanisms to account for process induced part variation and techniques related to re-forming, recycling and decommissioning, which are in their infancy. It is proposed in this paper that predictive techniques related to material specification, part processing and product cost of thermoplastic composite components, be integrated within a Through Life Management (TLM) product development methodology as part of a larger strategy of product system modeling to improve disciplinary concurrency, realistic part performance, and to place sustainability at the heart of the design process. This paper reports the enhancement of digital manufacturing tools as a means of drawing simulated part manufacturing scenarios, real time costing mechanisms, and broader lifecycle performance data capture into the design cycle. The work demonstrates predictive processes for sustainable composite product manufacture and how a Product-Process-Resource (PPR) structure can be customised and enhanced to include design intent driven by `Real' part geometry and consequent assembly. your paper.

McEwan, W.; Butterfield, J.

2011-05-01

279

The engineering design process as a model for STEM curriculum design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging pedagogics have been proven to be effective in the promotion of deep learning for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students. In many cases, academic institutions have shown a desire to improve education by implementing more engaging techniques in the classroom. The research framework established in this dissertation has been governed by the axiom that students should obtain a deep understanding of fundamental topics while being motivated to learn through engaging techniques. This research lays a foundation for future analysis and modeling of the curriculum design process where specific educational research questions can be considered using standard techniques. Further, a clear curriculum design process is a key step towards establishing an axiomatic approach for engineering education. A danger is that poor implementation of engaging techniques will counteract the intended effects. Poor implementation might provide students with a "fun" project, but not the desired deep understanding of the fundamental STEM content. Knowing that proper implementation is essential, this dissertation establishes a model for STEM curriculum design, based on the well-established engineering design process. Using this process as a perspective to model curriculum design allows for a structured approach. Thus, the framework for STEM curriculum design, established here, provides a guided approach for seamless integration of fundamental topics and engaging pedagogics. The main steps, or phases, in engineering design are: Problem Formulation, Solution Generation, Solution Analysis, and Solution Implementation. Layering engineering design with education curriculum theory, this dissertation establishes a clear framework for curriculum design. Through ethnographic engagement by this researcher, several overarching themes are revealed through the creation of curricula using the design process. The application of the framework to specific curricula was part of this dissertation research. Examples of other STEM curricula using the framework were also presented. Moreover, the framework is presented in such a way that it can be implemented by other educational design teams.

Corbett, Krystal Sno

280

Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

The computational requirements for design and manufacture of automotive components have seen dramatic increases for producing automobiles with three times the mileage. Automotive component design systems are becoming increasingly reliant on structural analysis requiring both overall larger analysis and more complex analyses, more three-dimensional analyses, larger model sizes, and routine consideration of transient and non-linear effects. Such analyses must be performed rapidly to minimize delays in the design and development process, which drives the need for parallel computing. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in superplastic forming and automotive crash worthiness.

Zacharia, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics

1994-12-31

281

Waste receiving and processing facility module 1, detailed design report  

SciTech Connect

WRAP 1 baseline documents which guided the technical development of the Title design included: (a) A/E Statement of Work (SOW) Revision 4C: This DOE-RL contractual document specified the workscope, deliverables, schedule, method of performance and reference criteria for the Title design preparation. (b) Functional Design Criteria (FDC) Revision 1: This DOE-RL technical criteria document specified the overall operational criteria for the facility. The document was a Revision 0 at the beginning of the design and advanced to Revision 1 during the tenure of the Title design. (c) Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) Revision 3: This baseline criteria document prepared by WHC for DOE-RL augments the FDC by providing further definition of the process, operational safety, and facility requirements to the A/E for guidance in preparing the design. The document was at a very preliminary stage at the onset of Title design and was revised in concert with the results of the engineering studies that were performed to resolve the numerous technical issues that the project faced when Title I was initiated, as well as, by requirements established during the course of the Title II design.

Not Available

1993-10-01

282

Rethinking behavioral health processes by using design for six sigma.  

PubMed

Clinical evidence-based practices are strongly encouraged and commonly utilized in the behavioral health community. However, evidence-based practices that are related to quality improvement processes, such as Design for Six Sigma, are often not used in behavioral health care. This column describes the unique partnership formed between a behavioral health care provider in the greater Pittsburgh area, a nonprofit oversight and monitoring agency for behavioral health services, and academic researchers. The authors detail how the partnership used the multistep process outlined in Design for Six Sigma to completely redesign the provider's intake process. Implementation of the redesigned process increased access to care, decreased bad debt and uncollected funds, and improved cash flow--while consumer satisfaction remained high. PMID:25642607

Lucas, Anthony G; Primus, Kelly; Kovach, Jamison V; Fredendall, Lawrence D

2015-02-01

283

Which Events Can Cause Iteration in Instructional Design? An Empirical Study of the Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional design is not a linear process: designers have to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions, taking into account different kinds of conflicting and changing constraints. To make sure that they eventually choose the most optimal one, they have to keep on collecting information, reconsidering continuously whether…

Verstegen, D. M. L.; Barnard, Y. F.; Pilot, A.

2006-01-01

284

Vertically integrated computer aided design for device plasma processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed a computer aided design concept concerning vertically integrated CAD for device processing, VicAddress[1] as a long-range objective of the design of a low temperature plasma processing used for a multi-layer semiconductor manufacturing, by considering plasma/interface/surface/device-structure. That is, these are a series of modelings of a plasma structure, profile evolution, charging in a patterned wafer, and device damage during etching/deposition by using modules for each of objectives. A highly abstracted and idealized topdown design concept is employed as a ULSI design tool in the industry, in order to shorten the period of the development and to achieve high efficiency. Therefore, a lack of information about physical images will be essential in the topdown design. VicAddress will be expected to serve as a design tool complementary to the topdown design procedure. We will demonstrate one of the examples, plasma device damage due to local charging during etching to the gate oxide by using simple 2D modeling of VicAddress. [2mm] [1]T.Makabe, J.Matsui, and K. Maeshige, Sci. Technol. of Adv. Materials (in press), Proc. of 22 Int. Symp. on RGD (AIP; in press).

Makabe, T.; Maeshige, K.

2001-10-01

285

ASIC by design: automated design of digital signal processing application-specific integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing the optimized results to the baseline, we are achieving typically 10-20× improvement in PDA. This allows gap closure to approach the optimization of a full custom design process while preserving the automation and design efficiency of ASIC design. Additionally, the reuse of each macro saves two to three staff-months, and each optimization script saves one to two staff-months. Hence,

Don Bouldin; Warren Snapp; Paul Haug; David Sunderland; Roger Brees; Carl Sechen; Wayne Dai

2004-01-01

286

Noise control, sound, and the vehicle design process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many products, noise and sound are viewed as necessary evils that need to be dealt with in order to bring the product successfully to market. They are generally not product ``exciters'' although some vehicle manufacturers do tune and advertise specific sounds to enhance the perception of their products. In this paper, influencing the design process for the ``evils,'' such as wind noise and road noise, are considered in more detail. There are three ingredients to successfully dealing with the evils in the design process. The first of these is knowing how excesses in noise effects the end customer in a tangible manner and how that effects customer satisfaction and ultimately sells. The second is having and delivering the knowledge of what is required of the design to achieve a satisfactory or even better level of noise performance. The third ingredient is having the commitment of the designers to incorporate the knowledge into their part, subsystem or system. In this paper, the elements of each of these ingredients are discussed in some detail and the attributes of a successful design process are enumerated.

Donavan, Paul

2005-09-01

287

A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2005-07-01

288

A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2006-08-31

289

A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2004-11-01

290

Designing Mobile Information Services: User Requirements Elicitation with GSS Design and Application of a Repeatable Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main challenge in the first phase of designing mobile services is eliciting user requirements. We propose a repeatable process for eliciting user requirements based on the literature on requirements engineering and group support systems. We applied the repeatable process in three sessions to elicit user requirements for a mobile information service on a UMTS testbed. The sessions resulted in

Mariëlle Den Hengst; Elisabeth Van De Kar; Jaco H. Appelman

2004-01-01

291

ORIGINAL PAPER Conceptual design of carbon nanotube processes  

E-print Network

conductivity similar to copper. The biggest challenge in developing potential applications for carbon nanotubesORIGINAL PAPER Conceptual design of carbon nanotube processes Adedeji E. Agboola Ã? Ralph W. Pike Ã? online: 10 January 2007 Ã? Springer-Verlag 2007 Abstract Carbon nanotubes, discovered in 1991, are a new

Pike, Ralph W.

292

PROCESS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Control Structure Design for Optimal  

E-print Network

solution exists. Heat exchanger networks (HENs) are widely used in chemical industries to reducePROCESS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Control Structure Design for Optimal Operation of Heat Exchanger bypasses and utility duties are used as manipulations, optimal operation of heat exchanger networks (HENs

Skogestad, Sigurd

293

INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

294

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

295

Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University  

E-print Network

remediation, nuclear contamination and enhanced oil recovery Availability of enough input data and comparative results Pose and solve questions that provide some insight Ground water remediation and contamination control Oil recovery #12;Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University Proposed

Zabaras, Nicholas J.

296

The Role of Dialogic Processes in Designing Career Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role played by dialogic processes in the designing or redesigning of future expectations during a career guidance intervention. It discusses a specific method ("Giving instruction to a double") developed and used during career counseling sessions with two recent doctoral graduates. It intends both to help them outline or…

Bangali, Marcelline; Guichard, Jean

2012-01-01

297

Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

2014-01-01

298

A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

299

Improving the wire bonding process quality using statistically designed experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistically Designed Experiments (SDE) are used for identifying the critical variables associated with a process and thereby determining the optimal levels for these variables for enhanced performance. These methods are well known among the statisticians but few industrial engineers have any exposure to these powerful problem solving methods because of limited statistical skills and expertise. This paper presents the potential

Jiju Antony

1999-01-01

300

Modelling and conceptual design of a waste smelting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pyrometallurgical process has been modelled and conceptually designed for the thermal treatment of heavy metal containing waste streams like MSW incinerator fly ash and sewage sludge. The modelling is carried out using the computer program EQUIMET as developed by Billiton Research BV. This program calculates thermodynamic equilibrium, making use of a slag model to account for the non-ideality of

Johannes M. N. van Kasteren; Jan P. Lotens

1995-01-01

301

IP core design of template matching algorithm in image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design and implementation of template matching IP cores for image processing. Enhanced Moment Preserving Pattern Matching (MPPM) algorithm of template matching was adopted for efficient hardware implementation. The cores were coded in Verilog HDL for modularity and portability. The IP cores were validated in a XC4052XL FPGA and XESS XS40 prototyping board.

Zhu, Quanqing; Zou, Xuecheng; Dong, Zhenzhong; Huang, Feng; Shen, Xubang

2001-09-01

302

The design process for wheel-robot integration  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the design process for wheel-robot integration was documented and reflected on. The project focused on redesigned certain aspects a half-scale wheel-robot to be integrated with a half-scale CityCar prototype ...

Carvajal, Michael Angelo

2009-01-01

303

GENERAL: Planar ion chip design for scalable quantum information processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a planar ion chip design with a two-dimensional array of linear ion traps for scalable quantum information processing. Qubits are formed from the internal electronic states of trapped 40Ca+ ions. The segmented electrodes reside in a single plane on a substrate and a grounded metal plate separately, a combination of appropriate rf and DC potentials is applied to

Jin-Yin Wan; Yu-Zhu Wang; Liang Liu

2008-01-01

304

30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2014-07-01

305

30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2014-07-01

306

30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2013-07-01

307

30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2012-07-01

308

30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2013-07-01

309

30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2013-07-01

310

30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2012-07-01

311

30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2013-07-01

312

30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2013-07-01

313

30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2013-07-01

314

30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2012-07-01

315

30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2012-07-01

316

30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2012-07-01

317

30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2011-07-01

318

30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2013-07-01

319

30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2014-07-01

320

30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2012-07-01

321

30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2014-07-01

322

30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2013-07-01

323

30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2014-07-01

324

30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2012-07-01

325

30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2013-07-01

326

30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2014-07-01

327

30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2012-07-01

328

30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2013-07-01

329

30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2014-07-01

330

30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2014-07-01

331

30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2014-07-01

332

30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2014-07-01

333

30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining...

2012-07-01

334

Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

1998-12-01

335

Tunable photonic filters: a digital signal processing design approach.  

PubMed

Digital signal processing techniques are used for synthesizing tunable optical filters with variable bandwidth and centered reference frequency including the tunability of the low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop optical filters. Potential applications of such filters are discussed, and the design techniques and properties of recursive digital filters are outlined. The basic filter structures, namely, the first-order all-pole optical filter (FOAPOF) and the first-order all-zero optical filter (FOAZOF), are described, and finally the design process of tunable optical filters and the designs of the second-order Butterworth low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop tunable optical filters are presented. Indeed, we identify that the all-zero and all-pole networks are equivalent with well known principles of optics of interference and resonance, respectively. It is thus very straightforward to implement tunable optical filters, which is a unique feature. PMID:19458728

Binh, Le Nguyen

2009-05-20

336

Design Exploration of Engineered Materials, Products, and Associated Manufacturing Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few years, ICME-related research has been directed towards the study of multi-scale materials design. However, relatively little has been reported on model-based methods that are of relevance to industry for the realization of engineered materials, products, and associated industrial manufacturing processes. Computational models used in the realization of engineered materials and products are fraught with uncertainty, have different levels of fidelity, are incomplete and are even likely to be inaccurate. In light of this, we adopt a robust design strategy that facilitates the exploration of the solution space thereby providing decision support to a design engineer. In this paper, we describe a foundational construct embodied in our method for design exploration, namely, the compromise Decision Support Problem. We introduce a problem that we are using to establish the efficacy of our method. It involves the integrated design of steel and gears, traversing the chain of steel making, mill production, and evolution of the material during these processes, and linking this to the mechanical design and manufacture of the gear. We provide an overview of our method to determine the operating set points for the ladle, tundish and caster operations necessary to manufacture steel of a desired set of properties. Finally, we highlight the efficacy of our method.

Shukla, Rishabh; Kulkarni, Nagesh H.; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.; Mistree, Farrokh; Allen, Janet K.; Panchal, Jitesh H.

2015-01-01

337

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Verification and Validation Process  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a description of design verification and validation activities implemented by the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. During the execution of early design verification, a management assessment (Bergman, 1999) and external assessments on configuration management (Augustenburg, 1999) and testing (Loscoe, 2000) were conducted and identified potential uncertainties in the verification process. This led the SNF Chief Engineer to implement corrective actions to improve process and design products. This included Design Verification Reports (DVRs) for each subproject, validation assessments for testing, and verification of the safety function of systems and components identified in the Safety Equipment List to ensure that the design outputs were compliant with the SNF Technical Requirements. Although some activities are still in progress, the results of the DVR and associated validation assessments indicate that Project requirements for design verification are being effectively implemented. These results have been documented in subproject-specific technical documents (Table 2). Identified punch-list items are being dispositioned by the Project. As these remaining items are closed, the technical reports (Table 2) will be revised and reissued to document the results of this work.

OLGUIN, L.J.

