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1

Learning Objects: A User-Centered Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design research systematically creates or improves processes, products, and programs through an iterative progression connecting practice and theory (Reinking, 2008; van den Akker, 2006). Developing a new instructional systems design (ISD) processes through design research is necessary when new technologies emerge that challenge existing practices…

Branon, Rovy F., III

2011-01-01

2

User Centered Design in Multimedia Broadcasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an ongoing research project about User Centered Design in Multimedia Broadcasting. Every User Centered Design project starts with understanding the user in his or her context. It is important to understand the users' needs and expectations before developing new mobile services. This paper throws initially a light on the project where this User Centered Design

L. Weeghmans

3

User Centered Design of a Learning Object Repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work outlines the design process of a user centered learning object repository. A repository should foster the development and acquisition of both generic and specific informational competencies. The results of the first stage of the user centered design process are presented which provide a clear understanding of user and task requirements and the context of use. A user study

Núria Ferran; Ana-elena Guerrero-roldán; Enric Mor; Julià Minguillón

2009-01-01

4

User-Centered Design of Online Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

User-centered design (UCD) is gaining popularity in both the educational and business sectors. This is due to the fact that UCD sheds light on the entire process of analyzing, planning, designing, developing, using, evaluating, and maintaining computer-based learning. "User-Centered Design of Online Learning Communities" explains how computers can…

Lambropoulos, Niki, Ed.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.

2007-01-01

5

User-Centered Design and Business Process Modeling: Cross Road in Rapid Prototyping Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast production of a solution is a necessity in the world of competitive IT consulting business today. In engagements where\\u000a early user interface design mock-ups are needed to visualize proposed business processes, the need to quickly create UI becomes\\u000a prominent very early in the process. Our work aims to speed up the UI design process, enabling rapid creation of low-fidelity

Noi Sukaviriya; Vibha Sinha; Thejaswini Ramachandra; Senthil Mani; Markus Stolze

2007-01-01

6

Facilitating and measuring older people's creative engagement in a user centered design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of my PhD is to research the relationship between creativity and age in the user centred design (UCD) process for user interfaces. To assess this, a comparative study will be conducted. First a UCD process with group of older people - future consumers (mainly 60+) will be run. Then the results from this group will be compared with

Helena Sustar

2008-01-01

7

Applying a User-centered Approach to Interactive Visualisation Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Analysing users in their context of work and finding out how and why they use different information resources is essential\\u000a to provide interactive visualisation systems that match their goals and needs. Designers should actively involve the intended\\u000a users throughout the whole process. This chapter presents a user-centered approach for the design of interactive visualisation\\u000a systems. We describe three phases of

Ingo Wassink; Olga Kulyk; Betsy van Dijk; Gerrit van der Veer; Paul van der Vet

2009-01-01

8

User-Centered Design through Learner-Centered Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article initially demonstrates the parallels between the learner-centered approach in education and the user-centered approach in design disciplines. Afterward, a course on human factors that applies learner-centered methods to teach user-centered design is introduced. The focus is on three tasks to identify the application of theoretical and…

Altay, Burçak

2014-01-01

9

"Are You Talking to Me?"--Teaching User-Centered Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

User-centered design (UCD) is an approach to design that grounds the process in information about the people who will use the product. UCD processes focus on users through the planning, design and development of a product. Establishing a User Profile is certainly a key element in user-centered design. For many products, such as an automobile, a…

Kemnitzer, Ronald B.

2005-01-01

10

User-centered design in universal design resources?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have revealed usability problems with universal design resources (UDRs). In this paper, four UDR development cases\\u000a are reviewed (Section 508 standards, Web accessibility guidelines, the British Standard on managing inclusive design, and\\u000a Irish guidelines on public access terminals). Evidence of a user-centered design approach was found in only one case. The\\u000a needs of people making universally usable products and services

Chris M. Law; Paul T. Jaeger; Elspeth McKay

2010-01-01

11

User centered design for intelligent service robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a fetch-and-carry robot to assist physically impaired people in an office environment. Different methods involving users are employed in the project, including the task analysis, Hi-Fi simulation trials and focus group sessions. Through an iterative design process, a prototype robot system has been developed, with an enhanced robot platform including a graphical user interface

A. Green; H. Huttenrauch; M. Norman; L. Oestreicher; K. S. Eklundh

2000-01-01

12

User-Centered Design and Interactive Health Technologies for Patients  

PubMed Central

Despite recommendations that patients be involved in the design and testing of health technologies, few reports describe how to involve patients in systematic and meaningful ways to ensure that applications are customized to meet their needs. User-centered design (UCD) is an approach that involves end-users throughout the development process so that technology support tasks, are easy to operate, and are of value to users. In this paper we provide an overview of UCD and use the development of Pocket Personal Assistant for Tracking Health (Pocket PATH), to illustrate how these principles and techniques were applied to involve patients in the development of this interactive health technology. Involving patient-users in the design and testing ensured functionality and usability, therefore increasing the likelihood of promoting the intended health outcomes.

De Vito Dabbs, Annette; Myers, Brad A.; Mc Curry, Kenneth R.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Hawkins, Robert P.; Begey, Alex; Dew, Mary Amanda

2010-01-01

13

User-Centered Guidelines for Design of Mobile Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, interviews were conducted to derive user-centered guidelines for the interface design of mobile applications. These guidelines cover general design issues in input, display, navigation, and feedback. They address five out of seven elements that describe effective mobile commerce interface design proposed by Lee and Benbasat (7). Compared to guidelines obtained in prior studies, the guidelines derived from

Xiaowen Fang; Susy S. Chan; Jacek Brzezinski; Shuang Xu; Jean Lam

2004-01-01

14

Ethics of Engagement: User-Centered Design and Rhetorical Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the shift from observation of users to participation with users, describing and investigating three examples of user-centered design practice in order to consider the new ethical demands being made of technical communicators. Explores Pelle Ehn's participatory design method, Roger Whitehouse's design of tactile signage for blind users,…

Salvo, Michael J.

2001-01-01

15

Teaching User-Centered Design in New Product Marketing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thanks in part to groundbreaking work by companies such as Apple and IDEO, there has been growing interest in design as a way to improve the odds of new product success. This paper describes a user-centered design workshop developed for a new product marketing course. The workshop included exercises designed to explain and illustrate the…

Love, Edwin; Stone, Donn E.; Wilton, Taine

2011-01-01

16

Usability Studies and User-Centered Design in Digital Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital libraries continue to flourish. At the same time, the principles of user-centered design and the practice of usability testing have been growing in popularity, spreading their influence into the library sphere. This article explores the confluence of these two trends by surveying the current literature on usability studies of digital…

Comeaux, David J.

2008-01-01

17

User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University Library's Web site. Three testing phases were conducted:

Sarah Bordac; Jean Rainwater

2008-01-01

18

A User-centered Model for Web Site Design  

PubMed Central

As the Internet continues to grow as a delivery medium for health information, the design of effective Web sites becomes increasingly important. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of one effective model for Web site design, a user-centered process that includes techniques for needs assessment, goal/task analysis, user interface design, and rapid prototyping. They detail how this approach was employed to design a family health history Web site, Health Heritage . This Web site helps patients record and maintain their family health histories in a secure, confidential manner. It also supports primary care physicians through analysis of health histories, identification of potential risks, and provision of health care recommendations. Visual examples of the design process are provided to show how the use of this model resulted in an easy-to-use Web site that is likely to meet user needs. The model is effective across diverse content arenas and is appropriate for applications in varied media.

Kinzie, Mable B.; Cohn, Wendy F.; Julian, Marti F.; Knaus, William A.

2002-01-01

19

Research on User-Centered Design and Recognition Pen Gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pen-based user interface has become a hot research field in recent years. Pen gesture plays an important role in Pen-based user interfaces. But it's difficult for UI designers to design, and for users to learn and use. In this pur- pose, we performed a research on user-centered design and recognition pen ges- tures. We performed a survey of 100 pen

Feng Tian; Tiegang Cheng; Hongan Wang; Guozhong Dai

2006-01-01

20

Current State of Agile User-Centered Design: A Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agile software development methods are quite popular nowadays and are being adopted at an increasing rate in the industry every year. However, these methods are still lacking usability awareness in their development lifecycle, and the integration of usability/User-Centered Design (UCD) into agile methods is not adequately addressed. This paper presents the preliminary results of a recently conducted online survey regarding the current state of the integration of agile methods and usability/UCD. A world wide response of 92 practitioners was received. The results show that the majority of practitioners perceive that the integration of agile methods with usability/UCD has added value to their adopted processes and to their teams; has resulted in the improvement of usability and quality of the product developed; and has increased the satisfaction of the end-users of the product developed. The top most used HCI techniques are low-fidelity prototyping, conceptual designs, observational studies of users, usability expert evaluations, field studies, personas, rapid iterative testing, and laboratory usability testing.

Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

21

Real-World User-Centered Design: The Michigan Workforce Background Check System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Michigan Workforce Background Check system demonstrates how an iterative user-centered design (UCD) process enhances organizational\\u000a level communication practices and efficiency. Well-designed information communication technology is an essential component\\u000a of effective public health management. Usability and accessibility testing informed subsequent design and development. The\\u000a iterative improvement in the background check application demonstrates that UCD should be a component of public

Sarah J. Swierenga; Fuad Abujarad; Toni A. Dennis; Lori A. Post

22

A User-centered Model for Web Site Design : Needs Assessment, User Interface Design, and Rapid Prototyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Internet continues to grow as a delivery medium for health information, the design of effective Web sites becomes increasingly important. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of one effective model for Web site design, a user-centered process that includes techniques for needs assessment, goal\\/task analysis, user interface design, and rapid prototyping. They detail how this approach

Mable B Kinzie; Wendy F Cohn; Marti F Julian; William A Knaus

2002-01-01

23

Extending the Situated Function-Behaviour-Structure Framework for User-Centered Software Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an ontological extension for the situated function-behaviour-structure framework to explicitly integrate the notion\\u000a of user needs into the model and take it as an able platform for mapping core elements of user-centered software design to\\u000a the framework. This allows us to reason about user-centered design as a conceptual and reflective conversation on interrelated\\u000a design representations in a social

Matthias Uflacker; Alexander Zeier

24

User Centered Design of E-Health Applications for Remote Patient Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers investigating Human Computer Interaction(HCI) issues in the domain of e-health specially emphasize the need for following a holistic framework to design interactive and user-centered mobile e-health applications. In this context, \\

Amina Tariq; Ajay Tanwani; Muddassar Farooq

25

User-Centered Design of a Web Site for Library and Information Science Students: Heuristic Evaluation and Usability Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the life cycle of a library Web site created with a user-centered design process to serve a graduate school of library and information science (LIS). Findings based on a heuristic evaluation and usability study were applied in an iterative redesign of the site to better serve the needs of this special academic library population. Recommendations for design

Laura Manzari; Jeremiah Trinidad-Christensen

26

A Review of User-Centered Design for Diabetes-Related Consumer Health Informatics Technologies  

PubMed Central

User-centered design (UCD) is well recognized as an effective human factor engineering strategy for designing ease of use in the total customer experience with products and information technology that has been applied specifically to health care information technology systems. We conducted a literature review to analyze the current research regarding the use of UCD methods and principles to support the development or evaluation of diabetes-related consumer health informatics technology (CHIT) initiatives. Findings indicate that (1) UCD activities have been applied across the technology development life cycle stages, (2) there are benefits to incorporating UCD to better inform CHIT development in this area, and (3) the degree of adoption of the UCD process is quite uneven across diabetes CHIT studies. In addition, few to no studies report on methods used across all phases of the life cycle with process detail. To address that void, the Appendix provides an illustrative case study example of UCD techniques across development stages.

