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1

Learning Objects: A User-Centered Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Design research systematically creates or improves processes, products, and programs through an iterative progression connecting practice and theory (Reinking, 2008; van den Akker, 2006). Developing a new instructional systems design (ISD) processes through design research is necessary when new technologies emerge that challenge existing…

Branon, Rovy F., III

2011-01-01

2

Organizational Aspects of the Introduction of a User-Centered Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the introduction of a user-centered design (UCD) process into a large-scale software development organization and the effects it had on existing processes, roles and other organizational aspects. The case described here shows how a standard UCD process was incrementally implemented and adapted to the organization's overall product lifecycle. The paper also discusses how process effectiveness and efficiency

Natalie Woletz; Dirk Zimmermann

3

Aspects of Integrating User Centered Design into Software Engineering Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software Engineering (SE) and Usability Engineering (UE) both provide a wide range of elaborated process models to create software solutions. Today, many companies have realized the need for usable products and understood that a systematic and structured approach to usability is as important as the process of software development itself. However, theory and practice still have problems to efficiently and

Karsten Nebe; Dirk Zimmermann

2007-01-01

4

A New User-Centered Design Process for Creating New Value and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new process model of user-centered design that can be applied to the development of new value and future.\\u000a Realizing that the widely known conventional human-centered design process, defined by ISO13407, is not always effective,\\u000a here we propose a new process model and introduce an overview of activities based on this process. This aims at not only

Yasuhisa Itoh; Yoko Hirose; Hideaki Takahashi; Masaaki Kurosu

2007-01-01

5

The Use of Improvisational Role-Play in User Centered Design Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and piloting of a user-centered design method which enables participants to actively\\u000a engage in a creative process to produce intuitive representations and inspire early design concepts for innovative mobile\\u000a and ubiquitous applications. The research has been produced as part of the EC funded project PASION, aiming to enhance mediated\\u000a communication in games and collaborative environments

Yanna Vogiazou; Jonathan Freeman; Jane Lessiter

2007-01-01

6

THE REALITY OF USER-CENTERED DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that user-centered design approaches may be the key to matching the development of organizational information systems to a firm's business and work requirements. The information systems literature on this topic centers upon methods to support user-centered system development: such approaches assume that the participation of relevant stakeholders will ensure an appropriate design outcome. The reality of

Susan Gasson

7

User-Centered Design of Online Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

User-centered design (UCD) is gaining popularity in both the educational and business sectors. This is due to the fact that UCD sheds light on the entire process of analyzing, planning, designing, developing, using, evaluating, and maintaining computer-based learning. "User-Centered Design of Online Learning Communities" explains how computers can…

Lambropoulos, Niki, Ed.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.

2007-01-01

8

User-Centered Design of Online Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|User-centered design (UCD) is gaining popularity in both the educational and business sectors. This is due to the fact that UCD sheds light on the entire process of analyzing, planning, designing, developing, using, evaluating, and maintaining computer-based learning. "User-Centered Design of Online Learning Communities" explains how computers…

Lambropoulos, Niki, Ed.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.

2007-01-01

9

Mental Models and User-Centered Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a compendium of papers by people who attended the 198 8 workshop on mental models and user centered design at Breckenridge, Colorado. Subjects covered in these papers include action planning, and evaluation of retrieval of information, type...

A. A. Turner

1990-01-01

10

An Experience in Applying User Centered Design to Search Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents our experience in applying User Centered Design methods to identify several design opportunities for\\u000a future Search Computing applications. The chapter starts introducing the definition of User Centered design, its principles\\u000a and methodologies. It presents the five steps process we followed in order to get user behavioral insights and design opportunities.\\u000a It illustrates each phase that composes the

Tommaso Buganza; Marta Corubolo; Emanuele Della Valle; Elena Pellizzoni

2010-01-01

11

User centered design and international development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop explores User Centered Design (UCD) challenges and contributions to International economic and community Development. We are addressing interaction design for parts of the world that are often marginalized by the Global North as well as people in the Global North who are themselves similarly marginalized by poverty or other barriers. We hope to extend the boundaries of the

Andy Dearden; Ann Light; Susan M. Dray; John C. Thomas; Mike Best; Celeste Buckhalter; Dan Greenblatt; Gaurishankar Krishnan; Nithya Sambasivan

2007-01-01

12

User-Centered Design and Business Process Modeling: Cross Road in Rapid Prototyping Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast production of a solution is a necessity in the world of competitive IT consulting business today. In engagements where\\u000a early user interface design mock-ups are needed to visualize proposed business processes, the need to quickly create UI becomes\\u000a prominent very early in the process. Our work aims to speed up the UI design process, enabling rapid creation of low-fidelity

Noi Sukaviriya; Vibha Sinha; Thejaswini Ramachandra; Senthil Mani; Markus Stolze

2007-01-01

13

User-centered design and fundamental need  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will discuss whether User-Centered Design (UCD) is capable and\\/or oriented towards satisfying users' fundamental needs. At face value, UCD is the advocate of the user in product development, but do its actual practices and values address what is fundamentally important for users? The question will be addressed by starting with a moral philosophical discussion for separating the concept

Turkka Keinonen

2008-01-01

14

Understanding the context of design: towards tactical user centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely recognized that system usability requires active involvement of end-users in all phases of software development, and there is currently a broad consensus among researchers and practitioners in the field as to what constitutes a good user-centered design process. Despite this, many systems development projects still fail when it comes to addressing usability issues and appropriately involving users

Dag Svanæs; Jan Gulliksen

2008-01-01

15

The management of human errors in user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-Centered Design puts the users at the center of the design activity by involving them from the very beginning in the process and by iteratively testing and re-designing the product. In every testing and evaluation phase human error analysis plays an important role. Although it is not possible to design systems in which people do not make errors, much can

A. Rizzo; O. Parlangeli; E. Marchigiani; S. Bagnara

1996-01-01

16

Eclipse Plug-in to Manage User Centered Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-centered design (UCD) approach guides the design of user interface (UI) and its evaluation by integrating user experience as part of the software development process. Involving users during the development process by applying UCD techniques minimizes risks and increases the product quality. One of the challenges towards this is to automating the management of UCD activities during the development time

Yael Dubinsky; Shah Rukh Humayoun; Tiziana Catarci

2008-01-01

17

IDEAL: a tool to enable user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

While UIMSs and other tools are advancing as cost-effective ways of producing interfaces, attention to usability is rarely incorporated. Producing interfaces more rapidly without addressing their quality is of limited worth. We present a tool, IDEAL (Interface Design Environment and Analysis Lattice), that encourages and enables user-centered design as an integral part of the interface development process. IDEAL integrates usability

Stacey Ashlund I; Deborah Hix

1992-01-01

18

Generative usability: security and user centered design beyond the appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this position paper we consider the ways in which users can be given control over technology and information, considering the spectrum of design possibilities from 'generative component' solutions, to 'appliance' solutions. We show how security concerns and the processes of user centered design tend to encourage a migration towards the appliance end of the spectrum and then describe problems

Luke Church; Alma Whitten

2009-01-01

19

Living Web: supporting Internet-based user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an Internet-based platform and applications which address problems encountered in user-centered design. The issues of coordination and management, variety of representations, and the iterative nature of the design process are discussed along with solutions provided by our approach. We give actual examples of usage of our system and some issues for future consideration.

Jeffrey D. Smith; Kenji Takahashi; Eugene Liang

1999-01-01

20

A survey of user-centered design practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a recent survey of user-centered design (UCD) practitioners. The survey involved over a hundred respondents who were CHI'2000 attendees or current UPA members. The paper identifies the most widely used methods and processes, the key factors that predict success, and the critical tradeoffs practitioners must make in applying UCD methods and processes. Results show

Karel Vredenburg; Ji-Ye Mao; Paul W. Smith; Tom Carey

2002-01-01

21

Aligning user centered design activities with established software development practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors will present their experiences gathered by implementing a User Centered Design (UCD) Process in an existing product development lifecycle within the complex setting of a large healthcare software company. This experience report will highlight how the authors succeeded to tie UCD practices to the existing software development cycle using use cases as a tool for requirement identification and

Karsten Nebe; Lennart Grötzbach

2006-01-01

22

Applying a User-centered Approach to Interactive Visualisation Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Analysing users in their context of work and finding out how and why they use different information resources is essential\\u000a to provide interactive visualisation systems that match their goals and needs. Designers should actively involve the intended\\u000a users throughout the whole process. This chapter presents a user-centered approach for the design of interactive visualisation\\u000a systems. We describe three phases of

Ingo Wassink; Olga Kulyk; Betsy van Dijk; Gerrit van der Veer; Paul van der Vet

2009-01-01

23

User centered design of gesture-based interaction technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the user-centered design process of developing a gesture-based interaction technology aimed at interacting with three-dimensional displays at short working distances (e.g., at arm’s length). First, we explored the range and variability of gestures that come natural for users when interacting with 3D displays. The next section describes the challenges encountered when implementing the preferred gestures into the

Maurice H. P. H. van Beurdena; Wijnand A. IJsselsteijna; Klaus Hopfb

2011-01-01

24

"Are You Talking to Me?"--Teaching User-Centered Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|User-centered design (UCD) is an approach to design that grounds the process in information about the people who will use the product. UCD processes focus on users through the planning, design and development of a product. Establishing a User Profile is certainly a key element in user-centered design. For many products, such as an automobile, a…

Kemnitzer, Ronald B.

2005-01-01

25

The living memory box: function, form and user centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Living Memory Box project examines how to research and design user-centered system to support the collection, archiving and sharing of moments from a child's life. This research has provided us with details of key features to enhance our user-centered design and encompass all aspects of the system. We plan to use these findings to influence the development of ubiquitous

Molly M. Stevens; Florian Vollmer; Gregory D. Abowd

2002-01-01

26

Avoiding the Mistake of Cloning: A Case for User-Centered Design Methods to Reengineer Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this case study, we demonstrate how user-centered design techniques can enhance the introduction of documents into electronic commerce. A finance company, in order to compete on value rather than rate, sought to develop an electronic system for auto financing. User-centered design principles and techniques were used to separate the fundamental business process from the supporting information process. Rather than

Lauretta Jones; Catalina Danis; Stephen J. Boies

1999-01-01

27

Building a team for user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the building blocks for building a team for user-centered design. These building blocks include an understanding of the skills needed for team members representing various aspects of the user experience, as well as the advantages of using a team-approach to user-center design. To have a successful experience, team members must understand the stages of group formation, the

Carol M. Barnum

2000-01-01

28

Applying a User-Centered Approach to Interactive Visualisation Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysing users in their context of work and finding out how and why they use different information resources is essential to provide interactive visualisation systems that match their goals and needs. Designers should actively involve the intended users throughout the whole process. This chapter presents a user-centered approach for the design of interactive visualisation systems. We describe three phases of the iterative visualisation design process: the early envisioning phase, the global specification phase, and the detailed specification phase. The whole design cycle is repeated until some criterion of success is reached. We discuss different techniques for the analysis of users, their tasks and domain. Subsequently, the design of prototypes and evaluation methods in visualisation practice are presented. Finally, we discuss the practical challenges in design and evaluation of collaborative visualisation environments. Our own case studies and those of others are used throughout the whole chapter to illustrate various approaches.

Wassink, Ingo; Kulyk, Olga; van Dijk, Betsy; van der Veer, Gerrit; van der Vet, Paul

29

User-Centered Design and Evaluation of Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a structured, iterative methodology for user-centered design and evaluation of VE user interaction. We recommend performing (1) user task analysis followed by (2) expert guidelines-based evaluation, (3) formative user-centered evaluation, and finally (4) comparative evaluation. In this article we first give the motivation and background for our methodology, then we describe each technique in some detail. We applied

Joseph L. Gabbard; Deborah Hix; J. Edward Swan II

1999-01-01

30

User centered design for intelligent service robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a fetch-and-carry robot to assist physically impaired people in an office environment. Different methods involving users are employed in the project, including the task analysis, Hi-Fi simulation trials and focus group sessions. Through an iterative design process, a prototype robot system has been developed, with an enhanced robot platform including a graphical user interface

A. Green; H. Huttenrauch; M. Norman; L. Oestreicher; K. S. Eklundh

2000-01-01

31

Applying a user centered design methodology in a clinical context.  

PubMed

A clinical decision support system (CDSS) is an interactive application that is used to facilitate the process of decisionmaking in a clinical context. Developing a usable CDSS is a challenging process; mostly because of the complex nature of domain knowledge and the context of use of those systems. This paper describes how a user centered design (UCD) approach can be used in a clinical context for developing a CDSS. In our effort, a design-based research methodology has been used. The outcomes of this work are as follow; a customized UCD approach is suggested that combines UCD and openEHR. Moreover, the GUI developed in the design phase and the result of the GUI evaluation is briefly presented. PMID:20841820

Kashfi, Hajar

2010-01-01

32

Agile user centered design: enter the design studio - a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the merger of user centered design into agile (team) development practice as manifest in a one day design studio. Benefits and challenges to a design studio approach are discussed, and the evolution of one design using the design studio process is presented.

Jim Ungar; Jeff White

2008-01-01

33

Teaching User-Centered Design in New Product Marketing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thanks in part to groundbreaking work by companies such as Apple and IDEO, there has been growing interest in design as a way to improve the odds of new product success. This paper describes a user-centered design workshop developed for a new product marketing course. The workshop included exercises designed to explain and illustrate the…

Love, Edwin; Stone, Donn E.; Wilton, Taine

2011-01-01

34

WSDM: A User Centered Design Method for Web Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

WSDM is a user-centered method for the design of kiosk Web Sites. By explicitly starting from the requirements of the users or visitors, WSDM solves web site problems that are primarily caused by that fact that a site has no underlying design at all, or that the design is mostly data-driven.

Olga De Troyer; C. J. Leune

1998-01-01

35

Ethics of Engagement: User-Centered Design and Rhetorical Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the shift from observation of users to participation with users, describing and investigating three examples of user-centered design practice in order to consider the new ethical demands being made of technical communicators. Explores Pelle Ehn's participatory design method, Roger Whitehouse's design of tactile signage for blind users,…

Salvo, Michael J.

2001-01-01

36

User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University…

Bordac, Sarah; Rainwater, Jean

2008-01-01

37

User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University Library's Web site. Three testing phases were conducted:

Sarah Bordac; Jean Rainwater

2008-01-01

38

Product definition using a user-centered design method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper communicates the author's experiences defining the external user interface specification for a new workstation product using a user-centered design team. The multidisciplinary team consisted of a technical writer, a programmer, and a human factors specialist to leverage the different skill sets of each profession. The work was familiar to all involved, but each professional represented their profession's perspectives

J. Davison

1994-01-01

39

A survey of user-centered design practice in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first time to report the results of a recent survey of user-centered design (UCD) practice in China, conducted in 2007. The survey involved over four hundred respondents who were at the user friendly conference or attended other UCD related activities. The survey identified, e.g. practitioners' demographics and experience, the type of organization, the usage frequency of

Ronggang Zhou; Shengshan Huang; Xiangang Qin; Jason Huang

2008-01-01

40

Driving user centered design into IT organizations: is it possible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many organizations, actively engaging in user-centered design (UCD) techniques is standard practice when delivering products into the commercial marketplace or to external customers. But in these same organizations -- or in organizations not delivering products to an external customer -- the creation of systems for use by employees is a conversation between IT and the business unit. UCD professionals

Karen Holtzblatt; Joshua Barr; Les Holtzblatt

2009-01-01

41

Usability Studies and User-Centered Design in Digital Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Digital libraries continue to flourish. At the same time, the principles of user-centered design and the practice of usability testing have been growing in popularity, spreading their influence into the library sphere. This article explores the confluence of these two trends by surveying the current literature on usability studies of digital…

Comeaux, David J.

2008-01-01

42

The state of user-centered design practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-Centered Design (UCD) is a multidisciplinary design approach based on the active involvement of users to improve the understanding of user and task requirements, and the iteration of design and evaluation. It is widely considered the key to product usefulness and usability---an effective approach to overcoming the limitations of traditional system-centered design. Much has been written in the research literature

Ji-Ye Mao; Karel Vredenburg; Paul W. Smith; Tom Carey

2005-01-01

43

A User-centered Model for Web Site Design  

PubMed Central

As the Internet continues to grow as a delivery medium for health information, the design of effective Web sites becomes increasingly important. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of one effective model for Web site design, a user-centered process that includes techniques for needs assessment, goal/task analysis, user interface design, and rapid prototyping. They detail how this approach was employed to design a family health history Web site, Health Heritage . This Web site helps patients record and maintain their family health histories in a secure, confidential manner. It also supports primary care physicians through analysis of health histories, identification of potential risks, and provision of health care recommendations. Visual examples of the design process are provided to show how the use of this model resulted in an easy-to-use Web site that is likely to meet user needs. The model is effective across diverse content arenas and is appropriate for applications in varied media.

Kinzie, Mable B.; Cohn, Wendy F.; Julian, Marti F.; Knaus, William A.

2002-01-01

44

Non-User Centered Design of Personal Mobile Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

During design and development of personal mobile communicationtechnologies, various user centered design approaches are frequently used.Based on results from three ethnographic studies of bike messenger operations,bike police operation and field engineering operations, we argue that the viewof the non-user should be included during design. Concepts from the socialconstruction of technology tradition are used as analytic devises forinvestigating the role of

Jo Herstad

2000-01-01

45

Research on User-Centered Design and Recognition Pen Gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pen-based user interface has become a hot research field in recent years. Pen gesture plays an important role in Pen-based user interfaces. But it's difficult for UI designers to design, and for users to learn and use. In this pur- pose, we performed a research on user-centered design and recognition pen ges- tures. We performed a survey of 100 pen

Feng Tian; Tiegang Cheng; Hongan Wang; Guozhong Dai

2006-01-01

46

Reduced empathizing skills increase challenges for user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-Centered Design is surprisingly difficult. One of the biggest issues, certainly for those with no HCI or usability experience, is a lack of appreciation of how users think and work. Their assumption is that users will approach and solve problems in the same way as the designers and developers of an interactive solution. Extreme examples of this self-as-user outlook is

William Hudson

2009-01-01

47

Integrating Extreme Programming and User-Centered Design ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of a software development project is associated not only with tools and technologies, but it also depends on how much the development process helps to be user-centered and developer-oriented. Involving customers in the process and being people-oriented, Extreme Programming (XP)- One of the popular agile methods - can be a choice for developing a usable system. The project

Zahid Hussain; Martin Lechner; Harald Milchrahm; Sara Shahzad; Wolfgang Slany; Martin Umgeher; Peter Wolkerstorfer

48

Current State of Agile User-Centered Design: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agile software development methods are quite popular nowadays and are being adopted at an increasing rate in the industry\\u000a every year. However, these methods are still lacking usability awareness in their development lifecycle, and the integration\\u000a of usability\\/User-Centered Design (UCD) into agile methods is not adequately addressed. This paper presents the preliminary\\u000a results of a recently conducted online survey regarding

Zahid Hussain; Wolfgang Slany; Andreas Holzinger

2009-01-01

49

User-Centered Design for a Voice Portal  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief overview of voice portal technology, with special attention paid to Polish, we discuss some aspects of user-centered\\u000a design and its influence on usability of the proposed solution. We describe the issues of voice portal preparation on the\\u000a example of Warsaw city transportation hotline and main components of the voice portal. The system is effective and supports\\u000a users

Krzysztof Marasek; Lukasz Brocki; Danijel Korzinek; Krzysztof Szklanny; Ryszard Gubrynowicz

2009-01-01

50

Current State of Agile User-Centered Design: A Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agile software development methods are quite popular nowadays and are being adopted at an increasing rate in the industry every year. However, these methods are still lacking usability awareness in their development lifecycle, and the integration of usability/User-Centered Design (UCD) into agile methods is not adequately addressed. This paper presents the preliminary results of a recently conducted online survey regarding the current state of the integration of agile methods and usability/UCD. A world wide response of 92 practitioners was received. The results show that the majority of practitioners perceive that the integration of agile methods with usability/UCD has added value to their adopted processes and to their teams; has resulted in the improvement of usability and quality of the product developed; and has increased the satisfaction of the end-users of the product developed. The top most used HCI techniques are low-fidelity prototyping, conceptual designs, observational studies of users, usability expert evaluations, field studies, personas, rapid iterative testing, and laboratory usability testing.

Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

51

Developing and Applying a User-Centered Model for the Design and Implementation of Information Visualization Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to show how approaches for user-centered information visualization design and development are being applied in the context of healthcare where users are not familiar with information visualization techniques. We base our design methods on user-centered frameworks in which 'prototyping' plays an important role in the process. We modify existing approaches to involve prototyping at

Lian Chee Koh; Aidan Slingsby; Jason Dykes; Tin Seong Kam

2011-01-01

52

User-centered design as a risk management tool in new technology product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This three-year field study examines the role of user- centered design as a risk management tool for new product developments in technology-based environments. The findings show the critical importance of involving users in the risk management process throughout the development cycle. Early validation of product feasibility and usability is especially important for minimizing costly design iterations and disappointments in the

Terrance M. Skelton; Hans J. Thamhain

2005-01-01

53

User-centered virtual environment design for virtual rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background As physical and cognitive rehabilitation protocols utilizing virtual environments transition from single applications to comprehensive rehabilitation programs there is a need for a new design cycle methodology. Current human-computer interaction designs focus on usability without benchmarking technology within a user-in-the-loop design cycle. The field of virtual rehabilitation is unique in that determining the efficacy of this genre of computer-aided therapies requires prior knowledge of technology issues that may confound patient outcome measures. Benchmarking the technology (e.g., displays or data gloves) using healthy controls may provide a means of characterizing the "normal" performance range of the virtual rehabilitation system. This standard not only allows therapists to select appropriate technology for use with their patient populations, it also allows them to account for technology limitations when assessing treatment efficacy. Methods An overview of the proposed user-centered design cycle is given. Comparisons of two optical see-through head-worn displays provide an example of benchmarking techniques. Benchmarks were obtained using a novel vision test capable of measuring a user's stereoacuity while wearing different types of head-worn displays. Results from healthy participants who performed both virtual and real-world versions of the stereoacuity test are discussed with respect to virtual rehabilitation design. Results The user-centered design cycle argues for benchmarking to precede virtual environment construction, especially for therapeutic applications. Results from real-world testing illustrate the general limitations in stereoacuity attained when viewing content using a head-worn display. Further, the stereoacuity vision benchmark test highlights differences in user performance when utilizing a similar style of head-worn display. These results support the need for including benchmarks as a means of better understanding user outcomes, especially for patient populations. Conclusions The stereoacuity testing confirms that without benchmarking in the design cycle poor user performance could be misconstrued as resulting from the participant's injury state. Thus, a user-centered design cycle that includes benchmarking for the different sensory modalities is recommended for accurate interpretation of the efficacy of the virtual environment based rehabilitation programs.

2010-01-01

54

Playing with Fire: User-Centered Design of Wearable Computing for Emergency Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach of using game-like techniques to engage firemen from the Paris Fire Brigade into a participatory\\u000a design process of wearable computing for emergency response. The approach is motivated by explaining the specific difficulties\\u000a of the domain and technology and by explaining how to address them in a user-centered design approach featuring multiple prototyping\\u000a steps. A multiplayer

Markus Klann; Schloss Birlinghoven

2007-01-01

55

A Study in User-Centered Design and Evaluation of Mental Tasks for BCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Current brain-computer interfacing (BCI) research focuses on detection performance, speed, and bit rates. However, this is\\u000a only a small part of what is important to the user. From human-computer interaction (HCI) research, we can apply the paradigms\\u000a of user-centered design and evaluation, to improve the usability and user experience. Involving the users in the design process\\u000a may also help in

Danny Plass-Oude Bos; Mannes Poel; Anton Nijholt; Kuo-Tien Lee; Wen-Hsiang Tsai; Hong-Yuan Mark Liao; Tsuhan Chen; Jun-Wei Hsieh; Chien-Cheng Tseng

2011-01-01

56

Galactic Dimensions: A Unifying Workstyle Model for User-Centered Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes a new unifying workstyle model for the user-centered design process, comprised of eight dimensions that\\u000a we claim as fundamental to supporting the UCD process. Our proposal is new because it is the first workstyle model tailored\\u000a to UCD. We also show the usefulness of workstyle modeling when evaluating the stage\\/effort of a project at a given time.

Pedro F. Campos; Nuno Jardim Nunes

2005-01-01

57

A User-centered Model for Web Site Design : Needs Assessment, User Interface Design, and Rapid Prototyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Internet continues to grow as a delivery medium for health information, the design of effective Web sites becomes increasingly important. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of one effective model for Web site design, a user-centered process that includes techniques for needs assessment, goal\\/task analysis, user interface design, and rapid prototyping. They detail how this approach

Mable B Kinzie; Wendy F Cohn; Marti F Julian; William A Knaus

2002-01-01

58

A new user-centered design approach: A hair washing assistive device design for users with shoulder mobility restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilized a user-centered design approach as the foundation for a new Assistive Device (AD) design process. Observation and evaluation results from a Usability Context Analysis (UCA) was used to improve the analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT Analysis) and the matrix of Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses, and Strengths (TOWS matrix), resulting in two assistive device design methods

Fong-Gong Wu; Min-Yuan Ma; Ro-Han Chang

2009-01-01

59

User-centered design by genetic algorithms: Application to brass musical instrument optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents an implementation of genetic algorithms (GAs) for a user-centered design of products. It describes at first a methodology for a user-centered design, based on the coupling between a subjective study to define desirable features and on objective study to find out the influencing objective variables. It relies on two domains that remain generally distinct: the design with

Emilie Poirson; Philippe Dépincé; Jean-François Petiot

2007-01-01

60

Prosthesis-user-in-the-loop: user-centered design parameters and visual simulation.  

PubMed

After an amputation, processes of change in the body image as well as a change in body scheme have direct influences on the quality of living in every patient. Within this paper, a paradigm of experimental induced body illusion (the Rubber Hand Illusion, RHI) is integrated in a prosthetic hardware simulator concept. This concept combines biodynamical and visual feedback to enhance the quality of rehabilitation and to integrate patients' needs into the development of prostheses aiming on user-centered solutions. Therefore, user-centered design parameters are deducted. Furthermore, the basic concept of the visual simulation is presented and a possibility for its implementation is given. Finally, issues and conclusions for future work are described. PMID:23366292

Christ, O; Wojtusch, J; Beckerle, P; Wolff, K; Vogt, J; von Stryk, O; Rinderknecht, S

2012-01-01

61

Using dramaturgical methods to gain more dynamic user understanding in user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce the method of dramaturgical reading, which was originally a method of producing different crystallized and associative theatrical and graphical presentations of a role character in a drama context. We transfer dramaturgical reading into the field of user-centered design in order to understand, analyze and represent user-centered material. We compare a persona created with dramaturgical reading

Vesa Kantola; Sauli Tiitta; Katri Mehto; Tomi Kankainen

2007-01-01

62

Design evolution in a multimedia tutorial on user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

New modes of lifelong learning in the workplace require interface designs which support new contexts for learning. We descnie here a workplace learning support system for instmction in User-centered Design (UCD). The design evolution of this system illustrates how the \\

Tom Carey; Slade Mitchell; Dan Peerenboom; Mary Lytwyn

1998-01-01

63

Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems: A Call for User-Centered Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The essay views the prospects of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) technology from the perspective of human factors psychology. This viewpoint stresses the need for user-centered design in order to optimize the potential benefits and to avoid uni...

D. A. Owens G. Helmers M. Sivak

1992-01-01

64

User-Centered Design: Component-Based Web Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this age of rapid technological progression and heightened competition, designers of interactive systems, especially web\\u000a applications, must be able to prepare for, cope with, and adopt to design processes that meet both customer needs and expectations\\u000a and cutting edge-technology. This paper presents the authors’ experience with designing and prototyping a web application\\u000a using a new web user interface (UI)

Esin Kiris; Howard Abrams; Roman Longoria

2007-01-01

65

User-centered design, activity-centered design, and goal-directed design: a review of three methods for designing web applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

When conducting research with users in order to design web applications, the practitioner has a variety of methods from which to choose. This paper examines three such methods'User-Centered Design (UCD), Goal-Directed Design (GDD), and Activity-Centered Design (ACD)'in terms of their foundations, processes, and deliverables.

Ashley Williams

2009-01-01

66

User-Centered Design of a Web Site for Library and Information Science Students: Heuristic Evaluation and Usability Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the life cycle of a library Web site created with a user-centered design process to serve a graduate school of library and information science (LIS). Findings based on a heuristic evaluation and usability study were applied in an iterative redesign of the site to better serve the needs of this special academic library population. Recommendations for design

Laura Manzari; Jeremiah Trinidad-Christensen

67

Approaches for Incorporating User-Centered Design into CAI Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all survey interviews are now conducted using some type of computer-assisted interviewing (CAI) software. However, unless CAI instrument design and usability are considered, even the most carefully worded questions can yield questionable data. Ample evidence exists that usability is enhanced when user needs are considered early and continuously throughout the software development process. In the development of complex computer-assisted

Bill Mockovak; Jean Fox

68

Looking back at plan AHEAD™: exercising user- centered design in emergency management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plan AHEAD™- All Hazard Exercise Development and Administration is a usability test development tool designed for emergency management agencies focused on disaster preparedness. Several user- centered design principles employed to develop Plan AHEAD are discussed including ethnographic research, rapid prototyping and iterative design. Specific design decisions that rely on these approaches are highlighted. Alternative design approaches that failed to meet

Leo Frishberg

2005-01-01

69

A review of user-centered design for diabetes-related consumer health informatics technologies.  

PubMed

User-centered design (UCD) is well recognized as an effective human factor engineering strategy for designing ease of use in the total customer experience with products and information technology that has been applied specifically to health care information technology systems. We conducted a literature review to analyze the current research regarding the use of UCD methods and principles to support the development or evaluation of diabetes-related consumer health informatics technology (CHIT) initiatives. Findings indicate that (1) UCD activities have been applied across the technology development life cycle stages, (2) there are benefits to incorporating UCD to better inform CHIT development in this area, and (3) the degree of adoption of the UCD process is quite uneven across diabetes CHIT studies. In addition, few to no studies report on methods used across all phases of the life cycle with process detail. To address that void, the Appendix provides an illustrative case study example of UCD techniques across development stages. PMID:23911188

LeRouge, Cynthia; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

2013-07-01

70

Case Study: A PDA Example of User Centered Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common complaint about software design is that it is often based on the underlying technology rather than designed for end-user\\u000a tasks. Especially for software for more technical tasks, such as setting up a data connection, designing for user tasks might\\u000a seem hard since the userrss goal is rarely setting up the connection itself but usually performing a task that

Harald Lamberts

2002-01-01

71

User-centered design of graphical user interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In user interface design a common pitfall is to use the technical properties of the device as basis for the design, which easily causes a user interface to become too complicated and hard to use. Also, the great development in the area of different hand-held terminal devices has set new requirements for user interfaces: screen sizes of devices are very

Riku Luostarinen; Jukka Manner; J. Ma?a?tta?; R. Ja?rvinen

2010-01-01

72

Identifying and selecting users for user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is critical to the success of a system that appropriate and representative users are involved in the development work. However, the process of identifying and selecting users has not been a focus of research. In this paper, we describe a process of identifying and selecting relevant users specifically for field studies. Characterization and sampling of users are discussed. In

Sari Kujala; Marjo Kauppinen

2004-01-01

73

Putting People First: The Importance of User-Centered Design and Universal Usability to Voting Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This white paper discusses why usability and the user experience should be the starting point for the design of any voting system and how user-centered design and universal usability principles are critical to the development of voting systems. We then explore issues of how to best implement usability and accessibility in this context and make recommendations for future research and

Sharon J. Laskowski; Whitney Quesenbery

74

A user-centered design of a personal digital library for music exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the evaluation of a personal digital library environment designed to help musicians capture, enrich and store their ideas using a spatial hypermedia paradigm. The target user group is musicians who primarily use audio and text for composition and arrangement, rather than with formal music notation. Using the principle of user-centered design, the software implementation was guided by a

David Bainbridge; Brook J. Novak; Sally Jo Cunningham

2010-01-01

75

User-Centered Design with Illiterate Persons: The Case of the ATM User Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major challenges in current user interface research and development is the accommodation of diversity in users and contexts of use in order to improve the self-efficacy of citizens. A common banking service, which should be designed for diversity, is the Automated Teller Machine (ATM). This paper describes the various user-centered design techniques to in- volve the future

Anita H. M. Cremers; Jacomien G. M. De Jong; Johan S. Van Balken

2008-01-01

76

User-centered design in video games: investigating gestural interfaces appropriation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on the exploration of video game usage in the context of a user-centered design project. In order to design compelling user experiences with gestural interfaces, we undertook a small-scale qualitative study. This exploration addressed players' experience and perception of realism when using gestural interfaces. We compared the user experience of these two styles of interaction

Nicolas Nova; Timothée Jobert

2011-01-01

77

Creative user-centered visualization design for energy analysts and modelers.  

