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1

Applying user-centered design process to non-physical designs in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interface Design (ID) involves the design of everyday products in tangible (physical) and non-tangible (non-physical) aspects. This paper addresses an applied user-centered product development process for non-physical interface designs. As a case, this paper reports on a user-centered design (UCD) model applied by interface designers in an institution of higher learning in Malaysia. This UCD model has been practised by

Anthony Man Leong Wong; Chee Weng Khong

2011-01-01

2

Learning Objects: A User-Centered Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design research systematically creates or improves processes, products, and programs through an iterative progression connecting practice and theory (Reinking, 2008; van den Akker, 2006). Developing a new instructional systems design (ISD) processes through design research is necessary when new technologies emerge that challenge existing practices…

Branon, Rovy F., III

2011-01-01

3

User Centered Design in Multimedia Broadcasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an ongoing research project about User Centered Design in Multimedia Broadcasting. Every User Centered Design project starts with understanding the user in his or her context. It is important to understand the users' needs and expectations before developing new mobile services. This paper throws initially a light on the project where this User Centered Design

L. Weeghmans

4

User-Centered Design of Online Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

User-centered design (UCD) is gaining popularity in both the educational and business sectors. This is due to the fact that UCD sheds light on the entire process of analyzing, planning, designing, developing, using, evaluating, and maintaining computer-based learning. "User-Centered Design of Online Learning Communities" explains how computers can…

Lambropoulos, Niki, Ed.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.

2007-01-01

5

A study of the role of user-centered design methods in design team projects  

E-print Network

User-centered approaches to design can guide teams toward an understanding of users and aid teams in better posing design problems. This paper investigates the role of user-centered design approaches in design process and ...

Lai, Justin Y.

6

An Experience in Applying User Centered Design to Search Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents our experience in applying User Centered Design methods to identify several design opportunities for\\u000a future Search Computing applications. The chapter starts introducing the definition of User Centered design, its principles\\u000a and methodologies. It presents the five steps process we followed in order to get user behavioral insights and design opportunities.\\u000a It illustrates each phase that composes the

Tommaso Buganza; Marta Corubolo; Emanuele Della Valle; Elena Pellizzoni

2010-01-01

7

The management of human errors in user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-Centered Design puts the users at the center of the design activity by involving them from the very beginning in the process and by iteratively testing and re-designing the product. In every testing and evaluation phase human error analysis plays an important role. Although it is not possible to design systems in which people do not make errors, much can

A. Rizzo; O. Parlangeli; E. Marchigiani; S. Bagnara

1996-01-01

8

The living memory box: function, form and user centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Living Memory Box project examines how to research and design user-centered system to support the collection, archiving and sharing of moments from a child's life. This research has provided us with details of key features to enhance our user-centered design and encompass all aspects of the system. We plan to use these findings to influence the development of ubiquitous

Molly M. Stevens; Florian Vollmer; Gregory D. Abowd

2002-01-01

9

Building a team for user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the building blocks for building a team for user-centered design. These building blocks include an understanding of the skills needed for team members representing various aspects of the user experience, as well as the advantages of using a team-approach to user-centered design. To have a successful experience, team members must understand the stages of group formation, the

Carol M. Barnum

2000-01-01

10

Building a team for user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the building blocks for building a team for user-centered design. These building blocks include an understanding of the skills needed for team members representing various aspects of the user experience, as well as the advantages of using a team-approach to user-center design. To have a successful experience, team members must understand the stages of group formation, the

Carol M. Barnum

2000-01-01

11

User-Centered Design and Interactive Health Technologies for Patients  

PubMed Central

Despite recommendations that patients be involved in the design and testing of health technologies, few reports describe how to involve patients in systematic and meaningful ways to ensure that applications are customized to meet their needs. User-centered design (UCD) is an approach that involves end-users throughout the development process so that technology support tasks, are easy to operate, and are of value to users. In this paper we provide an overview of UCD and use the development of Pocket Personal Assistant for Tracking Health (Pocket PATH), to illustrate how these principles and techniques were applied to involve patients in the development of this interactive health technology. Involving patient-users in the design and testing ensured functionality and usability, therefore increasing the likelihood of promoting the intended health outcomes. PMID:19411947

De Vito Dabbs, Annette; Myers, Brad A.; Mc Curry, Kenneth R.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Hawkins, Robert P.; Begey, Alex; Dew, Mary Amanda

2010-01-01

12

Ethics of Engagement: User-Centered Design and Rhetorical Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the shift from observation of users to participation with users, describing and investigating three examples of user-centered design practice in order to consider the new ethical demands being made of technical communicators. Explores Pelle Ehn's participatory design method, Roger Whitehouse's design of tactile signage for blind users,…

Salvo, Michael J.

2001-01-01

13

Usability Studies and User-Centered Design in Digital Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital libraries continue to flourish. At the same time, the principles of user-centered design and the practice of usability testing have been growing in popularity, spreading their influence into the library sphere. This article explores the confluence of these two trends by surveying the current literature on usability studies of digital…

Comeaux, David J.

2008-01-01

14

A survey of user-centered design practice in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first time to report the results of a recent survey of user-centered design (UCD) practice in China, conducted in 2007. The survey involved over four hundred respondents who were at the user friendly conference or attended other UCD related activities. The survey identified, e.g. practitioners' demographics and experience, the type of organization, the usage frequency of

Ronggang Zhou; Shengshan Huang; Xiangang Qin; Jason Huang

2008-01-01

15

User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University…

Bordac, Sarah; Rainwater, Jean

2008-01-01

16

User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University Library's Web site. Three testing phases were conducted:

Sarah Bordac; Jean Rainwater

2008-01-01

17

User-Centered Interface Design of Social Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops neural network (NN) models to examine how key design elements of a social website will affect users’ feelings\\u000a or perceptions. An experimental study of 96 university websites is conducted based on a user-centered approach. The study\\u000a identifies seven website design elements and 33 representative websites as experimental samples for training and testing four\\u000a NN models. These four

Yang-cheng Lin; Chung-hsing Yeh

2008-01-01

18

Using dramaturgical methods to gain more dynamic user understanding in user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce the method of dramaturgical reading, which was originally a method of producing different crystallized and associative theatrical and graphical presentations of a role character in a drama context. We transfer dramaturgical reading into the field of user-centered design in order to understand, analyze and represent user-centered material. We compare a persona created with dramaturgical reading

Vesa Kantola; Sauli Tiitta; Katri Mehto; Tomi Kankainen

2007-01-01

19

Design, Ideation, and Prototyping Why User Centered Design is important  

E-print Network

, reluctance ... · users are not expert designers ­ don't expect them to come up with design ideas from scratch · the user is not always right ­ don't expect them to know what they want Evan Golub / Ben Bederson / Saul for involving the user At the very least, talk to users · surprising how many designers don't! Interviews · used

Golub, Evan

20

Integrating Agile and User-Centered Design A Systematic Mapping and Review of Evaluation and Validation Studies of Agile-UX  

E-print Network

Integrating Agile and User-Centered Design A Systematic Mapping and Review of Evaluation and Validation Studies of Agile-UX Gabriela Jurca, Theodore D. Hellmann, and Frank Maurer Department of Computer.maurer}@ucalgary.ca Abstract--Agile software engineering and user-centered design are two important development processes

Maurer, Frank

21

NGDS User Centered Design Meeting the Needs of the Geothermal Community  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure the widest and greatest utility of IT and software projects designed for geothermal reservoir engineer- ing the full consideration of end users’ task and workflow needs must be evaluated. This paper describes the user-centered design (UCD) approach taken in the development of a user interface (UI) solution for the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This development process has been research based, highly collabora- tive, and incorporates state-of-the-art practices to ensure a quality user experience. Work is continuing on the interface, including future usability tests to further refine the interfaces as the overall system is developed.

Boyd, Suzanne [Anthro-Tech, Inc; Zheng, Sam [Siemens Corporation; Patten, Kim [Arizona Geological Survey; Blackman, Harold [Boise State University

2013-10-01

22

NGDS USER CENTERED DESIGN MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure the widest and greatest utility of IT and software projects designed for geothermal reservoir engineering the full consideration of end users’ task and workflow needs must be evaluated. This paper describes the user-centered design (UCD) approach taken in the development of a user interface (UI) solution for the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This development process has been researched based, highly collaborative, and incorporates state-of-the-art practices to ensure a quality user experience. Work is continuing on the interface, including future usability tests to further refine the interfaces as the overall system is developed.

Boyd, Suzanne [Anthro-Tech; Zheng, Sam Xianjun [Siemens Corporation; Patten, Kim [Arizona Geological Survey; Blackman, Harold [Boise State University

2013-01-01

23

User-Centered Design of a Web Site for Library and Information Science Students: Heuristic Evaluation and Usability Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the life cycle of a library Web site created with a user-centered design process to serve a graduate school of library and information science (LIS). Findings based on a heuristic evaluation and usability study were applied in an iterative redesign of the site to better serve the needs of this special academic library population. Recommendations for design

Laura Manzari; Jeremiah Trinidad-Christensen

24

Designing User-Centered Web Applications in Web Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

As designers struggle to develop Web applications “in Web time,” they are under the added pressure of delivering usability. The author describes her company's successful transformation to user-driven processes for designing e-commerce applications. She also offers strategies for introducing human factors methods into a reluctant development organization

Molly Hammar Cloyd

2001-01-01

25

A review of user-centered design for diabetes-related consumer health informatics technologies.  

PubMed

User-centered design (UCD) is well recognized as an effective human factor engineering strategy for designing ease of use in the total customer experience with products and information technology that has been applied specifically to health care information technology systems. We conducted a literature review to analyze the current research regarding the use of UCD methods and principles to support the development or evaluation of diabetes-related consumer health informatics technology (CHIT) initiatives. Findings indicate that (1) UCD activities have been applied across the technology development life cycle stages, (2) there are benefits to incorporating UCD to better inform CHIT development in this area, and (3) the degree of adoption of the UCD process is quite uneven across diabetes CHIT studies. In addition, few to no studies report on methods used across all phases of the life cycle with process detail. To address that void, the Appendix provides an illustrative case study example of UCD techniques across development stages. PMID:23911188

LeRouge, Cynthia; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

2013-07-01

26

A Review of User-Centered Design for Diabetes-Related Consumer Health Informatics Technologies  

PubMed Central

User-centered design (UCD) is well recognized as an effective human factor engineering strategy for designing ease of use in the total customer experience with products and information technology that has been applied specifically to health care information technology systems. We conducted a literature review to analyze the current research regarding the use of UCD methods and principles to support the development or evaluation of diabetes-related consumer health informatics technology (CHIT) initiatives. Findings indicate that (1) UCD activities have been applied across the technology development life cycle stages, (2) there are benefits to incorporating UCD to better inform CHIT development in this area, and (3) the degree of adoption of the UCD process is quite uneven across diabetes CHIT studies. In addition, few to no studies report on methods used across all phases of the life cycle with process detail. To address that void, the Appendix provides an illustrative case study example of UCD techniques across development stages. PMID:23911188

LeRouge, Cynthia; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

2013-01-01

27

Creative user-centered visualization design for energy analysts and modelers.  

PubMed

We enhance a user-centered design process with techniques that deliberately promote creativity to identify opportunities for the visualization of data generated by a major energy supplier. Visualization prototypes developed in this way prove effective in a situation whereby data sets are largely unknown and requirements open - enabling successful exploration of possibilities for visualization in Smart Home data analysis. The process gives rise to novel designs and design metaphors including data sculpting. It suggests: that the deliberate use of creativity techniques with data stakeholders is likely to contribute to successful, novel and effective solutions; that being explicit about creativity may contribute to designers developing creative solutions; that using creativity techniques early in the design process may result in a creative approach persisting throughout the process. The work constitutes the first systematic visualization design for a data rich source that will be increasingly important to energy suppliers and consumers as Smart Meter technology is widely deployed. It is novel in explicitly employing creativity techniques at the requirements stage of visualization design and development, paving the way for further use and study of creativity methods in visualization design. PMID:24051818

Goodwin, Sarah; Dykes, Jason; Jones, Sara; Dillingham, Iain; Dove, Graham; Duffy, Alison; Kachkaev, Alexander; Slingsby, Aidan; Wood, Jo

2013-12-01

28

User-centered design in video games: investigating gestural interfaces appropriation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on the exploration of video game usage in the context of a user-centered design project. In order to design compelling user experiences with gestural interfaces, we undertook a small-scale qualitative study. This exploration addressed players' experience and perception of realism when using gestural interfaces. We compared the user experience of these two styles of interaction

Nicolas Nova; Timothée Jobert

2011-01-01

29

A Method for User Centering Systematic Product Development Aimed at Industrial Design Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instead of limiting the introduction and stimulus for new concept creation to lists of specifications, industrial design students seem to prefer to be encouraged by ideas in context. A new method that specifically tackles human activity to foster the creation of user centered concepts of new products was developed and is presented in this article.…

Coelho, Denis A.

2010-01-01

30

Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer

2013-01-01

31

User-Centered Design (UCD) applied to the identification and modification of unsustainable practices.  

PubMed

Metropolitan Autonomous University, Cuajimalpa Unit (UAM-C) has as one of its main themes, researching and teaching of sustainability. In it, the Bachelor of Design program considers among its teaching approaches those of User-Centered Design and Eco-design as important issues, this explains the interest in addressing the areas in which both approaches can be articulated to reduce unsustainable practices through the design of messages, environments and products. PMID:22317621

Lucila, Mercado Colin; Alejandro, Rodea Chávez

2012-01-01

32

Janssen Research Foundation's Adverse Experience Literature Database: A User-Centered Design for Human-Computer Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will first discuss user-centered design factors and how they should be addressed. This will be followed by the actual Janssen experience in successfully designing and building its adverse experience literature database. It will then highlight criteria for the evaluation of information retrieval systems. The Janssen experience serves as an example that such user-centered design factors can be easily

Peter Wang

1993-01-01

33

Improving the quality of numerical software through user-centered design  

SciTech Connect

The software interface - whether graphical, command-oriented, menu-driven, or in the form of subroutine calls - shapes the user`s perception of what software can do. It also establishes upper bounds on software usability. Numerical software interfaces typically are based on the designer`s understanding of how the software should be used. That is a poor foundation for usability, since the features that are ``instinctively right`` from the developer`s perspective are often the very ones that technical programmers find most objectionable or most difficult to learn. This paper discusses how numerical software interfaces can be improved by involving users more actively in design, a process known as user-centered design (UCD). While UCD requires extra organization and effort, it results in much higher levels of usability and can actually reduce software costs. This is true not just for graphical user interfaces, but for all software interfaces. Examples show how UCD improved the usability of a subroutine library, a command language, and an invocation interface.

Pancake, C. M., Oregon State University

1998-06-01

34

Bringing the Field into Focus: User-centered Design of a Patient Expertise Locator  

PubMed Central

Managing personal aspects of health is challenging for many patients, particularly those facing a serious condition such as cancer. Finding experienced patients, who can share their knowledge from managing a similar health situation, is of tremendous value. Users of health-related social software form a large base of such knowledge, yet these tools often lack features needed to locate peers with expertise. Informed directly by our field work with breast cancer patients, we designed a patient expertise locator for users of online health communities. Using feedback from two focus groups with breast cancer survivors, we took our design through two iterations. Focus groups concluded that expertise locating features proved useful for extending social software. They guided design enhancements by suggesting granular user control through (1) multiple mechanisms to identify expertise, (2) detailed user profiles to select expertise, and (3) varied collaboration levels. Our user-centered approach links field work to design through close collaboration with patients. By illustrating trade-offs made when sharing sensitive health information, our findings inform the incorporation of expertise locating features into social software for patients. PMID:21243114

Civan-Hartzler, Andrea; McDonald, David W.; Powell, Chris; Skeels, Meredith M; Mukai, Marlee; Pratt, Wanda

2010-01-01

35

Agile Methods and User-Centered Design: How These Two Methodologies Are Being Successfully Integrated In Industry  

E-print Network

Agile Methods and User-Centered Design: How These Two Methodologies Are Being Successfully A core principle of Agile development is to satisfy the customer by providing valuable software that is usable. Recently there has been some evidence that suggests using Agile methods alone does not ensure

Sillito, Jonathan

36

Is ROI an effective approach for persuading decision-makers of the value of user-centered design?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This panel examines the utility and effectiveness of various ways of making the business case for user-centered design (UCD). Most of the discussion in our field has assumed that measuring and demonstrating ROI for usability is the key to this effort. However, experience shows that the most brilliant ROI analysis may not win the day in the real world of

Susan M. Dray; Clare-Marie Karat; Daniel Rosenberg; David A. Siegel; Dennis R. Wixon

2005-01-01

37

Infant feeding: the interfaces between interaction design and cognitive ergonomics in user-centered design.  

PubMed

This text presents a discussion on the process of developing interactive products focused on infant behavior, which result was an interactive game for encouraging infant feeding. For that, it describes the use of cognitive psychology concepts added to interaction design methodology. Through this project, this article sustains how the cooperative use of these concepts provides adherent solutions to users' needs, whichever they are. Besides that, it verifies the closeness of those methodologies to boundary areas of knowledge, such as design focused on user and ergonomics. PMID:22316864

Lima, Flavia; Araújo, Lilian Kely

2012-01-01

38

The user-centered design as novel perspective for evaluating the usability of BCI-controlled applications.  

PubMed

Albeit research on brain-computer interfaces (BCI) for controlling applications has expanded tremendously, we still face a translational gap when bringing BCI to end-users. To bridge this gap, we adapted the user-centered design (UCD) to BCI research and development which implies a shift from focusing on single aspects, such as accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR), to a more holistic user experience. The UCD implements an iterative process between end-users and developers based on a valid evaluation procedure. Within the UCD framework usability of a device can be defined with regard to its effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. We operationalized these aspects to evaluate BCI-controlled applications. Effectiveness was regarded equivalent to accuracy of selections and efficiency to the amount of information transferred per time unit and the effort invested (workload). Satisfaction was assessed with questionnaires and visual-analogue scales. These metrics have been successfully applied to several BCI-controlled applications for communication and entertainment, which were evaluated by end-users with severe motor impairment. Results of four studies, involving a total of N?=?19 end-users revealed: effectiveness was moderate to high; efficiency in terms of ITR was low to high and workload low to medium; depending on the match between user and technology, and type of application satisfaction was moderate to high. The here suggested evaluation metrics within the framework of the UCD proved to be an applicable and informative approach to evaluate BCI controlled applications, and end-users with severe impairment and in the locked-in state were able to participate in this process. PMID:25469774

Kübler, Andrea; Holz, Elisa M; Riccio, Angela; Zickler, Claudia; Kaufmann, Tobias; Kleih, Sonja C; Staiger-Sälzer, Pit; Desideri, Lorenzo; Hoogerwerf, Evert-Jan; Mattia, Donatella

2014-01-01

39

"Less Clicking, More Watching": Results from the User-Centered Design of a Multi-Institutional Web Site for Art and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes a 10-month long research project conducted at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center aimed at developing the design concept of a multi-institutional art and culture web site. The work followed a user-centered design (UCD) approach, where interaction with prototypes and feedback from potential users of the web site were sought…

Vergo, John; Karat, Clare-Marie; Karat, John; Pinhanez, Claudio; Arora, Renee; Cofino, Thomas; Riecken, Doug; Podlaseck, Mark

40

A User-Centered Methodological Framework for the Design of Hypermedia-based CALL Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses research aimed at improving the educational quality of hypermedia-based computer assisted language learning systems. Focuses on a methodological framework that draws on recent developments in the field of human-computer interaction regarding interactive system design and a general constructivist approach to the design of computer-based…

Shin, Jae-eun; Wastell, David G.

2001-01-01

41

Experiences of Multidisciplinary Development Team Members During User-Centered Design of Telecare Products and Services: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background User-centered design (UCD) methodologies can help take the needs and requirements of potential end-users into account during the development of innovative telecare products and services. Understanding how members of multidisciplinary development teams experience the UCD process might help to gain insight into factors that members with different backgrounds consider critical during the development of telecare products and services. Objective The primary objective of this study was to explore how members of multidisciplinary development teams experienced the UCD process of telecare products and services. The secondary objective was to identify differences and similarities in the barriers and facilitators they experienced. Methods Twenty-five members of multidisciplinary development teams of four Research and Development (R&D) projects participated in this study. The R&D projects aimed to develop telecare products and services that can support self-management in elderly people or patients with chronic conditions. Seven participants were representatives of end-users (elderly persons or patients with chronic conditions), three were professional end-users (geriatrician and nurses), five were engineers, four were managers (of R&D companies or engineering teams), and six were researchers. All participants were interviewed by a researcher who was not part of their own development team. The following topics were discussed during the interviews: (1) aim of the project, (2) role of the participant, (3) experiences during the development process, (4) points of improvement, and (5) what the project meant to the participant. Results Experiences of participants related to the following themes: (1) creating a development team, (2) expectations regarding responsibilities and roles, (3) translating user requirements into technical requirements, (4) technical challenges, (5) evaluation of developed products and services, and (6) valorization. Multidisciplinary team members from different backgrounds often reported similar experienced barriers (eg, different members of the development team speak a “different language”) and facilitators (eg, team members should voice expectations at the start of the project to prevent miscommunication at a later stage). However, some experienced barriers and facilitators were reported only by certain groups of participants. For example, only managers reported the experience that having different ideas about what a good business case is within one development team was a barrier, whereas only end-users emphasized the facilitating role of project management in end-user participation and the importance of continuous feedback from researchers on input of end-users. Conclusions Many similarities seem to exist between the experienced barriers and facilitators of members of multidisciplinary development teams during UCD of telecare products and services. However, differences in experiences between team members from various backgrounds exist as well. Insights into these similarities and differences can improve understanding between team members from different backgrounds, which can optimize collaboration during the development of telecare products and services. PMID:24840245

2014-01-01

42

Evaluating CSL/CFL Website Usability: A User-Centered Design Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the widespread availability of Internet and computer technology, on-line web-based learning has become prevalent in the field of teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language (CSL/CFL). This study examined the concepts of usability and types of design elements that help construct an effective web-based learning environment, as well as their…

Huang, Chung-Kai; Hsin, Ching-O; Chiu, Chiung-Hui

2010-01-01

43

Assessing the impact of user-centered research on a clinical trial eHealth tool via counterbalanced research design  

PubMed Central

Objective Informatics applications have the potential to improve participation in clinical trials, but their design must be based on user-centered research. This research used a fully counterbalanced experimental design to investigate the effect of changes made to the original version of a website, http://BreastCancerTrials.org/, and confirm that the revised version addressed and reinforced patients' needs and expectations. Design Participants included women who had received a breast cancer diagnosis within the last 5?years (N=77). They were randomized into two groups: one group used and reviewed the original version first followed by the redesigned version, and the other group used and reviewed them in reverse order. Measurements The study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. During use, participants' click paths and general reactions were observed. After use, participants were asked to answer survey items and open-ended questions to indicate their reactions and which version they preferred and met their needs and expectations better. Results Overall, the revised version of the site was preferred and perceived to be clearer, easier to navigate, more trustworthy and credible, and more private and safe overall. However, users who viewed the original version last had similar attitudes toward both versions. Conclusion By applying research findings to the redesign of a website for clinical trial searching, it was possible to re-engineer the interface to better support patients' decisions to participate in clinical trials. The mechanisms of action in this case appeared to revolve around creating an environment that supported a sense of personal control and decisional autonomy. PMID:21169619

Massett, Holly A; Mylks, Christy; McCormack, Lauren A; Kish-Doto, Julia; Hesse, Bradford W; Wang, Min Qi

2010-01-01

44

A methodology for connecting user centered design (UCD) with eco-design. The possibility of migration of products to services based on the user acceptance.  

PubMed

The consumer products generation is one of the main engines that fuel the planet's environmental problems, reduction of environmental impacts associated with the products has been studied from various aspects between them, the supply of products for public consumption instead of private, seeking to meet the needs of the community by establishing programs for sharing single product. It has been detected a problematic issues linked to this strategy, where the user acceptance of this new way of living together with the products must be achieved. The arguments here presented seek to identify user perception of such proposals and their possible acceptance throughout strategies from the User Centered Design (UCD). PMID:22316852

Alejandro, Rodea Chávez; Colin, Lucila Mercado

2012-01-01

45

User-centered security  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the term user-centered security to refer to security models, mechanisms, systems, and software that have usability as a primary motivation or goal. We discuss the history of usable secure systems, citing both past problems and present studies. We develop three categories for work in user-friendly security: applying usability testing and tech- niques to secure systems, developing security models

Mary Ellen Zurko; Richard T. Simon

1996-01-01

46

UDesign : toward a user-centered architecture  

E-print Network

As more companies encourage users to participate in the design of personalized products through online configuration tools, a new kind of user-centered business model emerges. One of the outcomes of this transformation, ...

Corem, Yaniv

2010-01-01

47

Formative user-centered evaluation of security modeling  

E-print Network

Formative user-centered evaluation of security modeling: Results from a case study Sandra Trösterer present and discuss the formative user-centered evaluation approach, namely an evaluation technique that starts since the early design stages and actively involves end-users. We demonstrate the approach

48

A user-centered and evidence-based approach for digital library projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Soft systems methodology processes fortified by collaborative evidence-based librarianship (EBL) principles can guide end-user involvement in digital library project design and development. This paper aims to reveal the efficacy of this inclusive human-focused approach for building systems through user-generated research examples. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – From 2003 to 2006, user-centered interaction design guided increasingly complex human-computer interaction projects at California

Mary M. Somerville; Navjit Brar

2009-01-01

49

User-centered design of a web-based self-management site for individuals with type 2 diabetes – providing a sense of control and community  

PubMed Central

Background To design and test a web-based self-management tool for patients with type 2 diabetes for its usability and feasibility. Methods An evidence-based, theory-driven website was created for patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-three patients with type 2 diabetes aged???25 years were recruited from 2 diabetes care centers in Toronto, Canada. We employed focus group methodology to assess acceptability, sustainability, strengths and weaknesses of the self-management website. Based on these results, revisions were made to the website. Three cycles of individual usability testing sessions using cognitive task analysis were conducted with patients with type 2 diabetes. Revisions to the website were made based on results from this testing. Results We identified five themes concerning participants’ experiences of health care and related unmet needs: 1) Desire for information and for greater access to timely and personalized care to gain a sense of control of their disease; 2) Desire for community (sharing experiences with others) to fulfill practical and emotional needs; 3) Potential roles of an online self-management website in self-empowerment, behavior change, self-management and health care delivery; 4) Importance of a patient-centered perspective in presenting content (e.g. common assumptions, medical nomenclature, language, messaging, sociocultural context); 5) Barriers and facilitators to use of a self-management website (including perceived relevance of content, incorporation into usual routine, availability for goal-directed use, usability issues). Conclusions Participants outlined a series of unmet health care needs, and stated that they wanted timely access to tailored knowledge about their condition, mechanisms to control and track their disease, and opportunities to share experiences with other patients. These findings have implications for patients with type 2 diabetes of diverse ages, socioeconomic backgrounds, and disease severity, as well as to the design of other computer-based resources for chronic disease management. PMID:25056379

2014-01-01

50

Experience in remote user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet an immediate need in a new market, the corporation needed a customer document for installing a suite of tools that had previously been installed only by experienced service engineers. More than one support engineer had written a short document describing the installation tasks, but these documents pre-supposed a high level of expertise on the part of the installer.

Katherine Haramundanis

2008-01-01

51

Webgrep: Web Webgrep: User Centered Web Personalization  

E-print Network

Webgrep: Web Webgrep: User Centered Web Personalization y Hironobu Aoki yy Jiro Tanaka y Master and Electronics,University of Tsukuba WWW Web Web Webgrep Webgrep 1 Web Web Web Web Web [1] My Yahoo! [2] MyNetscape [3] amazon.com [4] Web Web 2 Web Web |1| #12;1. Web 2. 3. 4. Web WWWC [5] Web Auto [6] Web 1 2 Web 3

Tanaka, Jiro

52

Mobile Application Development now and then Towards a Handbook for User-Centered Mobile  

E-print Network

Mobile Application Development ­ now and then Towards a Handbook for User-Centered Mobile Schwarz, Universität Stuttgart (thomas.schwarz@informatik.uni-stuttgart.de) Abstract. Mobile applications a closer look at the distinguishing features between mobile design and "traditional" software design. We

Boll, Susanne

53

User-centered requirements engineering in health information systems: a study in the hemophilia field.  

PubMed

The use of sophisticated information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the health care domain is a way to improve the quality of services. However, there are also hazards associated with the introduction of ICTs in this domain and a great number of projects have failed due to the lack of systematic consideration of human and other non-technology issues throughout the design or implementation process, particularly in the requirements engineering process. This paper presents the methodological approach followed in the design process of a web-based information system (WbIS) for managing the clinical information in hemophilia care, which integrates the values and practices of user-centered design (UCD) activities into the principles of software engineering, particularly in the phase of requirements engineering (RE). This process followed a paradigm that combines a grounded theory for data collection with an evolutionary design based on constant development and refinement of the generic domain model using three well-known methodological approaches: (a) object-oriented system analysis; (b) task analysis; and, (c) prototyping, in a triangulation work. This approach seems to be a good solution for the requirements engineering process in this particular case of the health care domain, since the inherent weaknesses of individual methods are reduced, and emergent requirements are easier to elicit. Moreover, the requirements triangulation matrix gives the opportunity to look across the results of all used methods and decide what requirements are critical for the system success. PMID:21075471

Teixeira, Leonor; Ferreira, Carlos; Santos, Beatriz Sousa

2012-06-01

54

Students and faculty come together in Human Centered Design & Engineering (HCDE) to focus on understanding human needs and interests as they solve the engineering problems our world is facing. From user-centered design to human-computer interaction, we  

E-print Network

-centered design to human-computer interaction, we are designing the future. INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH Our research, human-computer interaction, and related specializations. Doctor of Philosophy The PhD preparesStudents and faculty come together in Human Centered Design & Engineering (HCDE) to focus

55

NETL - Supercomputing: NETL Simulation Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

ScienceCinema

NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC, integrates one of the world's largest high-performance computers with an advanced visualization center. The SBEUC offers a collaborative environment among researchers at NETL sites and those working through the NETL-Regional University Alliance.

None

2014-06-16

56

NETL - Supercomputing: NETL Simulation Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

SciTech Connect

NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC, integrates one of the world's largest high-performance computers with an advanced visualization center. The SBEUC offers a collaborative environment among researchers at NETL sites and those working through the NETL-Regional University Alliance.

None

2013-09-30

57

Creating User-Centered Instructions for Novice End-Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses written instructional materials created by librarians for end users searching database systems. Highlights include novice user studies; the importance of print instruction in digital information environments; a paradigm shift from system-centered to user-centered focuses in technical writing and user documentation for software; and…

Nahl, Diane

1999-01-01

58

Fiia: user-centered development of adaptive groupware systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive groupware systems support changes in users' locations, devices, roles and collaborative structure. Developing such systems is difficult due to the complex distributed systems programming in- volved. In this paper, we introduce Fiia, a novel architectural style for groupware. Fiia is user-centered, in that it allows easy specifi- cation of groupware structured around users' settings, devices and applications, and where

Christopher Wolfe; T. C. Nicholas Graham; W. Greg Phillips; Banani Roy

2009-01-01

59

Future integrated design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design process is one of the sources used to produce requirements for a computer system to integrate and manage product design data, program management information, and technical computation and engineering data management activities of the aerospace design process. Design activities were grouped chronologically and explored for activity type, activity interface, data quantity, and data flow. The work was based on analysis of the design process of several typical aerospace products, including both conventional and supersonic airplanes and a hydrofoil design. Activities examined included research, preliminary design, detail design, manufacturing interface, product verification, and product support. The design process was then described in an IPAD environment--the future.