LeRouge, Cynthia; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

2013-01-01

27

The Utility of Computer Tracking Tools for User-Centered Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes tracking tools used by designers and users to evaluate the efficacy of hypermedia systems. Highlights include human-computer interaction research; tracking tools and user-centered design; and three examples from the Interactive Multimedia Group at Cornell University that illustrate uses of various tracking tools. (27 references) (LRW)

Gay, Geri; Mazur, Joan

1993-01-01

28

Theories, Methods, and Tools for the Design of User-Centered Computer Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this research at the general level is to develop theories, methods, and tools for the design of user-centered computer systems, and at the specific level to design, implement, and evaluate a customizable Personalized Intelligent Retrieval syst...

G. Fischer W. Kintsch E. Fersti P. Foltz S. Henninger

1995-01-01

29

Creative user-centered visualization design for energy analysts and modelers.  

PubMed

We enhance a user-centered design process with techniques that deliberately promote creativity to identify opportunities for the visualization of data generated by a major energy supplier. Visualization prototypes developed in this way prove effective in a situation whereby data sets are largely unknown and requirements open - enabling successful exploration of possibilities for visualization in Smart Home data analysis. The process gives rise to novel designs and design metaphors including data sculpting. It suggests: that the deliberate use of creativity techniques with data stakeholders is likely to contribute to successful, novel and effective solutions; that being explicit about creativity may contribute to designers developing creative solutions; that using creativity techniques early in the design process may result in a creative approach persisting throughout the process. The work constitutes the first systematic visualization design for a data rich source that will be increasingly important to energy suppliers and consumers as Smart Meter technology is widely deployed. It is novel in explicitly employing creativity techniques at the requirements stage of visualization design and development, paving the way for further use and study of creativity methods in visualization design. PMID:24051818

Goodwin, Sarah; Dykes, Jason; Jones, Sara; Dillingham, Iain; Dove, Graham; Duffy, Alison; Kachkaev, Alexander; Slingsby, Aidan; Wood, Jo

2013-12-01

30

A Method for User Centering Systematic Product Development Aimed at Industrial Design Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instead of limiting the introduction and stimulus for new concept creation to lists of specifications, industrial design students seem to prefer to be encouraged by ideas in context. A new method that specifically tackles human activity to foster the creation of user centered concepts of new products was developed and is presented in this article.…

Coelho, Denis A.

2010-01-01

31

Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer

2013-01-01

32

Improving the quality of numerical software through user-centered design  

SciTech Connect

The software interface - whether graphical, command-oriented, menu-driven, or in the form of subroutine calls - shapes the user`s perception of what software can do. It also establishes upper bounds on software usability. Numerical software interfaces typically are based on the designer`s understanding of how the software should be used. That is a poor foundation for usability, since the features that are ``instinctively right`` from the developer`s perspective are often the very ones that technical programmers find most objectionable or most difficult to learn. This paper discusses how numerical software interfaces can be improved by involving users more actively in design, a process known as user-centered design (UCD). While UCD requires extra organization and effort, it results in much higher levels of usability and can actually reduce software costs. This is true not just for graphical user interfaces, but for all software interfaces. Examples show how UCD improved the usability of a subroutine library, a command language, and an invocation interface.

Pancake, C. M., Oregon State University

1998-06-01

33

Disseminating Maternal Health Information to Rural Women: A User Centered Design Framework  

PubMed Central

The delivery of primary health information to rural women is a considerable challenge for government and private sectors in rural India. This paper illustrates how by applying the proposed user centered framework dissemination of maternal health information to rural women can be improved. First, the paper presents baseline study to obtain existing knowledge level of women and design requirements for a Primary Health Information System (PHIS). Second, the paper presents a brief description of the PHIS system which was deployed in a village for sixteen months in rural India. Third, the paper explains longitudinal study conducted post intervention of PHIS to measure the impact of PHIS on the knowledge level and health behaviour of rural women in comparison to the baseline study. The results indicate that by following the proposed user centered approach to design the PHIS, a significant improvement in knowledge level of rural women and positive changes in health practices are achieved.

Parmar, Vikram

2010-01-01

34

User-centered virtual environment assessment and design for cognitive rehabilitation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual environment (VE) design for cognitive rehabilitation necessitates a new methodology to ensure the validity of the resulting rehabilitation assessment. We propose that benchmarking the VE system technology utilizing a user-centered approach should precede the VE construction. Further, user performance baselines should be measured throughout testing as a control for adaptive effects that may confound the metrics chosen to evaluate the rehabilitation treatment. To support these claims we present data obtained from two modules of a user-centered head-mounted display (HMD) assessment battery, specifically resolution visual acuity and stereoacuity. Resolution visual acuity and stereoacuity assessments provide information about the image quality achieved by an HMD based upon its unique system parameters. When applying a user-centered approach, we were able to quantify limitations in the VE system components (e.g., low microdisplay resolution) and separately point to user characteristics (e.g., changes in dark focus) that may introduce error in the evaluation of VE based rehabilitation protocols. Based on these results, we provide guidelines for calibrating and benchmarking HMDs. In addition, we discuss potential extensions of the assessment to address higher level usability issues. We intend to test the proposed framework within the Human Experience Modeler (HEM), a testbed created at the University of Central Florida to evaluate technologies that may enhance cognitive rehabilitation effectiveness. Preliminary results of a feasibility pilot study conducted with a memory impaired participant showed that the HEM provides the control and repeatability needed to conduct such technology comparisons. Further, the HEM affords the opportunity to integrate new brain imaging technologies (i.e., functional Near Infrared Imaging) to evaluate brain plasticity associated with VE based cognitive rehabilitation.

Fidopiastis, Cali Michael

35

A user-centered model for web site design: needs assessment, user interface design, and rapid prototyping.  

PubMed

As the Internet continues to grow as a delivery medium for health information, the design of effective Web sites becomes increasingly important. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of one effective model for Web site design, a user-centered process that includes techniques for needs assessment, goal/task analysis, user interface design, and rapid prototyping. They detail how this approach was employed to design a family health history Web site, Health Heritage . This Web site helps patients record and maintain their family health histories in a secure, confidential manner. It also supports primary care physicians through analysis of health histories, identification of potential risks, and provision of health care recommendations. Visual examples of the design process are provided to show how the use of this model resulted in an easy-to-use Web site that is likely to meet user needs. The model is effective across diverse content arenas and is appropriate for applications in varied media. PMID:12087113

Kinzie, Mable B; Cohn, Wendy F; Julian, Marti F; Knaus, William A

2002-01-01

36

Scaffolding the design of accessible eLearning content: a user-centered approach and cognitive perspective.  

PubMed

There exist various guidelines for facilitating the design, preparation, and deployment of accessible eLearning applications and contents. However, such guidelines prevalently address accessibility in a rather technical sense, without giving sufficient consideration to the cognitive aspects and issues related to the use of eLearning materials by learners with disabilities. In this paper we describe how a user-centered design process was applied to develop a method and set of guidelines for didactical experts to scaffold their creation of accessible eLearning content, based on a more sound approach to accessibility. The paper also discusses possible design solutions for tools supporting eLearning content authors in the adoption and application of the proposed approach. PMID:18421489

Catarci, Tiziana; De Giovanni, Loredana; Gabrielli, Silvia; Kimani, Stephen; Mirabella, Valeria

2008-08-01

37

Bringing the Field into Focus: User-centered Design of a Patient Expertise Locator.  

PubMed

Managing personal aspects of health is challenging for many patients, particularly those facing a serious condition such as cancer. Finding experienced patients, who can share their knowledge from managing a similar health situation, is of tremendous value. Users of health-related social software form a large base of such knowledge, yet these tools often lack features needed to locate peers with expertise. Informed directly by our field work with breast cancer patients, we designed a patient expertise locator for users of online health communities. Using feedback from two focus groups with breast cancer survivors, we took our design through two iterations. Focus groups concluded that expertise locating features proved useful for extending social software. They guided design enhancements by suggesting granular user control through (1) multiple mechanisms to identify expertise, (2) detailed user profiles to select expertise, and (3) varied collaboration levels. Our user-centered approach links field work to design through close collaboration with patients. By illustrating trade-offs made when sharing sensitive health information, our findings inform the incorporation of expertise locating features into social software for patients. PMID:21243114

Civan-Hartzler, Andrea; McDonald, David W; Powell, Chris; Skeels, Meredith M; Mukai, Marlee; Pratt, Wanda

2010-01-01

38

Bringing the Field into Focus: User-centered Design of a Patient Expertise Locator  

PubMed Central

Managing personal aspects of health is challenging for many patients, particularly those facing a serious condition such as cancer. Finding experienced patients, who can share their knowledge from managing a similar health situation, is of tremendous value. Users of health-related social software form a large base of such knowledge, yet these tools often lack features needed to locate peers with expertise. Informed directly by our field work with breast cancer patients, we designed a patient expertise locator for users of online health communities. Using feedback from two focus groups with breast cancer survivors, we took our design through two iterations. Focus groups concluded that expertise locating features proved useful for extending social software. They guided design enhancements by suggesting granular user control through (1) multiple mechanisms to identify expertise, (2) detailed user profiles to select expertise, and (3) varied collaboration levels. Our user-centered approach links field work to design through close collaboration with patients. By illustrating trade-offs made when sharing sensitive health information, our findings inform the incorporation of expertise locating features into social software for patients.

Civan-Hartzler, Andrea; McDonald, David W.; Powell, Chris; Skeels, Meredith M; Mukai, Marlee; Pratt, Wanda

2010-01-01

39

The flight plan of a digital initiatives project, part 2: Usability testing in the context of user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To provide the results of research to evaluate the usability of a University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries digital initiatives project that provides online access to historical Aerial Photographs of Colorado. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper describes usability testing conducted as a part of a user-centered redesign. The three stages of the evaluation – a requirements analysis, a heuristic

Holley Long; Kathryn Lage; Christopher Cronin

2005-01-01

40

The importance of user centered design methods applied to the design of a new workstation: a case study.  

PubMed

This paper presents a case study of the application of user centered design methodologies in the product development for a line of ergonomic office furniture. The study aimed to analyze the experience of using a workstation from the perspective of two groups of users, installers and end users. The observation of users in their natural context of use not only allowed the development team to identify key needs and strategies of the users, transforming them into design solutions, but mainly it warned them of the importance and impact of user involvement in the product development cycle. PMID:22316849

Duschenes, Ronaldo; Mendes, Andressa; Betiol, Adriana; Barreto, Suzana

2012-01-01

41

Assessing the impact of user-centered research on a clinical trial eHealth tool via counterbalanced research design  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveInformatics applications have the potential to improve participation in clinical trials, but their design must be based on user-centered research. This research used a fully counterbalanced experimental design to investigate the effect of changes made to the original version of a website, http:\\/\\/BreastCancerTrials.org\\/, and confirm that the revised version addressed and reinforced patients' needs and expectations.DesignParticipants included women who had

Nancy L. Atkinson; Holly A. Massett; Christy Mylks; Lauren A. McCormack; Julia Kish-Doto; Bradford W. Hesse; Min Qi Wang

2011-01-01

42

Design for Usability; practice-oriented research for user-centered product design.  