PubMed

We enhance a user-centered design process with techniques that deliberately promote creativity to identify opportunities for the visualization of data generated by a major energy supplier. Visualization prototypes developed in this way prove effective in a situation whereby data sets are largely unknown and requirements open - enabling successful exploration of possibilities for visualization in Smart Home data analysis. The process gives rise to novel designs and design metaphors including data sculpting. It suggests: that the deliberate use of creativity techniques with data stakeholders is likely to contribute to successful, novel and effective solutions; that being explicit about creativity may contribute to designers developing creative solutions; that using creativity techniques early in the design process may result in a creative approach persisting throughout the process. The work constitutes the first systematic visualization design for a data rich source that will be increasingly important to energy suppliers and consumers as Smart Meter technology is widely deployed. It is novel in explicitly employing creativity techniques at the requirements stage of visualization design and development, paving the way for further use and study of creativity methods in visualization design. PMID:24051818

Goodwin, Sarah; Dykes, Jason; Jones, Sara; Dillingham, Iain; Dove, Graham; Duffy, Alison; Kachkaev, Alexander; Slingsby, Aidan; Wood, Jo

2013-12-01

78

Synthesizing User Centered and Designer Centered IS Development Approaches Using General Systems Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses general systems theory to provide an expanded view of information systems in organizations. Three general viewpoints and corresponding approaches to information systems development are identified. The designer centered or American approach to information systems development is based on a “functionalist” perspective of information systems and a problem solving orientation. The user centered or European approach to information

Edward J. Garrity

2001-01-01

79

A user centered design approach for patient interfaces to a diabetes IT platform.  

PubMed

Improving patient self-management can have a greater impact than improving any clinical treatment (WHO). We propose here a systematic and comprehensive user centered design approach for delivering a technological platform for diabetes disease management. The system was developed under the METABO research project framework, involving patients from 3 different clinical centers in Parma, Modena and Madrid. PMID:22254523

Fico, Giuseppe; Fioravanti, Alessio; Arredondo, Maria Teresa; Leuteritz, Jan-Paul; Guillén, Alejandra; Fernandez, Duarte

2011-01-01

80

A user-centered designed FOSS implementation of bone surgery simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different aspects of bone surgery simulation has been a popular topic in haptics research field. This demonstration paper has two major results: a Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) imple- mentation of a well known algorithm for tool-bone interaction force estimation, and an evaluation conducted as part of a suggested User- centered design approach for creation of a surgery simulator

Jonas Forsslund; Eva-Lotta Sallnäs; Karl-Johan Palmerius

2009-01-01

81

A user centered design approach for patient interfaces to a diabetes IT platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving patient self-management can have a greater impact than improving any clinical treatment (WHO). We propose here a systematic and comprehensive user centered design approach for delivering a technological platform for diabetes disease management. The system was developed under the METABO research project framework, involving patients from 3 different clinical centers in Parma, Modena and Madrid.

Giuseppe Fico; Alessio Fioravanti; Maria Teresa Arredondo; Jan-Paul Leuteritz; Alejandra Guillen; Duarte Fernandez

2011-01-01

82

User-centered design methods in practice: a survey of the state of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a recent survey involving over one hundred leading professionals of user-centered design (UCD). The survey covered a broad range of issues ranging from the profile of a typical UCD project including the percentage of total budget on UCD, organizational impact of UCD, measures of UCD success, and the most widely used methods and techniques.

Ji-Ye Mao; Karel Vredenburg; Paul W. Smith; Tom Carey

2001-01-01

83

User-Centered Design (UCD) applied to the identification and modification of unustainable practices.  

PubMed

Metropolitan Autonomous University, Cuajimalpa Unit (UAM-C) has as one of its main themes, researching and teaching of sustainability. In it, the Bachelor of Design program considers among its teaching approaches those of User-Centered Design and Eco-design as important issues, this explains the interest in addressing the areas in which both approaches can be articulated to reduce unsustainable practices through the design of messages, environments and products. PMID:22317621

Lucila, Mercado Colin; Alejandro, Rodea Chávez

2012-01-01

84

Users first! An introduction to usability and user-centered design and development for technical information and products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usability has become a common and important criterion for successful products-including the information component of those products-and companies are beginning to recognize this. To accomplish the goals of usability, development organizations must incorporate the principles of user-centered design and development-a process that begins and ends with a deep understanding of, and response to, the users of your products and their

Andrea L. Ames

2001-01-01

85

Improving the quality of numerical software through user-centered design  

SciTech Connect

The software interface - whether graphical, command-oriented, menu-driven, or in the form of subroutine calls - shapes the user`s perception of what software can do. It also establishes upper bounds on software usability. Numerical software interfaces typically are based on the designer`s understanding of how the software should be used. That is a poor foundation for usability, since the features that are ``instinctively right`` from the developer`s perspective are often the very ones that technical programmers find most objectionable or most difficult to learn. This paper discusses how numerical software interfaces can be improved by involving users more actively in design, a process known as user-centered design (UCD). While UCD requires extra organization and effort, it results in much higher levels of usability and can actually reduce software costs. This is true not just for graphical user interfaces, but for all software interfaces. Examples show how UCD improved the usability of a subroutine library, a command language, and an invocation interface.

Pancake, C. M., Oregon State University

1998-06-01

86

Disseminating maternal health information to rural women: a user centered design framework.  

PubMed

The delivery of primary health information to rural women is a considerable challenge for government and private sectors in rural India. This paper illustrates how by applying the proposed user centered framework dissemination of maternal health information to rural women can be improved. First, the paper presents baseline study to obtain existing knowledge level of women and design requirements for a Primary Health Information System (PHIS). Second, the paper presents a brief description of the PHIS system which was deployed in a village for sixteen months in rural India. Third, the paper explains longitudinal study conducted post intervention of PHIS to measure the impact of PHIS on the knowledge level and health behaviour of rural women in comparison to the baseline study. The results indicate that by following the proposed user centered approach to design the PHIS, a significant improvement in knowledge level of rural women and positive changes in health practices are achieved. PMID:21347047

Parmar, Vikram

2010-11-13

87

User-centered Design in Clinical Handover: Exploring Post-Implementation Outcomes for Clinicians.  

PubMed

This paper examines the outcomes for clinicians from their involvement in the development of an electronic clinical hand-over tool developed using principles of user-centered design. Conventional e-health post-implementation evaluations tend to emphasize technology-related (mostly positive) outcomes. More recently, unintended (mostly negative) consequences arising from the implementation of e-health technologies have also been reported. There remains limited focus on the post-implementation outcomes for users, particularly those directly involved in e-health design processes. This paper presents detailed analysis and insights into the outcomes experienced post-implementation by a cohort of junior clinicians involved in developing an electronic clinical handover tool in Tasmania, Australia. The qualitative methods used included observations, semi-structured interviews and analysis of clinical handover notes. Significantly, a number of unanticipated flow-on effects were identified that mitigated some of the challenges arising during the design and implementation of the tool. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of identifying post-implementation user outcomes beyond conventional system adoption and use and also points to the need for more comprehensive evaluative frameworks to encapsulate these broader socio-technical user outcomes. PMID:23920555

Wong, Ming Chao; Cummings, Elizabeth; Turner, Paul

2013-01-01

88

Characterizations, Requirements, and Activities of User-Centered Design—the KESSU 2.2 Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISO 13407 is a widely used and referred model of user-centered design, UCD. In this chapter, the principles and activities\\u000a of ISO 13407 are analysed. Based on the analysis, a revised UCD model “KESSU 2.2” is proposed, including refinements both\\u000a in the presentation and in the contents of principles and activities. The goal is that the refined model is more

Timo Jokela

89

Integration of Extreme Programming and User-Centered Design: Lessons Learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important factors for the success of a software application is user acceptance by having a usable user interface.\\u000a Since summer 2007 in our project regarding mobile phone application, we have combined Extreme Programming and User-Centered\\u000a Design methodologies aiming to deliver usable and useful software. The HCI instruments we have integrated are: user studies,\\u000a personas, usability expert

Zahid Hussain; Harald Milchrahm; Sara Shahzad; Wolfgang Slany; Manfred Tscheligi; Peter Wolkerstorfer

2009-01-01

90

Investigating Agile User-Centered Design in Practice: A Grounded Theory Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how the integration of agile methods and User-Centered Design (UCD) is carried out in practice. For\\u000a this study, we have applied grounded theory as a suitable qualitative approach to determine what is happening in actual practice.\\u000a The data was collected by semi-structured interviews with professionals who have already worked with an integrated agile UCD\\u000a methodology. Further data

Zahid Hussain; Wolfgang Slany; Andreas Holzinger

2009-01-01

91

User-centered design in the context of large and distributed projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-centered design (UCD) is a research and product development orientation that utilizes end user or customer information for making better (efficient, usable, enjoyable etc.) and thus commercially successful products. In practice, this is achieved by involving the end user early on, and maintaining this orientation throughout the developmental project.This paper presents lessons learned in EU IST project MobiLife about the

Esko Kurvinen; Andy Aftelak; Annakaisa Häyrynen

2006-01-01

92

Agile User-Centered Design Applied to a Mobile Multimedia Streaming Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile computing is leading a revolution. Multimedia consumption on mobile devices is increasing day by day. The most important\\u000a factor for the success of such applications is user acceptance. Additionally, the success of a software development project\\u000a is associated not only with tools and technologies but also depends on how much the development process is both user-centered\\u000a and developer-oriented. We

Zahid Hussain; Martin Lechner; Harald Milchrahm; Sara Shahzad; Wolfgang Slany; Martin Umgeher; Peter Wolkerstorfer

2008-01-01

93

A new user-centered design approach: a hair washing assistive device design for users with shoulder mobility restriction.  

PubMed

This study utilized a user-centered design approach as the foundation for a new Assistive Device (AD) design process. Observation and evaluation results from a Usability Context Analysis (UCA) was used to improve the analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT Analysis) and the matrix of Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses, and Strengths (TOWS matrix), resulting in two assistive device design methods named AD-SWOT and AD-TOWS. Thus, an AD-design process, tailored for designing assistive devices, was both established and tested. Owing to the information gained from using the design processes and evaluating product efficiency with various cases in the early part of the research, it was decided to use the AD-design process for the entire design process. Using this process, an adjustable hair washer for physically disabled individuals to wash their hair using normal postures was developed. Furthermore, the method derived in this study can also be applied to users suffering from single-sided shoulder-joint mobility disabilities, such as frontal flexion, scapular plan elevation, and restricted abductors. PMID:19232409

Wu, Fong-Gong; Ma, Min-Yuan; Chang, Ro-Han

2009-02-15

94

User-centered virtual environment assessment and design for cognitive rehabilitation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual environment (VE) design for cognitive rehabilitation necessitates a new methodology to ensure the validity of the resulting rehabilitation assessment. We propose that benchmarking the VE system technology utilizing a user-centered approach should precede the VE construction. Further, user performance baselines should be measured throughout testing as a control for adaptive effects that may confound the metrics chosen to evaluate the rehabilitation treatment. To support these claims we present data obtained from two modules of a user-centered head-mounted display (HMD) assessment battery, specifically resolution visual acuity and stereoacuity. Resolution visual acuity and stereoacuity assessments provide information about the image quality achieved by an HMD based upon its unique system parameters. When applying a user-centered approach, we were able to quantify limitations in the VE system components (e.g., low microdisplay resolution) and separately point to user characteristics (e.g., changes in dark focus) that may introduce error in the evaluation of VE based rehabilitation protocols. Based on these results, we provide guidelines for calibrating and benchmarking HMDs. In addition, we discuss potential extensions of the assessment to address higher level usability issues. We intend to test the proposed framework within the Human Experience Modeler (HEM), a testbed created at the University of Central Florida to evaluate technologies that may enhance cognitive rehabilitation effectiveness. Preliminary results of a feasibility pilot study conducted with a memory impaired participant showed that the HEM provides the control and repeatability needed to conduct such technology comparisons. Further, the HEM affords the opportunity to integrate new brain imaging technologies (i.e., functional Near Infrared Imaging) to evaluate brain plasticity associated with VE based cognitive rehabilitation.

Fidopiastis, Cali Michael

95

Investigating Agile User-Centered Design in Practice: A Grounded Theory Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates how the integration of agile methods and User-Centered Design (UCD) is carried out in practice. For this study, we have applied grounded theory as a suitable qualitative approach to determine what is happening in actual practice. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews with professionals who have already worked with an integrated agile UCD methodology. Further data was collected by observing these professionals in their working context, and by studying their documents, where possible. The emerging themes that the study found show that there is an increasing realization of the importance of usability in software development among agile team members. The requirements are emerging; and both low and high fidelity prototypes based usability tests are highly used in agile teams. There is an appreciation of each other's work from both UCD professionals and developers and both sides can learn from each other.

Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

96

Children and Adults Working Together in the Zone of Proximal Development: A Theory for User-Centered Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the theory of a zone of proximal development from the perspective of usability research and user-centered approaches to the design of information retrieval systems. Using concrete examples (dialogue, tools and techniques) from the inter-generational design teams of Large et al, this study will show how structuring usability research around Vygotsky's theory of a zone of proximal development

Leanne Bowler; Andrew Large; Jamshid Beheshti; Valerie Nesset

97

A Walk-Up-and-Use Information System for the Sydney Olympics: A Case Study in User-Centered Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The info information retrieval system was designed and developed for the XXVII Olym- pic Summer Games held in Sydney, Australia in September 2000. info provided journal- ists and broadcasters with information for planning their days at the games and produc- ing their coverage of Olympic events. The user-centered design (UCD) team from the IBM Storage Systems Group was invited to

Vivian Healy; Richard Herder

2002-01-01

98

Case Study: Successful Adoption of a User-Centered Design Approach During the Development of an Interactive Television Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

When creating a user experience for interactive television applications, or for any interface for that matter, it is important to start user research early in the design cycle, so that improvements can be made on the user experience through iterations. Unfortunately, during the development of user experiences this does not often happen. This paper discusses how a user-centered design approach

Sheri Lamont

99

Is ROI an effective approach for persuading decision-makers of the value of user-centered design?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This panel examines the utility and effectiveness of various ways of making the business case for user-centered design (UCD). Most of the discussion in our field has assumed that measuring and demonstrating ROI for usability is the key to this effort. However, experience shows that the most brilliant ROI analysis may not win the day in the real world of

Susan M. Dray; Clare-Marie Karat; Daniel Rosenberg; David A. Siegel; Dennis R. Wixon

2005-01-01

100

The Interaction Between Organizational Subcultures and User-Centered Design - A Case Study of an Implementation Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usability is a quality characteristic of a software product or system. User-centered design (UCD) is an approach focusing on making systems usable. However, improving the position of UCD is widely recognized as a challenge. This paper reports results from a case study, in which a small software development company was introduced with UCD principles and activities, and was thus expected

Netta Iivari; Pekka Abrahamsson

2002-01-01

101

Interactive breast cancer segmentation based on relevance feedback: from user-centered design to evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer systems play an important role in medical imaging industry since radiologists depend on it for visualization, interpretation, communication and archiving. In particular, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems help in lesion detection tasks. This paper presents the design and the development of an interactive segmentation tool for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. The tool conception is based upon a user-centered approach in order to ensure that the application is of real benefit to radiologists. The analysis of user expectations, workflow and decision-making practices give rise to the need for an interactive reporting system based on the BIRADS, that would not only include the numerical features extracted from the segmentation of the findings in a structured manner, but also support human relevance feedback as well. This way, the numerical results from segmentation can be either validated by end-users or enhanced thanks to domain-experts subjective interpretation. Such a domain-expert centered system requires the segmentation to be sufficiently accurate and locally adapted, and the features to be carefully selected in order to best suit user's knowledge and to be of use in enhancing segmentation. Improving segmentation accuracy with relevance feedback and providing radiologists with a user-friendly interface to support image analysis are the contributions of this work. The preliminary result is first the tool conception, and second the improvement of the segmentation precision.

Gouze, A.; Kieffer, S.; van Brussel, C.; Moncarey, R.; Grivegnée, A.; Macq, B.

2009-02-01

102

The importance of user centered design methods applied to the design of a new workstation: a case study.  

PubMed

This paper presents a case study of the application of user centered design methodologies in the product development for a line of ergonomic office furniture. The study aimed to analyze the experience of using a workstation from the perspective of two groups of users, installers and end users. The observation of users in their natural context of use not only allowed the development team to identify key needs and strategies of the users, transforming them into design solutions, but mainly it warned them of the importance and impact of user involvement in the product development cycle. PMID:22316849

Duschenes, Ronaldo; Mendes, Andressa; Betiol, Adriana; Barreto, Suzana

2012-01-01

103

Developing a Multimedia Environment to Aid in Vocalization for People on the Autism Spectrum: A User-Centered Design Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper outlines the analysis and design stages of an interactive multimedia environment for encouraging vocalization of\\u000a people with autism. We described the user-centered design approach for involving users in different roles in the design of\\u000a an Arabic interactive rehabilitation tool adapted to the needs of speech therapy programs used in the local context. Needs\\u000a analysis included exploratory surveys and

Areej Al-Wabil; Hadeel Al-Shabanat; Rawan Al-Sarrani; Manal Al-Khonin

2010-01-01

104

USER-CENTERED DESIGN OF SOFTWARE FOR ASSESSING COMPUTER USAGE SKILLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-centered development of the Compass software for assessing computer input skills continues. This paper describes how we gather information about user requirements and evaluate system usability. These activities help to ensure that Compass will meet the needs of its users. Background We are developing software, called Compass, which allows an evaluator to assess an individual's computer input skills. This assessment

Glen Ashlock; Heidi Horstmann Koester; Edmund F. LoPresti; William W. McMillan; Richard C. Simpson

105

Infant feeding: the interfaces between interaction design and cognitive ergonomics in user-centered design.  

PubMed

This text presents a discussion on the process of developing interactive products focused on infant behavior, which result was an interactive game for encouraging infant feeding. For that, it describes the use of cognitive psychology concepts added to interaction design methodology. Through this project, this article sustains how the cooperative use of these concepts provides adherent solutions to users' needs, whichever they are. Besides that, it verifies the closeness of those methodologies to boundary areas of knowledge, such as design focused on user and ergonomics. PMID:22316864

Lima, Flavia; Araújo, Lilian Kely

2012-01-01

106

User-Centered Design Meets Feature-Driven Development: An Integrating Approach for Developing the Web Application myPIM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show how a user-centered design (UCD) method can be successfully combined with an agile software development\\u000a approach, namely feature-driven development (FDD), to develop the web-based information management system myPIM. This system\\u000a supports users’ workflow requirements in research and teaching\\/learning contexts. It provides bookmark, file, and reference\\u000a archives, as well as possibilities for exchanging information with colleagues

Torsten Krohn; Martin Christof Kindsmüller; Michael Herczeg

2009-01-01

107

Skills needed by user-centered design practitioners in real software development environments: report on the CHI'92 workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-centered design (UCD) of human-computer interfaces--including task flow and documentation---is gaining acceptance in software development organizations. But managers who want their organizations to start using UCD often do not know what characteristics to look for, in candidates for hiring or retraining to fill UCD roles; this article can help. It has the recommendations from participants in a CHI '92 conference

Tom Dayton

1993-01-01

108

Novice Designers' Myths about Usability Sessions: Guidelines To Implementing User-Centered Design Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Details myths that illustrate novice instructional designers' perspectives on usability sessions and their users. Then offers suggestions for integrating creativity and developing enhanced perspective-taking. Two tables list the myths and guidelines, and potential effects of usability-session guidelines on novice designers' myths are charted.…

Sugar, William A.

1999-01-01

109

Rural eHealth Nutrition Education for Limited-Income Families: An Iterative and User-Centered Design Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Adult women living in rural areas have high rates of obesity. Although rural populations have been deemed hard to reach, Internet-based programming is becoming a viable strategy as rural Internet access increases. However, when people are able to get online, they may not find information designed for them and their needs, especially harder to reach populations. This results in a “content gap” for many users. Objective User-centered design is a methodology that can be used to create appropriate online materials. This research was conducted to apply a user-centered approach to the design and development of a health promotion website for low-income mothers living in rural Maryland. Methods Three iterative rounds of concept testing were conducted to (1) identify the name and content needs of the site and assess concerns about registering on a health-related website; (2) determine the tone and look of the website and confirm content and functionality; and (3) determine usability and acceptability. The first two rounds involved focus group and small group discussions, and the third round involved usability testing with individual women as they used the prototype system. Results The formative research revealed that women with limited incomes were enthusiastic about a website providing nutrition and physical activity information targeted to their incomes and tailored to their personal goals and needs. Other priority content areas identified were budgeting, local resources and information, and content that could be used with their children. Women were able to use the prototype system effectively. Conclusions This research demonstrated that user-centered design strategies can help close the “content gap” for at-risk audiences.

Saperstein, Sandra L; Desmond, Sharon M; Gold, Robert S; Billing, Amy S; Tian, Jing

2009-01-01

110

A user-centered approach for the design of advanced traveler information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study is on the design of Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) from the user's perspective, which consists of the optimal type(s) of ATIS information that should be conveyed to drivers and the most effective way(s) to convey the information. A driver's information processing model in the ATIS environment is proposed in this research work. The proposed

Chen-Ye David Yang

1997-01-01

111

A User-Centered Framework for Deriving A Conceptual Design From User Experiences: Leveraging Personas and Patterns to Create Usable Designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns are a design tool to capture best practices, tackling problems that occur in different contexts. A user interface (UI) design pattern spans several levels of design abstraction ranging from high-level navigation to low-level idioms detailing a screen layout. One challenge is to combine a set of patterns to create a conceptual design that reflects user experiences. In this chapter, we detail a user-centered design (UCD) framework that exploits the novel idea of using personas and patterns together. Personas are used initially to collect and model user experiences. UI patterns are selected based on personas pecifications; these patterns are then used as building blocks for constructing conceptual designs. Through the use of a case study, we illustrate how personas and patterns can act as complementary techniques in narrowing the gap between two major steps in UCD: capturing users and their experiences, and building an early design based on that information. As a result of lessons learned from the study and by refining our framework, we define a more systematic process called UX-P (User Experiences to Pattern), with a supporting tool. The process introduces intermediate analytical steps and supports designers in creating usable designs.

Javahery, Homa; Deichman, Alexander; Seffah, Ahmed; Taleb, Mohamed

112

The Development of Human-System Interactivity Metrics for Ubiquitous Service Applying User-Centered Design Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the ubiquitous era took off, the interactions between ubiquitous services and users have come to take an important position. So it is necessary to develop new evaluation method that evaluates interactivity with a user-centered perspective. The main objective of this study is the development of user-centered interactivity evaluation metrics of ubiquitous service attributes. Detailed goals of this study are

Joobong Song; Keun Ryang Park; Sanghyun Kwon; Ji Hwan Lee; Myung Hwan Yun; Joo Hwan Lee

2009-01-01

113

Towards a Model for Bridging Agile Development and User-Centered Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a reaction to the complexity and rigor of commercial software development processes, “agile” software development methods have gained increasing attention. Agile methods prioritize delivering working software over producing extensive models and documentation. Agile processes focus on the people involved and the required interaction instead of on processes and tools. Furthermore, it emphasizes that responding to the changes that invariably

Stefan Blomkvist

114

A User-Centered Methodological Framework for the Design of Hypermedia-based CALL Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses research aimed at improving the educational quality of hypermedia-based computer assisted language learning systems. Focuses on a methodological framework that draws on recent developments in the field of human-computer interaction regarding interactive system design and a general constructivist approach to the design of computer-based…

Shin, Jae-eun; Wastell, David G.

2001-01-01

115

Research on a user-centered design method for interactive online teaching system  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of Internet, online teaching is booming and is gradually moving into the daily lives of people. More and more interactive online teaching systems are required. Yet the operational interactive online teaching system design and development methods are fewer. On the foundation of the analytical research on personas, scenarios, prototype and participatory design, this paper presents an

Yaohua Yu; Zhengjie Liu

2006-01-01

116

Approaches for Incorporating User-Centered Design into CAI (Computer-Assisted Interviewing) Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Almost all survey interviews are now conducted using some type of computer-assisted interviewing (CAI) software. However, unless CAI instrument design and usability are considered, even the most carefully worded questions can yield questionable data. Ampl...

B. Mockovak J. Fox

2008-01-01

117

"Less Clicking, More Watching": Results from the User-Centered Design of a Multi-Institutional Web Site for Art and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper summarizes a 10-month long research project conducted at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center aimed at developing the design concept of a multi-institutional art and culture web site. The work followed a user-centered design (UCD) approach, where interaction with prototypes and feedback from potential users of the web site were sought…

Vergo, John; Karat, Clare-Marie; Karat, John; Pinhanez, Claudio; Arora, Renee; Cofino, Thomas; Riecken, Doug; Podlaseck, Mark

118

Evaluating CSL/CFL Website Usability: A User-Centered Design Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the widespread availability of Internet and computer technology, on-line web-based learning has become prevalent in the field of teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language (CSL/CFL). This study examined the concepts of usability and types of design elements that help construct an effective web-based learning environment, as well as their…

Huang, Chung-Kai; Hsin, Ching-O; Chiu, Chiung-Hui

2010-01-01

119

Improving the Usability of Numerical Software through User-Centered Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The software interface C whether graphical, command-oriented, menu-driven, or in the form of subroutine calls C shapes the user's perception of what software can do. It also establishes upper bounds on software usability. Numerical software interfaces typically are based on the designer's understanding of how the software should be used. That is a poor foundation for usability, since the features

Cherri M. Pancake

120

User-Centered Design and Evaluation of a Real-Time Battlefield Visualization Virtual Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever-increasing power of computers and hardware render- ing systems has, to date, primarily motivated the creation of visually rich and perceptually realistic virtual environment (VE) applications. Comparatively very little effort has been expended on the user interaction components of VEs. As a result, VE user interfaces are often poorly designed and are rarely evaluated with users. Although usability engineering

Deborah Hix; J. Edward Swan II; Joseph L. Gabbard; Mike Mcgee; Jim Durbin; Tony King

1999-01-01

121

Participatory user centered design techniques for a large scale ad-hoc health information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

During mass casualty incidents, an enormous amount of data, including the vital signs of the patients, the location of the patients, and the location of the first responders must be gathered and communicated efficiently. The Advanced Health and Disaster Aid Network (AID-N) used participatory design methods to develop an electronic triage system that changed how emergency personnel interacted, collected, and

Tia Gao; Tammara Massey; Majid Sarrafzadeh; Leo Selavo; Matt Welsh

2007-01-01

122

User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

2006-01-01

123

A methodology for connecting user centered design (UCD) with eco-design. The possibility of migration of products to services based on the user acceptance.  

PubMed

The consumer products generation is one of the main engines that fuel the planet's environmental problems, reduction of environmental impacts associated with the products has been studied from various aspects between them, the supply of products for public consumption instead of private, seeking to meet the needs of the community by establishing programs for sharing single product. It has been detected a problematic issues linked to this strategy, where the user acceptance of this new way of living together with the products must be achieved. The arguments here presented seek to identify user perception of such proposals and their possible acceptance throughout strategies from the User Centered Design (UCD). PMID:22316852

Alejandro, Rodea Chávez; Colin, Lucila Mercado

2012-01-01

124

User-Centered Innovation: A Model for "Early Usability Testing."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this study is to show how some concepts and techniques from disciplines outside Instructional Systems Development (ISD) have the potential to extend and enhance the traditional view of ISD practice when they are employed very early in the ISD process. The concepts and techniques employed were user-centered in design and usability, and…

Sugar, William A.; Boling, Elizabeth

125

What Is So Good about User-Centered Design? Documenting the Effect of Usability Sessions on Novice Software Designers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how novice software designers interpreted usability sessions and how the designers responded to users' reactions to their prototypes. Describes qualitative analysis of class projects, usability sessions, and interviews with graduate students and proposes recommendations on how to improve the training of educational software developers.…

Sugar, William A.

2001-01-01

126

User-Centered Interface Design for Disabled and Elderly People: First Experiences with Designing a Patient Communication System (PACOSY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the clinical department of Oncology at the Medical University Hospital in Graz, a pilot system for an interactive patient\\u000a communications system (PACOSY) was examined. The patients are able to retrieve and enter information interactively via a touch\\u000a screen panel PC connected to the Hospital Intranet. The Interface is designed for patients with little or no computer experience\\u000a (i.e. people

Andreas Holzinger

2002-01-01

127

The Scenario-Based Engineering Process (SEP): a user-centered approach for the development of health care systems.  

PubMed

The Scenario-based Engineering Process (SEP) is a user-focused methodology for large and complex system design. This process supports new application development from requirements analysis with domain models to component selection, design and modification, implementation, integration, and archival placement. It is built upon object-oriented methodologies, domain modeling strategies, and scenario-based techniques to provide an analysis process for mapping application requirements to available components. We are using SEP in the health care applications that we are developing. The process has already achieved success in the manufacturing and military domains and is being adopted by many organizations. SEP should prove viable in any domain containing scenarios that can be decomposed into tasks. PMID:8591321

Harbison, K; Kelly, J; Burnell, L; Silva, J

1995-01-01

128

User-centered guidelines for environmental management  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Management requirements facing US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are detailed, complex, and often subject to rapid change. DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231), is responsible for developing and issuing guidance to assist DOE facilities in interpreting and complying with Federal, State, and local requirements. Recognizing the potential for computerization of the guidance, EH-231 requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) develop an approach for preparing automated guidance. The approach developed by PNL, termed ``user-centered guidance,`` combines participatory design and traditional rapid prototyping techniques to produce a new form of environmental guidance that emphasizes the user`s needs. This paper describes the objectives, processes and current status of this effort.

Eike, D.R.; Fox, J.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dailey, R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-08-01

129

Creative Sketches Production in Digital Design: A User-Centered Evaluation of a 3D Digital Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With their tedious interfaces that impose an encoding sternness, the existing computer assisted architectural design tools\\u000a (CAAD) too often restrict users’ creativity. Paper and pencil are then privileged in the first design stages. In response\\u000a to this restriction, we have developed a sketch interface, based on an electronic pen and a LCD tablet, which allows the designer\\u000a to develop ideas

Anaïs Mayeur; Françoise Darses; Pierre Leclercq

2008-01-01

130

EZHPC: Adopting a Program-wide, User-centered Design Approach to the ezHPC User Interface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Engineer Research and Development Center Major Shared Resource Center (ERDC MSRC) has been tasked by the Department of Defense (DoD) High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) to adopt a program-wide design for the development of the rec...

J. Baca K. Buchanan K. Rappold P. Duett W. Monceaux

2007-01-01

131

Organizational, Contextual and User-Centered Design in e-Health: Application in the Area of Telecardiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, one of the main issues of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) in the area of e-Health is the design of telemedicine\\u000a services based on the study of interactions established between people and new technologies. Nevertheless, the research in\\u000a HCI has been mainly focused from a cognitive point of view, and most studies don’t consider other variables related to the\\u000a social

Eva Patrícia Gil Rodríguez; Ignacio Martínez Ruiz; Álvaro Alesanco Iglesias; José García Moros; Francesc Saigí Rubió

2007-01-01

132

ezHPC: Adopting a Program-Wide, User-Centered Design Approach to the ezHPC User Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Engineer Research and Development Center Major Shared Resource Center (ERDC MSRC) has been tasked by the Department of Defense (DoD) High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) to adopt a program-wide design for the development of the recently introduced ezHPC user interface. The purpose of ezHPC is to provide all HPCMP users intuitive, efficient access to high performance computing (HPC)

Julie Baca; Wes Monceaux; Patti Duett; Kimba Buchanan; Scotty Swillie; Glen Browning; N. Rappold; S. Duett

2007-01-01

133

User-centered design methods for validating a recommendations model to enrich learning management systems with adaptive navigation support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommendation techniques have shown to be successful in many domains (e.g. movies, books, music, etc.). This success has motivated us to research on how to deploy a recommending system in the eLearning domain to extend the functionality of standard-based learning management systems with adaptive navigation support. An initial model of the recommendation process has been developed from informal discussions with

Olga C. Santos; Ludivine Martin; Elena del Campo; Mar Saneiro; Jesus G. Boticario; Helen Petrie

134

The Contribution of Technical Communicators to the User-Centered Design Process of Personalized Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This article discusses how personalization will affect technical communication practitioners' everyday work, and indicates to researchers which knowledge gaps scientific research needs to fill.\\u000a\\u000aMethod: After a description of how personalization exactly works, we demonstrate that the technique is very similar to the approach to personalization as applied in ancient rhetoric. Next, we describe how the history of the

Velsen van Lex; Geest van der Thea; Michael Steehouder

2010-01-01

135

User-centered ecotourism development.  