2000-09-25

338

Architectural design of heterogeneous metallic nanocrystals--principles and processes.  

PubMed

CONSPECTUS: Heterogeneous metal nanocrystals (HMNCs) are a natural extension of simple metal nanocrystals (NCs), but as a research topic, they have been much less explored until recently. HMNCs are formed by integrating metal NCs of different compositions into a common entity, similar to the way atoms are bonded to form molecules. HMNCs can be built to exhibit an unprecedented architectural diversity and complexity by programming the arrangement of the NC building blocks ("unit NCs"). The architectural engineering of HMNCs involves the design and fabrication of the architecture-determining elements (ADEs), i.e., unit NCs with precise control of shape and size, and their relative positions in the design. Similar to molecular engineering, where structural diversity is used to create more property variations for application explorations, the architectural engineering of HMNCs can similarly increase the utility of metal NCs by offering a suite of properties to support multifunctionality in applications. The architectural engineering of HMNCs calls for processes and operations that can execute the design. Some enabling technologies already exist in the form of classical micro- and macroscale fabrication techniques, such as masking and etching. These processes, when used singly or in combination, are fully capable of fabricating nanoscopic objects. What is needed is a detailed understanding of the engineering control of ADEs and the translation of these principles into actual processes. For simplicity of execution, these processes should be integrated into a common reaction system and yet retain independence of control. The key to architectural diversity is therefore the independent controllability of each ADE in the design blueprint. The right chemical tools must be applied under the right circumstances in order to achieve the desired outcome. In this Account, after a short illustration of the infinite possibility of combining different ADEs to create HMNC design variations, we introduce the fabrication processes for each ADE, which enable shape, size, and location control of the unit NCs in a particular HMNC design. The principles of these processes are discussed and illustrated with examples. We then discuss how these processes may be integrated into a common reaction system while retaining the independence of individual processes. The principles for the independent control of each ADE are discussed in detail to lay the foundation for the selection of the chemical reaction system and its operating space. PMID:25343731

Yu, Yue; Zhang, Qingbo; Yao, Qiaofeng; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

2014-12-16

339

Penetrator reliability investigation and design exploration : from conventional design processes to innovative uncertainty-capturing algorithms.  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on research and algorithmic development in optimization under uncertainty (OUU) problems driven by earth penetrator (EP) designs. While taking into account uncertainty, we addressed three challenges in current simulation-based engineering design and analysis processes. The first challenge required leveraging small local samples, already constructed by optimization algorithms, to build effective surrogate models. We used Gaussian Process (GP) models to construct these surrogates. We developed two OUU algorithms using 'local' GPs (OUU-LGP) and one OUU algorithm using 'global' GPs (OUU-GGP) that appear competitive or better than current methods. The second challenge was to develop a methodical design process based on multi-resolution, multi-fidelity models. We developed a Multi-Fidelity Bayesian Auto-regressive process (MF-BAP). The third challenge involved the development of tools that are computational feasible and accessible. We created MATLAB{reg_sign} and initial DAKOTA implementations of our algorithms.

Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Heaphy, Robert (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Gramacy, Robert B. (University of Cambridge); Taddy, Matt (University of California, Santa Cruz, CA); Chiesa, Michael L.; Thomas, Stephen W. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Swiler, Laura Painton (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Hough, Patricia Diane; Lee, Herbert K. H. (University of California, Santa Cruz, CA); Trucano, Timothy Guy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Gray, Genetha Anne

2006-11-01

340

Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods  

DOEpatents

Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

2014-03-04

341

RATES OF REACTION AND PROCESS DESIGN DATA FOR THE HYDROCARB PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides experimental and process design data in support of studies for developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb process. The experimental work includes the hydropyrolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a 2.44 m ...

342

RATES OF REACTION AND PROCESS DESIGN DATA FOR THE HYDROCARB PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides experimental and process design data in support of studies far developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb process. he experimental work includes the hydropyrolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a 2.44 m l...

343

Designed CVD growth of graphene via process engineering.  

PubMed

Graphene, the atomic thin carbon film with honeycomb lattice, holds great promise in a wide range of applications, due to its unique band structure and excellent electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Scientists are researching this star material because of the development of various emerging preparation techniques, among which chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has received the fastest advances in the past few years. For the CVD growth of graphene, the ultimate goal is to achieve the highest quality in the largest scale and lowest cost with a precise control of layer thickness, stacking order, and crystallinity. To meet this goal, researchers need a comprehensive understanding and effective controlling of the growth process, especially to its elementary steps. In this Account, we focus on our recent progresses toward the controlled surface growth of graphene and its two-dimensional (2D) hybrids via rational designs of CVD elementary processes, namely, process engineering. A typical CVD process consists of four main elementary steps: (A) adsorption and catalytic decomposition of precursor gas, (B) diffusion and dissolution of decomposed carbon species into bulk metal, (C) segregation of dissolved carbon atoms onto the metal surface, and finally, (D) surface nucleation and growth of graphene. Absence or enhancement of each elementary step would lead to significant changes in the whole growth process. Metals with certain carbon solubility, such as nickel and cobalt, involve all four elementary steps in a typical CVD process, thus providing us an ideal system for process engineering. The elementary segregation process can be completely blocked if molybdenum is introduced into the system as an alloy catalyst, yielding perfect monolayer graphene almost independent of growth parameters. On the other hand, the segregation-only process of predissolved solid carbons is also capable of high-quality graphene growth. By using a synergetic Cu-Ni alloy, we are able to further enhance the control to such a segregation technique, especially for the thickness of graphene. By designing a cosegregation process of carbon atoms with other elements, such as nitrogen, doped graphene could be synthesized directly with a tunable doping profile. Copper with negligible carbon solubility provides another platform for process engineering, where both carbon dissolution and segregation steps are negligible in the CVD process. Carbon atoms decomposed from precursors diffuse on the surface and build up the thermodynamically stable honeycomb lattice. As a result, graphene growth on copper is self-limited, and formation of multilayer graphene is generally prohibited. Being able to control this process better, as well as the high quality produced, makes copper-based growth the dominating synthesis procedure in the graphene community. We designed a two-temperature zone system to spatially separate the catalytic decomposition step of carbon precursors and the surface graphitization step for breaking this self-limited growth feature, giving high-quality Bernal stacked bilayer graphene via van der Waals epitaxy. We performed the so-called wrinkle engineering by growing graphene on nanostructured copper foil together with a structure-preserved surface transfer. In such a way, we controlled the wrinkling or folding on graphene and further fabricated graphene nanoribbon arrays by self-masked plasma etching. Moreover, by designing a two-step patching growth process on copper, we succeeded in synthesizing the mosaic graphene, a patchwork of intrinsic and nitrogen-doped graphene connected by single crystalline graphene p-n junctions. By following a general concept of process engineering, our work on the designed CVD growth of graphene and its 2D hybrids provides a unique insight of this research field. It enables the precise growth control of graphene together with the in-depth understanding of CVD growth process, which would further stimulate the pace of graphene applications. PMID:23869401

Yan, Kai; Fu, Lei; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

2013-10-15

344

Process simulation in stamping – recent applications for product and process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process simulation for product and process design is currently being practiced in industry. However, a number of input variables have a significant effect on the accuracy and reliability of computer predictions. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of FE-simulations for predicting part characteristics and process conditions in forming complex-shaped, industrial parts.In industrial applications, there are two objectives for

W Thomas; T Oenoki; T Altan

2000-01-01

345

Design for Process Integration and Efficient Energy Utilization  

E-print Network

- ? 10,000 tId FCCU PERCENT OF DESIGN FEED RATE PROCESS AlR REOD.?T/D Z AIR COMP DISCH. P.KlfCM AIR DELIVEaED BY COMP.T/D AIR BYPASSING REGEN.-TfO TOTAL GAS TO TURBINE.T/D TuaaOllE INLET TEMP???c P @ TURBINE INLET -KIfCM Z TOTAL TURBlNE SHAFT H.P... Hydrocarbon loss reduction Improved steam utilisation Many refiners plan to achieve a further 10- 15% reduction in specific energy requirements within the next five years. Such improvement will require substantial capital investment and innovative design...

James, A. J.

1982-01-01

346

A Taguchi study of the aeroelastic tailoring design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Taguchi study was performed to determine the important players in the aeroelastic tailoring design process and to find the best composition of the optimization's objective function. The Wing Aeroelastic Synthesis Procedure (TSO) was used to ascertain the effects that factors such as composite laminate constraints, roll effectiveness constraints, and built-in wing twist and camber have on the optimum, aeroelastically tailored wing skin design. The results show the Taguchi method to be a viable engineering tool for computational inquiries, and provide some valuable lessons about the practice of aeroelastic tailoring.

Bohlmann, Jonathan D.; Scott, Robert C.

1991-01-01

347

Designing a centralized processing network: Formulation and computations  

SciTech Connect

This talk presents work in progress on solving a class of capacitated network design problems related to designing a centralized processing network. Given a graph with a specified root node, demands at the other nodes, and a given capacity K, the basic problem is to find a minimum-cost spanning tree with the property that the total demand in any subtree of the root is at most K. Most of the talk will describe computational approaches and experience. Additionally we will discuss relationships between different integer programming formulations and how they compare both theoretically and empirically.

Hall, L.

1994-12-31

348

Operation and design of selected industrial process heat field tests  

SciTech Connect

The DOE program of solar industrial process heat field tests has shown solar energy to be compatible with numerous industrial needs. Both the operational projects and the detailed designs of systems that are not yet operational have resulted in valuable insights into design and hardware practice. Typical of these insights are the experiences discussed for the four projects reviewed. Future solar IPH systems should benefit greatly not only from the availability of present information, but also from the wealth of operating experience from projects due to start up in 1981.

Kearney, D. W.

1981-02-01

349

Design of the HTGR for process heat applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a design study of an advanced 842-MW(t) HTGR with a reactor outlet temperature of 850/sup 0/C (1562/sup 0/F), coupled with a chemical process whose product is hydrogen (or a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) generated by steam reforming of a light hydrocarbon mixture. This paper discusses the plant layout and design for the major components of the primary and secondary heat transfer systems. Typical parametric system study results illustrate the capability of a computer code developed to model the plant performance and economics.

Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

1980-05-01

350

Design of a Small Scale High Temperature Gas Loop for Process Heat Exchanger Design Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed a small scale gas loop that can simulate reference operating conditions, that is, a temperature up to 950 deg C and a pressure up to 6 MPa. Main objective of the loop is to screen the candidate process-heat-exchanger designs of a very small capacity of 10 â 20 kW. We arranged the components of a primary gas loop

Hong SungDeok; Oh DongSeok; Lee WonJae; Chang JongHwa

2006-01-01

351

Results-Based Interaction Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interaction design is a user-centered approach to development in which users and their goals are the driving force behind a project's design. Interaction design principles are fundamental to the design and implementation of effective websites, but they are not sufficient. This article argues that, to reach its full potential, a website should also…

Weiss, Meredith

2008-01-01

352

Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine  

SciTech Connect

The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels in the hydroceramic grout process (i.e., 21 m) appears to be about the same as that estimated by the Direct Cementitious Waste Process in 1998, for which a conceptual design was developed. Some of the conceptual design efforts in the 1998 study may be applicable to the stabilizer processes addressed in this EDF. (e) The gamma radiation fields near the process vessels handling HLW calcine would vary from a range of about 300-350 R/hr at a distance of 2.5 cm from the side of the vessels to a range of about 50-170 R/hr at a distance of 100 cm from the side of the vessels. The calculations were made for combined calcine, which was defined as the total HLW calcine inventory uniformly mixed. (f) The gamma radiation fields near the stabilized waste in canisters would range from about 25-170 R/hr at 2.5 cm from the side of the canister and 5-35 R/hr at 100 cm from the side of the canister, depending on the which bin set was the source of calcine.

T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

2005-06-01

353

Robust process design and springback compensation of a decklid inner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Springback compensation is one of the key topics in current die face engineering. The accuracy of the springback simulation, the robustness of method planning and springback are considered to be the main factors which influences the effectiveness of springback compensation. In the present paper, the basic principles of springback compensation are presented firstly. These principles consist of an accurate full cycle simulation with final validation setting and the robust process design and optimization are discussed in detail via an industrial example, a decklid inner. Moreover, an effective compensation strategy is put forward based on the analysis of springback and the simulation based springback compensation is introduced in the phase of process design. In the end, the final verification and comparison in tryout and production is given in this paper, which verified that the methodology of robust springback compensation is effective during the die development.

Zhang, Xiaojing; Grimm, Peter; Carleer, Bart; Jin, Weimin; Liu, Gang; Cheng, Yingchao

2013-12-01

354

Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology  

SciTech Connect

Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

2005-06-30

355

Instrumentation and Control in the Engineering Design Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Technology and engineering are often considered related topics, but this relationship often stems from the final output of technologically savvy products. One rarely considers the technology used by the engineer in the design of these goods. This website, created by Engineering Technology Pathways, address "the role of instrumentation control in the engineering design process." Addressing such things as the engineersâ?? knowledge of these systems, the interest of society in the technology, and the actual role of the instrumentation in the design laboratory are addressed in the presentation. The page also provides a student guide that comments on the theories the student should attain proficiency in, after the lecture. Overall, this is a good resource for instructors wanting a guide to instrumentation and the role it plays in engineering.

Heitkamp, Greg

356

Using Process Visualizations to Validate Electronic Form Design  

PubMed Central

Electronic reporting systems have the potential to support health care quality improvement initiatives across varied health care settings, specifically in low-technology settings such as long-term residential care facilities (LTRCFs). Yet, these organizations face financial barriers to implementing such systems and the LTRCF workforce is generally not as technology-ready as larger organizations’ workforces. Electronic reporting systems implemented in these settings must therefore be inexpensive and easy-to-use. This paper outlines a novel technique – process visualization – for systematically assessing the order in which users complete electronic forms, an inexpensively-developed patient falls reporting form in this case. These visualizations can help designers uncover usage patterns not evident via other usability methods. Based on this knowledge, designers can validate the design of the electronic forms, informing their subsequent redesign. PMID:21347028

Marquard, Jenna L.; Mei, Yi You

2010-01-01

357

Design and Development of EMR Supporting Medical Process Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current EMR system benefits physicians by facilitating order entry and reducing errors. It can improve the safety and effectiveness\\u000a of medical services, but cannot manage the whole medical process and the quality of medical services. In addition to physicians,\\u000a EMR should be designed for all medical professionals because medical services cannot be accomplished by physicians alone,\\u000a but also requires the

Jing-Song Li; Xiao-Guang Zhang; Jian Chu; Muneou Suzuki; Kenji Araki

358

Application-Domain-Driven System Design for Pervasive Video Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive video processing in future Ambient Intelligence environments sets new challenges in embedded system design. In particular,\\u000a very high performance requirements have to be combined with the constraints of deeply embedded systems, frequently changing\\u000a operating modes, and low-cost, high-volume production. By leveraging upon the key properties of the application domain, we\\u000a devised a computation model, a hardware template, and a

Zbigniew Chamski; Marc Duranton; Albert Cohen; Christine Eisenbeis; Paul Feautrier; Daniela Genius

359

Control system design for a rapid thermal processing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a control system design for a rapid thermal processing (RTP) system, which has four circular concentric lamp zones and four temperature sensors. The control system consists of a least square feedforward controller and an output feedback proportional plus integral (PI) controller. The goal is to maintain uniform temperature tracking for typical ramp-up and hold-steady profiles. A high-order nonlinear model

Ching-An lin; Yaw-Kuen Jan

2001-01-01

360

COUPLING CONSTRAINT BOUNDARY MAPPING IN THE PROCESS DESIGN PARAMETER SPACE WITH COMMERCIAL PROCESS SIMULATOR TO ESTIMATE PROCESS DESIGN RELIABILITY  

E-print Network

of BP’s estimated for the second geometrical case study……………………………………….. 59 Figure 3.5 CB in parameter space for third geometrical case……………………. 60 Figure 3.6 CB in parameter space for fourth geometrical case study……………. 60 Figure 3.7 M/I design....6 OPT PDR estimates for the case studies with two uncertain parameters when %1=OP? …………………………………………… 42 Table 2.7 OPT PDR estimates for designs with more than two uncertain parameters when fifty BP’s are used in the CBA…………………….. 42 Table 2...