PubMed

The Design for Usability project aims at improving the usability of electronic professional and consumer products by creating new methodology and methods for user-centred product development, which are feasible to apply in practice. The project was focused on 5 key areas: (i) design methodology, expanding the existing approach of scenario-based design to incorporate the interaction between product design, user characteristics, and user behaviour; (ii) company processes, barriers and enablers for usability in practice; (iii) user characteristics in relation to types of products and use-situations; (iv) usability decision-making; and (v) product impact on user behaviour. The project team developed methods and techniques in each of these areas to support the design of products with a high level of usability. This paper brings together and summarizes the findings. PMID:22316853

van Eijk, Daan; van Kuijk, Jasper; Hoolhorst, Frederik; Kim, Chajoong; Harkema, Christelle; Dorrestijn, Steven

2012-01-01

43

Extreme User Centered Design: Methodology for Eliciting and Ranking Requirements in User-Centered New Product Development: Case Studies from Honduras and the Central African Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing appropriate technology for people in developing countries is a complex challenge. An unclear aspect of this design is fully understanding and ranking end user requirements, and then creatively designing a user-pulled product. Many methods have been proposed, but each omits end users as integral to the design process. Instead, designers identify the needs, ask the intermediary customers to rank

Gregory D. Bixler

2011-01-01

44

Infant feeding: the interfaces between interaction design and cognitive ergonomics in user-centered design.  

PubMed

This text presents a discussion on the process of developing interactive products focused on infant behavior, which result was an interactive game for encouraging infant feeding. For that, it describes the use of cognitive psychology concepts added to interaction design methodology. Through this project, this article sustains how the cooperative use of these concepts provides adherent solutions to users' needs, whichever they are. Besides that, it verifies the closeness of those methodologies to boundary areas of knowledge, such as design focused on user and ergonomics. PMID:22316864

Lima, Flavia; Araújo, Lilian Kely

2012-01-01

45

User-Centered Design Approaches for Web Mapping Applications: A Case Study with USGS Hydrological Data in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A User-Centered Design (UCD) approach can facilitate the development of effective user interfaces and generate comprehensive\\u000a map contents for web mapping applications and services. To create a successful web mapping application, all major system components\\u000a (GIS databases, web map servers, and web map browsers) should satisfy the needs of users and fulfill the objectives of mapping\\u000a services. Different countries may

Ming-Hsiang Tsou; Judd M. Curran

46

Skills needed by user-centered design practitioners in real software development environments: report on the CHI'92 workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-centered design (UCD) of human-computer interfaces--including task flow and documentation---is gaining acceptance in software development organizations. But managers who want their organizations to start using UCD often do not know what characteristics to look for, in candidates for hiring or retraining to fill UCD roles; this article can help. It has the recommendations from participants in a CHI '92 conference

Tom Dayton; Pamela A. Burke; Andrew M. Cohill; Kate Ehrlich; Richard L. Henneman; John Karat; Mike Sellers; Mary R. Smith

1993-01-01

47

Rural eHealth Nutrition Education for Limited-Income Families: An Iterative and User-Centered Design Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Adult women living in rural areas have high rates of obesity. Although rural populations have been deemed hard to reach, Internet-based programming is becoming a viable strategy as rural Internet access increases. However, when people are able to get online, they may not find information designed for them and their needs, especially harder to reach populations. This results in a “content gap” for many users. Objective User-centered design is a methodology that can be used to create appropriate online materials. This research was conducted to apply a user-centered approach to the design and development of a health promotion website for low-income mothers living in rural Maryland. Methods Three iterative rounds of concept testing were conducted to (1) identify the name and content needs of the site and assess concerns about registering on a health-related website; (2) determine the tone and look of the website and confirm content and functionality; and (3) determine usability and acceptability. The first two rounds involved focus group and small group discussions, and the third round involved usability testing with individual women as they used the prototype system. Results The formative research revealed that women with limited incomes were enthusiastic about a website providing nutrition and physical activity information targeted to their incomes and tailored to their personal goals and needs. Other priority content areas identified were budgeting, local resources and information, and content that could be used with their children. Women were able to use the prototype system effectively. Conclusions This research demonstrated that user-centered design strategies can help close the “content gap” for at-risk audiences.

Saperstein, Sandra L; Desmond, Sharon M; Gold, Robert S; Billing, Amy S; Tian, Jing

2009-01-01

48

User centered design of context aware cell phones in human-centric systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

User research in software development and engineering design processes has gained unprecedented popularity due to the realization that knowing about users, their preferences, characteristics, and environments is highly useful in the design of effective user and human centric systems. Current human centric systems are intelligent, responsive, emotive and aware, and their capabilities and applications continue to increase rapidly. Due to

Ashish Godbole; Seung-yun Kim

2010-01-01

49

Beyond Usability: A New Frontier for User-Centered Design of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new challenge for the Future Internet initiatives: the need of bridging the digital divide that, even\\u000a in Europe, still hampers the access to the internet for a large part of the population. As a case study, we discuss the design\\u000a of communication services for elderly people in northern Italy. The process was conducted by a multi-disciplinary

Chiara Leonardi; Claudio Mennecozzi; Fabio Pianesi; Massimo Zancanaro

2008-01-01

50

A User-Centered Framework for Deriving A Conceptual Design From User Experiences: Leveraging Personas and Patterns to Create Usable Designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns are a design tool to capture best practices, tackling problems that occur in different contexts. A user interface (UI) design pattern spans several levels of design abstraction ranging from high-level navigation to low-level idioms detailing a screen layout. One challenge is to combine a set of patterns to create a conceptual design that reflects user experiences. In this chapter, we detail a user-centered design (UCD) framework that exploits the novel idea of using personas and patterns together. Personas are used initially to collect and model user experiences. UI patterns are selected based on personas pecifications; these patterns are then used as building blocks for constructing conceptual designs. Through the use of a case study, we illustrate how personas and patterns can act as complementary techniques in narrowing the gap between two major steps in UCD: capturing users and their experiences, and building an early design based on that information. As a result of lessons learned from the study and by refining our framework, we define a more systematic process called UX-P (User Experiences to Pattern), with a supporting tool. The process introduces intermediate analytical steps and supports designers in creating usable designs.

Javahery, Homa; Deichman, Alexander; Seffah, Ahmed; Taleb, Mohamed

51

User centered game design: evaluating massive multiplayer online role playing games for second language acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike recreational games, serious games do more than entertain the player. Serious games promote acquisition of information and skills that are valued in both the virtual world and the real world. The challenge is to design and develop serious games that simultaneously create an enjoyable experience for the player as the player develops or improves her skill set as a

Yolanda A. Rankin; McKenzie McNeal; Marcus W. Shute; Bruce Gooch

2008-01-01

52

Evaluating CSL/CFL Website Usability: A User-Centered Design Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the widespread availability of Internet and computer technology, on-line web-based learning has become prevalent in the field of teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language (CSL/CFL). This study examined the concepts of usability and types of design elements that help construct an effective web-based learning environment, as well as their…

Huang, Chung-Kai; Hsin, Ching-O; Chiu, Chiung-Hui

2010-01-01

53

Design and implementation of a user-centered content distribution network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replicating Web documents at a worldwide scale can help reduce user-perceived latency and wide-area network traffic. We present the design and implementation of Globule, a platform that allows Web server administrators to organize a decentralized replication service by trading Web hosting resources with each other. Globule automates all aspects of such replication: document replication, selection of the most appropriate replication

Guillaume Pierre; Maarten van Steen

2003-01-01

54

A User-Centered Approach to the Design of an Expert System for Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a research project designed to develop an intelligent computer-based learning environment of industrial applications. "Jonas," an expert system, is part of a modeling/simulation environment which enables shop-floor workers to test and put new philosophies of work into practice in the context of manufacture. The approach focuses on the…

Borges, Marcos Augusto Francisco; Baranauskas, M. Cecilia C.

1998-01-01

55

The Science Education Advisor: Applying a User Centered Design Approach to the Development of an Interactive Case-Based Advising System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how a user-centered approach to system design addressed the representational and strategic issues that arose when developing an artificial intelligence-based system, the Science Education Advisor, a case-based hypertext browsing system designed to collect and dispense ideas and advice for teaching elementary school science. (39…

Chandler, Terrell N.

1994-01-01

56

"Less Clicking, More Watching": Results from the User-Centered Design of a Multi-Institutional Web Site for Art and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes a 10-month long research project conducted at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center aimed at developing the design concept of a multi-institutional art and culture web site. The work followed a user-centered design (UCD) approach, where interaction with prototypes and feedback from potential users of the web site were sought…

Vergo, John; Karat, Clare-Marie; Karat, John; Pinhanez, Claudio; Arora, Renee; Cofino, Thomas; Riecken, Doug; Podlaseck, Mark

57

Experiences of Multidisciplinary Development Team Members During User-Centered Design of Telecare Products and Services: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background User-centered design (UCD) methodologies can help take the needs and requirements of potential end-users into account during the development of innovative telecare products and services. Understanding how members of multidisciplinary development teams experience the UCD process might help to gain insight into factors that members with different backgrounds consider critical during the development of telecare products and services. Objective The primary objective of this study was to explore how members of multidisciplinary development teams experienced the UCD process of telecare products and services. The secondary objective was to identify differences and similarities in the barriers and facilitators they experienced. Methods Twenty-five members of multidisciplinary development teams of four Research and Development (R&D) projects participated in this study. The R&D projects aimed to develop telecare products and services that can support self-management in elderly people or patients with chronic conditions. Seven participants were representatives of end-users (elderly persons or patients with chronic conditions), three were professional end-users (geriatrician and nurses), five were engineers, four were managers (of R&D companies or engineering teams), and six were researchers. All participants were interviewed by a researcher who was not part of their own development team. The following topics were discussed during the interviews: (1) aim of the project, (2) role of the participant, (3) experiences during the development process, (4) points of improvement, and (5) what the project meant to the participant. Results Experiences of participants related to the following themes: (1) creating a development team, (2) expectations regarding responsibilities and roles, (3) translating user requirements into technical requirements, (4) technical challenges, (5) evaluation of developed products and services, and (6) valorization. Multidisciplinary team members from different backgrounds often reported similar experienced barriers (eg, different members of the development team speak a “different language”) and facilitators (eg, team members should voice expectations at the start of the project to prevent miscommunication at a later stage). However, some experienced barriers and facilitators were reported only by certain groups of participants. For example, only managers reported the experience that having different ideas about what a good business case is within one development team was a barrier, whereas only end-users emphasized the facilitating role of project management in end-user participation and the importance of continuous feedback from researchers on input of end-users. Conclusions Many similarities seem to exist between the experienced barriers and facilitators of members of multidisciplinary development teams during UCD of telecare products and services. However, differences in experiences between team members from various backgrounds exist as well. Insights into these similarities and differences can improve understanding between team members from different backgrounds, which can optimize collaboration during the development of telecare products and services.

2014-01-01

58

User centered design in complex healthcare workflows: the case of care coordination and care management redesign  

PubMed Central

We present the User Need Analysis process for the Integrated Care Coordination Information System (ICCIS) research project at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU). The primary goal of the process was to select a mix of methodologies to perform user need analysis which would lead to generation of system requirements. The ICCIS Team developers would use these prioritized requirements to build the next generation of the ICCIS software that would help meet the overall goals of the care model. First, semi-structured User Discussion Guides and structured questioners were used to collect raw needs from Physicians, Nurses, IT and Administrative personal. Later Conjoint Analysis (CA) and Dimensional Analysis (DA) were used to generate emerging concepts and priorities from the discussions with the end-user community.

Behkami, Nima A.; Dorr, David A.

2009-01-01

59

A methodology for connecting user centered design (UCD) with eco-design. The possibility of migration of products to services based on the user acceptance.  