PubMed

The transfer of knowledge in an ecotourism project is never a one-way affair. An approach connected to bottom-up development is the submersion into another culture, while creating a new organizational structure. For co-creation, patterns that are often latent, such as leadership roles, the association with business, or even the color of education can be revealed by carefully facilitated brainstorms or workshops. Especially in countries with a different hierarchical structure, such as Indonesia compared to Holland, a careful analysis is needed before starting cooperation. Although a case is only a temporary view on a situation and not a guarantee for a truly sustainable system, the bottom-up approach tested has interesting starting points for an ecotourism system. Two cases were conducted in Bali, Indonesia, which resulted in guidelines on how to approach user-centered ecotourism development. PMID:22317034

Talsma, L; Molenbroek, J F M

2012-01-01

136

A user-centered and evidence-based approach for digital library projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Soft systems methodology processes fortified by collaborative evidence-based librarianship (EBL) principles can guide end-user involvement in digital library project design and development. This paper aims to reveal the efficacy of this inclusive human-focused approach for building systems through user-generated research examples. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – From 2003 to 2006, user-centered interaction design guided increasingly complex human-computer interaction projects at California

Mary M. Somerville; Navjit Brar

2009-01-01

137

Observing users, designing clarity: A case study on the user-centered design of a cross-language information retrieval system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of the development of an interface to a novel and complex form of document retrieval: searching for texts written in foreign languages based on native language queries. Although the underlying technology for achieving such a search is relatively well understood, the appropriate interface design is not. A study involving users (with such searching needs)

Daniela Petrelli; Micheline Beaulieu; Mark Sanderson; George Demetriou; Patrick Herring; Preben Hansen

2004-01-01

138

Innovation in user-centered skills and performance improvement for sustainable complex service systems.  

PubMed

In order to leverage individual and organizational learning and to remain competitive in current turbulent markets it is important for employees, managers, planners and leaders to perform at high levels over time. Employee competence and skills are extremely important matters in view of the general shortage of talent and the mobility of employees with talent. Two factors emerged to have the greatest impact on the competitiveness of complex service systems: improving managerial and employee's knowledge attainment for skills, and improving the training and development of the workforce. This paper introduces the knowledge-based user-centered service design approach for sustainable skill and performance improvement in education, design and modeling of the next generation of complex service systems. The rest of the paper cover topics in human factors and sustainable business process modeling for the service industry, and illustrates the user-centered service system development cycle with the integration of systems engineering concepts in service systems. A roadmap for designing service systems of the future is discussed. The framework introduced in this paper is based on key user-centered design principles and systems engineering applications to support service competitiveness. PMID:22317322

Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

2012-01-01

139

User-centered evaluation of information: a research challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - This paper sets out to present the concept of the value of information, review the descriptive, rational, social and behavioral approaches for assessing the value of information, and explain why user-centered rather than information-centered evaluations are the most relevant. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - The paper starts by highlighting the main facets and market characteristics which influence the value of information.

Daphne R. Raban

2007-01-01

140

Us'em: the user-centered design of a device for motivating stroke patients to use their impaired arm-hand in daily life activities.  

PubMed

Stroke leaves the majority of its survivors with an impairment of the upper extremity that affects their ability to live independently and their quality of life. Rehabilitation research shows that practice of everyday life activities in a natural context may sustain or even improve arm-hand performance, even during chronic stages after stroke. Based on this insight we designed, developed and evaluated Us'em; this consists of two watch-like accelerometry devices that provide feedback to stroke patients regarding the usage of their impaired versus their non-affected upper extremity. System usability and treatment credibility/expectancy were evaluated positively by therapists and patients. PMID:22255506

Markopoulos, Panos; Timmermans, Annick A A; Beursgens, Luuk; van Donselaar, Rik; Seelen, Henk A M

2011-01-01

141

User-centered design of security software  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advance of electronic commerce and other networked services there is a growing need for easy to use security software. The problem with the security features and applications in much of today's software is that it is very technology-oriented. In order to correctly use it a basic knowledge of the underlying technology is often necessary. Our objective is to

Ursula Holmström

1999-01-01

142

User-centered design for KDD  

Microsoft Academic Search

During initial development, KDD solutions often focus heavily on algorithms, architectures, software, hardware, and systems engineering challenges, without first thoroughly exploring how end-users will employ the new KDD technology. As a result of such \\

Eric Haseltine

2004-01-01

143

Getting Lost? Touch and You Will Find! The User-Centered Design Process of a Touch Screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reforms in office concepts have led to new intensification strategies that aim at more flexibility and efficiency.\\u000a Hot desking is one of these new working practices that reduces office space per worker. These new office concepts however,\\u000a pose new challenges and problems to solve. This paper describes the development phase of an innovative touch screen application\\u000a for location based

Bieke Zaman; Rogier Vermaut

2007-01-01

144

Methodological Review A user-centered framework for redesigning health care interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous health care systems are designed without consideration of user-centered design guidelines. Consequently, systems are created ad hoc, users are dissatisfied and often systems are abandoned. This is not only a waste of human resources, but economic resources as well. In order to salvage such systems, we have combined different methods from the area of computer science, cognitive science, psychology,

Constance M. Johnson; Todd R. Johnson; Jiajie Zhang

145

Cognitive Tools and User-Centered Learning Environments: Rethinking Tools, Functions, and Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper introduces and analyzes problems and issues in the design and use of cognitive tools in open, user-centered learning environments. It introduces a classification scheme for tool functions, and showcases several tools in a current educational hypermedia research and development effort. Information-seeking, information-presentation,…

Iiyoshi, Toru; Hannafin, Michael J.

146

User-Centered Perspective of Information Retrieval Research and Analysis Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews information retrieval (IR) studies since 1986 from the user's perspective. Identifies two main approaches that advocate user-centered design theory: (1) the cognitive approach; and (2) the holistic approach. Also explores other approaches--systems thinking/action research and usability techniques that may have potential for IR research…

Sugar, William

1995-01-01

147

A User-Centered Cooperative Information System for Medical Imaging Diagnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a cooperative information system for remote medical imaging diagnosis. General computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) problems addressed are definition of a procedure for the design of user-centered cooperative systems (conceptual level); and improvement of user feedback and optimization of the communication bandwidth in highly…

Gomez, Enrique J.; Quiles, Jose A.; Sanz, Marcos F.; del Pozo, Francisco

1998-01-01

148

User-centered requirements engineering in health information systems: a study in the hemophilia field.  

PubMed

The use of sophisticated information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the health care domain is a way to improve the quality of services. However, there are also hazards associated with the introduction of ICTs in this domain and a great number of projects have failed due to the lack of systematic consideration of human and other non-technology issues throughout the design or implementation process, particularly in the requirements engineering process. This paper presents the methodological approach followed in the design process of a web-based information system (WbIS) for managing the clinical information in hemophilia care, which integrates the values and practices of user-centered design (UCD) activities into the principles of software engineering, particularly in the phase of requirements engineering (RE). This process followed a paradigm that combines a grounded theory for data collection with an evolutionary design based on constant development and refinement of the generic domain model using three well-known methodological approaches: (a) object-oriented system analysis; (b) task analysis; and, (c) prototyping, in a triangulation work. This approach seems to be a good solution for the requirements engineering process in this particular case of the health care domain, since the inherent weaknesses of individual methods are reduced, and emergent requirements are easier to elicit. Moreover, the requirements triangulation matrix gives the opportunity to look across the results of all used methods and decide what requirements are critical for the system success. PMID:21075471

Teixeira, Leonor; Ferreira, Carlos; Santos, Beatriz Sousa

2010-11-13

149

Implementation of a user-centered framework in the development of a web-based health information database and call center.  

PubMed

As healthcare consumers increasingly turn to the World Wide Web (WWW) to obtain health information, it is imperative that health-related websites are user-centered. Websites are often developed without consideration of intended users' characteristics, literacy levels, preferences, and information goals resulting in user dissatisfaction, abandonment of the website, and ultimately the need for costly redesign. This paper provides a methodological review of a user-centered framework that incorporates best practices in literacy, information quality, and human-computer interface design and evaluation to guide the design and redesign process of a consumer health website. Following the description of the methods, a case analysis is presented, demonstrating the successful application of the model in the redesign of a consumer health information website with call center. Comparisons between the iterative revisions of the website showed improvements in usability, readability, and user satisfaction. PMID:21396486

Taylor, Heather A; Sullivan, Dori; Mullen, Cydney; Johnson, Constance M

2011-03-17

150

A user-centered mobile health device to manage life-threatening anaphylactic allergies and provide support in allergic reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a user-centered mobile health device to help people with life-threatening allergies request emergency services in the case of an anaphylactic attack. The device was designed as a support tool to directly assist anaphylactic people and their carers, as opposed to a medical resource designed for practitioners. It makes use of multimedia technology, for example, with first aid

Luis U. Hernandez Munoz; Sandra I. Woolley

2009-01-01

151

User-Centered Design Proposals for Prototyping Haptic User Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of applications for haptic user interfaces is wide, but although haptics offer unique qualities to user interfaces,\\u000a the rate of adoption and implementation of haptics in commercialized products is relatively low. The challenges of building\\u000a low-cost flexible prototypes with haptics in the early stages of product development are believed to be a contributing factor\\u000a to this. This paper

Hans V. Bjelland; Kristian Tangeland

2007-01-01

152

User-Centered Iterative Design of a Collaborative Virtual Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most tasks that are desirable to train in a virtual environment are not tasks that we do alone, but rather are executed collaboratively with one or more team members. Yet little is known about how to construct virtual environment training systems that sup...

J. E. Boswell

2001-01-01

153

User-Centered Design of CHIL Services: Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Services, that is, organized sets of functionalities targeting users, are at the core of the CHIL enterprise. It is at this level, in fact, that the general vision - putting the computer in the loop of human interaction - is made concrete and enjoyable to the user; it is services that users see, interact with, and exploit to better achieve their objectives. In the conception of this book, services are neither simple collections of technologies, nor showcases aimed to concept-proof technological advances, nor integration add-ons.

Pianesi, Fabio; Terken, Jacques

154

Effective explanations of recommendations: user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper characterizes general properties of useful, or Effective, explanations of recommendations. It describes a methodology based on focus groups, in which we elicit what helps moviegoers decide whether or not they would like a movie. Our results highlight the importance of personalizing explanations to the individual user, as well as considering the source of recommendations, user mood, the effects

Nava Tintarev; Judith Masthoff

2007-01-01

155

Lyophilization process design space.  

PubMed

The application of key elements of quality by design (QbD), such as risk assessment, process analytical technology, and design space, is discussed widely as it relates to freeze-drying process design and development. However, this commentary focuses on constructing the Design and Control Space, particularly for the primary drying step of the freeze-drying process. Also, practical applications and considerations of claiming a process Design Space under the QbD paradigm have been discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:3883-3887, 2013. PMID:23946165

Patel, Sajal Manubhai; Pikal, Michael J

2013-08-14

156

User-Centered Development of a Web-Based Preschool Vision Screening Tool  

PubMed Central

Although amblyopia is most successfully treated when detected in early childhood, many preschool-aged children are not being screened. This project explored the delivery of Web-based vision screenings, integrated with patient education, to parents and children, aged 3 to 6 years. Through a user-centered design methodology involving requirements gathering, iterative prototype development, and usability testing, a highly usable screening Website was created. Interviewing and testing parents and children in the home were essential in gathering accurate data about environments where the tool would actually be used. Frequent iterations of designing, testing, and modifying the tool were useful in identifying and correcting usability problems. Usability goals were set early in the project, and in the final phase a satisfaction questionnaire was administered to participants. Twenty-one out of 22 final usability objectives were achieved and the feasibility of Web-based vision screening was demonstrated.

Taylor, David P.; Bray, Bruce E.; Staggers, Nancy; Olson, Richard J.

2003-01-01

157

User-centered development of a Web-based preschool vision screening tool.  

PubMed

Although amblyopia is most successfully treated when detected in early childhood, many preschool-aged children are not being screened. This project explored the delivery of Web-based vision screenings, integrated with patient education, to parents and children, aged 3 to 6 years. Through a user-centered design methodology involving requirements gathering, iterative prototype development, and usability testing, a highly usable screening Website was created. Interviewing and testing parents and children in the home were essential in gathering accurate data about environments where the tool would actually be used. Frequent iterations of designing, testing, and modifying the tool were useful in identifying and correcting usability problems. Usability goals were set early in the project, and in the final phase a satisfaction questionnaire was administered to participants. Twenty-one out of 22 final usability objectives were achieved and the feasibility of Web-based vision screening was demonstrated. PMID:14728254

Taylor, David P; Bray, Bruce E; Staggers, Nancy; Olson, Richard J

2003-01-01

158

User-centered development of a smart phone mobile application delivering personalized real-time advice on sun protection.  

PubMed

Smart phones are changing health communication for Americans. User-centered production of a mobile application for sun protection is reported. Focus groups (n?=?16 adults) provided input on the mobile application concept. Four rounds of usability testing were conducted with 22 adults to develop the interface. An iterative programming procedure moved from a specification document to the final mobile application, named Solar Cell. Adults desired a variety of sun protection advice, identified few barriers to use and were willing to input personal data. The Solar Cell prototype was improved from round 1 (seven of 12 tasks completed) to round 2 (11 of 12 task completed) of usability testing and was interoperable across handsets and networks. The fully produced version was revised during testing. Adults rated Solar Cell as highly user friendly (mean?=?5.06). The user-centered process produced a mobile application that should help many adults manage sun safety. PMID:24058385

Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Lantz, Kathleen; Buller, Mary Klein

2013-09-01

159

AUser-Centered Approach to Object-Oriented User Interface Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This chapter emphasizes user-centered design as the essential process for developing usable systems. User-centered design tries to strengthen the creative aspects of user interface design. However, this does not fit very well with the more structured, architecture-centered nature of object-oriented development methodologies. Several problems associated with object-oriented techniques have been observed in development projects in practice. In this chapter,

Jan Gulliksen; Bengt Göransson; Magnus Lif

160

Medical device design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current design process is a combination of methods from engineering disciplines, government regulatory agencies (domestic and international) and independent certification and compliance companies. The goal of the processes that have been developed is to be certain that a new product meets the users expectations, is safe and effective in providing its claimed benefits. As products have become more complex

Byron L. Gilman; James E. Brewer; Mark W. Kroll

2009-01-01

161

SKIN: designing aesthetic interactive surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose SKIN as an interdisciplinary design approach for sophisticated interactive surfaces, with an emphasis on their meanings and aesthetic qualities. SKIN: Surface Kinetics INterface, aims at integrating concept-driven design process and exploratory critical engagement with forms and materials into current user-centered design approaches in HCI research. The procedures of developing three design concepts and prototyping one

Heekyoung Jung; Youngsuk L. Altieri; Jeffrey Bardzell

2010-01-01

162

Towards a User-Centered Interface for Information Retrieval. The MERIT System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multimedia Extensions of Retrieval Interaction Tools (MERIT) provides a user centered interface to a database covering research programs, projects, and consortia in the field of information technology. The system supports the user by offering a selection ...

U. Thiel M. Hemmje A. Kerner M. Kracker S. Sitter

1992-01-01

163

Designing Ubiquitous Computing Systems for Sports Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on a user-centered, iterative design process for augmenting sports equipment with ubiquitous computing technology. In several design iterations, a fully working system for training and physiotherapy has been developed and deployed using hard- and software components of ubiquitous computing technology. We report on the design and development process that led to this system. Based on

Matthias Kranz; Wolfgang Spiessl; Albrecht Schmidt

2007-01-01

164

Effects of organizational scheme and labeling on task performance in product-centered and user-centered retail Web sites.  

PubMed

As companies increase the quantity of information they provide through their Web sites, it is critical that content is structured with an appropriate architecture. However, resource constraints often limit the ability of companies to apply all Web design principles completely. This study quantifies the effects of two major information architecture principles in a controlled study that isolates the incremental effects of organizational scheme and labeling on user performance and satisfaction. Sixty participants with a wide range of Internet and on-line shopping experience were recruited to complete a series of shopping tasks on a prototype retail shopping Web site. User-centered labels provided a significant benefit in performance and satisfaction over labels obtained through company-centered methods. User-centered organization did not result in improved performance except when the label quality was poor. Significant interactions suggest specific guidelines for allocating resources in Web site design. Applications of this research include the design of Web sites for any commercial application, particularly E-commerce. PMID:15151158

Resnick, Marc L; Sanchez, Julian

2004-01-01

165

Measuring the Usability of Augmented Reality e-Learning Systems: A User-Centered Evaluation Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of Augmented Reality (AR) systems is creating new challenges and opportunities for the designers of e-learning systems. The mix of real and virtual requires appropriate interaction techniques that have to be evaluated with users in order to avoid usability problems. Formative usability aims at finding usability problems as early as possible in the development life cycle and is suitable to support the development of such novel interactive systems. This work presents an approach to the user-centered usability evaluation of an e-learning scenario for Biology developed on an Augmented Reality educational platform. The evaluation has been carried on during and after a summer school held within the ARiSE research project. The basic idea was to perform usability evaluation twice. In this respect, we conducted user testing with a small number of students during the summer school in order to get a fast feedback from users having good knowledge in Biology. Then, we repeated the user testing in different conditions and with a relatively larger number of representative users. In this paper we describe both experiments and compare the usability evaluation results.

Pribeanu, Costin; Balog, Alexandru; Iordache, Drago? Daniel

166

User-centered modeling and evaluation of multimodal interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the development of computer interfaces has been a technology-driven phenomenon. However, new multimodal interfaces are composed of recognition-based technologies that must interpret human speech, gesture, gaze, movement patterns, and other complex natural behaviors, which involve highly automatized skills that are not under full conscious control. As a result, it now is widely acknowledged that multimodal interface design requires modeling

SHARON OVIATT

2003-01-01

167

Knowledge and Processes in Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our project concerned information processing characterizations of the knowledge and processes involved in design. Design is a complex ill-structured task. By their very nature, such ill-structured tasks involve processes of finding, representing, refining...

P. Pirolli

1992-01-01

168

Mobile 3D television: development of core technological elements and user-centered evaluation methods toward an optimized system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A European consortium of six partners has been developing core technological components of a mobile 3D television system over DVB-H channel. In this overview paper, we present our current results on developing optimal methods for stereo-video content creation, coding and transmission and emphasize their significance for the power-constrained mobile platform, equipped with auto-stereoscopic display. We address the user requirements by applying modern usercentered approaches taking into account different user groups and usage contexts in contrast to the laboratory assessment methods which, though standardized, offer limited applicability to real applications. To this end, we have been aiming at developing a methodological framework for the whole system development process. One of our goals has been to further develop the user-centered approach towards experienced quality of critical system components. In this paper, we classify different research methods and technological solutions analyzing their pros and constraints. Based on this analysis we present the user-centered methodological framework being used throughout the whole development process of the system and aimed at achieving the best performance and quality appealing to the end user.

Gotchev, Atanas; Smolic, Aljoscha; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Strohmeier, Dominik; Bozdagi Akar, Gozde; Merkle, Philipp; Daskalov, Nikolai

2009-02-01

169

Embedded systems engineering for products and services design.  

PubMed

Systems engineering (SE) professionals strive to develop new techniques to enhance the value of contributions to multidisciplinary smart product design teams. Products and services designers challenge themselves to search beyond the traditional design concept of addressing the physical, social, and cognitive factors. This paper covers the application of embedded user-centered systems engineering design practices into work processes based on the ISO 13407 framework [20] to support smart systems and services design and development. As practitioners collaborate to investigate alternative smart product designs, they concentrate on creating valuable products which will enhance positive interaction. This paper capitalizes on the need to follow a user-centered SE approach to smart products design [4, 22]. Products and systems intelligence should embrace a positive approach to user-centered design while improving our understanding of usable value-adding, experience and extending our knowledge of what inspires others to design enjoyable services and products. PMID:22316842

Ahram, Tareq Z; Karwowski, Waldemar; Soares, Marcelo M

2012-01-01

170

A User-Centered Approach to Evaluating Human Interaction with Web Search Engines: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores a user-centered approach to evaluating the Web search engine Inquirus. Inquirus was rated highly by users on various usability measures; all users experienced some level of shift/change in their information problem, information seeking, and personal knowledge due to their Inquirus interaction; and different users experienced different…

Spink, Amanda

2002-01-01

171

A user-centered remote control system for personalized multimedia channel selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available TV programs within the increasing digital channels have led to the problem of information overload. To solve this problem, we propose a user-centered control system to provide personalized and automated channel selection services. This system has a client-server architecture. The mobile client is a remote control device for interacting with TV and any information modified ubiquitously through the

Wei-Po Lee; Jian-Hsin Wang

2004-01-01

172

The amount of ergonomics and user involvement in 151 design processes.  

PubMed

Ergonomics, usability and user-centered design are terms that are well known among designers. Yet, products often seem to fail to meet the users' needs, resulting in a gap between expected and experienced usability. To understand the possible causes of this gap the actions taken by the designer during the design process are studied in this paper. This can show whether and how certain actions influence the user-friendliness of the design products. The aim of this research was to understand whether ergonomic principles and methods are included in the design process, whether users are involved in this process and whether the experience of the designer (in ergonomics/user involvement) has an effect on the end product usability. In this study the design processes of 151 tangible products of students in design were analyzed. It showed that in 75% of the cases some ergonomic principles were applied. User involvement was performed in only 1/3 of the design cases. Hardly any correlation was found between the designers' experience in ergonomic principles and the way they applied it and no correlations were found between the designers' experience in user involvement and the users' involvement in the design process. PMID:22316850

Kok, Barbara N E; Slegers, Karin; Vink, Peter

2012-01-01

173

Drawings and the design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A characteristic of the design process in all areas of design is the use of a number of different types of drawings. The different types of drawings are associated with different stages of the process with one type, the relatively unstructured and ambiguous sketch, occurring early in the process. Designers place great emphasis on the sketch often because it is

A. T. Purcell; J. S. Gero

1998-01-01

174

Safety-Conscious Process Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study strives first to identify the deficiencies and problems in current process design practice. Three common practices to address safety have been studied: adherence to good practice, safety analyses and inherently safer design. The problems in the...

R. Koivisto

1996-01-01

175

Designing manipulative technologies for children with different abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a design approach for manipulative technologies that consider “user diversity” as a main lever for design. Different dimensions of “diversity” are considered, e.g., the users' age, abilities, culture, cultural background, and alphabetization. These dimensions drive the development of a user-centered design process for manipulative technologies for learning and play environments. In particular, we explore the possibility of allowing

Henrik Hautop Lund; Patrizia Marti

2005-01-01

176

Usability recommendations in the design of mixed interactive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed Interactive Systems (MIS) are systems allowing several interaction forms resulting from the fusion between physical and digital worlds. Such systems being relatively new, the underlying design process leading to their design is not entirely defined, particularly in terms of user-centered design. The goal of this paper is to present an approach that attempts to identify, model and integrate available

Syrine Charfi; Emmanuel Dubois; Dominique L. Scapin

2009-01-01

177

Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well…

Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

2012-01-01

178

Automating the automobile design process  

SciTech Connect

Traditional CAD/CAM speeds product design, analysis, and manufacturing by giving engineers and designers the ability to view and manipulate computer models of automobiles from a variety of perspectives, such as interiors, exteriors, and cross sections. Computer-aided styling (CAS) hastens the automobile design process in the same manner by allowing data to be captured earlier in the design cycle. The goal of CAS is to be able to determine in advance if a design can be aesthetically pleasing - without having to build even the first prototype. Just like CAD/CAM, styling is an iterative process, with CAS techniques speeding the design. Faster iterations mean that more designs can be reviewed and that designers can react more quickly to changing market trends.

Smith, M.R.

1986-03-01

179

Fully Integrating the Design Process  

SciTech Connect

The basic approach to designing nuclear facilities in the United States does not currently reflect the routine consideration of proliferation resistance and international safeguards. The fully integrated design process is an approach for bringing consideration of international safeguards and proliferation resistance, together with state safeguards and security, fully into the design process from the very beginning, while integrating them sensibly and synergistically with the other project functions. In view of the recently established GNEP principles agreed to by the United States and at least eighteen other countries, this paper explores such an integrated approach, and its potential to help fulfill the new internationally driven design requirements with improved efficiencies and reduced costs.

T.A. Bjornard; R.S. Bean

2008-03-01

180

A Design Process for Lovotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We refer to human-robot relationships as Lovotics. In this paper a design process for Lovotics is presented. In order to invoke these relationships, technological solutions can only take us so far. Design played an important role in order to engage users to explore the possibilities of bi-directional, human-robot love. We conducted a user-centric study in order to understand these factors and incorporate them into our design. The key issues of design for developing a strong emotional connection between robots and humans are investigated. A questionnaire is proposed and based on the results of this a robot with minimal design is developed.

Aghaebrahimi Samani, Hooman; Cheok, Adrian David; Tharakan, Mili John; Koh, Jeffrey; Fernando, Newton

181

Leveraging Site Search and Analytics to Maintain a User-Centered Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Web design is a necessarily iterative process. During the process, it can be difficult to balance the interests and focus of the library site experts and their novice users. It can also be easy to lose focus on the main goals of site use and become wrapped up in the process of design or coding or in the internal politics of site design. Just as…

Mitchell, Erik

2011-01-01

182

Hydroforming design and process advisor  

SciTech Connect

The hydroforming process involves hydraulically forming components by conforming them to the inner contours of a die. These contours can be complex and can often cause the material being formed to be stressed to rupture. Considerable process knowledge and materials modeling expertise is required to design hydroform dies and hydroformed parts that are readily formed without being overly stressed. For this CRADA, materials properties for steel tubes subjected to hydraulic stresses were collected; algorithms were developed which combined the materials properties data with process knowledge; and a user friendly graphical interface was utilized to make the system usable by a design engineer. A prototype hydroforming advisor was completed and delivered to GM. The technical objectives of the CRADA were met allowing for the development of an intelligent design systems, prediction of forming properties related to hydroforming, simulation and modeling of process execution, and design optimization. The design advisor allows a rapid and seamless approach to integration an otherwise enormous and onerous task of analysis and evaluation.

Greer, J.T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ni, C.M. [General Motors Corp., Warren, MI (United States). GM Technical Center

1996-10-10

183

User-centered quality of experience of mobile 3DTV: how to evaluate quality in the context of use?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subjective quality evaluation experiments are conducted for optimizing critical system components during the process of system development. Conventionally, the experiments take place in the controlled viewing conditions even though the target application is meant to be used in the heterogeneous mobile settings. The goal of the paper is a two-fold. Firstly, we present a hybrid User-Centered Quality of Experience (UC-QoE) evaluation method for measuring quality in the context of use. The method combines quantitative preference ratings, qualitative descriptions of quality and context, characterization of context in the macro and micro levels, and the measures of effort. Secondly, we present results of two experiments using this method in different field settings and compared to the laboratory settings. We conducted the experiments with a relatively low quality range for current and future data rates for mobile (3D) television by varying encoding parameters for simulcast stereo video. The study was conducted on a portable device with parallax barrier display technology. The results show significant differences between the different field conditions and between field and laboratory measures.

Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Utriainen, Timo

2010-02-01

184

Whatever Works: A Systematic User-Centered Training Protocol to Optimize Brain-Computer Interfacing Individually  

PubMed Central

This study implemented a systematic user-centered training protocol for a 4-class brain-computer interface (BCI). The goal was to optimize the BCI individually in order to achieve high performance within few sessions for all users. Eight able-bodied volunteers, who were initially naïve to the use of a BCI, participated in 10 sessions over a period of about 5 weeks. In an initial screening session, users were asked to perform the following seven mental tasks while multi-channel EEG was recorded: mental rotation, word association, auditory imagery, mental subtraction, spatial navigation, motor imagery of the left hand and motor imagery of both feet. Out of these seven mental tasks, the best 4-class combination as well as most reactive frequency band (between 8-30 Hz) was selected individually for online control. Classification was based on common spatial patterns and Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis. The number and time of classifier updates varied individually. Selection speed was increased by reducing trial length. To minimize differences in brain activity between sessions with and without feedback, sham feedback was provided in the screening and calibration runs in which usually no real-time feedback is shown. Selected task combinations and frequency ranges differed between users. The tasks that were included in the 4-class combination most often were (1) motor imagery of the left hand (2), one brain-teaser task (word association or mental subtraction) (3), mental rotation task and (4) one more dynamic imagery task (auditory imagery, spatial navigation, imagery of the feet). Participants achieved mean performances over sessions of 44-84% and peak performances in single-sessions of 58-93% in this user-centered 4-class BCI protocol. This protocol is highly adjustable to individual users and thus could increase the percentage of users who can gain and maintain BCI control. A high priority for future work is to examine this protocol with severely disabled users.

Friedrich, Elisabeth V. C.; Neuper, Christa; Scherer, Reinhold

2013-01-01

185

Bringing the field into focus: user-centered design of a patient expertise locator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing personal aspects of health is challenging for many patients, particularly those facing a serious condition such as cancer. Finding experienced patients, who can share their knowledge from managing a similar health situation, is of tremendous value. Users of health-related social software form a large base of such knowledge, yet these tools often lack features needed to locate peers with

Andrea Civan-Hartzler; David W. McDonald; Chris Powell; Meredith M. Skeels; Marlee Mukai; Wanda Pratt

2010-01-01

186

User centered design of the digital book: why looking backward can help us move forward  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is emerging from the digital book revolution is a state of technology that has brought new affordances to the book, such as search, hyperlinking, personalization, dynamic content, 24/7 access, automated indexing and summarizing, aggregated content, and new modes of reading and access. These could solve some of the issues users have with the static content of traditional bound volumes, but the technology so far has staunchly ignored the tried and true technologies of books, such as infinite resolution, high contrast, low glare, haptic navigation, typographic niceties, and the rights of first sale to borrow, lend, or resell a work. By exploring a survey of literature, reviews, and user tests, I intend to address the point of how the current concept of the digital book is an inappropriate tool for the user and the task of reading, and as a result not been enthusiastically embraced by the market. The collected evidence indicates that it is impossible to forget our past in our quest for the future, and that technology can help us to unite the disparate realities of analog and digital to create a truly digital book.

Wallis, Jillian C.

2006-02-01

187

User Centered System Design. Part II: Collected Papers from the UCSD HMI Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a collection of 11 recent papers by the Human-Machine Interaction Group at the University of California, San Diego. The following papers are included: (1) "Stages and Levels in Human-Machine Interaction," Donald A. Norman; (2) "The Nature of Expertise in UNIX," Stephen W. Draper; (3) "Users in the Real World," David Owen; (4)…

California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla. Inst. for Cognitive Science.

188

User-centered design of a mobile application for sharing life memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

People have an inherent need to capture and collect life memories such as moments with children or special events with friends. Capturing life memories is either spontaneous or planned. Memories are stored and frequently shared with other people. New internet services allow online sharing of photographs but they bypass the mobile aspect in capturing and sharing multimedia. In this paper,

Thomas Olsson; Marika Lehtonen; Dana Pavel; Kaisa Väänänen-vainio-mattila

2007-01-01

189

User-centered design and usability testing of a web site: An illustrative case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administrators at a large midwestern university recognized that their World Wide Web site was rapidly becoming an important factor in recruiting new students. They also expected this Web site to serve many different types of information needs for existing students, faculty, staff, and alumni. an interdisciplinary team of faculty, graduate students, and staff was formed to evaluate the existing Web

Michael D. Corry; Theodore W. Frick; Lisa Hansen

1997-01-01

190

Rapid prototyping and user-centered design of interactive display-based systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much work on display-based ubicomp systems (and rapid prototyping in general) focus on producing proof-of-concept demonstrators, usually to gauge technical feasibility and collect initial user feedback. In our work, we've found that it's often equally important to investigate factors such as use and appropriation and that in some cases, without user studies, technical feasibility can be meaningless. We used rapid

Daniel Fitton; Keith Cheverst; Christian Kray; Alan J. Dix; Mark Rouncefield; George Saslis-Lagoudakis

2005-01-01

191

Improving the quality of numerical software through user-centered design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The software interface - whether graphical, command-oriented, menu-driven, or in the form of subroutine calls - shapes the user's perception of what software can do. It also establishes upper bounds on software usability. Numerical software interfaces typ...