Myers, Elim Rosalva

2010-01-25

361

Representing manufacturing features to support design and process changes  

SciTech Connect

Today there exists several parametric or variational feature-based solid modeling desip tools that aid the user in productively creating a product desip. However, most of these systems do not address mapping from the desip feature to the manufacturing feature and few, if any, automaticaly link design changes to manufacturing feature and/or process changes. Currently, most systems depend on humans to detect and propagate changes. Towards solving this problem, we are working on a manufacturing feature representation that can detect a desip or process change and correct some or at a minimum flag the manufacturing engineer where the change affects manufacturing operations. We define Manufacturing Features as a collection of faces and edges. It is important that these faces and edges can be uniquely identified in the design feature representation. Each Manufacturing Feature has a Clipping Space that defines the extent of the material removal volume Because the Clipping Space references the design feature`s faces and edges we can propagate a design change. Therefore, a change in the geometry of a face or edge is propagated when the Clipping Space is reevaluated. In this paper we present this new approach for representing manufacturing features and discuss its current and planned implementation.

Brooks, S.L.; Kirk, W.J. III; Simons, W.R.; Brown, C.W. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.; Greenway, R.B. Jr. [Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (United States)

1994-09-01

362

Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

1990-01-01

363

Process Cost Modeling for Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This report outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are costed according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this report is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool. In successive sections, the report addresses the issues of cost modeling as follows. First, an introduction is presented to provide the background for the research work. Next, a quick review of cost estimation techniques is made with the intention to highlight their inappropriateness for what is really needed at the conceptual phase of the design process. The First-Order Process Velocity Cost Model (FOPV) is discussed at length in the next section. This is followed by an application of the FOPV cost model to a generic wing. For designs that have no precedence as far as acquisition costs are concerned, cost data derived from the FOPV cost model may not be accurate enough because of new requirements for shape complexity, material, equipment and precision/tolerance. The concept of Cost Modulus is introduced at this point to compensate for these new burdens on the basic processes. This is treated in section 5. The cost of a design must be conveniently linked to its CAD representation. The interfacing of CAD models and spreadsheets containing the cost equations is the subject of the next section, section 6. The last section of the report is a summary of the progress made so far, and the anticipated research work to be achieved in the future.

Bao, Han P.; Freeman, William (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

364

Development of the Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic development of an engine inlet requires a comprehensive program of both wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. To save time and resources, much "testing" is done using CFD before any design ever enters a wind tunnel. The focus of my project this summer is on CFD analysis tool development. In particular, I am working to further develop the capabilities of the Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP). "PINDAP" is a collection of computational tools that allow for efficient and accurate design and analysis of the aerodynamics about and through inlets that can make use of a planar (two-dimensional or axisymmetric) geometric and flow assumption. PINDAP utilizes the WIND CFD flow solver, which is capable of simulating the turbulent, compressible flow field. My project this summer is a continuation of work that I performed for two previous summers. Two years ago, I used basic features of the PINDAP to design a Mach 5 hypersonic scramjet engine inlet and to demonstrate the feasibility of the PINDAP. The following summer, I worked to develop its geometry and grid generation capabilities to include subsonic and supersonic inlets, complete bodies and cowls, conic leading and trailing edges, as well as airfoils. These additions allowed for much more design flexibility when using the program.

Gruber, Christopher R.

2004-01-01

365

Moving bed biofilm reactor technology: process applications, design, and performance.  

PubMed

The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) can operate as a 2- (anoxic) or 3-(aerobic) phase system with buoyant free-moving plastic biofilm carriers. These systems can be used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, aquaculture, potable water denitrification, and, in roughing, secondary, tertiary, and sidestream applications. The system includes a submerged biofilm reactor and liquid-solids separation unit. The MBBR process benefits include the following: (1) capacity to meet treatment objectives similar to activated sludge systems with respect to carbon-oxidation and nitrogen removal, but requires a smaller tank volume than a clarifier-coupled activated sludge system; (2) biomass retention is clarifier-independent and solids loading to the liquid-solids separation unit is reduced significantly when compared with activated sludge systems; (3) the MBBR is a continuous-flow process that does not require a special operational cycle for biofilm thickness, L(F), control (e.g., biologically active filter backwashing); and (4) liquid-solids separation can be achieved with a variety of processes, including conventional and compact high-rate processes. Information related to system design is fragmented and poorly documented. This paper seeks to address this issue by summarizing state-of-the art MBBR design procedures and providing the reader with an overview of some commercially available systems and their components. PMID:21751715

McQuarrie, James P; Boltz, Joshua P

2011-06-01

366

Architecting Usability Properties in the E-Learning Instructional Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper advances a framework for architecting usability properties in the e-learning instructional design process. To understand the framework for architecting usability properties into the e-learning instructional design process, the following have been defined: instructional design process, e-learning instructional design process, usability…

Koohang, Alex; du Plessis, Jacques

2004-01-01

367

A process sequence design on the forming process of disk-brake piston  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design methodology is applied to manufacturing a disk-brake piston component. A rigid plastic finite element method is applied\\u000a to simulate the conventional four-stage manufacturing process and the one-step process from a selected stock to the final\\u000a product shape for information on metal flows. Two-stage forming operations with different punch corner and nose radii are\\u000a also simulated to identify the

Beong-Bok Hwang

1999-01-01

368

Analyzing patterns of writing and sketching in the product design process  

E-print Network

Design notebooks, or logbooks, are typically used to record notes during the design process. These notes consist of text entries as well as sketches with varying levels of detail. Previous research on the design process ...

Smith, Rebecca A. (Rebecca Anna)

2009-01-01

369

Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.  

PubMed

Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level. PMID:12141993

Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

2002-09-01

370

Safeguards design strategies: designing and constructing new uranium and plutonium processing facilities in the United States  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) is transforming its outdated and oversized complex of aging nuclear material facilities into a smaller, safer, and more secure National Security Enterprise (NSE). Environmental concerns, worker health and safety risks, material security, reducing the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy while maintaining the capability for an effective nuclear deterrence by the United States, are influencing this transformation. As part of the nation's Uranium Center of Excellence (UCE), the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, will advance the U.S.'s capability to meet all concerns when processing uranium and is located adjacent to the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF), designed for consolidated storage of enriched uranium. The HEUMF became operational in March 2010, and the UPF is currently entering its final design phase. The designs of both facilities are for meeting anticipated security challenges for the 21st century. For plutonium research, development, and manufacturing, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement (CMRR) building at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico is now under construction. The first phase of the CMRR Project is the design and construction of a Radiological Laboratory/Utility/Office Building. The second phase consists of the design and construction of the Nuclear Facility (NF). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) selected these two sites as part of the national plan to consolidate nuclear materials, provide for nuclear deterrence, and nonproliferation mission requirements. This work examines these two projects independent approaches to design requirements, and objectives for safeguards, security, and safety (3S) systems as well as the subsequent construction of these modern processing facilities. Emphasis is on the use of Safeguards-by-Design (SBD), incorporating Systems Engineering (SE) principles for these two projects.

Scherer, Carolynn P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Jon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-28

371

Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE). Volume 1: Design overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and implementation of a Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE), which is intended to become the support system software for a prototype high performance science analysis workstation are described. The target machine for this software is a JPL/Caltech Mark 3fp Hypercube hosted by either a MASSCOMP 5600 or a Sun-3, Sun-4 workstation; however, the design will accommodate other concurrent machines of similar architecture, i.e., local memory, multiple-instruction-multiple-data (MIMD) machines. The CIPE system provides both a multimode user interface and an applications programmer interface, and has been designed around four loosely coupled modules: user interface, host-resident executive, hypercube-resident executive, and application functions. The loose coupling between modules allows modification of a particular module without significantly affecting the other modules in the system. In order to enhance hypercube memory utilization and to allow expansion of image processing capabilities, a specialized program management method, incremental loading, was devised. To minimize data transfer between host and hypercube, a data management method which distributes, redistributes, and tracks data set information was implemented. The data management also allows data sharing among application programs. The CIPE software architecture provides a flexible environment for scientific analysis of complex remote sensing image data, such as planetary data and imaging spectrometry, utilizing state-of-the-art concurrent computation capabilities.

Lee, Meemong; Groom, Steven L.; Mazer, Alan S.; Williams, Winifred I.

1990-01-01

372

Compensation for Lithography Induced Process Variations during Physical Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses the challenge of designing robust integrated circuits in the deep sub micron regime in the presence of lithography process variability. By extending and combining existing process and circuit analysis techniques, flexible software frameworks are developed to provide detailed studies of circuit performance in the presence of lithography variations such as focus and exposure. Applications of these software frameworks to select circuits demonstrate the electrical impact of these variations and provide insight into variability aware compact models that capture the process dependent circuit behavior. These variability aware timing models abstract lithography variability from the process level to the circuit level and are used to estimate path level circuit performance with high accuracy with very little overhead in runtime. The Interconnect Variability Characterization (IVC) framework maps lithography induced geometrical variations at the interconnect level to electrical delay variations. This framework is applied to one dimensional repeater circuits patterned with both 90nm single patterning and 32nm double patterning technologies, under the presence of focus, exposure, and overlay variability. Studies indicate that single and double patterning layouts generally exhibit small variations in delay (between 1--3%) due to self compensating RC effects associated with dense layouts and overlay errors for layouts without self-compensating RC effects. The delay response of each double patterned interconnect structure is fit with a second order polynomial model with focus, exposure, and misalignment parameters with 12 coefficients and residuals of less than 0.1ps. The IVC framework is also applied to a repeater circuit with cascaded interconnect structures to emulate more complex layout scenarios, and it is observed that the variations on each segment average out to reduce the overall delay variation. The Standard Cell Variability Characterization (SCVC) framework advances existing layout-level lithography aware circuit analysis by extending it to cell-level applications utilizing a physically accurate approach that integrates process simulation, compact transistor models, and circuit simulation to characterize electrical cell behavior. This framework is applied to combinational and sequential cells in the Nangate 45nm Open Cell Library, and the timing response of these cells to lithography focus and exposure variations demonstrate Bossung like behavior. This behavior permits the process parameter dependent response to be captured in a nine term variability aware compact model based on Bossung fitting equations. For a two input NAND gate, the variability aware compact model captures the simulated response to an accuracy of 0.3%. The SCVC framework is also applied to investigate advanced process effects including misalignment and layout proximity. The abstraction of process variability from the layout level to the cell level opens up an entire new realm of circuit analysis and optimization and provides a foundation for path level variability analysis without the computationally expensive costs associated with joint process and circuit simulation. The SCVC framework is used with slight modification to illustrate the speedup and accuracy tradeoffs of using compact models. With variability aware compact models, the process dependent performance of a three stage logic circuit can be estimated to an accuracy of 0.7% with a speedup of over 50,000. Path level variability analysis also provides an accurate estimate (within 1%) of ring oscillator period in well under a second. Another significant advantage of variability aware compact models is that they can be easily incorporated into existing design methodologies for design optimization. This is demonstrated by applying cell swapping on a logic circuit to reduce the overall delay variability along a circuit path. By including these variability aware compact models in cell characterization libraries, design metrics such as circuit timing, power, area, and delay var

Chin, Eric Yiow-Bing

373

DESIGN OF A REAL-TIME DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AUDIO PROCESSING TECHNIQUE  

E-print Network

This thesis outlines the design of a real-time digital signal processing technique for pitch detection and analysis via spectral analysis. A sound’s musical pitch can be determined from its fundamental frequency, and a note that is said to be “out...

Jagielski, Christopher

2012-04-24

374

Dynamic simulation for IGCC process and control design  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulation analysis is a valuable tool that increases the understanding of unit interactions and control system performance in a complex integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant. The Sarlux integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant must simultaneously satisfy electrical power and refinery hydrogen and steam demands (trigeneration gasification). The plant`s gasifier, heat recovery, sulfur removal, hydrogen recovery and steam power generation units are highly integrated and require coordinated control. In this study, dynamic simulation provides insights into the behavior of the process and combined cycle units during normal and upset conditions. The dynamic simulation is used to design a control system that drives the gasifiers to satisfy power, steam and hydrogen demands before a load change or upset is detected by the syngas pressure controller. At the study conclusion, the model will demonstrate how the IGCC plant will respond to the contractual maximum load change rate and process upsets. The study tests the basic process and control system design during the project engineering phase to minimize startup troubleshooting and expensive field changes.

Depew, C.; Martinez, A. [Fluor Daniel, Irvine, CA (United States); Collodi, G.; Meloni, R. [Snamprogetti, Milan (Italy)

1998-01-01

375

The FEYNMAN tools for quantum information processing: Design and implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FEYNMAN tools have been re-designed with the goal to establish and implement a high-level (computer) language that is capable to deal with the physics of finite, n-qubit systems, from frequently required computations to mathematically advanced tasks in quantum information processing. In particular, emphasis has been placed to introduce a small but powerful set of keystring-driven commands in order to support both, symbolic and numerical computations. Though the current design is implemented again within the framework of MAPLE, it is general and flexible enough to be utilized and combined with other languages and computational environments. The present implementation facilitates a large number of computational tasks, including the definition, manipulation and parametrization of quantum states, the evaluation of quantum measures and quantum operations, the evolution of quantum noise in discrete models, quantum measurements and state estimation, and several others. The design is based on a few high-level commands, with a syntax close to the mathematical notation and its use in the literature, and which can be generalized quite readily in order to solve computational tasks at even higher degree of complexity. In this work, I present and discuss the (re-design of the) FEYNMAN tools and make major parts of the code available for public use. Moreover, a few selected examples are shown and demonstrate possible application of this toolbox. The FEYNMAN tools are provided as MAPLE library and can hence be used on all platforms on which this computer-algebra system is accessible.

Fritzsche, S.