PubMed

The consumer products generation is one of the main engines that fuel the planet's environmental problems, reduction of environmental impacts associated with the products has been studied from various aspects between them, the supply of products for public consumption instead of private, seeking to meet the needs of the community by establishing programs for sharing single product. It has been detected a problematic issues linked to this strategy, where the user acceptance of this new way of living together with the products must be achieved. The arguments here presented seek to identify user perception of such proposals and their possible acceptance throughout strategies from the User Centered Design (UCD). PMID:22316852

Alejandro, Rodea Chávez; Colin, Lucila Mercado

2012-01-01

60

Accessible UI Design and Multimodal Interaction through Hybrid TV Platforms: Towards a Virtual-User Centered Design Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We report on work towards an architecture that incorporates accessible design methods, guidelines and support tools for building\\u000a and testing adaptive and accessible user interfaces (UI) for users with mild impairments. We especially address interaction\\u000a constraints for elderly people, both during application design time and at run time, targeting on hybrid TV platforms. The\\u000a functional principle of our architecture is

Pascal Hamisu; Gregor Heinrich; Christoph Jung; Volker Hahn; Carlos Duarte; Pat Langdon; Pradipta Biswas

61

Community-based participatory research and user-centered design in a diabetes medication information and decision tool  

PubMed Central

Background Together, community-based participatory research (CBPR), usercentered design (UCD) and health information technology (HIT) offer promising approaches to improve health disparities in low-resource settings. Objectives This article describes the application of CBPR and UCD principles to the development of iDecide/Decido, an interactive, tailored, web-based diabetes medication education and decision support tool delivered by community health workers (CHWs) to African-American and Latino participants with diabetes in Southwest and Eastside Detroit. The decision aid is offered in English or Spanish and is delivered on an iPad in participants’ homes. Methods The overlapping principles of CBPR and UCD used to develop iDecide/Decido include: a user-focused or community approach; equitable academic and community partnership in all study phases; an iterative development process that relies on input from all stakeholders; and a program experience that is specified, adapted, and implemented with the target community. Results Collaboration between community members, researchers, and developers is especially evident in the program’s design concept, animations, pictographs, issue cards, goal setting, tailoring, and additional CHW tools. Conclusions Applying the principles of CBPR and UCD can be successfully employed in developing health information tools that are easy to use and understand, interactive, and target health disparities.

Henderson, Vida A; Barr, Kathryn LC; An, Lawrence C; Guajardo, Claudia; Newhouse, William; Mase, Rebecca; Heisler, Michele

2014-01-01

62

User-centered guidelines for environmental management  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Management requirements facing US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are detailed, complex, and often subject to rapid change. DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231), is responsible for developing and issuing guidance to assist DOE facilities in interpreting and complying with Federal, State, and local requirements. Recognizing the potential for computerization of the guidance, EH-231 requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) develop an approach for preparing automated guidance. The approach developed by PNL, termed ``user-centered guidance,`` combines participatory design and traditional rapid prototyping techniques to produce a new form of environmental guidance that emphasizes the user`s needs. This paper describes the objectives, processes and current status of this effort.

Eike, D.R.; Fox, J.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dailey, R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-08-01

63

ezHPC: Adopting a Program-Wide, User-Centered Design Approach to the ezHPC User Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Engineer Research and Development Center Major Shared Resource Center (ERDC MSRC) has been tasked by the Department of Defense (DoD) High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) to adopt a program-wide design for the development of the recently introduced ezHPC user interface. The purpose of ezHPC is to provide all HPCMP users intuitive, efficient access to high performance computing (HPC)

Julie Baca; Wes Monceaux; Patti Duett; Kimba Buchanan; Scotty Swillie; Glen Browning; N. Rappold; S. Duett

2007-01-01

64

Towards a User-Centered Design (UCD) for The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USGS has a long record in the development of cartographic products and geospatial data. The National Map is the United States topographic map for the 21st century, leveraging current developments in Internet technology, web services, and partnerships to enable online, interactive public access to high-quality geospatial data from multiple sources. A well-designed and user-friendly interface is essential for successful

Michael P. Finn; Barbara S. Poore

65

User-centered design methods for validating a recommendations model to enrich learning management systems with adaptive navigation support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommendation techniques have shown to be successful in many domains (e.g. movies, books, music, etc.). This success has motivated us to research on how to deploy a recommending system in the eLearning domain to extend the functionality of standard-based learning management systems with adaptive navigation support. An initial model of the recommendation process has been developed from informal discussions with

Olga C. Santos; Ludivine Martin; Elena del Campo; Mar Saneiro; Jesus G. Boticario; Helen Petrie

66

User-centered ecotourism development.  

PubMed

The transfer of knowledge in an ecotourism project is never a one-way affair. An approach connected to bottom-up development is the submersion into another culture, while creating a new organizational structure. For co-creation, patterns that are often latent, such as leadership roles, the association with business, or even the color of education can be revealed by carefully facilitated brainstorms or workshops. Especially in countries with a different hierarchical structure, such as Indonesia compared to Holland, a careful analysis is needed before starting cooperation. Although a case is only a temporary view on a situation and not a guarantee for a truly sustainable system, the bottom-up approach tested has interesting starting points for an ecotourism system. Two cases were conducted in Bali, Indonesia, which resulted in guidelines on how to approach user-centered ecotourism development. PMID:22317034

Talsma, L; Molenbroek, J F M

2012-01-01

67

Toward a User-Centered Academic Library Home Page  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past decade, academic libraries have struggled with the design of an effective library home page. Since librarians' mental models of information architecture differ from those of their patrons, usability assessments are necessary in designing a user-centered home page. This study details a usability sequence of card sort and paper and…

McHale, Nina

2008-01-01

68

A Path to Providing User-Centered Subject Guides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience at the University of Akron illustrates a transitional path from static websites to dynamic, user-centered Web design. Starting with Web-based subject resource guides that were difficult to maintain and navigate, University Libraries migrated to a content management system that solved existing maintenance issues and created the opportunity for interactive resource lists. Subsequent usability testing found that users needed

Tammy Stitz; Shari Laster; Frank J. Bove; Casey Wise

2011-01-01

69

Innovation in user-centered skills and performance improvement for sustainable complex service systems.  

PubMed

In order to leverage individual and organizational learning and to remain competitive in current turbulent markets it is important for employees, managers, planners and leaders to perform at high levels over time. Employee competence and skills are extremely important matters in view of the general shortage of talent and the mobility of employees with talent. Two factors emerged to have the greatest impact on the competitiveness of complex service systems: improving managerial and employee's knowledge attainment for skills, and improving the training and development of the workforce. This paper introduces the knowledge-based user-centered service design approach for sustainable skill and performance improvement in education, design and modeling of the next generation of complex service systems. The rest of the paper cover topics in human factors and sustainable business process modeling for the service industry, and illustrates the user-centered service system development cycle with the integration of systems engineering concepts in service systems. A roadmap for designing service systems of the future is discussed. The framework introduced in this paper is based on key user-centered design principles and systems engineering applications to support service competitiveness. PMID:22317322

Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

2012-01-01

70

User-Centered Agents for Structured Information Location  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper designs an electronic commerce system that integrates conventional electronic commerce services with contemporary\\u000a WWW advantages, such as comprehensive coverage and agents for information search and selection. We use a user-centered approach\\u000a and apply data mining techniques in the design of agents for information search and selection. There are various agents in\\u000a this electronic commerce system to perform different

Xindong Wu; Daniel Ngu; Sameer S. Pradhan

2001-01-01

71

A question of trust: user-centered design requirements for an informatics intervention to promote the sexual health of African-American youth  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated the user requirements of African-American youth (aged 14–24?years) to inform the design of a culturally appropriate, network-based informatics intervention for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Materials and Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with 75 African-American youth from a city with high HIV/STI prevalence. Data analyses involved coding using qualitative content analysis procedures and memo writing. Results Unexpectedly, the majority of participants’ design recommendations concerned trust. Youth expressed distrust towards people and groups, which was amplified within the context of information technology-mediated interactions about HIV/STI. Participants expressed distrust in the reliability of condoms and the accuracy of HIV tests. They questioned the benevolence of many institutions, and some rejected authoritative HIV/STI information. Therefore, reputational information, including rumor, influenced HIV/STI-related decision making. Participants’ design requirements also focused on trust-related concerns. Accordingly, we developed a novel trust-centered design framework to guide intervention design. Discussion Current approaches to online trust for health informatics do not consider group-level trusting patterns. Yet, trust was the central intervention-relevant issue among African-American youth, suggesting an important focus for culturally informed design. Our design framework incorporates: intervention objectives (eg, network embeddedness, participation); functional specifications (eg, decision support, collective action, credible question and answer services); and interaction design (eg, member control, offline network linkages, optional anonymity). Conclusions Trust is a critical focus for HIV/STI informatics interventions for young African Americans. Our design framework offers practical, culturally relevant, and systematic guidance to designers to reach this underserved group better.

Veinot, Tiffany C; Campbell, Terrance R; Kruger, Daniel J; Grodzinski, Alison

2013-01-01

72

User-centered design of security software  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advance of electronic commerce and other networked services there is a growing need for easy to use security software. The problem with the security features and applications in much of today's software is that it is very technology-oriented. In order to correctly use it a basic knowledge of the underlying technology is often necessary. Our objective is to

Ursula Holmström

1999-01-01

73

A User-Centered Cooperative Information System for Medical Imaging Diagnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a cooperative information system for remote medical imaging diagnosis. General computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) problems addressed are definition of a procedure for the design of user-centered cooperative systems (conceptual level); and improvement of user feedback and optimization of the communication bandwidth in highly…

Gomez, Enrique J.; Quiles, Jose A.; Sanz, Marcos F.; del Pozo, Francisco

1998-01-01

74

Cognitive Tools and User-Centered Learning Environments: Rethinking Tools, Functions, and Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces and analyzes problems and issues in the design and use of cognitive tools in open, user-centered learning environments. It introduces a classification scheme for tool functions, and showcases several tools in a current educational hypermedia research and development effort. Information-seeking, information-presentation,…

Iiyoshi, Toru; Hannafin, Michael J.

75

User Centered Research for Interactive Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from a qualitative user study. The aim of research was to include the future users of a new technology in the product design of interactive television programs. During the study, the study participants were interviewed. They were asked to answer questions about their television use and to comment on artist's drawings presenting the possible future setup

Leena Eronen

2003-01-01

76

Technical ICTD - A User Centered Lifecycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Technical Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICTD) lacks appropriate research methods along the entire\\u000a development lifecycle spanning design, development, deployment, and evaluation. Many ICTD projects have failed meeting the\\u000a challenges of technical ICTD because of inappropriate research methods which often left frustrated end users alone with unusable\\u000a research results. Successful technical ICTD research needs a shared methodology that involves

Joerg Doerflinger; Tom Gross

77

Cooperative Discovery for User-Centered Web Service Provisioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present means of personaliz ation for user-centered Web services provisioning. We focus on the different phases of interaction with services and show how a cooperative discovery algorithm can essentially improve the service provisioning. An ontology -based algorithm is presented that makes use of user preferences, differing conceptions, as well as standard usage patterns. With a running

Wolf-tilo Balke; Matthias Wagner

2003-01-01

78

User-Centered Security: Stepping Up to the Grand Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-centered security has been identified as a grand challenge in information security and assurance. It is on the brink of becoming an established subdomain of both security and human\\/computer interface (HCI) research, and an influence on the product development lifecycle. Both security and HCI rely on the reality of interactions with users to prove the utility and validity of their

Mary Ellen Zurko

2005-01-01

79

NETL - Supercomputing: NETL Simulation Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

ScienceCinema

NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC, integrates one of the world's largest high-performance computers with an advanced visualization center. The SBEUC offers a collaborative environment among researchers at NETL sites and those working through the NETL-Regional University Alliance.