C. Pancake

1998-01-01

192

The Importance of User-Centered Design: Exploring Findings and Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the rising number of information resources available, it is increasingly important for digital libraries and archives to create usable services that meet their users' needs. Seeking input from users at all stages of development can help achieve this goal. This article briefly defines four methodologies for gathering user input: focus…

Lack, Rosalie

2006-01-01

193

Informing geospatial toolset design: understanding the process of cancer data exploration and analysis.  

PubMed

There is an increasing need for new methods and tools that support knowledge construction from complex geospatial datasets related to public health. This study is part of a larger effort to develop, implement, and test such methods and tools. To be successful, the design of methods and tools must be grounded in a solid understanding of the work practices within the domain of use; the research reported here focuses on developing that understanding. We adopted a user-centered approach to toolset design where we investigated the work of cancer researchers and used the results of that investigation as inputs into the development of design guidelines for new geovisualization and spatial analysis tools. Specifically, we conducted key informant interviews focused on use, or potential use, of geographic information, methods, and tools and complemented this with a systematic analysis of published, peer-reviewed articles on geospatial cancer research. Results were used to characterize the typical process of analysis, to identify fundamental differences between intensive users of geospatial methods and infrequent users, and to outline key stages in analysis and tasks within the stages that methods and tools must support. Our findings inform design and implementation decisions for visual and analytic tools that support cancer prevention and control research and they provide insight into the processes used by cancer researchers for addressing the challenges of geographic factors in public health research and policy. PMID:18060824

Bhowmick, Tanuka; Griffin, Amy L; MacEachren, Alan M; Kluhsman, Brenda C; Lengerich, Eugene J

2007-10-23

194

Visualization of Routes in Design Process Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design process planning is essential for business success. However, it is complex for all but the simplest products. There is therefore a need for effective support for the design process planner to help them visualize and assess alternative design process strategies. This paper describes a new approach to design process planning, known as signposting, which has the potential to assist

P. John Clarkson; Andres Melo; Claudia Eckert

2000-01-01

195

User-centered development and testing of a monitoring system that provides feedback regarding physical functioning to elderly people  

PubMed Central

Purpose To involve elderly people during the development of a mobile interface of a monitoring system that provides feedback to them regarding changes in physical functioning and to test the system in a pilot study. Methods and participants The iterative user-centered development process consisted of the following phases: (1) selection of user representatives; (2) analysis of users and their context; (3) identification of user requirements; (4) development of the interface; and (5) evaluation of the interface in the lab. Subsequently, the monitoring and feedback system was tested in a pilot study by five patients who were recruited via a geriatric outpatient clinic. Participants used a bathroom scale to monitor weight and balance, and a mobile phone to monitor physical activity on a daily basis for six weeks. Personalized feedback was provided via the interface of the mobile phone. Usability was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 7 using a modified version of the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ); higher scores indicated better usability. Interviews were conducted to gain insight into the experiences of the participants with the system. Results The developed interface uses colors, emoticons, and written and/or spoken text messages to provide daily feedback regarding (changes in) weight, balance, and physical activity. The participants rated the usability of the monitoring and feedback system with a mean score of 5.2 (standard deviation 0.90) on the modified PSSUQ. The interviews revealed that most participants liked using the system and appreciated that it signaled changes in their physical functioning. However, usability was negatively influenced by a few technical errors. Conclusion Involvement of elderly users during the development process resulted in an interface with good usability. However, the technical functioning of the monitoring system needs to be optimized before it can be used to support elderly people in their self-management.

Vermeulen, Joan; Neyens, Jacques CL; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; van Rossum, Erik; Sipers, Walther; Habets, Herbert; Hewson, David J; de Witte, Luc P

2013-01-01

196

User-Centered Digital Library Project Phase 2: User Testing with Teachers and Students with Disabilities. Evaluation Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of the User-Centered Digital Library Project, conducted by the National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) at WGBH, was to adapt the Teachers' Domain online digital library to enable teachers and students with disabilities to more readily use the resources in science classrooms. NCAM added accessibility features such as captions and…

Moeller, Babette

2010-01-01

197

Cultural analysis and what designers need to know---a case of sometimes too much, sometimes too little, and always too late: why ethnography needs to show its relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bader and Nyce's article raises intriguing issues that have concerned researchers in HC! and user-centered systems design for much of the last decade: to what extent can a deep social science methodology influence the process of technology design usefully. Their conclusion, that cultural analysis yields knowledge perceived to be of little value by system designers, is in my view, largely

Andrew Dillon

1998-01-01

198

Study of the ship design process model for collaborative design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ship design process model is the basis for developing the ship collaborative design system under network environment. According to the characteristics of the ship design, a method for dividing the ship design process into, three layers is pat forward, that is project layer, design task layer and design activity layer, then the formalized definitions of the ship design process model, the decomposing principles of the ship design process and the architecture of the ship collaborative design (SDPM) system are presented. This method simplifies the activity network makes the optimization and adjustment of the design plan convenient and also makes the design process easier to control and change, at last the architecture of the ship collaborative design system is discussed.

He, Ze; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Wang, Neng-Jian

2005-09-01

199

Computational modeling for improving usability design workflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering practice moves slowly toward practical user centered product design for several reasons. Efficient tools are missing to handle complexity of the vast usability design space, in a stark contrast to a variety of CAD tools for other design disciplines. Designers still largely rely on ergonomic principles\\/heuristics. Consequently shortage of user centered perspective shows especially in early design stages. Empirically

Xiangyang Li; Melih Gunal; Jiun-Yan Shiau

2009-01-01

200

INTEGRATING USABILITY AND MARKETING ACTIVITIES: A METHOD FOR SUPPORTING ACCELERATED DESIGN STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the practice of user-centered design is advocated in many organizations, engineering management issues may prevent early focus on system usability. Within the usability engineering cycle, practitioners consider task analysis and customer needs assessment a high priority. Market research activities occur early in the process, but usability information is not collected or passed to system developers. To improve and to

R. Jay Ritchie; Judith A. List

1991-01-01

201

Applicability of the Engineering Design Process Theory in the Apparel Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective apparel design process is key to the successful launch of an apparel product. Application of engineering design process theory, the foundation of the design process, may enhance understanding of the apparel design process. Goals of this research were to: (a) interpret actions and decisions made during the apparel design process, (b) determine whether the specific stages of engineering

Cynthia L. Regan; Doris H. Kincade; Gwen Sheldon

1998-01-01

202

A Framework for Design Process Specifications Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Major conicts in design process management seem to stem from speci® cation conicts among the constituent coupled design tasks. Coupled tasks represent conicts in the ¯ ow of information of a design process. Resolving these speci® cation conicts early on in the development process tends to reduce product development lead times and cost. In this paper, we attempt to

ALI A. YASSINE; DONALD R. FALKENBURG

1999-01-01

203

Interactive Radiology teaching file system: the development of a MIRC-compliant and user-centered e-learning resource.  

PubMed

Radiology teaching usually employs a systematic and comprehensive set of medical images and related information. Databases with representative radiological images and documents are highly desirable and widely used in Radiology teaching programs. Currently, computer-based teaching file systems are widely used in Medicine and Radiology teaching as an educational resource. This work addresses a user-centered radiology electronic teaching file system as an instance of MIRC compliant medical image database. Such as a digital library, the clinical cases are available to access by using a web browser. The system has offered great opportunities to some Radiology residents interact with experts. This has been done by applying user-centered techniques and creating usage context-based tools in order to make available an interactive system. PMID:23367264

dos-Santos, M; Fujino, A

2012-01-01

204

Business Process Redesign: Design the Improved Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis reports the results of a business activity modeling exercise to explore how a functional manager in DoD can best improve and redesign one's business processes. The validity of exercise results was assessed and found to be generally accurate wi...

J. L. Warwick

1993-01-01

205

Design Expert's Participation in Elementary Students' Collaborative Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main goal of the present study was to provide insights into how disciplinary expertise might be infused into Design and Technology classrooms and how authentic processes based on professional design practices might be constructed. We describe elementary students' collaborative lamp designing process, where the leadership was provided by a…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

206

Model of Design Process of Hong Kong Fashion Designers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to identify the underlying model of design process of Hong Kong fashion designers by using the qualitative research method of grounded theory developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and Glaser (1978). In this research, a total of 19 fashion designers, educators and students were interviewed. Five on-site observations of fashion designers and educators were

Joe S. Au; Edward W. Newton

2004-01-01

207

The Structure of Design Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis attempts to set up a framework within which the set of skills, sensibilities and intellectual desciplines that, taken together, constitute the art of designing might be logically related so as to form the basis of a science of design. No attem...

B. Archer

1968-01-01

208

Integrating energy consciousness in the design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design process for an intelligent, energy conscious building which was built, along with the design tools that were applied, is presented. The building, situated in the hot–humid climate of Rehovot, Israel, houses the laboratories and offices of the Weizmann Institute's Environmental Science and Energy Research Department. Alternative bio-climatic design options were proposed and evaluated throughout the detailed design stage.

Edna Shaviv

1999-01-01

209

Improved Coal Cleaning Process Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Physical coal cleaning is a mechanical process for removal of high ash constituents and pyritic sulphur from input fuels for coal-fired generating staions. Preparato...

1981-01-01

210

Accelerating the product design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. It is pointed out that, whether one is developing a simple or a complex product, the product design and development cycle can be accelerated by adopting an approach that stresses planning, close teamwork, superior communication, realistic evaluation procedures, and full use of available tools and resources. Planning begins with a clear definition of the product rationale,

R. G. Ollila; D. R. Forry; D. W. Caudy

1991-01-01

211

Combining Design Patterns and Elements of Social Computing for the Design of User Centered Online Help Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many current (online) help systems fail because users refuse to use them or, even if they do so, they do not perceive them as helpful. There is an obvious gap between the intentions of the help content authors and the achievement of objectives concerning the perceived usefulness by help users. Problems may be divided into psychological and…

Heckner, Markus; Schworm, Silke; Wolff, Christian

2010-01-01

212

Process embedded design of integrated management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a process-based design of integrated management systems (IMS) implementation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An extensive survey of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. Based on the literature review, a comprehensive methodology for the design and implementation of an IMS was developed. Findings – A critical review of the strategies employed and of difficulties encountered

Muhammad Asif; Erik J. de Bruijn; Olaf A. M. Fisscher; Cory Searcy; Harm-Jan Steenhuis

2009-01-01

213

The Processes Involved in Designing Software.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design task involves a complex set of processes. Starting from a global statement of the problem, a designer must develop a precise plan for a solution that can be realized in some concrete way. Software design, which is investigated in this paper, is t...

M. E. Atwood R. Jeffries A. A. Turner P. G. Polson

1980-01-01

214

Development of a process for cockpit design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the organization and capabilities inherent to an advanced Crew-Centered System Design Process, or CSDP, which is currently in development by the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory's Crew-Centered Cockpit Design (CCCD) Program. The CCCD Program seeks to establish a well-organized, thorough and inspectable process for crew system design, along with an effective set of software support tools and

Brett A. Storey; Michael E. Rountree; Philip V. Kulwicki; Julie B. Cohen

1994-01-01

215

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. [Lurgi Process  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) is the first commercial coal-to-synthetic natural gas plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams, and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the Department of Energy's ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01

216

GeneyTM: designing a collaborative activity for the palmTM handheld computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a project to explore issues surrouding the development of a collaborative handheld educational application for children. A user-centered, iterative design process was used to develop GeneyTM, a collaborative problem solving application to help children explore genetic concepts using PalmTM handheld computers. The design methodology utilized mock-ups of representative tasks and scenarios, pre-design meetings with targets users, prototype

Arman Danesh; Kori Inkpen; Felix Lau; Keith Shu; Kellogg S. Booth

2001-01-01

217

Process design as part of a concurrent plant design project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes methods and tools developed and in use, in a large engineering company when process design forms part of a concurrent plant design project. One of the most important aspects is how to handle the information flow between different disciplines. The methods and tools to solve the information-sharing problems are using new ICT technologies such as the Extensible

Timo L. Syrjänen; Jaakko Pöyry Oy

2003-01-01

218

Aqueous carbonate process design study. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aqueous Carbonate Process (ACP) Design Study involved an experimental investigation of the regeneration subsystem of the Rockwell International Corporation Energy Systems Group closed cycle flue gas desulfurization process. The process involves a spray dryer in which the flue gas is scrubbed and its sulfur removed as a dry sodium sulfite\\/sulfate plus sodium carbonate mixture. This is followed by a

R. L. McKisson; G. L. Bauerle; J. E. Bodine; R. D. Rennick; A. E. Stewart; S. Tsang

1980-01-01

219

Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96  

SciTech Connect

This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

NONE

1996-06-01

220

A User-Centered, Modular Authorization Service Built on an RBAC Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological acceptability has been mentioned as a requirement for secure systems for as long as least privi- lege and fail safe defaults, but until now has been all but ignored in the actual design of secure systems. We place this principle at the center of our design for Adage, an authorization service for distributed applications. We employ usability design techniques

Mary Ellen Zurko; Richard Simon; Tom Sanfilippo

1999-01-01

221

User centered and ontology based information retrieval system for life sciences  

PubMed Central

Background Because of the increasing number of electronic resources, designing efficient tools to retrieve and exploit them is a major challenge. Some improvements have been offered by semantic Web technologies and applications based on domain ontologies. In life science, for instance, the Gene Ontology is widely exploited in genomic applications and the Medical Subject Headings is the basis of biomedical publications indexation and information retrieval process proposed by PubMed. However current search engines suffer from two main drawbacks: there is limited user interaction with the list of retrieved resources and no explanation for their adequacy to the query is provided. Users may thus be confused by the selection and have no idea on how to adapt their queries so that the results match their expectations. Results This paper describes an information retrieval system that relies on domain ontology to widen the set of relevant documents that is retrieved and that uses a graphical rendering of query results to favor user interactions. Semantic proximities between ontology concepts and aggregating models are used to assess documents adequacy with respect to a query. The selection of documents is displayed in a semantic map to provide graphical indications that make explicit to what extent they match the user's query; this man/machine interface favors a more interactive and iterative exploration of data corpus, by facilitating query concepts weighting and visual explanation. We illustrate the benefit of using this information retrieval system on two case studies one of which aiming at collecting human genes related to transcription factors involved in hemopoiesis pathway. Conclusions The ontology based information retrieval system described in this paper (OBIRS) is freely available at: http://www.ontotoolkit.mines-ales.fr/ObirsClient/. This environment is a first step towards a user centred application in which the system enlightens relevant information to provide decision help.

2012-01-01

222

Process Design Manual for Suspended Solids Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual surveys current practice in the removal of suspended solids in both traditional and advanced treatment of municipal wastewater. Specific processes are described, design considerations are discussed and results are illustrated by data from actua...

1975-01-01

223

DESIGN MODEL FOR THE OVERLAND FLOW PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A design model in the 'Process Design Manual, Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater' was verified as to removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and further developed to include removal of total suspended solids, ammonia, and total organic carbon by this field investigation. T...

224

Applications of grey programming to process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the methodologies utilized for process design consists on the application of optimization techniques, e.g. mathematical programming, to identify the best design inside a set of alternatives. In spite of the efforts and advances, this approach faces the problem that it is not broadly utilized in the industrial practice. One reason, among other, is that their implementation requires complex

Edelmira D. Gálvez; Luis A. Cisternas; Pamela S. Patiño; Kathy L. Ossandon

2008-01-01

225

Shipmotion Calculations in the Ship Design Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the combined use of a hullform generation method and tools to judge the behavior of the designed ship in a seaway. The design process is based here on the use of non-dimensional parent hullforms. Alterations of main dimensions, blockco...

J. M. J. Journee A. Versluis

1994-01-01

226

Numerical simulations supporting the process design of ring rolling processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of radial-axial ring rolling (RAR) the motions of all tools are usually defined prior to simulation in the preprocessing step. However, the real process holds up to 8 degrees of freedom (DOF) that are controlled by industrial control systems according to actual sensor values and preselected control strategies. Since the histories of the motions are unknown before the experiment and are dependent on sensor data, the conventional FEA cannot represent the process before experiment. In order to enable the usage of FEA in the process design stage, this approach integrates the industrially applied control algorithms of the real process including all relevant sensors and actuators into the FE model of ring rolling. Additionally, the process design of a novel process 'the axial profiling', in which a profiled roll is used for rolling axially profiled rings, is supported by FEA. Using this approach suitable control strategies can be tested in virtual environment before processing.

Jenkouk, V.; Hirt, G.; Seitz, J.

2013-05-01

227

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01

228

Economic and environmental strategies for process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first addresses the definition of various objectives involved in eco-efficient processes, taking simultaneously into account ecological and economic considerations. The environmental aspect at the preliminary design phase of chemical processes is quantified by using a set of metrics or indicators following the guidelines of sustainability concepts proposed by IChemE (2001). The resulting multiobjective problem is solved by a

Adama Ouattara; Luc Pibouleau; Catherine Azzaro-Pantel; Serge Domenech; Philippe Baudet; Benjamin Yao

229

HYNOL PROCESS ENGINEERING: PROCESS CONFIGURATION, SITE PLAN, AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the design of the hydropyrolysis reactor system of the Hynol process. (NOTE: A bench scale methanol production facility is being constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing methanol from biomass using the Hynol process. The plant is bein...

230

Verification of Business Process Designs Using Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business processes form the foundation of an enterprise’s operations and determine what the business does, and more importantly,\\u000a how well the business does what it does. A systematic approach to the design of business processes, supported by a formal\\u000a foundation for the specification and modeling of business processes, is necessary to (i) capture domain knowledge in a format\\u000a that is

Eswar Sivaraman; Manjunath Kamath

231

User-centered evaluation of handle shape and size and input controls for a neutron detector.  

PubMed

Current neutron detectors are big, heavy, difficult to use and are not ergonomically designed. Good handle design and easy to use control mechanisms are imperative for comfort, usability and accuracy for hand-held tools. Two studies were performed to assess these factors; Study I explored handle design (shape and size) preference and Study II evaluated the effects of control mechanisms, device orientations and word orientation on performance time. According to research findings, the recommended handle perimeter is 11 cm with a diameter range of 3.5-4.0 cm. These results demonstrated that as the handle perimeter decreased the handle becomes less preferred by first responders when using layered gloves. For control type, the fastest performance time was found with vertical push buttons and a vertical word orientation. These objective results matched the subjective results, which showed that the most preferred controller was a vertical push button control. PMID:21501835

Herring, Scarlett R; Castillejos, Pamela; Hallbeck, M Susan

2011-04-17

232

Design and Evaluation of a Real-World Virtual Environment for Architecture and Urban Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a user-centered design approach to the development of a Virtual Environment (VE), by utilizing an iterative, user-informed process throughout the en- tire design and development cycle. A preliminary survey was first undertaken with end- users, i.e., architects, chief engineers and decision makers of a real-world architectural and urban planning project, followed by a study of

George Drettakis; Maria Roussou; Alex Reche Martinez; Nicolas Tsingos

2007-01-01

233

Understanding the collaborative-participatory design.  

PubMed

In this study, the role of collaboration in design is discussed, placing emphasis on how to include end-users in the development process. The study is based on a literature review focusing on aspects of collaboration in design, usability and human factors. Thereby, it introduces, compares and contrasts the characteristics of both collaborative and user-centered design perspectives, leading to the collaborative-participatory design approach. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages and precautions of implementing collaborative and participatory models are pointed out. PMID:22317129

Scariot, Cristiele A; Heemann, Adriano; Padovani, Stephania

2012-01-01

234

A user-centered approach to rushes summarisation via highlight-detected keyframes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our keyframe-based summary approach for BBC Rushes video as part of the TRECVid Summarisation benchmark evaluation carried out in 2007. We outline our approach to summarisation that uses video processing for feature extraction and is informed by human factors considerations for summary presentation. Based on the performance of our generated summaries as reported by NIST, we subsequently undertook

Daragh Byrne; Peter Kehoe; Hyowon Lee; Ciarán O. Conaire; Alan F. Smeaton; Noel E. O'connor; Gareth J. F. Jones

2007-01-01

235

System design of ELITE power processing unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electric Propulsion Insertion Transfer Experiment (ELITE) is a space mission planned for the mid 1990s in which technological readiness will be demonstrated for electric orbit transfer vehicles (EOTVs). A system-level design of the power processing unit (PPU), which conditions solar array power for the arcjet thruster, was performed to optimize performance with respect to reliability, power output, efficiency, specific

David J. Caldwell

1991-01-01

236

Quantifying a design process based on experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors identify important factors that quantify the software design process, by which they mean the phase of software development that spans the specification and coding,. Through two experiments using student subjects. They identify the quality of the specification and programmer effort as important factors

Hideo KUDO; Yuji SUGIYAMA; M. Fujii; K. Torii

1988-01-01

237

Value engineering for managing the design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of techniques have been investigated (labelling and grouping, categorisation and importance level) to establish usable metrics for the quality management of the design process. The use of importance levels seemed to be the most effective method used with an adaptation of the value engineering technique but with the emphasis on worth rather than value (value being worth over

W. H. Fang; J. H. Rogerson

1999-01-01

238

Design and Problem Solving: The Engineering Design Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineering is everywhere in life. Without even knowing it, we encounter ideas, design and solutions created by engineers on a day-to-day basis. This website, created by Engineering Technology Pathways, "examines how engineers create the solutions used by mankind." Larger issues such as how product development, innovation, and invention can either positively or negatively influence society are addressed. Students will be asked to replicate the design process in a hands-on activity. The process will incorporate ideas such as data collection, problem solving, creation of a model or prototype, and finally, the refinement of these ideas. Overall, this is a great activity because it first provides good background information on the topic and then asks student to directly apply what they learned in a theoretical fashion.

Heitkamp, Greg

2010-10-07

239

Design of environmentally benign processes: integration of solvent design and separation process synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a hybrid method for design of environmentally benign processes. The hybrid method integrates mathematical modelling with heuristic approaches to solving the optimisation problems related to separation process synthesis and solvent design and selection. A structured method of solution, which employs thermodynamic insights to reduce the complexity and size of the mathematical problem by eliminating redundant alternatives, has

Martin Hostrup; Peter M. Harper; Rafiqul Gani

1999-01-01

240

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

241

Process design and optimization of cellulose hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The primary concern of this work is the economic optimization of a process for the hydrolysis of waste cellulosic material to fermentable sugars. Hydrolysis is performed enzymatically, utilizing the cellulase enzyme complex produced by Trichoderma viride. Using corn stover as a substrate, a system was designed to provide 14% hydrolyzate sugars (70% fermentable) at an estimated cost of 6.84 cents/pound of sugar, a 43% cost reduction over previous designs. Optimal residence time for hydrolysis was found to be 62 hours, resulting in a 34% conversion of raw material to sugars. Total fixed capital investment for the process is estimated to be $17.13 x 10/sup 6/. The kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis were modeled through the use of a modified Michaelis--Menten equation, making computer simulation of batch hydrolyses possible. Additional studies on the accessibility of cellulose were performed, and the feasibility of a counter-current processing scheme was investigated.

Lindsey, R.R.; Wilke, C.R.

1978-08-01

242

Myoelectric forearm prostheses: state of the art from a user-centered perspective.  

PubMed

User acceptance of myoelectric forearm prostheses is currently low. Awkward control, lack of feedback, and difficult training are cited as primary reasons. Recently, researchers have focused on exploiting the new possibilities offered by advancements in prosthetic technology. Alternatively, researchers could focus on prosthesis acceptance by developing functional requirements based on activities users are likely to perform. In this article, we describe the process of determining such requirements and then the application of these requirements to evaluating the state of the art in myoelectric forearm prosthesis research. As part of a needs assessment, a workshop was organized involving clinicians (representing end users), academics, and engineers. The resulting needs included an increased number of functions, lower reaction and execution times, and intuitiveness of both control and feedback systems. Reviewing the state of the art of research in the main prosthetic subsystems (electromyographic [EMG] sensing, control, and feedback) showed that modern research prototypes only partly fulfill the requirements. We found that focus should be on validating EMG-sensing results with patients, improving simultaneous control of wrist movements and grasps, deriving optimal parameters for force and position feedback, and taking into account the psychophysical aspects of feedback, such as intensity perception and spatial acuity. PMID:21938658

Peerdeman, Bart; Boere, Daphne; Witteveen, Heidi; in 't Veld, Rianne Huis; Hermens, Hermie; Stramigioli, Stefano; Rietman, Hans; Veltink, Peter; Misra, Sarthak

2011-01-01

243

The social complexities of user-centered design in ICTD: Experiences from four schools in India's villages and slums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of education remain a barrier to economic empowerment in the developing world. In our work on English language learning among underserved communities in India since 2004, we have observed differences between school communities in terms of their access to educational opportunities outside school, access to ICTs including cellphones and digital gaming, enthusiasm for visitors, and the relationships between

Matthew Kam; Siddharth Bhagwani; Anuj Kumar; Siddhartha Lal; Akhil Mathur; Anuj Tewari; John Canny

2007-01-01

244

Agile Methods and User-Centered Design: How These Two Methodologies are Being Successfully Integrated in Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A core principle of Agile development is to satisfy the customer by providing valuable software on an early and continuous basis. For a software application to be valuable it should have a user interface that is usable. Recently there has been some evidence that suggests using Agile methods alone does not ensure that an applications UI is usable. As a

David Fox; Jonathan Sillito; Frank Maurer

2008-01-01

245

Design of forging process variables under uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forging is a complex nonlinear process that is vulnerable to various manufacturing anomalies, such as variations in billet geometry, billet/die temperatures, material properties, and workpiece and forging equipment positional errors. A combination of these uncertainties could induce heavy manufacturing losses through premature die failure, final part geometric distortion, and reduced productivity. Identifying, quantifying, and controlling the uncertainties will reduce variability risk in a manufacturing environment, which will minimize the overall production cost. In this article, various uncertainties that affect the forging process are identified, and their cumulative effect on the forging tool life is evaluated. Because the forging process simulation is time-consuming, a response surface model is used to reduce computation time by establishing a relationship between the process performance and the critical process variables. A robust design methodology is developed by incorporating reliability-based optimization techniques to obtain sound forging components. A case study of an automotive-component forging-process design is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method.

Repalle, Jalaja; Grandhi, Ramana V.

2005-02-01

246

Design and operation of process liquid samplers  

SciTech Connect

Jet, and air lift sample system are used in the nuclear industry for their simplicity, reliability, long life, and low cost to sample highly radioactive process solutions. As some of these samples are used for accountability, highly accurate sample results are required. A sample system must therefore be concerned with adverse mass transfer between the sample solution, and its environment during the sampling operation. Twenty-six factors were addressed in a testing program and their effects on sample system performance determined. The results herein indicate the factors that must be considered, and taken into account when a liquid process sample system is designed or operated. 36 refs., 68 figs.

Houck, E.D.

1986-01-01

247

Mimicry of natural material designs and processes  

SciTech Connect

Biological structural materials, although composed of unremarkable substances synthesized at low temperatures, often exhibit superior mechanical properties. In particular, the quality in which nearly all biologically derived materials excel is toughness. The advantageous mechanical properties are attributable to the hierarchical, composite, structural arrangements common to biological systems. Materials scientists and engineers have increasingly recognized that biological designs or processing approaches applied to man-made materials (biomimesis) may offer improvements in performance over conventional designs and fabrication methods. In this survey, the structures and processing routes of marine shells, avian eggshells, wood, bone, and insect cuticle are briefly reviewed, and biomimesis research inspired by these materials is discussed. In addition, this paper describes and summarizes the applications of biomineralization, self-assembly, and templating with proteins to the fabrication of thin ceramic films and nanostructure devices.

Bond, G.M. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Richman, R.H. [Daedalus Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); McNaughton, W.P. [Cornice Engineering, Durango, CO (United States)

1995-06-01

248

Structural metrics for goal based business process design and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to provide business process designers a formal yet user friendly technique to evaluate the implications of a process design on process performance even before its implementation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on practical experience, the paper has built on past research to hypothesize structural metrics for business processes that help assess the influence of process design on

S. Balasubramanian; Mayank Gupta

2005-01-01

249

Multilayers process modeling for complex machinery products collaborative design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative model and process model for complex machinery products collaborative design are studied in this paper. The authors propose a layer collaborative model, which is used to describe the layer collaborative process in complex machinery design firstly. It contains design layer dimension, design objective dimension, design cycle\\/period dimension and design constraint dimension. The model is described by state-space method and

Yin-zhang Guo; Jian-chao Zeng

2010-01-01

250

Reactor design concepts for radiation processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the formative years of irradiation processing, the 1950s and 1960s, there was laboratory and academic interest in the use of this form of energy transfer to initiate polymerization for the manufacture of plastics and in other chemical processes. Studies were often based on low-dose-rate Cobalt-60 systems. The electron beam (EB) accelerator technology of the time was not as yet at the robust and industrially reliable state that it is now at the beginning of the twenty-first century. A series of reactor designs illustrate how an electron beam can be incorporated into reactor vessels for initiating gas and liquid phase polymerizations on a continuous basis. Development of such approaches, which would rely upon contemporary, high current electron beams to initiate polymerization, would help the chemical processing industry alleviate its problems of catalyst disposal and its related environmental concerns. Systems for treating materials in bulk at low doses, such as those typically used for grain disinfection, at high through-put rates, are also illustrated. Simplified shielding is envisioned in each proposed process system.

Berejka, Anthony J.

2004-09-01

251

Creative cognition in design: processes of exceptional designers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three case studies of creative design in engineering and product design are reported. The studies are of exceptional designers and comprise two retrospective interview studies and one protocol study. In each case, an example of the designer's approach to a particular design problem is presented. Comparisons between the three examples are drawn, and there appear to be some striking similarities,

Nigel Cross

2002-01-01

252

In-car machine-human interaction: how the new vehicle technologies which respond to the vehicles needs could match with the user-centered approach and contribute to shape a user-centered design approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is not always possible to derive from statistics the causes of an accident, data clearly show that they are mostly due to a lack of driver's perception, with high social costs for society (direct and not). Therefore, a strong integration among all the actors involved (that is the drivers, the vehicle or technical system in general and the

Fabio Tango; Roberto Montanari

2004-01-01

253

The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of

Baohua Dong; Chunmi Zhang; Chen Zhuo

2011-01-01

254

VLSI Architecture Design Approaches for Real-Time Video Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the programmable and dedicated approaches for real-time video processing applications. Various VLSI architecture including the design examples of both approaches are reviewed. Finally, discussions of several practical designs in real-time video processing applications are then considered in VLSI architectures to provide significant guidelines to VLSI designers for any further real-time video processing design works.

A. AHMAD; K. K. LOO; J. COSMAS

2008-01-01

255

System design of ELITE power processing unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electric Propulsion Insertion Transfer Experiment (ELITE) is a space mission planned for the mid 1990s in which technological readiness will be demonstrated for electric orbit transfer vehicles (EOTVs). A system-level design of the power processing unit (PPU), which conditions solar array power for the arcjet thruster, was performed to optimize performance with respect to reliability, power output, efficiency, specific mass, and radiation hardness. The PPU system consists of multiphased parallel switchmode converters, configured as current sources, connected directly from the array to the thruster. The PPU control system includes a solar array peak power tracker (PPT) to maximize the power delivered to the thruster regardless of variations in array characteristics. A stability analysis has been performed to verify that the system is stable despite the nonlinear negative impedance of the PPU input and the arcjet thruster. Performance specifications are given to provide the required spacecraft capability with existing technology.

Caldwell, David J.

256

The process model to aid innovation of products conceptual design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, designers often pay little attention to integrated innovation during the design process of products. In addition, the product assistance design systems mainly focus on the detailed design phrase and the construction function of mathematics models are often been neglected. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a conceptual design process model to aid multi-stage innovation of product

Wenqiang Li; Yan Li; Jian Wang; Xiaoying Liu

2010-01-01

257

Design of Nanomaterial Synthesis by Aerosol Processes  

PubMed Central

Aerosol synthesis of materials is a vibrant field of particle technology and chemical reaction engineering. Examples include the manufacture of carbon blacks, fumed SiO2, pigmentary TiO2, ZnO vulcanizing catalysts, filamentary Ni, and optical fibers, materials that impact transportation, construction, pharmaceuticals, energy, and communications. Parallel to this, development of novel, scalable aerosol processes has enabled synthesis of new functional nanomaterials (e.g., catalysts, biomaterials, electroceramics) and devices (e.g., gas sensors). This review provides an access point for engineers to the multiscale design of aerosol reactors for the synthesis of nanomaterials using continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics models spanning 10 and 15 orders of magnitude in length and time, respectively. Key design features are the rapid chemistry; the high particle concentrations but low volume fractions; the attainment of a self-preserving particle size distribution by coagulation; the ratio of the characteristic times of coagulation and sintering, which controls the extent of particle aggregation; and the narrowing of the aggregate primary particle size distribution by sintering.

Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

2013-01-01

258

CALL by design: discourse, products and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design' is a term that is familiar to many language teachers and CALL practitioners. It is used reg- ularly in relation to curriculum, syllabus, course and task in the general literature and it occurs in all these areas and more in the CALL sphere where instructional design, website design, interface design and screen design are just some of the additional

MIKE LEVY

2002-01-01

259

Linking design process to customer satisfaction through virtual design of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work seeks to better understand how design processes affect design outcomes. Design process data were collected from journals kept as a part of mechanical engineering capstone design projects at Montana State University. Student processes were characterized by time coding journal entries using a 3 × 4 matrix of process variables. The data were modeled using a principal components artificial

Vikas K. Jain; Durward K. Sobek II

2006-01-01

260

Robust Design Methodology in a Generic Product Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Robust Design Methodology is a well-established concept, many companies are still unaware of it. The importance of variation issues is recognized but tools that can be associated with Robust Design Methodology are applied without consideration to an underlying framework. In other words, many companies exhibit unstructured approaches to Robust Design Methodology. In this paper we provide some guidelines for

Torben Hasenkamp; Tommy Adler; Anders Carlsson; Martin Arvidsson

2007-01-01

261

Optimization of MEMS fabrication process design by virtual experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabrication processes for MEMS are characterized by a variety of different process technologies and materials. Unlike in microelectronics the fabrication process is relevant to all design stages within the design flow. Discovering the correct combination of process steps, materials and process parameters usually requires a large number of experiments. This paper presents a new software system that supports the MEMS designers in managing their process knowledge and in performing virtual experiments using SILVACO TCAD tools.

Schmidt, T.; Hahn, K.; Binder, T.; Popp, J.; Wagener, A.; Brück, R.

2007-01-01

262

Universal Design: Process, Principles, and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing any product or environment involves the consideration of many factors, including aesthetics, engineering options, environmental issues, safety concerns, industry standards, and cost. Typically, designers focus their attention on the average user. In contrast, universal design (UD), according to the Center for Universal Design," is the…

Burgstahler, Sheryl

2009-01-01

263

A user-centered, object-oriented methodology for developing Health Information Systems: a Clinical Information System (CIS) example.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to present our perspectives on healthcare analysis and design and the lessons learned from our experience with the development of a distributed, object-oriented Clinical Information System (CIS). In order to overcome known issues regarding development, implementation and finally acceptance of a CIS by the physicians we decided to develop a novel object-oriented methodology by integrating usability principles and techniques in a simplified version of a well established software engineering process (SEP), the Unified Process (UP). A multilayer architecture has been defined and implemented with the use of a vendor application framework. Our first experiences from a pilot implementation of our CIS are positive. This approach allowed us to gain a socio-technical understanding of the domain and enabled us to identify all the important factors that define both the structure and the behavior of a Health Information System. PMID:20703707

Konstantinidis, Georgios; Anastassopoulos, George C; Karakos, Alexandros S; Anagnostou, Emmanouil; Danielides, Vasileios

2010-04-23

264

Evolutionary Optimization of Business Process Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Business process redesign and improvement have become increasingly attractive in the wider area of business process intelligence. Although there are many attempts to establish a qualitative business process redesign framework, there is little work on quantitative business process analysis and optimization. Furthermore, most of the attempts to analyze and optimize a business process are manual without involving a formal

Ashutosh Tiwari; Kostas Vergidis; Rajkumar Roy

2007-01-01

265

Modeling and simulation for process and safeguards system design  

SciTech Connect

A computer modeling and simulation approach that meets the needs of both the process and safeguards system designers is described. The results have been useful to Westinghouse Hanford Company process designers in optimizing the process scenario and operating scheme of the Secure Automated Fabrication line. The combined process/measurements model will serve as the basis for design of the safeguards system. Integration of the process design and the safeguards system design should result in a smoothly operating process that is easier to safeguard.

Gutmacher, R.G.; Kern, E.A.; Duncan, D.R.; Benecke, M.W.

1983-01-01

266

A new method for design cycle period management in aircraft design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present research into reducing the aircraft design cycle period, by reducing the necessary number of design cycle iterations. The design cycle period is one of the main characteristics of the design process and design cycle iterations play a major role in the design cycle period. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To achieve the above-mentioned

B. Soltanmohammad; S. M. Malaek

2008-01-01

267

Information Modeling of Conceptual Design Integrated with Process Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information modeling is critical to the integration of conceptual design and process planning. An information model for conceptual design is provided in this paper. Conceptual design is a key activity in early product development. It determines product functions, form, and the basic structure. Major manufacturing cost is committed in early conceptual design process. The model presented in this paper includes

Shaw C. Feng; Eugene Y. Song

2000-01-01

268

Interactive Graphics, the Design Process, and Education.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The field of design and drafting is changing continuously - its parameters are ever shifting and its applications are increasing. The use of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is becoming increasingly common in industry. Ho...

F. J. Norton

1980-01-01

269

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR STRIPPING OF ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Procedures and correlations for designing and costing stripping towers for the removal of organics from aqueous streams are presented. The emphasis is on practical methods suitable for engineering estimates. The designs cover steam strippers with and without condensers and reflux...

270

76 FR 70368 - Disaster Designation Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Housing Service, and Rural Utilities Service USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule...with simplified procedures for designating USDA Secretarial disaster areas. Proposed changes...severe drought situations, and change the USDA Secretarial disaster designation...

2011-11-14

271

Incorporating standard CMOS design Process methodologies into the QCA logic design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the size and complexity of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) digital circuits increase, the amount of time needed to create a QCA layout and then simulate the quasi-adiabatic switching of that layout significantly increases. To help reduce this development time, the same design process methodology that has been applied in developing complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits over the past twenty years

Steven C. Henderson; Eric W. Johnson; Jason R. Janulis; P. Douglas Tougaw

2004-01-01

272

Automating the Conceptual Design Process: From Blackbox to Component Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual design is a vital part of the design process during which designers first envision new ideas and then synthesize\\u000a them into physical configurations that meet certain design specifications. In this research, a suite of computational tools\\u000a is developed that assists the designers perform this non-trivial task of navigating the design space for creating conceptual\\u000a design solutions. The methodology is

Tolga Kurtoglu; Albert Swantner; Matthew I. Campbell

273

Computer Applications in the Design Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computer Assisted Design (CAD) and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM) are emerging technologies now being used in home economics and interior design applications. A microcomputer in a computer network system is capable of executing computer graphic functions such as three-dimensional modeling, as well as utilizing office automation packages to…

Winchip, Susan

274

DIY design process for interactive surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper charts the design and build of two interactive tabletops that use infrared (IR) illumination techniques. One table implements fiducial tracking, whilst the other implements multi- touch tracking. Trade-offs in both designs are discussed to highlight key considerations when building an interactive table. Using three key dimensions from lessons learned, we conduct a comparative analysis of both approaches. Finally,

Jennifer G. Sheridan; James Tompkin; Abel Maciel; George Roussos

2009-01-01

275

Overview of the transmission line design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented for the design of overhead high-voltage transmission lines. Since most lines constructed by Los Angeles Department of Water and Power in recent years have been extra-high-voltage AC, this paper emphasizes the design of 500 kV AC transmission lines built in the southwest United States. Empirically developed practices are presented throughout the paper.

Robert D. Castro

1995-01-01

276

New design process for optical chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever-increasing capabilities of high- performance optical chips, combined with a continuous trend towards miniaturization has made designing them a more and more complex task. A further difficulty is added by the fact that technology in the optics sector is not as well developed as that in standard microelectronics, which means designers of optical chips are bound by more technological

W. Pribyl; D. Seyringer; H. Seyringer

2008-01-01

277

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the DOE ASPEN computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01

278

Design Science Research for Business Process Design: Organizational Transition at Intersport Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business processes need to be aligned with business strategies. This paper elaborates on experiences from a business process design effort in an action research project performed at Intersport Sweden. The purpose with this project was to create a solid base for taking the retail chain Intersport into a new organizational state where the new process design is aligned with strategic goals. Although business process modeling is concerned with creating artifacts, traditionally information systems design science research has had little impact on research on business process models. In this paper, we address the question of how design science research can contribute to business process design. Three heuristic guidelines for creating organizational commitment and strategic alignment in process design are presented. The guidelines are derived from the successful actions taken in the research project. The development of these guidelines is used as a basis to reflect upon the contribution of design science research to business process design.

Lind, Mikael; Rudmark, Daniel; Seigerroth, Ulf

279

Software Process Integration Based on Design Structure Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A software lifecycle is composed of many software processes which are not independent. In order to improve a process, the\\u000a process should be integrated into a larger process context environment and the synchronization between processes should be\\u000a insured. This paper introduces the concept of process modeling and the design structure matrix (DSM) describing complex process\\u000a systems. By using software process

Weimin Zhang; Shangang Jia

280

Certification Process for Designated Medical Gases  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Section 575 defines the term 21 “designated medical gas” to include oxygen, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, helium, 22 carbon monoxide ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

281

A Novel Cache Design for Vector Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an innovative cache design for vector computers, called prime-mapped cache. By utilizing the special properties of a Mersenne prime, the new design does not increase the critical path length of a processor, nor does it increase the cache access time as compared to a direct-mapped cache. The prime-mapped cache minimizes cache miss ratio caused by line interferences

Liping Wu Yang

1992-01-01

282

DESIGN ACTIVITIES AND PERSONAL CREATIVITY CHARACTERISTICS: A CASE STUDY OF DUAL PROTOCOL ANALYSIS USING DESIGN INFORMATION AND PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to explore design activities such as design process and design information through protocol analysis of design sessions of expert designers and student designers and to understand the relations between their personal creativity characteristics and design activities. In protocol analysis, we instituted dual coding schemes based on design information and design process. Regarding design process,

YONG SE KIM; SUN TAI JIN; SANG WON LEE

2006-01-01

283

A Rational Design Process: How and Why to Fake It  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many have sought a software design process that allows a program to be derived systematically from a precise statement of re- quirements. This paper proposes that, although we will not succeed in designing a real product in that'way, we can produce documentation that makes it appear that the software was designed by such a process. We first describe the ideal

David Lorge Parnas; Paul C. Clements

1985-01-01

284

Participatory Rural Appraisal Design: Conceptual and process issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emphasis in many past Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRAs) has been placed on the ‘doing’ dimension, with limited attention to the theoretical or conceptual underpinnings to process design. In this paper, conceptual and process issues relating to design are discussed, using a PRA case experience in the Kyeamba Valley, New South Wales, Australia. This design seeks to address issues embodied in

R. L. Ison

1995-01-01

285

Requirement-oriented activities in an engineering design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on new studies to be carried out on requirement management throughout an engineering design process. Requirements management but also requirement engineering has become a complex task because requirements have to be taken into account as soon as possible in the design process and permanently developed and monitored to both guide the design progress and assess its progress.

M. P. Claros Salinas; G. Prudhomme; D. Brissaud

2008-01-01

286

An intelligent approach to conceptual design automation of chemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the problem definitions, methodologies, and implementation of conceptual design automation of chemical processes. The problems and difficulties existing in conceptual design automation of chemical processes are first identified. Then, a general problem-solving strategy and control structure of the software is proposed. The authors describe an integrated distributed intelligent system (Meta-COOP) to accomplish the conceptual design of chemical

Murray Stevenson; Qun Wang; Ming Rao

1993-01-01

287

Representing and Capturing the Experts' Knowledge in a Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An object-oriented framework to support t he modeling and management of the design process is introduced. It naturally integrates the representation of both the design process itself, and the outcomes that are achieved as the result of the various design activities. The integral view of tracing that was adopted not only captures and manages the products being generated but also

Silvio Gonnet; Horacio P. Leone; Gabriela P. Henning

2003-01-01

288

H-Coal process and plant design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for converting coal and other hydrocarbonaceous materials into useful and more valuable liquid products. The process comprises: feeding coal and\\/or other hydrocarbonaceous materials with a hydrogen-containing gas into an ebullated catalyst bed reactor; passing the reaction products from the reactor to a hot separator where the vaporous and distillate products are separated from the residuals; introducing the vaporous

Paul H. Kydd; Michael C. Chervenak; George R. DeVaux

1983-01-01

289

H-coal process and plant design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is disclosed for converting coal and other hydrocarbonaceous materials into useful and valuable liquid products. The process comprises: feeding coal and\\/or other hydrocarbonaceous mater with a hydrogen-containing gas into an ebullated catalyst bed reactor; passing the reaction product from the reactor to a hot separator where the vaporous and distillate products are separated from residuals; introducing the vaporous

P. H. Kydd; M. C. Chervenak; G. R. DeVaux

1983-01-01

290

Software Creation: Implementation and Application of Design Process Knowledge in Automatic Software Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project is to automate software design by accumulating knowledge and experience of human designers. This paper presents the CRE- ATOR2, an experimental expert system for auto- matic software design, that simulates the behav- ior of human expert designers by applying the de- sign process knowledge. In CREATOR2 the focus is on reproducing human cognitive processes and

Zenya Koono; Behrouz H. Far; Takeshi Takizawa; Mari Ohmori; Ken-ichiroh Hatae; Takeshi Baba

1993-01-01

291

Potential of Conceptual Design Methodology for Food Process Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available time span for food product and process innovation is steadily decreasing, and to increase the efficacy of the development cycles, systematic design procedures can be used to develop new and to redesign existing processes. The Conceptual Process Design (CPD) methodologies used in chemical industry might also be applied in the food industry to rethink their systems and to

H. Hadiyanto; G. van Straten; R. M. Boom; A. J. B. van Boxtel; D. C. Esveld

2008-01-01

292

Collaboration in design and manufacturing process using Web services semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a framework called Web service based collaborative product commerce (WSCPC), which facilitates design and manufacturing process integration and coordination. In WSCPC, the design and manufacturing process is structured as a network of tasks. Companies can outsource a task, and join a process by providing their service. We propose an ontology based semantics using OWL-S to

Woongsup Kim; Moon-jung Chung

2005-01-01

293

Computer-aided design for manufacturing process selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an expert system that helps designers select a manufacturing process in the early stage of product design. First, the paper focuses on net-shape manufacturing processes and identifies the major factors that affect the selection of an appropriate process. Examples of these factors include shape, production volume and material. A versatile methodology should consider all the factors simultaneously

Jyh-Cheng Yu; Steven Krizan; Kosuke Ishii

1993-01-01

294

Co-reflection: user involvement for highly dynamic design processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

User involvement in systems, products and related services design has increased considerably in relevance. The way user involvement actually progresses depends on how the users are situated in relation to the design process. Their influence may extend from the results of the design project to planning and managing the course of the design project. Sequential techniques developed for the rational

Oscar Tomico; Joep W. Frens; Kees C. J. Overbeeke

2009-01-01

295

Erlang Behaviours: Programming with Process Design Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erlang processes run independently of each other, each using separate memory and communicating with each other by message passing. These processes, while executing different code, do so following a number of common patterns. By examining different examples of Erlang-style concurrency in client/server architectures, we identify the generic and specific parts of the code and extract the generic code to form a process skeleton. In Erlang, the most commonly used patterns have been implemented in library modules, commonly referred to as OTP behaviours. They contain the generic code framework for concurrency and error handling, simplifying the complexity of concurrent programming and protecting the developer from many common pitfalls.

Cesarini, Francesco; Thompson, Simon

296

Conceptual Process Designs: Lurgi-Ruhrgas and Superior Circular Grate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on preliminary data on retort yields and previous conceptual designs, a Design Basis has been prepared, and an upgrading scheme developed against which all five retorting processes can be evaluated. Licensors for retorting technologies (American Lur...

1980-01-01

297

Processes and Knowledge in Designing Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results from a study of problem solving in the domain of instructional design are presented. Subjects were eight teacher trainees who were recent graduates of or were enrolled in the Stanford Teacher Education Program at Stanford University (California). Subjects studied a computer-based tutorial--the VST2000--about a fictitious vehicle. The…

Greeno, James G.; And Others

298

Process Support Compressor Motor Electromagnetic Design Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 30-hp, 15,000-rpm, permanent magnet motor has been designed and is now being built. The direct drive motor has 72 slots and eight poles. Using A. O. Smith Magnetic, a flux plot was obtained and the flux density throughout one pole pitch has been determi...

J. M. Bailey

1987-01-01

299

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: MUNICIPAL SLUDGE LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual provides general guidance and a source of information to be used in the planning, design, and operation of a landfill receiving municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge. Major alternative sludge landfilling methods are identified and described. Guidance is given on...

300

Reinventing The Design Process: Teams and Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The future of space mission designing will be dramatically different from the past. Formerly, performance-driven paradigms emphasized data return with cost and schedule being secondary issues. Now and in the future, costs are capped and schedules fixed-th...

S. D. Wall

1999-01-01

301

Design Principles for Distributed Knowledge Building Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore various interpretations of the term distributed cognition, then turn our attention to communities grounded in the practice of collaborative knowledge building. We discuss CSILE (Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environments), a technology designed to support contributions to a communal database. Shared responsibility for this community resource extends to aspects of school practice typically handled exclusively by teachers,

Jim Hewitt; Marlene Scardamalia

1998-01-01

302

The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of the drawings and post artistic processing have been implemented. Additionally, with the use of this software, working efficiency has greatly increased and drawings have become more specific and more specialized. By analyzing the application of photoshop image processing software in environmental design and comparing and contrasting traditional hand drawing and drawing with modern technology, this essay will further explore the way for computer technology to play a bigger role in environmental design.

Dong, Baohua; Zhang, Chunmi; Zhuo, Chen

2011-01-01

303

Beyond `The Design Process': An Alternative Pedagogy for Technology Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

`The design process' as an underpinning structure for technology education is well established. A number of increasingly complex\\u000a models have been produced to describe the design process. These models have had a widespread, paradigmatic effect on the teaching\\u000a of technology education. The development and implementation of models of the design process and the influence of these on\\u000a teacher's classroom practice

Brent Mawson

2003-01-01

304

Integration of process design and control: System representation, operability evaluation and control strategy development for designing an optimal process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process integration has been widely practiced in the process and allied industries to significantly minimize energy and material costs, to reduce waste, and to improve plant profitability. It is proven that successful process integration is largely determined by the effectiveness of the integration of process design and process control. Unfortunately, the approaches for this type of integration practiced in industry

Quanzhong Yan

2000-01-01

305

A Design Process for Elementary School Guidance Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines a process that will enable counselors to design their own guidance activities relevant to the special needs of various student populations. Six steps are suggested: experiencing, publishing, processing, generalizing, developing, and applying. (ABB)

Kline, William B.; Vernon, Ann

1986-01-01

306

A Design Support Framework through Dynamic Deployment of Hypothesis and Verification in the Design Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a design support framework, named DRIFT (Design Rationale Integration Framework of Three layers), which dynamically captures and manages hypothesis and verification in the design process. A core of DRIFT is a three-layered design process model of action, model operation and argumentation. This model integrates various design support tools and captures design operations performed on them. Action level captures the sequence of design operations. Model operation level captures the transition of design states, which records a design snapshot over design tools. Argumentation level captures the process of setting problems and alternatives. The linkage of three levels enables to automatically and efficiently capture and manage iterative hypothesis and verification processes through design operations over design tools. In DRIFT, such a linkage is extracted through the templates of design operations, which are extracted from the patterns embeded in design tools such as Design-For-X (DFX) approaches, and design tools are integrated through ontology-based representation of design concepts. An argumentation model, gIBIS (graphical Issue-Based Information System), is used for representing dependencies among problems and alternatives. A mechanism of TMS (Truth Maintenance System) is used for managing multiple hypothetical design stages. This paper also demonstrates a prototype implementation of DRIFT and its application to a simple design problem. Further, it is concluded with discussion of some future issues.

Nomaguch, Yutaka; Fujita, Kikuo

307

Adding Users to the Website Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing,…

Tomeo, Megan L.

2012-01-01

308

Biogas: full-scale process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent feasibility study of converting manure from 100,000 head of cattle methane revealed that the process is technically feasible, but the produced gas is not competitively priced when compared to alternate sources of natural gas. This paper describes the study and its findings.

M. K. Sailor; L. A. Licht

1981-01-01

309

In-design process hotspot repair using pattern matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As patterning for advanced processes becomes more challenging, designs must become more process-aware. The conventional approach of running lithography simulation on designs to detect process hotspots is prohibitive in terms of runtime for designers, and also requires the release of highly confidential process information. Therefore, a more practical approach is required to make the In-Design process-aware methodology more affordable in terms of maintenance, confidentiality, and runtime. In this study, a pattern-based approach is chosen for Process Hotspot Repair (PHR) because it accurately captures the manufacturability challenges without releasing sensitive process information. Moreover, the pattern-based approach is fast and well integrated in the design flow. Further, this type of approach is very easy to maintain and extend. Once a new process weak pattern has been discovered (caused by Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP), etch, lithography, and other process steps), the pattern library can be quickly and easily updated and released to check and fix subsequent designs. This paper presents the pattern matching flow and discusses its advantages. It explains how a pattern library is created from the process weak patterns found on silicon wafers. The paper also discusses the PHR flow that fixes process hotspots in a design, specifically through the use of pattern matching and routing repair.

Jang, Daehyun; Ha, Naya; Jeon, Junsu; Kang, Jae-Hyun; Paek, Seung Weon; Choi, Hungbok; Kim, Kee Sup; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Hurat, Philippe; Luo, Wilbur

2012-03-01

310

Experimental design for improved ceramic processing, emphasizing the Taguchi Method  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic processing often requires substantial experimentation to produce acceptable product quality and performance. This is a consequence of ceramic processes depending upon a multitude of factors, some of which can be controlled and others that are beyond the control of the manufacturer. Statistical design of experiments is a procedure that allows quick, economical, and accurate evaluation of processes and products that depend upon several variables. Designed experiments are sets of tests in which the variables are adjusted methodically. A well-designed experiment yields unambiguous results at minimal cost. A poorly designed experiment may reveal little information of value even with complex analysis, wasting valuable time and resources. This article will review the most common experimental designs. This will include both nonstatistical designs and the much more powerful statistical experimental designs. The Taguchi Method developed by Grenichi Taguchi will be discussed in some detail. The Taguchi method, based upon fractional factorial experiments, is a powerful tool for optimizing product and process performance.

Weiser, M.W. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Fong, K.B. (John Zink Co., Tulsa, OK (United States))

1993-12-01

311

Design expert’s participation in elementary students’ collaborative design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of the present study was to provide insights into how disciplinary expertise might be infused into Design and\\u000a Technology classrooms and how authentic processes based on professional design practices might be constructed. We describe\\u000a elementary students’ collaborative lamp designing process, where the leadership was provided by a professional designer. The\\u000a video-recorded lessons on lamp designing and the

Kaiju KangasPirita; Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen; Kai Hakkarainen

312

Design of an ITS-Level Advanced Traffic Management System: A Human Factors Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents an approach for designing an Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) for a human factors perspective. In designing the ATMS from a human factors perspective, a user-centered top-down system analysis was conducted. Methodologies empl...

D. A. Mitta M. J. Kelly D. J. Folds

1996-01-01

313

Supporting process design for e-business via an integrated process repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business process design is an integral part of e-business engineering. Given that e-business models usually involve a wide\\u000a range of business processes across different business functions with complex activities, events, and documents, process design\\u000a for e-business is a very challenging task. Although various process reference models (PRMs) have been developed to provide\\u000a guidelines for process design, research on leveraging multiple

Harry Jiannan Wang; Harris Wu

2011-01-01

314

Multivariate statistical regression methods for process modelling and experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, various multivariate statistical regression methods are investigated for estimating process models from the process input-output data. These identified models are to be used for designing model based controllers and experimental optimisation of multivariate processes. The following issues are explored: (i) identification of finite impulse response models for model based control; (ii) multi-output identification for multivariate processes; (iii)

Bhupinder Singh Dayal

1996-01-01

315

Multivariate Statistical Regression Methods for Process Modelling and Experimental Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, various multivariate statistical regression methods are investigated for estimating process models from the process input-output data. These identified models are to be used for designing model based controllers and experimental optimisation of multivariate processes. The following issues are explored: (i) identification of finite impulse response models for model based control; (ii) multi-output identification tor multivariate processes; (iii)

Bhupinder Singh Dayal

1996-01-01

316

A Process-Integrated Conceptual Design Environment for Chemical Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process industries (chemicals, food, oil, ...) are characterized by - - continuous or batch -- processes of material transformation. The design of such processes, and their mapping to the available equipment (plants composed of production units in which reactions take place), is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environ- mental impact.

Matthias Jarke; Thomas List; Klaus Weidenhaupt

1999-01-01

317

H-Coal process and plant design  

DOEpatents

A process for converting coal and other hydrocarbonaceous materials into useful and more valuable liquid products. The process comprises: feeding coal and/or other hydrocarbonaceous materials with a hydrogen-containing gas into an ebullated catalyst bed reactor; passing the reaction products from the reactor to a hot separator where the vaporous and distillate products are separated from the residuals; introducing the vaporous and distillate products from the separator directly into a hydrotreater where they are further hydrogenated; passing the residuals from the separator successively through flash vessels at reduced pressures where distillates are flashed off and combined with the vaporous and distillate products to be hydrogenated; transferring the unseparated residuals to a solids concentrating and removal means to remove a substantial portion of solids therefrom and recycling the remaining residual oil to the reactor; and passing the hydrogenated vaporous and distillate products to an atmospheric fractionator where the combined products are fractionated into separate valuable liquid products. The hydrogen-containing gas is generated from sources within the process.

Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ); DeVaux, George R. (Princeton, NJ)

1983-01-01

318

H-coal process and plant design  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for converting coal and other hydrocarbonaceous materials into useful and valuable liquid products. The process comprises: feeding coal and/or other hydrocarbonaceous mater with a hydrogen-containing gas into an ebullated catalyst bed reactor; passing the reaction product from the reactor to a hot separator where the vaporous and distillate products are separated from residuals; introducing the vaporous and distillate products from the separator directly into a hydrotreater where they are further hydrogenated; passing the residuals from the separator sucessively through flash vessels at reduced pressures where distillates are flashed off and combined with the vaporous and distillate products to be hydrogenated; transferring the unseparated residua to a solids concentrating and removal means to remove a substantial portion of solids therefrom an recycling the remaining residual oil to the reactor; and passing the hydrogenated vaporous and distillate products to an atmospheric fractionator where the combined products are fractionated in separate valuable liquid products. The hydrogen-containing gas is generated from sources within the process.

Kydd, P.H.; Chervenak, M.C.; DeVaux, G.R.

1983-08-23

319

Modelling the Design Process in Engineering and in Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of the design process in engineering seem to have converged upon a consensus represented, for example, by the German VDI model. However, after starting from common origins, models of the design process in architecture have diverged from the engineering consensus, in response to criticisms from both theorists and practitioners. There now appear to be significant differences between the engineering

NIGEL CROSS; NORBERT ROOZENBURG

1992-01-01

320

Observations of teamwork and social processes in design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the teamwork experiment of the Delft Protocols Workshop, with particular reference to design activity as a social process. Observations are made on the following aspects: on the roles and relationships within the team, on their planning of the design process and their actions relative to that plan, on their gathering and sharing of information, on their ways

Nigel Cross; Anita Clayburn Cross

1995-01-01

321

Process design system an integrated set of software development tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Process Design Engineering Program, under the direction of the Ballistic Missile Defense Advanced Technology Center, has as its objective the development of a unified software engineering discipline addressing all software development problems from receipt of software requirements to delivery of the operational software system. During the first two years of this program, initial process design engineering and management procedures

R. G. Koppang

1976-01-01

322

Economic considerations in membrane gas separation process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane processes are difficult to optimize without the appropriate computer programs. This has made it difficult to fully appreciate the inherent advantages of membrane process design. Membrane suppliers such as Grace Membrane Systems have these design capabilities and are always willing to assist customers with specific requests. The analysis presented in this paper provides useful guidelines for the engineer to

R. W. Spillman; T. E. Cooley

1987-01-01

323

Timing control and signal processing design of the MOPITT instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MOPITT instrument operates on the principle of correlation spectroscopy where the incoming signal is modulated by gas filter and chopper mechanisms and synchronously demodulated within the signal processing system. The performance and flexibility required by the MOPITT instrument resulted in the development of a novel timing control and signal processing design. This design synchronizes modulation and demodulation from a

Dennis Henry; John P. Hackett; James R. Drummond; Roger Colley

2002-01-01

324

THE GAS TURBINE ENGINE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN PROCESS - AN INTEGRATED APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design process of gas turbine engines is complex, involving mw engineering disciplines. Aerodynamics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, materials science, component design, and structural analysis are a few of the fields employed when down selecting an appropriate engine configuration. Because of the complexity involved, it is critical to have a process that narrows engine options without missing the \\

Jeffrey M. Stricker; Wright-Patterson AFB

1998-01-01

325

Inclusion of information costs in process design optimization under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in process design have focused on establishing optimization-based approaches to support decision-making under uncertainty, but few efforts have been made to study and consider how information regarding this uncertainty affects optimal decision. In this paper we develop an optimal design framework that, besides integrating process profitability, robustness and quality issues, allows one to decide how much it is

Fernando P. Bernardo; Pedro Saraiva; Pistikopoulos N. Efstratios

2000-01-01

326

OPTIMIZATION OF COMPOSITE WOOD STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS: PROCESSING AND DESIGN CHOICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreasing size and quality of the world's forest resources are responsible for interest in producing composite wood structural components. Process and design optimization methods are offered in this paper. Processing concepts for wood composite structural products are reviewed to illustrate manufacturing boundaries and areas of high potential. Structural optimization principles are introduced to provide an overview of design requirements for

THEODORE L. LAUFENBERG

327

Debating Professional Designations for Evaluators: Reflections on the Canadian Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides a reflective account of a consultation process on professional designations for evaluators initiated and coordinated by the Canadian Evaluation Society (CES). Described are: (1) the forces leading CES to generate discussion and debate about professional designations for Canadian evaluators, (2) the process of developing and…

Cousins, J. Bradley; Cullen, Jim; Malik, Sumbal; Maicher, Brigitte

2009-01-01

328

Thermodynamic modeling for supercritical fluid process design  

SciTech Connect

The present paper describes a predictive model for ascertaining the process parameters toward establishing an economically viable supercritical fluid technology. The model utilizes the Peng-Robinson equation of state with a modified covolume-dependent (CVD) mixing rule to be able to predict the solubility of mixed solids in pure and mixed supercritical carbon dioxide from minimum information, such as the pure component solubilities. The model can predict the solubility data at various temperatures by virtue of its temperature-insensitive CVD interaction parameter. In order to make the model completely predictive, the CVD interaction parameter has been correlated in terms of the easily available pure component properties, such as solid molar volume, van der Waals volumes, and dipole moments. For mixed solvent, however, a more rigorous correlation is needed to account for stronger solute-cosolvent interactions. The validity of the model has also been tested for the solubility predictions of liquid solutes in the supercritical solvent. Slightly higher deviations of the liquid-phase compositions indicate that the mixing rule is rather well suited for the dilute supercritical solution. The utility of the model has been demonstrated for separation of palmitic acid from tripalmitin. The process parameters have been established under the equilibrium condition utilizing the well-predicted crossover pressures and solubility behavior with temperature.

Mukhopadhyay, M.; Rao, G.V.R. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay (India))

1993-05-01

329

The electronic design notebook: performing medium and processing medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional “Engineer's Notebook” is a volume of bound paper pages. This archaic system is still the medium of choice for mechanical engineers during the conceptual phase of design. In making this choice, designers are taking aperformer's view, choosing freedom and agility in the initial making of drawings over processing power. The paper notebook allows the designer to quickly write

Fred Lakin; John Wambaugh; Larry J. Leifer; Dave Cannon; Cecilia Sivard

1989-01-01

330

Programming-Free Form Conversion, Design, and Processing  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present the requirements and design considerations for programming-free form conversion, design, and processing. A set of object-oriented software tools are also presented to help users convert a paper form into an electronic form, design an electronic form, and fill in an electronic form directly on screen.