Meyer, D. D.

1980-01-01

60

Breakthrough: NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

ScienceCinema

The National Energy Technology Laboratory relies on supercomputers to develop many novel ideas that become tomorrow's energy solutions. Supercomputers provide a cost-effective, efficient platform for research and usher technologies into widespread use faster to bring benefits to the nation. In 2013, Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz dedicated NETL's new supercomputer, the Simulation Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC. The SBEUC is dedicated to fossil energy research and is a collaborative tool for all of NETL and our regional university partners.

Guenther, Chris

2014-05-21

61

User-Centered Evaluation of Technosocial Predictive Analytics  

SciTech Connect

In today’s technology filled world, it is absolutely essential to show the utility of new software, especially software that brings entirely new capabilities to potential users. In the case of technosocial predictive analytics, researchers are developing software capabilities to augment human reasoning and cognition. Getting acceptance and buy-in from analysts and decision makers will not be an easy task. In this position paper, we discuss an approach we are taking for user-centered evaluation that we believe will result in adoption of technosocial predictive software by the intelligence community.

Scholtz, Jean C.; Whiting, Mark A.

2009-03-23

62

User-Centered Evaluation of Technosocial Predictive Analytic Systems  

SciTech Connect

In today’s technology filled world, it is absolutely essential to show the utility of new software, especially software that brings entirely new capabilities to potential users. In the case of technosocial predictive analytics, researchers are developing software capabilities to augment human reasoning and cognition. Getting acceptance and buy-in from analysts and decision makers will not be an easy task. In this position paper, we discuss an approach we are taking for user-centered evaluation that we believe will result in facilitating the adoption of technosocial predictive software by the intelligence community.

Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

2009-03-23

63

User-Centered Design Proposals for Prototyping Haptic User Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of applications for haptic user interfaces is wide, but although haptics offer unique qualities to user interfaces,\\u000a the rate of adoption and implementation of haptics in commercialized products is relatively low. The challenges of building\\u000a low-cost flexible prototypes with haptics in the early stages of product development are believed to be a contributing factor\\u000a to this. This paper

Hans V. Bjelland; Kristian Tangeland

2007-01-01

64

Medical device design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current design process is a combination of methods from engineering disciplines, government regulatory agencies (domestic and international) and independent certification and compliance companies. The goal of the processes that have been developed is to be certain that a new product meets the users expectations, is safe and effective in providing its claimed benefits. As products have become more complex

Byron L. Gilman; James E. Brewer; Mark W. Kroll

2009-01-01

65

User-Centered Indexing for Adaptive Information Access  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are focusing on information access tasks characterized by large volume of hypermedia connected technical documents, a need for rapid and effective access to familiar information, and long-term interaction with evolving information. The problem for technical users is to build and maintain a personalized task-oriented model of the information to quickly access relevant information. We propose a solution which provides user-centered adaptive information retrieval and navigation. This solution supports users in customizing information access over time. It is complementary to information discovery methods which provide access to new information, since it lets users customize future access to previously found information. It relies on a technique, called Adaptive Relevance Network, which creates and maintains a complex indexing structure to represent personal user's information access maps organized by concepts. This technique is integrated within the Adaptive HyperMan system, which helps NASA Space Shuttle flight controllers organize and access large amount of information. It allows users to select and mark any part of a document as interesting, and to index that part with user-defined concepts. Users can then do subsequent retrieval of marked portions of documents. This functionality allows users to define and access personal collections of information, which are dynamically computed. The system also supports collaborative review by letting users share group access maps. The adaptive relevance network provides long-term adaptation based both on usage and on explicit user input. The indexing structure is dynamic and evolves over time. Leading and generalization support flexible retrieval of information under similar concepts. The network is geared towards more recent information access, and automatically manages its size in order to maintain rapid access when scaling up to large hypermedia space. We present results of simulated learning experiments.

Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie

1996-01-01

66

Effects of organizational scheme and labeling on task performance in product-centered and user-centered retail Web sites.  

PubMed

As companies increase the quantity of information they provide through their Web sites, it is critical that content is structured with an appropriate architecture. However, resource constraints often limit the ability of companies to apply all Web design principles completely. This study quantifies the effects of two major information architecture principles in a controlled study that isolates the incremental effects of organizational scheme and labeling on user performance and satisfaction. Sixty participants with a wide range of Internet and on-line shopping experience were recruited to complete a series of shopping tasks on a prototype retail shopping Web site. User-centered labels provided a significant benefit in performance and satisfaction over labels obtained through company-centered methods. User-centered organization did not result in improved performance except when the label quality was poor. Significant interactions suggest specific guidelines for allocating resources in Web site design. Applications of this research include the design of Web sites for any commercial application, particularly E-commerce. PMID:15151158

Resnick, Marc L; Sanchez, Julian

2004-01-01

67

A Process for Design Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Design Engineering Technical Committee has developed a draft Design Engineering Process with the participation of the technical community. This paper reviews similar engineering activities, lays out common terms for the life cycle and proposes a Design Engineering Process.

Briggs, Clark

2004-01-01

68

DESIGNING PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Designing for the environment requires consideration of environmental impacts. The Generalized WAR Algorithm is the methodology that allows the user to evaluate the potential environmental impact of the design of a chemical process. In this methodology, chemicals are assigned val...

69

Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

2012-01-01

70

Reengineering the Project Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to NASA's goal of working faster, better and cheaper, JPL has developed extensive plans to minimize cost, maximize customer and employee satisfaction, and implement small- and moderate-size missions. These plans include improved management structures and processes, enhanced technical design processes, the incorporation of new technology, and the development of more economical space- and ground-system designs. The Laboratory's new Flight Projects Implementation Office has been chartered to oversee these innovations and the reengineering of JPL's project design process, including establishment of the Project Design Center and the Flight System Testbed. Reengineering at JPL implies a cultural change whereby the character of its design process will change from sequential to concurrent and from hierarchical to parallel. The Project Design Center will support missions offering high science return, design to cost, demonstrations of new technology, and rapid development. Its computer-supported environment will foster high-fidelity project life-cycle development and cost estimating.

Casani, E.; Metzger, R.

1994-01-01

71

Advancing User-Centered Evaluation of Visual Analytic Environments through Contests  

E-print Network

) that make visual analysis more effective than manual #12;analysis. The ground truth inserted into the VASTAdvancing User-Centered Evaluation of Visual Analytic Environments through Contests Loura Costello the authors describe the Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST) Symposium contests run in 2006

Golbeck, Jennifer

72

User-centered Social Information Retrieval Model Exploiting Annotations and Social  

E-print Network

User-centered Social Information Retrieval Model Exploiting Annotations and Social Relationships.Bouhini,Mathias.Gery,Christine.Largeron}@univ-st-etienne.fr Abstract. Social Information Retrieval (SIR) has extended the classical information retrieval models retrieval, since different users may express different information needs as the same query. Hence, we

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

Optimization process in helicopter design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In optimizing a helicopter configuration, Hughes Helicopters uses a program called Computer Aided Sizing of Helicopters (CASH), written and updated over the past ten years, and used as an important part of the preliminary design process of the AH-64. First, measures of effectiveness must be supplied to define the mission characteristics of the helicopter to be designed. Then CASH allows the designer to rapidly and automatically develop the basic size of the helicopter (or other rotorcraft) for the given mission. This enables the designer and management to assess the various tradeoffs and to quickly determine the optimum configuration.

Logan, A. H.; Banerjee, D.

1984-01-01

74

Promoting Teacher Adoption of GIS Using Teacher-Centered and Teacher-Friendly Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a case study that employed user-centered design to develop training tutorials for helping middle school social studies teachers use Web-based GIS in their classrooms. This study placed teachers in the center of the design process in planning, designing, and developing the tutorials. This article describes how…

Hong, Jung Eun

2014-01-01

75

Hydroforming design and process advisor  

SciTech Connect

The hydroforming process involves hydraulically forming components by conforming them to the inner contours of a die. These contours can be complex and can often cause the material being formed to be stressed to rupture. Considerable process knowledge and materials modeling expertise is required to design hydroform dies and hydroformed parts that are readily formed without being overly stressed. For this CRADA, materials properties for steel tubes subjected to hydraulic stresses were collected; algorithms were developed which combined the materials properties data with process knowledge; and a user friendly graphical interface was utilized to make the system usable by a design engineer. A prototype hydroforming advisor was completed and delivered to GM. The technical objectives of the CRADA were met allowing for the development of an intelligent design systems, prediction of forming properties related to hydroforming, simulation and modeling of process execution, and design optimization. The design advisor allows a rapid and seamless approach to integration an otherwise enormous and onerous task of analysis and evaluation.

Greer, J.T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ni, C.M. [General Motors Corp., Warren, MI (United States). GM Technical Center

1996-10-10

76

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The design of a chemical process involves many aspects: from profitability, flexibility and reliability to safety to the environment. While each of these is important, in this work, the focus will be on profitability and the environment. Key to the study of these aspects is the ...

77

Leveraging Site Search and Analytics to Maintain a User-Centered Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Web design is a necessarily iterative process. During the process, it can be difficult to balance the interests and focus of the library site experts and their novice users. It can also be easy to lose focus on the main goals of site use and become wrapped up in the process of design or coding or in the internal politics of site design. Just as…

Mitchell, Erik

2011-01-01

78

Informing Geospatial Toolset Design: Understanding the Process of Cancer Data Exploration and Analysis  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing need for new methods and tools that support knowledge construction from complex geospatial datasets related to public health. This study is part of a larger effort to develop, implement, and test such methods and tools. To be successful, the design of methods and tools must be grounded in a solid understanding of the work practices within the domain of use; the research reported here focuses on developing that understanding. We adopted a user-centered approach to toolset design where we investigated the work of cancer researchers and used the results of that investigation as inputs into the development of design guidelines for new geovisualization and spatial analysis tools. Specifically, we conducted key informant interviews focused on use, or potential use, of geographic information, methods, and tools and complemented this with a systematic analysis of published, peer-reviewed articles on geospatial cancer research. Results were used to characterize the typical process of analysis, to identify fundamental differences between intensive users of geospatial methods and infrequent users, and to outline key stages in analysis and tasks within the stages that methods and tools must support. Our findings inform design and implementation decisions for visual and analytic tools that support cancer prevention and control research and they provide insight into the processes used by cancer researchers for addressing the challenges of geographic factors in public health research and policy. PMID:18060824

Bhowmick, Tanuka; Griffin, Amy L.; MacEachren, Alan M.; Kluhsman, Brenda C.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

2008-01-01

79

The twilight envelope: a user-centered approach to describing roadway illumination at night.  

PubMed

Visual recognition functions, such as acuity and contrast sensitivity, deteriorate rapidly over the declining luminances found during civil twilight. Thus civil twilight, a critical part of the transition between daylight and darkness, represents lighting conditions that may be useful to describe artificial illumination. Automotive headlamps project a three-dimensional beam that ranges from illumination levels comparable to daylight at the vehicle to the dark limit of civil twilight (3.3 1x) at some distance ahead. This twilight envelope is characterized as a distance beyond which foveal visual functions are severely impaired, and thus it provides a general, functional description of the useful extent of the headlamp beam. This user-centered approach to describing illumination is useful for characterizing visibility when driving at night or in other artificially lit environments. This paper discusses the twilight envelope approach and its application to intervehicle variations in headlamp systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include user-centered description of artificial illumination and driver/pedestrian safety education. PMID:12002010

Andre, J; Owens, D A

2001-01-01

80

Research opportunities and facilities at ORNL`s residual stress user center  

SciTech Connect

The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program at ORNL was established to help solve high-temperature materials problems that limit the efficiency and reliability of advanced energy-conversion systems. Both proprietary and nonproprietary research can be conducted within the user program. The facilities are open to researchers in US industry, universities, and federal laboratories. The Residual Stress User Center (RSUC), one of the six HTML user centers, was recently established and consists of two high precision x-ray diffraction systems for measurement of residual strain and texture. Both biaxial and triaxial residual strain data can be collected. Attachments to the diffraction system include a position sensitive detector and a laser specimen positioning system. The RSUC has capabilities for electropolishing and strain measurement with strain gauges. A complementary neutron diffraction facility has recently been developed and demonstrated at the High Flux Isotope Reactor at ORNL. The neutron diffraction facility enables mapping of macro residual stresses throughout the volume of a component, complementing the near surface stress measurements available by x-ray diffraction. The neutron facility has been proposed as an addition to the RSUC.

Hubbard, C.R.; Watkins, T.R.; Kozaczek, K.; Wang, X.-L.; Spooner, S.

1994-09-01

81

The design process: properties, paradigms, and structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the logic and methodology of engineering design from the perspective of the philosophy of science. The fundamental characteristics of design problems and design processes are discussed and analyzed. These characteristics establish the framework within which different design paradigms are examined. Following the discussions on descriptive properties of design, and the prescriptive role of design paradigms,

Dan Braha; Oded Maimon

1997-01-01

82

Material and processes selection in conceptual design  

E-print Network

Materials and manufacturing processes are an integral part of the design of a product. The need to combine materials and manufacturing processes selection during the early stages of the design has previously been realized. The work that generally...

Krishnakumar, Karthikeyan

2005-02-17

83

User Centered System Design. Part II: Collected Papers from the UCSD HMI Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a collection of 11 recent papers by the Human-Machine Interaction Group at the University of California, San Diego. The following papers are included: (1) "Stages and Levels in Human-Machine Interaction," Donald A. Norman; (2) "The Nature of Expertise in UNIX," Stephen W. Draper; (3) "Users in the Real World," David Owen; (4)…

California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla. Inst. for Cognitive Science.

84

The Importance of User-Centered Design: Exploring Findings and Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the rising number of information resources available, it is increasingly important for digital libraries and archives to create usable services that meet their users' needs. Seeking input from users at all stages of development can help achieve this goal. This article briefly defines four methodologies for gathering user input: focus groups,…

Lack, Rosalie

2006-01-01

85

SESSION SUMMARY Human Aspects of Process Design  

E-print Network

dominated processes and keep institutional knowledge or improve and innovate processes? Other basic be and to what extent can or should it be usable? · How do you evaluate a process design? · Is there a difference#12;SESSION SUMMARY Human Aspects of Process Design Dewayne E. Perry 1. Session Introduction Tetsuo

Perry, Dewayne E.

86

Managing Analysis Models in the Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of large, complex space systems depends on significant model-based support for exploration of the design space. Integrated models predict system performance in mission-relevant terms given design descriptions and multiple physics-based numerical models. Both the design activities and the modeling activities warrant explicit process definitions and active process management to protect the project from excessive risk. Software and systems engineering processes have been formalized and similar formal process activities are under development for design engineering and integrated modeling. JPL is establishing a modeling process to define development and application of such system-level models.

Briggs, Clark

2006-01-01

87

Optimal design of solidification processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal design algorithm is presented for the analysis of general solidification processes, and is demonstrated for the growth of GaAs crystals in a Bridgman furnace. The system is optimal in the sense that the prespecified temperature distribution in the solidifying materials is obtained to maximize product quality. The optimization uses traditional numerical programming techniques which require the evaluation of cost and constraint functions and their sensitivities. The finite element method is incorporated to analyze the crystal solidification problem, evaluate the cost and constraint functions, and compute the sensitivities. These techniques are demonstrated in the crystal growth application by determining an optimal furnace wall temperature distribution to obtain the desired temperature profile in the crystal, and hence to maximize the crystal's quality. Several numerical optimization algorithms are studied to determine the proper convergence criteria, effective 1-D search strategies, appropriate forms of the cost and constraint functions, etc. In particular, we incorporate the conjugate gradient and quasi-Newton methods for unconstrained problems. The efficiency and effectiveness of each algorithm is presented in the example problem.

Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.

1991-01-01

88

Design Expert's Participation in Elementary Students' Collaborative Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of the present study was to provide insights into how disciplinary expertise might be infused into Design and Technology classrooms and how authentic processes based on professional design practices might be constructed. We describe elementary students' collaborative lamp designing process, where the leadership was provided by a…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

89

Enhancing Learning Management Systems Utility for Blind Students: A Task-Oriented, User-Centered, Multi-Method Evaluation Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a novel task-oriented, user-centered, multi-method evaluation (TUME) technique and shows how it is useful in providing a more complete, practical and solution-oriented assessment of the accessibility and usability of Learning Management Systems (LMS) for blind and visually impaired (BVI) students. Novel components of TUME…

Babu, Rakesh; Singh, Rahul

2013-01-01

90

Instructional Design Processes and Traditional Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional colleges who have implemented distance education programs would benefit from using instructional design processes to develop their courses. Instructional design processes provide the framework for designing and delivering quality online learning programs in a highly-competitive educational market. Traditional college leaders play a…

Vasser, Nichole

2010-01-01

91

Reengineering the JPL Spacecraft Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation describes the factors that have emerged in the evolved process of reengineering the unmanned spacecraft design process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Topics discussed include: New facilities, new design factors, new system-level tools, complex performance objectives, changing behaviors, design integration, leadership styles, and optimization.

Briggs, C.

1995-01-01

92

Graphic Design in Libraries: A Conceptual Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing successful library services requires efficient and effective communication with users; therefore, it is important that content creators who develop visual materials understand key components of design and, specifically, develop a holistic graphic design process. Graphic design, as a form of visual communication, is the process of…

Ruiz, Miguel

2014-01-01

93

A User-Centered Approach to Adaptive Hypertext Based on an Information Relevance Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.

Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James

1994-01-01

94

The Architectural and Interior Design Planning Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the planning process in designing effective library facilities and discusses library building requirements that result from electronic information technologies. Highlights include historical structures; Americans with Disabilities Act; resource allocation; electrical power; interior spaces; lighting; design development; the roles of…

Cohen, Elaine

1994-01-01

95

Digital fabrication in the architectural design process  

E-print Network

Digital fabrication is affecting the architectural design process due to the increasingly important role it has in the fabrication of architectural models. Many design professionals, professors, and students have experienced ...

Seely, Jennifer C. K., 1975-

2004-01-01

96

Process Considerations in Surface Condenser Design  

E-print Network

Condenser Design engineers and process engineers need to work closely together if efficient designs are to be made. This paper examines the importance of such interactions and outlines how it can be achieved....

Polley, G. T.; Terranova, A.; Capel, A. C. P.

97

An analysis of architectural design process  

E-print Network

approach through trial and error (Thomley 5). The Naturalistic Approach suggested by Dr. Robin Abrams in an article entitled Efficacy of Naturalistic Inquiry is a research methodology for design. This methodology is one process that resembles... critics do not critique the architect's methods of design. They critique the product. Therefore, there are innumerable ways in which architects design. In fact, most every architect has his or her own style of design process. For example, Antoine...

Leveridge, Yolanda Kay

2013-02-22

98

Exploring chaos to model the design process  

E-print Network

to a. chaotic svstem mav drive it to neu attractors. Any neiv information introduced to the design proi. ess mav lead to different solutions. CHAPTER II THE FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES OF DESIGN As ivas stated in the introduction, the first objective... of this researcll v" as i i identify some of the funclamental activities of the design process. In order to acconiphsh tins task. the follniving approach v;as taken. i. 'The hterature ivas surveyed for descriptive models of the design process. klorlcls tliat...

Sharkawy, Ahmed

2012-06-07

99

Reinventing The Design Process: Teams and Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The future of space mission designing will be dramatically different from the past. Formerly, performance-driven paradigms emphasized data return with cost and schedule being secondary issues. Now and in the future, costs are capped and schedules fixed-these two variables must be treated as independent in the design process. Accordingly, JPL has redesigned its design process. At the conceptual level, design times have been reduced by properly defining the required design depth, improving the linkages between tools, and managing team dynamics. In implementation-phase design, system requirements will be held in crosscutting models, linked to subsystem design tools through a central database that captures the design and supplies needed configuration management and control. Mission goals will then be captured in timelining software that drives the models, testing their capability to execute the goals. Metrics are used to measure and control both processes and to ensure that design parameters converge through the design process within schedule constraints. This methodology manages margins controlled by acceptable risk levels. Thus, teams can evolve risk tolerance (and cost) as they would any engineering parameter. This new approach allows more design freedom for a longer time, which tends to encourage revolutionary and unexpected improvements in design.

Wall, Stephen D.

1999-01-01

100

Process Design Manual for Nitrogen Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents theoretical and process design criteria for the implementation of nitrogen control technology in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Design concepts are emphasized through examination of data from full-scale and pilot installations. Design data are included on biological nitrification and denitrification, breakpoint…

Parker, Denny S.; And Others

101

An Integrated Course and Design Project in Chemical Process Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a chemical engineering course curriculum on process design, analysis, and simulation. Includes information regarding the sequencing of engineering design classes and the location of the classes within the degree program at New Mexico State University. Details of course content are provided. (DDR)

Rockstraw, David A.; And Others

1997-01-01

102

Environmental Review and the Design Build Process  

E-print Network

Environmental Review and the Design Build Process MnDOT Stewardship Conference to have an environmental team as part of the project · Required to develop an environmental management plan and provide training to workers · Required to host open

Minnesota, University of

103

Numerical simulations supporting the process design of ring rolling processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of radial-axial ring rolling (RAR) the motions of all tools are usually defined prior to simulation in the preprocessing step. However, the real process holds up to 8 degrees of freedom (DOF) that are controlled by industrial control systems according to actual sensor values and preselected control strategies. Since the histories of the motions are unknown before the experiment and are dependent on sensor data, the conventional FEA cannot represent the process before experiment. In order to enable the usage of FEA in the process design stage, this approach integrates the industrially applied control algorithms of the real process including all relevant sensors and actuators into the FE model of ring rolling. Additionally, the process design of a novel process 'the axial profiling', in which a profiled roll is used for rolling axially profiled rings, is supported by FEA. Using this approach suitable control strategies can be tested in virtual environment before processing.

Jenkouk, V.; Hirt, G.; Seitz, J.

2013-05-01

104

A filtering process for substation design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the concept of filtering as a tool for substation design is introduced and integrated into the knowledge-based system already existing for this purpose. The filtering process is based on rules, both heuristic and self-evident, which have been formulated to reflect the requisites and constraints that define the design environment. These rules search the database of substation components

D. Atanackovic; M. Toussaint; D. McGillis; F. D. Galiana

1999-01-01

105

The Engineering Process in Construction & Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that high-impact activities in science and math classes promote positive attitudinal shifts in students. By implementing high-impact activities, such as designing a school and a skate park, mathematical thinking can be linked to the engineering design process. This hands-on approach, when possible, to demonstrate or…

Stoner, Melissa A.; Stuby, Kristin T.; Szczepanski, Susan

2013-01-01

106

HYNOL PROCESS ENGINEERING: PROCESS CONFIGURATION, SITE PLAN, AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the design of the hydropyrolysis reactor system of the Hynol process. (NOTE: A bench scale methanol production facility is being constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing methanol from biomass using the Hynol process. The plant is bein...

107

CONTROL STRUCTURE DESIGN IN PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

CONTROL STRUCTURE DESIGN IN PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS Karl Henrik Johansson Department of EECS of Automatic Control Lund University, Sweden tore@control.lth.se Abstract: The control configuration problem industrial control problems. Copyright c 2000 IFAC 1. INTRODUCTION Autonomy in process control systems

Johansson, Karl Henrik

108

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01

109

Ionic Liquids and Relative Process Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic liquids have gained increasing attention in recent years due to their significant advantages, not only as alternative solvents but also as new materials and catalysts. Until now, most research work on ionic liquids has been at the laboratory or pilot scale. In view of the multifarious applications of ionic liquids, more new knowledge is needed and more systematic work on ionic liquids should be carried out deeply and broadly in order to meet the future needs of process design. For example, knowledge of the physicochemical properties is indispensable for the design of new ionic liquids and for the development of novel processes. The synthesis and application of ionic liquids are fundamental parts of engineering science, and the toxicity and environmental assessment of ionic liquids is critical importance for their large scale applications, especially for process design. These research aspects are closely correlated to the industrial applications of ionic liquids and to sustainable processes. However, material process design in the industrial applications of ionic liquids has hardly been implemented. Therefore, this chapter reviews several essential issues that are closely related to process design, such as the synthesis, structure-property relationships, important applications, and toxicity of ionic liquids.

Zhang, S.; Lu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, Q.; Sun, J.; Han, L.; Yue, G.; Liu, X.; Cheng, W.; Li, S.

110

Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP) is a collection of software tools that allow the efficient aerodynamic design and analysis of planar (two-dimensional and axisymmetric) inlets. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. A major element in PINDAP is a Fortran 90 code named PINDAP that can establish the parametric design of the inlet and efficiently model the geometry and generate the grid for CFD analysis with design changes to those parameters. The use of PINDAP is demonstrated for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic inlets.

Slater, John W.; Gruber, Christopher R.

2005-01-01

111

Design of penicillin fermentation process simulation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time monitoring for batch process attracts increasing attention. It can ensure safety and provide products with consistent quality. The design of simulation system of batch process fault diagnosis is of great significance. In this paper, penicillin fermentation, a typical non-linear, dynamic, multi-stage batch production process, is taken as the research object. A visual human-machine interactive simulation software system based on Windows operation system is developed. The simulation system can provide an effective platform for the research of batch process fault diagnosis.

Qi, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Zhonghu; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Wenqi

2011-10-01

112

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

113

A design process of switched Ethernet architectures  

E-print Network

A design process of switched Ethernet architectures according to real-time application constraints Vandoeuvre l`es Nancy, Cedex, France Abstract Ethernet networks are based on a medium access method which simulator. Key words: real-time communications, Ethernet, Genetic Algorithms 1 Introduction The industrial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

2015-01-01

115

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Consistent Inventory Control  

E-print Network

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Consistent Inventory Control Elvira Marie B. Aske and Sigurd Skogestad inventory control systems. Consistency means that the steady-state mass balances (total, component control. An engineer with some experience can usually immediately say if a proposed inventory control

Skogestad, Sigurd

116

Interface design in the process industries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every operator runs his plant in accord with his own mental model of the process. In this sense, one characteristic of an ideal man-machine interface is that it be in harmony with that model. With this theme in mind, the paper first reviews the functions of the process operator and compares them with human operators involved in control situations previously studied outside the industrial environment (pilots, air traffic controllers, helmsmen, etc.). A brief history of the operator interface in the process industry and the traditional methodology employed in its design is then presented. Finally, a much more fundamental approach utilizing a model definition of the human operator's behavior is presented.

Beaverstock, M. C.; Stassen, H. G.; Williamson, R. A.

1977-01-01

117

User centered and ontology based information retrieval system for life sciences  

PubMed Central

Background Because of the increasing number of electronic resources, designing efficient tools to retrieve and exploit them is a major challenge. Some improvements have been offered by semantic Web technologies and applications based on domain ontologies. In life science, for instance, the Gene Ontology is widely exploited in genomic applications and the Medical Subject Headings is the basis of biomedical publications indexation and information retrieval process proposed by PubMed. However current search engines suffer from two main drawbacks: there is limited user interaction with the list of retrieved resources and no explanation for their adequacy to the query is provided. Users may thus be confused by the selection and have no idea on how to adapt their queries so that the results match their expectations. Results This paper describes an information retrieval system that relies on domain ontology to widen the set of relevant documents that is retrieved and that uses a graphical rendering of query results to favor user interactions. Semantic proximities between ontology concepts and aggregating models are used to assess documents adequacy with respect to a query. The selection of documents is displayed in a semantic map to provide graphical indications that make explicit to what extent they match the user's query; this man/machine interface favors a more interactive and iterative exploration of data corpus, by facilitating query concepts weighting and visual explanation. We illustrate the benefit of using this information retrieval system on two case studies one of which aiming at collecting human genes related to transcription factors involved in hemopoiesis pathway. Conclusions The ontology based information retrieval system described in this paper (OBIRS) is freely available at: http://www.ontotoolkit.mines-ales.fr/ObirsClient/. This environment is a first step towards a user centred application in which the system enlightens relevant information to provide decision help. PMID:22373375

2012-01-01

118

Design and Problem Solving: The Engineering Design Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineering is everywhere in life. Without even knowing it, we encounter ideas, design and solutions created by engineers on a day-to-day basis. This website, created by Engineering Technology Pathways, "examines how engineers create the solutions used by mankind." Larger issues such as how product development, innovation, and invention can either positively or negatively influence society are addressed. Students will be asked to replicate the design process in a hands-on activity. The process will incorporate ideas such as data collection, problem solving, creation of a model or prototype, and finally, the refinement of these ideas. Overall, this is a great activity because it first provides good background information on the topic and then asks student to directly apply what they learned in a theoretical fashion.

Heitkamp, Greg

2010-10-07

119

Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems  

E-print Network

DESIGN OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESS REfRIGERATION SYSTEMS W.O. WITHERELL AOVENTg Technolog1st Un10n Carb1de Corporat1on South Charleston, West V1rg~n1a ABSTRACT ~hen considering electric driven refrigeration compressors, proper integration... with the process may result in reduced power consl.lllltion. However, the total uti I itV situation must be cons idered when eva Iuat i ng the cOl1llressor dr i ver . Conyers ion frOOl steam drivers to electric drivers may be IOClre econOOlical when cons ider i...

Witherell, W. D.

120

Mimicry of natural material designs and processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological structural materials, although composed of unremarkable substances synthesized at low temperatures, often exhibit superior mechanical properties. In particular, the quality in which nearly all biologically derived materials excel is toughness. The advantageous mechanical properties are attributable to the hierarchical, composite, structural arrangements common to biological systems. Materials scientists and engineers have increasingly recognized that biological designs or processing approaches applied to man-made materials (biomimesis) may offer improvements in performance over conventional designs and fabrication methods. In this survey, the structures and processing routes of marine shells, avian eggshells, wood, bone, and insect cuticle are briefly reviewed, and biomimesis research inspired by these materials is discussed. In addition, this paper describes and summarizes the applications of biomineralization, self-assembly, and templating with proteins to the fabrication of thin ceramic films and nanostructure devices.

Bond, G. M.; Richman, R. H.; McNaughton, W. P.

1995-06-01

121

Conceptual design of carbon nanotube processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotubes, discovered in 1991, are a new form of pure carbon that is perfectly straight tubules with diameter in nanometers,\\u000a length in microns. The conceptual designs of two processes are described for the industrial-scale production of carbon nanotubes\\u000a that are based on available laboratory synthesis techniques and purification methods. Two laboratory-scale catalytic chemical\\u000a vapor deposition reactors were selected for

Adedeji E. Agboola; Ralph W. Pike; T. A. Hertwig; Helen H. Lou

2007-01-01

122

Computer-aided software development process design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

1989-01-01

123

Software design for panoramic astronomical pipeline processing  

E-print Network

We describe the software requirement and design specifications for all-sky panoramic astronomical pipelines. The described software aims to meet the specific needs of super-wide angle optics, and includes cosmic-ray hit rejection, image compression, star recognition, sky opacity analysis, transient detection and a web server allowing access to real-time and archived data. The presented software is being regularly used for the pipeline processing of 11 all-sky cameras located in some of the world's premier observatories. We encourage all-sky camera operators to use our software and/or our hosting services and become part of the global Night Sky Live network.