2014-06-01

376

Design of electrochemical processes for treatment of unusual waste streams  

SciTech Connect

UCRL- JC- 129438 PREPRINT This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor the University of California nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or the University of California. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the University of California, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. Introduction. An overview of work done on the development of three electrochemical processes that meet the specific needs of low- level waste treatment is presented. These technologies include: mediated electrochemical oxidation [I- 4]; bipolar membrane electrodialysis [5]; and electrosorption of carbon aerogel electrodes [6- 9]. Design strategies are presented to assess the suitability of these electrochemical processes for Mediated electrochemical oxidation. Mixed wastes include both hazardous and radioactive components. It is desirable to reduce the overall volume of the waste before immobilization and disposal in repositories. While incineration is an attractive technique for the destruction of organic fractions of mixed wastes, such high-temperature thermal processes pose the threat of volatilizing various radionuclides. By destroying organics in the aqueous phase at low temperature and ambient pressure, the risk of volatilization can be reduced. One approach that is attractive is the use of eiectrochemically generated mediators such as Ag( ll), Co( Ill) and Fe( III). These oxidants react with organicsin Bipolar membrane electrodialysis. in the aqueous processing of nuclear materials, process steps arise that require the neutralization of an acidic stream with a strong base. Ultimately, these neutralized salt solutions become aqueous waste streams, requiring further treatment and disposal. By "splitting" such neutralized salt solutions into their acid and base components, the generation of aqueous mixed waste can be greatly reduced. At LLNL, a bipolar membrane electrodialysis cell has been used to separate neutral solutions of NaCl, NaNO1 and Na, SO, into product streams of NaOH, HCI, HNOj and H2S0,, which could be recycled. The eftlciency of this particular process will be discussed, as well as practical limitations of the technology. Basic principles of engineering design of such systems will be reviewed.

Farmer, J.C.

1998-01-01

377

Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description  

SciTech Connect

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

LANE, M.P.

1999-02-24

378

System Design for Data Processing in the Very Long Term  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Data Processing of huge amount of data requires a huge amount of disk space. This space is aimed at storing the input data coming from the Satellite Ground Segment, the auxiliary data and, obviously, the Output data. In total, we are talking of Terabytes. In addition, the space is dynamically increasing as new satellite data arrives to the Archiving facility. When designing a system that can cope with such a vast amount of information the designers take into consideration issues such as disk space and read/write speed for the current computations and current storage. But, what about the future? Scientifics perform processing and reprocessing campaigns, and the reprocessing can be done in several years. Technology progresses in a very fast manner and in a few years equipment is obsolete. So, scientists have the guarantee that the data is stored, but do scientists have the guarantee that they shall be able to access the data for reprocessing? Seems a trivial question, but it is not. The key fact is that the information might be stored, but must also be accessible for future reprocessing campaigns. If the reprocessing is to be done in 2 or three years, the issue is straightforward. But if we are talking about 10 years, then it is not so clear. This paper covers the approach that has been followed in the design of the Fire_CCI project and the technologies to be used, as well as how the time issue has been addressed so that future scientists (currently students) shall be able to access and process the data currently available in the system. Keywords: System Requirements, System Architectures, Long Term Archiving, Future Reprocessing

Gutiérrez Caballero, L. G.; Fernandez Cortizo, M.; Pacios Martinez, J.; Ibañez Casado, F.

2012-04-01

379

Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence  

SciTech Connect

Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

Neugebauer, R. [Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, Chemnitz (Germany); Professorship for Machine Tools and Forming Technology, TU Chemnitz (Germany); Schieck, F. [Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, Chemnitz (Germany); Rautenstrauch, A. [Professorship for Machine Tools and Forming Technology, TU Chemnitz (Germany)

2011-05-04

380

Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

2011-05-01

381

Less Clicking, More Watching: Results of the Iterative Design and Evaluation of Entertaining Web Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on a web application intended to provide an entertaining and engaging cultural experience for users is described. Initial discovery phase research, using user-centered design, suggested that such an application should be designed with a \\

Clare-Marie Karat; Claudio Pinhanez; John Karat; Renee Arora; John Vergo

2001-01-01

382

Working on the Boundaries: Philosophies and Practices of the Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While systems engineering process is a program formal management technique and contractually binding, the design process is the informal practice of achieving the design project requirements throughout all design phases of the systems engineering process. The design process and organization are systems and component dependent. Informal reviews include technical information meetings and concurrent engineering sessions, and formal technical discipline reviews are conducted through the systems engineering process. This paper discusses and references major philosophical principles in the design process, identifies its role in interacting systems and disciplines analyses and integrations, and illustrates the process application in experienced aerostructural designs.

Ryan, R.; Blair, J.; Townsend, J.; Verderaime, V.

1996-01-01

383

Using instructional design process to improve design and development of Internet interventions.  

PubMed

Given the wide reach and extensive capabilities of the Internet, it is increasingly being used to deliver comprehensive behavioral and mental health intervention and prevention programs. Their goals are to change user behavior, reduce unwanted complications or symptoms, and improve health status and health-related quality of life. Internet interventions have been found efficacious in addressing a wide range of behavioral and mental health problems, including insomnia, nicotine dependence, obesity, diabetes, depression, and anxiety. Despite the existence of many Internet-based interventions, there is little research to inform their design and development. A model for behavior change in Internet interventions has been published to help guide future Internet intervention development and to help predict and explain behavior changes and symptom improvement outcomes through the use of Internet interventions. An argument is made for grounding the development of Internet interventions within a scientific framework. To that end, the model highlights a multitude of design-related components, areas, and elements, including user characteristics, environment, intervention content, level of intervention support, and targeted outcomes. However, more discussion is needed regarding how the design of the program should be developed to address these issues. While there is little research on the design and development of Internet interventions, there is a rich, related literature in the field of instructional design (ID) that can be used to inform Internet intervention development. ID models are prescriptive models that describe a set of activities involved in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of instructional programs. Using ID process models has been shown to increase the effectiveness of learning programs in a broad range of contexts. ID models specify a systematic method for assessing the needs of learners (intervention users) to determine the gaps between current knowledge and behaviors, and desired outcomes. Through the ID process, designers focus on the needs of learners, taking into account their prior knowledge; set measurable learning objectives or performance requirements; assess learners' achievement of the targeted outcomes; and employ cycles of continuous formative evaluation to ensure that the intervention meets the needs of all stakeholders. The ID process offers a proven methodology for the design of instructional programs and should be considered an integral part of the creation of Internet interventions. By providing a framework for the design and development of Internet interventions and by purposefully focusing on these aspects, as well as the underlying theories supporting these practices, both the theories and the interventions themselves can continue to be refined and improved. By using the behavior change model for Internet interventions along with the best research available to guide design practice and inform development, developers of Internet interventions will increase their ability to achieve desired outcomes. PMID:22743534

Hilgart, Michelle M; Ritterband, Lee M; Thorndike, Frances P; Kinzie, Mable B

2012-01-01

384

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-11-01

385

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-01-01

386

Preliminary Process Design of ITER ELM Coil Bracket Brazing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the technical requirement of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, the manufacture and assembly technology of the mid Edge Localized Modes (ELM) coil was developed by the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (ASIPP). As the gap between the bracket and the Stainless Steel jacketed and Mineral Insulated Conductor (SSMIC) can be larger than 0.5 mm instead of 0.01 mm to 0.1 mm as in normal industrial cases, the process of mid ELM coil bracket brazing to the SSMICT becomes quiet challenging, from a technical viewpoint. This paper described the preliminary design of ELM coil bracket brazing to the SSMIC process, the optimal bracket brazing curve and the thermal simulation of the bracket furnace brazing method developed by ANSYS. BAg-6 foil (Bag50Cu34Zn16) plus BAg-1a paste (Bag45CuZnCd) solders were chosen as the brazing filler. By testing an SSMICT prototype, it is shown that the average gap between the bracket and the SSMIC could be controlled to 0.2-0.3 mm, and that there were few voids in the brazing surface. The results also verified that the preliminary design had a favorable heat conducting performance in the bracket.

LI, Xiangbin; SHI, Yi

2015-03-01

387

Design, processing, and testing of lsi arrays for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a MOS 256-bit Random Access Memory (RAM) is discussed. Technological achievements comprise computer simulations that accurately predict performance; aluminum-gate COS/MOS devices including a 256-bit RAM with current sensing; and a silicon-gate process that is being used in the construction of a 256-bit RAM with voltage sensing. The Si-gate process increases speed by reducing the overlap capacitance between gate and source-drain, thus reducing the crossover capacitance and allowing shorter interconnections. The design of a Si-gate RAM, which is pin-for-pin compatible with an RCA bulk silicon COS/MOS memory (type TA 5974), is discussed in full. The Integrated Circuit Tester (ICT) is limited to dc evaluation, but the diagnostics and data collecting are under computer control. The Silicon-on-Sapphire Memory Evaluator (SOS-ME, previously called SOS Memory Exerciser) measures power supply drain and performs a minimum number of tests to establish operation of the memory devices. The Macrodata MD-100 is a microprogrammable tester which has capabilities of extensive testing at speeds up to 5 MHz. Beam-lead technology was successfully integrated with SOS technology to make a simple device with beam leads. This device and the scribing are discussed.

Lile, W. R.; Hollingsworth, R. J.

1972-01-01

388

Software Design Improvements. Part 2; Software Quality and the Design and Inspection Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of assurance engineering techniques improves the duration of failure-free performance of software. The totality of features and characteristics of a software product are what determine its ability to satisfy customer needs. Software in safety-critical systems is very important to NASA. We follow the System Safety Working Groups definition for system safety software as: 'The optimization of system safety in the design, development, use and maintenance of software and its integration with safety-critical systems in an operational environment. 'If it is not safe, say so' has become our motto. This paper goes over methods that have been used by NASA to make software design improvements by focusing on software quality and the design and inspection process.

Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.; Ziemianski, Tom

1997-01-01

389

Design of a Small Scale High Temperature Gas Loop for Process Heat Exchanger Design Tests  

SciTech Connect

We designed a small scale gas loop that can simulate reference operating conditions, that is, a temperature up to 950 deg C and a pressure up to 6 MPa. Main objective of the loop is to screen the candidate process-heat-exchanger designs of a very small capacity of 10 {approx} 20 kW. We arranged the components of a primary gas loop and a secondary SO{sub 3} loop. Design requirements are prepared for the safe design of a main heater, a hot-gas-duct and a process heat exchanger that avoid a risk of a failure owing to thermal stresses, a flow-induced vibration or an acoustic vibration in both nitrogen and helium mediums. In the primary and secondary loops, the hot-gas-ducts are internally insulated by a ceramic fiber insulation material to protect the pressure housing from high gas temperatures. We determined a total pressure loss of the primary loop to be 66 kPa and the minimum outer diameter of the loop pressure pipe to be 90 mm at a hot location that will prevent a thermal failure. Very toxic SO{sub 3} secondary loop is needed a scrubber and a SO{sub 3} collector for safety and preventing a contamination of the environment. (authors)

SungDeok, Hong; DongSeok, Oh; WonJae, Lee; JongHwa, Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

390

Failure mode and effects analysis : An integrated approach for product design and process control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the implementation of failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) for both product design and process control. FMEA is implemented in two ways to ensure that the reliability requirements are met for the production of an airbag inflator. Design FMEA is performed to generate a process control plan, visual aids, and a process verification list. Design FMEA and process FMEA

1996-01-01

391

Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1997-01-01

392

Modern process designs for very high NGL recovery  

SciTech Connect

Typical margins between NGL and sales gas can justify consideration of very high NGL recovery from natural gas but traditionally, very high percentage recovery of propane or ethane has led to disproportionally high incremental power consumption and hence expensive compressors. Recent technical advances in the process design of cryogenic gas processing plants and in the equipment they se have led to a new breed of flowsheets that can cost-effectively give propane recoveries of as high as 99%. The high NGL recovery achievable with modern plants is economically possible due to their high thermodynamic efficiency. This is mainly because they use the refrigeration available from the process more effectively and so recover more NGL. A high pressure rectification step can further improve NGL recovery economically, especially on larger plants. This residual NGL content would normally remain in the sales gas on a conventional turboexpander plant. Improved recovery of NGL can be obtained with little or no increase in sales gas compression power compared to conventional plants by judicious use of heat exchanger area. With high feed gas pressure and particularly with dense phase operation, the use of two expanders in series for feed gas let-down gives good process efficiency and relatively low specific power per ton of NGL recovered. Use of two expanders also avoids excessive liquid flows in the expander exhaust, thus improving the performance and reliability of the turboexpander system. The techniques discussed in the paper can be employed on revamps to improve NGL recovery. Improved process performance relies heavily on the use of efficient, multistream plant-fin exchangers and these can be easily added to an existing facility to increase NGL production.

Finn, A.J.; Tomlinson, T.R.; Johnson, G.L.

1999-07-01

393

Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design Process: Evolution and Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design team is responsible for defining a launch to orbit trajectory profile that satisfies all programmatic mission objectives and defines the ground and onboard reconfiguration requirements for this high-speed and demanding flight phase. This design, verification and reconfiguration process ensures that all applicable mission scenarios are enveloped within integrated vehicle and spacecraft certification constraints and criteria, and includes the design of the nominal ascent profile and trajectory profiles for both uphill and ground-to-ground aborts. The team also develops a wide array of associated training, avionics flight software verification, onboard crew and operations facility products. These key ground and onboard products provide the ultimate users and operators the necessary insight and situational awareness for trajectory dynamics, performance and event sequences, abort mode boundaries and moding, flight performance and impact predictions for launch vehicle stages for use in range safety, and flight software performance. These products also provide the necessary insight to or reconfiguration of communications and tracking systems, launch collision avoidance requirements, and day of launch crew targeting and onboard guidance, navigation and flight control updates that incorporate the final vehicle configuration and environment conditions for the mission. Over the course of the Space Shuttle Program, ascent trajectory design and mission planning has evolved in order to improve program flexibility and reduce cost, while maintaining outstanding data quality. Along the way, the team has implemented innovative solutions and technologies in order to overcome significant challenges. A number of these solutions may have applicability to future human spaceflight programs.

Picka, Bret A.; Glenn, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

394

Climate Monitoring Satellite Designed in a Concurrent Engineering Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective method of detecting Green House Gases (GHG CO2 and CH4) is using satellites, operating in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Satellite based greenhouse gas emissions monitoring is challenging and shows an ambitions level of requirements. Until now for corresponding scientific payload it is common to use a purpose-built satellite bus, or to install the payload on board of a larger conventional satellite. These approaches fulfils all customer requirements but could be critical from a financial point of view. Between 2014 and 2020, no space-based CH4 detection and if at all limited CO2 detection capabilities are planned internationally. In order to fill this gap the Institute for Environmental Physics (IUP) of the University of Bremen plans a GHG satellite mission with near-surface sensitivity called "CarbonSat". It shall perform synchronous global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 observations with the accuracy, precision and coverage needed to significantly advance our knowledge about the sources and sinks of Green House Gases. In order to verify technical and financial opportunities of a small satellite a Concurrent Engi-neering Study (CE-study) has been performed at DLR Bremen, Germany. To reuse knowledge in compact satellite design, the Compact/SSB (Standard Satellite Bus) was chosen as baseline design. The SSB has been developed by DLR and was already used for BIRD (Bispectral Infra-Red Detection) mission but also adapted to the ongoing missions like TET (Technologie-Erprobungs-Trüger) or AsteroidFinder. This paper deals with the highly effective design process a within the DLR-CE-Facility and with the outcomes of the CE-study. It gives an overview of the design status as well as an outlook for comparable missions.