None

2014-06-16

80

NETL - Supercomputing: NETL Simulation Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

SciTech Connect

NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC, integrates one of the world's largest high-performance computers with an advanced visualization center. The SBEUC offers a collaborative environment among researchers at NETL sites and those working through the NETL-Regional University Alliance.

None

2013-09-30

81

Breakthrough: NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

SciTech Connect

The National Energy Technology Laboratory relies on supercomputers to develop many novel ideas that become tomorrow's energy solutions. Supercomputers provide a cost-effective, efficient platform for research and usher technologies into widespread use faster to bring benefits to the nation. In 2013, Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz dedicated NETL's new supercomputer, the Simulation Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC. The SBEUC is dedicated to fossil energy research and is a collaborative tool for all of NETL and our regional university partners.

Guenther, Chris

2013-09-26

82

Breakthrough: NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

ScienceCinema

The National Energy Technology Laboratory relies on supercomputers to develop many novel ideas that become tomorrow's energy solutions. Supercomputers provide a cost-effective, efficient platform for research and usher technologies into widespread use faster to bring benefits to the nation. In 2013, Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz dedicated NETL's new supercomputer, the Simulation Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC. The SBEUC is dedicated to fossil energy research and is a collaborative tool for all of NETL and our regional university partners.

Guenther, Chris

2014-05-21

83

User-Centered Design of CHIL Services: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Services, that is, organized sets of functionalities targeting users, are at the core of the CHIL enterprise. It is at this\\u000a level, in fact, that the general vision – putting the computer in the loop of human interaction – is made concrete and enjoyable\\u000a to the user; it is services that users see, interact with, and exploit to better achieve

Fabio Pianesi; Jacques Terken

2009-01-01

84

User-Centered Multimodal Interaction Graph for Design Reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a novel approach to author multimodal interaction dialogue of a VR system according to each users specific preferences. We will show how modalities can be bound together via a bidirectional graph in an authoring tool to allow the specification of application-specific domain commands without hardwiring them to the application. As a result we provide a persistent definition

Martin Witzel; Giuseppe Conti; Raffaele De Amicis

2008-01-01

85

Redesign of Pedigree Displays through User-centered Visualization  

PubMed Central

A complete family history is critical to the assessment of genetic risk of hereditary diseases. Kinsys© is a family history-tracking program used by genetic counselors and healthcare professionals for risk assessment. A pedigree, which is a graphic drawing of family history, is the most important component in such a program. In this project, we analyzed the current pedigree displays of Kinsys© and identified their problems and limitations; and we developed innovative pedigree displays by principles of user-centered visualization methodology for a new version of Kinsys© that overcome some limitations of the original displays.

Yang, Lan; Tang, Xiaozhou Sher; Johnson, Constance M.; Zhang, Jiajie; Johnson, Todd R.

2002-01-01

86

User-Centered Evaluation of Technosocial Predictive Analytics  

SciTech Connect

In today’s technology filled world, it is absolutely essential to show the utility of new software, especially software that brings entirely new capabilities to potential users. In the case of technosocial predictive analytics, researchers are developing software capabilities to augment human reasoning and cognition. Getting acceptance and buy-in from analysts and decision makers will not be an easy task. In this position paper, we discuss an approach we are taking for user-centered evaluation that we believe will result in adoption of technosocial predictive software by the intelligence community.

Scholtz, Jean C.; Whiting, Mark A.

2009-03-23

87

User-Centered Evaluation of Technosocial Predictive Analytic Systems  

SciTech Connect

In today’s technology filled world, it is absolutely essential to show the utility of new software, especially software that brings entirely new capabilities to potential users. In the case of technosocial predictive analytics, researchers are developing software capabilities to augment human reasoning and cognition. Getting acceptance and buy-in from analysts and decision makers will not be an easy task. In this position paper, we discuss an approach we are taking for user-centered evaluation that we believe will result in facilitating the adoption of technosocial predictive software by the intelligence community.

Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

2009-03-23

88

Industrial design process composition based design tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designers need aided resources to finish product design. During design process, designers need different resources at every design state, so it's necessary to decompose design process into separate design states. Industrial design process decomposition is researched in this paper, and design tree is brought forward to help composing design process, at last industrial design process composition model is built based

Mingjiu Yu; Changde Lu; Suihuai Yu

2009-01-01

89

Lyophilization process design space.  

PubMed

The application of key elements of quality by design (QbD), such as risk assessment, process analytical technology, and design space, is discussed widely as it relates to freeze-drying process design and development. However, this commentary focuses on constructing the Design and Control Space, particularly for the primary drying step of the freeze-drying process. Also, practical applications and considerations of claiming a process Design Space under the QbD paradigm have been discussed. PMID:23946165

Patel, Sajal Manubhai; Pikal, Michael J

2013-11-01

90

User-Centered Indexing for Adaptive Information Access  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are focusing on information access tasks characterized by large volume of hypermedia connected technical documents, a need for rapid and effective access to familiar information, and long-term interaction with evolving information. The problem for technical users is to build and maintain a personalized task-oriented model of the information to quickly access relevant information. We propose a solution which provides user-centered adaptive information retrieval and navigation. This solution supports users in customizing information access over time. It is complementary to information discovery methods which provide access to new information, since it lets users customize future access to previously found information. It relies on a technique, called Adaptive Relevance Network, which creates and maintains a complex indexing structure to represent personal user's information access maps organized by concepts. This technique is integrated within the Adaptive HyperMan system, which helps NASA Space Shuttle flight controllers organize and access large amount of information. It allows users to select and mark any part of a document as interesting, and to index that part with user-defined concepts. Users can then do subsequent retrieval of marked portions of documents. This functionality allows users to define and access personal collections of information, which are dynamically computed. The system also supports collaborative review by letting users share group access maps. The adaptive relevance network provides long-term adaptation based both on usage and on explicit user input. The indexing structure is dynamic and evolves over time. Leading and generalization support flexible retrieval of information under similar concepts. The network is geared towards more recent information access, and automatically manages its size in order to maintain rapid access when scaling up to large hypermedia space. We present results of simulated learning experiments.

Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie

1996-01-01

91

User-Centered Approach for NEC Product Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present the work we have done on the universal design of our products, solutions, and services. We consider universal design\\u000a to have three aspects: accessibility, usability, and innovation. General universal design is composed of only accessibility\\u000a and usability. NEC Group universal design includes the concept of innovation, which means that our products provide new value\\u000a to our customers. We

Izumi Kohno; Hiromi Fujii

92

SKIN: designing aesthetic interactive surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose SKIN as an interdisciplinary design approach for sophisticated interactive surfaces, with an emphasis on their meanings and aesthetic qualities. SKIN: Surface Kinetics INterface, aims at integrating concept-driven design process and exploratory critical engagement with forms and materials into current user-centered design approaches in HCI research. The procedures of developing three design concepts and prototyping one

Heekyoung Jung; Youngsuk L. Altieri; Jeffrey Bardzell

2010-01-01

93

Effects of organizational scheme and labeling on task performance in product-centered and user-centered retail Web sites.  

PubMed

As companies increase the quantity of information they provide through their Web sites, it is critical that content is structured with an appropriate architecture. However, resource constraints often limit the ability of companies to apply all Web design principles completely. This study quantifies the effects of two major information architecture principles in a controlled study that isolates the incremental effects of organizational scheme and labeling on user performance and satisfaction. Sixty participants with a wide range of Internet and on-line shopping experience were recruited to complete a series of shopping tasks on a prototype retail shopping Web site. User-centered labels provided a significant benefit in performance and satisfaction over labels obtained through company-centered methods. User-centered organization did not result in improved performance except when the label quality was poor. Significant interactions suggest specific guidelines for allocating resources in Web site design. Applications of this research include the design of Web sites for any commercial application, particularly E-commerce. PMID:15151158

Resnick, Marc L; Sanchez, Julian

2004-01-01

94

Personalized Search Based on a User-Centered Recommender Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing personalized search engines based on a recommender system that takes into consideration the user situated moment in relation to the subject matter and the context that governs user interest has been largely ignored. In this paper, we present a novel approach to integrating user interests into search within a recommender system that is guided by the semantic representation of

Leyla Zhuhadar; Olfa Nasraoui

2010-01-01

95

User-centered modeling and evaluation of multimodal interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the development of computer interfaces has been a technology-driven phenomenon. However, new multimodal interfaces are composed of recognition-based technologies that must interpret human speech, gesture, gaze, movement patterns, and other complex natural behaviors, which involve highly automatized skills that are not under full conscious control. As a result, it now is widely acknowledged that multimodal interface design requires modeling

SHARON OVIATT

2003-01-01

96

[Signal Processing Suite Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our role in this project was to participate in the design of the signal processing suite to analyze plasma density measurements on board a small constellation (3 or 4) satellites in Low Earth Orbit. As we are new to space craft experiments, one of the challenges was to simply gain understanding of the quantity of data which would flow from the satellites, and possibly to interact with the design teams in generating optimal sampling patterns. For example, as the fleet of satellites were intended to fly through the same volume of space (displaced slightly in time and space), the bulk plasma structure should be common among the spacecraft. Therefore, an optimal, limited bandwidth data downlink would take advantage of this commonality. Also, motivated by techniques in ionospheric radar, we hoped to investigate the possibility of employing aperiodic sampling in order to gain access to a wider spatial spectrum without suffering aliasing in k-space.

Sahr, John D.; Mir, Hasan; Morabito, Andrew; Grossman, Matthew

2003-01-01

97

Citrate Process Demonstration Plant Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Bureau of Mines report presents the design for a commercial-sized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) demonstration plant that uses the citrate process. The goal of the Bureau's citrate process is to minimize the undesirable environmental impacts of indus...

W. I. Nissen R. S. Madenburg

1979-01-01

98

Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

2012-01-01

99

Reengineering the Project Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to NASA's goal of working faster, better and cheaper, JPL has developed extensive plans to minimize cost, maximize customer and employee satisfaction, and implement small- and moderate-size missions. These plans include improved management structures and processes, enhanced technical design processes, the incorporation of new technology, and the development of more economical space- and ground-system designs. The Laboratory's new Flight Projects Implementation Office has been chartered to oversee these innovations and the reengineering of JPL's project design process, including establishment of the Project Design Center and the Flight System Testbed. Reengineering at JPL implies a cultural change whereby the character of its design process will change from sequential to concurrent and from hierarchical to parallel. The Project Design Center will support missions offering high science return, design to cost, demonstrations of new technology, and rapid development. Its computer-supported environment will foster high-fidelity project life-cycle development and cost estimating.

Casani, E.; Metzger, R.

1994-01-01

100

Needs Assessment, User Interface Design, and Rapid Prototyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Internet continues to grow as a delivery medium for health information, the design of effective Web sites becomes increasingly important. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of one effective model for Web site design, a user-centered process that includes techniques for needs assessment, goal\\/task analysis, user interface design, and rapid prototyping. They detail how this approach

MABLE B. KINZIE; WENDY F. C OHN; MARTI F. J ULIAN; WILLIAM A. KNAUS

101

Implementing a New Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses why many organizations still perform design in an ad hoc manner, despite the benefits of a structured design process exemplified by organization such as Land-Rover and Xerox.Looks at the experience of three companies which have instituted changes in design practices and draws conclusions.Lists the benefits gained from such changes and makes recommendations for their future application.