Lior Shamir; Robert J. Nemiroff; David O. Torrey; Wellesley E. Pereira

2005-11-23

124

Instructional Design as Design Problem Solving: An Iterative Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design, including instructional design, is one of most complex and ill-structured kinds of problem solving. Historically, instructional design has been conceptualized as a linear set of phases (e.g., analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation) that a designer progresses through. Silber (2007) has provided an alternative perspective…

Jonassen, David H.,

2008-01-01

125

Creative cognition in design: processes of exceptional designers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three case studies of creative design in engineering and product design are reported. The studies are of exceptional designers and comprise two retrospective interview studies and one protocol study. In each case, an example of the designer's approach to a particular design problem is presented. Comparisons between the three examples are drawn, and there appear to be some striking similarities,

Nigel Cross

2002-01-01

126

A Transparent Way for Process Guidance in Satellite Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a satellite design process and its implementation within a process guidance tool (Process Steering Tool - ProST) for the work within a design center environment (Satellite Design Office - SDO). Process and tool have been developed at the Institute of Astronautics (LRT) of the Technische Universität München in cooperation with EADS Astrium Ottobrunn within

Stephan Finkel; Michael Burazanis

127

Design process excludes users: the co-creation activities between user and designer  

Microsoft Academic Search

User needs are a fundamental element of design. If the design process does not properly reflect user needs, the design will be severely compromised. Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate how the user is, and user needs are, understood in the design process. In this article, three accepted linear process models for web site and interactive media design are reviewed

Ji Yong Park

2012-01-01

128

A Multi-touch Approach to Control MRI Scans: A User-Centered Study Report Tulio de Souza Alcantara, Pierre Bastianelli, Jennifer Ferreira, Frank Maurer  

E-print Network

A Multi-touch Approach to Control MRI Scans: A User-Centered Study Report Tulio de Souza Alcantara on a study investigating the usability challenges faced by users of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) tools. In order to understand these problems, observation, shadowing and interviews were conducted with MRI scan

Maurer, Frank

129

Parametric Design within an Atomic Design Process (ADP) applied to Spacecraft Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes research investigating the development of a model for the initial design of complex systems, with application to spacecraft design. The design model is called an atomic design process (ADP) and contains four fundamental stages (specifications, configurations, trade studies and drivers) that constitute the minimum steps of an iterative process that helps designers find a feasible solution. Representative design models from the aerospace industry are reviewed and are compared with the proposed model. The design model's relevance, adaptability and scalability features are evaluated through a focused design task exercise with two undergraduate teams and a long-term design exercise performed by a spacecraft payload team. The implementation of the design model is explained in the context in which the model has been researched. This context includes the organization (a student-run research laboratory at the University of Michigan), its culture (academically oriented), members that have used the design model and the description of the information technology elements meant to provide support while using the model. This support includes a custom-built information management system that consolidates relevant information that is currently being used in the organization. The information is divided in three domains: personnel development history, technical knowledge base and laboratory operations. The focused study with teams making use of the design model to complete an engineering design exercise consists of the conceptual design of an autonomous system, including a carrier and a deployable lander that form the payload of a rocket with an altitude range of over 1000 meters. Detailed results from each of the stages of the design process while implementing the model are presented, and an increase in awareness of good design practices in the teams while using the model are explained. A long-term investigation using the design model consisting of the successful characterization of an imaging system for a spacecraft is presented. The spacecraft is designed to take digital color images from low Earth orbit. The dominant drivers from each stage of the design process are indicated as they were identified, with the accompanying hardware development leading to the final configuration that comprises the flight spacecraft.

Ramos Alarcon, Rafael

130

The social complexities of user-centered design in ICTD: Experiences from four schools in India's villages and slums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of education remain a barrier to economic empowerment in the developing world. In our work on English language learning among underserved communities in India since 2004, we have observed differences between school communities in terms of their access to educational opportunities outside school, access to ICTs including cellphones and digital gaming, enthusiasm for visitors, and the relationships between

Matthew Kam; Siddharth Bhagwani; Anuj Kumar; Siddhartha Lal; Akhil Mathur; Anuj Tewari; John Canny

2007-01-01

131

Artificial intelligence in aesthetic and ergonomic product design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the process of defining suitable design solutions, the designer has to consider a wide-range of influential factors. Aesthetics and ergonomics certainly belong to the more complex ones. Less experienced designers could meet encounter several problems during this design stage. Although some literature can be found about industrial aesthetics and the aesthetic design of consumer goods, the designer still has

Jasmin Kaljun; Bojan Dolsak

2011-01-01

132

Design of Nanomaterial Synthesis by Aerosol Processes  

PubMed Central

Aerosol synthesis of materials is a vibrant field of particle technology and chemical reaction engineering. Examples include the manufacture of carbon blacks, fumed SiO2, pigmentary TiO2, ZnO vulcanizing catalysts, filamentary Ni, and optical fibers, materials that impact transportation, construction, pharmaceuticals, energy, and communications. Parallel to this, development of novel, scalable aerosol processes has enabled synthesis of new functional nanomaterials (e.g., catalysts, biomaterials, electroceramics) and devices (e.g., gas sensors). This review provides an access point for engineers to the multiscale design of aerosol reactors for the synthesis of nanomaterials using continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics models spanning 10 and 15 orders of magnitude in length and time, respectively. Key design features are the rapid chemistry; the high particle concentrations but low volume fractions; the attainment of a self-preserving particle size distribution by coagulation; the ratio of the characteristic times of coagulation and sintering, which controls the extent of particle aggregation; and the narrowing of the aggregate primary particle size distribution by sintering. PMID:22468598

Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

2013-01-01

133

Integrating Safety Issues in Optimizing Solvent Selection and Process Design  

E-print Network

Incorporating consideration for safety issues while designing solvent processes has become crucial in light of the chemical process incidents involving solvents that have taken place in recent years. The implementation of inherently safer design...

Patel, Suhani Jitendra

2011-10-21

134

Integrated Design of Chemical Processes and Utility Systems  

E-print Network

The pinch concept for integrated heat recovery networks has recently become established in chemical process design. This paper presents an overview of the concept and shows how it has now been extended to total process design (reactors, separators...

Linnhoff, B.

135

Sandia Extended Network: Overview of the Design Process  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process that will be used to develop and submit for approval designs for the Sandia Extended Network (SXN). The process follows the steps in the Change Management Process used in the Telecommunication Operations Department's quality management system. Those steps are planning, requirements review, detailed design analysis, implementation, verification, and validation. Two companion reports complete a description of the designs to date: ''Sandia Extended Network: Design Requirements and Sandia Extended Network: Conceptual Design Definition.''

GOMEZ, MICHAEL D.

2002-11-01

136

Audio-visual frameworks for design process representation  

E-print Network

The design process is based on a recursive and iterative feedback between a designer's ideas and their physical representation. In most practices, this feedback takes place upon one single medium, which endows the designer ...

Soares, Gonçalo Ducla, 1977-

2004-01-01

137

An Ontological Approach for Supporting the Instructional Design Process  

E-print Network

An Ontological Approach for Supporting the Instructional Design Process of Information Education a teacher designs an instruction plan for information education, it is necessary to include not only of designing the instruction plan. First, we propose a process for instructional design which is adapted

Mizoguchi, Riichiro

138

Re-engineering of the design process for concurrent engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the requirements of concurrent engineering, three interdependency relationships (uncoupled relationship, coupled relationship and decoupled relationship) between design activities are presented in this paper. And the coupled relationship plays an important role in concurrent product design process. To represent the precedence relationships among design activities, a directed graph is used to describe the design process. And the interdependency relationship

Dunbing Tang; Li Zheng; Zhizhong Li; Dongbo Li; Shiqi Zhang

2000-01-01

139

A new method for design cycle period management in aircraft design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present research into reducing the aircraft design cycle period, by reducing the necessary number of design cycle iterations. The design cycle period is one of the main characteristics of the design process and design cycle iterations play a major role in the design cycle period. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To achieve the above-mentioned

B. Soltanmohammad; S. M. Malaek

2008-01-01

140

Journal of Engineering Design, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1999 De ning the Engine Design Process  

E-print Network

Journal of Engineering Design, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1999 De® ning the Engine Design Process JEFFREY C automobile manufacturer to create a simple, ¯ exible process to do just that for their engine design group their engine design process as one for examination and improvement. The activities described herein were

Salustri, Filippo A.

141

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR STRIPPING OF ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Procedures and correlations for designing and costing stripping towers for the removal of organics from aqueous streams are presented. The emphasis is on practical methods suitable for engineering estimates. The designs cover steam strippers with and without condensers and reflux...

142

A Rational Design Process: How and Why to Fake It  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many have sought a software design process that allows a program to be derived systematically from a precise statement of re- quirements. This paper proposes that, although we will not succeed in designing a real product in that'way, we can produce documentation that makes it appear that the software was designed by such a process. We first describe the ideal

David Lorge Parnas; Paul C. Clements

1985-01-01

143

The interaction based innovation process of architectural design service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectural design service is a typical engineering and technical service, which belongs to the knowledge intensive business service. But until now, it has received little attention from both engineers and scholars. Based on the theories of service innovation process, this paper discusses the customer-interaction mechanism of architectural design service tries to analyze the innovation process of architectural design service. We

Jingbo Zhang; Yan Tao

2007-01-01

144

Role of Action Concepts in Creative Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the number of associative concepts is focused on, and action concept associations analyzed, in order to find out the effects of thematic relationships between concepts during the creative design process. To elucidate the mechanism of the thinking process in creative design, a series of experiments were carried out. Design tasks were selected for two different kinds of

Yukari Nagai; Toshiharu Taura

145

In-car machine-human interaction: how the new vehicle technologies which respond to the vehicles needs could match with the user-centered approach and contribute to shape a user-centered design approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is not always possible to derive from statistics the causes of an accident, data clearly show that they are mostly due to a lack of driver's perception, with high social costs for society (direct and not). Therefore, a strong integration among all the actors involved (that is the drivers, the vehicle or technical system in general and the

Fabio Tango; Roberto Montanari

2004-01-01

146

THE THREE R'S OF DRAWING AND DESIGN COMPUTATION a drawing centered view of design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A drawing centered view of design process focuses on the interplay between designer expertise, domain knowledge and media manipulation. We report on computational sketching software systems we have implemented to support recording, reasoning, and resolving in design.

MARK D GROSS; ELLEN YI-LUEN DO

147

Space bioreactor: Design/process flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

Cross, John H.

1987-01-01

148

Engineering Design Process An Interdisciplinary Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 21 st century, modern engineering design is practiced as an interdisciplinary endeavor requi ring individual engineers to work as part of a team that involves a range of specialists. An interdisciplin ary approach to engineering design sensitizes team members (students, faculty and industry partners) to multip le perspectives and discourages them from taking comfort in the singular domain

Maureen MacGillivray; Tanya Domina; Terry Lerch; Patrick Kinnicutt

149

Lunar fiberglass: Properties and process design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Clemson University ceramic engineering design for a lunar fiberglass plant is presented. The properties of glass fibers and metal-matrix composites are examined. Lunar geology is also discussed. A raw material and site are selected based on this information. A detailed plant design is presented, and summer experiments to be carried out at Johnson Space Center are reviewed.

Dalton, Robert; Nichols, Todd

1987-01-01

150

Computer Applications in the Design Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer Assisted Design (CAD) and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM) are emerging technologies now being used in home economics and interior design applications. A microcomputer in a computer network system is capable of executing computer graphic functions such as three-dimensional modeling, as well as utilizing office automation packages to…

Winchip, Susan

151

Instructional Design and Directed Cognitive Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that the information processing model provides a promising basis on which to build a comprehensive theory of instruction. Characteristics of the major information processing constructs are outlined including attention, encoding and rehearsal, working memory, long term memory, retrieval, and metacognitive processes, and a unifying…

Bovy, Ruth Colvin

152

Design Classification and Hybrid Variant-Generative Process Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a new hybrid process planning approach that uses a generative procedure to select processes and a variant fixture planning procedure to complete the process plan. This paper describes components of this approach and related work on indexing mechanical designs and estimating manufacturing cycle time during product design. Specifically, we have created data structures that represent features and

Dana S. Nau; Jeffrey W. Herrmann

153

Work Structuring to Achieve Integrated ProductProcess Design  

E-print Network

Work Structuring to Achieve Integrated Product­Process Design Cynthia C. Y. Tsao, A.M.ASCE1 ; Iris presents "work structuring," a term used to describe the effort of integrating product and process design throughout the project development process. To illustrate current work structuring practice, we describe

Tommelein, Iris D.

154

INTEGRATION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND PROCESS INTENSIFICATION IN THE DESIGN OF PROCESSES FOR UTILIZING BIOBASED GLYCEROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The expected results include an integrated process and mechanical design including a fabrication plan for the glycerol dehydration reactor, comprehensive heat and material balance, environmental impact assessment and comprehensive safety review. The resulting process design w...

155

Integrating Thermal Tools Into the Mechanical Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent of mechanical design is to deliver a hardware product that meets or exceeds customer expectations, while reducing cycle time and cost. To this end, an integrated mechanical design process enables the idea of parallel development (concurrent engineering). This represents a shift from the traditional mechanical design process. With such a concurrent process, there are significant issues that have to be identified and addressed before re-engineering the mechanical design process to facilitate concurrent engineering. These issues also assist in the integration and re-engineering of the thermal design sub-process since it resides within the entire mechanical design process. With these issues in mind, a thermal design sub-process can be re-defined in a manner that has a higher probability of acceptance, thus enabling an integrated mechanical design process. However, the actual implementation is not always problem-free. Experience in applying the thermal design sub-process to actual situations provides the evidence for improvement, but more importantly, for judging the viability and feasibility of the sub-process.

Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Siebes, Georg; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.

1999-01-01

156

A genetic algorithm for use in creative design processes 1 A Genetic Algorithm for use in Creative Design Processes  

E-print Network

A genetic algorithm for use in creative design processes 1 A Genetic Algorithm for use in Creative with natural growth mechanisms applied to architectural design processes. We implement a genetic algorithm.1 Integral evolutionary design There are numerous examples of evolutionary algorithms: genetic algorithms

Boyer, Edmond

157

Process of designing city housing in Japan  

E-print Network

pose of this thesis is to show one design approach to providing more preferable housing for users in Japan. Chapter 1 gives an overview of trends in Japanese housing construction, describes user requirements, analyzes ...

Kurokawa, Shoji

1983-01-01

158

A design optimization process for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom Program is used to develop and implement a process for design optimization. Because the relative worth of arbitrary design concepts cannot be assessed directly, comparisons must be based on designs that provide the same performance from the point of view of station users; such designs can be compared in terms of life cycle cost. Since the technology required to produce a space station is widely dispersed, a decentralized optimization process is essential. A formulation of the optimization process is provided and the mathematical models designed to facilitate its implementation are described.

Chamberlain, Robert G.; Fox, George; Duquette, William H.

1990-01-01

159

Optimizing the closures development process using the design structure matrix  

E-print Network

Product development processes are inherently complex sets of activities that involve a vast number of connections between participants. Engineers, designers, marketers, financial analysts, and manufacturers all have to ...

McGill, Eric Andrew

2005-01-01

160

DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH FUGITIVE AND OPEN EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the economics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. ...

161

Erlang Behaviours: Programming with Process Design Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erlang processes run independently of each other, each using separate memory and communicating with each other by message passing. These processes, while executing different code, do so following a number of common patterns. By examining different examples of Erlang-style concurrency in client/server architectures, we identify the generic and specific parts of the code and extract the generic code to form a process skeleton. In Erlang, the most commonly used patterns have been implemented in library modules, commonly referred to as OTP behaviours. They contain the generic code framework for concurrency and error handling, simplifying the complexity of concurrent programming and protecting the developer from many common pitfalls.

Cesarini, Francesco; Thompson, Simon

162

Pharmaceutical tablet compaction : product and process design  

E-print Network

This thesis explores how tablet performance is affected by microstructure, and how microstructure can be controlled by selection of excipients and compaction parameters. A systematic strategy for formulation and process ...

Pore, Mridula

2009-01-01

163

Designing and implementing auxiliary operational processes  

E-print Network

Amazon.com, one of the largest and most profitable online retailers, has been experiencing such dramatic growth rates that it must continually update and modify its fulfillment process in order to meet customer demand for ...

Smith, Zachary R

2008-01-01

164

Numerical Simulations and Design of Shearing Process for Aluminum Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work combines experimental studies with finite element simulations to develop a reliable numerical model for the simulation of shearing process in aluminum alloys. The critical concern with respect to product quality in this important process is burr forma- tion. Numerical simulations are aimed at understanding the role of process variables on burr formation and for recommending process design parameters.

Aniruddha Khadke; Somnath Ghosh

2005-01-01

165

Corpus design for biomedical natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper classifies six publicly avail- able biomedical corpora according to var- ious corpus design features and charac- teristics. We then present usage data for the six corpora. We show that corpora that are carefully annotated with respect to structural and linguistic characteristics and that are distributed in standard for- mats are more widely used than corpora that are not.

K. Bretonnel Cohen; Lynne Fox; Philip V. Ogren; Lawrence Hunter

2005-01-01

166

A hierarchical approach to simultaneous design of products and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product and process design involve algorithmic and heuristic processing of symbolic and numeric data. Therefore, for such a design task, a hybrid approach that interweaves numerical and heuristic paradigms is warranted. The increasing rigor in modeling along with the necessary knowledge feedback results in a generalized system architecture that forms the basis of this paper. The approach is implemented using

Burak Ozyurt; Praveen Mogili; Brad Mierau; Sermin G. Sunol; Aydin K. Sunol

1996-01-01

167

pHNEUTRALIZATION: INTEGRATED PROCESS AND CONTROL DESIGN  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTION The pH­neutralization of acids or bases has significant industrial importance. The aim process design methods using control theory are proposed. We focus on the neutralization of strong acidspH­NEUTRALIZATION: INTEGRATED PROCESS AND CONTROL DESIGN Audun Faanes \\Lambda;1 Sigurd Skogestad

Skogestad, Sigurd

168

Debating Professional Designations for Evaluators: Reflections on the Canadian Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a reflective account of a consultation process on professional designations for evaluators initiated and coordinated by the Canadian Evaluation Society (CES). Described are: (1) the forces leading CES to generate discussion and debate about professional designations for Canadian evaluators, (2) the process of developing and…

Cousins, J. Bradley; Cullen, Jim; Malik, Sumbal; Maicher, Brigitte

2009-01-01

169

Supporting medical device development: a standard product design process model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the complex nature of the medical device development (MDD) process and presents a product design process model to aid designers engaged in MDD. Basically, the model serves as a conceptual framework and provides a set of formalisms to define the development landscape for medical devices. Specifically, the model describes the phases of MDD and their relationships, including

Lourdes A. Medina; Gül E. Okudan Kremer; Richard A. Wysk

2012-01-01

170

Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University  

E-print Network

. Rhodes Hall Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853-3801 Email: bw336@cornell.edu URL: http://mpdc.mae.cornell.eduMaterials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University STOCHASTIC MULTISCALE MODELING/ #12;Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University Outline Introduction

Zabaras, Nicholas J.

171

Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University  

E-print Network

Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853-3801 Email: zabaras@cornell.edu URL: http://mpdc.mae.cornell.eduMaterials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University A New Approach to Solve/ Jiang Wan and Nicholas Zabaras #12;Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University

Zabaras, Nicholas J.

172

Modelling the Design Process in Engineering and in Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of the design process in engineering seem to have converged upon a consensus represented, for example, by the German VDI model. However, after starting from common origins, models of the design process in architecture have diverged from the engineering consensus, in response to criticisms from both theorists and practitioners. There now appear to be significant differences between the engineering

NIGEL CROSS; NORBERT ROOZENBURG

1992-01-01

173

Design projects for digital and process control courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design projects for two advanced undergraduate control courses: process instrumentation and control engineering; and digital control, are discussed. Projects emphasize practical as well as theoretical aspects of design and implementation of control system loops. Projects of the process control course emphasize implementation aspects such as sensors, signal conditioning and transmission, actuators and PID controller tuning. Projects of the digital control

G. Beauchamp-Baez; L. V. Melendez-Gonzalez

1998-01-01

174

Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

1971-01-01

175

The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design  

SciTech Connect

The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G. [CD & W Inc., Laramie, WY (United States)

2004-05-01

176

XML-based product information processing method for product design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

Zhang, Zhen Yu

2012-01-01

177

XML-based product information processing method for product design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

Zhang, Zhen Yu

2011-12-01

178

Designs for Mixture Experiments Involving Process Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published procedures for mixture experimentation in the presence of process variables arc reviewed. Procedures which inscribe figures in the mixture space result in lower numbers of experiments but are limited because they do not permit full exploration of the mixture space. In this paper, alternative procedures which minimize the loss of the mixture space are presented. Eight cases representing all

Lynne B. Hare

1979-01-01

179

Design and implementation of a process-oriented intelligent collaborative product design system  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the competition between companies being fiercer and customers being more demanding, the efficiency of design decision-making must be improved to shorten the product design cycle. Intelligent collaborative product design is needed in the product design process. In this paper, based on the Analysis–Synthesis–Evaluation (ASE) design paradigm and the parameterization of product design, an agent that incorporates the working mechanism

Yuliang Li; Xinyu Shao; Peigen Li; Qiong Liu

2004-01-01

180

Defining process design space for monoclonal antibody cell culture.  

PubMed

The concept of design space has been taking root as a foundation of in-process control strategies for biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. During mapping of the process design space, the multidimensional combination of operational variables is studied to quantify the impact on process performance in terms of productivity and product quality. An efficient methodology to map the design space for a monoclonal antibody cell culture process is described. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was used as the basis for the process characterization exercise. This was followed by an integrated study of the inoculum stage of the process which includes progressive shake flask and seed bioreactor steps. The operating conditions for the seed bioreactor were studied in an integrated fashion with the production bioreactor using a two stage design of experiments (DOE) methodology to enable optimization of operating conditions. A two level Resolution IV design was followed by a central composite design (CCD). These experiments enabled identification of the edge of failure and classification of the operational parameters as non-key, key or critical. In addition, the models generated from the data provide further insight into balancing productivity of the cell culture process with product quality considerations. Finally, process and product-related impurity clearance was evaluated by studies linking the upstream process with downstream purification. Production bioreactor parameters that directly influence antibody charge variants and glycosylation in CHO systems were identified. PMID:20589669

Abu-Absi, Susan Fugett; Yang, LiYing; Thompson, Patrick; Jiang, Canping; Kandula, Sunitha; Schilling, Bernhard; Shukla, Abhinav A

2010-08-15

181

Design Down Process: Designing a School in Iceland with Its Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a process used by an architect to work with the stakeholders of a school in Iceland to design a new building. The process, called "design down," starts with the biggest issues and moves toward more detailed aspects. It starts with looking at the school's learning signature, learning expectations, the learning process, and the learning…

PEB Exchange, 2002

2002-01-01

182

Process Design and Operation for Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

. However, such methods provide no guidance on the extent to which energy usage can be reduced economically, nor do they ensure that all options for heat recovery are properly evaluated. Further, they offer no practical means of determining optimum operating... conservation, but also in environmental abatement, capacity debottlenecking, improving plant flexibility and reducing capital costs. Pinch Technology provides a fundamental way to analyze the flow of heat through an industrial process. The essence...

Rossiter, A. P.; Nath, R.; Yell, M. D.

183

Kneader scale-up and process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of molding powder production on two different-sized Buss kneaders is presented. The storage moduli, energy consumption,\\u000a and the pressure profiles were observed at different material loads, screw revolutions, and material fills. Experimentally\\u000a measured data were compared to calculated ones using previously developed flow model and two parameters; storage moduli and\\u000a complex viscosity were calculated for different process conditions. Additionally,

Iztok Hace

184

H-Coal process and plant design  

DOEpatents

A process for converting coal and other hydrocarbonaceous materials into useful and more valuable liquid products. The process comprises: feeding coal and/or other hydrocarbonaceous materials with a hydrogen-containing gas into an ebullated catalyst bed reactor; passing the reaction products from the reactor to a hot separator where the vaporous and distillate products are separated from the residuals; introducing the vaporous and distillate products from the separator directly into a hydrotreater where they are further hydrogenated; passing the residuals from the separator successively through flash vessels at reduced pressures where distillates are flashed off and combined with the vaporous and distillate products to be hydrogenated; transferring the unseparated residuals to a solids concentrating and removal means to remove a substantial portion of solids therefrom and recycling the remaining residual oil to the reactor; and passing the hydrogenated vaporous and distillate products to an atmospheric fractionator where the combined products are fractionated into separate valuable liquid products. The hydrogen-containing gas is generated from sources within the process.

Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ); DeVaux, George R. (Princeton, NJ)

1983-01-01

185

Inferring Design Environment (IDE) : "(re) shaping a design pattern as a learning process"  

E-print Network

This proposal examines the Design process through developing a dialog or game-like graphic software environment. Inferring Design Environment (IDE) is a concept sketch that assimilates a dialog or turn-taking game onto a ...

Gunji, Akira

2005-01-01

186

Results-Based Interaction Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interaction design is a user-centered approach to development in which users and their goals are the driving force behind a project's design. Interaction design principles are fundamental to the design and implementation of effective websites, but they are not sufficient. This article argues that, to reach its full potential, a website should also…

Weiss, Meredith

2008-01-01

187

An extended model of design process of lean production systems by means of process variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an axiomatic modeling of lean production system design, using process variables (PVs). So far, we had developed a model for conceptual design of lean production systems by means of FR–DP relationships, the key characteristics of axiomatic design (AD) methodology, appeared in the proceedings of Second International Conference of Axiomatic Design. Albeit the model in question

Mahmoud Houshmand; Bizhan Jamshidnezhad

2006-01-01

188

Context-Aware Design for Process Flexibility and Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's organizations face continuous and unprecedented changes in their business environment. Traditional process design tools tend to be inflexible and can only support rigidly defined processes (e.g., order processing in the supply chain). This considerably restricts their real-world applications value, especially in the dynamic and…

Yao, Wen

2012-01-01

189

Designing a Mixed Reality Intergenerational Entertainment System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter presents steps for designing an intergenerational mixed reality entertainment system, which focuses on physical and social interactions using a mixed reality floor system. The main design goals include the following: facilitating interactions between users with varied levels of skill in utilizing technology, utilizing the familiar physical motions from other activities to make an intuitive physical interface, and encouraging social interactions among families and friends. Detailed implementation of these steps is presented in the design of our intergenerational entertainment system, Age Invaders. Our design process is based on user-centered design. The results of the study help to focus the refinements of the existing platform from a usability standpoint and also aid in the development of new physical entertainment and interactive applications. This study provides insights into user issues including how users interact in a complex mixed reality experience.

Khoo, Eng Tat; Merritt, Tim; Cheok, Adrian David

190

Reload design process at Yankee Atomic Electric Company  

SciTech Connect

Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) performs reload design and licensing for their nuclear power plants: Yankee Rowe, Maine Yankee, and Vermont Yankee. Significant savings in labor and computer costs have been achieved in the reload design process by the use of the SIMULATE nodal code using the CASMO assembly burnup code or LEOPARD pin cell burnup code inputs to replace the PDQ diffusion theory code in many required calculations for the Yankee Rowe and Maine Yankee pressurized water reactors (PWRs). An efficient process has evolved for the design of reloads for the Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR). Due to the major differences in the core design of the three plants, different reload design processes have evolved for each plant.

Weader, R.J.

1986-01-01

191

GREENING OF OXIDATION CATALYSIS THROUGH IMPROVED CATALYST AND PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Greening of Oxidation Catalysis Through Improved Catalysts and Process Design Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas Becker, and Raymond Smith United State Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W...

192

Using GREENSCOPE for Sustainable Process Design: An Educational Opportunity  

EPA Science Inventory

Increasing sustainability can be approached through the education of those who design, construct, and operate facilities. As chemical engineers learn elements of process systems engineering, they can be introduced to sustainability concepts. The EPA’s GREENSCOPE methodolo...

193

Material evaluation and selection processes to enable design for manufacture  

E-print Network

In order to optimize product designs it is necessary to quickly evaluate many candidate materials in terms of performance and processing costs. Evaluation using physical prototypes yields concrete results but is time ...

Abler, Craig Bennett, 1975-

2006-01-01

194

HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING: SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING: SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS Chein-I Chang Remote Sensing: Independent Component Analysis-Based Abundance Quantification PART V: HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE COMPRESSION Chapter Chapter 19: Spectral/Spatial Hyperspectral Image Compression Chapter 20: Hyperspectral Information

Chang, Chein-I

195

SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems, due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and complicated ...

196

Decision support tools for environmentally conscious chemical process design  

E-print Network

The environment has emerged as an important determinant of the performance of the modern chemical industry. Process engineering in the 21st century needs to evolve to include environmental issues as part of the design ...

Cano Ruiz, José Alejandro, 1969-

1999-01-01

197

Computer-aided Tooling Design for Manufacturing Processes  

E-print Network

Tooling design for manufacturing processes refers to direct tooling for making a part such as molds and dies for injection molded parts and metal stampings, or for supporting machining operations such as jigs and fixtures. ...

Nee, Andrew Y. C.

198

Rates of reaction and process design data for the Hydrocarb Process  

SciTech Connect

In support of studies for developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb Process, experimental and process design data are reported. The experimental work includes the hydropryolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a tubular reactor. The rates of reaction and conversion were obtained at temperature and pressure conditions pertaining to a Hydrocarb Process design. A Process Simulation Computer Model was used to design the process and obtain complete energy and mass balances. Multiple feedstocks including biomass with natural gas and biomass with coal were evaluated. Additional feedstocks including green waste, sewage sludge and digester gas were also evaluated for a pilot plant unit.

Steinberg, M.; Kobayashi, Atsushi [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Tung, Yuanki [Hydrocarb Corp., New York, NY (United States)

1992-08-01

199

An investigation of radiometer design using digital processing techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of digital signal processing techniques in Dicke switching radiometer design was investigated. The general approach was to develop an analytical model of the existing analog radiometer and identify factors which adversly affect its performance. A digital processor was then proposed to verify the feasibility of using digital techniques to minimize these adverse effects and improve the radiometer performance. Analysis and preliminary test results comparing the digital and analog processing approaches in radiometers design were analyzed.

Lawrence, R. W.

1981-01-01

200

METHODS FOR INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN DECISIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this cooperative agreement was to postulate a means by which an engineer could routinely include environmental considerations in day-to-day conceptual design problems; a means that could easily integrate with existing design processes, and thus avoid massive retr...

201

Biological Process Optimal Design in a Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract The aim of this paper is to determine the optimal design and operation of an activated sludge system that is being installed in a small town in the north of Portugal. This process design takes into consideration real data in order to define the objective cost function which includes both investment and operation costs. The collected data were

I. A. C. P. Espírito-Santo; E. M. G. P. Fernandes; M. M. Araújo; E. C. Ferreira

202

Design process for developing a liquid cooling garment hood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid cooling garment (LCG) protects astronauts by providing cooling effects and preventing them from overheating. The objectives of this project were to improve fit and comfort of the original LCG hood of the MACS-Delphi garment and develop a new prototype. The project was conducted by researchers with different backgrounds: apparel design and physiology and psychology. A design process framework

Dong-Eun Kim; Karen LaBat

2010-01-01

203

Analog Integrated Circuits Design for Processing Physiological Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analog integrated circuits (ICs) designed for processing physiological signals are important building blocks of wearable and implantable medical devices used for health monitoring or restoring lost body functions. Due to the nature of physiological signals and the corresponding application scenarios, the ICs designed for these applications should have low power consumption, low cutoff frequency, and low input-referred noise. In this

Yan Li; Carmen C. Y. Poon; Yuan-Ting Zhang

2010-01-01

204

Risk Informed Design as Part of the Systems Engineering Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the importance of Risk Informed Design (RID) as an important feature of the systems engineering process. RID is based on the principle that risk is a design commodity such as mass, volume, cost or power. It also reviews Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) as it is used in the product life cycle in the development of NASA's Constellation Program.