Bauer, Waldemar; Braukhane, A.; Quantius, D.; Dumont, E.; Grundmann, J. T.; Romberg, O.

395

Materials, design and processing of air encapsulated MEMS packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work uses a three-dimensional air cavity technology to improve the fabrication, and functionality of microelectronics devices, performance of on-board transmission lines, and packaging of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). The air cavity process makes use of the decomposition of a patterned sacrificial polymer followed by the diffusion of its by-products through a curing polymer overcoat to obtain the embedded air structure. Applications and research of air cavities have focused on simple designs that concentrate on the size and functionality of the particular device. However, a lack of guidelines for fabrication, materials used, and structural design has led to mechanical stability issues and processing refinements. This work investigates improved air gap cavities for use in MEMS packaging processes, resulting in fewer fabrication flaws and lower cost. The identification of new materials, such as novel photo-definable organic/inorganic hybrid polymers, was studied for increased strength and rigidity due to their glass-like structure. A novel epoxy polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) material was investigated and characterized for use as a photodefineable, permanent dielectrics with improved mechanical properties. The POSS material improved the air gap fabrication because it served as a high-selectivity etch mask for patterning sacrificial materials as well as a cavity overcoat material with improved rigidity. An investigation of overcoat thickness and decomposition kinetics provided a fundamental understanding of the properties that impart mechanical stability to cavities of different shape and volume. Metallization of the cavities was investigated so as to provide hermetic sealing and improved cavity strength. The improved air cavity, wafer-level packages were tested using resonator-type devices and chip-level lead frame packaging. The air cavity package was molded under traditional lead frame molding pressures and tested for mechanical integrity. The development of mechanical models complimented the experimental studies. A model of the overcoat materials used the film properties and elastic deformations to study the stress-strain behavior of the suspended dielectric films under external forces. The experimental molding tests and mechanical models were used to establish processing conditions and physical designs for the cavities as a function of cavity size. A novel, metal-free chip package was investigated combining the in-situ thermal decomposition of the sacrificial material during post-mold curing of the lead frame molding compound. Sacrificial materials were characterized for their degree of decomposition during the molding cure to provide a chip package with improved mechanical support and no size restrictions. Improvements to the air cavities for MEMS packaging led to investigations and refinements of other microfabrication processes. The sacrificial polycarbonate materials were shown to be useful as temporary bonding materials for wafer-level bonding. The release temperature and conditions of the processed wafer can be changed based on the polycarbonates formulation. The electroless deposition of metal was investigated as an alternative process for metalizing the air cavities. The deposition of silver and copper using a Sn/Ag catalyst as a replacement for costly palladium activation was demonstrated. The electroless deposition was tested on polymer and silicon dioxide surfaces for organic boards and through-silicon vias.

Fritz, Nathan T.

396

Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

2014-08-05

397

From Safe Nanomanufacturing to Nanosafe-by-Design processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial needs in terms of multifunctional components are increasing. Many sectors are concerned, from the integrated direct nanoparticles production to the emerging combinations which include the metal matrix composites (MMC), ductile ceramics and ceramic matrix composites, polymer matrix composites (PMC) for bulk application and advanced surface coatings in the fields of automotive, aerospace, energy production and building applications. Moreover, domains with a planetary impact such as environmental issues, as well as aspects for instance health (toxicity) and hazard assessment (ignition and explosion severity) were also taken into account. Nanotechnologies play an important role in promoting innovation in design and realization of multifunctional products for the future, either by improving usual products or creating new functions and/or new products. Nevertheless, this huge evolution in terms of materials could only be promoted by increasing the social acceptance and by acting on the different main technological and economic challenges and developing safe oriented processes. Nowadays, a huge number of developments of nanoparticles are potentially industrial up-scalable. However, some doubts exist about the handling's safety of the current technologies. For these reasons, the main purpose was to develop a self-monitored automation in the production line coupling different techniques in order to simplify processes such as in-situ growth nanoparticles into a nanostructured matrix, over different substrates and/or the nanopowders synthesis, functionalization, dry or wet safe recovery system, granulation, consolidation in single-step, by monitoring at real time the processing parameters such as powder stoichiometry. With the aim of assuring the traceability of the product during the whole life, starting from the conception and including the R&D, the distribution and the use were also considered. The optimization in terms of processing, recovery and conditioning, permits to increase its versatility, thus leading to the increase of the added value to the production. This review put in evidence -by different examples- the progress achieved since the beginning of Nanosafe integrated initiative developed by CEA and its partners as well as promoting, firstly the safety at work place, and then extending to an integrated and controlled in-situ production by of Nanosafe-by-Design controlled processes.

Schuster, F.; Lomello, F.

2013-04-01

398

(New process modeling, design and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality and improved productivity in the process industries)  

SciTech Connect

Highlights are reported of work to date on: resilient design and control of chemical reactors (polymerization, packed bed), operation of complex processing systems (compensators for multivariable systems with delays and Right Half Plane zeroes, process identification and controller design for multivariable systems, nonlinear systems control, distributed parameter systems), and computer-aided design software (CONSYD, POLYRED, expert systems). 15 figs, 54 refs. (DLC)

Not Available

1991-01-01

399

[New process modeling, design and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality and improved productivity in the process industries  

SciTech Connect

Highlights are reported of work to date on: resilient design and control of chemical reactors (polymerization, packed bed), operation of complex processing systems (compensators for multivariable systems with delays and Right Half Plane zeroes, process identification and controller design for multivariable systems, nonlinear systems control, distributed parameter systems), and computer-aided design software (CONSYD, POLYRED, expert systems). 15 figs, 54 refs. (DLC)

Not Available

1991-12-31

400

23 CFR 636.109 - How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process...actions are taken, and that design-build proposers do not...a significant change in the proposal, and that the amount payable by the contracting agency to the design-builder does not...

2013-04-01

401

23 CFR 636.109 - How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process...actions are taken, and that design-build proposers do not...a significant change in the proposal, and that the amount payable by the contracting agency to the design-builder does not...

2012-04-01

402

23 CFR 636.109 - How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process...actions are taken, and that design-build proposers do not...a significant change in the proposal, and that the amount payable by the contracting agency to the design-builder does not...

2014-04-01

403

23 CFR 636.109 - How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with respect to the design-build procurement process...proposers of the general status of NEPA review; ...proposers of the general status of the NEPA process...Proceed with the award of a design-build contract prior...with final design and construction for any projects,...

2010-04-01

404

On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes  

SciTech Connect

This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study.

Xanthopoulos, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Laboratory of Statistics and Quantitative Analysis, Industrial Management Division, P.O. Box 461, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Iakovou, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Laboratory of Statistics and Quantitative Analysis, Industrial Management Division, P.O. Box 461, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: eiakovou@auth.gr

2009-05-15

405

Data Quality Objectives Process for Designation of K Basins Debris  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a schedule and approach for the removal of spent fuels, sludge, and debris from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins, located in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site. The project that is the subject of this data quality objective (DQO) process is focused on the removal of debris from the K Basins and onsite disposal of the debris at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material previously has been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) or Central Waste Complex (CWC). The goal of this DQO process and the resulting Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is to provide the strategy for characterizing and designating the K-Basin debris to determine if it meets the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), Revision 3 (BHI 1998). A critical part of the DQO process is to agree on regulatory and WAC interpretation, to support preparation of the DQO workbook and SAP.

WESTCOTT, J.L.

2000-05-22

406

On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes.  

PubMed

This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study. PMID:19138507

Xanthopoulos, A; Iakovou, E

2009-05-01

407

Integrating Science into Design Technology Projects: Using a Standard Model in the Design Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Technology education at the elementary and middle school levels has been undergoing major revisions in recent years. There are currently a variety of pedagogical approaches to introduce elementary and middle school students to the processes and content of technological know-how and knowledge. These approaches span a range from a completely open-ended design challenge to a tightly structured, lengthy curriculum program. Given that there is an on-going debate about the nature of technology education and that current practices may be seen as transitional in nature, there are shortcomings in these practices that need to be addressed. One problem shared with other domains, such as science and mathematics, is a lack of depth. There is a need to balance the making of models or products with critical thinking. In addition, it is recognized that basic science knowledge would enrich and result in a more effective design process, at least in some areas of engineering technology. Given the time constraints of elementary and middle school teachers, this possible enrichment tends to be neglected. Coming at this from the other direction are science curriculum programs and teachers who recognize the highly motivating aspects of design problems. They tend to emphasize the inquiry process over the design process. What could be a mutually reinforcing and rich undertaking, where inquiry and design are dealt with in-depth, currently tends to be a situation where both are slighted. I will propose a pedagogical model that attempts to address this issue by advocating a special type of integration. This will be illustrated by a case study of a 4th grade class building and investigating a model windmill. I will illustrate how the introduction of what I call a "standard model" can be used to help students develop some basic scientific understanding, which can then be applied to making a more effective design. I will also discuss some issues of implementation that need to be addressed if such an approach is adopted. Target Audience: General Public

Zubrowski, Bernard

408

The Effect of Alternative Approaches to Design Instruction (Structural or Functional) on Students' Mental Models of Technological Design Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aimed to examine the relationship between alternative approaches towards problem solving/design teaching (structural or functional), students' mental modeling of the design process, and the quality of their solutions to design tasks. The "structural" approach emphasizes the need for an ordered and systematic learning of the design

Mioduser, David; Dagan, Osnat

2007-01-01

409

Adapting the Engineering Design Process for Elementary Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kindergarten through fifth grade students are uniquely challenged each and every day they attend Douglas L. Jamerson, Jr. Center for Mathematics and Engineering (DLJCME). As a new elementary school in the Pinellas County (FL) School District, in 2003-2004, Jamersons administration and staff have been charged with the task of building an elementary school with a math and engineering focus. After one academic year, Jamerson is well on its way. The school is recognized by the United States Department of Education as a Center for Mathematics and Engineering for Elementary Education. The mission for DLJCME is to promote, facilitate, and improve the use of mathematics and the understanding of science among its students by integrating mathematics, science, and engineering design within every subject and across each grade level at Jamerson Elementary. D.L. Jamersons overarching goal is to present required standards-based curriculum as a learning adventure that is enriched by applying engineering skills (integrated knowledge of mathematics, science, language, history, and the arts) for problem solving and higher order thinking at the appropriate level in all classrooms and subjects. The execution of its curriculum is not the production of a collection of miniature things like pyramids or volcanoes. Nor are Jamerson students in the gadget, robot, widget, and/or thing-a-majig creation business. DLJCME uses the engineering design process and its associated engineering projects as the foundation of an instructional strategy to help its students gain important conceptual understandings as well as develop secure problem solving skills. At Jamerson, design activities emphasize design challenges that rely on mathematics and science skills also being taught at each grade level as well as any relevant knowledge and skills developed, learned, and secured in earlier grades. This approach prompts inquiry and analysis as well as discourse among students and teachers. It also leads to project concept closure which is seldom accomplished in many trial and error design efforts. A vision of the schoolwide curriculum is illustrated in Figure 1, which was developed by the Douglas L. Jamerson Core Team during its early goal setting workshops before the school officially opened.

Barger, Marilyn

410

A qualitative study of the design process: the effects of a microcomputing system on beginning design students  

E-print Network

A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF THE DESIGN PROCESS: THE EFFECTS OF A MICRO COMPUTING SYSTEM ON BEGINNING DESIGN STUDENTS A Thesis by GAYLE YVONNE AYERS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASSAM University in pardal fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Visualization Sciences A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF THE DESIGN PROCESS: THE ~S OF A MICRO COMPUTING SYSTEM ON BEGINNING DESIGN STUDENTS A Thesis by GAYLE YVONNE AYERS Approved...

Ayers, Gayle Yvonne

1992-01-01

411

An advanced microcomputer design for processing of semiconductor materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Get Away Special 330 payload two germanium samples doped with gallium will be processed. The aim of the experiments is to create a planar solid/liquid interface, and to study the breakdown of this interface as the crystal growth rate increases. For the experiments a gradient furnace was designed which is heated by resistive heaters. Cooling is provided by circulating gas from the atmosphere in the cannister through cooling channels in the furnace. The temperature along the sample are measured by platinum/rhodium thermocouples. The furnace is controlled by a microcomputer system, based upon the processor 80C88. A data acquisition system is integrated into the system. In order to synchronize the different actions in time, a multitask manager is used.

Bjoern, L.; Lindkvist, L.; Zaar, J.

1988-01-01

412

fMRI paradigm designing and post-processing tools  

PubMed Central

In this article, we first review some aspects of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm designing for major cognitive functions by using stimulus delivery systems like Cogent, E-Prime, Presentation, etc., along with their technical aspects. We also review the stimulus presentation possibilities (block, event-related) for visual or auditory paradigms and their advantage in both clinical and research setting. The second part mainly focus on various fMRI data post-processing tools such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and Brain Voyager, and discuss the particulars of various preprocessing steps involved (realignment, co-registration, normalization, smoothing) in these software and also the statistical analysis principles of General Linear Modeling for final interpretation of a functional activation result. PMID:24851001

James, Jija S; Rajesh, PG; Chandran, Anuvitha VS; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

2014-01-01

413

GENERAL: Planar ion chip design for scalable quantum information processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a planar ion chip design with a two-dimensional array of linear ion traps for scalable quantum information processing. Qubits are formed from the internal electronic states of trapped 40Ca+ ions. The segmented electrodes reside in a single plane on a substrate and a grounded metal plate separately, a combination of appropriate rf and DC potentials is applied to them for stable ion confinement. Every two adjacent electrodes can generate a linear ion trap in and between the electrodes above the chip at a distance dependent on the geometrical scale and other considerations. The potential distributions are calculated by using a static electric field qualitatively. This architecture provides a conceptually simple avenue to achieving the microfabrication and large-scale quantum computation based on the arrays of trapped ions.

Wan, Jin-Yin; Wang, Yu-Zhu; Liu, Liang

2008-10-01

414

Identifying User Needs and the Participative Design Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the number of persons with dementia increases and also the demands on care and support at home, additional solutions to support persons with dementia are needed. The COGKNOW project aims to develop an integrated, user-driven cognitive prosthetic device to help persons with dementia. The project focuses on support in the areas of memory, social contact, daily living activities and feelings of safety. The design process is user-participatory and consists of iterative cycles at three test sites across Europe. In the first cycle persons with dementia and their carers (n = 17) actively participated in the developmental process. Based on their priorities of needs and solutions, on their disabilities and after discussion between the team, a top four list of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions was made and now serves as the basis for development: in the area of remembering - day and time orientation support, find mobile service and reminding service, in the area of social contact - telephone support by picture dialling, in the area of daily activities - media control support through a music playback and radio function, and finally, in the area of safety - a warning service to indicate when the front door is open and an emergency contact service to enhance feelings of safety. The results of this first project phase show that, in general, the people with mild dementia as well as their carers were able to express and prioritize their (unmet) needs, and the kind of technological assistance they preferred in the selected areas. In next phases it will be tested if the user-participatory design and multidisciplinary approach employed in the COGKNOW project result in a user-friendly, useful device that positively impacts the autonomy and quality of life of persons with dementia and their carers.