Helen Mill; Bill Ion

1994-01-01

102

Research opportunities and facilities at ORNL`s residual stress user center  

SciTech Connect

The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program at ORNL was established to help solve high-temperature materials problems that limit the efficiency and reliability of advanced energy-conversion systems. Both proprietary and nonproprietary research can be conducted within the user program. The facilities are open to researchers in US industry, universities, and federal laboratories. The Residual Stress User Center (RSUC), one of the six HTML user centers, was recently established and consists of two high precision x-ray diffraction systems for measurement of residual strain and texture. Both biaxial and triaxial residual strain data can be collected. Attachments to the diffraction system include a position sensitive detector and a laser specimen positioning system. The RSUC has capabilities for electropolishing and strain measurement with strain gauges. A complementary neutron diffraction facility has recently been developed and demonstrated at the High Flux Isotope Reactor at ORNL. The neutron diffraction facility enables mapping of macro residual stresses throughout the volume of a component, complementing the near surface stress measurements available by x-ray diffraction. The neutron facility has been proposed as an addition to the RSUC.

Hubbard, C.R.; Watkins, T.R.; Kozaczek, K.; Wang, X.-L.; Spooner, S.

1994-09-01

103

Leveraging Site Search and Analytics to Maintain a User-Centered Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Web design is a necessarily iterative process. During the process, it can be difficult to balance the interests and focus of the library site experts and their novice users. It can also be easy to lose focus on the main goals of site use and become wrapped up in the process of design or coding or in the internal politics of site design. Just as…

Mitchell, Erik

2011-01-01

104

Process simulation and design '94  

SciTech Connect

This first-of-a-kind report describes today's process simulation and design technology for specific applications. It includes process names, diagrams, applications, descriptions, objectives, economics, installations, licensors, and a complete list of process submissions. Processes include: alkylation, aromatics extraction, catalytic reforming, cogeneration, dehydration, delayed coking, distillation, energy integration, catalytic cracking, gas sweetening, glycol/methanol injection, hydrocracking, NGL recovery and stabilization, solvent dewaxing, visbreaking. Equipment simulations include: amine plant, ammonia plant, heat exchangers, cooling water network, crude preheat train, crude unit, ethylene furnace, nitrogen rejection unit, refinery, sulfur plant, and VCM furnace. By-product processes include: olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, and styrene.

Not Available

1994-06-01

105

Promoting Teacher Adoption of GIS Using Teacher-Centered and Teacher-Friendly Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a case study that employed user-centered design to develop training tutorials for helping middle school social studies teachers use Web-based GIS in their classrooms. This study placed teachers in the center of the design process in planning, designing, and developing the tutorials. This article describes how…

Hong, Jung Eun

2014-01-01

106

The refinement of design for manufacture: inclusion of process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – There are three distinct functions in the product realisation chain (product design, process design, and process execution) and thus there are two interfaces (product designprocess design; process designprocess execution) rather than one (product – manufacturing). This fact supports a need to shift from dyadic relationships to triadic relationships and from the traditionally single interface

Qiang Lu; Lincoln Wood

2006-01-01

107

Hydroforming design and process advisor  

SciTech Connect

The hydroforming process involves hydraulically forming components by conforming them to the inner contours of a die. These contours can be complex and can often cause the material being formed to be stressed to rupture. Considerable process knowledge and materials modeling expertise is required to design hydroform dies and hydroformed parts that are readily formed without being overly stressed. For this CRADA, materials properties for steel tubes subjected to hydraulic stresses were collected; algorithms were developed which combined the materials properties data with process knowledge; and a user friendly graphical interface was utilized to make the system usable by a design engineer. A prototype hydroforming advisor was completed and delivered to GM. The technical objectives of the CRADA were met allowing for the development of an intelligent design systems, prediction of forming properties related to hydroforming, simulation and modeling of process execution, and design optimization. The design advisor allows a rapid and seamless approach to integration an otherwise enormous and onerous task of analysis and evaluation.

Greer, J.T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ni, C.M. [General Motors Corp., Warren, MI (United States). GM Technical Center

1996-10-10

108

USER-CENTERED DESIGN OF A SECURE P2P PERSONAL AND SOCIAL NETWORKING PLATFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and web technologies have recently enabled P2P personal and social networking. The key to the success of such systems is middleware and tools that will allow non-expert consumers to manage their networks and share their resources easily and intuitively. This is the motivation behind MyNet, a P2P platform that enables non-expert users to easily organize their

Zoe Antoniou; N. Kalofonos

109

User-centered design of a mobile application for sharing life memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

People have an inherent need to capture and collect life memories such as moments with children or special events with friends. Capturing life memories is either spontaneous or planned. Memories are stored and frequently shared with other people. New internet services allow online sharing of photographs but they bypass the mobile aspect in capturing and sharing multimedia. In this paper,

Thomas Olsson; Marika Lehtonen; Dana Pavel; Kaisa Väänänen-vainio-mattila

2007-01-01

110

Usability Testing: A User-Centered Approach to Improve Electronic Resource Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some academic and research libraries have expanded their roles in providing access to information. No longer are they simply the information gatekeepers, but they are making available old and hidden knowledge by creating new resources such as digital library collections and by customizing vendor produced resources. Although there is growing use of digital libraries by researchers to discover information, researchers

ACURIL XXXVIII; Marilyn Ochoa; Brooke Wooldridge

111

User Centered System Design. Part 2. Collected Papers from the UCSD HMI Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a collection of recent papers by the Human-Machine Interaction group at the University of California, San Diego. Contents includes: Stages and Levels in Human-Machine Interaction; The Nature of Expertise in UNIX; Users in the Real World; Co...

1984-01-01

112

User Centered System Design: Papers for the CHI '83 Conference on Human Factors in Computer Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four papers from the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) Project on Human-Computer Interfaces are presented in this report. "Evaluation and Analysis of User's Activity Organization," by Liam Bannon, Allen Cypher, Steven Greenspan, and Melissa Monty, analyzes the activities performed by users of computer systems, develops a framework for…

California Univ., San Diego. Center for Human Information Processing.

113

User Centered System Design: Papers for the CHI '1983 Conference on Human Factors in Computer Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report includes four papers by the UCSD Project on Human-Computer Interfaces presented at the 1983 Conference on Human Factors in Computer Systems (Boston, December 1983). The first paper, Evaluation and Analyses of User's Activity Organization (Bann...

L. Bannon E. Conway A. Cypher S. Draper J. Graham

1983-01-01

114

User-Centered Design: Improving Viewers' Learning Opportunities in Art Museums in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Portable terminals such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and mobile phones are very convenient because it is possible to use them anytime and anywhere. Portable devices can be used for efficiently supplying various modes of information ranging from text and images to and audio and movies at the user's discretion. This mode of information…

Fushimi, Kiyoka; Motoyama, Kiyofumi

2007-01-01

115

User Centered System Design. Part II: Collected Papers from the UCSD HMI Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a collection of 11 recent papers by the Human-Machine Interaction Group at the University of California, San Diego. The following papers are included: (1) "Stages and Levels in Human-Machine Interaction," Donald A. Norman; (2) "The Nature of Expertise in UNIX," Stephen W. Draper; (3) "Users in the Real World," David Owen; (4)…

California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla. Inst. for Cognitive Science.

116

The Importance of User-Centered Design: Exploring Findings and Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the rising number of information resources available, it is increasingly important for digital libraries and archives to create usable services that meet their users' needs. Seeking input from users at all stages of development can help achieve this goal. This article briefly defines four methodologies for gathering user input: focus groups,…

Lack, Rosalie

2006-01-01

117

User-centered development and testing of a monitoring system that provides feedback regarding physical functioning to elderly people  

PubMed Central

Purpose To involve elderly people during the development of a mobile interface of a monitoring system that provides feedback to them regarding changes in physical functioning and to test the system in a pilot study. Methods and participants The iterative user-centered development process consisted of the following phases: (1) selection of user representatives; (2) analysis of users and their context; (3) identification of user requirements; (4) development of the interface; and (5) evaluation of the interface in the lab. Subsequently, the monitoring and feedback system was tested in a pilot study by five patients who were recruited via a geriatric outpatient clinic. Participants used a bathroom scale to monitor weight and balance, and a mobile phone to monitor physical activity on a daily basis for six weeks. Personalized feedback was provided via the interface of the mobile phone. Usability was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 7 using a modified version of the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ); higher scores indicated better usability. Interviews were conducted to gain insight into the experiences of the participants with the system. Results The developed interface uses colors, emoticons, and written and/or spoken text messages to provide daily feedback regarding (changes in) weight, balance, and physical activity. The participants rated the usability of the monitoring and feedback system with a mean score of 5.2 (standard deviation 0.90) on the modified PSSUQ. The interviews revealed that most participants liked using the system and appreciated that it signaled changes in their physical functioning. However, usability was negatively influenced by a few technical errors. Conclusion Involvement of elderly users during the development process resulted in an interface with good usability. However, the technical functioning of the monitoring system needs to be optimized before it can be used to support elderly people in their self-management.

Vermeulen, Joan; Neyens, Jacques CL; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; van Rossum, Erik; Sipers, Walther; Habets, Herbert; Hewson, David J; de Witte, Luc P

2013-01-01

118

User-Centered Digital Library Project Phase 2: User Testing with Teachers and Students with Disabilities. Evaluation Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the User-Centered Digital Library Project, conducted by the National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) at WGBH, was to adapt the Teachers' Domain online digital library to enable teachers and students with disabilities to more readily use the resources in science classrooms. NCAM added accessibility features such as captions and audio…

Moeller, Babette

2010-01-01

119

Enhancing Learning Management Systems Utility for Blind Students: A Task-Oriented, User-Centered, Multi-Method Evaluation Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a novel task-oriented, user-centered, multi-method evaluation (TUME) technique and shows how it is useful in providing a more complete, practical and solution-oriented assessment of the accessibility and usability of Learning Management Systems (LMS) for blind and visually impaired (BVI) students. Novel components of TUME…

Babu, Rakesh; Singh, Rahul

2013-01-01

120

Design Process Reuse Based on Genetic Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product design process has essential traits and behavior bearing an analogy with the genetic traits of organisms. Based on this point of view, this paper introduces an idea that genetic engineering into design process reuse. Firstly, types of process knowledge required in process reuse are studied. The extraction and representation of process bases are also discussed. Secondly, the design process

Shurong Tong; Bo Li; Keqin Wang

2007-01-01

121

A User-Centered Approach to Adaptive Hypertext Based on an Information Relevance Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.

Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James

1994-01-01

122

Explorations of the Cognitive Processes in Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Intuitive design, as carried out by architects, product designers, and some engineers, is analyzed as a problem solving task within the framework of an information processing theory of cognition. A study of intuitive design processes was carried out utili...

C. M. Eastman

1968-01-01

123

USAF Dental Instrument Processing Center Design Guidance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Design Guidance includes USAF dental clinic dental instrument processing center space planning and construction criteria inclusive of architectural, mechanical, and electrical design requirements.

J. H. Hatfield J. J. Kane R. H. Blankman

1996-01-01

124

Design Thinking in Elementary Students' Collaborative Lamp Designing Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design and Technology education is potentially a rich environment for successful learning, if the management of the whole design process is emphasised, and students' design thinking is promoted. The aim of the present study was to unfold the collaborative design process of one team of elementary students, in order to understand their multimodal…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

125

Optimal design of solidification processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal design algorithm is presented for the analysis of general solidification processes, and is demonstrated for the growth of GaAs crystals in a Bridgman furnace. The system is optimal in the sense that the prespecified temperature distribution in the solidifying materials is obtained to maximize product quality. The optimization uses traditional numerical programming techniques which require the evaluation of cost and constraint functions and their sensitivities. The finite element method is incorporated to analyze the crystal solidification problem, evaluate the cost and constraint functions, and compute the sensitivities. These techniques are demonstrated in the crystal growth application by determining an optimal furnace wall temperature distribution to obtain the desired temperature profile in the crystal, and hence to maximize the crystal's quality. Several numerical optimization algorithms are studied to determine the proper convergence criteria, effective 1-D search strategies, appropriate forms of the cost and constraint functions, etc. In particular, we incorporate the conjugate gradient and quasi-Newton methods for unconstrained problems. The efficiency and effectiveness of each algorithm is presented in the example problem.

Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.

1991-01-01

126

Business Process Redesign: Design the Improved Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis reports the results of a business activity modeling exercise to explore how a functional manager in DoD can best improve and redesign one's business processes. The validity of exercise results was assessed and found to be generally accurate wi...

J. L. Warwick

1993-01-01

127

Controller design for serial processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we aim at obtaining insight into how a multivariable feedback controller works, with special attention to serial processes. Serial processes are important in the process industry, and the structure of this process makes it simple to classify the different elements of the multivariable controller.In particular, we focus on the difference between the feedforward and feedback parts of

Audun Faanes; Sigurd Skogestad

2005-01-01

128

Design Expert's Participation in Elementary Students' Collaborative Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of the present study was to provide insights into how disciplinary expertise might be infused into Design and Technology classrooms and how authentic processes based on professional design practices might be constructed. We describe elementary students' collaborative lamp designing process, where the leadership was provided by a…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

129

NASA System Engineering Design Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system...

J. Roman

2011-01-01

130

Reengineering the JPL Spacecraft Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation describes the factors that have emerged in the evolved process of reengineering the unmanned spacecraft design process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Topics discussed include: New facilities, new design factors, new system-level tools, complex performance objectives, changing behaviors, design integration, leadership styles, and optimization.

Briggs, C.

1995-01-01

131

Instructional Design Processes and Traditional Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional colleges who have implemented distance education programs would benefit from using instructional design processes to develop their courses. Instructional design processes provide the framework for designing and delivering quality online learning programs in a highly-competitive educational market. Traditional college leaders play a…

Vasser, Nichole

2010-01-01

132

Graphic Design in Libraries: A Conceptual Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing successful library services requires efficient and effective communication with users; therefore, it is important that content creators who develop visual materials understand key components of design and, specifically, develop a holistic graphic design process. Graphic design, as a form of visual communication, is the process of…

Ruiz, Miguel

2014-01-01

133

A design lab for statistical signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 1991 a software laboratory was added to the graduate statistical signal processing class at Berkeley. The emphasis of this lab was on high-level experimentation with signal processing algorithms. A separate course on design methodology for signal processing covers VLSI design and programmable digital signal processors (DSPs), so this particular lab steered clear of these issues. A

Edward A. Lee

1992-01-01

134

Informing Lesson Design with Human Information Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing effective instruction is the goal of any instructional designer. This article discusses how lesson design can be enhanced by incorporating certain fundamentals of cognitive psychology. The stages of human information processing and a typical four-step lesson are integrated in a model that can inform instructional design. (Contains 1…

Gagel, Charles W.

2005-01-01

135

Improved Coal Cleaning Process Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Physical coal cleaning is a mechanical process for removal of high ash constituents and pyritic sulphur from input fuels for coal-fired generating staions. Preparato...

1981-01-01

136

Hydroforming design and process advisor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hydroforming process involves hydraulically forming components by conforming them to the inner contours of a die. These contours can be complex and can often cause the material being formed to be stressed to rupture. For this CRADA, materials properti...

J. T. Greer C. M. Ni

1996-01-01

137

Combining Design Patterns and Elements of Social Computing for the Design of User Centered Online Help Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many current (online) help systems fail because users refuse to use them or, even if they do so, they do not perceive them as helpful. There is an obvious gap between the intentions of the help content authors and the achievement of objectives concerning the perceived usefulness by help users. Problems may be divided into psychological and…

Heckner, Markus; Schworm, Silke; Wolff, Christian

2010-01-01

138

A User-Centered, Modular Authorization Service Built on an RBAC Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological acceptability has been mentioned as a requirement for secure systems for as long as least privi- lege and fail safe defaults, but until now has been all but ignored in the actual design of secure systems. We place this principle at the center of our design for Adage, an authorization service for distributed applications. We employ usability design techniques

Mary Ellen Zurko; Richard Simon; Tom Sanfilippo

1999-01-01

139

Perceptions of Instructional Design Process Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional design is a process that is creative, active, iterative and complex; however, many diagrams of instructional design are interpreted as stifling, passive, lock-step and simple because of the visual elements used to model the process. The purpose of this study was to determine the expressed perceptions of the types of flow diagrams…

Branch, Robert Maribe

140

UNDERSTANDING DESIGN PROCESS ROBUSTNESS: A MODELLING APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitigating the influence of uncertainty in design projects without sacrificing performance is challenging, but also important as it may reduce the risk of engineering projects delivering over time or budget. In this paper, we discuss process modelling and simulation as a route to understanding the impact of uncertainty and thereby understanding robustness in design processes. We focus on robustness of

Marek J. Chalupnik; David C. Wynn; Claudia M. Eckert; P. John Clarkson

141

Reinventing The Design Process: Teams and Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The future of space mission designing will be dramatically different from the past. Formerly, performance-driven paradigms emphasized data return with cost and schedule being secondary issues. Now and in the future, costs are capped and schedules fixed-these two variables must be treated as independent in the design process. Accordingly, JPL has redesigned its design process. At the conceptual level, design times have been reduced by properly defining the required design depth, improving the linkages between tools, and managing team dynamics. In implementation-phase design, system requirements will be held in crosscutting models, linked to subsystem design tools through a central database that captures the design and supplies needed configuration management and control. Mission goals will then be captured in timelining software that drives the models, testing their capability to execute the goals. Metrics are used to measure and control both processes and to ensure that design parameters converge through the design process within schedule constraints. This methodology manages margins controlled by acceptable risk levels. Thus, teams can evolve risk tolerance (and cost) as they would any engineering parameter. This new approach allows more design freedom for a longer time, which tends to encourage revolutionary and unexpected improvements in design.

Wall, Stephen D.

1999-01-01

142

User centered and ontology based information retrieval system for life sciences  

PubMed Central

Background Because of the increasing number of electronic resources, designing efficient tools to retrieve and exploit them is a major challenge. Some improvements have been offered by semantic Web technologies and applications based on domain ontologies. In life science, for instance, the Gene Ontology is widely exploited in genomic applications and the Medical Subject Headings is the basis of biomedical publications indexation and information retrieval process proposed by PubMed. However current search engines suffer from two main drawbacks: there is limited user interaction with the list of retrieved resources and no explanation for their adequacy to the query is provided. Users may thus be confused by the selection and have no idea on how to adapt their queries so that the results match their expectations. Results This paper describes an information retrieval system that relies on domain ontology to widen the set of relevant documents that is retrieved and that uses a graphical rendering of query results to favor user interactions. Semantic proximities between ontology concepts and aggregating models are used to assess documents adequacy with respect to a query. The selection of documents is displayed in a semantic map to provide graphical indications that make explicit to what extent they match the user's query; this man/machine interface favors a more interactive and iterative exploration of data corpus, by facilitating query concepts weighting and visual explanation. We illustrate the benefit of using this information retrieval system on two case studies one of which aiming at collecting human genes related to transcription factors involved in hemopoiesis pathway. Conclusions The ontology based information retrieval system described in this paper (OBIRS) is freely available at: http://www.ontotoolkit.mines-ales.fr/ObirsClient/. This environment is a first step towards a user centred application in which the system enlightens relevant information to provide decision help.

2012-01-01

143

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. [Lurgi Process  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) is the first commercial coal-to-synthetic natural gas plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams, and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the Department of Energy's ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01

144

Development of a process for cockpit design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the organization and capabilities inherent to an advanced Crew-Centered System Design Process, or CSDP, which is currently in development by the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory's Crew-Centered Cockpit Design (CCCD) Program. The CCCD Program seeks to establish a well-organized, thorough and inspectable process for crew system design, along with an effective set of software support tools and

Brett A. Storey; Michael E. Rountree; Philip V. Kulwicki; Julie B. Cohen

1994-01-01

145

Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96  

SciTech Connect

This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

NONE

1996-06-01

146

Energy simulation in the building design process  

SciTech Connect

The energy consumption of a building is a complex function of a vast number of interrelated processes. Some of these processes are weather dependent, others rigorously scheduled, and some are entirely random. For the design of an energy conscious building, estimates of this elusive sum are needed to guide design decisions. To date, the most accurate means of supplying these estimates is an hourby-hour computer simulation of the building, its occupancy, systems and components. In most design efforts, this tool is used sparingly, often only as a final check on the fully designed building. This article discusses techniques to extend the usefulness of this tool throughout the design process, to provide specific information, economically and in a timely manner, relevant to each major design decision.

Nall, D.; Crawley, D.B.

1983-11-01

147

Energy simulation in the building design process  

SciTech Connect

The energy consumption of a building is a complex function of a vast number of interrelated processes. Some of these processes are weather dependent, others rigorously scheduled, and some are entirely random. For the design of an energy conscious building, estimates of this elusive sum are needed to guide design decisions. To date, the most accurate means of supplying these estimates is an hour-by-hour computer simulation of the building, its occupancy, systems and components. In most design efforts, this tool is used sparingly, often only as a final check on the fully designed building. This article discusses techniques to extend the usefulness of this tool throughout the design process, to provide specific information, economically and in a timely manner, relevant to each major design decision.

Nall, D.H.; Crawley, D.B.

1983-11-01

148

IMPLEMENTING THE SAFEGUARDS-BY-DESIGN PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

The Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) approach incorporates safeguards into the design and construction of nuclear facilities at the very beginning of the design process. It is a systematic and structured approach for fully integrating international and national safeguards for material control and accountability (MC&A), physical protection, and other proliferation barriers into the design and construction process for nuclear facilities. Implementing SBD is primarily a project management or project coordination challenge. This paper focuses specifically on the design process; the planning, definition, organization, coordination, scheduling and interaction of the safeguards experts and stakeholders as they participate in the design and construction of a nuclear facility. It delineates the steps in a nuclear facility design and construction project in order to provide the project context within which the safeguards design activities take place, describes the involvement of the safeguards experts in the design process, the nature of their analyses, interactions and decisions, and describes the documents created and how they are used. This report highlights the project context of safeguards activities, and identifies the safeguards community (nuclear facility operator, designer/builder, state regulator, SSAC and IAEA) must accomplish in order to implement SBD within the project.

Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL] [ORNL; McGinnis, Brent [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Laughter, Mark D [ORNL] [ORNL; Morgan, Jim [Innovative Solutions] [Innovative Solutions; Bjornard, Trond [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)] [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bean, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)] [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Durst, Phillip [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)] [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Hockert, John [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); DeMuth, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lockwood, Dunbar [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA] [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA

2010-01-01

149

Explanatory lifelike avatars: performing user-centered tasks in 3D learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their multimodal communicative abilities and strong visual presence, animated pedagogical agents offer significant promise for 3D learning environments. We describe a new class of animated pedagogical agents, explanatory lifelike avatars, which can perform user-designed tasks in rich 3D worlds. By generating task networks to perform student-designed tasks, an avatar task planner constructs and interprets action specifications that it

James C. Lester; Luke S. Zettlemoyer; Joël P. Grégoire; William H. Bares

1999-01-01

150

Development of a design performance measurement matrix for improving collaborative design during a design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how to measure collaborative design performance and, in turn, improve the final design output during a design process, with a clear objective to develop a design performance measurement (DPM) matrix to measure design project team members' design collaboration performances. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology adopted in this research uses critical literature

Yuanyuan Yin; Shengfeng Qin; Ray Holland

2011-01-01

151

PARAMETER DESIGN FOR SHEET METAL HYDROFORMING PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents results of a cooperative research programme on the development of new offline process design methods for sheet metal hydroforming processes. Fundamental investigations regarding the influence of process parameters and their interplay are discussed. Parameters are to be chosen such that the high-pressure sheet metal forming process is optimised with respect to multiple quality characteristics (multi-response) i.e.