Deckert, George

2010-01-01

205

Integrating Agile Development Processes and User Centred Design-  

E-print Network

Integrating Agile Development Processes and User Centred Design- A Place for Usability Maturity and User Centred Design (UCD). UMMs can be utilised in Agile projects as a diagnostic tool to assess Usability Maturity Model for utilisation in the Agile domain in order to assess the organisation's UCD

Cairns, Paul

206

Designing Business Process Oriented Knowledge Infrastructures Markus Strohmaier  

E-print Network

ideas to tackle the identified challenges. 2 Motivation According to [Wol03], when BMW1 planned architect and responsible 1 BMW...Bayrische Motoren Werke for designing the building, took to meet BMW. In order to design BMW's new development center, he analyzed its targeted product development processes

207

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual presents a rational procedure for the design of land treatment systems. Slow rate, rapid infiltration, and overland flow processes for the treatment of municipal wastewaters are discussed in detail, and the design concepts and criteria are presented. A two-phased plann...

208

Cognitive processes in engineering design: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report an empirical study of the cognitive processes of semi-expert electronics engineers pursuing real-world design projects. Extensive diary and interview data were analysed so as to reveal the organization of on-going design activity and the goals that were motivating behaviour. Our analyses indicated that subjects were implementing a highly systematic design strategy which deviated only a

L. J. BALL; J. S. T. B. T. EVANS; I. DENNIS

1994-01-01

209

Reducing the complexity of the software design process with object-oriented design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing software is a complex process. How object-oriented design (OOD), coupled with formalized documentation and tailored object diagraming techniques, can reduce the complexity of the software design process is described and illustrated. The described OOD methodology uses a hierarchical decomposition approach in which parent objects are decomposed into layers of lower level child objects. A method of tracking the assignment of requirements to design components is also included. Increases in the reusability, portability, and maintainability of the resulting products are also discussed. This method was built on a combination of existing technology, teaching experience, consulting experience, and feedback from design method users. The discussed concepts are applicable to hierarchal OOD processes in general. Emphasis is placed on improving the design process by documenting the details of the procedures involved and incorporating improvements into those procedures as they are developed.

Schuler, M. P.

1991-01-01

210

Theory and Practice Meets in Industrial Process Design -Educational Perspective-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software engineer should see himself as a business process designer in enterprise resource planning system (ERP) re-engineering project. Software engineers and managers should have design dialogue. The objective of this paper is to discuss the motives to study the design research in connection of management education in order to envision and understand the soft human issues in the management context. Second goal is to develop means of practicing social skills between designers and managers. This article explores the affective components of design thinking in industrial management domain. In the conceptual part of this paper are discussed concepts of network and project economy, creativity, communication, use of metaphors, and design thinking. Finally is introduced empirical research plan and first empirical results from design method experiments among the multi-disciplined groups of the master-level students of industrial engineering and management and software engineering.

Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Toikka, Tarja

211

Application of hazard assessment techniques in the CISF design process  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has submitted to the NRC staff for review a topical safety analysis report (TSAR) for a Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF). The TSAR will be used in licensing the CISF when and if a site is designated. CISF1 design events are identified based on thorough review of design basis events (DBEs) previously identified by dry storage system suppliers and licensees and through the application of hazard assessment techniques. A Preliminary Hazards Assessment (PHA) is performed to identify design events applicable to a Phase 1 non site specific CISF. A PHA is deemed necessary since the Phase 1 CISF is distinguishable from previous dry store applications in several significant operational scope and design basis aspects. In addition to assuring all design events applicable to the Phase 1 CISF are identified, the PHA served as an integral part of the CISF design process by identifying potential important to safety and defense in depth facility design and administrative control features. This paper describes the Phase 1 CISF design event identification process and summarizes significant PHA contributions to the CISF design.

Thornton, J.R.; Henry, T.

1997-10-29

212

pH-NEUTRALIZATION: INTEGRATED PROCESS AND CONTROL DESIGN  

E-print Network

using control theory are proposed. We focus on the neutralization of strong acids or bases, which of acids or bases has significant industrial importance. The aim of the process is to change the ppH-NEUTRALIZATION: INTEGRATED PROCESS AND CONTROL DESIGN Audun Faanes ¢¡ £ Sigurd Skogestad

Skogestad, Sigurd

213

The importance of business process modeling in software systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite diligent efforts made by the software engineering community, the failure of software projects keeps increasing at an alarming rate. After two decades of this problem reoccurring, one of the leading causes for the high failure rate is still poor process modeling (requirements' specification). Therefore both researchers and practitioners recognize the importance of business process modeling in understanding and designing

Joseph Barjis

2008-01-01

214

DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH OPEN AND FUGITIVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the conomics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. Th...

215

Analogue neural network design for the processing of measurement signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a new design method for the analogue processing and generation of signals in measurement instruments. The method is based on the observation that in each processing procedure the operations to be performed on the input signal are represented by simple mathematical and control function blocks in a flow diagram. The paper shows how each block can

Pasquale Daponte; Domenico Grimaldi; Linus Michaeli

1999-01-01

216

Robust Controller Design and PID Tuning for Multivariable Processes  

E-print Network

Robust Controller Design and PID Tuning for Multivariable Processes Wen Tan Department approach, which gives a sub-optimal solution. Then a PID approximation method is proposed to reduce a high it serves as a PID tuning method for multivariable processes. Examples show that the method is easy to use

Marquez, Horacio J.

217

Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

1972-01-01

218

Simultaneous process and molecular design/selection through property integration  

E-print Network

/selection. In particular, we focus on the problem of designing/selecting materials that are used in the context of a recycle/reuse system of process streams and for energy applications. Fresh and recycled resources (e.g., process streams, biomass, solvents, etc...

Qin, Xiaoyun

2007-04-25

219

A computer-assisted process for supersonic aircraft conceptual design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design methodology was developed and existing major computer codes were selected to carry out the conceptual design of supersonic aircraft. A computer-assisted design process resulted from linking the codes together in a logical manner to implement the design methodology. The process does not perform the conceptual design of a supersonic aircraft but it does provide the designer with increased flexibility, especially in geometry generation and manipulation. Use of the computer-assisted process for the conceptual design of an advanced technology Mach 3.5 interceptor showed the principal benefit of the process to be the ability to use a computerized geometry generator and then directly convert the geometry between formats used in the geometry code and the aerodynamics codes. Results from the interceptor study showed that a Mach 3.5 standoff interceptor with a 1000 nautical-mile mission radius and a payload of eight Phoenix missiles appears to be feasible with the advanced technologies considered. A sensitivity study showed that technologies affecting the empty weight and propulsion system would be critical in the final configuration characteristics with aerodynamics having a lesser effect for small perturbations around the baseline.

Johnson, V. S.

1985-01-01

220

A new design concept for an automated peanut processing facility  

SciTech Connect

Peanut quality is a major concern in all phases of the peanut industry from production to manufacturing. Postharvest processing of peanuts can have profound effects on the quality and safety of peanut food products. Curing is a key step in postharvest processing. Curing peanuts improperly can significantly reduce quality, and result in significant losses to both farmers and processors. The conventional drying system designed in the 1960`s is still being used in the processing of the peanuts today. The objectives of this paper is to design and develop a new automated peanut drying system for dry climates capable of handling approximately 20 million lbm of peanuts per harvest season.

Ertas, A.; Tanju, B.T. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Fair, W.T. [Long Shot, Inc., Seminole, TX (United States); Butts, C. [National Peanut Research Lab., Dawson, GA (United States)

1996-12-31

221

Extending Theory for User-Centered Information Services: Diagnosing and Learning from Error in Complex Statistical Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extends a theoretical framework for designing effective information services by synthesizing and integrating theory and research derived from multiple approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. These frameworks are applied to develop general design strategies and principles for information systems and services that rely on complex…

Robbin, Alice; Frost-Kumpf, Lee

1997-01-01

222

Economic design of control charts considering process shift distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Process shift is an important input parameter in the economic design of control charts. Earlier control chart designs considered constant shifts to occur in the mean of the process for a given assignable cause. This assumption has been criticized by many researchers since it may not be realistic to produce a constant shift whenever an assignable cause occurs. To overcome this difficulty, in the present work, a distribution for the shift parameter has been considered instead of a single value for a given assignable cause. Duncan's economic design model for chart has been extended to incorporate the distribution for the process shift parameter. It is proposed to minimize total expected loss-cost to obtain the control chart parameters. Further, three types of process shifts namely, positively skewed, uniform and negatively skewed distributions are considered and the situations where it is appropriate to use the suggested methodology are recommended.

Vommi, Vijayababu; Kasarapu, Rukmini V.

2014-09-01

223

ChBE 4505/4525 Chemical Process Design/Biochemical Process Design Basic Curriculum and Learning Outcomes.  

E-print Network

sizing and costing, profitability analysis, and optimization.( Student Outcomes: a, b, c, e, k) 6 of flowsheet synthesis and economic analysis and optimization. A complete design on a chemical process requirements for chemical process plants.( Student Outcomes: a, e, k) Topical Outline 1. Profit upper bound

Sherrill, David

224

The Building Bridges Project: Involving Older Adults in the Design of a Communication Technology to Support Peer-to-Peer Social Engagement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a variety of factors that can lead to social isolation and loneliness in old age, including decline in physical and mental health, as well as change to social environment. The Building Bridges project explores how communication technology can help older adults remain socially connected. This paper will first provide an overview of a prototype communication system designed to support peer-to-peer group interaction. A description of the user-centered design process will be provided to demonstrate the importance of involving older adults at the earliest stages. The implications for designing new technology for older adults are discussed.

Wherton, Joseph; Prendergast, David

225

Pervaporation-based hybrid process: a review of process design, applications and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervaporation is one of the developing membrane technologies that can be used for various industrial applications but for a predefined task, the optimal process design is unlikely to consist solely of pervaporation. Often the optimised solution becomes a hybrid process combining pervaporation with one or more other separation technologies. A distinction will be made between hybrid and integrated processes. Hybrid

Frank Lipnizki; Robert W Field; Po-Kiong Ten

1999-01-01

226

Advanced Test Reactor Design Basis Reconstitution Project Issue Resolution Process  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Design Basis Reconstitution Program (DBRP) is a structured assessment and reconstitution of the design basis for the ATR. The DBRP is designed to establish and document the ties between the Document Safety Analysis (DSA), design basis, and actual system configurations. Where the DBRP assessment team cannot establish a link between these three major elements, a gap is identified. Resolutions to identified gaps represent configuration management and design basis recovery actions. The proposed paper discusses the process being applied to define, evaluate, report, and address gaps that are identified through the ATR DBRP. Design basis verification may be performed or required for a nuclear facility safety basis on various levels. The process is applicable to large-scale design basis reconstitution efforts, such as the ATR DBRP, or may be scaled for application on smaller projects. The concepts are applicable to long-term maintenance of a nuclear facility safety basis and recovery of degraded safety basis components. The ATR DBRP assessment team has observed numerous examples where a clear and accurate link between the DSA, design basis, and actual system configuration was not immediately identifiable in supporting documentation. As a result, a systematic approach to effectively document, prioritize, and evaluate each observation is required. The DBRP issue resolution process provides direction for consistent identification, documentation, categorization, and evaluation, and where applicable, entry into the determination process for a potential inadequacy in the safety analysis (PISA). The issue resolution process is a key element for execution of the DBRP. Application of the process facilitates collection, assessment, and reporting of issues identified by the DBRP team. Application of the process results in an organized database of safety basis gaps and prioritized corrective action planning and resolution. The DBRP team follows the ATR DBRP issue resolution process which provides a method for the team to promptly sort and prioritize questions and issues between those that can be addressed as a normal part of the reconstitution project and those that are to be handle as PISAs. Presentation of the DBRP issue resolution process provides an example for similar activities that may be required at other facilities within the Department of Energy complex.

Steven D. Winter; Gregg L. Sharp; William E. Kohn; Richard T. McCracken

2007-05-01

227

Articulation and Sharing of Distributed Design Project and Process Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper reports on the work in the case study of the ACTIVE project on the use of the combination of knowledge process learning,\\u000a articulation and sharing technologies for increasing the performance and decreasing the ramp-up efforts in engineering design\\u000a projects. This knowledge is mined from distributed heterogeneous datasets, fused, and further used for visualizing design\\u000a project plan information in

Vadim Ermolayev; Frank Dengler; Eyck Jentzsch; Wolf-Ekkehard Matzke

228

Design of launch systems using continuous improvement process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to identify a systematic process for improving ground operations for future launch systems. This approach is based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) continuous improvement process. While the continuous improvement process is normally identified with making incremental changes to an existing system, it can be used on new systems if they use past experience as a knowledge base. In the case of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the Space Shuttle operations provide many lessons. The TQM methodology used for this paper will be borrowed from the United States Air Force 'Quality Air Force' Program. There is a general overview of the continuous improvement process, with concentration on the formulation phase. During this phase critical analyses are conducted to determine the strategy and goals for the remaining development process. These analyses include analyzing the mission from the customers point of view, developing an operations concept for the future, assessing current capabilities and determining the gap to be closed between current capabilities and future needs and requirements. A brief analyses of the RLV, relative to the Space Shuttle, will be used to illustrate the concept. Using the continuous improvement design concept has many advantages. These include a customer oriented process which will develop a more marketable product and a better integration of operations and systems during the design phase. But, the use of TQM techniques will require changes, including more discipline in the design process and more emphasis on data gathering for operational systems. The benefits will far outweigh the additional effort.

Brown, Richard W.

1995-01-01

229

Digitally mediated design : using computer programming to develop a personal design process  

E-print Network

This thesis is based on the proposal that the current system of architectural design education confuses product and process. Students are assessed through, and therefore concentrate on, the former whilst the latter is left ...

Yakeley, Megan (Megan Webster), 1966-

2000-01-01

230

A Digital Methodology for the Design Process of Aerospace Assemblies with Sustainable Composite Processes & Manufacture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well established benefits of composite materials are driving a significant shift in design and manufacture strategies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Thermoplastic composites have advantages over the traditional thermosetting materials with regards to sustainability and environmental impact, features which are becoming increasingly pertinent in the aerospace arena. However, when sustainability and environmental impact are considered as design drivers, integrated methods for part design and product development must be developed so that any benefits of sustainable composite material systems can be assessed during the design process. These methods must include mechanisms to account for process induced part variation and techniques related to re-forming, recycling and decommissioning, which are in their infancy. It is proposed in this paper that predictive techniques related to material specification, part processing and product cost of thermoplastic composite components, be integrated within a Through Life Management (TLM) product development methodology as part of a larger strategy of product system modeling to improve disciplinary concurrency, realistic part performance, and to place sustainability at the heart of the design process. This paper reports the enhancement of digital manufacturing tools as a means of drawing simulated part manufacturing scenarios, real time costing mechanisms, and broader lifecycle performance data capture into the design cycle. The work demonstrates predictive processes for sustainable composite product manufacture and how a Product-Process-Resource (PPR) structure can be customised and enhanced to include design intent driven by `Real' part geometry and consequent assembly. your paper.

McEwan, W.; Butterfield, J.

2011-05-01

231

Motivating the Notion of Generic Design within Information Processing Theory: The Design Problem Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of generic design, while it has been around for 25 years, is not often articulated, especially within Newell and Simon's (1972) Information Processing Theory framework. Design is merely lumped in with other forms of problem solving activity. Intuitively it is felt that there should be a level of description of the phenomenon which…

Goel, Vinod; Pirolli, Peter

232

ASIC by design: automated design of digital signal processing application-specific integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing the optimized results to the baseline, we are achieving typically 10-20× improvement in PDA. This allows gap closure to approach the optimization of a full custom design process while preserving the automation and design efficiency of ASIC design. Additionally, the reuse of each macro saves two to three staff-months, and each optimization script saves one to two staff-months. Hence,

Don Bouldin; Warren Snapp; Paul Haug; David Sunderland; Roger Brees; Carl Sechen; Wayne Dai

2004-01-01

233

Design of plastic packages for minimally processed fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the possibility of using a simple mathematical model for designing plastic film for fresh processed fruits packaging is addressed. The study was conducted by packaging three different fresh processed fruits: prickly pear, banana and kiwifruit; with two different commercially available films: a laminated PE\\/aluminum\\/PET film, and a co-extruded polyolefinic film, and storing the packages at 5°C. The

M. A. Del Nobile; F. Licciardello; C. Scrocco; G. Muratore; M. Zappa

2007-01-01

234

A Review of the Design Process for Implantable Orthopedic Medical Devices  

PubMed Central

The design process for medical devices is highly regulated to ensure the safety of patients. This paper will present a review of the design process for implantable orthopedic medical devices. It will cover the main stages of feasibility, design reviews, design, design verification, manufacture, design validation, design transfer and design changes. PMID:19662153

Aitchison, G.A; Hukins, D.W.L; Parry, J.J; Shepherd, D.E.T; Trotman, S.G

2009-01-01

235

A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2005-07-01

236

A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2006-08-31

237

A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2004-11-01

238

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Approximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use this infor...

239

Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

Alha, Katariina

2004-01-01

240

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

241

USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS TO DESIGN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Genetic algorithm calculations are applied to the design of chemical processes to achieve improvements in environmental and economic performance. By finding the set of Pareto (i.e., non-dominated) solutions one can see how different objectives, such as environmental and economic ...

242

Challenges in Capitalizing Knowledge in Innovative Product Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capitalizing on company's knowledge is increasingly being recognized in a private organizations environment since managing knowledge productivity is considered a source of competitive advantage. In this paper we present a generalization of GAMETH framework, that play an important role in identifying crucial knowledge used and created in innovative product design process. Thus, we have developed a method based on three

Inès SAAD; Michel GRUNDSTEIN

243

A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

244

INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

245

ITER HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEM SYSTEM & PROCESS CONTROL DESIGN  

E-print Network

ITER HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEM SYSTEM & PROCESS CONTROL DESIGN Y. Hoshi 1 , Y. Kataoka 2 , V. Tanchuk 1, Germany; 4 EU Home Team, Garching, Germany; 5 JA Home Team, Naka, Japan The paper reports ITER heat normal pulse operation. 1. INTRODUCTION ITER heat removal systems are mainly composed of vacuum vessel

Raffray, A. René

246

Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

2014-01-01

247

The design process for wheel-robot integration  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the design process for wheel-robot integration was documented and reflected on. The project focused on redesigned certain aspects a half-scale wheel-robot to be integrated with a half-scale CityCar prototype ...

Carvajal, Michael Angelo

2009-01-01

248

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual describes the basic principles of land treatment and presents a rational procedure for design of land treatment systems. Information contained in this manual can be used in identifying alternatives during planning, in selecting a process alternative or site, in determ...

249

Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

1998-12-01

250

Design Exploration of Engineered Materials, Products, and Associated Manufacturing Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few years, ICME-related research has been directed towards the study of multi-scale materials design. However, relatively little has been reported on model-based methods that are of relevance to industry for the realization of engineered materials, products, and associated industrial manufacturing processes. Computational models used in the realization of engineered materials and products are fraught with uncertainty, have different levels of fidelity, are incomplete and are even likely to be inaccurate. In light of this, we adopt a robust design strategy that facilitates the exploration of the solution space thereby providing decision support to a design engineer. In this paper, we describe a foundational construct embodied in our method for design exploration, namely, the compromise Decision Support Problem. We introduce a problem that we are using to establish the efficacy of our method. It involves the integrated design of steel and gears, traversing the chain of steel making, mill production, and evolution of the material during these processes, and linking this to the mechanical design and manufacture of the gear. We provide an overview of our method to determine the operating set points for the ladle, tundish and caster operations necessary to manufacture steel of a desired set of properties. Finally, we highlight the efficacy of our method.

Shukla, Rishabh; Kulkarni, Nagesh H.; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.; Mistree, Farrokh; Allen, Janet K.; Panchal, Jitesh H.

2015-01-01

251

Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods  

DOEpatents

Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

2014-03-04

252

The role of CFD in the design process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade the role played by CFD codes in turbomachinery design has changed remarkably. While convergence/stability or even the existence of unique solutions was discussed fervently ten years ago, CFD codes now form a valuable part of an overall integrated design system and have caused us to re-think much of what we do. The geometric and physical complexities addressed have also evolved, as have the number of software houses competing with in-house developers to provide solutions to daily design problems. This paper reviews how GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) uses CFD in the turbomachinery design process and examines many of the issues faced in successful code implementation.

Jennions, Ian K.

1994-05-01

253

RATES OF REACTION AND PROCESS DESIGN DATA FOR THE HYDROCARB PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides experimental and process design data in support of studies for developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb process. The experimental work includes the hydropyrolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a 2.44 m ...

254

RATES OF REACTION AND PROCESS DESIGN DATA FOR THE HYDROCARB PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides experimental and process design data in support of studies far developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb process. he experimental work includes the hydropyrolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a 2.44 m l...

255

Designed CVD growth of graphene via process engineering.  

PubMed

Graphene, the atomic thin carbon film with honeycomb lattice, holds great promise in a wide range of applications, due to its unique band structure and excellent electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Scientists are researching this star material because of the development of various emerging preparation techniques, among which chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has received the fastest advances in the past few years. For the CVD growth of graphene, the ultimate goal is to achieve the highest quality in the largest scale and lowest cost with a precise control of layer thickness, stacking order, and crystallinity. To meet this goal, researchers need a comprehensive understanding and effective controlling of the growth process, especially to its elementary steps. In this Account, we focus on our recent progresses toward the controlled surface growth of graphene and its two-dimensional (2D) hybrids via rational designs of CVD elementary processes, namely, process engineering. A typical CVD process consists of four main elementary steps: (A) adsorption and catalytic decomposition of precursor gas, (B) diffusion and dissolution of decomposed carbon species into bulk metal, (C) segregation of dissolved carbon atoms onto the metal surface, and finally, (D) surface nucleation and growth of graphene. Absence or enhancement of each elementary step would lead to significant changes in the whole growth process. Metals with certain carbon solubility, such as nickel and cobalt, involve all four elementary steps in a typical CVD process, thus providing us an ideal system for process engineering. The elementary segregation process can be completely blocked if molybdenum is introduced into the system as an alloy catalyst, yielding perfect monolayer graphene almost independent of growth parameters. On the other hand, the segregation-only process of predissolved solid carbons is also capable of high-quality graphene growth. By using a synergetic Cu-Ni alloy, we are able to further enhance the control to such a segregation technique, especially for the thickness of graphene. By designing a cosegregation process of carbon atoms with other elements, such as nitrogen, doped graphene could be synthesized directly with a tunable doping profile. Copper with negligible carbon solubility provides another platform for process engineering, where both carbon dissolution and segregation steps are negligible in the CVD process. Carbon atoms decomposed from precursors diffuse on the surface and build up the thermodynamically stable honeycomb lattice. As a result, graphene growth on copper is self-limited, and formation of multilayer graphene is generally prohibited. Being able to control this process better, as well as the high quality produced, makes copper-based growth the dominating synthesis procedure in the graphene community. We designed a two-temperature zone system to spatially separate the catalytic decomposition step of carbon precursors and the surface graphitization step for breaking this self-limited growth feature, giving high-quality Bernal stacked bilayer graphene via van der Waals epitaxy. We performed the so-called wrinkle engineering by growing graphene on nanostructured copper foil together with a structure-preserved surface transfer. In such a way, we controlled the wrinkling or folding on graphene and further fabricated graphene nanoribbon arrays by self-masked plasma etching. Moreover, by designing a two-step patching growth process on copper, we succeeded in synthesizing the mosaic graphene, a patchwork of intrinsic and nitrogen-doped graphene connected by single crystalline graphene p-n junctions. By following a general concept of process engineering, our work on the designed CVD growth of graphene and its 2D hybrids provides a unique insight of this research field. It enables the precise growth control of graphene together with the in-depth understanding of CVD growth process, which would further stimulate the pace of graphene applications. PMID:23869401

Yan, Kai; Fu, Lei; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

2013-10-15

256

Innovative soil treatment process design for removal of trivalent chromium  

SciTech Connect

A soil treatment process has been developed as part of a US Air Force environmental compliance project at Air Force Plant 44, Tucson, AZ for treating soil contaminated with heavy metals including trivalent chromium, cadmium, copper, and nickel. The process was designed to treat a total of 133,000 tons of soil in a 400 ton per day facility. Features of the soil treatment process include physical treatment and separation, and a chemical treatment process of the remaining fines using a hypochlorite leach allowing chromium to be solubilized at a high pH. After treating, fines are washed in three stage countercurrent thickeners and chromium hydroxide cake is recovered as a final produce from the leach solution. Treatability studies were conducted, laboratory and a pilot plant was built. Process design criteria and flow sheet, material balances, as well as preliminary equipment selection and sizing for the facility have been completed. Facility was designed for the removal of Cr at a concentration of an average of 1230 mg/kg from the soil and meeting a risk based clean-closure limit of 400 mg/kg of Cr. Capital costs for the 400 tpd plant were estimated at 9.6 million with an operating and maintenance cost of $54 per ton As process is most economic for large quantities of soil with relatively low concentrations of contaminants, it was not used in final closure when the estimated volume of contaminated soil removed dropped to 65,000 tons and concentration of chromium increased up to 4000 mg/kg. However, the process could have application in situations where economics and location warrant.

Stallings, J.H. [Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Aeronautical Systems Center; Durkin, M.E. [Hughes Missile Systems Co., Tucson, AZ (United States)

1997-12-31

257

Automating the packing heuristic design process with genetic programming.  

PubMed

The literature shows that one-, two-, and three-dimensional bin packing and knapsack packing are difficult problems in operational research. Many techniques, including exact, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, have been investigated to solve these problems and it is often not clear which method to use when presented with a new instance. This paper presents an approach which is motivated by the goal of building computer systems which can design heuristic methods. The overall aim is to explore the possibilities for automating the heuristic design process. We present a genetic programming system to automatically generate a good quality heuristic for each instance. It is not necessary to change the methodology depending on the problem type (one-, two-, or three-dimensional knapsack and bin packing problems), and it therefore has a level of generality unmatched by other systems in the literature. We carry out an extensive suite of experiments and compare with the best human designed heuristics in the literature. Note that our heuristic design methodology uses the same parameters for all the experiments. The contribution of this paper is to present a more general packing methodology than those currently available, and to show that, by using this methodology, it is possible for a computer system to design heuristics which are competitive with the human designed heuristics from the literature. This represents the first packing algorithm in the literature able to claim human competitive results in such a wide variety of packing domains. PMID:21609273

Burke, Edmund K; Hyde, Matthew R; Kendall, Graham; Woodward, John

2012-01-01

258

Design of a Small Scale High Temperature Gas Loop for Process Heat Exchanger Design Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed a small scale gas loop that can simulate reference operating conditions, that is, a temperature up to 950 deg C and a pressure up to 6 MPa. Main objective of the loop is to screen the candidate process-heat-exchanger designs of a very small capacity of 10 â 20 kW. We arranged the components of a primary gas loop

Hong SungDeok; Oh DongSeok; Lee WonJae; Chang JongHwa

2006-01-01

259

Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine  

SciTech Connect

The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels in the hydroceramic grout process (i.e., 21 m) appears to be about the same as that estimated by the Direct Cementitious Waste Process in 1998, for which a conceptual design was developed. Some of the conceptual design efforts in the 1998 study may be applicable to the stabilizer processes addressed in this EDF. (e) The gamma radiation fields near the process vessels handling HLW calcine would vary from a range of about 300-350 R/hr at a distance of 2.5 cm from the side of the vessels to a range of about 50-170 R/hr at a distance of 100 cm from the side of the vessels. The calculations were made for combined calcine, which was defined as the total HLW calcine inventory uniformly mixed. (f) The gamma radiation fields near the stabilized waste in canisters would range from about 25-170 R/hr at 2.5 cm from the side of the canister and 5-35 R/hr at 100 cm from the side of the canister, depending on the which bin set was the source of calcine.

T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

2005-06-01

260

Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology  

SciTech Connect

Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

2005-06-30

261

Instrumentation and Control in the Engineering Design Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Technology and engineering are often considered related topics, but this relationship often stems from the final output of technologically savvy products. One rarely considers the technology used by the engineer in the design of these goods. This website, created by Engineering Technology Pathways, address "the role of instrumentation control in the engineering design process." Addressing such things as the engineersâ?? knowledge of these systems, the interest of society in the technology, and the actual role of the instrumentation in the design laboratory are addressed in the presentation. The page also provides a student guide that comments on the theories the student should attain proficiency in, after the lecture. Overall, this is a good resource for instructors wanting a guide to instrumentation and the role it plays in engineering.

Heitkamp, Greg

262

IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session.

Rigg, R.H.

1993-03-01

263

IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session.

Rigg, R.H.

1993-01-01

264

Monte Carlo Based Design of Photonic Processes in Azopolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo kinetics of diffraction efficiency evolution in a process of a pulsed diffraction grating inscription in a model system consisting of a polymer doped with azo-dye is presented. A comparison between simulations and degenerate two-wave mixing (DTWM) experiment is given. A good qualitative agreement of those results supports the concept of Monte Carlo based analysis and design of temperature-dependent

A. C. Mitus; G. Pawlik; B. Sahraoui; A. Miniewicz; F. Kajzar

2006-01-01

265

Control system design for a rapid thermal processing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a control system design for a rapid thermal processing (RTP) system, which has four circular concentric lamp zones and four temperature sensors. The control system consists of a least square feedforward controller and an output feedback proportional plus integral (PI) controller. The goal is to maintain uniform temperature tracking for typical ramp-up and hold-steady profiles. A high-order nonlinear model

Ching-An lin; Yaw-Kuen Jan

2001-01-01

266

Energy codes and the building design process: Opportunities for improvement  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act (EPAct), passed by Congress in 1992, requires states to adopt building energy codes for new commercial buildings that meet or exceed the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and Illuminating Engineers Society of North America (IES) Standard 90.1-1989 by October 24, 1994. In response to EPAct many states will be adopting a state-wide energy code for the first time. Understanding the role of stakeholders in the building design process is key to the successful implementation of these codes. In 1993, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a survey of architects and designers to determine how much they know about energy codes, to what extent energy-efficiency concerns influence the design process, and how they convey information about energy-efficient designs and products to their clients. Findings of the PNL survey, together with related information from a survey by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) and other reports, are presented in this report. This information may be helpful for state and utility energy program managers and others who will be involved in promoting the adoption and implementation of state energy codes that meet the requirements of EPAct.

Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.; Rigler, E.J.

1994-05-01

267

This draft submitted to Research in Engineering Design, 6/29/04 Linking Design Process to Customer Satisfaction  

E-print Network

design process variables to customer satisfaction using statistical techniques. We wanted to betterThis draft submitted to Research in Engineering Design, 6/29/04 Linking Design Process to Customer Satisfaction Through Virtual Design of Experiments Vikas K. Jain and Durward K. Sobek, II1 Montana State

Sobek II, Durward K.