Fan, Ting-Jun; Machlin, Rona S.; Wang, Christopher P.; Chang, Ifay F.

1990-01-01

331

Conceptual design process model for function and contradiction solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product conceptual design process modeling is a hot issue of engineering design field researches. Contradiction solving is the most important kind of problems to be solved and it is rooted philosophy in TRIZ. The essence of contradictions appeared in product structure is that there are conflicts between functions of a product. Contradiction in conceptual design is introduced, which can be

Fang Liu; Ping Jiang; Peng Zhang; Runhua Tan

2008-01-01

332

A comparison of freshman and senior engineering design processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report the results of an in-depth study of engineering student approaches to an open-ended design problem. To do this, verbal protocols were collected from 26 freshman (first year) and 24 senior (fourth year) engineering students as they designed a playground for a fictitious neighborhood. We analysed these protocols to document and compare the student design processes.

Cynthia J Atman; Justin R Chimka; Karen M Bursic; Heather L Nachtmann

1999-01-01

333

A Process and Pilot Plant Design Study of the Absorption Freezing Vapor Compression Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design study of the Absorption Freezing Vapor Compression (AFVC) process for desalination and other concentration/separation treatments of waste water was conducted. The AFVC process overcomes one of the major problem areas in previous freezing processe...

1977-01-01

334

Integration of MGDS design into the licensing process  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of how the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) design for a potential repository is integrated into the licensing process. The integration process employs a two-told approach: (1) ensure that the MGDS design complies with applicable Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing requirements, and (2) ensure that the MGDS design is appropriately reflected in a license application that is acceptable to the NRC for performing acceptance and compliance reviews.

NONE

1997-12-01

335

Designing a Mixed Reality Intergenerational Entertainment System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter presents steps for designing an intergenerational mixed reality entertainment system, which focuses on physical and social interactions using a mixed reality floor system. The main design goals include the following: facilitating interactions between users with varied levels of skill in utilizing technology, utilizing the familiar physical motions from other activities to make an intuitive physical interface, and encouraging social interactions among families and friends. Detailed implementation of these steps is presented in the design of our intergenerational entertainment system, Age Invaders. Our design process is based on user-centered design. The results of the study help to focus the refinements of the existing platform from a usability standpoint and also aid in the development of new physical entertainment and interactive applications. This study provides insights into user issues including how users interact in a complex mixed reality experience.

Khoo, Eng Tat; Merritt, Tim; Cheok, Adrian David

336

A Metacognition Modeling of Engineering Product Designer in the Process of Product Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

For further effectual tacit knowledge reusing in the process of product design, individual cognitive processes, cognitive\\u000a factors, and cognitive strategies need to be realized to find the essential factors that affect the generation of tacit knowledge\\u000a and control designer activities in the whole design process. But these key factors are relative to individual cognitive capability\\u000a and meta-cognitive level. So, based

Jun Liang; Zu-Hua Jiang; Yun-song Zhao; Jin-lian Wang

2007-01-01

337

Design of experiments in Biomedical Signal Processing Course.  

PubMed

Biomedical Signal Processing is one of the most important major subjects in Biomedical Engineering. The contents of Biomedical Signal Processing include the theories of digital signal processing, the knowledge of different biomedical signals, physiology and the ability of computer programming. Based on our past five years teaching experiences, in order to let students master the signal processing algorithm well, we found that the design of experiments following algorithm was very important. In this paper we presented the ideas and aims in designing the experiments. The results showed that our methods facilitated the study of abstractive signal processing algorithms and made understanding of biomedical signals in a simple way. PMID:19162973

Li, Ling; Li, Bin

2008-01-01

338

Stamping process design using FEA in conjunction with orthogonal regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process design technique is presented for the formability assessment of sheet metal stamping parts and feasibility analysis of process conditions. The proposed approach is based on numerical simulation of stamping processes by using explicit – incremental and implicit – iterative finite element techniques. The influence of the numeric model parameters are investigated with factor analysis and described with response

Mehmet Firat; Osman H. Mete; Umit Kocabicak; Murat Ozsoy

2010-01-01

339

Mineral Processing Flow Sheet Design Through A Group Contribution Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

d'Anterroches and Gani [1] have introduced the concept of process-group contributions for process flowsheet property estimation and process flowsheet synthesis and design. This concept has been highlighted through a flowsheet property model for distillation operations. In this work a group contribution model have been development for flowsheet properties for flotation circuit. The model was adjusted based on simulated values for

Gonzalo I. Herrera; Edelmira D. Gálvez; Luis A. Cisternas

2009-01-01

340

Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The sequential manner in which materials and processes for a manufactured product are selected is inherently less than optimal. Designers` tendency to choose processes and materials with which they are familiar exacerbate this problem. A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach is presented.

Kleban, S.D.

1998-07-01

341

LINEAR APPROXIMATION OF RANDOM PROCESSES AND SAMPLING DESIGN PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear approximation of random processes is considered as a three-layers problem: for a single process; for a fixed method, an optimization of a sample points design; for a class of random processes, the best approximation order. The close relationship between the smoothness properties of a function and the best rate of its linear approximation is one of the basic ideas

O. V. SELEZNJEV

1999-01-01

342

23 CFR 636.109 - How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process? 636... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636...How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process?...

2010-04-01

343

23 CFR 636.109 - How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process? 636... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636...How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process?...

2009-04-01

344

Quality assurance processes for designing patient education web sites.  

PubMed

In the future, more nurses and other healthcare professionals will be providing patient education on the Internet. Having knowledge of processes that lead to quality patient education Web site design is essential. These quality assurance processes include determining the site's purpose, selecting the user population, establishing the expected clinical and learning outcomes, providing an educational framework, incorporating specific design principles, and multiple and ongoing site evaluation. Therefore, Web site development processes designed to undergird quality patient education are presented, and an example Web site is used to illustrate them. PMID:12352105

Smith, Carol E; Cha, Jennifer; Puno, Florence; Magee, Jon D; Bingham, James; Van Gorp, Mark

345

An extended model of design process of lean production systems by means of process variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an axiomatic modeling of lean production system design, using process variables (PVs). So far, we had developed a model for conceptual design of lean production systems by means of FR–DP relationships, the key characteristics of axiomatic design (AD) methodology, appeared in the proceedings of Second International Conference of Axiomatic Design. Albeit the model in question

Mahmoud Houshmand; Bizhan Jamshidnezhad

2006-01-01

346

Nursing job process analysis from viewpoint of process design by job diagram.  

PubMed

Recently Japan demands more and more quality assurance in clinical practice. Several aspects of issues have been discussed to provide significant suggestions for nursing quality assurance. In the quality management field, Process Design, which is known to contribute to quality assurance, is an important frame. This study attempts to analyze the nursing job process from the viewpoint of process design. As a result, some knowledge on the nursing job process could be comprehended. Process analysis from the viewpoint of Process Design is considered significant in nursing practice and further improvement of its technique and application is a challenge for the future. PMID:17102465

Dannoue, Hideo; Tsuru, Satoko; Munechika, Masahiko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

2006-01-01

347

Designing process wells for an underground coal-gasification environment  

SciTech Connect

Recent large-scale field experiments designed to advance the state of underground coal gasification (UCG) technology have forced the recognition of some critical uncertainties associated with the UCG process. Among the most important of these uncertainties occurs in attempting to define the reaction zone geometry. Batch processing of a flat-lying coal seam between two process wells involves complex flow patterns, any number of separate reaction zones, and interactions with surrounding media. All of these factors have significant impact on the overall efficiency of the UCG process, and all of them in turn are strongly affected by success or failure in maintaining the integrity of the process wells. The reasons why process well integrity is so important are covered here in a review and evaluation of significant data generated from various field tests, including identification of well failure mechanisms. We observe a close relationship between process well behavior and process performance, which leads us to conclude that reliable process well performance is critical in establishing and maintaining control over the UCG process. As a logical extension of this evaluation, we develop design and performance criteria for UCG process wells. Applications to the next generation of field tests are presented in the form of proposed design features for UCG process wells, features intended to prevent the failure modes that have occurred in past field experiments.

Thompson, D.S.

1981-06-01

348

Semantic Service Design for Collaborative Business Processes in Internetworked Enterprises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern collaborating enterprises can be seen as borderless organizations whose processes are dynamically transformed and integrated with the ones of their partners (Internetworked Enterprises, IE), thus enabling the design of collaborative business processes. The adoption of Semantic Web and service-oriented technologies for implementing collaboration in such distributed and heterogeneous environments promises significant benefits. IE can model their own processes independently by using the Software as a Service paradigm (SaaS). Each enterprise maintains a catalog of available services and these can be shared across IE and reused to build up complex collaborative processes. Moreover, each enterprise can adopt its own terminology and concepts to describe business processes and component services. This brings requirements to manage semantic heterogeneity in process descriptions which are distributed across different enterprise systems. To enable effective service-based collaboration, IEs have to standardize their process descriptions and model them through component services using the same approach and principles. For enabling collaborative business processes across IE, services should be designed following an homogeneous approach, possibly maintaining a uniform level of granularity. In the paper we propose an ontology-based semantic modeling approach apt to enrich and reconcile semantics of process descriptions to facilitate process knowledge management and to enable semantic service design (by discovery, reuse and integration of process elements/constructs). The approach brings together Semantic Web technologies, techniques in process modeling, ontology building and semantic matching in order to provide a comprehensive semantic modeling framework.

Bianchini, Devis; Cappiello, Cinzia; de Antonellis, Valeria; Pernici, Barbara

349

Basic design of alpha aqueous waste treatment process in NUCEF.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper described the basic design of Alpha Aqueous Waste Treatment Process in NUCEF. Since various experiments using the TRU (transuranium) elements are carried out in NUCEF, wastes containing TRU elements arise. The liquid wastes in NUCEF are categor...

H. Mineo T. Matsumura I. Nishizawa T. Mitsui H. Ueki

1996-01-01

350

Design and construction innovations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is essentially complete. The facility is designed to convert high level radioactive waste, now contained in large steel tanks as aqueous salts and sludge, into b...

J. M. McKibben C. R. Pair H. K. Bethmann

1990-01-01

351

SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems, due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and complicated ...

352

Process Design Manual for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual describes the basic principles of land treatment and presents a rational procedure for design of land treatment systems. Information contained in this manual can be used in identifying alternatives during planning, in selecting a process alter...

1977-01-01

353

GREENING OF OXIDATION CATALYSIS THROUGH IMPROVED CATALYST AND PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Greening of Oxidation Catalysis Through Improved Catalysts and Process Design Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas Becker, and Raymond Smith United State Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W...

354

Reverse electrodialysis: A validated process model for design and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a technology to generate electricity using the entropy of the mixing of sea and river water. A model is made of the RED process and validated experimentally. The model is used to design and optimize the RED process. It predicts very small differences between counter- and co-current operation.It was decided to focus on co-current design because

J. Veerman; M. Saakes; S. J. Metz; G. J. Harmsen

2011-01-01

355

Use-centered interface design for an adaptable administration system for chemical process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the use-centered interface design for an adaptable administration system for chemical process design is presented. On the basis of the main work activities to be supported with the tool, two different analytical evaluation methods were applied to the prototypical original interface. The derived requirements led to the design and implementation of an alternative interface which was compared

Christian Foltz; Bernhard Westfechtel; Holger Luczak

356

Sketching in Design Journals: An Analysis of Visual Representations in the Product Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the sketching behavior of designers and the role of sketching in the design process. Observations from a descriptive study of sketches provided in design journals, characterized by a protocol measuring sketching activities, are presented. A distinction is made between journals that are entirely tangible and those that contain…

Lau, Kimberly; Oehlberg, Lora; Agogino, Alice

2009-01-01

357

Sketching in Design Journals: an Analysis of Visual Representations in the Product Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the sketching behavior of designers and the role of sketching in the design process. Observations from a descriptive study of sketches provided in design journals, characterized by a protocol measuring sketching activities, are presented. A distinction is made between journals that are entirely tangible and those that contain some digitally-produced content (\\

Kimberly Lau; Lora Oehlberg; Alice Agogino

358

Simultaneous Design of Ionic Liquids and Azeotropic Separation Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for the design of azeotrope separation processes using ionic liquids as entrainers is outlined. A Hildebrand solubility parameter group contribution model has been developed to screen for or design an ionic liquid entrainer that is soluble with the azeotropic components. Using the best candidate, vapor-liquid equilibria data is predicted using a new ionic liquid UNIFAC model that has

Brock C. Roughton; John White; Kyle V. Camarda; Rafiqul Gani

2011-01-01

359

METHODS FOR INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN DECISIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this cooperative agreement was to postulate a means by which an engineer could routinely include environmental considerations in day-to-day conceptual design problems; a means that could easily integrate with existing design processes, and thus avoid massive retr...

360

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Verification and Validation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides a description of design verification and validation activities implemented by the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. During the execution of early design verification, a management assessment (Bergman, 1999) and external assessments on configuration management (Augustenburg, 1999) and testing (Loscoe, 2000) were conducted and identified potential uncertainties in the verification process. This led the SNF Chief Engineer to

2000-01-01

361

Designing the strategic planning process: does psychological type matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the empirical literature concerning the design of the strategic planning process and its relationship to environmental, organizational, strategic and psychological factors. The paper aims to focus on psychological type and its relationship to planning preferences. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A study of 187 managers' profiling their psychological type (using

David Jennings; John J. Disney

2006-01-01

362

The Design Process and User Focused Digital Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis presents a qualitative inquiry into how the graphic design process is being reconfigured within the new digital media landscape. The literature review looks at the historical relationship between graphic design and technology from the invention of the printing press to the personal computer and reviews how this relationship is again affected by the emergence of the computer as

Elaine M. Keating

2004-01-01

363

Leading edge design process using a commercial flow solver  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design process of an asymmetric leading edge, for laminar stability measurements in a flat plate boundary layer, is reported. The purpose is to minimize the leading edge pressure gradient region, which affects the stability characteristics of the flow. Finally, the design success is verified by wind tunnel testing.

Jens H. M. Fransson

2004-01-01

364

Leading edge design process using a commercial flow solver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design process of an asymmetric leading edge, for laminar stability measurements in a flat plate boundary layer, is reported. The purpose is to minimize the leading edge pressure gradient region, which affects the stability characteristics of the flow. Finally, the design success is verified by wind tunnel testing.

Fransson, Jens H. M.

2004-12-01

365

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual presents a rational procedure for the design of land treatment systems. Slow rate, rapid infiltration, and overland flow processes for the treatment of municipal wastewaters are discussed in detail, and the design concepts and criteria are presented. A two-phased plann...

366

Analog Integrated Circuits Design for Processing Physiological Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analog integrated circuits (ICs) designed for processing physiological signals are important building blocks of wearable and implantable medical devices used for health monitoring or restoring lost body functions. Due to the nature of physiological signals and the corresponding application scenarios, the ICs designed for these applications should have low power consumption, low cutoff frequency, and low input-referred noise. In this

Yan Li; Carmen C. Y. Poon; Yuan-Ting Zhang

2010-01-01

367

Design optimisation of aluminium recycling processes using Taguchi technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a robust design method is developed for reducing cost and improving quality in aluminium recycling. An experimental investigation into the process parameter effects is presented to determine the optimum configuration of design parameters for performance, quality and cost. The Taguchi method is applied initially to plan a minimum number of experiments. Orthogonal array techniques are used to

A. R Khoei; I Masters; D. T Gethin

2002-01-01

368

Difference in similarity: interpreting the architectural design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depending on discipline, models of the design process tend to focus on one of three general concepts: representation, form, and structure. We hypothesise that aspects of each concept will be found when studying designing from one particular discipline and that, in the case of architecture, the three concepts can be combined to produce a general model of the architec tural

P Lloyd; P Scott

1995-01-01

369

Automating Design of Voltage Interpolation to Address Process Variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-fabrication tuning provides a promising design approach to mitigate the performance and power overheads of process variation in advanced fabrication technologies. This paper explores design considerations and VLSI-CAD support for a recently proposed post-fabrication tuning knob called voltage interpolation. Successful implementation of this technique requires examination of the design tradeoffs between circuit tuning range and static power overheads within the

Kevin M. Brownell; Ali Durlov Khan; Gu-Yeon Wei; David Brooks

2011-01-01

370

Participatory ergonomics in design processes: the role of boundary objects.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight characteristics of boundary objects and their use, which make them particularly useful in PE design processes. These characteristics go beyond the object itself and extend into the context of their use. We argue that the selection of boundary objects in PE processes is of great importance, since different objects enable workers' participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic practitioners that are based on the framework. PMID:20947061

Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke

2010-10-13

371

Rates of reaction and process design data for the Hydrocarb Process  

SciTech Connect

In support of studies for developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb Process, experimental and process design data are reported. The experimental work includes the hydropryolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a tubular reactor. The rates of reaction and conversion were obtained at temperature and pressure conditions pertaining to a Hydrocarb Process design. A Process Simulation Computer Model was used to design the process and obtain complete energy and mass balances. Multiple feedstocks including biomass with natural gas and biomass with coal were evaluated. Additional feedstocks including green waste, sewage sludge and digester gas were also evaluated for a pilot plant unit.

Steinberg, M.; Kobayashi, Atsushi [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Tung, Yuanki [Hydrocarb Corp., New York, NY (United States)

1992-08-01

372

The Building Bridges Project: Involving Older Adults in the Design of a Communication Technology to Support Peer-to-Peer Social Engagement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a variety of factors that can lead to social isolation and loneliness in old age, including decline in physical and mental health, as well as change to social environment. The Building Bridges project explores how communication technology can help older adults remain socially connected. This paper will first provide an overview of a prototype communication system designed to support peer-to-peer group interaction. A description of the user-centered design process will be provided to demonstrate the importance of involving older adults at the earliest stages. The implications for designing new technology for older adults are discussed.

Wherton, Joseph; Prendergast, David

373

Design Science Research for Business Process Design: Organizational Transition at Intersport Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Business processes need to be aligned with business strategies. This paper elaborates on experiences from a business process\\u000a design effort in an action research project performed at Intersport Sweden. The purpose with this project was to create a\\u000a solid base for taking the retail chain Intersport into a new organizational state where the new process design is aligned\\u000a with strategic

Mikael Lind; Daniel Rudmark; Ulf Seigerroth

2010-01-01

374

Integrating ergonomics into the architectural design processes: tools for user participation in hospital design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of ergonomics in a large-scale hospital design project, and in particular, the contribution of an ergonomic consultant in organising the participation of end-users. The difference in the architectural and ergonomic design process often makes it difficult to establish an ergonomic contribution in the pre-design phase of the building design. An

S. L. M. Remijn

375

Propelling design evolution: using a scientifically driven design process to incrementally advance architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis explores the influence of design evolution within the professions of architecture, industrial design, and engineering. Design evolution is a process that can be accelerated through collaboration between various groups linked to the development and production of designed objects. Working as interdisciplinary professionals, I support the incremental advancement of contemporary products in order to encourage positive human progress.\\u000aAs

Robert Thaddeus Gassman

2009-01-01

376

COMPUTER ASSISTED PRELIMINARY DESIGN FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESS SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to develop an interactive computer program to aid the design engineer in evaluating the performance and cost for any proposed drinking water treatment system consisting of individual unit processes. The 25 unit process models currently in the program ...

377

Integrated Product and Process Design: Current Practices and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Florida's Integrated Product and Process Design (IPPD) program is an exemplary model of university-industry collaboration. IPPD features multidisciplinary teams of engineering and business students developing authentic products and processes for industry project sponsors. Each team is led by a faculty coach and is supported by a liaison engineer from the project sponsor. The program has flourished over

R. Keith Stanfill

378

Processing Software Source Text in Automated Design Recovery and Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software source text is the raw material of program understanding and transformation systems. In order to share the results of source analyses, both between phases of a design recovery process, and between tools and systems in different processes, a source text interchange format is needed. This paper describes a simple technique, 'source factoring', by which a common structural decomposition of

Andrew J. Malton; Kevin A. Schneider; James R. Cordy; Thomas R. Dean; Darren Cousineau; Jason Reynolds

2001-01-01

379

Designing industrial processes for on-aim product quality control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes an industrial view on incorporating controllability and developing plantwide control strategies at the stage where a new process is being designed. The use of computer-aided process engineering tools is discussed within this context and three industrial examples are given to highlight key concepts and point out areas of potential future academic research.

Michael L. Luyben

2002-01-01

380

Spline approximation of random processes and design problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the spline approximation of a continuous (continuously differentiable) random process with finite second moments based on n observations of the process (and its derivatives). The performance of the approximation is measured by mean errors (e.g., integrated or maximal quadratic mean errors). For Hermite interpolation splines, an optimal rule sets n observation locations (i.e., a design, a mesh). While,

Oleg Seleznjev

2000-01-01

381

Natural gas operations: considerations on process transients, design, and control.  

PubMed

This manuscript highlights tangible benefits deriving from the dynamic simulation and control of operational transients of natural gas processing plants. Relevant improvements in safety, controllability, operability, and flexibility are obtained not only within the traditional applications, i.e. plant start-up and shutdown, but also in certain fields apparently time-independent such as the feasibility studies of gas processing plant layout and the process design of processes. Specifically, this paper enhances the myopic steady-state approach and its main shortcomings with respect to the more detailed studies that take into consideration the non-steady state behaviors. A portion of a gas processing facility is considered as case study. Process transients, design, and control solutions apparently more appealing from a steady-state approach are compared to the corresponding dynamic simulation solutions. PMID:22056010

Manenti, Flavio

2011-11-03

382

Project HealthDesign: rethinking the power and potential of personal health records.  

PubMed

Project HealthDesign, a multi-year, multi-site project sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation with additional support from the California HealthCare Foundation, is designed to stimulate innovation in personal health records (PHRs). Project HealthDesign teams employed user-centered design processes to create designs and prototypes of computer-based applications to support and enhance human health for a wide range of patients, from children with chronic health conditions to elders transitioning from hospital to home. A program design philosophy encouraged designers to envision PHRs as a suite of personal health information management tools, or applications, separate from, but drawing upon, personal health data from a variety of sources. In addition to information contained in one's medical record, these personal health data included patient-supplied clinical parameters such as blood glucose and daily weights; as well as patient-generated observations of daily living (ODLs) - the unique, idiosyncratic cues, such as sleep adequacy or confidence in self care, that inform patients about their abilities to manage health challenges and take healthy action. A common technical platform provided infrastructure services such as data standards and identity-management protocols, and helped to demonstrate a scalable, efficient approach to user-centered design of personal health information management systems. The program's ethical, legal and social issues consultancy identified challenges to acceleration of action-focused PHRs: personal control of privacy choices, management of privacy in home conditions, and rebalancing power structures in shared decision making. PMID:20937482

Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Downs, Stephen; Casper, Gail

2010-10-01

383

A Data Model Designing Method Adjustable for Business Process Modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to comply with rapid changes of business environment, companies or organizations continuously modify contexts of their business process. Different data model will be built to support business process to be changed. In this paper, we introduce PCM (Property Centric Modeling) which facilitates data model design in accordance with business process. Context is often appeared in business process as function, persons, facilities, or materials. PCM associates each context with set of properties to build data model from those properties. Resulting data model is flexible enough for the change of context. Specific procedure of the method is illustrated, taking a sensorchip bonding process as example. Comparisons with other methodologies are also presented.

Yamada, Isao; Kumagai, Satoshi; Hirota, Toyohiko

384

Industrial microsystems on top of CMOS design and process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a design and technology methodology and CAD tools for a microsystems fabrication based on the 1.0 micrometers CMOS from ATMEL-ES2. In order to profit from vendor cell libraries, design kits have to be enhanced to deal with the new conception environment. Main contributions are, sensor dependent technology file, device modeling and automatic generation for different ranges, and adaptation of semi- custom tools (simulation environment and P and R) for complete microsystems design. A library of dedicated sensor cells is being designed using Cadence DFWII and the foundry design kit. These sensors are fabricated with the standard CMOS process plus some post-processing steps. Three levels of post-processing are considered: 1) pH-ISFET sensors fabricated using standard CMOS, 2) gas flow and radiation sensors based on thermopiles using simple post-processing. The post-processing is compatible with the foundry CMOS process. Our technology has been developed up tot he point of maximum simplification that results in the use of only one additional mask for back-side etching. Passivation layer together with oxide windows are used for front-side etching with excellent results.

Carrabina, Jordi; Saiz, Joaquin; Marin, David; Marin, Xavier; Merlos, Angel; Bausells, Juan

1996-09-01

385

Computer-aided design tools for economical MEMS fabrication processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early 70s when microsystem technology was first introduce an enormous market for MST-products has been developed. Airbag sensors, micro pumps, ink jet nozzles etc. and the market is just about to start up. Establishing these products for a reasonable price requires mass production. Meanwhile, also computer-based design-tools have been developed in order to reduce the expenses for MST-design. In contrast to other physical design processes like e.g. in micro electronics, MEMS physical design is characterized by the fact that each product requires a tailored sequence of fabrication steps, usually selected from a variety of processing alternatives. The selection from these alternatives is based on economical constraints. Therefore, the design has a strong influence on the money and time spent to take an MST-product to market.

Schneider, Christian; Priebe, Andreas; Brueck, Rainer; Hahn, Kai

1999-03-01

386

Radiological Design Summary Report for TRU Vent and Purge Process  

SciTech Connect

This report contains top-level requirements for the various areas of radiological protection for workers. Detailed quotations of the requirements for applicable regulatory documents can be found in the accompanying Implementation Guide. For the purposes of demonstrating compliance with these requirements, per Engineering Standard 01064, shall consider / shall evaluate indicates that the designer must examine the requirement for the design and either incorporate or provide a technical justification as to why the requirement is not incorporated. The Transuranic Vent and Purge process is not a project, but is considered a process change. This process has been performed successfully by Solid Waste on lower activity TRU drums. This summary report applies a graded approach and describes how the Transuranic Vent and Purge process meets each of the applicable radiological design criteria and requirements specified in Manual WSRC-TM-95-1, Engineering Standard Number 01064.

Taus, L.B.

2004-01-20

387

A design framework for exploratory geovisualization in epidemiology  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a design framework for geographic visualization based on iterative evaluations of a toolkit designed to support cancer epidemiology. The Exploratory Spatio-Temporal Analysis Toolkit (ESTAT), is intended to support visual exploration through multivariate health data. Its purpose is to provide epidemiologists with the ability to generate new hypotheses or further refine those they may already have. Through an iterative user-centered design process, ESTAT has been evaluated by epidemiologists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Results of these evaluations are discussed, and a design framework based on evaluation evidence is presented. The framework provides specific recommendations and considerations for the design and development of a geovisualization toolkit for epidemiology. Its basic structure provides a model for future design and evaluation efforts in information visualization.

Robinson, Anthony C.

2009-01-01

388

Mould design and casting process improvement on vibrator shell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrator shell is a part with complex structure. While the vibrator shell is designed and manufactured by traditional sand casting process, more than 80% castings are found the defects of porosity, shrinkage and pouring-shortage at the top. Aiming to the problems in traditional sand casting, this paper focused on the improvement of castings structure and the optimization of casting process. Designing process bar in the gate-channel region which is connected with the gate in castings is used to improve the castings structure, and low speed filling and solidification under high pressure are adopted to optimize the casting process which is finished by self-made four-column type hydraulic machine equipped. It can be seen that the castings quality can be greatly improved by process improvement.

Zhang, Lipan; Fang, Ligao; Chen, Zhong; Song, Kai

2011-11-01

389

Design of a Pu-238 Waste Incineration Process  

SciTech Connect

Combustible Pu-238 waste is generated as a result of normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored there. As part of the long-term plan to process the stored waste and current waste in preparation for future disposition, a Pu-238 incineration process is being cold-tested at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The incineration process consists of a continuous-feed preparation system, a two-stage, electrically fired incinerator, and a filtration off-gas system. Process equipment has been designed, fabricated, and installed for nonradioactive testing and cold run-in. Design features to maximize the ability to remotely maintain the equipment were incorporated into the process. Interlock, alarm, and control functions are provided by a programmable controller. Cold testing is scheduled to be completed in 1986.

Charlesworth, D.L.

2001-05-29

390

Parametric design methodology for chemical processes using a simulator  

SciTech Connect

Parameter design is a method popularized by the Japanese quality expert G. Taguchi, for designing products and manufacturing processes that are robust in the face of uncontrollable variations. At the design stage, the goal of parameter design is to identify design settings that make the product performance less sensitive to the effects of manufacturing and environmental variations and deterioration. Because parameter design reduces performance variation by reducing the influence of the sources of variation rather than by controlling them, it is a cost-effective technique for improving quality. A recent study on the application of parameter design methodology for chemical processes reported that the use of Taguchi's method was not justified and a method based on Monte Carlo simulation combined with optimization was shown to be more effective. However, this method is computationally intensive as a large number of samples are necessary to achieve the given accuracy. Additionally, determination of the number of sample runs required is based on experimentation due to a lack of systematic sampling methods. In an attempt to overcome these problems, the use of a stochastic modeling capability combined with an optimizer is presented in this paper. The objective is that of providing an effective means for application of parameter design methodologies to chemical processes using the ASPEN simulator. This implementation not only presents a generalized tool for use by chemical engineers at large but also provides systematic estimates of the number of sample runs required to attain the specified accuracy. The stochastic model employs the technique of Latin hypercube sampling instead of the traditional Monte Carlo technique and hence has a great potential to reduce the required number of samples. The methodology is illustrated via an example problem of designing a chemical process.

Diwekar, U.M.; Rubin, E.S. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1994-02-01

391

Feature-based metal stamping part and process design. Part II: stamping process planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In metal stamping development, stamping process planning plays quite an important role for the related die design. As mentioned in Part-I [Feature-based metal stamping part and process design. Part 1: stampability evaluation, 2007, 45, 2673–2695], the feature can encapsulate comprehensive engineering information; this paper proposes to realize stamping process planning based on feature mapping. A feature mapping system, between a

Dunbing Tang; Benhe Gao

2007-01-01

392

Conceptual process designs: Lurgi-Ruhrgas and superior circular grate  

SciTech Connect

Based on preliminary data on retort yields and previous conceptual designs, a Design Basis has been prepared, and an upgrading scheme developed against which all five retorting processes can be evaluated. Licensors for retorting technologies (American Lurgi Corporation for the Lurgi retort, Davy-McKee for the Superior Circular Grate retort, and Union Oil Company for the Union B retort); hydrotreaters (Gulf Oil and Chevron); wastewater treatment units (Chevron); and sulfur plants (Parsons) have been contacted for data related to their processes. Preliminary balances for the Lurgi and Superior processes have been developed and will be compared against the vendor information when received. A preliminary design basis is presented. This presents design assumptions and conditions to be used in developing the process designs, heat and material balances, and process flow diagrams for all cases. The shale oil upgrading scheme selected to be used in all evaluations consists of delayed coking the 850/sup 0/F plus fraction from the shale oil, and hydrotreating all virgin and coker naphthas and gas oils in separate hydrotreaters. This scheme was selected because it is simple and each of the units has proven to be reliable in refining conventional crude oils. Also, this upgrading scheme is not expected to penalize any specific retort system. The material and utility balances, along with process flow diagrams for Case I, the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process are given. In this case, 46,500 bpsd of 29.4 /sup 0/API upgraded shale oil are produced. The Superior Circular Grate material and utility balances and process flow diagrams are also given. The liquid product from this case is 40,500 bpsd of 27.4 /sup 0/API upgraded shale oil.

Not Available

1980-09-01

393

Spelling is Just a Click Away - A User-Centered Brain-Computer Interface Including Auto-Calibration and Predictive Text Entry  

PubMed Central

Brain–computer interfaces (BCI) based on event-related potentials (ERP) allow for selection of characters from a visually presented character-matrix and thus provide a communication channel for users with neurodegenerative disease. Although they have been topic of research for more than 20?years and were multiply proven to be a reliable communication method, BCIs are almost exclusively used in experimental settings, handled by qualified experts. This study investigates if ERP–BCIs can be handled independently by laymen without expert support, which is inevitable for establishing BCIs in end-user’s daily life situations. Furthermore we compared the classic character-by-character text entry against a predictive text entry (PTE) that directly incorporates predictive text into the character-matrix. N?=?19 BCI novices handled a user-centered ERP–BCI application on their own without expert support. The software individually adjusted classifier weights and control parameters in the background, invisible to the user (auto-calibration). All participants were able to operate the software on their own and to twice correctly spell a sentence with the auto-calibrated classifier (once with PTE, once without). Our PTE increased spelling speed and, importantly, did not reduce accuracy. In sum, this study demonstrates feasibility of auto-calibrating ERP–BCI use, independently by laymen and the strong benefit of integrating predictive text directly into the character-matrix.