Meiland, Franka; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta; Andersson, Anna-Lena

415

The Building Bridges Project: Involving Older Adults in the Design of a Communication Technology to Support Peer-to-Peer Social Engagement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a variety of factors that can lead to social isolation and loneliness in old age, including decline in physical and mental health, as well as change to social environment. The Building Bridges project explores how communication technology can help older adults remain socially connected. This paper will first provide an overview of a prototype communication system designed to support peer-to-peer group interaction. A description of the user-centered design process will be provided to demonstrate the importance of involving older adults at the earliest stages. The implications for designing new technology for older adults are discussed.

Wherton, Joseph; Prendergast, David

416

Design process for NIF laser alignment and beam diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

In a controller for an adaptive optic system designed to correct phase aberrations in a high power laser, the wavefront sensor is a discrete Hartmann-Shack design. It uses an army of lenslets (like a fly` s eye) to focus the laser into 77 spots on a CCD camera. Average local tilt of the wavefront across each lenslet changes the position of its focal spot. The system requires 0.1 pixel accuracy in determining the focal spot location. We determine a small area around each spot` s previous location. Within this area, we calculate the centroid of the light intensity in x and y. This calculation fails if the spot regions overlap. Especially during initial acquisition of a highly distorted beam, distinguishing overlapping spots is difficult. However, low resolution analysis of the overlapping spots allows the system to estimate their positions. With this estimate, it can use the deformable mirror to correct the beam enough so we can detect the spots using conventional image processing.

Grey, A., LLNL

1998-06-09

417

Process and reactor design for biophotolytic hydrogen production.  

PubMed

The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has the ability to produce molecular hydrogen (H2), a clean and renewable fuel, through the biophotolysis of water under sulphur-deprived anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to advance the development of a practical and scalable biophotolytic H2 production process. Experiments were carried out using a purpose-built flat-plate photobioreactor, designed to facilitate green algal H2 production at the laboratory scale and equipped with a membrane-inlet mass spectrometry system to accurately measure H2 production rates in real time. The nutrient control method of sulphur deprivation was used to achieve spontaneous H2 production following algal growth. Sulphur dilution and sulphur feed techniques were used to extend algal lifetime in order to increase the duration of H2 production. The sulphur dilution technique proved effective at encouraging cyclic H2 production, resulting in alternating Chlamydomonas reinhardtii recovery and H2 production stages. The sulphur feed technique enabled photobioreactor operation in chemostat mode, resulting in a small improvement in H2 production duration. A conceptual design for a large-scale photobioreactor was proposed based on these experimental results. This photobioreactor has the capacity to enable continuous and economical H2 and biomass production using green algae. The success of these complementary approaches demonstrate that engineering advances can lead to improvements in the scalability and affordability of biophotolytic H2 production, giving increased confidence that H2 can fulfil its potential as a sustainable fuel of the future. PMID:23689756

Tamburic, Bojan; Dechatiwongse, Pongsathorn; Zemichael, Fessehaye W; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Hellgardt, Klaus

2013-07-14

418

Design Process of an Area-Efficient Photobioreactor  

PubMed Central

This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such intensities that the light energy can be efficiently used for biomass formation. A statement of goals is formulated and constraints are specified to which the GSC needs to comply. Specifications are generated for a prototype which form and function achieve the stated goals and satisfy the specified constraints. This results in a design in which sunlight is captured into vertical plastic light guides. Sunlight reflects internally in the guide and eventually scatters out of the light guide into flat-panel photobioreactor compartments. Sunlight is focused on top of the light guides by dual-axis positioning of linear Fresnel lenses. The shape and material of the light guide is such that light is maintained in the guides when surrounded by air. The bottom part of a light guide is sandblasted to obtain a more uniform distribution of light inside the bioreactor compartment and is triangular shaped to ensure the efflux of all light out of the guide. Dimensions of the guide are such that light enters the flat-panel photobioreactor compartment at intensities that can be efficiently used by the biomass present. The integration of light capturing, transportation, distribution and usage is such that high biomass productivities per area can be achieved. PMID:18266033

Janssen, Marcel; Tramper, Johannes; Wijffels, René H.

2008-01-01

419

Design process of an area-efficient photobioreactor.  

PubMed

This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such intensities that the light energy can be efficiently used for biomass formation. A statement of goals is formulated and constraints are specified to which the GSC needs to comply. Specifications are generated for a prototype which form and function achieve the stated goals and satisfy the specified constraints. This results in a design in which sunlight is captured into vertical plastic light guides. Sunlight reflects internally in the guide and eventually scatters out of the light guide into flat-panel photobioreactor compartments. Sunlight is focused on top of the light guides by dual-axis positioning of linear Fresnel lenses. The shape and material of the light guide is such that light is maintained in the guides when surrounded by air. The bottom part of a light guide is sandblasted to obtain a more uniform distribution of light inside the bioreactor compartment and is triangular shaped to ensure the efflux of all light out of the guide. Dimensions of the guide are such that light enters the flat-panel photobioreactor compartment at intensities that can be efficiently used by the biomass present. The integration of light capturing, transportation, distribution and usage is such that high biomass productivities per area can be achieved. PMID:18266033

Zijffers, Jan-Willem F; Janssen, Marcel; Tramper, Johannes; Wijffels, René H

2008-01-01

420

Project HealthDesign: rethinking the power and potential of personal health records.  

PubMed

Project HealthDesign, a multi-year, multi-site project sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation with additional support from the California HealthCare Foundation, is designed to stimulate innovation in personal health records (PHRs). Project HealthDesign teams employed user-centered design processes to create designs and prototypes of computer-based applications to support and enhance human health for a wide range of patients, from children with chronic health conditions to elders transitioning from hospital to home. A program design philosophy encouraged designers to envision PHRs as a suite of personal health information management tools, or applications, separate from, but drawing upon, personal health data from a variety of sources. In addition to information contained in one's medical record, these personal health data included patient-supplied clinical parameters such as blood glucose and daily weights; as well as patient-generated observations of daily living (ODLs) - the unique, idiosyncratic cues, such as sleep adequacy or confidence in self care, that inform patients about their abilities to manage health challenges and take healthy action. A common technical platform provided infrastructure services such as data standards and identity-management protocols, and helped to demonstrate a scalable, efficient approach to user-centered design of personal health information management systems. The program's ethical, legal and social issues consultancy identified challenges to acceleration of action-focused PHRs: personal control of privacy choices, management of privacy in home conditions, and rebalancing power structures in shared decision making. PMID:20937482

Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Downs, Stephen; Casper, Gail

2010-10-01

421

Using experimental design modules for process characterization in manufacturing/materials processes laboratories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modules dealing with statistical experimental design (SED), process modeling and improvement, and response surface methods have been developed and tested in two laboratory courses. One course was a manufacturing processes course in Mechanical Engineering and the other course was a materials processing course in Materials Science and Engineering. Each module is used as an 'experiment' in the course with the intent that subsequent course experiments will use SED methods for analysis and interpretation of data. Evaluation of the modules' effectiveness has been done by both survey questionnaires and inclusion of the module methodology in course examination questions. Results of the evaluation have been very positive. Those evaluation results and details of the modules' content and implementation are presented. The modules represent an important component for updating laboratory instruction and to provide training in quality for improved engineering practice.

Ankenman, Bruce; Ermer, Donald; Clum, James A.

1994-01-01

422

Process design applied to optimise a directly compressible powder produced via a continuous manufacturing process.  

PubMed

Manufacturing of 'ready-to-compress' powder mixtures for direct compression was performed by spray drying, without granulation, milling and/or blending steps in between spray drying and compaction. Powder mixtures containing acetaminophen, mannitol, erythritol, maltodextrin, crospovidone, colloidal silicon dioxide and polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monooleate were prepared via co-spray drying. A feed suspension having a solid content of 27.2% w/w was selected for further process optimisation because of its high process yield, excellent flowability and short tablet disintegration time. Experimental design was applied to evaluate processibility, physico-chemical properties and compactability of the spray dried powder mixtures. Significant and adequate regression models were developed for powder flowability, median particle size, bulk density, residual moisture content and process yield. An increasing inlet and outlet drying air temperature improved process yield. However, a higher inlet drying air temperature had a negative influence on density and moisture content, while the latter decreased at higher outlet drying air temperatures. Median particle size increased with a higher inlet temperature, while the outlet temperature had the opposite affect. Numerical optimisation determined the optimal spray drying process (inlet temperature: 221 degrees C, outlet temperature: 81 degrees C and atomisation pressure: 6 bar) in order to produce 'ready-to-compress' powder mixtures. PMID:17964129

Gonnissen, Y; Gonçalves, S I V; De Geest, B G; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

2008-03-01

423

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO ENHANCE AND ENCOURAGE SUSTAINABLE CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an opportunity to minimize the potential environmental impacts (PEIs) of industrial chemical processes by providing process designers with timely data nad models elucidating environmentally favorable design options. The second generation of the Waste Reduction (WAR) algo...

424

The bioinspired design process : according to project complexity and motivation  

E-print Network

Taking cues from natural creatures and systems is becoming a more widely used technique in engineering design. This design philosophy or technique is referred to as bioinspired design or biomimicry. Prior art has focused ...

Obert, Emily

2013-01-01

425

HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by PBMR (Pty.) Ltd. in the RSA, with the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the US as part of the NHI. This work was performed by SRNL, Westinghouse Electric Company, Shaw, PBMR (Pty) Ltd., and Technology Insights under a Technical Consulting Agreement (TCA). Westinghouse Electric, serving as the lead for the PBMR process heat application team, established a cost-shared TCA with SRNL to prepare an updated HyS thermochemical water-splitting process flowsheet, a nuclear hydrogen plant preconceptual design and a cost estimate, including the cost of hydrogen production. SRNL was funded by DOE under the NHI program, and the Westinghouse team was self-funded. The results of this work are presented in this Final Report. Appendices have been attached to provide a detailed source of information in order to document the work under the TCA contract.

Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

2009-05-12

426

Facilitating effective HCI design meetings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over several years we have participated as facilitators in many Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) design meetings. Our focus has been on developing team re- sults needed to achieve user-centered design of software for computer systems. We describe frameworks for partnership, stages of meetings, and team conversations that we have found useful. In order to illustrate our general approach, we select one

John L. Bennett; John Karat

1994-01-01

427

Interaction design in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

The StoryBank project in the UK is exploring the application of digital storytelling technology to information sharing in the developing world. A multidisciplinary team of interaction designers, ethnographers and computer scientists are adopting a user-centered approach to the design of a system which should be useful to a specific rural community in South India. This paper discusses some of the

Dorothy Rachovides; David Frohlich; Maxine Frank

2007-01-01

428

Scenarios and the design process in medical application R. Rasoulifar*, G. Thomann, F. Villeneuve  

E-print Network

in medical domain have attracted the design researchers. The design process of medial devices has yetScenarios and the design process in medical application R. Rasoulifar*, G. Thomann, F. Villeneuve G of medical application. Keywords: Scenario-Based Design (SBD), Medical Application, User integration 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

429

Rethinking Design Process: Using 3D Digital Models as an Interface in Collaborative Session  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a pilot study for an alternative design process by integrating a designer-user collaborative session with digital models. The collaborative session took place in a 3D AutoCAD class for a real world project. The 3D models served as an interface for designer-user collaboration during the design process. Students not only learned…

Ding, Suining

2008-01-01

430

A semantic indexation method to assist with the architectural design process by images.  

E-print Network

A semantic indexation method to assist with the architectural design process by images. Sabrina in the design problem. In our case we choose photographic images to illustrate these references because an image image is often easier to interpret by the designer. To assist the design process, we are working

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

431

Problems with specifying Tmin in design of processes with heat exchangers  

E-print Network

Problems with specifying Tmin in design of processes with heat exchangers Jørgen Bauck Jensen case studies. Keywords: Tmin, vapour compression cycle, heat exchanger, design. 1 Introduction simple and common approach for design of processes with heat exchangers, especially at an early design

Skogestad, Sigurd

432

Developing a Protocol For Managing the Design Process in the Building Industry Proceedings IGLC `98  

E-print Network

Developing a Protocol For Managing the Design Process in the Building Industry Proceedings IGLC `98 DEVELOPING A PROTOCOL FOR MANAGING THE DESIGN PROCESS IN THE BUILDING INDUSTRY Carlos T. Formoso1 , Patrícia given to the management of the design process. The main objective of this article is to present

Tommelein, Iris D.

433

Dynamic Project and Workflow Management for Design Processes in Chemical Engineering  

E-print Network

Dynamic Project and Workflow Management for Design Processes in Chemical Engineering Markus Heller difficult to manage the workflow in design processes, i.e., to coordinate the effort of experts working project and workflow manage- ment systems support the management of design processes only to a limited

Westfechtel, Bernhard

434

Design and development of thermoplastic composite manufacturing processes based on electrostatic powder spray impregnation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research encompasses the design and development of a versatile thermoplastic composite manufacturing process. This process was specifically designed to include all the stages of a complete composite manufacturing process, from the initial combination of the resin and fiber materials to the final part consolidation. A detailed apparatus was designed to spread continuous fibers, coat them with electrostatically charged polymer

Mark Stephen Duvall

1998-01-01

435

A FRAMEWORK FOR EARLY DESIGN PROCESS STAGES BASED ON AN ANALOGY TO EVOLUTION  

E-print Network

research has revealed several shortcomings of design processes with respect to modern contexts. Two and well-being, remains largely disconnected from design processes. Current practices in the field on similarities found in the phenomena and processes between natural systems (nature) and design, is then used

Salustri, Filippo A.

436

The Integrated Design Process from the Facilitator's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this study was to clarify the integrated design process from an educational standpoint, and identify its influencing factors and the role of facilitator. Through a literature review, the integrated design process and the role of facilitator were framed, and through the case study, the whole process of integrated design and the…

Lee, Jeehyun

2014-01-01

437

Application of a feasible formability diagram for the effective design in stamping processes of automotive panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to propose a method of process design that uses a feasible formability diagram, which denotes the safe region without fracture and wrinkle, for the effective and rapid design of stamping processes. To determine the feasible formability diagram, FE-analyses have been performed for combinations of process variables that correspond to the orthogonal array of design

Dae-Cheol Ko; Seung-Hoon Cha; Sang-Kon Lee; Chan-Joo Lee; Byung-Min Kim

2010-01-01

438

Process-Aware Information Systems: Design, Enactment, and Analysis  

E-print Network

these to business process management, workflow man- agement, process analysis techniques, and process flexibility. Keywords: Process-Aware Information Systems, Workflow Management, Busi- ness Process Management, Petri Nets the supervision of information systems that are driven by process models. Examples are work- flow management

van der Aalst, Wil

439

Universal Design in Postsecondary Education: Process, Principles, and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing any product or environment involves the consideration of many factors, including aesthetics, engineering options, environmental issues, safety concerns, industry standards, and cost. Typically, designers focus their attention on the average user. In contrast, universal design (UD), according to the Center for Universal Design, "is the…

Burgstahler, Sheryl

2009-01-01

440

Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) Methods: Their Synergy with Computer Technology in the Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper identifies speed, agility, human interface, generation of sensitivity information, task decomposition, and data transmission (including storage) as important attributes for a computer environment to have in order to support engineering design effectively. It is argued that when examined in terms of these attributes the presently available environment can be shown to be inadequate. A radical improvement is needed, and it may be achieved by combining new methods that have recently emerged from multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO) with massively parallel processing computer technology. The caveat is that, for successful use of that technology in engineering computing, new paradigms for computing will have to be developed - specifically, innovative algorithms that are intrinsically parallel so that their performance scales up linearly with the number of processors. It may be speculated that the idea of simulating a complex behaviour by interaction of a large number of very simple models may be an inspiration for the above algorithms; the cellular automata are an example. Because of the long lead time needed to develop and mature new paradigms, development should begin now, even though the widespread availability of massively parallel processing is still a few years away.

Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

1999-01-01

441

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) Methods: Their Synergy with Computer Technology in Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper identifies speed, agility, human interface, generation of sensitivity information, task decomposition, and data transmission (including storage) as important attributes for a computer environment to have in order to support engineering design effectively. It is argued that when examined in terms of these attributes the presently available environment can be shown to be inadequate a radical improvement is needed, and it may be achieved by combining new methods that have recently emerged from multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) with massively parallel processing computer technology. The caveat is that, for successful use of that technology in engineering computing, new paradigms for computing will have to be developed - specifically, innovative algorithms that are intrinsically parallel so that their performance scales up linearly with the number of processors. It may be speculated that the idea of simulating a complex behavior by interaction of a large number of very simple models may be an inspiration for the above algorithms, the cellular automata are an example. Because of the long lead time needed to develop and mature new paradigms, development should be now, even though the widespread availability of massively parallel processing is still a few years away.

Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

1998-01-01

442

Critical Zone Experimental Design to Assess Soil Processes and Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through unsustainable land use practices, mining, deforestation, urbanisation and degradation by industrial pollution, soil losses are now hypothesized to be much faster (100 times or more) than soil formation - with the consequence that soil has become a finite resource. The crucial challenge for the international research community is to understand the rates of processes that dictate soil mass stocks and their function within Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). The CZ is the environment where soils are formed, degrade and provide their essential ecosystem services. Key among these ecosystem services are food and fibre production, filtering, buffering and transformation of water, nutrients and contaminants, storage of carbon and maintaining biological habitat and genetic diversity. We have initiated a new research project to address the priority research areas identified in the European Union Soil Thematic Strategy and to contribute to the development of a global network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) committed to soil research. Our hypothesis is that the combined physical-chemical-biological structure of soil can be assessed from first-principles and the resulting soil functions can be quantified in process models that couple the formation and loss of soil stocks with descriptions of biodiversity and nutrient dynamics. The objectives of this research are to 1. Describe from 1st principles how soil structure influences processes and functions of soils, 2. Establish 4 European Critical Zone Observatories to link with established CZOs, 3. Develop a CZ Integrated Model of soil processes and function, 4. Create a GIS-based modelling framework to assess soil threats and mitigation at EU scale, 5. Quantify impacts of changing land use, climate and biodiversity on soil function and its value and 6. Form with international partners a global network of CZOs for soil research and deliver a programme of public outreach and research transfer on soil sustainability. The experimental design studies soil processes across the temporal evolution of the soil profile, from its formation on bare bedrock, through managed use as productive land to its degradation under longstanding pressures from intensive land use. To understand this conceptual life cycle of soil, we have selected 4 European field sites as Critical Zone Observatories. These are to provide data sets of soil parameters, processes and functions which will be incorporated into the mathematical models. The field sites are 1) the BigLink field station which is located in the chronosequence of the Damma Glacier forefield in alpine Switzerland and is established to study the initial stages of soil development on bedrock; 2) the Lysina Catchment in the Czech Republic which is representative of productive soils managed for intensive forestry, 3) the Fuchsenbigl Field Station in Austria which is an agricultural research site that is representative of productive soils managed as arable land and 4) the Koiliaris Catchment in Crete, Greece which represents degraded Mediterranean region soils, heavily impacted by centuries of intensive grazing and farming, under severe risk of desertification.

Banwart, Steve

2010-05-01

443

A review of research in mechanical engineering design. Part I: Descriptive, prescriptive, and computer-based models of design processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first of a two part paper summarizing and reviewing research in mechanical engineering design theory and methodology. Part I includes: 1) descriptive models; 2) prescrptive models; and 3) computer-based models of design processes. Part II, which will appear in the next issue of this journal, will include: 4) languages, representations, and environments for design; 5) analysis in

Susan Finger; John R. Dixon

1989-01-01

444

Developing a 3D Game Design Authoring Package to Assist Students' Visualization Process in Design Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of 3D digital game design requires the development of students' meta-skills, from story creativity to 3D model construction, and even the visualization process in design thinking. The characteristics a good game designer should possess have been identified as including redesign things, creativity thinking and the ability to…

Kuo, Ming-Shiou; Chuang, Tsung-Yen

2013-01-01

445

Automated bottleneck-driven design-space exploration of media processing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media processing systems often have limited re- sources and strict performance requirements. An implementation must meet those design constraints while minimizing resource usage and energy consumption. Design-space exploration tech- niques help system designers to pinpoint bottlenecks in a system for a given configuration. The trade-offs between performance and resources in the design space can guide designers to tailor and tune

Yang Yang; Marc Geilen; Twan Basten; Sander Stuijk; Henk Corporaal

2010-01-01

446

An Examination of the Decision-Making Process Used by Designers in Multiple Disciplines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design-thinking is an inductive and participatory process in which designers are required to manage constraints, generate solutions, and follow project timelines in order to complete project goals. The researchers used this exploration study to look at how designers in various disciplinary fields approach design projects. Designers were asked to…

Stefaniak, Jill E.; Tracey, Monica W.

2014-01-01

447

Articulating the Resources for Business Process Analysis and Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective process analysis and modeling are important phases of the business process management lifecycle. When many activities and multiple resources are involved, it is very difficult to build a correct business process specification. This dissertation provides a resource perspective of business processes. It aims at a better process analysis…

Jin, Yulong

2012-01-01

448

Process of videotape making: presentation design, software, and hardware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of technical video tape presentations for communicating abstractions of complex data is now becoming commonplace. While the use of video tapes in the day-to-day work of scientists and engineers is still in its infancy, their use as applications oriented conferences is now growing rapidly. Despite these advancements, there is still very little that is written down about the process of making technical videotapes. For printed media, different presentation styles are well known for categories such as results reports, executive summary reports, and technical papers and articles. In this paper, the authors present ideas on the topic of technical videotape presentation design in a format that is worth referring to. They have started to document the ways in which the experience of media specialist, teaching professionals, and character animators can be applied to scientific animation. Software and hardware considerations are also discussed. For this portion, distinctions are drawn between the software and hardware required for computer animation (frame at a time) productions, and live recorded interaction with a computer graphics display.

Dickinson, Robert R.; Brady, Dan R.; Bennison, Tim; Burns, Thomas; Pines, Sheldon

1991-06-01

449

An acceptable role for computers in the aircraft design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the reasons why the computerization trend is not wholly accepted are explored for two typical cases: computer use in the technical specialties and computer use in aircraft synthesis. The factors that limit acceptance are traced in part, to the large resources needed to understand the details of computer programs, the inability to include measured data as input to many of the theoretical programs, and the presentation of final results without supporting intermediate answers. Other factors are due solely to technical issues such as limited detail in aircraft synthesis and major simplifying assumptions in the technical specialties. These factors and others can be influenced by the technical specialist and aircraft designer. Some of these factors may become less significant as the computerization process evolves, but some issues, such as understanding large integrated systems, may remain issues in the future. Suggestions for improved acceptance include publishing computer programs so that they may be reviewed, edited, and read. Other mechanisms include extensive modularization of programs and ways to include measured information as part of the input to theoretical approaches.

Gregory, T. J.; Roberts, L.

1980-01-01

450

Type-2 fuzzy model based controller design for neutralization processes.  

PubMed

In this study, an inverse controller based on a type-2 fuzzy model control design strategy is introduced and this main controller is embedded within an internal model control structure. Then, the overall proposed control structure is implemented in a pH neutralization experimental setup. The inverse fuzzy control signal generation is handled as an optimization problem and solved at each sampling time in an online manner. Although, inverse fuzzy model controllers may produce perfect control in perfect model match case and/or non-existence of disturbances, this open loop control would not be sufficient in the case of modeling mismatches or disturbances. Therefore, an internal model control structure is proposed to compensate these errors in order to overcome this deficiency where the basic controller is an inverse type-2 fuzzy model. This feature improves the closed-loop performance to disturbance rejection as shown through the real-time control of the pH neutralization process. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the inverse type-2 fuzzy model controller structure compared to the inverse type-1 fuzzy model controller and conventional control structures. PMID:22036014

Kumbasar, Tufan; Eksin, Ibrahim; Guzelkaya, Mujde; Yesil, Engin

2012-03-01

451

The UC Davis Design Major engages exploration and the process of design to solve and inform  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * AHI 184. 20th Century Architecture . . . . . . . . . . * AHI 187. Contemporary Architecture. Ideologies of Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40C. Design for Aesthetics

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

452

Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes--a process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework.  

PubMed

A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and fermentation-based products. The method exploits the synergic combination of continuous flow technologies (e.g., microfluidic techniques) and process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools for faster process design and increased process understanding throughout the whole drug product and process development cycle. The design framework structures the many different and challenging design problems (e.g., solvent selection, reactor design, and design of separation and purification operations), driving the user from the initial drug discovery steps--where process knowledge is very limited--toward the detailed design and analysis. Examples from the literature of PSE methods and tools applied to pharmaceutical process design and novel pharmaceutical production technologies are provided along the text, assisting in the accumulation and interpretation of process knowledge. Different criteria are suggested for the selection of batch and continuous processes so that the whole design results in low capital and operational costs as well as low environmental footprint. The design framework has been applied to the retrofit of an existing batch-wise process used by H. Lundbeck A/S to produce an API: zuclopenthixol. Some of its batch operations were successfully converted into continuous mode, obtaining higher yields that allowed a significant simplification of the whole process. The material and environmental footprint of the process--evaluated through the process mass intensity index, that is, kg of material used per kg of product--was reduced to half of its initial value, with potential for further reduction. The case-study includes reaction steps typically used by the pharmaceutical industry featuring different characteristic reaction times, as well as L-L separation and distillation-based solvent exchange steps, and thus constitutes a good example of how the design framework can be useful to efficiently design novel or already existing API manufacturing processes taking advantage of continuous processes. PMID:22820647

Cervera-Padrell, Albert E; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren; Gani, Rafiqul; Gernaey, Krist V

2012-10-01

453

Industrial Energy Conservation by New Process Design and Efficiency Improvements  

E-print Network

by about 20%. Further gains can be realized through industrial process changes and application of new process technologies. In this paper, new process technologies likely to be considered for implementation in the future are identified along...

Kusik, C. L.; Stickles, R. P.; Machacek, R. F.

1983-01-01

454

Predictive Modeling in Plasma Reactor and Process Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research continues toward the improvement and increased understanding of high-density plasma tools. Such reactor systems are lauded for their independent control of ion flux and energy enabling high etch rates with low ion damage and for their improved ion velocity anisotropy resulting from thin collisionless sheaths and low neutral pressures. Still, with the transition to 300 mm processing, achieving etch uniformity and high etch rates concurrently may be a formidable task for such large diameter wafers for which computational modeling can play an important role in successful reactor and process design. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor is the focus of the present investigation. The present work attempts to understand the fundamental physical phenomena of such systems through computational modeling. Simulations will be presented using both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for argon and chlorine discharges. ICP reactors generally operate at pressures on the order of 1 to 10 mTorr. At such low pressures, rarefaction can be significant to the degree that the constitutive relations used in typical CFD techniques become invalid and a particle simulation must be employed. This work will assess the extent to which CFD can be applied and evaluate the degree to which accuracy is lost in prediction of the phenomenon of interest; i.e., etch rate. If the CFD approach is found reasonably accurate and bench-marked with DSMC and experimental results, it has the potential to serve as a design tool due to the rapid time relative to DSMC. The continuum CFD simulation solves the governing equations for plasma flow using a finite difference technique with an implicit Gauss-Seidel Line Relaxation method for time marching toward a converged solution. The equation set consists of mass conservation for each species, separate energy equations for the electrons and heavy species, and momentum equations for the gas. The sheath is modeled by imposing the Bohm velocity to the ions near the walls. The DSMC method simulates each constituent of the gas as a separate species which would be analogous in CFD to employing separate species mass, momentum, and energy equations. All particles including electrons are moved and allowed to collide with one another with the stipulation that the electrons remain tied to the ions consistent with the concept of ambipolar diffusion. The velocities of the electrons are allowed to be modified during collisions and are not confined to a Maxwellian distribution. These benefits come at a price in terms of computational time and memory. The DSMC and CFD are made as consistent as possible by using similar chemistry and power deposition models. Although the comparison of CFD and DSMC is interesting, the main goal of this work is the increased understanding of high-density plasma flowfields that can then direct improvements in both techniques. This work is unique in the level of the physical models employed in both the DSMC and CFD for high-density plasma reactor applications. For example, the electrons are simulated in the present DSMC work which has not been done before for low temperature plasma processing problems. In the CFD approach, for the first time, the charged particle transport (discharge physics) has been self-consistently coupled to the gas flow and heat transfer.

Hash, D. B.; Bose, D.; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

455

Computational design of deformation processes for materials with ductile damage  

E-print Network

-plasticity; Thermomechanical analysis; Ductile damage; Optimization; Computational design 1. Introduction Most macroscopic. The accuracy and effectiveness of the developed updated Lagrangian finite element analysis and design. Keywords: Continuum sensitivity analysis; Lagrangian analysis; Metal forming; Elasto

Zabaras, Nicholas J.

456

Recombinant design : leveraging process capture for collective creativity  

E-print Network

Design is omnipresent and fundamental to the modern world, yet so little of the rich semantic information of the design evolution is preserved. If we are to gain the greatest knowledge and utility from a creative work, we ...

Ding, Annie

2006-01-01

457

Representation of thermal energy in the design process  

E-print Network

The goal of thermal design is to go beyond the comfort zone. In spatial design architects don't just look up square footage requirements and then draw a rectangle that satisfies the givens. There must be an interpretation. ...