268

Quality-by-Design (QbD): An integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach for a dynamic pharmaceutical co-precipitation process characterization and process design space development.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to develop an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach for a dynamic pharmaceutical co-precipitation process characterization and design space development. A dynamic co-precipitation process by gradually introducing water to the ternary system of naproxen-Eudragit L100-alcohol was monitored at real-time in situ via Lasentec FBRM and PVM. 3D map of count-time-chord length revealed three distinguishable process stages: incubation, transition, and steady-state. The effects of high risk process variables (slurry temperature, stirring rate, and water addition rate) on both derived co-precipitation process rates and final chord-length-distribution were evaluated systematically using a 3(3) full factorial design. Critical process variables were identified via ANOVA for both transition and steady state. General linear models (GLM) were then used for parameter estimation for each critical variable. Clear trends about effects of each critical variable during transition and steady state were found by GLM and were interpreted using fundamental process principles and Nyvlt's transfer model. Neural network models were able to link process variables with response variables at transition and steady state with R(2) of 0.88-0.98. PVM images evidenced nucleation and crystal growth. Contour plots illustrated design space via critical process variables' ranges. It demonstrated the utility of integrated PAT approach for QbD development. PMID:21138762

Wu, Huiquan; White, Maury; Khan, Mansoor A

2011-02-28

269

Construction of PC-based expert system for cold forging process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold forging process design is a field where the theory has not been established until present, and it depends on skilled designers with long time experience and intuition. Consequently, it is difficult for designers with shallow experience to cope, since process design needs time and cost. Thus, computer-based expert system for cold forging process design targeted to beginners has been

Tsutao Katayama; Masami Akamatsu; Yoji Tanaka

2004-01-01

270

Recent Advances in Process Optimization and Control for the Design of Sheet and Tube Hydroforming Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is concentrated on the last developments related to process design for sheet and tube hydroforming. The paper first analysis the ways to account properly flow movements and pressure drops occurring in sheet and tube hydroforming that can interact with sheet or tube deformation during hydroforming described with a flow-structural approach, based on an ALE approach accounting well the structural interactions. Then different optimization strategies for process parameters are presented on the basis of cost functions associated to final geometry of sheet or tubular components, based on gradient approach as well as stochastic ones, depending on the number of parameters and on the sensitivity of parameters relatively to the response functions. Finally an integrated design approach based on control of processes is described combining optimization and continuous adjustment of process parameters to get the required parts accounting the machine tool limits and the material ones. Different applications are given related to typical components that are used in automotive industry.

Gelin, J. C.; Labergere, C.; Thibaud, S.

2005-08-01

271

Lessons from nature: computational design of biomimetic compounds and processes.  

PubMed

Through millions of years of evolution, Nature has accomplished the development of highly efficient and sustainable processes and the idea to understand and copy natural strategies is therefore very appealing. However, in spite of intense experimental and computational research, it has turned out to be a difficult task to design efficient biomimetic systems. Here we discuss a novel strategy for the computational design of biomimetic compounds and processes that consists of i) target selection; ii) atomistic and electronic characterization of the wild type system and the biomimetic compounds; iii) identification of key descriptors through feature selection iv) choice of biomimetic template and v) efficient search of chemical and sequence space for optimization of the biomimetic system. As a proof-of-principles study, this general approach is illustrated for the computational design of a 'green' catalyst mimicking the action of the zinc metalloenzyme Human Carbonic Anhydrase (HCA). HCA is a natural model for CO2 fixation since the enzyme is able to convert CO2 into bicarbonate. Very recently, a weakly active HCA mimic based on a trihelical peptide bundle was synthetized. We have used quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) Car-Parrinello simulations to study the mechanisms of action of HCA and its peptidic mimic and employed the obtained information to guide the design of improved biomimetic analogues. Applying a genetic algorithm based optimization procedure, we were able to re-engineer and optimize the biomimetic system towards its natural counter part. In a second example, we discuss a similar strategy for the design of biomimetic sensitizers for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:25437785

Bozkurt, Esra; Ashari, Negar; Browning, Nicholas; Brunk, Elizabeth; Campomanesa, Pablo; Perez, Marta A S; Rothlisberger, Ursula

2014-09-01

272

Analyzing patterns of writing and sketching in the product design process  

E-print Network

Design notebooks, or logbooks, are typically used to record notes during the design process. These notes consist of text entries as well as sketches with varying levels of detail. Previous research on the design process ...

Smith, Rebecca A. (Rebecca Anna)

2009-01-01

273

Designer experience: exploring ways to design in experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-Centered Design (UCD) under the umbrella of user experience (UX) has gained momentum as the de facto standard to produce successful products and services. Use of products is seen as a highly personal and context-sensitive balancing act that derives its uniqueness from the actions and emotions of the users. While the definition of UX is still in the making, it

Mika P. Nieminen; Mikael Runonen; Marko Nieminen; Mari Tyllinen

2011-01-01

274

Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.  

PubMed

Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level. PMID:12141993

Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

2002-09-01

275

Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE). Volume 1: Design overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and implementation of a Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE), which is intended to become the support system software for a prototype high performance science analysis workstation are described. The target machine for this software is a JPL/Caltech Mark 3fp Hypercube hosted by either a MASSCOMP 5600 or a Sun-3, Sun-4 workstation; however, the design will accommodate other concurrent machines of similar architecture, i.e., local memory, multiple-instruction-multiple-data (MIMD) machines. The CIPE system provides both a multimode user interface and an applications programmer interface, and has been designed around four loosely coupled modules: user interface, host-resident executive, hypercube-resident executive, and application functions. The loose coupling between modules allows modification of a particular module without significantly affecting the other modules in the system. In order to enhance hypercube memory utilization and to allow expansion of image processing capabilities, a specialized program management method, incremental loading, was devised. To minimize data transfer between host and hypercube, a data management method which distributes, redistributes, and tracks data set information was implemented. The data management also allows data sharing among application programs. The CIPE software architecture provides a flexible environment for scientific analysis of complex remote sensing image data, such as planetary data and imaging spectrometry, utilizing state-of-the-art concurrent computation capabilities.

Lee, Meemong; Groom, Steven L.; Mazer, Alan S.; Williams, Winifred I.

1990-01-01

276

Co-Simulation for Advanced Process Design and Optimization  

SciTech Connect

Meeting the increasing demand for clean, affordable, and secure energy is arguably the most important challenge facing the world today. Fossil fuels can play a central role in a portfolio of carbon-neutral energy options provided CO{sub 2} emissions can be dramatically reduced by capturing CO{sub 2} and storing it safely and effectively. Fossil energy industry faces the challenge of meeting aggressive design goals for next-generation power plants with CCS. Process designs will involve large, highly-integrated, and multipurpose systems with advanced equipment items with complex geometries and multiphysics. APECS is enabling software to facilitate effective integration, solution, and analysis of high-fidelity process/equipment (CFD) co-simulations. APECS helps to optimize fluid flow and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance. APECS offers many advanced capabilities including ROMs, design optimization, parallel execution, stochastic analysis, and virtual plant co-simulations. NETL and its collaborative R&D partners are using APECS to reduce the time, cost, and technical risk of developing high-efficiency, zero-emission power plants with CCS.

Stephen E. Zitney

2009-01-01

277

Material, process, and product design of thermoplastic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic composites made of polypropylene (PP) and E-glass fibers were investigated experimentally as well as theoretically for two new classes of product designs. The first application was for reinforcement of wood. Commingled PP/glass yarn was consolidated and bonded on wood panel using a tie layer. The processing parameters, including temperature, pressure, heating time, cooling time, bonding strength, and bending strength were tested experimentally and evaluated analytically. The thermoplastic adhesive interface was investigated with environmental scanning electron microscopy. The wood/composite structural design was optimized and evaluated using a Graphic Method. In the second application, we evaluated use of thermoplastic composites for explosion containment in an arrester. PP/glass yarn was fabricated in a sleeve form and wrapped around the arrester. After consolidation, the flexible composite sleeve forms a solid composite shell. The composite shell acts as a protection layer in a surge test to contain the fragments of the arrester. The manufacturing process for forming the composite shell was designed. Woven, knitted, and braided textile composite shells made of commingled PP/glass yarn were tested and evaluated. Mechanical performance of the woven, knitted, and braided composite shells was examined analytically. The theoretical predictions were used to verify the experimental results.

Dai, Heming

278

DESIGN OF A REAL-TIME DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AUDIO PROCESSING TECHNIQUE  

E-print Network

This thesis outlines the design of a real-time digital signal processing technique for pitch detection and analysis via spectral analysis. A sound’s musical pitch can be determined from its fundamental frequency, and a note that is said to be “out...

Jagielski, Christopher

2012-04-24

279

Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description  

SciTech Connect

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

LANE, M.P.

1999-02-24

280

Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence  

SciTech Connect

Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

Neugebauer, R. [Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, Chemnitz (Germany); Professorship for Machine Tools and Forming Technology, TU Chemnitz (Germany); Schieck, F. [Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, Chemnitz (Germany); Rautenstrauch, A. [Professorship for Machine Tools and Forming Technology, TU Chemnitz (Germany)

2011-05-04

281

The mathematical theory of signal processing and compression-designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mathematical theory of signal processing, named processor coding, will be shown to inherently arise as the computational time dual of Shannon's mathematical theory of communication which is also known as source coding. Source coding is concerned with signal source memory space compression while processor coding deals with signal processor computational time compression. Their combination is named compression-designs and referred as Conde in short. A compelling and pedagogically appealing diagram will be discussed highlighting Conde's remarkable successful application to real-world knowledge-aided (KA) airborne moving target indicator (AMTI) radar.

Feria, Erlan H.

2006-05-01

282

Pellicles designed for high-performance lithographic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semiconductor industry continues to push the resolution capability of lithographic processes in order to produce increasingly smaller device geometry at higher densities. To achieve these advances corresponding changes are occurring in the lithography equipment used to manufacture these devices. The wavelengths used for exposure are decreasing, numerical apertures are increasing and new off axis illumination systems are being introduced. These all have ramifications on the performance, effect and proper use of pellicles in the lithography system. At the same time the available process budgets are decreasing thereby increasing the relative effect of the pellicle contribution towards those budgets. Many of the traditional pellicle designs are no longer the optimum choice for use in high performance lithography. This study examines the effects of pellicles in high performance lithography systems.

Gordon, Joseph S.

1995-07-01

283

Design of experiments for thermal protection system process optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) structures were protected from heating due to aeroshear, radiation and plume impingement by a Thermal Protection System (TPS) known as Marshall Sprayable Ablative (MSA-2). MSA-2 contains Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) which due to strict environmental legislation was eliminated. MSA-2 was also classified as hazardous waste, which makes the disposal very costly. Marshall Convergent Coating (MCC-1) replaced MSA-2, and eliminated the use of solvents by delivering the dry filler materials and the fluid resin system to a patented spray gun which utilizes Convergent Spray Technologies spray process. The selection of TPS material was based on risk assessment, performance comparisons, processing, application and cost. Design of Experiments technique was used to optimize the spraying parameters. .

Longani, Hans R.

2000-01-01

284

Model-based User Interface Design Hallvard Trtteberg  

E-print Network

interface design was initiated by practical experi- ences with Lisp-based development environments at Center are particularly important when combining user-centered design with a model-based approach. The designModel-based User Interface Design Hallvard Trætteberg Email: hal@idi.ntnu.no Information Systems

285

Design an Interactive Visualization System for Core Drilling Expeditions  

E-print Network

and studies have proposed participatory design [2] and user-centered design [3]. However real-world usersDesign an Interactive Visualization System for Core Drilling Expeditions Using Immersive Empathic Method Overview In this paper, we propose an immersive empathic design method and used it to create

Johnson, Andrew

286

Working on the Boundaries: Philosophies and Practices of the Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While systems engineering process is a program formal management technique and contractually binding, the design process is the informal practice of achieving the design project requirements throughout all design phases of the systems engineering process. The design process and organization are systems and component dependent. Informal reviews include technical information meetings and concurrent engineering sessions, and formal technical discipline reviews are conducted through the systems engineering process. This paper discusses and references major philosophical principles in the design process, identifies its role in interacting systems and disciplines analyses and integrations, and illustrates the process application in experienced aerostructural designs.

Ryan, R.; Blair, J.; Townsend, J.; Verderaime, V.

1996-01-01

287

Using Instructional Design Process to Improve Design and Development of Internet Interventions  

PubMed Central

Given the wide reach and extensive capabilities of the Internet, it is increasingly being used to deliver comprehensive behavioral and mental health intervention and prevention programs. Their goals are to change user behavior, reduce unwanted complications or symptoms, and improve health status and health-related quality of life. Internet interventions have been found efficacious in addressing a wide range of behavioral and mental health problems, including insomnia, nicotine dependence, obesity, diabetes, depression, and anxiety. Despite the existence of many Internet-based interventions, there is little research to inform their design and development. A model for behavior change in Internet interventions has been published to help guide future Internet intervention development and to help predict and explain behavior changes and symptom improvement outcomes through the use of Internet interventions. An argument is made for grounding the development of Internet interventions within a scientific framework. To that end, the model highlights a multitude of design-related components, areas, and elements, including user characteristics, environment, intervention content, level of intervention support, and targeted outcomes. However, more discussion is needed regarding how the design of the program should be developed to address these issues. While there is little research on the design and development of Internet interventions, there is a rich, related literature in the field of instructional design (ID) that can be used to inform Internet intervention development. ID models are prescriptive models that describe a set of activities involved in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of instructional programs. Using ID process models has been shown to increase the effectiveness of learning programs in a broad range of contexts. ID models specify a systematic method for assessing the needs of learners (intervention users) to determine the gaps between current knowledge and behaviors, and desired outcomes. Through the ID process, designers focus on the needs of learners, taking into account their prior knowledge; set measurable learning objectives or performance requirements; assess learners’ achievement of the targeted outcomes; and employ cycles of continuous formative evaluation to ensure that the intervention meets the needs of all stakeholders. The ID process offers a proven methodology for the design of instructional programs and should be considered an integral part of the creation of Internet interventions. By providing a framework for the design and development of Internet interventions and by purposefully focusing on these aspects, as well as the underlying theories supporting these practices, both the theories and the interventions themselves can continue to be refined and improved. By using the behavior change model for Internet interventions along with the best research available to guide design practice and inform development, developers of Internet interventions will increase their ability to achieve desired outcomes. PMID:22743534

Hilgart, Michelle M; Thorndike, Frances P; Kinzie, Mable B

2012-01-01

288

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-01-01

289

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-11-01

290

Peleg et al. Page 1 of 32 User-centered Design of a DSS Using Multi-Perspective Methodologies to Study Users' Interactions with the  

E-print Network

, the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons developed a guideline for diagnosing and managing diabetic foot care [3] focused on adapting the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons' guideline to local

Peleg, Mor

291

User-centered design driven development of a virtual reality therapy application for Iraq war combat-related post traumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experience including (but not limited to) military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage and terrorist attacks. Initial data suggests that at least 1 out of 6 Iraq War veterans are exhibiting symptoms of depression, anxiety and

A A Rizzo; K Graap; J Pair; G Reger; A Treskunov; T Parsons

2006-01-01

292

Design support systems for process engineering—II. KBDS: An experimental prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

KBDS is a prototype design support system for process engineering. It was created as an experimental vehicle to test and develop ideas about the representation of the design process, and to demonstrate how such a representation can be used to support the design activity. Our starting point is a representation of the design process consisting of three spaces: One for

R. Bañares-Alcántara; H. M. S. Lababidi

1995-01-01

293

SP100 shield design automation process using expert system and heuristic search techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SP-100 shield subsystem design process has been modified to utilize the GE Corporate Reserch and Development program, ENGINEOUS (Tong 1990). ENGINEOUS is a software system that automates the use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis programs in the engineering design process. The shield subsystem design process incorporates a nuclear subsystems design and performance code, a two-dimensional neutral particle transport

Thomas F. Marcille; Robert Protsik; Nelson A. Deane; Darryl G. Hoover

1993-01-01

294

Design, processing, and testing of lsi arrays for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a MOS 256-bit Random Access Memory (RAM) is discussed. Technological achievements comprise computer simulations that accurately predict performance; aluminum-gate COS/MOS devices including a 256-bit RAM with current sensing; and a silicon-gate process that is being used in the construction of a 256-bit RAM with voltage sensing. The Si-gate process increases speed by reducing the overlap capacitance between gate and source-drain, thus reducing the crossover capacitance and allowing shorter interconnections. The design of a Si-gate RAM, which is pin-for-pin compatible with an RCA bulk silicon COS/MOS memory (type TA 5974), is discussed in full. The Integrated Circuit Tester (ICT) is limited to dc evaluation, but the diagnostics and data collecting are under computer control. The Silicon-on-Sapphire Memory Evaluator (SOS-ME, previously called SOS Memory Exerciser) measures power supply drain and performs a minimum number of tests to establish operation of the memory devices. The Macrodata MD-100 is a microprogrammable tester which has capabilities of extensive testing at speeds up to 5 MHz. Beam-lead technology was successfully integrated with SOS technology to make a simple device with beam leads. This device and the scribing are discussed.

Lile, W. R.; Hollingsworth, R. J.

1972-01-01

295

Software Design Improvements. Part 2; Software Quality and the Design and Inspection Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of assurance engineering techniques improves the duration of failure-free performance of software. The totality of features and characteristics of a software product are what determine its ability to satisfy customer needs. Software in safety-critical systems is very important to NASA. We follow the System Safety Working Groups definition for system safety software as: 'The optimization of system safety in the design, development, use and maintenance of software and its integration with safety-critical systems in an operational environment. 'If it is not safe, say so' has become our motto. This paper goes over methods that have been used by NASA to make software design improvements by focusing on software quality and the design and inspection process.

Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.; Ziemianski, Tom

1997-01-01

296

Investigation on process parameters of flexible stretch forming process using orthogonal experiment design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flexible stretch forming process (FSFP), is useful sheet metal forming method to produce the small batch three dimensional surfaces. Elastic recovery is one of the very important factors to influence the shape accuracy. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of design parameters on the elastic recovery. The prestrain, the punch size, the objective radius of surface and thickness of the elastic pad are selected as the design parameters. The value of elastic recovery is selected to evaluate the shape accuracy. The orthogonal experiment design is adopted to investigate the relationship between shape accuracy and design parameters. The analysis of variances (ANOVA) is applied to analyze the value of elastic recovery. The optimal combination is PS3R3PR2T2, which is 0.01 for the prestrain, 500mm for the objective surface radius, 10mm for punch radius and 5mm for elastic pad thickness. The orthogonal experiment design and ANOVA approach may provide a useful guidance to determine design parameters and improve the forming quality in FSFP.

Liu, Pan; Ku, Tae-Wan; Kim, Jeong; Kang, Beom-Soo

2013-12-01

297

Materials, design and processing of air encapsulated MEMS packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work uses a three-dimensional air cavity technology to improve the fabrication, and functionality of microelectronics devices, performance of on-board transmission lines, and packaging of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). The air cavity process makes use of the decomposition of a patterned sacrificial polymer followed by the diffusion of its by-products through a curing polymer overcoat to obtain the embedded air structure. Applications and research of air cavities have focused on simple designs that concentrate on the size and functionality of the particular device. However, a lack of guidelines for fabrication, materials used, and structural design has led to mechanical stability issues and processing refinements. This work investigates improved air gap cavities for use in MEMS packaging processes, resulting in fewer fabrication flaws and lower cost. The identification of new materials, such as novel photo-definable organic/inorganic hybrid polymers, was studied for increased strength and rigidity due to their glass-like structure. A novel epoxy polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) material was investigated and characterized for use as a photodefineable, permanent dielectrics with improved mechanical properties. The POSS material improved the air gap fabrication because it served as a high-selectivity etch mask for patterning sacrificial materials as well as a cavity overcoat material with improved rigidity. An investigation of overcoat thickness and decomposition kinetics provided a fundamental understanding of the properties that impart mechanical stability to cavities of different shape and volume. Metallization of the cavities was investigated so as to provide hermetic sealing and improved cavity strength. The improved air cavity, wafer-level packages were tested using resonator-type devices and chip-level lead frame packaging. The air cavity package was molded under traditional lead frame molding pressures and tested for mechanical integrity. The development of mechanical models complimented the experimental studies. A model of the overcoat materials used the film properties and elastic deformations to study the stress-strain behavior of the suspended dielectric films under external forces. The experimental molding tests and mechanical models were used to establish processing conditions and physical designs for the cavities as a function of cavity size. A novel, metal-free chip package was investigated combining the in-situ thermal decomposition of the sacrificial material during post-mold curing of the lead frame molding compound. Sacrificial materials were characterized for their degree of decomposition during the molding cure to provide a chip package with improved mechanical support and no size restrictions. Improvements to the air cavities for MEMS packaging led to investigations and refinements of other microfabrication processes. The sacrificial polycarbonate materials were shown to be useful as temporary bonding materials for wafer-level bonding. The release temperature and conditions of the processed wafer can be changed based on the polycarbonates formulation. The electroless deposition of metal was investigated as an alternative process for metalizing the air cavities. The deposition of silver and copper using a Sn/Ag catalyst as a replacement for costly palladium activation was demonstrated. The electroless deposition was tested on polymer and silicon dioxide surfaces for organic boards and through-silicon vias.

Fritz, Nathan T.

298

From Safe Nanomanufacturing to Nanosafe-by-Design processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial needs in terms of multifunctional components are increasing. Many sectors are concerned, from the integrated direct nanoparticles production to the emerging combinations which include the metal matrix composites (MMC), ductile ceramics and ceramic matrix composites, polymer matrix composites (PMC) for bulk application and advanced surface coatings in the fields of automotive, aerospace, energy production and building applications. Moreover, domains with a planetary impact such as environmental issues, as well as aspects for instance health (toxicity) and hazard assessment (ignition and explosion severity) were also taken into account. Nanotechnologies play an important role in promoting innovation in design and realization of multifunctional products for the future, either by improving usual products or creating new functions and/or new products. Nevertheless, this huge evolution in terms of materials could only be promoted by increasing the social acceptance and by acting on the different main technological and economic challenges and developing safe oriented processes. Nowadays, a huge number of developments of nanoparticles are potentially industrial up-scalable. However, some doubts exist about the handling's safety of the current technologies. For these reasons, the main purpose was to develop a self-monitored automation in the production line coupling different techniques in order to simplify processes such as in-situ growth nanoparticles into a nanostructured matrix, over different substrates and/or the nanopowders synthesis, functionalization, dry or wet safe recovery system, granulation, consolidation in single-step, by monitoring at real time the processing parameters such as powder stoichiometry. With the aim of assuring the traceability of the product during the whole life, starting from the conception and including the R&D, the distribution and the use were also considered. The optimization in terms of processing, recovery and conditioning, permits to increase its versatility, thus leading to the increase of the added value to the production. This review put in evidence -by different examples- the progress achieved since the beginning of Nanosafe integrated initiative developed by CEA and its partners as well as promoting, firstly the safety at work place, and then extending to an integrated and controlled in-situ production by of Nanosafe-by-Design controlled processes.

Schuster, F.; Lomello, F.

2013-04-01

299

Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

2014-08-05

300

(New process modeling, design and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality and improved productivity in the process industries)  

SciTech Connect

Highlights are reported of work to date on: resilient design and control of chemical reactors (polymerization, packed bed), operation of complex processing systems (compensators for multivariable systems with delays and Right Half Plane zeroes, process identification and controller design for multivariable systems, nonlinear systems control, distributed parameter systems), and computer-aided design software (CONSYD, POLYRED, expert systems). 15 figs, 54 refs. (DLC)

Not Available

1991-01-01

301

[New process modeling, design and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality and improved productivity in the process industries  

SciTech Connect

Highlights are reported of work to date on: resilient design and control of chemical reactors (polymerization, packed bed), operation of complex processing systems (compensators for multivariable systems with delays and Right Half Plane zeroes, process identification and controller design for multivariable systems, nonlinear systems control, distributed parameter systems), and computer-aided design software (CONSYD, POLYRED, expert systems). 15 figs, 54 refs. (DLC)

Not Available

1991-12-31

302

On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes  

SciTech Connect

This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study.

Xanthopoulos, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Laboratory of Statistics and Quantitative Analysis, Industrial Management Division, P.O. Box 461, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Iakovou, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Laboratory of Statistics and Quantitative Analysis, Industrial Management Division, P.O. Box 461, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: eiakovou@auth.gr

2009-05-15

303

Process and Prospects for the Designed Hydrograph, Lower Missouri River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow regime of the Lower Missouri River (LMOR, Gavins Point, SD to St. Louis, MO) is being redesigned to restore elements of natural variability while maintaining project purposes such as power production, flood control, water supply, and navigation. Presently, an experimental hydrograph alteration is planned for Spring, 2006. Similar to many large, multi-purpose rivers, the ongoing design process involves negotiation among many management and stakeholder groups. The negotiated process has simplified the hydrograph into two key elements -- the spring rise and the summer low - with emphasis on the influence of these elements on three threatened or endangered species. The spring rise has been hypothesized to perform three functions: build sandbars for nesting of the interior least tern and piping plover, provide episodic connectivity with low-lying flood plain, and provide a behavioral spawning cue for the pallid sturgeon. Among these, most emphasis has been placed on the spawning cue because concerns about downstream flood hazards have limited flow magnitudes to those that are thought to be geomorphically ineffective, and channelization and incision provide little opportunity for moderate flows to connect to the flood plain. Our analysis of the natural hydrologic regime provides some insight into possible spring rise design elements, including timing, rate of rise and fall, and length of spring flow pulses. The summer low has been hypothesized to emerge sandbars for nesting and to maximize area of shallow, slow water for rearing of larval and juvenile fish. Re-engineering of the navigation channel to provide greater diversity of habitat during navigation flows has been offered as an alternative to the summer low. Our analysis indicates that re-engineering has potential to increase habitat availability substantially, but the ecological results are so-far unknown. The designed hydrograph that emerges from the multi-objective process will likely represent a compromise of many values and is unlikely to bear close resemblance to the natural hydrograph. Nonetheless, the hydrograph will provide an essential first step in experimentation and adaptive management of the Lower Missouri River.

Jacobson, R. B.; Galat, D. L.; Hay, C. H.

2005-05-01

304

Adapting the Engineering Design Process for Elementary Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kindergarten through fifth grade students are uniquely challenged each and every day they attend Douglas L. Jamerson, Jr. Center for Mathematics and Engineering (DLJCME). As a new elementary school in the Pinellas County (FL) School District, in 2003-2004, Jamersons administration and staff have been charged with the task of building an elementary school with a math and engineering focus. After one academic year, Jamerson is well on its way. The school is recognized by the United States Department of Education as a Center for Mathematics and Engineering for Elementary Education. The mission for DLJCME is to promote, facilitate, and improve the use of mathematics and the understanding of science among its students by integrating mathematics, science, and engineering design within every subject and across each grade level at Jamerson Elementary. D.L. Jamersons overarching goal is to present required standards-based curriculum as a learning adventure that is enriched by applying engineering skills (integrated knowledge of mathematics, science, language, history, and the arts) for problem solving and higher order thinking at the appropriate level in all classrooms and subjects. The execution of its curriculum is not the production of a collection of miniature things like pyramids or volcanoes. Nor are Jamerson students in the gadget, robot, widget, and/or thing-a-majig creation business. DLJCME uses the engineering design process and its associated engineering projects as the foundation of an instructional strategy to help its students gain important conceptual understandings as well as develop secure problem solving skills. At Jamerson, design activities emphasize design challenges that rely on mathematics and science skills also being taught at each grade level as well as any relevant knowledge and skills developed, learned, and secured in earlier grades. This approach prompts inquiry and analysis as well as discourse among students and teachers. It also leads to project concept closure which is seldom accomplished in many trial and error design efforts. A vision of the schoolwide curriculum is illustrated in Figure 1, which was developed by the Douglas L. Jamerson Core Team during its early goal setting workshops before the school officially opened.

Barger, Marilyn; Gilbert, Richard A.; Little, Robin; Poth, Robert

2009-07-28

305

Redesigning the design process through interactive simulation: A case study of life-cycle engineering in jet engine conceptual design  

E-print Network

of life-cycle engineering and of process mapping and simulation as a method to help design and evaluate the types of process changes that LCE introduction requires. Section 3 provides an overview of the modelling methodology used by the authors. Section... and service design process. This focus on early-stage conceptual design arises from two considerations. Firstly, from an engineering perspective there is greatest scope for innovation at this stage and therefore the possibility to consider and evaluate...

Kerley, Warren; Wynn, David C; Eckert, Claudia M; Clarkson, P John

306

Identifying User Needs and the Participative Design Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the number of persons with dementia increases and also the demands on care and support at home, additional solutions to support persons with dementia are needed. The COGKNOW project aims to develop an integrated, user-driven cognitive prosthetic device to help persons with dementia. The project focuses on support in the areas of memory, social contact, daily living activities and feelings of safety. The design process is user-participatory and consists of iterative cycles at three test sites across Europe. In the first cycle persons with dementia and their carers (n = 17) actively participated in the developmental process. Based on their priorities of needs and solutions, on their disabilities and after discussion between the team, a top four list of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions was made and now serves as the basis for development: in the area of remembering - day and time orientation support, find mobile service and reminding service, in the area of social contact - telephone support by picture dialling, in the area of daily activities - media control support through a music playback and radio function, and finally, in the area of safety - a warning service to indicate when the front door is open and an emergency contact service to enhance feelings of safety. The results of this first project phase show that, in general, the people with mild dementia as well as their carers were able to express and prioritize their (unmet) needs, and the kind of technological assistance they preferred in the selected areas. In next phases it will be tested if the user-participatory design and multidisciplinary approach employed in the COGKNOW project result in a user-friendly, useful device that positively impacts the autonomy and quality of life of persons with dementia and their carers.

Meiland, Franka; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta; Andersson, Anna-Lena

307

Design Process of an Area-Efficient Photobioreactor  

PubMed Central

This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such intensities that the light energy can be efficiently used for biomass formation. A statement of goals is formulated and constraints are specified to which the GSC needs to comply. Specifications are generated for a prototype which form and function achieve the stated goals and satisfy the specified constraints. This results in a design in which sunlight is captured into vertical plastic light guides. Sunlight reflects internally in the guide and eventually scatters out of the light guide into flat-panel photobioreactor compartments. Sunlight is focused on top of the light guides by dual-axis positioning of linear Fresnel lenses. The shape and material of the light guide is such that light is maintained in the guides when surrounded by air. The bottom part of a light guide is sandblasted to obtain a more uniform distribution of light inside the bioreactor compartment and is triangular shaped to ensure the efflux of all light out of the guide. Dimensions of the guide are such that light enters the flat-panel photobioreactor compartment at intensities that can be efficiently used by the biomass present. The integration of light capturing, transportation, distribution and usage is such that high biomass productivities per area can be achieved. PMID:18266033

Janssen, Marcel; Tramper, Johannes; Wijffels, René H.

2008-01-01

308

Process design applied to optimise a directly compressible powder produced via a continuous manufacturing process.  

PubMed

Manufacturing of 'ready-to-compress' powder mixtures for direct compression was performed by spray drying, without granulation, milling and/or blending steps in between spray drying and compaction. Powder mixtures containing acetaminophen, mannitol, erythritol, maltodextrin, crospovidone, colloidal silicon dioxide and polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monooleate were prepared via co-spray drying. A feed suspension having a solid content of 27.2% w/w was selected for further process optimisation because of its high process yield, excellent flowability and short tablet disintegration time. Experimental design was applied to evaluate processibility, physico-chemical properties and compactability of the spray dried powder mixtures. Significant and adequate regression models were developed for powder flowability, median particle size, bulk density, residual moisture content and process yield. An increasing inlet and outlet drying air temperature improved process yield. However, a higher inlet drying air temperature had a negative influence on density and moisture content, while the latter decreased at higher outlet drying air temperatures. Median particle size increased with a higher inlet temperature, while the outlet temperature had the opposite affect. Numerical optimisation determined the optimal spray drying process (inlet temperature: 221 degrees C, outlet temperature: 81 degrees C and atomisation pressure: 6 bar) in order to produce 'ready-to-compress' powder mixtures. PMID:17964129

Gonnissen, Y; Gonçalves, S I V; De Geest, B G; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

2008-03-01

309

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO ENHANCE AND ENCOURAGE SUSTAINABLE CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an opportunity to minimize the potential environmental impacts (PEIs) of industrial chemical processes by providing process designers with timely data nad models elucidating environmentally favorable design options. The second generation of the Waste Reduction (WAR) algo...