Kaufmann, Tobias; Volker, Stefan; Gunesch, Laura; Kubler, Andrea

2012-01-01

394

Designing future products: what difficulties do designers encounter and how can their creative process be supported?  

PubMed

To remain competitive, companies must regularly offer new products to consumers. A major challenge for designers is therefore to come up with design solutions and define products that are both new and adapted to future users and usages. Although classic methods and ergonomic recommendations are useful in most run-of-the-mill design contexts, they are of limited benefit when the design situation requires greater creativity. This paper therefore addresses issues related to product design by pursuing a triple objective: (1) highlight the difficulties encountered by designers in imagining and conceiving new products, (2) find out which conditions could help designers come up with creative ideas for innovative products, and (3) suggest methods and tools to support designers' creative process and help them take other stakeholders' needs and expectations into consideration. PMID:22317539

Bonnardel, Nathalie

2012-01-01

395

Model-based design of experiments for cellular processes.  

PubMed

Model-based design of experiments (MBDOE) assists in the planning of highly effective and efficient experiments. Although the foundations of this field are well-established, the application of these techniques to understand cellular processes is a fertile and rapidly advancing area as the community seeks to understand ever more complex cellular processes and systems. This review discusses the MBDOE paradigm along with applications and challenges within the context of cellular processes and systems. It also provides a brief tutorial on Fisher information matrix (FIM)-based and Bayesian experiment design methods along with an overview of existing software packages and computational advances that support MBDOE application and adoption within the Systems Biology community. As cell-based products and biologics progress into the commercial sector, it is anticipated that MBDOE will become an essential practice for design, quality control, and production. PMID:23293047

Chakrabarty, Ankush; Buzzard, Gregery T; Rundell, Ann E

2013-01-04

396

Design, processing, and materials for large-stroke actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive optics (AO) applications in astronomy and vision science require deformable mirrors with larger stroke, higher packing density and at lower cost than currently available technology. The use of high-aspect ratio Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) processing techniques to fabricate large-stroke actuators that can meet stroke, packing density and cost specifications for AO applications have been explored. Different actuator designs, materials and postprocessing procedures fabricated in two different high-aspect ratio processes have been investigated. These manufacturing processes allow high-precision multilayer fabrication, and both parallel plate and comb drive actuator deformable mirror designs have been created. Multilayer fabrication has reduced pull-in voltage requirements for large stroke comb-drive actuators. The design, modeling and simulation of these actuators are compared to experimental measurements of their pull-voltages, which characterizes their stiffness and maximum stroke.

Fernández, Bautista; Kubby, Joel

2007-03-01

397

Characterizing Building Construction Decision Processes to Enhance DOE Program Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an established process for the design and construction of buildings. While the particulars will vary greatly from one project to the next, the players (e.g., architects, owners, supplies, builders) and activities (e.g., design, specify, construct) are basically the same, as are the decisions (e.g., which windows where, what type of heating system). The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOEs)

Donna J. Hostick; Antoinette L. Slavich; Lars E. Larson; Cody J. Hostick; Marina Skumanich; Marjorie A. Crawford; Tami M. Weber

2003-01-01

398

The engineering design process as a model for STEM curriculum design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging pedagogics have been proven to be effective in the promotion of deep learning for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students. In many cases, academic institutions have shown a desire to improve education by implementing more engaging techniques in the classroom. The research framework established in this dissertation has been governed by the axiom that students should obtain a deep understanding of fundamental topics while being motivated to learn through engaging techniques. This research lays a foundation for future analysis and modeling of the curriculum design process where specific educational research questions can be considered using standard techniques. Further, a clear curriculum design process is a key step towards establishing an axiomatic approach for engineering education. A danger is that poor implementation of engaging techniques will counteract the intended effects. Poor implementation might provide students with a "fun" project, but not the desired deep understanding of the fundamental STEM content. Knowing that proper implementation is essential, this dissertation establishes a model for STEM curriculum design, based on the well-established engineering design process. Using this process as a perspective to model curriculum design allows for a structured approach. Thus, the framework for STEM curriculum design, established here, provides a guided approach for seamless integration of fundamental topics and engaging pedagogics. The main steps, or phases, in engineering design are: Problem Formulation, Solution Generation, Solution Analysis, and Solution Implementation. Layering engineering design with education curriculum theory, this dissertation establishes a clear framework for curriculum design. Through ethnographic engagement by this researcher, several overarching themes are revealed through the creation of curricula using the design process. The application of the framework to specific curricula was part of this dissertation research. Examples of other STEM curricula using the framework were also presented. Moreover, the framework is presented in such a way that it can be implemented by other educational design teams.

Corbett, Krystal Sno

399

Pervaporation-based hybrid process: a review of process design, applications and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervaporation is one of the developing membrane technologies that can be used for various industrial applications but for a predefined task, the optimal process design is unlikely to consist solely of pervaporation. Often the optimised solution becomes a hybrid process combining pervaporation with one or more other separation technologies. A distinction will be made between hybrid and integrated processes. Hybrid

Frank Lipnizki; Robert W Field; Po-Kiong Ten

1999-01-01

400

Air stripping VOCs from groundwater: Process design considerations  

SciTech Connect

Considerations for evaluating and designing the air stripping process are presented by case study. The case study involves the design of an air stripping process to remediate groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a National Priorities List site in Tacoma, WA. Design objectives included developing a tower with minimum volume and energy requirements while complying with discharge air and water quality standards. A two-phase resistance model using Onda Correlations to determine liquid- and gas-phase mass transfer coefficients was used to assist in the evaluation and design. Considerations for applying the two-phase resistance model to air stripping tower design are presented. The ability of the model to simulate process performance is demonstrated by comparison with actual data for 11 priority pollutant list VOCs evaluated during an onsite pilot study. Design procedures with which to develop a tower with minimum volume and energy requirements are described. Other considerations involving the evaluation of VOC emissions and the precipitation and buildup of inorganic constituents within the internal packing media are described.

Ball, B.R.; Edwards, M.D. (B and V Waste Science and Technology Corp., Tacoma, WA (United States))

1992-02-01

401

A methodology for statistical integrated circuit process design  

SciTech Connect

There has recently been widespread interest in statistical design techniques as the semiconductor industry places increasing emphasis on design for manufacturability in order to become more competitive. Despite an enormous amount of research in this area over the past two decades, very few previous statistical design approaches have been applied to real-world problems owing to the curse of dimensionality, which invariably leads to an excessive amount of computational effort. In this dissertation, the author proposes a practical methodology that can be applied to optimized the process yield of IC fabrication lines. Two key features of the methodology are macromodeling and problem decomposition. The goal of building empirical macromodels of the IC process is to substantially reduce the problem dimension as well as simulation cost. The reformulation of the yield maximization problem into a deterministic design centering problem allows us to employ powerful and efficient optimization algorithms to solve the problem. Moreover, by applying problem decomposition to the design centering procedure, further efficiency may be achieved when the resultant subproblems are loosely coupled. In addition, problem decomposition makes the design centering procedure readily parallelizable. Although he has only applied the proposed approach to IC process yield maximization problems, the underlying methodology is equally applicable to circuit yield optimization.

Low, Kah-Kuen.

1989-01-01

402

Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review  

SciTech Connect

The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1980-01-07

403

Improving Software Development Process through Economic Mechanism Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the novel concept of applying economic mechanism design to software development process, and aim to find ways to adjust the incentives and disincentives of the software organization to align them with the motivations of the participants in order to maximize the delivered value of a software project. We envision a set of principles to design processes that allow people to be self motivated but constantly working toward project goals. The resulting economic mechanism will rely on game theoretic principles (i.e. Stackelberg games) for leveraging the incentives, goals and motivation of the participants in the service of project and organizational goals.

Yilmaz, Murat; O'Connor, Rory V.; Collins, John

404

Design Considerations for the Construction and Operation of Flour Milling Facilities. Part II: Process Design Considerations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flour milling facilities have been the cornerstone of agricultural processing for centuries. Like most agri-industrial production facilities, flour milling facilities have a number of unique design requirements. Design information, to date, has been limited. In an effort to summarize state of the ...

405

Product and Process Improvement Using Mixture-Process Variable Designs and Robust Optimization Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The quality of an industrial product depends on the raw material proportions and the process variable levels, both of which need to be taken into account in designing a product. This article presents a case study from the food industry in which both kinds of variables were studied by combining a constrained mixture experiment design and a central composite process variable design. Based on the natural structure of the situation, a split-plot experiment was designed and models involving the raw material proportions and process variable levels (separately and combined) were fitted. Combined models were used to study: (i) the robustness of the process to variations in raw material proportions, and (ii) the robustness of the raw material recipes with respect to fluctuations in the process variable levels. Further, the expected variability in the robust settings was studied using the bootstrap.

Sahni, Narinder S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Naes, Tormod

2009-04-01

406

Waste receiving and processing facility module 1, detailed design report  

SciTech Connect

WRAP 1 baseline documents which guided the technical development of the Title design included: (a) A/E Statement of Work (SOW) Revision 4C: This DOE-RL contractual document specified the workscope, deliverables, schedule, method of performance and reference criteria for the Title design preparation. (b) Functional Design Criteria (FDC) Revision 1: This DOE-RL technical criteria document specified the overall operational criteria for the facility. The document was a Revision 0 at the beginning of the design and advanced to Revision 1 during the tenure of the Title design. (c) Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) Revision 3: This baseline criteria document prepared by WHC for DOE-RL augments the FDC by providing further definition of the process, operational safety, and facility requirements to the A/E for guidance in preparing the design. The document was at a very preliminary stage at the onset of Title design and was revised in concert with the results of the engineering studies that were performed to resolve the numerous technical issues that the project faced when Title I was initiated, as well as, by requirements established during the course of the Title II design.

Not Available

1993-10-01

407

Process-induced bias: a study of resist design, device node, illumination conditions, and process implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical dimension uniformity (CDU) has both across field and across wafer components. CD error generated by across wafer etching non-uniformity and other process variations can have a significant impact on CDU. To correct these across wafer systematic variations, compensation by exposure dose and/or post exposure bake (PEB) temperature have been proposed. These compensation strategies often focus on a specific structure without evaluating how process compensation impacts the CDU of all structures to be printed in a given design. In one previous study limited to a single resist and minimal coater/developer and scanner variations, the authors evaluated the relative merits of across wafer dose and PEB temperature compensation on the process induced CD bias and CDU. For the process studied, it was found that using PEB temperature to control CD across wafer was preferable to using dose compensation. In another previous study, the impact of resist design was explored to understand how resist design, as well as coater/developer and scanner processing, impact process induced bias (PIB). The previous PIB studies were limited to a single illumination case and explore the effect of PIB on only L/S structures. It is the goal of this work to understand additionally how illumination design and mask design, as well as resist design and coater/developer and scanner processing, impact process induced bias (PIB)/OPC integrity.

Carcasi, Michael; Scheer, Steven; Fonseca, Carlos; Shibata, Tsuyoshi; Kosugi, Hitoshi; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Saito, Takashi

2009-03-01

408

Optical design and signal processing for a microcrack detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents optical design, proof-of-principle experiments, and post-signal processing for a wafer microcrack detection system. Cylindrical lens and Solid Immersion Lens (SIL) are used for the optical module. Near-field probe array is also investigated for future implementation. For post-signal processing, Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) is used in order to identify vibration-induced deviation. Derived Short-Time Discrete Wavelet Transform (STDWT) is

Wen-Ren Yang; Yu-Lin Li

2010-01-01

409

Design of the HTGR for process heat applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) offers a unique heat source for process heat applications, since its operating temperature is substantially higher than other nuclear reactor types. This paper discusses a design study of an advanced 842-MW(t) HTGR with a reactor outlet temperature of 850 C (1562 F), coupled with a chemical process whose product is hydrogen (or a mixture of

D. L. Vrable; R. N. Quade

1980-01-01

410

Design of self-processing antimicrobial peptides for plant protection.  

PubMed

Small antimicrobial peptides are excellent candidates for inclusion in self-processing proteins that could be used to confer pathogen resistance in transgenic plants. Antimicrobial peptides as small as 22 amino acids in length have been designed to incorporate the residual amino acids left from protein processing by the tobacco etch virus'(TEVs') NIa protease. Also, by minimizing the length of these peptides and the number of highly hydrophobic residues, haemolytic activity was reduced without affecting the peptide's antimicrobial activity. PMID:10972721

Powell, W A; Catranis, C M; Maynard, C A

2000-08-01

411

Design of NURBS Curve Fitting Process on CNC Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to design a method for implementing the non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) curve fitting process on CNC machines for improving the machining quality and efficiency. The conventional CAD\\/CAM\\/CNC systems usually induce some machining problems and limit the machining results in real applications. An on-line NURBS curve fitting process consists of fetching and fitting stages is developed in this

Syh-Shiuh Yeh; Shin-Chun Su

2007-01-01

412

ESTABLISHMENT OF A FOUNDATION FOR PREDICTIVE DESIGN ANALYSIS WITHIN THE ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract - In today’s highly competitive market place it is of great importance for companies to deliver reliable products while decreasing the development time and costs. The time to market ,is a ,driving force for many companies, and throughout the engineering design process as well as the manufacturing process, the focus is on finding timesaving actions. However, the search for

Martin Eriksson

413

A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2005-07-01

414

A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope Kamy Sepehrnoori

2006-08-31

415

A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2004-11-01

416

Noise control, sound, and the vehicle design process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many products, noise and sound are viewed as necessary evils that need to be dealt with in order to bring the product successfully to market. They are generally not product ``exciters'' although some vehicle manufacturers do tune and advertise specific sounds to enhance the perception of their products. In this paper, influencing the design process for the ``evils,'' such as wind noise and road noise, are considered in more detail. There are three ingredients to successfully dealing with the evils in the design process. The first of these is knowing how excesses in noise effects the end customer in a tangible manner and how that effects customer satisfaction and ultimately sells. The second is having and delivering the knowledge of what is required of the design to achieve a satisfactory or even better level of noise performance. The third ingredient is having the commitment of the designers to incorporate the knowledge into their part, subsystem or system. In this paper, the elements of each of these ingredients are discussed in some detail and the attributes of a successful design process are enumerated.

Donavan, Paul

2005-09-01

417

Design certification process: Licensing the next nuclear power generation  

SciTech Connect

The US today does not have a viable nuclear option. A more than 10-yr hiatus in US nuclear orders has been accompanied by the development of a number of institutional impediments that must now be removed before any return to nuclear power can occur. These impediments include an unpredictable regulatory process at the federal level and the lack of effective design standardization, which has characterized the US nuclear program. In 1985, US utilities initiated a complementary effort toward standardization by commissioning the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to develop an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) requirements document - in effect a standard utility bid specification - for future ALWRs. This effort represents a key first step toward future plant standardization. Manufacturers in the US have also taken important initiatives toward the development of future standard ALWR designs. In 1988, the NRC began the process of revising their rules to streamline the regulatory process. The US utilities (through EPRI), manufacturers, and DOE are also pursuing cooperative programs aimed at developing and certifying a new generation of ALWRs, combining the characteristics of smaller size, simplified design, and passive safety features, and reduced dependence on operators. The challenge now is to demonstrate the effectiveness of NRC's new part 52 process, beginning with the timely and effective safety approval and certification of the standardized designs now pending before NRC.

Quirk, J.M. (General Electric, San Jose, CA (USA))

1990-06-01

418

Thermoplastics as engineering materials: The mechanics, materials, design, processing link  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the use of plastics has been growing at a significant pace because of weight reduction, ease of fabrication of complex shapes, and cost reduction resulting from function integration, the engineering applications of plastics have only become important in the past fifteen years. An inadequate understanding of the mechanics issues underlying the close coupling among the design, the processing (fabrication),

Vijay K. Stokes

1995-01-01

419

Process Oriented Design for Java: Concurrency for All  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concurrency is thought to be an advanced topic - much harder than serial computing which, therefore, needs to be mastered first. This paper contends that this tradition is wrong, which has radical implications for the way we educate people in Computer Science - and on how we apply what we have learnt. A process-oriented design pattern for concurrency is presented

Peter H. Welch

2002-01-01

420

Fermentation process design aspects of single cell protein from hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical or biochemical engineering techniques have been employed by the British Petroleum Company Ltd. to develop economically viable, industrial scale processes for the manufacturer of single cell protein (SCP) from hydrocarbons via a microbiological route. To carry out this work it has been necessary to identify and resolve the following design requirements: (1) Sufficient amounts of energy must be introduced

P. G. Shepherd; B. Fraissignes; W. A. Peet

1974-01-01

421

Quality Control through Design and Process: Gambrel Roof Truss Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Customers determine whether a product fulfills their needs or satisfies them. "Quality control", then, is the process of finding out what the customer wants, along with designing, producing, delivering, and servicing the product--and ultimately satisfying the customer's expectations. For many years, people considered a product to be of good…

Ward, Dell; Jones, James

2011-01-01

422

USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS TO DESIGN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Genetic algorithm calculations are applied to the design of chemical processes to achieve improvements in environmental and economic performance. By finding the set of Pareto (i.e., non-dominated) solutions one can see how different objectives, such as environmental and economic ...

423

A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

424

A Design Theory for Systems That Support Emergent Knowledge Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the design problem of providing IT support for emerging knowledge pro- cesses (EKPs). EKPs are organizational activity patterns that exhibit three characteristics in com- bination: an emergent process of deliberations with no best structure or sequence; requirements for knowledge that are complex (both general and situational), distributed across people, and evolving dynamically; and an actor set that

M. Lynne Markus; Ann Majchrzak; Les Gasser

2002-01-01

425

Eliminating process of normalization in relational database design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relational database design approach requires the process of normalization in order to minimize data redundancy and update anomalies in the relational schema. Algorithms defined in normalization theory depend upon various dependencies namely functional, multivalued, join and inclusion dependencies that should be carefully defined for a database application. Identification of these dependencies and a minimal cover is a complex and

Tauqeer Hussain; Shafay Shamail; Mian M. Awais

2003-01-01

426

Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter

1999-01-01

427

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual describes the basic principles of land treatment and presents a rational procedure for design of land treatment systems. Information contained in this manual can be used in identifying alternatives during planning, in selecting a process alternative or site, in determ...

428

Process optimization via simulated annealing: Application to network design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulated annealing is a multivariable optimization technique based on the Monte Carlo method used in statistical mechanical studies of condensed systems and follows by drawing an analogy between energy minimization in physical systems and costs minimization in design appli- cations. In this paper, simulated annealing is introduced and reviewed. The utility of the method for optimization of chemical processes is

W. B. Dolan; P. T. Cummings; M. D. LeVan

1989-01-01

429

3-dimensional scalable pressure sensors: device and process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design, process flow and packaging scheme for a novel 3D capacitive MEMS pressure sensor. These sensors present a paradigm shift in pressure sensor technology. They contain an array of vertical diaphragms perpendicular to the wafer plane where each pair of diaphragms requires orders of magnitude lower footprint than traditional in-plane sensors. The sensor can be arrayed or

Kanakasabapathi Subramanian; Jeffrey B. Fortin; Kuna Kishore

2004-01-01

430

Great Plains Gasification Project Process Stream Design Data. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major ...

F. I. Honea

1985-01-01

431

Material, process, and product design of thermoplastic composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoplastic composites made of polypropylene (PP) and E-glass fibers were investigated experimentally as well as theoretically for two new classes of product designs. The first application was for reinforcement of wood. Commingled PP\\/glass yarn was consolidated and bonded on wood panel using a tie layer. The processing parameters, including temperature, pressure, heating time, cooling time, bonding strength, and bending strength

Heming Dai

2001-01-01

432

The Gains Design Process: How to do Structured Design of User Interfaces in Any Software Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a user-interaction design process created and used by a consultant to solve two challenges: (1) how to decrease the need for changes in the user interface by subsequent system releases without doing big design up-front and (2) how to apply a structured user-interaction design process no matter when brought into a project or what software methodology was being used. The four design levels in the process parallel Beck and Fowler’s four planning levels described in their book Planning Extreme Programming. The design process is called “GAINS” because the user-interaction designer has only Attraction, Information and Navigation to connect users’ Goals with the project sponsors’ criteria for Success. Thus there are five questions, one for each letter of the acronym GAINS, asked at each of four levels of design: The first two design levels, Rough Plan and Big Plan, focus on business-process actions and objects that define users’ goals. The next two levels, Release Planning and Iteration Planning, focus on the user interface objects that support the tasks necessary to achieve those goals. Release Planning identifies the displays the user sees for each goal included in that release, and also the across-display navigation for the proposed functionality. Iteration Planning focuses at a lower level of interaction, such as the within-display navigation among ontrols. For a voice system, the word “sees” would be changed to “hears,” but the design rocess and the levels of focus are the same for user interfaces that are vision output (e.g., GUIs), voice output (e.g., VRs), or multimodal.

Lindeman, Martha J.

433

Penetrator reliability investigation and design exploration : from conventional design processes to innovative uncertainty-capturing algorithms.  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on research and algorithmic development in optimization under uncertainty (OUU) problems driven by earth penetrator (EP) designs. While taking into account uncertainty, we addressed three challenges in current simulation-based engineering design and analysis processes. The first challenge required leveraging small local samples, already constructed by optimization algorithms, to build effective surrogate models. We used Gaussian Process (GP) models to construct these surrogates. We developed two OUU algorithms using 'local' GPs (OUU-LGP) and one OUU algorithm using 'global' GPs (OUU-GGP) that appear competitive or better than current methods. The second challenge was to develop a methodical design process based on multi-resolution, multi-fidelity models. We developed a Multi-Fidelity Bayesian Auto-regressive process (MF-BAP). The third challenge involved the development of tools that are computational feasible and accessible. We created MATLAB{reg_sign} and initial DAKOTA implementations of our algorithms.

Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Heaphy, Robert (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Gramacy, Robert B. (University of Cambridge); Taddy, Matt (University of California, Santa Cruz, CA); Chiesa, Michael L.; Thomas, Stephen W. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Swiler, Laura Painton (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Hough, Patricia Diane; Lee, Herbert K. H. (University of California, Santa Cruz, CA); Trucano, Timothy Guy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Gray, Genetha Anne

2006-11-01

434

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Verification and Validation Process  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a description of design verification and validation activities implemented by the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. During the execution of early design verification, a management assessment (Bergman, 1999) and external assessments on configuration management (Augustenburg, 1999) and testing (Loscoe, 2000) were conducted and identified potential uncertainties in the verification process. This led the SNF Chief Engineer to implement corrective actions to improve process and design products. This included Design Verification Reports (DVRs) for each subproject, validation assessments for testing, and verification of the safety function of systems and components identified in the Safety Equipment List to ensure that the design outputs were compliant with the SNF Technical Requirements. Although some activities are still in progress, the results of the DVR and associated validation assessments indicate that Project requirements for design verification are being effectively implemented. These results have been documented in subproject-specific technical documents (Table 2). Identified punch-list items are being dispositioned by the Project. As these remaining items are closed, the technical reports (Table 2) will be revised and reissued to document the results of this work.

OLGUIN, L.J.

2000-09-25

435

User-Centered Design Driven Development of a Virtual Reality Therapy Application for Iraq War Combat-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experience, including (but not limited to) military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage, and terror...

A. Treskunov A. A. Rizzo G. Reger J. Pair K. Graap

2006-01-01

436

Design of a User-Centered Voluntary Patient Safety Reporting System: Understanding the Time and Response Variances by Retrospective Think-aloud Protocols.  

PubMed

Usability is critical to the success of computerized systems, and yet it has received little attention in the field of voluntary patient safety reporting. Failures in this regard may largely account for the issues of low user acceptance and low-quality data that currently confront the system. In this study, we examined the three usability aspects of efficiency, effectiveness and user attitudes on a typical safety reporting system. The system usability was evaluated using the retrospective think-aloud testing method, which measures execution time and response consistency with think-aloud protocols. Ten end-users were recruited for the test. The descriptive statistics on users' time and response variances unveiled system features that influenced the system's reporting efficiency and effectiveness. The think-aloud protocols that reflected users' attitudes helped identify nine categories of usability problems associated with the response variances and system features. In the end, the observed semantic ambiguity, terminology complexity and carry-over effect are noted as challenges and opportunities for further usability improvements. PMID:23920653

Hua, Lei; Gong, Yang

2013-01-01

437

Analog integrated circuits design for processing physiological signals.  

PubMed

Analog integrated circuits (ICs) designed for processing physiological signals are important building blocks of wearable and implantable medical devices used for health monitoring or restoring lost body functions. Due to the nature of physiological signals and the corresponding application scenarios, the ICs designed for these applications should have low power consumption, low cutoff frequency, and low input-referred noise. In this paper, techniques for designing the analog front-end circuits with these three characteristics will be reviewed, including subthreshold circuits, bulk-driven MOSFETs, floating gate MOSFETs, and log-domain circuits to reduce power consumption; methods for designing fully integrated low cutoff frequency circuits; as well as chopper stabilization (CHS) and other techniques that can be used to achieve a high signal-to-noise performance. Novel applications using these techniques will also be discussed. PMID:22275203

Li, Yan; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

2010-01-01

438

Semi-Automated Linking of User Interface Design Artifacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

User centered design involves the creation of design artifacts such as task and architecture models, typically by people with different backgrounds using inconsistent terminology. Communication between user interface designers can potentially be improved if the viewpoints represented by these design artifacts can be correlated. This research demonstrates how different design artifacts can be linked semi-automatically. We illustrate this technique using

Said Elnaffar; Nicholas C. Graham

1999-01-01

439

A Review of the Design Process for Implantable Orthopedic Medical Devices  

PubMed Central

The design process for medical devices is highly regulated to ensure the safety of patients. This paper will present a review of the design process for implantable orthopedic medical devices. It will cover the main stages of feasibility, design reviews, design, design verification, manufacture, design validation, design transfer and design changes.

Aitchison, G.A; Hukins, D.W.L; Parry, J.J; Shepherd, D.E.T; Trotman, S.G

2009-01-01

440

California State Library: Processing Center Design and Specifications. Volume I, System Description and Input Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The scope of the California State Library-Processing Center (CSL-PC) project is to develop the design and specifications for a computerized technical processing center to provide services to a network of participating California libraries. Immediate objectives are: (1) retrospective conversion of card catalogs to a machine-form data base,…

Sherman, Don; Shoffner, Ralph M.

441

THE USE OF STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL AND DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS IN PRODUCT AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality and productivity improvement has become an essential element of the overall strategic plan for most organizations. This has sparked renewed interest in statistical methods for quality improvement. This paper reviews some recent developments in statistical methodology that have application in product and process improvement, concentrating on statistical process control and design of experiments. Some directions for future research are

DOUGLAS C. MONTGOMERY

1992-01-01

442

Process-induced bias: a study of resist design and process implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical dimension uniformity (CDU) has both across field and across wafer components. CD error generated by across wafer etching non-uniformity and other process variations can have a significant impact on CDU. To correct these across wafer variations, compensation by exposure dose and/or PEB temperature, have been proposed. These compensation strategies often focus on a specific structure without evaluating how process compensation impacts the CDU of all structures to be printed in a given design. In a previous study, the authors evaluated the relative merits of across wafer dose and PEB temperature compensation on the process induced CD bias and CDU. For the process studied, both metrics demonstrated that using PEB temperature to control across wafer CD variation was preferable to using dose compensation. The previous study was limited to a single resist and variations to track and scanner processing were kept to a minimum. Further examination of additional resist materials has indicated that significant variation in dose and PEB temperature induced CD biases exist from material to material. It is the goal of this work to understand how resist design, as well as track and scanner processing, impact process induced bias (PIB). This is accomplished by analyzing full resist models for a range of resists that exhibit different dose and PEB temperature PIB behavior. From these models, the primary resist design contributors to PIB are isolated. A sensitivity analysis of the primary resist design as well as track and scanner processing effects will also be simulated and presented.

Fonseca, Carlos; Scheer, Steven; Carcasi, Michael; Shibata, Tsuyoshi; Otsuka, Takahisa

2008-04-01

443

RATES OF REACTION AND PROCESS DESIGN DATA FOR THE HYDROCARB PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides experimental and process design data in support of studies far developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb process. he experimental work includes the hydropyrolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a 2.44 m l...

444

RATES OF REACTION AND PROCESS DESIGN DATA FOR THE HYDROCARB PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides experimental and process design data in support of studies for developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb process. The experimental work includes the hydropyrolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a 2.44 m ...

445

46 CFR 164.019-9 - Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design, process, or materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acceptance of revisions of design, process, or materials. (a...change the design, material, manufacturing process, or construction of a...revisions in design, material, manufacturing process, or construction of a...

2012-10-01

446

Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine  

SciTech Connect

The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels in the hydroceramic grout process (i.e., 21 m) appears to be about the same as that estimated by the Direct Cementitious Waste Process in 1998, for which a conceptual design was developed. Some of the conceptual design efforts in the 1998 study may be applicable to the stabilizer processes addressed in this EDF. (e) The gamma radiation fields near the process vessels handling HLW calcine would vary from a range of about 300-350 R/hr at a distance of 2.5 cm from the side of the vessels to a range of about 50-170 R/hr at a distance of 100 cm from the side of the vessels. The calculations were made for combined calcine, which was defined as the total HLW calcine inventory uniformly mixed. (f) The gamma radiation fields near the stabilized waste in canisters would range from about 25-170 R/hr at 2.5 cm from the side of the canister and 5-35 R/hr at 100 cm from the side of the canister, depending on the which bin set was the source of calcine.

T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

2005-06-01

447

A quantitative approach to nonlinear IC process design rule scaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As minimum dimensions in integrated circuit technologies are reduced beyond 0.1 m m, linear process scaling becomes more difficult and costly. Exponentially rising manufacturing facility and process scaling costs can be better managed by performing nonlinear process shrinks. Nonlinear scaling allows the horizontal design rules to be reduced by different factors according to their ability to provide area and performance improvement in a cost effective manner. This thesis describes a methodology and CAD tools for use in selecting nonlinear design rule reduction ratios that make effective tradeoffs between die cost and performance. The cost effectiveness of nonlinear scaling is demonstrated for a complementary GaAs (CGaAsTM) process. CGaAs is a young technology with coarse design rules that would benefit significantly from a nonlinear shrink. The cost/benefit analysis for scaling the design rules is based on a process-independent optimizing SRAM compiler which was developed as part of this work. The methodology for nonlinear scaling includes identifying the rules which have the greatest impact on circuit area and analyzing the area and performance improvements as these rules are scaled through a range of practical scale factors. Benefit data (product of power and delay improvement ratios) is then combined with die cost estimates at each step to yield the cost/benefit ratio, a quantitative metric for design rule reduction. The slopes and inflection points of cost/benefit vs. scale factor plots guide process engineers in selecting reduction ratios for the various design rules. This procedure should be repeated, using the results of one pass as the starting point for the next. The cost/benefit analysis methodology compares embedded static RAMs that are generated by the PUMA process-independent SRAM compiler. This compiler, which is based on Duet's MasterPortTM layout compactor, can create optimized SRAM cell libraries for any complementary technology. It is capable of exploring a large design space, including the ability to adjust the transistors within the six-transistor memory cell. It produces power-delay curves that are combined with SRAM area measurements to provide the power, delay, and area data required for a cost/benefit analysis. A 0.5 m m CGaAs process is analyzed to demonstrate the methodology. A cost/benefit analysis of the design rules shows that the first scaling step should include a reduction of at least four rules: minimum transistor width, source/drain ohmic width, ohmic contact width, and active overlap of contact. The proportion by which these rules should be reduced depends on the number of wafers over which the scaling costs are amortized, and ranges from 20 to 40%. A similar analysis of the effect of transistor threshold voltage reduction clearly showed diminishing cost/benefit and cost/delay returns for an embedded SRAM.

Gold, Spencer Montgomery

448

Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology  

SciTech Connect

Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

2005-06-30

449

Making an Aquarium Environment Interactive: A Design Research Analysis of Exhibit Design Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of an interactive aquarium design motivated by the employment of an innovative technology used in scientific research. The study was informed by research on free-choice learning describing the effects of interactive devices on visitor learning, engagement, and attitudes. The researcher used design research methods to conduct multiple iterations of aquarium environment modifications. Observation data of visitor interactions were analyzed in the development of three different aquarium environments. The researcher used survey, interview, and observation data to study visitor interactions in the three contrasting aquarium environments. Results describe exhibit factors associated with visitor behaviors using the scientific instrument and social or individual interactions in the exhibit environments. Results also present an analysis of design processes that were shaped by data on desired visitor interactions and adult learning. Through design research methods, this study contributes to theory of exhibit design for visitor engagement and learning.