Roth, Shaun

1995-01-01

458

Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

2000-01-01

459

Design, experimentation, and modeling of a novel continuous biodrying process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive production of sludge in the pulp and paper industry has made the effective sludge management increasingly a critical issue for the industry due to high landfill and transportation costs, and complex regulatory frameworks for options such as sludge landspreading and composting. Sludge dewatering challenges are exacerbated at many mills due to improved in-plant fiber recovery coupled with increased production of secondary sludge, leading to a mixed sludge with a high proportion of biological matter which is difficult to dewater. In this thesis, a novel continuous biodrying reactor was designed and developed for drying pulp and paper mixed sludge to economic dry solids level so that the dried sludge can be economically and safely combusted in a biomass boiler for energy recovery. In all experimental runs the economic dry solids level was achieved, proving the process successful. In the biodrying process, in addition to the forced aeration, the drying rates are enhanced by biological heat generated through the microbial activity of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms naturally present in the porous matrix of mixed sludge. This makes the biodrying process more attractive compared to the conventional drying techniques because the reactor is a self-heating process. The reactor is divided into four nominal compartments and the mixed sludge dries as it moves downward in the reactor. The residence times were 4-8 days, which are 2-3 times shorter than the residence times achieved in a batch biodrying reactor previously studied by our research group for mixed sludge drying. A process variable analysis was performed to determine the key variable(s) in the continuous biodrying reactor. Several variables were investigated, namely: type of biomass feed, pH of biomass, nutrition level (C/N ratio), residence times, recycle ratio of biodried sludge, and outlet relative humidity profile along the reactor height. The key variables that were identified in the continuous biodrying reactor were the type of biomass feed and the outlet relative humidity profiles. The biomass feed is mill specific and since one mill was studied for this study, the nutrition level of the biomass feed was found adequate for the microbial activity, and hence the type of biomass is a fixed parameter. The influence of outlet relative humidity profile was investigated on the overall performance and the complexity index of the continuous biodrying reactor. The best biodrying efficiency was achieved at an outlet relative humidity profile which controls the removal of unbound water at the wet-bulb temperature in the 1st and 2nd compartments of the reactor, and the removal of bound water at the dry-bulb temperature in the 3rd and 4th compartments. Through a systematic modeling approach, a 2-D model was developed to describe the transport phenomena in the continuous biodrying reactor. The results of the 2-D model were in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. It was found that about 30% w/w of the total water removal (drying rate) takes place in the 1st and 2nd compartments mainly under a convection dominated mechanism, whereas about 70% w/w of the total water removal takes place in the 3rd and 4th compartments where a bioheat-diffusion dominated mechanism controls the transport phenomena. The 2-D model was found to be an appropriate tool for the estimation of the total water removal rate (drying rate) in the continuous biodrying reactor when compared to the 1-D model. A dimensionless analysis was performed on the 2-D model and established the preliminary criteria for the scale-up of the continuous biodrying process. Finally, a techno-economic assessment of the continuous biodrying process revealed that there is great potential for the implementation of the biodrying process in Canadian pulp and paper mills. The techno-economic results were compared to the other competitive existing drying technologies. It was proven that the continuous biodrying process results in significant economic benefits and has great potential to address the current industr

Navaee-Ardeh, Shahram

460

Integrating optical fabrication and metrology into the optical design process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image degradation due to scattered radiation from residual optical fabrication errors is a serious problem in many short wavelength (X-ray/EUV) imaging systems. Most commercially-available image analysis codes (ZEMAX, Code V, ASAP, FRED, etc.) currently require the scatter behavior (BSDF data) to be provided as input in order to calculate the image quality of such systems. This BSDF data is difficult to measure and rarely available for the operational wavelengths of interest. Since the smooth-surface approximation is often not satisfied at these short wavelengths, the classical Rayleigh-Rice expression that indicates the BRDF is directly proportional to the surface PSD cannot be used to calculate BRDFs from surface metrology data for even slightly rough surfaces. However, an FFTLog numerical Hankel transform algorithm enables the practical use of the computationally intensive Generalized Harvey-Shack (GHS) surface scatter theory [1] to calculate BRDFs from surface PSDs for increasingly short wavelengths that violate the smooth surface approximation implicit in the Rayleigh-Rice surface scatter theory [2-3]. The recent numerical validation [4] of the GHS theory (a generalized linear systems formulation of surface scatter theory), and an analysis of image degradation due to surface scatter in the presence of aberrations [5] has provided credence to the development of a systems engineering analysis of image quality as degraded not only by diffraction effects and geometrical aberrations, but to scattering effects due to residual optical fabrication errors as well. These advances, combined with the continuing increase in computer speed, leave us poised to fully integrate optical metrology and fabrication into the optical design process.

Harvey, James E.

2014-12-01

461

Semi-Automated Linking of User Interface Design Artifacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

User centered design involves the creation of design artifacts such as task and architecture models, typically by people with different backgrounds using inconsistent terminology. Communication between user interface designers can potentially be improved if the viewpoints represented by these design artifacts can be correlated. This research demonstrates how different design artifacts can be linked semi-automatically. We illustrate this technique using

Said Elnaffar; Nicholas C. Graham

1999-01-01

462

From a conventional to a sustainable engineering design process: different shades of sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge of realigning the present path of development on a sustainable trajectory concerns all sectors of society, including engineering. To move towards a sustainable practice of engineering, the design process needs to be modified in order for engineers to efficiently tackle the related issues. Such ‘sustainable design processes’ (SDPs) are proposed in the literature. By reviewing the conventional design

Bruno Gagnon; Roland Leduc; Luc Savard

2010-01-01

463

Universal accessibility in HCI: Process-oriented design guidelines and tool requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a preliminary collection of design-oriented guidelines and development requirements for accessibility and universal design in HCI. The process- oriented guidelines aim to shed light into how a user-centred design process can be conducted, so as to account for the needs and requirements of the broadest possible end user population, including people with disabilities. These guidelines are subsequently

C. Stephanidis; D. Akoumianakis; M. Sfyrakis; A. Paramythis

1998-01-01

464

From Concept to Software: Developing a Framework for Understanding the Process of Software Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of technological innovation and the process of design focuses on the design of computer software. Offers a framework for understanding the design process by examining two computer programs: FliPS, a multimedia program for learning complex problems in chemistry; and Tiger, a Web-based program for managing and publishing electronic…

Mishra, Punyashloke; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Sophia

1999-01-01

465

From Aspect-oriented Requirements Models to Aspect-oriented Business Process Design Models  

E-print Network

key non-functional requirements, the business process designer has to design workflows involves (i) the definition of business workflows while (ii) taking into account non- functionalFrom Aspect-oriented Requirements Models to Aspect-oriented Business Process Design Models

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

466

A MODEL OF DESIGN BASED ON GENERATION PROCESS OF FUNCTION-ATTRIBUTE CLASSIFICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In General Design Theory (GDT), we have sets of functional concepts and attributes concepts about a set of entities and design is an activity of establishing a suitable correspondence between these two concepts. In this context, it is reasonable to suppose that design process is actually the process of generating an appro- priate pair of sets of functional concepts and

Ichiro Nagasaka; Makoto Kikuchi; Hiroki Tsutsui; Toshiharu Taur; Kanji Ueda

467

Investigating the Impact of Design Processes on Children Mona Leigh Guha and Allison Druin  

E-print Network

children's technology and the design processes used to create it, there is a dearth of information of users, children have been involved in the design of new technology for years. Publications on children]. The main purpose for including children in a technology design process is to create better children

Golbeck, Jennifer

468

Creating strategic change more efficiently with a new Design for Six Sigma process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative Design for Six Sigma (I-DFSS) is a methodology that combines innovative thinking with the analytical tools used for design into a single process. The total endeavour provides one coordinated effort that reduces development and cycle time, targets zero-defect process delivery, and produces better results. This paper describes how two revolutionary methodologies — Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) and the

Joseph De Feo; Zion Bar-El

2002-01-01

469

Single-cycle mixed-fluid LNG process Part I: Optimal design  

E-print Network

Single-cycle mixed-fluid LNG process Part I: Optimal design Jørgen Bauck Jensen and Sigurd the design optimization of a relatively simple LNG pro- cess; the PRICO process. A simple economic objective. Keywords: PRICO, LNG, design 1 Introduction Stebbing and O'Brien (1975) reported on the performance

Skogestad, Sigurd

470

The Design Studio as Teaching/Learning Medium--A Process-Based Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a design studio teaching experience exploring the design process itself as a methodological tool. We consider the structure of important phases of the process that contain different levels of design thinking: conception, function and practical knowledge as well as the transitions from inception to construction. We show how…

Ozturk, Maya N.; Turkkan, Elif E.

2006-01-01

471

An Expert System to Support Clothing Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of expert systems technologies and human computer interaction, the goal of this project is to construct an\\u000a interactive design support to fashion designers when designing workwear or corporatewear clothes. This system will be fed\\u000a by a semantic database that describes the relations between function and clothes specific context of use under the user’s\\u000a perspective. This application will

Michele Santos; Francisco Rebelo

2007-01-01

472

Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

2011-09-01

473

Statistical control and design optimization in slitting process  

E-print Network

The incorrect slitting is the defect waste in slitting process which does not meet the single pack width and crease-to-edge width requirements. It is the highest contributor to the overall defect waste in slitting process ...

Tanuwijaya, Willy Perdana

2010-01-01

474

A multi-domain process design and improvement framework  

E-print Network

Processes in manufacturing, services, and healthcare are complex socio-technical systems composed of intricately sequenced activities supported by elements drawn from multiple domains. While many of these processes offer ...

Nicol, Robert A. (Robert Arthur), 1969-

2010-01-01

475

Innovation Process Design: A Change Management and Innovation Dimension Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors propose an innovative approach to the management of innovation integrating business, process, and maturity dimensions. Core element of the concept is the adaptation of ISO/IEC 15504 to the innovation process including 14 innovation drivers. Two managerial models are applied to conceptualize and visualize the respective innovation strategies, the Balanced Scorecard and a Barriers in Change Processes Model. An illustrative case study shows a practical implementation process.

Peisl, Thomas; Reger, Veronika; Schmied, Juergen

476

Requirements-Driven Design and Configuration Management of Business Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of a business process (BP) depends on whether it meets its business goal as well as non-functional requirements associated with it. BP specifications frequently need to accommodate changing business priorities, varying client preferences, etc. However, since business process goals and pref- erences are rarely captured explicitly in the dominant BP modeling approaches, adapting business processes proves difficult. We

Alexei Lapouchnian; Yijun Yu; John Mylopoulos

2007-01-01

477

New Materials Design Through Friction Stir Processing Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has reached a large interest in the scientific community and in the last years also in the industrial environment, due to the advantages of such solid state welding process with respect to the classic ones. The complex material flow occurring during the process plays a fundamental role in such solid state welding process, since it determines

G. Buffa; L. Fratini; R. Shivpuri

2007-01-01

478

Concurrent design and manufacturing process of automotive composite components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To present the findings of the research on the use of concurrent engineering in the development of polymeric based composite automotive clutch pedal. It covers the use of various IT such as expert system, FEA, CAD, mould flow and rapid prototyping in order to carry out various activities such as material selection, total design, design analysis and mould

S. M. Sapuan

2005-01-01

479

Role of Graphics Tools in the Learning Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the design activities of students in secondary school in France. Graphics tools are now part of the capacity of design professionals. It is therefore apt to reflect on their integration into the technological education. Has the use of intermediate graphical tools changed students' performance, and if so in what direction,…

Laisney, Patrice; Brandt-Pomares, Pascale

2015-01-01

480

The role of design management in the sustainable building process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable building (SB) aims at the required building performance with minimum adverse environmental impact, while encouraging improvements in economic, social and cultural circumstances. The role of design is essential in interpreting and solving these complicated multilevel requirements. This article analyses current design management practices in Finnish construction projects. The aim was to define the challenges that SB brings to the

Mirkka Rekola; Tarja Mäkeläinen; Tarja Häkkinen

2012-01-01

481

Design considerations in language processing tools for Ada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ada Language System (ALS) is a complete programming environment for the development of Ada programs. This paper discusses the design objectives of those portions of the ALS which support translation and execution of Ada programs, particularly the compiler, linker, and program library. The ALS capabilities for maintenance of software configuration control are highlighted. Tradeoffs in the design of the

Wayne A. Babich; Larry Weissman; M. Wolfe

1982-01-01

482

Modeling Web-Based Educational Systems: Process Design Teaching Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using modeling languages is essential to the construction of educational systems based on software engineering principles and methods. Furthermore, the instructional design is undoubtedly the cornerstone of the design and development of educational systems. Although several methodologies and languages have been proposed for the specification of…

Rokou, Franca Pantano; Rokou, Elena; Rokos, Yannis

2004-01-01

483

Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

Nesbitt, Dallas

2013-01-01

484

A STU DY OF PRODUCT DESIGNERS' EXPERIENCE WITH DESIGN PROCESSES AND TOOLS : OUTLOOK FOR DEVELOPING WEB BASED DESIGN GUIDELINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial designers are increasingly challenged by the interdisciplinary nature, increasing complexity and time pressure in today's design projects. Understanding the product's environment, the user and recalling all design aspects in time places a great burden on the designer. The constant risk that the negligence of certain design aspects may result in inferior products, urges the need to develop systematic tools

Mark Goellner

485

The impact of design management and process management on quality: an empirical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design management and process management are two important elements of total quality management (TQM) implementation. They are drastically different in their targets of improvement, visibility, and techniques. In this paper, we establish a framework for identifying the synergistic linkages of design and process management to the operational quality outcomes during the manufacturing process (internal quality) and upon the field usage

Sanjay L. Ahire; Paul Dreyfus

2000-01-01

486

Towards a Web-Based Handbook of Generic, Process-Oriented Learning Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Process-oriented learning designs are innovative learning activities that include a set of inter-related learning tasks and are generic (could be used across disciplines). An example includes a problem-solving process widely used in problem-based learning today. Most of the existing process-oriented learning designs are not documented, let alone…

Marjanovic, Olivera

2005-01-01

487

Optimization of a granulation and tabletting process by sequential design and multivariate analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequential design and multivariate analysis were adopted to search for an optimal and robust granulation and tabletting process for a melt granulation process. The advantage with this procedure should be to produce tablets directly from granules prepared in one step without addition of any solvents. First the granulation process was investigated by a 26?2 fractional factorial design with six center

R. Bergman; M. E. Johansson; T. Lundstedt; E. Seifert; J. Åberg

1998-01-01

488

Using P-Values To Design Statistical Process Control Charts Zhonghua Li1  

E-print Network

Using P-Values To Design Statistical Process Control Charts Zhonghua Li1 , Peihua Qiu2 , Snigdhansu Phase II statistical process control (SPC) charts are designed using control limits; a chart gives a signal of process distributional shift when its charting statistic exceeds a properly chosen control

Qiu, Peihua

489

An Empirical Test of Three Design Rules in Healthcare Process Improvement  

E-print Network

-in-use are transportable to healthcare and may provide a partial answer to healthcare's systemic issues. Key Words: Lean manufacturing, healthcare, process improvement, process design #12;2 1. Introduction If any issue hasAn Empirical Test of Three Design Rules in Healthcare Process Improvement Abstract Prior work

Sobek II, Durward K.

490

Feature-based metal stamping part and process design. Part I: stampability evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is essential to devise a representation scheme for the metal stamping part design which allows the designer to capture and reason the design information, and ultimately, to take various considerations into account and make evaluation decisions. In our research, the feature-based approach is used to represent the metal stamping part, and feature-based metal stamping part and process design has

Dunbing Tang; Benhe Gao

2007-01-01

491