310

The bioinspired design process : according to project complexity and motivation  

E-print Network

Taking cues from natural creatures and systems is becoming a more widely used technique in engineering design. This design philosophy or technique is referred to as bioinspired design or biomimicry. Prior art has focused ...

Obert, Emily

2013-01-01

311

HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by PBMR (Pty.) Ltd. in the RSA, with the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the US as part of the NHI. This work was performed by SRNL, Westinghouse Electric Company, Shaw, PBMR (Pty) Ltd., and Technology Insights under a Technical Consulting Agreement (TCA). Westinghouse Electric, serving as the lead for the PBMR process heat application team, established a cost-shared TCA with SRNL to prepare an updated HyS thermochemical water-splitting process flowsheet, a nuclear hydrogen plant preconceptual design and a cost estimate, including the cost of hydrogen production. SRNL was funded by DOE under the NHI program, and the Westinghouse team was self-funded. The results of this work are presented in this Final Report. Appendices have been attached to provide a detailed source of information in order to document the work under the TCA contract.

Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

2009-05-12

312

Rethinking Design Process: Using 3D Digital Models as an Interface in Collaborative Session  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a pilot study for an alternative design process by integrating a designer-user collaborative session with digital models. The collaborative session took place in a 3D AutoCAD class for a real world project. The 3D models served as an interface for designer-user collaboration during the design process. Students not only learned…

Ding, Suining

2008-01-01

313

Scenarios and the design process in medical application R. Rasoulifar*, G. Thomann, F. Villeneuve  

E-print Network

in medical domain have attracted the design researchers. The design process of medial devices has yet which represent the confrontation between engineering (device design) and medical (usageScenarios and the design process in medical application R. Rasoulifar*, G. Thomann, F. Villeneuve G

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Function-based design process for an intelligent ground vehicle vision system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engineering design framework for an autonomous ground vehicle vision system is discussed. We present both the conceptual and physical design by following the design process, development and testing of an intelligent ground vehicle vision system constructed for the 2008 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition. During conceptual design, the requirements for the vision system are explored via functional and process analysis

Robert L. Nagel; Kenneth L. Perry; Robert B. Stone; Daniel A. McAdams

2010-01-01

315

2 + 3 MODEL: FRACTAL PROCESSES FOR KNOWLEDGE-BASED ENGINEERING DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel model, the 2 + 3 model, for the knowledge-based engineering design using fractal concepts is presented. In this model, a complex, large-scale engineering design problem is considered to be a fractal abject; the design process solving for this problem is considered to be a fractal process; the fractal process is organized by the basic 2 + 3 model

Q. CHEN

1993-01-01

316

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) Methods: Their Synergy with Computer Technology in Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper identifies speed, agility, human interface, generation of sensitivity information, task decomposition, and data transmission (including storage) as important attributes for a computer environment to have in order to support engineering design effectively. It is argued that when examined in terms of these attributes the presently available environment can be shown to be inadequate a radical improvement is needed, and it may be achieved by combining new methods that have recently emerged from multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) with massively parallel processing computer technology. The caveat is that, for successful use of that technology in engineering computing, new paradigms for computing will have to be developed - specifically, innovative algorithms that are intrinsically parallel so that their performance scales up linearly with the number of processors. It may be speculated that the idea of simulating a complex behavior by interaction of a large number of very simple models may be an inspiration for the above algorithms, the cellular automata are an example. Because of the long lead time needed to develop and mature new paradigms, development should be now, even though the widespread availability of massively parallel processing is still a few years away.

Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

1998-01-01

317

Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) Methods: Their Synergy with Computer Technology in the Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper identifies speed, agility, human interface, generation of sensitivity information, task decomposition, and data transmission (including storage) as important attributes for a computer environment to have in order to support engineering design effectively. It is argued that when examined in terms of these attributes the presently available environment can be shown to be inadequate. A radical improvement is needed, and it may be achieved by combining new methods that have recently emerged from multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO) with massively parallel processing computer technology. The caveat is that, for successful use of that technology in engineering computing, new paradigms for computing will have to be developed - specifically, innovative algorithms that are intrinsically parallel so that their performance scales up linearly with the number of processors. It may be speculated that the idea of simulating a complex behaviour by interaction of a large number of very simple models may be an inspiration for the above algorithms; the cellular automata are an example. Because of the long lead time needed to develop and mature new paradigms, development should begin now, even though the widespread availability of massively parallel processing is still a few years away.

Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

1999-01-01

318

Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

Crowell, H. A.

1979-01-01

319

The design of a distributed image processing and dissemination system  

SciTech Connect

The design and implementation of a distributed image processing and dissemination system was undertaken and accomplished as part of a prototype communication and intelligence (CI) system, the contingency support system (CSS), which is intended to support contingency operations of the Tactical Air Command. The system consists of six (6) Sun 3/180C workstations with integrated ITEX image processors and three (3) 3/50 diskless workstations located at four (4) system nodes (INEL, base, and mobiles). All 3/180C workstations are capable of image system server functions where as the 3/50s are image system clients only. Distribution is accomplished via both local and wide area networks using standard Defense Data Network (DDN) protocols (i.e., TCP/IP, et al.) and Defense Satellite Communication Systems (DSCS) compatible SHF Transportable Satellite Earth Terminals (TSET). Image applications utilize Sun's Remote Procedure Call (RPC) to facilitate the image system client and server relationships. The system provides functions to acquire, display, annotate, process, transfer, and manage images via an icon, panel, and menu oriented Sunview{trademark} based user interface. Image spatial resolution is 512 {times} 480 with 8-bits/pixel black and white and 12/24 bits/pixel color depending on system configuration. Compression is used during various image display and transmission functions to reduce the dynamic range of image data of 12/6/3/2 bits/pixel depending on the application. Image acquisition is accomplished in real-time or near-real-time by special purpose Itex image hardware. As a result all image displays are highly interactive with attention given to subsecond response time. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Rafferty, P.; Hower, L.

1990-01-01

320

Critical Zone Experimental Design to Assess Soil Processes and Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through unsustainable land use practices, mining, deforestation, urbanisation and degradation by industrial pollution, soil losses are now hypothesized to be much faster (100 times or more) than soil formation - with the consequence that soil has become a finite resource. The crucial challenge for the international research community is to understand the rates of processes that dictate soil mass stocks and their function within Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). The CZ is the environment where soils are formed, degrade and provide their essential ecosystem services. Key among these ecosystem services are food and fibre production, filtering, buffering and transformation of water, nutrients and contaminants, storage of carbon and maintaining biological habitat and genetic diversity. We have initiated a new research project to address the priority research areas identified in the European Union Soil Thematic Strategy and to contribute to the development of a global network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) committed to soil research. Our hypothesis is that the combined physical-chemical-biological structure of soil can be assessed from first-principles and the resulting soil functions can be quantified in process models that couple the formation and loss of soil stocks with descriptions of biodiversity and nutrient dynamics. The objectives of this research are to 1. Describe from 1st principles how soil structure influences processes and functions of soils, 2. Establish 4 European Critical Zone Observatories to link with established CZOs, 3. Develop a CZ Integrated Model of soil processes and function, 4. Create a GIS-based modelling framework to assess soil threats and mitigation at EU scale, 5. Quantify impacts of changing land use, climate and biodiversity on soil function and its value and 6. Form with international partners a global network of CZOs for soil research and deliver a programme of public outreach and research transfer on soil sustainability. The experimental design studies soil processes across the temporal evolution of the soil profile, from its formation on bare bedrock, through managed use as productive land to its degradation under longstanding pressures from intensive land use. To understand this conceptual life cycle of soil, we have selected 4 European field sites as Critical Zone Observatories. These are to provide data sets of soil parameters, processes and functions which will be incorporated into the mathematical models. The field sites are 1) the BigLink field station which is located in the chronosequence of the Damma Glacier forefield in alpine Switzerland and is established to study the initial stages of soil development on bedrock; 2) the Lysina Catchment in the Czech Republic which is representative of productive soils managed for intensive forestry, 3) the Fuchsenbigl Field Station in Austria which is an agricultural research site that is representative of productive soils managed as arable land and 4) the Koiliaris Catchment in Crete, Greece which represents degraded Mediterranean region soils, heavily impacted by centuries of intensive grazing and farming, under severe risk of desertification.

Banwart, Steve

2010-05-01

321

An Examination of the Decision-Making Process Used by Designers in Multiple Disciplines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design-thinking is an inductive and participatory process in which designers are required to manage constraints, generate solutions, and follow project timelines in order to complete project goals. The researchers used this exploration study to look at how designers in various disciplinary fields approach design projects. Designers were asked to…

Stefaniak, Jill E.; Tracey, Monica W.

2014-01-01

322

Articulating the Resources for Business Process Analysis and Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective process analysis and modeling are important phases of the business process management lifecycle. When many activities and multiple resources are involved, it is very difficult to build a correct business process specification. This dissertation provides a resource perspective of business processes. It aims at a better process analysis…

Jin, Yulong

2012-01-01

323

Representation of thermal energy in the design process  

E-print Network

The goal of thermal design is to go beyond the comfort zone. In spatial design architects don't just look up square footage requirements and then draw a rectangle that satisfies the givens. There must be an interpretation. ...

Roth, Shaun

1995-01-01

324

Simultaneous Design, Scheduling and Operation Through Process Integration  

E-print Network

of this dissertation is to develop a new approach to design and scheduling with economic, environmental, heat integration and inherently safer design objectives. Specifically, this work introduces a systematic framework and the associated mathematical formulation...

Al-Mutairi, Eid M.

2009-05-15

325

The Effect of Natural Language Processing in Bioinspired Design  

E-print Network

Bioinspired design methods are a new and evolving collection of techniques used to extract biological principles from nature to solve engineering problems. The application of bioinspired design methods is typically confined to existing problems...

Burns, Madison Suzann 1987-

2012-10-23

326

Recombinant design : leveraging process capture for collective creativity  

E-print Network

Design is omnipresent and fundamental to the modern world, yet so little of the rich semantic information of the design evolution is preserved. If we are to gain the greatest knowledge and utility from a creative work, we ...

Ding, Annie

2006-01-01

327

Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

2000-01-01

328

Predictive Modeling in Plasma Reactor and Process Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research continues toward the improvement and increased understanding of high-density plasma tools. Such reactor systems are lauded for their independent control of ion flux and energy enabling high etch rates with low ion damage and for their improved ion velocity anisotropy resulting from thin collisionless sheaths and low neutral pressures. Still, with the transition to 300 mm processing, achieving etch uniformity and high etch rates concurrently may be a formidable task for such large diameter wafers for which computational modeling can play an important role in successful reactor and process design. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor is the focus of the present investigation. The present work attempts to understand the fundamental physical phenomena of such systems through computational modeling. Simulations will be presented using both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for argon and chlorine discharges. ICP reactors generally operate at pressures on the order of 1 to 10 mTorr. At such low pressures, rarefaction can be significant to the degree that the constitutive relations used in typical CFD techniques become invalid and a particle simulation must be employed. This work will assess the extent to which CFD can be applied and evaluate the degree to which accuracy is lost in prediction of the phenomenon of interest; i.e., etch rate. If the CFD approach is found reasonably accurate and bench-marked with DSMC and experimental results, it has the potential to serve as a design tool due to the rapid time relative to DSMC. The continuum CFD simulation solves the governing equations for plasma flow using a finite difference technique with an implicit Gauss-Seidel Line Relaxation method for time marching toward a converged solution. The equation set consists of mass conservation for each species, separate energy equations for the electrons and heavy species, and momentum equations for the gas. The sheath is modeled by imposing the Bohm velocity to the ions near the walls. The DSMC method simulates each constituent of the gas as a separate species which would be analogous in CFD to employing separate species mass, momentum, and energy equations. All particles including electrons are moved and allowed to collide with one another with the stipulation that the electrons remain tied to the ions consistent with the concept of ambipolar diffusion. The velocities of the electrons are allowed to be modified during collisions and are not confined to a Maxwellian distribution. These benefits come at a price in terms of computational time and memory. The DSMC and CFD are made as consistent as possible by using similar chemistry and power deposition models. Although the comparison of CFD and DSMC is interesting, the main goal of this work is the increased understanding of high-density plasma flowfields that can then direct improvements in both techniques. This work is unique in the level of the physical models employed in both the DSMC and CFD for high-density plasma reactor applications. For example, the electrons are simulated in the present DSMC work which has not been done before for low temperature plasma processing problems. In the CFD approach, for the first time, the charged particle transport (discharge physics) has been self-consistently coupled to the gas flow and heat transfer.

Hash, D. B.; Bose, D.; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

329

Process design and evaluation of production of bioethanol and ?-lactam antibiotic from lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

To design biorefinery processes producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass with dilute acid pretreatment, biorefinery processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. To improve the efficiency of biomass use and the economics of biorefinery, additional pretreatment processes were designed and evaluated, in which a combined process of dilute acid and aqueous ammonia pretreatments, and a process of waste media containing xylose were used, for the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Finally, the productivity and economics of the designed processes were compared. PMID:25262428

Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

2014-11-01

330

Using Function Generalization to Design a Cosequential Processing Framework  

E-print Network

. Traditional approaches involve either the evolution or the systematic design of the needed generic structure are embodied in the overall collaborative structure of the classes in the framework and concrete methodology [19], frame- work designers take the object-oriented design for a specific application within

Cunningham, Conrad

331

Design, experimentation, and modeling of a novel continuous biodrying process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive production of sludge in the pulp and paper industry has made the effective sludge management increasingly a critical issue for the industry due to high landfill and transportation costs, and complex regulatory frameworks for options such as sludge landspreading and composting. Sludge dewatering challenges are exacerbated at many mills due to improved in-plant fiber recovery coupled with increased production of secondary sludge, leading to a mixed sludge with a high proportion of biological matter which is difficult to dewater. In this thesis, a novel continuous biodrying reactor was designed and developed for drying pulp and paper mixed sludge to economic dry solids level so that the dried sludge can be economically and safely combusted in a biomass boiler for energy recovery. In all experimental runs the economic dry solids level was achieved, proving the process successful. In the biodrying process, in addition to the forced aeration, the drying rates are enhanced by biological heat generated through the microbial activity of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms naturally present in the porous matrix of mixed sludge. This makes the biodrying process more attractive compared to the conventional drying techniques because the reactor is a self-heating process. The reactor is divided into four nominal compartments and the mixed sludge dries as it moves downward in the reactor. The residence times were 4-8 days, which are 2-3 times shorter than the residence times achieved in a batch biodrying reactor previously studied by our research group for mixed sludge drying. A process variable analysis was performed to determine the key variable(s) in the continuous biodrying reactor. Several variables were investigated, namely: type of biomass feed, pH of biomass, nutrition level (C/N ratio), residence times, recycle ratio of biodried sludge, and outlet relative humidity profile along the reactor height. The key variables that were identified in the continuous biodrying reactor were the type of biomass feed and the outlet relative humidity profiles. The biomass feed is mill specific and since one mill was studied for this study, the nutrition level of the biomass feed was found adequate for the microbial activity, and hence the type of biomass is a fixed parameter. The influence of outlet relative humidity profile was investigated on the overall performance and the complexity index of the continuous biodrying reactor. The best biodrying efficiency was achieved at an outlet relative humidity profile which controls the removal of unbound water at the wet-bulb temperature in the 1st and 2nd compartments of the reactor, and the removal of bound water at the dry-bulb temperature in the 3rd and 4th compartments. Through a systematic modeling approach, a 2-D model was developed to describe the transport phenomena in the continuous biodrying reactor. The results of the 2-D model were in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. It was found that about 30% w/w of the total water removal (drying rate) takes place in the 1st and 2nd compartments mainly under a convection dominated mechanism, whereas about 70% w/w of the total water removal takes place in the 3rd and 4th compartments where a bioheat-diffusion dominated mechanism controls the transport phenomena. The 2-D model was found to be an appropriate tool for the estimation of the total water removal rate (drying rate) in the continuous biodrying reactor when compared to the 1-D model. A dimensionless analysis was performed on the 2-D model and established the preliminary criteria for the scale-up of the continuous biodrying process. Finally, a techno-economic assessment of the continuous biodrying process revealed that there is great potential for the implementation of the biodrying process in Canadian pulp and paper mills. The techno-economic results were compared to the other competitive existing drying technologies. It was proven that the continuous biodrying process results in significant economic benefits and has great potential to address the current industr

Navaee-Ardeh, Shahram

332

Design and Evaluation of an Event Architecture for Paper UIs: Developers Create by Copying and Combining  

E-print Network

; prototyping; user-centered design. D.2.2 [Software Engineering]: Design Tools and Tech- niques techniques. Users have created tools for many tasks, including web design (left) and music composition (right1 Design and Evaluation of an Event Architecture for Paper UIs: Developers Create by Copying

Klemmer, Scott

333

From Concept to Software: Developing a Framework for Understanding the Process of Software Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of technological innovation and the process of design focuses on the design of computer software. Offers a framework for understanding the design process by examining two computer programs: FliPS, a multimedia program for learning complex problems in chemistry; and Tiger, a Web-based program for managing and publishing electronic…

Mishra, Punyashloke; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Sophia

1999-01-01

334

AC 2007-225: A DESIGN PROCESS FOR CONCEPTUAL BASED, COUNTER-INTUITIVE PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

AC 2007-225: A DESIGN PROCESS FOR CONCEPTUAL BASED, COUNTER-INTUITIVE PROBLEMS Louis Everett, machine design, dynamics and control systems. leverett@utep.edu http://research.utep.edu/pacelab Arunkumar. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2007 #12;A Design Process for Conceptual Based, Counter

Everett, Louis J.

335

Information Design for "Weak Signal" detection and processing in Economic Intelligence: A case  

E-print Network

Information Design for "Weak Signal" detection and processing in Economic Intelligence: A case of "Information Design" applied to detect and profit from weak signals in economic intelligence (EI) or business intelligence (BI). The field of the information design (ID) applies to the process of translating complex

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

Design and Testing of a Friction Stir Processing Machine for Laboratory Research  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the design, fabrication and testing of a friction stir processing machine. The machine is intended to be a flexible research tool for a broad range of friction stir processing studies. The machine design also addresses the need for an affordable, robust design for general laboratory use.

Karen S. Miller; Rodney J. Bitsoi; Eric D. Larsen; Herschel B. Smartt

2006-08-01

337

Language Impairment, Family Interaction and the Design of a Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study describes a user-centered design approach in the area of aphasia. Aphasia is a language impairment that can take many forms, so a particular case provides the foundation for this work. The particularities of the individual with this condition and his social context are key to developing and designing an intervention that supports…

Noel, Guillermina

2008-01-01

338

Empowering software engineers in human-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usability is about to become the quality measure of today's interactive software including Web sites, and mobile appliances. User-centered design approach emerges from this need for developing more usable products. However, interactive systems are still designed and tested by software and computer engineers unfamiliar with UCD and the related usability engineering techniques. While most software developers may have been exposed

Ahmed Seffah; Alina Andreevskaia

2003-01-01

339

An Expert System to Support Clothing Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of expert systems technologies and human computer interaction, the goal of this project is to construct an\\u000a interactive design support to fashion designers when designing workwear or corporatewear clothes. This system will be fed\\u000a by a semantic database that describes the relations between function and clothes specific context of use under the user’s\\u000a perspective. This application will

Michele Santos; Francisco Rebelo

2007-01-01

340

Designing User Interfaces for Smart-Applications for Operating Rooms and Intensive Care Units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today’s physicians and nurses working in operating rooms and intensive care units have to deal with an ever increasing amount of data. More and more medical devices are delivering information, which has to be perceived and interpreted in regard to patient status and the necessity to adjust therapy. The combination of high information load and insufficient usability creates a severe challenge for the health personnel with respect to proper monitoring of these devices respective to acknowledging alarms and timely reaction to critical incidents. Smart Applications are a new kind of decision support systems that incorporate medical expertise in order to help health personnel in regard to diagnosis and therapy. By means of a User Centered Design process of two Smart Applications (anaesthesia monitor display, diagnosis display), we illustrate which approach should be followed and which processes and methods have been successfully applied in fostering the design of usable medical devices.

Kindsmüller, Martin Christof; Haar, Maral; Schulz, Hannes; Herczeg, Michael

341

Innovation Process Design: A Change Management and Innovation Dimension Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors propose an innovative approach to the management of innovation integrating business, process, and maturity dimensions. Core element of the concept is the adaptation of ISO/IEC 15504 to the innovation process including 14 innovation drivers. Two managerial models are applied to conceptualize and visualize the respective innovation strategies, the Balanced Scorecard and a Barriers in Change Processes Model. An illustrative case study shows a practical implementation process.

Peisl, Thomas; Reger, Veronika; Schmied, Juergen

342

Cooperation System Design for the XMDR-Based Business Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a cooperation system for the XMDR-based business process. The proposed system solves the problem of heterogeneousness that may take place regarding interoperability of queries in a XMDR-based business process. Heterogeneousness in an operation of a business process may involve metadata collision, schema collision, or data collision. This can be handled by operating a business process by making use of XMDR-based Global Query and Local Query.

Moon, Seokjae; Jung, Gyedong; Hwang, Chigon; Choi, Youngkeun

343

An expert system for cold forging process design based on a depth-first search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the non-deterministic nature of process sequence design for multi-stage cold forging, various process designs are available depending on the initial billet geometry and the order of basic processes such as forward\\/backward extrusion, upsetting and trimming process. Therefore, various process sequences should be determined and compared to obtain an optimal solution. For this purpose, a depth-first search, a searching

Hong-Seok Kim; Yong-Taek Im

1999-01-01

344

Authenticity in the Process of Learning about Instructional Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authentic learning is touted as a powerful learning approach, particularly in the context of problem-based learning (Savery, 2006). Teaching and learning in the area of instructional design appears to offer a strong fit between the tenets of authentic learning and the practice of instructional design. This paper details the efforts to broaden and…

Wilson, Jay R.; Schwier, Richard A.

2009-01-01

345

Integrating security and usability into the requirements and design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Ross Anderson, 'Many systems fail because their designers protect the wrong things or protect the right things in the wrong way'. Surveys also show that security incidents in industry are rising, which highlights the difficulty of designing good security. Some recent approaches have targeted security from the technological perspective, others from the human-computer interaction angle, offering better User

Ivan Flechais; Cecilia Mascolo

2007-01-01

346

Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

Nesbitt, Dallas

2013-01-01

347

OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS, DESIGN AND OPERATION OF HYBRID SEPARATION PROCESSES  

E-print Network

or low relative volatilities. In a hybrid process where a distillation column unit and a pervaporation of the other. The addition of a pervaporation unit to the conventional distillation process, either before savings can be achieved when the optimal hybrid process is used instead of distillation or pervaporation

Blandford, Ann

348

Digital Signal Processing Engine Design for Polar Transmitter in Wireless Communication Systems  

E-print Network

Digital Signal Processing Engine Design for Polar Transmitter in Wireless Communication Systems efficiency Power Amplifier (PA). This paper describes a new design of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) engine process can be precisely controlled by the digital phase modulator. The baseband phase signal is modulated

Hung, Shih-Hao

349

Towards a Web-Based Handbook of Generic, Process-Oriented Learning Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Process-oriented learning designs are innovative learning activities that include a set of inter-related learning tasks and are generic (could be used across disciplines). An example includes a problem-solving process widely used in problem-based learning today. Most of the existing process-oriented learning designs are not documented, let alone…

Marjanovic, Olivera

2005-01-01

350

Internal model control and process uncertainty: mapping uncertainty regions for SISO controller design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete SISO controller design technique is presented that allows robust controller design in the face of process uncertainty. Process-uncertainty descriptions with meaningful physical interpretations are compatible with the technique. A test for robust performance can be applied when the process is described by a transfer function with real parameter variations. First a method is presented for locating all possible

DANIEL L. LAUGHLIN; KENNETH G. JORDAN; MANFRED MORARI

1986-01-01

351

Integration of design and manufacturing processes in first-year engineering curriculums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current industry expectations of engineering graduates are becoming increasingly more demanding in the areas of design and manufacturing. Their concerns are focused on the fact that graduates are not capable of producing realizable results based on their conceptual designs. One reason for this is their inexperience in understanding interrelationships between the design and manufacturing processes required to fabricate engineering designs.

Jeffrey Ray; John Farris

2000-01-01

352

Automating the software design process by means of software design and documentation language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) approach to software design automation consists of (1) a design and documentation language with forms and syntax that are simple, unrestrictive, and communicative, (2) a processor which can take design specifications written in the SDDL language and produce an intelligible, informative, machine reproducible document, and (3) methodology for effective use of language and

Henry Kleine

1978-01-01

353

Business Process Design Method Based on Business Event Model for Enterprise Information System Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional business process design methods, in which the usecase is the most typical, have no useful framework to design the activity sequence with. Therefore, the design efficiency and quality vary widely according to the designer’s experience and skill. In this paper, to solve this problem, we propose the business events and their state transition model (a basic business event model) based on the language/action perspective, which is the result in the cognitive science domain. In the business process design, using this model, we decide event occurrence conditions so that every event synchronizes with each other. We also propose the design pattern to decide the event occurrence condition (a business event improvement strategy). Lastly, we apply the business process design method based on the business event model and the business event improvement strategy to the credit card issue process and estimate its effect.

Kobayashi, Takashi; Komoda, Norihisa

354

NASA Now: Engineering Design Process: Hubble Space Telescope - Duration: 6:32.  

NASA Video Gallery

In this episode of NASA Now, NASA engineer Russ Werneth discusses the continuous nature of the engineering design process and shares what it was like to design and plan the spacewalks that were key...

355

30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating... (b) The Secretary shall notify the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment...Unsuitability designations made under the Tennessee State program shall remain valid...

2012-07-01

356

30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating... (b) The Secretary shall notify the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment...Unsuitability designations made under the Tennessee State program shall remain valid...

2010-07-01

357

30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating... (b) The Secretary shall notify the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment...Unsuitability designations made under the Tennessee State program shall remain valid...

2014-07-01

358

30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating... (b) The Secretary shall notify the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment...Unsuitability designations made under the Tennessee State program shall remain valid...

2013-07-01

359

30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating... (b) The Secretary shall notify the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment...Unsuitability designations made under the Tennessee State program shall remain valid...

2011-07-01

360

Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laboratory facilities are complex, technically sophisticated, and mechanically intensive structures that are expensive to build and to maintain. Hundreds of decisions must be made before and during new construction or renovation that will determine how successfully the facility will function when completed and how successfully it can be maintained once put into service. This book provides guidance on effective approaches for building laboratory facilities in the chemical and biochemical sciences. It contains both basic and laboratory-specific information addressed to the user community-the scientists and administrators who contract with design and construction experts. The book will also be important to the design and construction communities-the architects, laboratory designers, and engineers who will design the facility and the construction personnel who will build it-to help them communicate with the scientific community for whom they build laboratory facilities.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2000-01-01

361

Process Integration: Designing for Energy, Capital and Operability  

E-print Network

Over the last five years, significant energy savings have been achieved by several international companies using the pinch concept for heat integration. New concepts are now being added to help the designer deal with capital cost minimization...

Linnhoff, B.

362

The Design of the Borealis Stream Processing Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borealis is a second-generation distributed stream pro-cessing engine that is being developed at Brandeis Uni-versity, Brown University, and MIT. Borealis inherits core stream processing functionality from Aurora [14] and distribution functionality from Medusa [51]. Bo-realis modifies and extends both systems in non-trivial and critical ways to provide advanced capabilities that are commonly required by newly-emerging stream pro-cessing applications. In this

D. Abadi; Y. Ahmad; H. Balakrishnan

2004-01-01

363

A new heater design by radiation modeling and a new polymer waste-saving mechanism design for the SIS process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe a heating system for the selective inhibition sintering (SIS) process that will produce uniform heat and minimize the polymer powder waste. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This research was conducted in two areas: the first was the production of uniform heat distribution. For this task, a lighting design software was used for the

Bahram Asiabanpour; Robert Cano; Chandrashekar Subbareddy; Farhana Wasik; Thomas McCormick

2007-01-01

364

A qualitative study of the design process: the effects of a microcomputing system on beginning design students  

E-print Network

37 39 40 42 43 45 46 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW Experiments such as those conducted by Cigolle and Coleman, in which the computer is inteyated into the design process are more and more frequent in the design education environment [4...]. These studies are obviously relevant to the educational environment in which they take place, but their significance is even more far teaching. Sculptors, painters and various other artists have begun to use the computer as a design tool, as well...

Ayers, Gayle Yvonne

1992-01-01

365

Data processing with microcode designed with source coding  

DOEpatents

Programming for a data processor to execute a data processing application is provided using microcode source code. The microcode source code is assembled to produce microcode that includes digital microcode instructions with which to signal the data processor to execute the data processing application.

McCoy, James A; Morrison, Steven E

2013-05-07

366

Design, processing, and testing of LSI arrays for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work on the Process Analysis Structure was continued with the layout being completed, the 100X and 10X artwork being finalized, and the process and test sequences being prepared. Test programs were written for computer-controlled integrated-circuit testing and data reduction.

Ipri, A. C.

1976-01-01

367

INCORPORATING ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS INTO PROCESS DESIGN: THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM  

EPA Science Inventory

A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WASR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory integrates environmental impact assessment into chemical process design Potential en...

368

DESIGN OF SOFTWARE SENSORS FOR UNMEASURABLE VARIABLES OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESSES  

E-print Network

DESIGN OF SOFTWARE SENSORS FOR UNMEASURABLE VARIABLES OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESSES Simeonov, I variables of anaerobic digestion processes. For this purpose, different mathematical models of anaerobic digestion and different theoretical approaches (differential algebraic approach, Kalman filter modifications

Boyer, Edmond

369

Risk-Driven Design Processes: Balancing Efficiency with Resilience in Product Design  

E-print Network

Current design methods and approaches focus on increasing the efficiency of the product design system by, for example, eliminating waste and focusing on value creation. However, continuing failures in the development of ...

Oehmen, Josef

2011-01-01

370

Design alternatives for process group membership and multicast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process groups are a natural tool for distributed programming, and are increasingly important in distributed computing environments. However, there is little agreement on the most appropriate semantics for process group membership and group communication. These issues are of special importance in the Isis system, a toolkit for distributed programming. Isis supports several styles of process group, and a collection of group communication protocols spanning a range of atomicity and ordering properties. This flexibility makes Isis adaptable to a variety of applications, but is also a source of complexity that limits performance. This paper reports on a new architecture that arose from an effort to simplify Isis process group semantics. Our findings include a refined notion of how the clients of a group should be treated, what the properties of a multicast primitive should be when systems contain large numbers of overlapping groups, and a new construct called the casuality domain. As an illustration, we apply the architecture to the problem of converting processes into fault-tolerant process groups in a manner that is 'transparent' to other processes in the system.

Birman, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Robert; Gleeson, Barry

1991-01-01

371

Modular tools for motion control and process control system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An open, reconfigurable and modular process monitoring and CNC operating system has been developed. The process monitoring system runs on a dedicated DSP board with analog input and output channels. New process control and signal processing algorithms can be rapidly applied by sequential execution of script commands provided in a library. The CNC operating system is a combination of an open real-time, preemptive DSP operating system and a Windows NT application, which are fully integrated with each other. It supports multiple DSP boards and multiple host computers for distributed operation. The system's transparent communication protocol allows connection between software modules on the same or different DSP boards and host computers. The connections can be set up at runtime via a scripting language. THe operating system allows modular integration of new functions developed in C language, and can be reconfigured to control robots, machine tools or processes, using simple script commands. The system can be used as an open architecture, modular operating system for the progressive development of real time signal processing, motion and process control applications running in WINDOWS NT and DSP environments.