Hanshumaker, William

450

Using Process Visualizations to Validate Electronic Form Design  

PubMed Central

Electronic reporting systems have the potential to support health care quality improvement initiatives across varied health care settings, specifically in low-technology settings such as long-term residential care facilities (LTRCFs). Yet, these organizations face financial barriers to implementing such systems and the LTRCF workforce is generally not as technology-ready as larger organizations’ workforces. Electronic reporting systems implemented in these settings must therefore be inexpensive and easy-to-use. This paper outlines a novel technique – process visualization – for systematically assessing the order in which users complete electronic forms, an inexpensively-developed patient falls reporting form in this case. These visualizations can help designers uncover usage patterns not evident via other usability methods. Based on this knowledge, designers can validate the design of the electronic forms, informing their subsequent redesign.

Marquard, Jenna L.; Mei, Yi You

2010-01-01

451

IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session.

Rigg, R.H.

1993-01-01

452

Applications of fault tree analysis to the design process  

SciTech Connect

Fault tree analysis of a system can provide a complete characterization of system failure modes, i.e., what combinations of component failures can give rise to system failure. This can be applied to the design process at several levels: (1) confirmatory analysis, in which a fault tree development is used to verify design adequacy, (2) importance analysis, in which fault tree analysis is used to highlight system vulnerabilities, and (3) design optimization, in which fault tree analysis is used to pick the least expensive configuration from a collection of possibilities satisfying a given constraint. Experience shows that the complexity of real systems warrants the systematic and structured development of fault trees for systems whose failure can have severe consequences.

Youngblood, R.W.

1988-07-15

453

Laser spark plug numerical design process with experimental validation  

SciTech Connect

This work reports the numerical modeling design procedure for a miniaturized laser spark plug. In previous work both side pumped and end pumped laser spark plugs were empirically designed and tested. Experimental data from the previous laser spark plug development cycles is compared to the output predicted by a known set of rate equations. The rate equations are used to develop interrelated inter cavity time dependent waveforms that are then used to identify key variables. These variables are then input to a set of secondary equations for determining the output pulse energy, output power, and output pulse width of the simulated laser system. The physical meaning and the operation of the rate equations is explained in detail. This paper concentrates on the process and decision points needed to successfully design a solid state passively Q-switched laser system, either side pumped or end pumped, that produces the appropriate output needed for use as a laser spark plug for internal combustion engines.

McIntyre, D.; Woodruff, S.

2011-01-01

454

Tool support for the management of design processes in chemical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design processes in chemical engineering are hard to support. In particular, this applies to conceptual design and basic engineering, in which the fundamental decisions concerning the plant design are performed. The design process is highly creative, many design alternatives are explored, and both unexpected and planned feedback occurs frequently. As a consequence, it is inherently difficult to manage design processes,

Manfred Nagl; Bernhard Westfechtel; Ralph Schneider

2003-01-01

455

Minimizing Work-in-Process in Design of Facility Layouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a formulation of the facility layout design problem where the objective is to minimize work-in-process (WIP). In contrast to some recent research, we show that layouts obtained using a WIP-based formulation can be very different from those obtained using the conventional quadratic assignment problem (QAP) formulation. For example, we show that a QAP-optimal layout can

Saifallah Benjaafar

2000-01-01

456

Visualization Process for Design and Manufacturing of End Mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The development of CAM system for design and manufacturing of end mills becomes a key approach to save the time and reduce\\u000a cost for end mills manufacturing. This paper presents the calculation and simulation of CNC machining end mill tools using\\u000a on 5-axes CNC grinding machine tool. In this study the process of generation and simulation of grinding point data

Sung-lim Ko; Trung-thanh Pham; Yong-hyun Kim

2005-01-01

457

API Quality by Design Example from the Torcetrapib Manufacturing Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept and application of quality by design (QbD) principles has been and will undoubtedly continue to be an evolving\\u000a topic in the pharmaceutical industry. However, there are few and limited examples that demonstrate the actual practice of\\u000a incorporating QbD assessments, especially for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) manufacturing processes described in\\u000a regulatory submissions. We recognize there are some inherent and

Dave am Ende; Karen S. Bronk; Jason Mustakis; Gary O’Connor; Charles L. Santa Maria; Roger Nosal; Timothy J. N. Watson

2007-01-01

458

Characterizing Building Construction Decision Processes to Enhance DOE Program Design  

SciTech Connect

There is an established process for the design and construction of buildings. While the particulars will vary greatly from one project to the next, the players (e.g., architects, owners, supplies, builders) and activities (e.g., design, specify, construct) are basically the same, as are the decisions (e.g., which windows where, what type of heating system). The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOEs) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with the development of a formal framework that could be used to analyze the critical decision path for energy efficient technologies in the construction of buildings. The goal was to demonstrate whether these technologies could be related to decision points in the construction process, the decision makers, and a rudimentary understanding of what helped to form those decisions. The theory to be tested is whether this Critical Path Analysis can enhance project planning and design. A continuous goal of EERE is to increase the effectiveness of its efforts through better targeting of projects. This requires a good understanding of the markets in which EERE technologies and practices, as developed or implemented by those projects, must compete. One significant measure of project success is market adoption of EERE technologies and practices. The goal of this study is to characterize the typical design, construction, and building renovation decision points and decision makers to see if this information could prove useful to DOE Project Managers by helping them understand how market adoption decisions are made. The approach of this study is to develop a framework characterizing decision points, decision makers, and decision influences in the building industry. As many building design and construction decisions are time-sequenced and constrained by earlier decisions, the framework selected is based on a critical path characterization of the design and construction process, capturing the typical sequence of events that drive building technology adoption decisions. This framework is populated with representative data only, as an extensive survey of building industry decision makers was beyond the scope of the study. Sufficient data were collected to determine the usefulness of a building design and construction critical path analysis in supporting DOE project design.

Hostick, Donna J.; Slavich, Antoinette L.; Larson, Lars E.; Hostick, Cody J.; Skumanich, Marina; Crawford, Marjorie A.; Weber, Tami M.

2003-10-01

459

ArF processing of 90-nm design rule lithography achieved through enhanced thermal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the lithography community has moved to ArF processing on 300 mm wafers for 90 nm design rules the process characterization of the components of variance continues to highlight the thermal requirements for the post exposure bake (PEB) processing step. In particular as the thermal systems have become increasingly uniform, the transient behavior of the thermal processing system has received the focus of attention. This paper demonstrates how a newly designed and patented thermal processing system was optimized for delivering improved thermal uniformity during a typical 90 second PEB processing cycle, rather than being optimized for steady state performance. This was accomplished with the aid of a wireless temperature measurement wafer system for obtaining real time temperature data and by using a response surface model (RSM) experimental design for optimizing parameters of the temperature controller of the thermal processing system. The new units were field retrofitted seamlessly in <2 days at customer sites without disruption to process recipes or flows. After evaluating certain resist parameters such as PEB temperature sensitivity and post exposure delay (PED) - stability of the baseline process, the new units were benchmarked against the previous PEB plates by processing a split lot experiment. Additional hardware characterization included environmental factors such as air velocity in the vicinity of the PEB plates and transient time between PEB and chill plate. At the completion of the optimization process, the within wafer CD uniformity displayed a significant improvement when compared to the previous hardware. The demonstrated within wafer CD uniformity improved by 27% compared to the initial hardware and baseline process. ITRS requirements for the 90 nm node were exceeded.

Kagerer, Markus; Miller, Daniel; Chang, Wayne; Williams, Daniel J.

2006-03-01

460

Scalable vertical diaphragm pressure sensors: device and process Design, Design for packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a design, process How, and packaging scheme for a novel three-dimensional capacitive microelectromechanical systems pressure sensor [1], [10]. These sensors present a paradigm shift in pressure sensor technology. They contain an array of vertical diaphragms perpendicular to the wafer plane where each pair of diaphragms requires orders of magnitude lower footprint than traditional in-plane sensors. The sensor can

Kanakasabapathi Subramanian; Jeffrey B. Fortin; Kuna Kishore

2006-01-01

461

Safeguards design strategies: designing and constructing new uranium and plutonium processing facilities in the United States  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) is transforming its outdated and oversized complex of aging nuclear material facilities into a smaller, safer, and more secure National Security Enterprise (NSE). Environmental concerns, worker health and safety risks, material security, reducing the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy while maintaining the capability for an effective nuclear deterrence by the United States, are influencing this transformation. As part of the nation's Uranium Center of Excellence (UCE), the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, will advance the U.S.'s capability to meet all concerns when processing uranium and is located adjacent to the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF), designed for consolidated storage of enriched uranium. The HEUMF became operational in March 2010, and the UPF is currently entering its final design phase. The designs of both facilities are for meeting anticipated security challenges for the 21st century. For plutonium research, development, and manufacturing, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement (CMRR) building at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico is now under construction. The first phase of the CMRR Project is the design and construction of a Radiological Laboratory/Utility/Office Building. The second phase consists of the design and construction of the Nuclear Facility (NF). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) selected these two sites as part of the national plan to consolidate nuclear materials, provide for nuclear deterrence, and nonproliferation mission requirements. This work examines these two projects independent approaches to design requirements, and objectives for safeguards, security, and safety (3S) systems as well as the subsequent construction of these modern processing facilities. Emphasis is on the use of Safeguards-by-Design (SBD), incorporating Systems Engineering (SE) principles for these two projects.

Scherer, Carolynn P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Jon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-28

462

The effect of alternative approaches to design instruction (structural or functional) on students’ mental models of technological design processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to examine the relationship between alternative approaches towards problem solving\\/design teaching (structural or functional), students' mental modeling of the design process, and the quality of their solutions to design tasks. The structural approach emphasizes the need for an ordered and systematic learning of the design process stages, while the functional approach emphasizes the teaching and study of

David Mioduser; Osnat Dagan

2007-01-01

463

Analytical design planning technique (ADePT): a dependency structure matrix tool to schedule the building design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current planning practice takes little account of the interdisciplinary, iterative nature of the building design process. This leads to a compromised design process containing inevitable cycles of rework together with associated time and cost penalties in both design and construction. The analytical design planning technique (ADePT) is a planning methodology which helps to overcome these difficulties. The central part of

Simon Austin; Andrew Baldwin; Baizhan Li; Paul Waskett

2000-01-01

464

Material, process, and product design of thermoplastic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic composites made of polypropylene (PP) and E-glass fibers were investigated experimentally as well as theoretically for two new classes of product designs. The first application was for reinforcement of wood. Commingled PP/glass yarn was consolidated and bonded on wood panel using a tie layer. The processing parameters, including temperature, pressure, heating time, cooling time, bonding strength, and bending strength were tested experimentally and evaluated analytically. The thermoplastic adhesive interface was investigated with environmental scanning electron microscopy. The wood/composite structural design was optimized and evaluated using a Graphic Method. In the second application, we evaluated use of thermoplastic composites for explosion containment in an arrester. PP/glass yarn was fabricated in a sleeve form and wrapped around the arrester. After consolidation, the flexible composite sleeve forms a solid composite shell. The composite shell acts as a protection layer in a surge test to contain the fragments of the arrester. The manufacturing process for forming the composite shell was designed. Woven, knitted, and braided textile composite shells made of commingled PP/glass yarn were tested and evaluated. Mechanical performance of the woven, knitted, and braided composite shells was examined analytically. The theoretical predictions were used to verify the experimental results.

Dai, Heming

465

Modeling of friction stir welding process for tools design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional friction stir welding (FSW) process model has been developed based on fluid mechanics. The material transport in the welding process has been regarded as a laminar, viscous, and non-Newtonian liquid that flows past a rotating pin. A criterion to divide the weld zone has been given on the basis of cooperation of velocity field and viscosity field. That is, the ? 0-easy-flow zone that existed near the tool pin corresponded to the weld nugget zone; the area between the ? 0-easy-flow zone and ? 1-viscosity band is corresponded to the thermal-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ). The model gives some useful information to improve the understanding of material flow in FSW through the simulation result of velocity distribution. In order to appraise the friction stir pin design, three kinds of pin geometry, one is column pin, the second is taper pin, and the last one is screw threaded taper pin, were used in the model. The pin geometry seriously affected the simulation result of velocity distribution in the ? 0-easy-flow zone. The velocity distribution in the ? 0-easy-flow zone can be considered as the criterion of optimizing friction stir tool design. This study will benefit to direct the friction stir tool design.

Lin, San-Bao; Zhao, Yan-Hua; He, Zi-Qiu; Wu, Lin

2011-06-01

466

Air classification theory and design for municipal solid waste processing  

SciTech Connect

Research conducted at Duke University over the past 12 years has led to the development of a promising alternative method for processing municipal solid waste prior to energy production or resource recovery. Pulsed flow air classification is a laboratory-tested method which successfully separates the combustible from the noncombustible components of MSW. IN 1986, Duke subcontracted to EG G Idaho to perform research in this area for the US Department of Energy. This document represent the final report of that effect, and places this research in the context of all air classification research conducted at Duke University. The goal of this final report is to document the history of pulsed flow air classifier theory and design, while emphasizing test results which confirm success with MSW processing. The three objectives are: Summarize the pulsed-flow air classification theory developed at Duke University; Document the equipment, procedures, test protocols, and results from research constructed at Duke University, with a focus on the combinations and classifier heights and feed rates which produce the best achievable separations, as well as a focus on the estimated cost of a complete classification system; Draw conclusions on the relative merits of selected air classifiers. The development of the theory and design of pulsed flow air classification is initially presented and experimental results are summarized. Pulsing and non-pulsing classifiers are discussed, and a complete system is designed and costed.

Not Available

1993-04-01

467

Dynamic simulation for IGCC process and control design  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulation analysis is a valuable tool that increases the understanding of unit interactions and control system performance in a complex integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant. The Sarlux integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant must simultaneously satisfy electrical power and refinery hydrogen and steam demands (trigeneration gasification). The plant`s gasifier, heat recovery, sulfur removal, hydrogen recovery and steam power generation units are highly integrated and require coordinated control. In this study, dynamic simulation provides insights into the behavior of the process and combined cycle units during normal and upset conditions. The dynamic simulation is used to design a control system that drives the gasifiers to satisfy power, steam and hydrogen demands before a load change or upset is detected by the syngas pressure controller. At the study conclusion, the model will demonstrate how the IGCC plant will respond to the contractual maximum load change rate and process upsets. The study tests the basic process and control system design during the project engineering phase to minimize startup troubleshooting and expensive field changes.

Depew, C.; Martinez, A. [Fluor Daniel, Irvine, CA (United States); Collodi, G.; Meloni, R. [Snamprogetti, Milan (Italy)

1998-01-01

468

DESIGN AND HIGH POWER PROCESSING OF RFQ INPUT POWER COUPLERS*  

SciTech Connect

A RF power coupling system has been developed for future upgrade of input coupling of the RFQ in the SNS linac. The design employs two coaxial loop couplers for 402.5 MHz operation. Each loop is fed through a coaxial ceramic window that is connected to an output of a magic-T waveguide hybrid through a coaxial to waveguide transition. The coaxial loop couplers are designed, manufactured, and high power processed. Two couplers will be used in parallel to power the accelerating structure with up to total 800 kW peak power at 6% duty cycle. RF and mechanical properties of the couplers are discussed. Result of high power RF conditioning that is performed in the RF test facility of the SNS is presented.

Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Vassioutchenko, Alexandre V [ORNL; Aleksandrov, Alexander V [ORNL; Anderson, David E [ORNL; Champion, Mark [FNAL; Crofford, Mark T [ORNL; Gibson, Paul E [ORNL; Hardek, Thomas W [ORNL; Ladd, Peter [ORNL; McCarthy, Mike [ORNL; Stout, Daniel S [ORNL

2007-01-01

469

A process for free-space laser communications system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a design methodology for free-space laser communications systems. The first phase includes a characterization through numerical simulations of the channel to evaluate the range of extinction and scintillation. The second phase is the selection of fade mitigation schemes, which would incorporate pointing, acquisition, tracking, and communication system parameters specifically tailored to the channel. Ideally, the process would include sufficient flexibility to adapt to a wide range of channel conditions. We provide an example of the successful application of this design approach to a recent set of field experiments. This work was sponsored by the Department of Defense, RRCO DDR&E, under Air Force Contract FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

Walther, Frederick G.; Moores, John D.; Murphy, Robert J.; Michael, Steven; Nowak, George A.

2009-08-01

470

Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description  

SciTech Connect

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

LANE, M.P.

1999-02-24

471

Design of a mobile, safety-critical in-patient glucose management system.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most widespread diseases in the world. People with diabetes usually have long stays in hospitals and need specific treatment. In order to support in-patient care, we designed a prototypical mobile in-patient glucose management system with decision support for insulin dosing. In this paper we discuss the engineering process and the lessons learned from the iterative design and development phases of the prototype. We followed a user-centered development process, including real-life usability testing from the outset. Paper mock-ups in particular proved to be very valuable in gaining insight into the workflows and processes, with the result that user interfaces could be designed exactly to the specific needs of the hospital personnel in their daily routine. PMID:21893886

Höll, Bernhard; Spat, Stephan; Plank, Johannes; Schaupp, Lukas; Neubauer, Katharina; Beck, Peter; Chiarugi, Franco; Kontogiannis, Vasilis; Pieber, Thomas R; Holzinger, Andreas

2011-01-01

472

Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence  

SciTech Connect

Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

Neugebauer, R. [Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, Chemnitz (Germany); Professorship for Machine Tools and Forming Technology, TU Chemnitz (Germany); Schieck, F. [Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, Chemnitz (Germany); Rautenstrauch, A. [Professorship for Machine Tools and Forming Technology, TU Chemnitz (Germany)

2011-05-04

473

Matching instrument design and signal processing for a scanning radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of the instrument design and signal processing features used by the 'Airborne Version of the Conical Scanning Radiometer' in order to minimize blurring and aliasing errors in radiation budget measurements. Attention is given to the interrelations among modulation transfer characteristics, optical chopping, scan patterns, and sampling rates; their effects on blurring and aliasing are then analyzed. A sophisticated algorithm was developed in order to achieve the retrieval of measured data at a chopper frequency lying below the regular Nyquist limit.

Bauche, Bernd; Hennings, Detlef

474

The mathematical theory of signal processing and compression-designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mathematical theory of signal processing, named processor coding, will be shown to inherently arise as the computational time dual of Shannon's mathematical theory of communication which is also known as source coding. Source coding is concerned with signal source memory space compression while processor coding deals with signal processor computational time compression. Their combination is named compression-designs and referred as Conde in short. A compelling and pedagogically appealing diagram will be discussed highlighting Conde's remarkable successful application to real-world knowledge-aided (KA) airborne moving target indicator (AMTI) radar.

Feria, Erlan H.

2006-06-01

475

Designing robust gate implementations for quantum-information processing  

SciTech Connect

Quantum-information processing systems are often operated through time-dependent controls; choosing these controls in a way that makes the resulting operation insensitive to variations in unknown or uncontrollable system parameters is an important prerequisite for obtaining high-fidelity gate operations. In this article we present a numerical method for constructing such robust control sequences for a quite general class of quantum-information processing systems. As an application of the method we have designed a robust implementation of a phase-shift operation central to rare-earth-metal quantum computing, an ensemble quantum computing system proposed by Ohlsson et al. [Opt. Commun. 201, 71 (2002)]. In this case the method has been used to obtain a high degree of insensitivity with respect to differences between ensemble members, but it is equally well suited for quantum computing with a single physical system.

Wesenberg, Janus H. [QUANTOP, Danish Research Foundation Center for Quantum Optics, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2004-04-01

476

Systolic design with asynchronous controls for digital-signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research sponsored by this grant is focused on the development of a theoretical and technological basis for designing efficient systolic arrays for digital-signal processing algorithms. The major contributions of the research are the following: data reduction techniques via the utilization of algorithm properties; conversion of sequential input signal into input blocks by means of a spiral systolic mesh that is suitable for parallel processing and that is flexible for enabling various array dimensions; and devising a hybrid of SA and data-flow approach, making data streams independent of computations executed in each processor, thus reducing waiting time. The communication (PE) protocols resolve the data-flow conflicts created by the merging of the spiral and asynchronous systolic array architecture.

Reihani, Kamran

1993-07-01

477

46 CFR 164.019-9 - Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design, process, or materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design, process, or materials. 164...Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design, process, or materials. (a) The manufacturer shall not change the design, material, manufacturing...

2011-10-01

478

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-01-01

479

Design for reflection.  

PubMed

Since a few years, a number of academic papers have been proposing to shift from user-centered design to human-centered (or person) design. In this contribution, we discuss as the common tread underlying these works the idea that design should also address the reflective part of our human experience, and not only aim to maximize the experiential aspects. Our review is complemented with examples derived from the internet world and from ICT consumer products. The main research areas we see as promising for the approach of "design for reflection" are: design for pauses, design for detachment, design for serendipity. PMID:22316867

Bagnara, Sebastiano; Pozzi, Simone

2012-01-01

480

A product design ontology for enhancing shape processing in design workflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective and efficient information management and knowledge sharing has become an essential part of more and more professional\\u000a tasks in the Product Development Process. Among the various Knowledge Management technologies, ontologies offer new possibilities\\u000a for representing, handling and retrieving product related knowledge, and for online collaboration. We conceived a Product\\u000a Design Ontology (PDO) which especially addresses researchers in industrial product

Chiara E. Catalano; Elena Camossi; Rosalinda Ferrandes; Vincent Cheutet; Neyir Sevilmis

2009-01-01

481

Fiber optic sensor design for chemical process and environmental monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cure monitoring is a term that is used to describe the cross-linking reactions in a thermosetting resin system. Advanced fiber reinforced composites are being used increasingly in a number of industrial sectors including aerospace, marine, sport, automotive and civil engineering. There is a general realization that the processing conditions that are used to manufacture the composites can have a major influence on its hot-wet mechanical properties. This paper is concerned with the design and demonstration of a number of sensor designs for in-situ cure monitoring of a model thermosetting resin system. Simple fixtures were constructed to enable a pair of cleaved optical fibers with a defined gap between the end-faces to be held in position. The resin system was introduced into this gap and the cure kinetics were followed by transmission infrared spectroscopy. A semi-empirical model was used to describe the cure process using the data obtained at different cure temperatures. The same sensor system was used to detect the ingress of moisture in the cured resin system.

Mahendran, R. S.; Harris, D.; Wang, L.; Machavaram, V. R.; Chen, R.; Kukureka, St. N.; Fernando, G. F.

2007-10-01

482

Designing usable interface for navigating mobile chat messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little design consideration given to ease the navigation through a long chat archive in a limited screen display. By incorporating graphical and user-centered design, messages can be presented in logical grouping for navigation ease and efficient tracking of specific messages in a long chat archive. This paper explores usable interface design for mobile group chat systems via

Daniel Kuen Seong Su; Victoria Siew Yen Yee

2007-01-01

483

Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1997-01-01

484

Microstructure design and processing of aluminum-alumina composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the prior research in the field of ceramic-metal composites has been conducted without due regard to composite microstructure. Processing difficulties have often prevented the production of composites with controlled microstructural features. Methods designed to surmount the various processing barriers and enable a high degree of microstructural control have been developed in this study. Fugitive phase processing and partial sintering techniques have been employed to tailor the porosity of Al2O3 preforms that were subsequently infiltrated with molten Al. Methods were also developed to coat the internal surfaces of porous Al2O3 preforms with reactive materials that facilitated infiltration of the otherwise non-wetting Al melts. Laminates, gradients and homogeneous composites with controlled microstructures have been produced with these techniques. Elasticity, wave attenuation, as well as compressive failure and bending response have been investigated. Phase fraction seems to most severely influence elastic properties and wave attenuation in homogenous composites, whereas ceramic contiguity and flaw distributions (leading to enhanced plasticity) dictate the mechanical response in compression and bending.

Cichocki, Frank Richard, Jr.

485

Optimization of Membrane Formulation and Process Variables via Crossed-Design Concept in Design of Experimental (DOE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture-process design methodology, i.e., the crossed design, is proposed for experimental analysis and optimization. Five mixture materials for membrane formulation and two process factors for casting condition were fixed in the design methodology. The study was to generate a regression model for each of the responses, based on the experimental data and analysis variance of the study. Based on

A. L. Ahmad; S. C. Low; S. R. Abd Shukor; A. Ismail

2009-01-01

486

Process and Prospects for the Designed Hydrograph, Lower Missouri River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow regime of the Lower Missouri River (LMOR, Gavins Point, SD to St. Louis, MO) is being redesigned to restore elements of natural variability while maintaining project purposes such as power production, flood control, water supply, and navigation. Presently, an experimental hydrograph alteration is planned for Spring, 2006. Similar to many large, multi-purpose rivers, the ongoing design process involves negotiation among many management and stakeholder groups. The negotiated process has simplified the hydrograph into two key elements -- the spring rise and the summer low - with emphasis on the influence of these elements on three threatened or endangered species. The spring rise has been hypothesized to perform three functions: build sandbars for nesting of the interior least tern and piping plover, provide episodic connectivity with low-lying flood plain, and provide a behavioral spawning cue for the pallid sturgeon. Among these, most emphasis has been placed on the spawning cue because concerns about downstream flood hazards have limited flow magnitudes to those that are thought to be geomorphically ineffective, and channelization and incision provide little opportunity for moderate flows to connect to the flood plain. Our analysis of the natural hydrologic regime provides some insight into possible spring rise design elements, including timing, rate of rise and fall, and length of spring flow pulses. The summer low has been hypothesized to emerge sandbars for nesting and to maximize area of shallow, slow water for rearing of larval and juvenile fish. Re-engineering of the navigation channel to provide greater diversity of habitat during navigation flows has been offered as an alternative to the summer low. Our analysis indicates that re-engineering has potential to increase habitat availability substantially, but the ecological results are so-far unknown. The designed hydrograph that emerges from the multi-objective process will likely represent a compromise of many values and is unlikely to bear close resemblance to the natural hydrograph. Nonetheless, the hydrograph will provide an essential first step in experimentation and adaptive management of the Lower Missouri River.

Jacobson, R. B.; Galat, D. L.; Hay, C. H.

2005-05-01

487

Design process for NIF laser alignment and beam diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

In a controller for an adaptive optic system designed to correct phase aberrations in a high power laser, the wavefront sensor is a discrete Hartmann-Shack design. It uses an army of lenslets (like a fly` s eye) to focus the laser into 77 spots on a CCD camera. Average local tilt of the wavefront across each lenslet changes the position of its focal spot. The system requires 0.1 pixel accuracy in determining the focal spot location. We determine a small area around each spot` s previous location. Within this area, we calculate the centroid of the light intensity in x and y. This calculation fails if the spot regions overlap. Especially during initial acquisition of a highly distorted beam, distinguishing overlapping spots is difficult. However, low resolution analysis of the overlapping spots allows the system to estimate their positions. With this estimate, it can use the deformable mirror to correct the beam enough so we can detect the spots using conventional image processing.

Grey, A., LLNL

1998-06-09

488

Design process of an area-efficient photobioreactor.  

PubMed

This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such intensities that the light energy can be efficiently used for biomass formation. A statement of goals is formulated and constraints are specified to which the GSC needs to comply. Specifications are generated for a prototype which form and function achieve the stated goals and satisfy the specified constraints. This results in a design in which sunlight is captured into vertical plastic light guides. Sunlight reflects internally in the guide and eventually scatters out of the light guide into flat-panel photobioreactor compartments. Sunlight is focused on top of the light guides by dual-axis positioning of linear Fresnel lenses. The shape and material of the light guide is such that light is maintained in the guides when surrounded by air. The bottom part of a light guide is sandblasted to obtain a more uniform distribution of light inside the bioreactor compartment and is triangular shaped to ensure the efflux of all light out of the guide. Dimensions of the guide are such that light enters the flat-panel photobioreactor compartment at intensities that can be efficiently used by the biomass present. The integration of light capturing, transportation, distribution and usage is such that high biomass productivities per area can be achieved. PMID:18266033

Zijffers, Jan-Willem F; Janssen, Marcel; Tramper, Johannes; Wijffels, René H

2008-02-12

489

What is a Process Model? Reflections on the Epistemology of Design Process Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is now established wisdom in the engineering design community that models are useful means of understanding and interacting\\u000a with both products and processes. However this is a fairly recent development. A hundred years ago at the height of British\\u000a engineering prowess, this was not the case. While it is possible that individual companies used informal models to describe\\u000a their

C. M. Eckert; M. K. Stacey

490

Generic reality visualization modelling from process tomography sensor data in process design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper introduces a novel enabling step toward the widespread exploitation of the multi-dimensional process sensing offered by process tomography (PT) technology that has demonstrated a unique insight into many processes. Most current applications are laboratory or pilot-plant based. Generic system integration tools are proposed that deal systematically with PT data to accelerate the assessment and application of PT sensing, and hence deliver the large benefits expected to arise from large-scale exploitation of multi-dimensional sensing. Where multi-dimensional PT sensor data are available, a suite of enabling tools, reality visualization modelling (RVM), are proposed as the complementary generic set of processing methods needed to take internal process state data and yield directly usable process information, either for design model confirmation or for effective plant control, or monitoring. A further step: generic-RVM (GRVM) extends this concept through a generically defined process topology, complete with method and model set, to expedite mass-market application. The paper offers a practical illustration through a small pilot trial.

Hoyle, B. S.; Jia, X.

2004-07-01

491

Interactive Multicriteria Optimization for Multiple-Response Product and Process Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider product and process design problems (hereafter collectively called process design problems) that address issues associated with the assessment of optimum levels for process inputs that influence multiple-process performance measures. While this problem context encompasses many possible applications, we focus primarily on multiple-response design problems that have been widely studied in the quality improvement and quality management literature. For

Murat Köksalan; Robert D. Plante

2003-01-01

492

Failure mode and effects analysis : An integrated approach for product design and process control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the implementation of failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) for both product design and process control. FMEA is implemented in two ways to ensure that the reliability requirements are met for the production of an airbag inflator. Design FMEA is performed to generate a process control plan, visual aids, and a process verification list. Design FMEA and process FMEA

1996-01-01

493

Evaluation of heavy oil upgrading/refining process designs for HRI Dynacracking and UOP Aurabon Process. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The process designs examined consist of two non-commercialized heavy oil upgrading processes; namely, the Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) Dynacracking Process and the UOP Process Division (UOP) Aurabon Process. The latter process design includes, besides the Aurabon Process, an integrated hydrotreating section which does have commercial stature. The Dynacracking Process designs cover six cases involving three heavy crude feedstocks. The Aurabon Complex designs are based on four cases, two for each of two heavy crude feedstocks. The engineering support services involved engineering review and assessment of data, drawings, reports and other information generated by the two process designers. Background information, the review and assessment methodology employed for evaluating the process designs, and a detailed discussion of the process design data generated by both process contractors are presented in this report. Significant findings for both processes may be summarized as follows: (1) The process designs were executed using sound engineering principles and practices; (2) Both processes may be deemed to perform in accordance with their process design; (3) a wide variety of heavy oil charge stocks can be upgraded by either process to products generally suitable for further refinery processing; (4) no insurmountable operating or environmental problems are anticipated; (5) the estimated capital investments and operating utility requirements are indicative of the increased cost to process contaminated heavy crudes; (6) the cost differential between the higher quantity lighter crudes and the poorer quality heavy crudes must be sufficient to justify these higher expenditures; and (7) both processes merit consideration by refiners contemplating contaminated heavy oil upgrading. 53 references, 40 tables.

Davis, H.; Adams, D.G.; Fox, J.V.

1984-04-01

494

HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by PBMR (Pty.) Ltd. in the RSA, with the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the US as part of the NHI. This work was performed by SRNL, Westinghouse Electric Company, Shaw, PBMR (Pty) Ltd., and Technology Insights under a Technical Consulting Agreement (TCA). Westinghouse Electric, serving as the lead for the PBMR process heat application team, established a cost-shared TCA with SRNL to prepare an updated HyS thermochemical water-splitting process flowsheet, a nuclear hydrogen plant preconceptual design and a cost estimate, including the cost of hydrogen production. SRNL was funded by DOE under the NHI program, and the Westinghouse team was self-funded. The results of this work are presented in this Final Report. Appendices have been attached to provide a detailed source of information in order to document the work under the TCA contract.

Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

2009-05-12