Erol, N. A.; Altintas, Yusuf; Ito, Mabo R.

1997-01-01

372

Iterative Design and Evaluation of an Event Architecture for Pen-and-Paper Interfaces  

E-print Network

and strategies; prototyping; user-centered design. Keywords Toolkits, evaluation, augmented paper, device have created tools for many tasks, including web design (left) and music composition (right). Goin1 Iterative Design and Evaluation of an Event Architecture for Pen-and-Paper Interfaces Ron B. Yeh

Pratt, Vaughan

373

Designing Optimal Heat and Power Systems for Industrial Processes  

E-print Network

Industrial heat and power systems are complex and not fully understood as integrated systems. Within the context of the overall manufacturing process, they represent enormous capital investments and substantially contribute to the total operating...

Rutkowski, M. A.; Witherell, W. D.

374

Design and development of a supplier evaluation process  

E-print Network

Low-cost sourcing is a strategy many companies, including Pratt & Whitney, use to reduce part costs. As they increase their efforts to resource products to low-cost regions, Pratt & Whitney needs a robust process to ...

Corum, Andrew (Andrew R.)

2009-01-01

375

Using design of experiments to improve a batch chemical process  

E-print Network

Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics has made a strong commitment to manufacturing seasonal influenza vaccines through their cell culture technology called Optaflu®. The goal of this project is to improve overall process yield ...

Hill, Andrew, S.M. (Andrew James). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

376

A Formal Model for Business Process Modeling and Design ?  

E-print Network

develop an enterprise model which consists of five inter­ connected submodels (organisational submodel, objectives and goals submodel, process submodel, concepts submodel and constraints submodel) that can be used

Koubarakis, Manolis

377

Constraints Based Modeling for Innovative Product & Process Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative, constraints based modeling (CBM) approach proved successful for product developments and process improvements.\\u000a The product developments involved specifying the chemical composition range for a set of chromium-free, high-performance consumable\\u000a electrodes intended for gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) of high-strength steels used in hull constructions while significantly\\u000a reducing energy costs. The process improvements involved selecting appropriate non-carcinogenic chemicals for a

K. Sampath

2007-01-01

378

Designing ICT tools to support participative catchment management processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Article 14 of the directive (Public information and consultation) calls for member states to 'encourage the active involvement of all interested parties in the implementation of this Directive, in particular in the production, review and updating of the River Basin Management Plans.' Whilst the need for public consultation is thereby firmly established, guidance on the design, implementation and management of

Amanda Swinford; Paul Jeffrey

379

High School Student Modeling in the Engineering Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A diverse group of 20 high school students from four states in the US were individually provided with an engineering design challenge. Students chosen were in capstone engineering courses and had taken multiple engineering courses. As students considered the problem and developed a solution, observational data were recorded and artifacts…

Mentzer, Nathan; Huffman, Tanner; Thayer, Hilde

2014-01-01

380

The Design Process for "PLATO[R] Math Problem Solving."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PLATO Learning, Inc., a developer of computer-based instruction, recently released "Math Problem Solving." This product was designed to teach strategies for solving math problems, and consists of 19 problem-solving activities, ranging from basic math to algebra. Each activity includes tools to help find a solution and rule-based coaching to…

Mulcahy, Robert

2001-01-01

381

An Agent Based Design Process for Cognitive Architectures in Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, robots have to face very complex tasks, often requiring collaboration between several individuals. As a consequence, robotics can be considered one of the most suitable paradigms for agent-based software. In this work, we present an approach to the design of distributed multi-agent architectures for mobile robotics, that is based on the Unified Modeling Language. Our main goal is to

Antonio Chella; Massimo Cossentino; Ignazio Infantino; Roberto Pirrone

2001-01-01

382

RF MEMS tunable filter: Design, simulation and fabrication process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a tunable bandpass filter topology which controls both the central frequency and bandwidth. This tunable filter results from the association of MEMS (microelectromechanical system) fixed-fixed beam, used as variable capacitors, with an original passive topology. The design proposed in this paper is the metallic bridge over a coplanar microstrip couple line suspended in both sides by

F. Islam; M. A. M. Ali; B. Y. Majlis; N. Amin

2008-01-01

383

Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes,  

E-print Network

are in high demand as engineers, designers, project managers and leaders in wealth-creating industries developers continue to be in high demand throughout the IT sector, particularly in industries such as security technology, transport and logistics, agriculture and forestry services,internet applications

Waikato, University of

384

Transparent process migration: Design alternatives and the Sprite implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sprite operating system allows executing processes to be moved between hosts at any time. We use this process migration mechanism to offload work onto idle machines, and also to evict migrated processes when idle workstations are reclaimed by their owners. Sprite's migration mechanism provides a high degree of transparency both for migrated processes and for users. Idle machines are identified, and eviction is invoked, automatically by daemon processes. On Sprite it takes up to a few hundred milliseconds on SPARCstation 1 workstations to perform a remote exec, while evictions typically occur in a few seconds. The pmake program uses remote invocation to invoke tasks concurrently. Compilations commonly obtain speedup factors in the range of three to six; they are limited primarily by contention for centralized resources such as file servers. CPU-bound tasks such as simulations can make more effective use of idle hosts, obtaining as much as eight-fold speedup over a period of hours. Process migration has been in regular service for over two years.

Douglis, Fred; Ousterhout, John

1991-01-01

385

New Materials Design Through Friction Stir Processing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has reached a large interest in the scientific community and in the last years also in the industrial environment, due to the advantages of such solid state welding process with respect to the classic ones. The complex material flow occurring during the process plays a fundamental role in such solid state welding process, since it determines dramatic changes in the material microstructure of the so called weld nugget, which affects the effectiveness of the joints. What is more, Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is mainly being considered for producing high-strain-rate-superplastic (HSRS) microstructure in commercial aluminum alloys. The aim of the present research is the development of a locally composite material through the Friction Stir Processing (FSP) of two AA7075-T6 blanks and a different material insert. The results of a preliminary experimental campaign, carried out at the varying of the additional material placed at the sheets interface under different conditions, are presented. Micro and macro observation of the such obtained joints permitted to investigate the effects of such process on the overall joint performance.

Buffa, G.; Fratini, L.; Shivpuri, R.

2007-04-01

386

An interfaces approach to TES ground data system processing design with the Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developing production-quality software to process the large volumes of scientific data is the responsibility of the TES Ground Data System, which is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory together with support contractor Raytheon/ITSS. The large data volume and processing requirements of the TES pose significant challenges to the design.

Kurian, R.; Grifin, A.

2002-01-01

387

Methodology of designing disassembly and reassembly processes using Lean Thinking approach  

E-print Network

1 Methodology of designing disassembly and reassembly processes using Lean Thinking approach Tomasz. In this paper a conception of using Lean Manufacturing methodology in disassembly and reassembly processes project is to prepare transparent and adaptable methodology of designing disassembly and reassembly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

A Digital Tool Set for Systematic Model Design in Process-Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the objectives of the process technology curriculum at Wageningen University is that students learn how to design mathematical models in the context of process engineering, using a systematic problem analysis approach. Students find it difficult to learn to design a model and little material exists to meet this learning objective. For these…

van der Schaaf, Hylke; Tramper, Johannes; Hartog, Rob J.M.; Vermue, Marian

2006-01-01

389

Co-design of Emulators for Power electric Processes Using SpecC Methodology  

E-print Network

Co-design of Emulators for Power electric Processes Using SpecC Methodology Slim Ben Saoud, Daniel-design of Emulators for Power electric Processes Using SpecC Methodology Slim Ben Saoud, Daniel D. Gajski Technical. Gajski CECS UCI-California-USA gajski@ics.uci.edu http://www.cecs.uci.edu/~gajski Abstract Emulation

California at Irvine, University of

390

The Use of Executive Control Processes in Engineering Design by Engineering Students and Professional Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cognitive construct that is important when solving engineering design problems is executive control process, or metacognition. It is a central feature of human consciousness that enables one "to be aware of, monitor, and control mental processes." The framework for this study was conceptualized by integrating the model for creative design, which…

Dixon, Raymond A.; Johnson, Scott D.

2012-01-01

391

Surface Acoustic Wave Signal Processing Devices: New Concepts for Monolithic Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface acoustic wave signal processing devices are unique in their ability to process high-speed analog signals. The work presented in this thesis concerns new monolithic designs for surface acoustic wave devices. Two design concepts are presented. The focused transducer waveguiding structure is presented as a means to increase the efficiency and maintain the bandwidth of surface acoustic wave convolvers and

Jonathan Bregstone Green

1983-01-01

392

Influences of Training and Strategical Information Processing Style on Spatial Performance in Apparel Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated how performance on a spatial task in apparel design was influenced by training and strategical information processing style. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate apparel design students from six universities in the U.S. Instruments used to collect data were the Apparel Spatial Visualization Test (ASVT) and the Strategical Information Processing Style (SIPS). ANOVA results showed a significant

Priscilla N. Gitimu; Jane E. Workman; Marcia A. Anderson

2005-01-01

393

Mechanism and design of intermittent aeration activated sludge process for nitrogen removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provided a comprehensive evaluation of the mechanism and design of intermittent aeration activated sludge process for nitrogen removal. Based on the specific character of the process the total cycle time, (TC), the aerated fraction, (AF), and the cycle time ratio, (CTR) were defined as major design parameters, aside from the sludge age of the system. Their impact on

Oytun Hanhan; Güçlü Insel; Nevin Ozgur Yagci; Nazik Artan; Derin Orhon

2011-01-01

394

A Converging Model of the Design Process: Analysis and Creativity, the Ingredients of Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ways in which designers tend to index mentally-stored information are different from those in which researchers tend to do this. Traditional models of the design process which contain a single serial arrangement of stages with feedback paths do not reflect the different operational logic required at different stages of the process. A converging, two-branched model for the early, innovative

RICHARD B. FROST

1992-01-01

395

A Systematic Literature Review on Agile Development Processes and User Centred Design Integration  

E-print Network

A Systematic Literature Review on Agile Development Processes and User Centred Design Integration.cairns@york.ac.uk ABSTRACT Agile development processes and User Centred Design (UCD) integration has been gaining increased) that was conducted on Agile and UCD integration. The aim of this SLR was to identify various challenging factors

Cairns, Paul

396

Development of a Robust Computational Design Simulator for Industrial Deformation Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of this continuing DMII-funded NSF project, computationally rigorous gradient-based optimiza- tion methodologies are being addressed for a virtual materials process design that is based on quantified product quality and accounts for process targets and constraints including economic aspects. Computa- tional design techniques will be developed that can be used to select the necessary sequence of forming and intermediate

Nicholas Zabaras

2002-01-01

397

Design of a High-Throughput Plasma-Processing System  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has demonstrated significant performance gains in crystalline silicon solar cell technology through the use of plasma-processing for the deposition of silicon nitride by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD), plasma-hydrogenation of the nitride layer, and reactive-ion etching of the silicon surface prior to the deposition to decrease the reflectivity of the surface. One of the major problems of implementing plasma processing into a cell production line is the batch configuration and/or low throughput of the systems currently available. This report describes the concept of a new in-line plasma processing system that could meet the industrial requirements for a high-throughput and cost effective solution for mass production of solar cells.

Darkazalli, Ghazi; Matthei, Keith; Ruby, Douglas S.

1999-07-20

398

Microstructure Sensitive Design and Processing in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to develop and inexpensive manufacturing process for deposition of functionally graded thin films of LSM oxides with porosity graded microstructures for use as IT-SOFCs cathode. The spray pyrolysis method was chosen as a low-temperature processing technique for deposition of porous LSM films onto dense YXZ substrates. The effort was directed toward the optimization of the processing conditions for deposition of high quality LSM films with variety of morphologies in the range of dense to porous microstructures. Results of optimization studies of spray parameters revealed that the substrate surface temperature is the most critical parameter influencing the roughness and morphology, porosity, cracking and crystallinity of the film.

Dr. Hamid Garmestani; Dr. Stephen Herring

2009-06-12

399

Process Design and Monitoring for Plasma Sprayed Abradable Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abradable coatings in compressor and high-pressure stages of gas turbines must provide specific hardness and porosity values\\u000a to achieve an optimal cut-in of the blade tips. A fractional factorial experimental plan was designed to investigate the influence\\u000a of the plasma spraying parameters argon flow rate, current, spraying distance and powder feed rate on these properties of\\u000a magnesia spinel. Based on

Tanja Steinke; Georg Mauer; Robert Vaßen; Detlev Stöver; Dan Roth-Fagaraseanu; Matthew Hancock

2010-01-01

400

Design of Linear Array Geometry for High Resolution Array Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear array is one of the most important types of multi-element sensor arrays, being extensively used in radar, sonar, telecommunications, radio astronomy and medical imaging systems. Traditionally, the array assumes uniform geometry with an inter-sensor spacing of ?\\/2, which limits resolvability because of the fixed aperture. Since the 1950's, much work has been done on designing nonuniform arrays with

Xinping Huang

1993-01-01

401

An Object-Oriented Platform-based Design Process for Embedded Real-Time Systems  

E-print Network

An Object-Oriented Platform-based Design Process for Embedded Real-Time Systems Marco A approach and related toolset the design of an embedded real-time automation system for an "intelligent Introduction The design of real-time embedded systems is a complex task because these systems include hardware

Wagner, Flávio Rech

402

Dramatic Reductions in Lead Time at Volvo Based on Restructuring the Design Process and Introducing Computers  

E-print Network

in engineering, design, and development. Volvo has been a pioneer in car safety and in car assembly methodsDramatic Reductions in Lead Time at Volvo Based on Restructuring the Design Process and Introducing., Cambridge, MA Summary For a relatively small company, Volvo has made substantial progress in design

Whitney, Daniel

403

A Critical Review of Instructional Design Process of Distance Learning System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional design refers to planning, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. It is an applied field of study aiming at the application of descriptive research outcomes in regular instructional settings. The present study was designed to critically review the process of instructional design at Allama Iqbal Open University…

Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; ur-Rahman, Fazal

2010-01-01

404

Toward a Learning/Instruction Process Model for Facilitating the Instructional Design Cycle  

E-print Network

Toward a Learning/Instruction Process Model for Facilitating the Instructional Design Cycle Yusuke.bourdeau@licef.ca Abstract. Many instructional design models have been proposed and their benefits are evident. However the potential to support some phases of instructional design. Furthermore, we give an example of how one

Mizoguchi, Riichiro

405

Towards a Structural Secure Design Process S. Hasan Mirjalili Arjen K. Lenstra  

E-print Network

, GPS systems, medical devices, and so on. To design such devices, the methodologies for secure is difficult. Many parameters should be considered to design a secure device. For example, consider an embeddedTowards a Structural Secure Design Process S. Hasan Mirjalili Arjen K. Lenstra IC, EPFL IC, LACAL

Lenstra, Arjen K.

406

A computerized team approach for concurrent product and process design optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concurrent product and process design (CPPD) can be handled by developing a computerized team approach. In the team approach, CPPD at the top-level abstraction is treated as a two-objective optimization problem with a view to two teams: design and manufacture. The design team aims to optimize the overall product functionality (or performance) and the manufacture team to minimize the total

Li Chen; Simon Li

2002-01-01

407

Design considerations for solar industrial process heat systems: nontracking and line focus collector technologies  

SciTech Connect

Items are listed that should be considered in each aspect of the design of a solar industrial process heat system. The collector technologies covered are flat-plate, evacuated tube, and line focus. Qualitative design considerations are stressed rather than specific design recommendations. (LEW)

Kutscher, C.F. (ed.)

1981-03-01

408

What Students See: Word Processing and the Perception of Visual Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that college students were aware of, and understood the function of, some common design elements (boldface, italics, numbered lists) but were much less aware of other design elements (headers, indentation, and line spacing); and that perceptions of design elements correlated strongly with self-reported experience using word processing

Markel, Mike

1998-01-01

409

Operational concepts and implementation strategies for the design configuration management process.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes operational concepts and implementation strategies for the Design Configuration Management Process (DCMP). It presents a process-based systems engineering model for the successful configuration management of the products generated during the operation of the design organization as a business entity. The DCMP model focuses on Pro/E and associated activities and information. It can serve as the framework for interconnecting all essential aspects of the product design business. A design operation scenario offers a sense of how to do business at a time when DCMP is second nature within the design organization.

Trauth, Sharon Lee

2007-05-01

410

Engineering and Empathy: Teaching the Engineering Design Process through Assistive Devices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students follow the steps of the engineering design process (EDP) while learning about assistive devices and biomedical engineering. They first go through a design-build-test activity to learn the steps of the cyclical engineering design process. Then, during the three main activities (7 x 55 minutes each) student teams are given a fictional client statement and follow the EDP steps to design productsâan off-road wheelchair, a portable wheelchair ramp, and an automatic floor sweeper computer program. Students brainstorm ideas, identify suitable materials and demonstrate different methods of representing solutions to their design problemsâscale drawings or programming descriptions, and simple models or classroom prototypes.

Inquiry-Based Bioengineering Research and Design Experiences for Middle-School Teachers RET Program, Department of Biomedical Engineering,

411

Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design  

SciTech Connect

FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

Coles, Garill A.; Hockert, John; Gitau, Ernest TN; Zentner, Michael D.

2013-01-26

412

Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design  

SciTech Connect

FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

Coles, Garill A.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Zentner, Michael D.

2012-11-09

413

EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

414

Collaborative Information Systems and Business Process Design Using Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Information Systems (IS) community promotes the idea that IS analyst should have a clear understanding of the way the organization operates before attempting to propose an IS solution. It is argued that to take a complete advantage of the underlying Information Technology (IT), organizations should first identify any process flaw and then propose a suitable IT solution. Similarly, many

Ray J. Paul; Alan Serrano

2004-01-01

415

A new Lyapunov design method for nonlinear process control  

E-print Network

and literature review B. Control design objectives . II ZUBOV'S METHOD AND THE CALCULATION OF A LYA- PUNOV FUNCTION . A. Zubov's method 1. Existence and uniqueness of solutions 2. Solution method 3. Local positive-definiteness of the solution V(x) 4... solution, and Q(x) a positive definite real analytic aQ scalar function defined on R" with Q(xp) = 0 and (xp) = 0. Notice, that if the cIx above PDE (2. 4) admits a positive definite solution V(x) in a neighborhood of xp, then V(x) is a suitable...

Dubljevic, Stevan

2012-06-07

416

The Design-to-Analysis Process at Sandia National Laboratories Observations and Recommendations  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of the design-to-analysis process for translating solid-model-based design data to computational analysis model data plays a central role in the application of computational analysis to engineering design and certification. A review of the literature from within Sandia as well as from industry shows that the design-to-analysis process involves a number of complex organizational and technological issues. This study focuses on the design-to-analysis process from a business process standpoint and is intended to generate discussion regarding this important issue. Observations obtained from Sandia staff member and management interviews suggest that the current Sandia design-to-analysis process is not mature and that this cross-organizational issue requires committed high-level ownership. A key recommendation of the study is that additional resources should be provided to the computer aided design organizations to support design-to-analysis. A robust community of practice is also needed to continuously improve the design-to-analysis process and to provide a corporate perspective.

BURNS,SHAWN P.; HARRISON,RANDY J.; DOBRANICH,DEAN

2001-08-01

417

INTEC CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System Closure: Process Design  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the engineering activities that have been completed in support of the closure plan for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System. This effort includes detailed assessments of methods and equipment for performing work in four areas: 1. A cold (nonradioactive) mockup system for testing equipment and procedures for vessel cleanout and vessel demolition. 2. Cleanout of process vessels to meet standards identified in the closure plan. 3. Dismantlement and removal of vessels, should it not be possible to clean them to required standards in the closure plan. 4. Cleanout or removal of pipelines and pumps associated with the CPP-603 basin water treatment system. Cleanout standards for the pipes will be the same as those used for the process vessels.

Kimmitt, Raymond Rodney; Faultersack, Wendell Gale; Foster, Jonathan Kay; Berry, Stephen Michael

2002-09-01

418

Process Options for Nominal 2-K Helium Refrigeration System Designs  

SciTech Connect

Nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems are frequently used for superconducting radio frequency and magnet string technologies used in accelerators. This paper examines the trade-offs and approximate performance of four basic types of processes used for the refrigeration of these technologies; direct vacuum pumping on a helium bath, direct vacuum pumping using full or partial refrigeration recovery, cold compression, and hybrid compression (i.e., a blend of cold and warm sub-atmospheric compression).

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

2012-07-01

419

Bodyscan data usage and the clothing design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper ,concentrates ,on the ,second ,and ,third phases ,of a ,developmental ,data collection process ,which ,was ,devised ,to enable ,focus group ,interviews ,to extract tacit interrelationship knowledge,from businesses,across,a regional clothing industry sector. It is intended,that the findings obtained,will identify the extent to which,new technologies,are being utilised within the Small to Medium ,sized Enterprise (SME) sector (Europa, 2005). Digital

Clare Hussey

420

Design, processing and testing of LSI arrays: Hybrid microelectronics task  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical cost factors were generated for both hybrid microcircuit and printed wiring board packaging methods. A mathematical cost model was created for analysis of microcircuit fabrication costs. The costing factors were refined and reduced to formulae for computerization. Efficient methods were investigated for low cost packaging of LSI devices as a function of density and reliability. Technical problem areas such as wafer bumping, inner/outer leading bonding, testing on tape, and tape processing, were investigated.

Himmel, R. P.; Stuhlbarg, S. M.; Ravetti, R. G.; Zulueta, P. J.

1979-01-01

421

Design for Process Integration and Efficient Energy Utilization  

E-print Network

intensive. A refinery can internally consume anything between 5% to 10% of the crude feed as fuel, depending upon the complexity of the processing plant. Since oil refining is such a significant energy user, this paper gives particular attention... an adver se effect on system flexibility. Product TYPICAL REFINERY FUTURE REFINERY Pnlduct Figure 6. Refinery Configuration Options The two simplistic schemes shown above are the extremes of refinery configurations. Historically, individual refinery...

James, A. J.

1982-01-01

422

The Design of the Borealis Stream Processing Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borealis is a second-generation distributed stream pro- cessing engine that is being developed at Brandeis Uni- versity, Brown University, and MIT. Borealis inherits core stream processing functionality from Aurora (14) and distribution functionality from Medusa (51). Bo- realis modifies and extends both systems in non-trivial and critical ways to provide advanced capabilities that are commonly required by newly-emerging stream pro-

Daniel J. Abadi; Yanif Ahmad; Magdalena Balazinska; Ugur Çetintemel; Mitch Cherniack; Jeong-hyon Hwang; Wolfgang Lindner; Anurag Maskey; Alex Rasin; Esther Ryvkina; Nesime Tatbul; Ying Xing

2005-01-01

423

Robust design of binary countercurrent adsorption separation processes  

SciTech Connect

The separation of a binary mixture, using a third component having intermediate adsorptivity as desorbent, in a four section countercurrent adsorption separation unit is considered. A procedure for the optimal and robust design of the unit is developed in the frame of Equilibrium Theory, using a model where the adsorption equilibria are described through the constant selectivity stoichiometric model, while mass-transfer resistances and axial mixing are neglected. By requiring that the unit achieves complete separation, it is possible to identify a set of implicity constraints on the operating parameters, that is, the flow rate ratios in the four sections of the unit. From these constraints explicit bounds on the operating parameters are obtained, thus yielding a region in the operating parameters space, which can be drawn a priori in terms of the adsorption equilibrium constants and the feed composition. This result provides a very convenient tool to determine both optimal and robust operating conditions. The latter issue is addressed by first analyzing the various possible sources of disturbances, as well as their effect on the separation performance. Next, the criteria for the robust design of the unit are discussed. Finally, these theoretical findings are compared with a set of experimental results obtained in a six port simulated moving bed adsorption separation unit operated in the vapor phase.

Storti, G. (Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy)); Mazzotti, M.; Morbidelli, M.; Carra, S. (Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, Milano (Italy))

1993-03-01

424

Designing a feedback control algorithm for the tube hydroforming process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tube hydroforming has a broad industrial appeal as the process enables production of geometrically complex parts within a single forming operation. The process is highly flexible with respect to adjustable process parameters (in the present context trajectories for the internal pressure and axial feeding). The objective of the present work is to identify a suitable and representative set of state variables and to develop a feedback algorithm enabling online control of material flow throughout the part using only limited/local information regarding the filling of the tool cavity. The filling of the tool is controlled by the internal pressure and the axial material feeding, and the proposed system operates with a constant axial feeding trajectory and controls the internal pressure based on the filling of the tool geometry. The methodology proves to be stable and flexible with respect to the dynamic behavior of the system and the numerical tests show that it is possible to control the quality and plastic deformation of the tube. Numerical simulations show that the control system can eliminate both rupture and irreversible wrinkling - which are the two major failure modes in tube hydroforming.

Endelt, Benny; Cheng, Ming; Zhang, Shihong; Nielsen, Karl Brian

2013-05-01

425

Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options  

SciTech Connect

The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

1984-09-01

426

Designing an Affordable Usability Test for E-Learning Modules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides background and an introduction to a user-centered design and usability test in an inexpensive format that allows content experts who are novices in e-learning development to perform testing on newly developed technical training modules prior to their release. The use of a small number of test participants, avoidance of…

O'Bryan, Corliss A.; Johnson, Donald M.; Shores-Ellis, Katrina D.; Crandall, Philip G.; Marcy, John A.; Seideman, Steve C.; Ricke, Steven C.

2010-01-01

427

Prototypes and paratypes: designing mobile and ubiquitous computing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducting user-centered design is a primary challenge in ubiquitous computing. Two kinds of prototyping techniques can be particularly effective for developing mobile and ubiquitous computing applications: compound prototypes and situated experience prototypes. Compound prototypes combine the final product's user interface (UI) with a computational implementation that runs on a separate system without the resource constraints of the target device. This

Gregory D. Abowd; Gillian R. Hayes; Giovanni Iachello; Julie A. Kientz; Shwetak N. Patel; Molly M. Stevens; Khai N. Truong

2005-01-01

428

Integrating dependability analysis into the real-time system design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we are developing a design framework for integrating dependability analysis into the distributed, heterogeneous, fault-tolerant real-time system design process. We focus on two dependability attributes: reliability and availability. We are implementing this framework on top of existing systems for the design of distributed, real-time systems such as TimeWiz. This will allow system designers to evaluate system dependability,

Naruemon Wattanapongsakorn; S. Levitan

2000-01-01

429

Elementary teachers' mental models of engineering design processes: A comparison of two communities of practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educating K-12 students in the processes of design engineering is gaining popularity in public schools. Several states have adopted standards for engineering design despite the fact that no common agreement exists on what should be included in the K-12 engineering design process. Furthermore, little pre-service and in-service professional development exists that will prepare teachers to teach a design process that is fundamentally different from the science teaching process found in typical public schools. This study provides a glimpse into what teachers think happens in engineering design compared to articulated best practices in engineering design. Wenger's communities of practice work and van Dijk's multidisciplinary theory of mental models provide the theoretical bases for comparing the mental models of two groups of elementary teachers (one group that teaches engineering and one that does not) to the mental models of design engineers (including this engineer/researcher/educator and professionals described elsewhere). The elementary school teachers and this engineer/researcher/educator observed the design engineering process enacted by professionals, then answered questions designed to elicit their mental models of the process they saw in terms of how they would teach it to elementary students. The key finding is this: Both groups of teachers embedded the cognitive steps of the design process into the matrix of the social and emotional roles and skills of students. Conversely, the engineers embedded the social and emotional aspects of the design process into the matrix of the cognitive steps of the design process. In other words, teachers' mental models show that they perceive that students' social and emotional communicative roles and skills in the classroom drive their cognitive understandings of the engineering process, while the mental models of this engineer/researcher/educator and the engineers in the video show that we perceive that cognitive understandings of the engineering process drive the social and emotional roles and skills used in that process. This comparison of mental models with the process that professional designers use defines a problem space for future studies that investigate how to incorporate engineering practices into elementary classrooms. Recommendations for engineering curriculum development and teacher professional development based on this study are presented.

McMahon, Ann P.

430

Effects of heavy metals on microorganisms application to process design  

E-print Network

of initial pH with a copper concentration of 25 mg/1 to relative values of 5 day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) for the control. However, control data were not presented to show effects of pH alone, which may have accounted for a large portion... concentration of substrate or nutrient, as presented by Irvine and Schaezler (15). Copper was chosen as a representative metal because of its relatively high toxicity (1, 4, 9, 16, 21, 24, 42) and its abundant use in industrial processes (24). Homogenized...

Heck, Robert Paul

2012-06-07

431

Fluidized bed incineration process design for transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect

A fluidized bed incineration facility has been installed at the Rocky Flats Plant to develop and demonstrate a process for the combustion of transuranic waste. The unit's capacity is about 82 kg/hr of combustible solid waste, which is nine times higher than the rate for the operating pilot-scale unit. The facility utilizes nonaqueous, in situ neutralization of acid gases. These gases are generated during the combustion of halogen-containing materials. The low-temperature (550 /sup 0/C) operation eliminates refractory-lined equipment.

Johnson, A. J.; Meyer, F. G.; Anderson, D. L.; Bell, B. A.; Feng, P. K.

1980-07-19

432

A Process Algebraic Approach to Software Architecture Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Process algebra is a formal tool for the specification and the verification of concurrent and distributed systems. It supports compositional modeling through a set of operators able to express concepts like sequential composition, alternative composition, and parallel composition of action-based descriptions. It also supports mathematical reasoning via a two-level semantics, which formalizes the behavior of a description by means of an abstract machine obtained from the application of structural operational rules and then introduces behavioral equivalences able to relate descriptions that are syntactically different. In this chapter, we present the typical behavioral operators and operational semantic rules for a process calculus in which no notion of time, probability, or priority is associated with actions. Then, we discuss the three most studied approaches to the definition of behavioral equivalences - bisimulation, testing, and trace - and we illustrate their congruence properties, sound and complete axiomatizations, modal logic characterizations, and verification algorithms. Finally, we show how these behavioral equivalences and some of their variants are related to each other on the basis of their discriminating power.

Aldini, Alessandro; Bernardo, Marco; Corradini, Flavio

433

A Quality Based Approach for the Analysis and Design of Business Process Models  

E-print Network

A Quality Based Approach for the Analysis and Design of Business Process Models Sarah Ayad1 CEDRIC in modeling and improving Business Process (BP) models quality. This problem is of growing interest as companies are realizing the undeniable impact of a better understanding of business processes (BP

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

Engineering Management Model for the early stage of Conceptual Design for the Product Innovation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The product concept phase of the product innovation process is a creative and interdisciplinary activity that transforms a market opportunity and technological innovation into successful products. It is a set of activity based processes in a product-oriented enterprise, and is essential to the economics success of such organization. Well-designed processes reduce development time, create better products, generate profit, and increase

N. Jamali; ETH Zürich; M. Meier

435

Methods for processing and prioritizing customer demands in variant product design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current highly competitive marketplace, customer demand is a major factor in the product design process. Many methods, such as quality function deployment and House of Quality (HoQ), provide a powerful process for translating and mapping customer demands into technical requirements. In the HoQ process, the customers' perceptions and expectations should be evaluated together in order to identify desirable

CHUNG-YANG CHEN; LI-CHIEH CHEN; LI LIN

2004-01-01

436

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Steady-State Operational Degrees of Freedom with Application to Refrigeration  

E-print Network

study on degrees of freedom is that of Konda et al.6 Processes for liquefaction of natural gas are very of the circulating refrigerant are also discussed. Two liquified natural gas (LNG) processes of current interest. The optimal design of liquified natural gass (LNG) processes has been studied extensively by several companies

Skogestad, Sigurd

437

A Model-driven Approach to Designing Cross-enterprise Business Processes  

E-print Network

A Model-driven Approach to Designing Cross- enterprise Business Processes Bernhard Bauer1, Jörg P.p.mueller@siemens.com Abstract. Modeling and managing business processes that span multiple or- ganizations involves new for interoperability. In this paper, we present an approach to modeling cross-enterprise business processes based

Bauer, Bernhard

438

36 CFR 62.4 - Natural landmark designation and recognition process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...including a proposed boundary map, and assess its regional standing...natural landmark designation process. (5) Upon individual...owners in the second notification process are the responsibility of the...properties and proceed with the process only if enough area...

2011-07-01

439

Intelligent Design | Overwhelming Evidence Human DNA repair process video -by chance?  

E-print Network

Intelligent Design | Overwhelming Evidence Human DNA repair process video - by chance? Uncommon process recorded in action (Video) (PhysOrg.com) -- A key phase in the repair process of damaged human DNA natural and man-made. Because damage can lead to cancer, cell death and mutations, an army of proteins

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

440

Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 1. Process design and technological assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different continuous process flowsheets for biodiesel production from virgin vegetable oil or waste cooking oil under alkaline or acidic conditions on a commercial scale were developed. Detailed operating conditions and equipment designs for each process were obtained. A technological assessment of these four processes was carried out to evaluate their technical benefits and limitations. Analysis showed that the alkali-catalyzed

Y Zhang; M. A Dubé; D. D McLean; M Kates

2003-01-01

441

Integrating a Genetic Algorithm Into a Knowledge-Based System for Ordering Complex Design Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design cycle associated with large engineering systems requires an initial decomposition of the complex system into design processes which are coupled through the transference of output data. Some of these design processes may be grouped into iterative subcycles. In analyzing or optimizing such a coupled system, it is essential to be able to determine the best ordering of the processes within these subcycles to reduce design cycle time and cost. Many decomposition approaches assume the capability is available to determine what design processes and couplings exist and what order of execution will be imposed during the design cycle. Unfortunately, this is often a complex problem and beyond the capabilities of a human design manager. A new feature, a genetic algorithm, has been added to DeMAID (Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) to allow the design manager to rapidly examine many different combinations of ordering processes in an iterative subcycle and to optimize the ordering based on cost, time, and iteration requirements. Two sample test cases are presented to show the effects of optimizing the ordering with a genetic algorithm.

Rogers, James L.; McCulley, Collin M.; Bloebaum, Christina L.

1996-01-01

442

A Framework for Preliminary Design of Aircraft Structures Based on Process Information. Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses the general framework and development of a computational tool for preliminary design of aircraft structures based on process information. The described methodology is suitable for multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) activities associated with integrated product and process development (IPPD). The framework consists of three parts: (1) product and process definitions; (2) engineering synthesis, and (3) optimization. The product and process definitions are part of input information provided by the design team. The backbone of the system is its ability to analyze a given structural design for performance as well as manufacturability and cost assessment. The system uses a database on material systems and manufacturing processes. Based on the identified set of design variables and an objective function, the system is capable of performing optimization subject to manufacturability, cost, and performance constraints. The accuracy of the manufacturability measures and cost models discussed here depend largely on the available data on specific methods of manufacture and assembly and associated labor requirements. As such, our focus in this research has been on the methodology itself and not so much on its accurate implementation in an industrial setting. A three-tier approach is presented for an IPPD-MDO based design of aircraft structures. The variable-complexity cost estimation methodology and an approach for integrating manufacturing cost assessment into design process are also discussed. This report is presented in two parts. In the first part, the design methodology is presented, and the computational design tool is described. In the second part, a prototype model of the preliminary design Tool for Aircraft Structures based on Process Information (TASPI) is described. Part two also contains an example problem that applies the methodology described here for evaluation of six different design concepts for a wing spar.

Rais-Rohani, Masoud

1998-01-01

443

Coal conversion systems design and process modeling. Volume 1: Application of MPPR and Aspen computer models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a coal gasification system design and mass and energy balance simulation program for the TVA and other similar facilities is described. The materials-process-product model (MPPM) and the advanced system for process engineering (ASPEN) computer program were selected from available steady state and dynamic models. The MPPM was selected to serve as the basis for development of system level design model structure because it provided the capability for process block material and energy balance and high-level systems sizing and costing. The ASPEN simulation serves as the basis for assessing detailed component models for the system design modeling program. The ASPEN components were analyzed to identify particular process blocks and data packages (physical properties) which could be extracted and used in the system design modeling program. While ASPEN physical properties calculation routines are capable of generating physical properties required for process simulation, not all required physical property data are available, and must be user-entered.

1981-01-01

444

A novel double loop control model design for chemical unstable processes.  

PubMed

In this manuscript, based on Smith predictor control scheme for unstable process in industry, an improved double loop control model is proposed for chemical unstable processes. Inner loop is to stabilize integrating the unstable process and transform the original process to first-order plus pure dead-time dynamic stable process. Outer loop is to enhance the performance of set point response. Disturbance controller is designed to enhance the performance of disturbance response. The improved control system is simple with exact physical meaning. The characteristic equation is easy to realize stabilization. Three controllers are separately design in the improved scheme. It is easy to design each controller and good control performance for the respective closed-loop transfer function separately. The robust stability of the proposed control scheme is analyzed. Finally, case studies illustrate that the improved method can give better system performance than existing design methods. PMID:24309506

Cong, Er-Ding; Hu, Ming-Hui; Tu, Shan-Tung; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Shao, Hui-He

2014-03-01

445

New process modeling [sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report  

SciTech Connect

This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice.

Ray, W. Harmon

2002-06-05

446

The Impact of Building Information Modeling on the Architectural Design Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many benefits of Building Information Modeling, BIM, have been suggested by several authors and by software vendors. In this paper we describe an experiment in which two groups of designers were observed developing an assigned design task. One of the groups used a BIM system, while the other used a standard computer-aided drafting system. The results show that some of the promises of BIM hold true, such as consistency maintenance and error avoidance in the design documentation process. Other promises such as changing the design process itself seemed also promising but they need more research to determine to greater extent the depth of such changes.

Moreira, P. F.; Silva, Neander F.; Lima, Ecilamar M.

447

Improving the Aircraft Design Process Using Web-Based Modeling and Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing and developing new aircraft systems is time-consuming and expensive. Computational simulation is a promising means for reducing design cycle times, but requires a flexible software environment capable of integrating advanced multidisciplinary and multifidelity analysis methods, dynamically managing data across heterogeneous computing platforms, and distributing computationally complex tasks. Web-based simulation, with its emphasis on collaborative composition of simulation models, distributed heterogeneous execution, and dynamic multimedia documentation, has the potential to meet these requirements. This paper outlines the current aircraft design process, highlighting its problems and complexities, and presents our vision of an aircraft design process using Web-based modeling and simulation.

Reed, John A.; Follen, Gregory J.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Follen, Gregory J. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

448

Improving the Aircraft Design Process Using Web-based Modeling and Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing and developing new aircraft systems is time-consuming and expensive. Computational simulation is a promising means for reducing design cycle times, but requires a flexible software environment capable of integrating advanced multidisciplinary and muitifidelity analysis methods, dynamically managing data across heterogeneous computing platforms, and distributing computationally complex tasks. Web-based simulation, with its emphasis on collaborative composition of simulation models, distributed heterogeneous execution, and dynamic multimedia documentation, has the potential to meet these requirements. This paper outlines the current aircraft design process, highlighting its problems and complexities, and presents our vision of an aircraft design process using Web-based modeling and simulation.

Reed, John A.; Follen, Gregory J.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

2003-01-01

449

Discussion: the design and analysis of the Gaussian process model  

SciTech Connect

The investigation of complex physical systems utilizing sophisticated computer models has become commonplace with the advent of modern computational facilities. In many applications, experimental data on the physical systems of interest is extremely expensive to obtain and hence is available in limited quantities. The mathematical systems implemented by the computer models often include parameters having uncertain values. This article provides an overview of statistical methodology for calibrating uncertain parameters to experimental data. This approach assumes that prior knowledge about such parameters is represented as a probability distribution, and the experimental data is used to refine our knowledge about these parameters, expressed as a posterior distribution. Uncertainty quantification for computer model predictions of the physical system are based fundamentally on this posterior distribution. Computer models are generally not perfect representations of reality for a variety of reasons, such as inadequacies in the physical modeling of some processes in the dynamic system. The statistical model includes components that identify and adjust for such discrepancies. A standard approach to statistical modeling of computer model output for unsampled inputs is introduced for the common situation where limited computer model runs are available. Extensions of the statistical methods to functional outputs are available and discussed briefly.

Williams, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Loeppky, Jason L [UNIV OF BC-OKANAGAN

2008-01-01

450

Design and processing of porous materials for electronic applications.  

PubMed

The use of porosity, either unintentionally or intentionally, in the fabrication of materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications is introduced. Unintentional uses include the fabrication of ceramic magnets, where high electrical resistivities are required to reduce eddy currents at high frequency, and the powder technology, often used, inevitably results in porosity. The generation of light from porous silicon created a huge impact in the early 1990s, followed by extensive work on the mechanism responsible, and has now been followed by a more balanced evaluation of its potential. Porous ferroelectrics have shown significant advantages over dense materials for positive temperature coefficient of resistance applications, and for sensors such as hydrophones, and these will be discussed. Low dielectric constant materials are required for the next generation of silicon integrated circuits, where a reduction compared with silicon dioxide is required, and here porosity is a convenient strategy. Finally, the use of deliberately engineered porous nanostructures, with dimensions in the range of the wavelength of light, are discussed for applications in optical processing. PMID:18272459

Willoughby, A F W

2006-01-15

451

Conversion of microalgae to jet fuel: process design and simulation.  

PubMed

Microalgae's aquatic, non-edible, highly genetically modifiable nature and fast growth rate are considered ideal for biomass conversion to liquid fuels providing promise for future shortages in fossil fuels and for reducing greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions from combustion. We demonstrate adaptability of PRO/II software by simulating a microalgae photo-bio-reactor and thermolysis with fixed conversion isothermal reactors adding a heat exchanger for thermolysis. We model a cooling tower and gas floatation with zero-duty flash drums adding solids removal for floatation. Properties data are from PRO/II's thermodynamic data manager. Hydrotreating is analyzed within PRO/II's case study option, made subject to Jet B fuel constraints, and we determine an optimal 6.8% bioleum bypass ratio, 230°C hydrotreater temperature, and 20:1 bottoms to overhead distillation ratio. Process economic feasibility occurs if cheap CO2, H2O and nutrient resources are available, along with solar energy and energy from byproduct combustion, and hydrotreater H2 from product reforming. PMID:24997379

Wang, Hui-Yuan; Bluck, David; Van Wie, Bernard J

2014-09-01

452

Expert system for multi-stage cold-forging process design with a re-designing algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold forging has recently become one of the competitive technologies in manufacturing. In order to improve the productivity of cold forging at low production cost, an integrated systems approach is necessary in handling the material preparation and the optimum process design considering the forming machines, tooling, and operation, including quality control. As the first step toward this approach, an expert

Hong-Seok Kim; Yong-Taek Im

1995-01-01

453

TOWARDS THE DESIGN OF A LAYER-BASED ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR THE REALIZATION OF METAL PARTS OF DESIGNED MESOSTRUCTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-density cellular materials, metallic bodies with gaseous voids, are a unique class of materials that have high strength, good energy absorption characteristics, good thermal and acoustic insulation properties, accompanied by an extremely low mass. Unfortunately, current cellular material manufacturing processes severely limit a designer's ability to control the part mesostructure, the material composition, and the part macrostructure. As such, the

Christopher B. Williams; Farrokh Mistree; David W. Rosen

454

Developing Elementary Math and Science Process Skills Through Engineering Design Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines how elementary students can develop math and science process skills through an engineering design approach to instruction. The performance and development of individual process skills overall and by gender were also examined. The study, preceded by a pilot, took place in a grade four extracurricular engineering design program in a public, suburban school district. Students worked in pairs and small groups to design and construct airplane models from styrofoam, paper clips, and toothpicks. The development and performance of process skills were assessed through a student survey of learning gains, an engineering design packet rubric (student work), observation field notes, and focus group notes. The results indicate that students can significantly develop process skills, that female students may develop process skills through engineering design better than male students, and that engineering design is most helpful for developing the measuring, suggesting improvements, and observing process skills. The study suggests that a more regular engineering design program or curriculum could be beneficial for students' math and science abilities both in this school and for the elementary field as a whole.

Strong, Matthew G.

455

Defining process design space for biotech products: case study of Pichia pastoris fermentation.  

PubMed

The concept of "design space" has been proposed in the ICH Q8 guideline and is gaining momentum in its application in the biotech industry. It has been defined as "the multidimensional combination and interaction of input variables (e.g., material attributes) and process parameters that have been demonstrated to provide assurance of quality." This paper presents a stepwise approach for defining process design space for a biologic product. A case study, involving P. pastoris fermentation, is presented to facilitate this. First, risk analysis via Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is performed to identify parameters for process characterization. Second, small-scale models are created and qualified prior to their use in these experimental studies. Third, studies are designed using Design of Experiments (DOE) in order for the data to be amenable for use in defining the process design space. Fourth, the studies are executed and the results analyzed for decisions on the criticality of the parameters as well as on establishing process design space. For the application under consideration, it is shown that the fermentation unit operation is very robust with a wide design space and no critical operating parameters. The approach presented here is not specific to the illustrated case study. It can be extended to other biotech unit operations and processes that can be scaled down and characterized at small scale. PMID:18412404

Harms, Jean; Wang, Xiangyang; Kim, Tina; Yang, Xiaoming; Rathore, Anurag S

2008-01-01

456

Holistic and Consistent Design Process for Hollow Structures Based on Braided Textiles and RTM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper elaborates a holistic and consistent design process for 2D braided composites in conjunction with Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM). These technologies allow a cost-effective production of composites due to their high degree of automation. Literature can be found that deals with specific tasks of the respective technologies but there is no work available that embraces the complete process chain. Therefore, an overall design process is developed within the present paper. It is based on a correlated conduction of sub-design processes for the braided preform, RTM-injection, mandrel plus mould and manufacturing. For each sub-process both, individual tasks and reasonable methods to accomplish them are presented. The information flow within the design process is specified and interdependences are illustrated. Composite designers will be equipped with an efficient set of tools because the respective methods regard the complexity of the part. The design process is applied for a demonstrator in a case study. The individual sub-design processes are accomplished exemplarily to judge about the feasibility of the presented work. For validation reasons, predicted braiding angles and fibre volume fractions are compared with measured ones and a filling and curing simulation based on PAM-RTM is checked against mould filling studies. Tool concepts for a RTM mould and mandrels that realise undercuts are tested. The individual process parameters for manufacturing are derived from previous design steps. Furthermore, the compatibility of the chosen fibre and matrix system is investigated based on pictures of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The annual production volume of the demonstrator part is estimated based on these findings.

Gnädinger, Florian; Karcher, Michael; Henning, Frank; Middendorf, Peter

2014-06-01

457

Geometry-oriented knowledge-based system for preliminary process design of cold-forged parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated architecture of a geometry-oriented knowledge-based process-design system (GEOPDE) for multistage\\u000a cold forging of solid and hollow parts. It deals with the unit processes of upsetting, forward extrusion, backward extrusion\\u000a and with combinations of these processes. By using the notion of group technology, the forging processes and forging part\\u000a geometries are classified. With Prolog as the

Q. C. Hsu; R. S. Lee

1991-01-01

458

Materials and Process Design for High-Temperature Carburizing: Integrating Processing and Performance  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to develop an integrated process for fast, high-temperature carburizing. The new process results in an order of magnitude reduction in cycle time compared to conventional carburizing and represents significant energy savings in addition to a corresponding reduction of scrap associated with distortion free carburizing steels.

D. Apelian

2007-07-23

459

Virtual Display Design and Evaluation of Clothing: A Design Process Support System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a new computer-aided educational system for clothing visual merchandising and display. It aims to provide an operating environment that supports the various stages of display design in a user-friendly and intuitive manner. First, this paper provides a brief introduction to current software applications in the field of…

Zhang, Xue-Fang; Huang, Ren-Qun

2014-01-01

460

A Model of Creative Design Process for Fostering Creativity of Students in Design Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creativity, which is concerned with problem solving, is essential if we are to generate new solutions to the massive and complex problems in the unknown future. Our next generation needs an educational platform where they can be taught to possess creativity. Design education is such a way to foster students' creativity. Therefore, it is essential…

Wong, Yi Lin; Siu, Kin Wai Michael

2012-01-01

461

Media milling process optimization for manufacture of drug nanoparticles using design of experiments (DOE).  

PubMed

Abstract Design of experiments (DOE), a component of Quality by Design (QbD), is systematic and simultaneous evaluation of process variables to develop a product with predetermined quality attributes. This article presents a case study to understand the effects of process variables in a bead milling process used for manufacture of drug nanoparticles. Experiments were designed and results were computed according to a 3-factor, 3-level face-centered central composite design (CCD). The factors investigated were motor speed, pump speed and bead volume. Responses analyzed for evaluating these effects and interactions were milling time, particle size and process yield. Process validation batches were executed using the optimum process conditions obtained from software Design-Expert® to evaluate both the repeatability and reproducibility of bead milling technique. Milling time was optimized to <5?h to obtain the desired particle size (d90?process variables by applying DOE resulted in considerable decrease in milling time to achieve the desired particle size. The study indicates the applicability of DOE approach to optimize critical process parameters in the manufacture of drug nanoparticles. PMID:24180259

Nekkanti, Vijaykumar; Marwah, Ashwani; Pillai, Raviraj

2015-01-01

462

PROCESS DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT: A MULTI-OBJECTIVE FRAMEWORK UNDER UNCERTAINTY  

EPA Science Inventory

Designing chemical processes for environment requires consideration of several indexes of environmental impact including ozone depletion and global warming potentials, human and aquatic toxicity, and photochemical oxidation, and acid rain potentials. Current methodologies like t...

463

DESIGN OF A TRAP GREASE UPGRADER FOR BIOFUEL PROCESSING - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

This project provides capstone senior design experience to several teams of engineering undergraduates at Drexel University through the technical and economic evaluation of a trap grease to biodiesel conversion process. The project incorporates two phases: Phase I characteri...

464

CENSUS DESIGNATED PLACE AND FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARD (FIPS) POPULATED PLACEBOUNDARIES FOR THE STATE OF ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set consists of Census Designated Place and Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Populated Place boundaries for the State of Arizona which were extracted from the 1992 U.S. Census Bureau TIGER line files. ...

465

Design of a bench-scale apparatus for processing carbon black derived from scrap tires  

E-print Network

The focus of this work is to design a bench-scale apparatus, for laboratory applications, that will perform solid processing operations for carbon black obtained through the thermal catalytic depolymerization of scrap tires. These operations...

Woodrow, Philip Travis

1996-01-01

466

Empowering design through non-visual process: The blind add new vision to innovation  

E-print Network

Currently, the design of products and services is focused on visual processes that exclude the other senses. The study herein presented explores the flaws of using a fully visual approach in the areas of education, product ...

Magario, Rachel

2012-05-31

467

30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...

2013-07-01

468

HIERARCHIAL DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF PROCESSES TO GENERATE WASTE-RECYCLED FEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hierarchical Design and Evaluation of Processes to Generate Waste-Recycled Feeds Raymond L. Smith U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development National Risk Management Research Laboratory 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive Cincinna...

469

A Hybrid Intelligent System for Stamping Process Planning in Progressive Die Design  

E-print Network

This paper presents an intelligent, hybrid system for stamping process planning in progressive die design. The system combines the flexibility of blackboard architecture with case-based reasoning. The hybrid system has the ...

Zhang, W.Y.

470

The design, synthesis and properties of pressure-processable biodegradable block copolymers  

E-print Network

In this thesis, biodegradable block copolyesters were specifically designed and synthesized for their susceptibility to pressure-induced mixing. These baroplastic materials are capable of being processed and molded through ...

Lovell, Nathan Gary

2005-01-01

471

A new design of signal processing system for TDI infrared focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, according to the characteristics of TDI infrared focal plane array output signal, a novel signal processing system based on AC coupling technology is proposed. Firstly, the output signal characteristics of TDI infrared focal plane array are analyzed. Secondly, the signal processing system based on AC-coupled technology is introduced. The designed system is consist of high pass filter circuit, signal conditioning circuit, differential input analog to digital converting circuit and digital data processing circuit. Thirdly, the designed system is simulated and tested. Simulation and test results show that the novel design idea of signal processing circuit is reasonable and feasible. Compared with the traditional design, the system has the characteristics of high common mode noise rejection, low temperature drift and low power consumption.

Wang, Hua; Wei, Zhiyong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Xu; Zhang, WenYu; Li, Tao

2012-12-01

472

Fundamental process and system design issues in CO2 vapor compression systems  

E-print Network

; CO2 (R-744); Transcritical cycle; Vapor compression system; COP; Air-conditioning; Heat pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 3. Transcritical vapor compression cycleFundamental process and system design issues in CO2 vapor compression systems Man-Hoe Kima

Bahrami, Majid

473

The classification and analysis of terrace houses and the rationalization of their design process  

E-print Network

This study was done in relation to contextual levels; A general level of structural-methodical rationalization problems of the planning and design process. This general level was related mainly to the building types which ...

Nattel, Gabriel Moshe

1979-01-01

474

GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

475

Climbing The Knowledge Mountain - The New Solids Processing Design And Management Manual  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA, Water Environment Federation (WEF) and Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), are undertaking a massive effort to produce a Solids Processing Design and Management Manual (Manual). The Manual, repr...

476

Climbing The Knowledge Mountain - The New Solids Processing Design And Management Manual (Presentation)  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA, Water Environment Federation (WEF) and Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), are undertaking a massive effort to produce a Solids Processing Design and Management Manual (Manual). The Manual, repr...

477

Design of visual prosthesis image processing system based on SoC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a visual prosthesis image processing system based on Leon3 SoC (System on Chip) platform. The system is built through GRLIB system development platform. It integrates the image preprocessing IP core, image encoder IP core and image data modulation IP core we designed. We transplant the system to the FPGA development board and verify the system functions. The results show that the designed system can achieve the functions of visual prosthesis image processing system effectively.

Guo, Fei; Yang, Yuan; Gao, Yong; Wu, Chuan Ke

2014-07-01

478

MRL-filters: a general class of nonlinear systems and their optimal design for image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of morphological\\/rank\\/linear (MRL)-filters is presented as a general nonlinear tool for image processing. They consist of a linear combination between a morphological\\/rank filter and a linear filter. A gradient steepest descent method is proposed to optimally design these filters, using the averaged least mean squares (LMS) algorithm. The filter design is viewed as a learning process, and convergence

Lúcio F. C. Pessoa; Petros Maragos

1998-01-01

479

Initial design of a dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment process for aspen wood chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary process design for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of aspen wood chips in order to obtain fermentable sugars\\u000a has been prepared and subjected to an economic evaluation. The process design was prepared according to experimental data\\u000a on the kinetics of dilute sulfuric acid prehydrolysis and particle size effects obtained in this study and our previous work.\\u000a The initial economic

R. Torget; M. Himmel; J. D. Wright; K. Grohmann

1988-01-01

480

Design of process supervisory system for coal-bed methane power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many parameters need to be monitored in the process of coal-bed methane power generation. Based-on further studying in the technics for coal-bed methane power generation, a kind of small-scale distributed control system of low cost but high reliability was designed by combining fieldbus, Siemens S7-300 PLC and WinCC configuration software. The design of the process supervisory system for the coal-bed

Tian Jianyan; Zhang Lin; Zhang Meiping

2010-01-01

481

Process design of the cold forging of a billet by forward and backward extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process design of a forward and backward extruded axi-symmetric part has been studied. The important factors in the cold forging of an intricate part are the shape of the initial billet, possibility produced as a single-stage operation, as well as the shape of the pre-form. On the basis of theoretical knowledge on process design, numerical simulation of the cold

Hae Yong Cho; Gyu Sik Min; Chang Yong Jo; Myung Han Kim

2003-01-01

482

ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities  

SciTech Connect

The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included in the original project design. That is, that the design and operation of existing Cementation Process equipment and processes allows for the minimization of personnel exposure in its operation, maintenance and decommissioning and that the generation of radioactive waste is kept to a minimum.

DAYLEY, L.

2000-06-14

483

Correlation between safety assessments in the driver–car interaction design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the functional revolution in modern cars, evaluation methods to be used in all phases of driver–car interaction design have gained importance. It is crucial for car manufacturers to discover and solve safety issues early in the interaction design process. A current problem is thus to find a correlation between the formative methods that are used during development and the

Robert Broström; Peter Bengtsson; Jakob Axelsson

2011-01-01

484

An arm wrestling robot system designed to imitate the force-applying process of human player  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an arm wrestling robot (AWR) system. This system is designed with the purpose of imitating the real force-applying process of human player when people play in the game of hand wrestling. In order to achieve the expected function, special mechanical structure of robot arm is designed in according to human hand, two force sensors and

Lei He; Yunjian Ge; Kaiguo Yong

2009-01-01

485

Use of Taguchi method to develop a robust design for the magnesium alloy die casting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies the Taguchi method to optimize the process parameters for the die casting of thin-walled magnesium alloy parts in computer, communications, and consumer electronics (3C) industries. The objectives of the Taguchi method for robust parameter design are to establish the optimal combination of design parameters and to reduce the variation in quality from a minimum number of experiments.

Der Ho Wu; Mao Sheng Chang

2004-01-01

486

A Web Centric Architecture for Deploying Multi-Disciplinary Engineering Design Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are continuous needs for engineering organizations to improve their design process. Current state of the art techniques use computational simulations to predict design performance, and optimize it through advanced design methods. These tools have been used mostly by individual engineers. This paper presents an architecture for achieving results at an organization level beyond individual level. The next set of gains in process improvement will come from improving the effective use of computers and software within a whole organization, not just for an individual. The architecture takes advantage of state of the art capabilities to produce a Web based system to carry engineering design into the future. To illustrate deployment of the architecture, a case study for implementing advanced multidisciplinary design optimization processes such as Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis is discussed. Another example for rolling-out a design process for Design for Six Sigma is also described. Each example explains how an organization can effectively infuse engineering practice with new design methods and retain the knowledge over time.

Woyak, Scott; Kim, Hongman; Mullins, James; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

2004-01-01

487

Addressing interdisciplinary process engineering design, construction and operations through 4D virtual environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interactive and immersive learning environment that will allow students to explore the design, construction, commissioning and operation stages of processing facilities is being developed. The learning environment makes use of a series spherical images captured across not only the facility site but also across the construction and operation period that allow students to investigate the design evolution of a

Ian Cameron; Caroline Crosthwaite; David Shallcross; Roger Hadgraft; Jo Dalvean; Nicoleta Maynard; Moses Tade; John Kavanagh; Grant Lukey

2011-01-01

488

Influences of Training and Strategical Information Processing Style on Spatial Performance in Apparel Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated how performance on a spatial task in apparel design was influenced by training and strategical information processing style. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate apparel design students from six universities in the U.S. Instruments used to collect data were the Apparel Spatial Visualization Test (ASVT) and the…

Gitimu, Priscilla N.; Workman, Jane E.; Anderson, Marcia A.

2005-01-01

489

Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes of 24…

Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

2010-01-01

490

Characterizing the Intelligence Analysis Process: Informing Visual Analytics Design through a Longitudinal Field Study  

E-print Network

1 Characterizing the Intelligence Analysis Process: Informing Visual Analytics Design through and practices, and resultant design implications for visual analytics systems for intelligence analysis. Munzner of Technology ABSTRACT While intelligence analysis has been a primary target domain for visual analytics system

Stasko, John T.

491

Phrases of the Kinetic: Dynamic Physicality as a Dimension of the Design Process  

E-print Network

an experimental approach to digitally augmented organic form finding in fashion and product design. Thesis1 Phrases of the Kinetic: Dynamic Physicality as a Dimension of the Design Process Amanda Jane Parkes Submitted to the Program in Media Arts and Sciences, School of Architecture and Planning

Ishii, Hiroshi

492

Developing a Protocol For Managing the Design Process in the Building Industry Proceedings IGLC `98  

E-print Network

of this research is based on the conceptual framework of the New Production Philosophy (Lean Production and also on the quality of the final product. Despite its importance, relatively little attention has been Design Management, Lean Construction, Process Management, Building Design 1 Ph.D., Senior Lecturer

Tommelein, Iris D.

493

An Authoring System for Instructionally Designed Tutoring Processes Alexander Seitz*, Matthias Dannenberg*  

E-print Network

the presentation and interaction elements that display these contents. ConcreteFigure 1: The Frame Editor #12An Authoring System for Instructionally Designed Tutoring Processes Alexander Seitz*, Matthias-Einstein-Allee 7, 89081 Ulm, hubert.liebhardt@medizin.uni-ulm.de Abstract This paper describes the design

Biundo, Susanne

494

Design of the fuel processing loop for the Next European Torus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary of the results of a detailed design study performed for the Fuel Processing Loop of the Next European Torus (NET). The design is based on the concept of adsorption of impurities on molecular sieve at liquid nitrogen temperature, followed by catalytic oxidation of the regenerated impurities to water, and subsequent reduction of the water by

K. M. Kalyanam; S. K. Sood; O. K. Kveton; A. Busigin; F. Adamek; D. K. Murdoch; D. Leger; P. J. Dinner; M. Iseli

1992-01-01

495

Completeness in Formal Specification Language Design for ProcessControl Systems \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Completeness in Formal Specification Language Design for Process­Control Systems \\Lambda Nancy in specification language design. In the mid­80s we iden­ tified a set of 26 formal criteria to identify missing be embedded in a formal specification language in ways that potentially allow automated checking or assist

Leveson, Nancy

496

Completeness in Formal Specification Language Design for Process-Control Systems  

E-print Network

Completeness in Formal Specification Language Design for Process-Control Systems Nancy Leveson in specification language design. In the mid-80s we iden- tified a set of 26 formal criteria to identify missing be embedded in a formal specification language in ways that potentially allow automated checking or assist

Leveson, Nancy

497

Transfer function approach to a passive harmonic filter design for industrial process application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analytical design method of a passive harmonic filter for industrial process application and uses a new transfer function approach in the analysis and design. The transfer function approach derives an analytical formulation of a utility system including passive filters with a basis of Laplace transform. In addition, it provides a graphical formulation so that a visualized

Young-Sik Cho; Bok-Ryul Kim; Hanju Cha

2010-01-01

498

Analogical Reasoning in the Engineering Design Process and Technology Education Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This synthesis paper discusses the research exploring analogical reasoning, the role of analogies in the engineering design process, and educational applications for analogical reasoning. Researchers have discovered that analogical reasoning is often a fundamental cognitive tool in design problem solving. Regarding the possible role of analogical…

Daugherty, Jenny; Mentzer, Nathan

2008-01-01

499

Characterizing a titanium nitride reactive deposition process using design of experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors outline the successful application of design of experiments in the characterization of a titanium nitride deposition process. As a result of using two central composite designs the characterization was performed in less than one third of the time that a similar characterization had taken using one factor at a time experimentation. This resulted in savings of manpower, equipment

Antonio Berti; Jose Ramirez

1991-01-01

500

Integrating Dependability Analysis into the Real-time System Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

framework for integrating dependability analysis into the distributed, heterogeneous, fault-tolerant real-time system design process. We focus on two dependability attributes: reliability and availability. We are implementing this framework on top of existing systems for the design of distributed, real-time systems such as TimeWiz (Ref. 4). This will allow system designers to evaluate system dependability, while other system evaluation concerns, such

Naruemon Wattanapongsakorn

1998-01-01