U. Gather; W. Homberg; M. Kleiner; Ch. Klimmek; S. Kuhnt

152

Chemical Process Design: An Integrated Teaching Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a one-semester senior plant design/laboratory course, focusing on course structure, student projects, laboratory assignments, and course evaluation. Includes discussion of laboratory exercises related to process waste water and sludge. (SK)

Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

1982-01-01

153

DESIGN MODEL FOR THE OVERLAND FLOW PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A design model in the 'Process Design Manual, Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater' was verified as to removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and further developed to include removal of total suspended solids, ammonia, and total organic carbon by this field investigation. T...

154

Benchmarking: a process basis for teaching design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benchmarking is a tool that has been employed for many years to search for `best practices' in, for example, business operations, customer relations, product design and manufacturing. To our knowledge, its application to the process of teaching design, in a university setting, is novel. As part of the Manufacturing Engineering Education Partnership (MEEP) we have restructured the way we teach

J. L. Fridley; J. E. Jorgensen; J. S. Lamancusa

1997-01-01

155

The Process of Higher Level Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Design using stepwise refinement is a common paradigm which has been in use for decades. In a programming context, it was described by Niklaus Wirth in an influential 1971 paper. Stepwise refinement is really just a process of code transformations to produce an implementation with the desired characteristics. In a hardware context, the design starts with

J. Sanguinetti

2005-01-01

156

The process of higher level design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design using stepwise refinement is a common paradigm which has been in use for decades. In a programming context, it was described by Niklaus Wirth in an influential 1971 paper. Stepwise refinement is really just a process of code transformations to produce an implementation with the desired characteristics. In a hardware context, the design starts with an executable specification, usually

John Sanguinetti

2005-01-01

157

Functionality, usability, and accessibility : Iterative user-centered evaluation strategies for digital libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Usability, functionality, and accessibility testing of digital library information services and products is essential for providing high quality services to users. This paper aims to detail a long-term, evolving effort to develop meaningful evaluations for assessing digital libraries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A multi-year study to determine appropriate evaluation techniques, tools, and methodologies for the Florida Electronic Library (FEL) and

John Carlo Bertot; John T. Snead; Paul T. Jaeger; Charles R. McClure

2006-01-01

158

A user-centered approach to rushes summarisation via highlight-detected keyframes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our keyframe-based summary approach for BBC Rushes video as part of the TRECVid Summarisation benchmark evaluation carried out in 2007. We outline our approach to summarisation that uses video processing for feature extraction and is informed by human factors considerations for summary presentation. Based on the performance of our generated summaries as reported by NIST, we subsequently undertook

Daragh Byrne; Peter Kehoe; Hyowon Lee; Ciarán O. Conaire; Alan F. Smeaton; Noel E. O'connor; Gareth J. F. Jones

2007-01-01

159

WHAT DESIGN PROCESSES PREDICT BETTER DESIGN OUTCOMES? THE CASE OF ROBOTICS DESIGN TEAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a design study that was conducted with US high school robotics design teams in order to determine which design activities that a team engages in has a bearing on good design. The goal of this study is to provide a broad, integrated perspective of the design process. Fifteen design activities have been identified as commonly occurring in

Noel Titus; Christian Schunn; Carolynn Walthall; George Chiu; Karthik Ramani

2008-01-01

160

Reengineer restaurant set-meal design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chain restaurant's meal planning and design process include evaluating the ingredient specifications creating tastes and appearance, and finally receiving the approval of the set-meal by headquarters. The data sharing during the meal creation cycle, controlling especially information flows between branches and headquarters are inefficient. This research overcomes the product information management (PIM) issue by reengineering the meal creation process

Kuan Ju Cheni; Yu Jen Lo; A. J. C. Trappey; C. V. Trappey

2010-01-01

161

Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP) is a collection of software tools that allow the efficient aerodynamic design and analysis of planar (two-dimensional and axisymmetric) inlets. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. A major element in PINDAP is a Fortran 90 code named PINDAP that can establish the parametric design of the inlet and efficiently model the geometry and generate the grid for CFD analysis with design changes to those parameters. The use of PINDAP is demonstrated for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic inlets.

Slater, John W.; Gruber, Christopher R.

2005-01-01

162

A Continuum between Browsing and Query-Based Search for User-Centered Multimedia Information Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Information seeking in a multimedia database very often implies a search process that is complex, dynamic and multi-faceted.\\u000a Moreover the information need with respect to a topic is likely to evolve during the same search session, going from a simple\\u000a lookup search to a thorough discovery of connected subtopics. We propose a system that aims at addressing these challenges.\\u000a It

Julien Ah-Pine; Jean-Michel Renders; Marie-Luce Viaud

2009-01-01

163

Functionally graded materials: Design, processing and applications  

SciTech Connect

In a Functionally Graded Material (FGM), the composition and structure gradually change over volume, resulting in corresponding changes in the properties of the material. By applying the many possibilities inherent in the FGM concept, it is anticipated that materials will be improved and new functions for them created. A comprehensive description of design, modeling, processing, and evaluation of FGMs as well as their applications is covered in this book. The contents include: lessons from nature; graded microstructures; modeling and design; characterization of properties; processing and fabrication; applications; and summary and outlook.

Miyamoto, Y. [ed.] [Osaka Univ. (JP); Kaysser, W.A.; Rabin, B.H.; Kawasaki, A.; Ford, R.G. [eds.

1999-09-01

164

Designing Evaluation Into Educational Change Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the integration of insider-managed baseline evaluation into project and program design in educational change processes. Drawing on examples taken from recent experiences of English language teaching projects in Central Europe and China, the benefits of using insider-managed baseline studies are outlined.(Author/VWL)

Tribble, Christopher

2000-01-01

165

Forging process design for risk reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dissertation, forging process design has been investigated with the primary concern on risk reduction. Different forged components have been studied, especially those ones that could cause catastrophic loss if failure occurs. As an effective modeling methodology, finite element analysis is applied extensively in this work. Three examples, titanium compressor disk, superalloy turbine disk, and titanium hip prosthesis, have

Yongning Mao

2009-01-01

166

Microstructure optimization in design of forging processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach based on sensitivity analysis for optimizing the microstructure development during the forging processes is proposed in this work. The analytical sensitivities of the recrystallization volume fraction and dynamically recrystalized grain size with respect to the design variables are derived. The mean grain size in each finite element is introduced so that the complex recrystallization mechanics, such as

Zhenyan Gao; Ramana V. Grandhi

2000-01-01

167

Dynamic Process Simulation for Analysis and Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer program for the simulation of complex continuous process in real-time in an interactive mode is described. The program is user oriented, flexible, and provides both numerical and graphic output. The program has been used in classroom teaching and computer aided design. Typical input and output are illustrated for a sample problem to…

Nuttall, Herbert E., Jr.; Himmelblau, David M.

168

FMEA automation for the complete design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performing an FMEA during the design stage is a valuable technique for improving the reliability of a product. Unfortunately, the traditional brainstorming approach is also very tedious, time consuming, and error prone. Automating the process promises the generation of a more complete, consistent FMEA worksheet in a fraction of the time currently required. However, to be truly valuable, this automation

Thomas A. Montgomery; D. R. Pugh; S. T. Leedham; S. R. Twitchett

1996-01-01

169

Aircraft composites components concurrent design process management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airplane industry is emerging to a large scale inter-discipline co-operation among different department of the industry. Within this circumstance, design processes of the composite product have been progressed through the concept of concurrent engineering. The concurrent engineering enable high quality product with major reduction of costs and lead times. This research work describes a technique to efficiently manage the current

Peiyong Cong; Muhammad Younus; Fan Yuqing

2010-01-01

170

Using scoping as a design process  

SciTech Connect

Skillful use of the scoping phase of environment assessment (EA) is critical in cases involving a wide diversity of stakeholders and perspectives. Scoping can exert a strong influence in shaping a relevant impact assessment and increasing the probability of a process that satisfies stakeholders. This article explores key challenges facing scoping processes conducted in highly pluralistic settings. Elements of a notable case study--the scoping process conducted in 1992 for the proposed Great Whale Hydroelectric project in Northern Quebec--are discussed to illustrate innovative approaches. When used as a design process, scoping can ensure that EA reflects the different value sets and cultures that are at play, particularly where diverse knowledge systems and ways of describing environmental components and impacts exist. As it sets the stage for subsequent steps in the EA process, scoping needs to be a sufficiently broad umbrella that accommodates diverse approaches to identifying, classifying, and assessing impacts.

Mulvihill, P.R. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)); Jacobs, P. (Univ. de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1998-07-01

171

Design of intelligent controllers for exothermal processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical Industries such as resin or soap manufacturing industries have reaction systems which work with at least two chemicals. Mixing of chemicals even at room temperature can create the process of exothermic reaction. This processes produces a sudden increase of heat energy within the mixture. The quantity of heat and the dynamics of heat generation are unknown, unpredictable and time varying. Proper control of heat has to be accomplished in order to achieve a high quality of product. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled heat causes another unusable product and the process may damage materials and systems and even human being may be harmed. Controlling of heat due to exothermic reaction cannot be achieved using conventional control methods such as PID control, identification and control etc. All of the conventional methods require at least approximate mathematical model of the exothermic process. Modeling an exothermal process is yet to be properly conceived. This paper discusses a design methodology for controlling such a process. A pilot plant of a reaction system has been constructed and utilized for designing and incorporating the proposed fuzzy logic based intelligent controller. Both the conventional and then an adaptive form of fuzzy logic control were used in testing the performance. The test results ensure the effectiveness of controllers in controlling exothermic heat.

Nagarajan, Ramachandran; Yaacob, Sazali

2001-10-01

172

The design of a nanolithographic process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research delineates the design of a nanolithographic process for nanometer scale surface patterning. The process involves the combination of serial atomic force microscope (AFM) based nanolithography with the parallel patterning capabilities of soft lithography. The union of these two techniques provides for a unique approach to nanoscale patterning that establishes a research knowledge base and tools for future research and prototyping. To successfully design this process a number of separate research investigations were undertaken. A custom 3-axis AFM with feedback control on three positioning axes of nanometer precision was designed in order to execute nanolithographic research. This AFM system integrates a computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) environment to allow for the direct synthesis of nanostructures and patterns using a virtual design interface. This AFM instrument was leveraged primarily to study anodization nanolithography (ANL), a nanoscale patterning technique used to generate local surface oxide layers on metals and semiconductors. Defining research focused on the automated generation of complex oxide nanoscale patterns as directed by CAD/CAM design as well as the implementation of tip-sample current feedback control during ANL to increase oxide uniformity. Concurrently, research was conducted concerning soft lithography, primarily in microcontact printing (muCP), and pertinent experimental and analytic techniques and procedures were investigated. Due to the masking abilities of the resulting oxide patterns from ANL, the results of AFM based patterning experiments are coupled with micromachining techniques to create higher aspect ratio structures at the nanoscale. These relief structures are used as master pattern molds for polymeric stamp formation to reproduce the original in a parallel fashion using muCP stamp formation and patterning. This new method of master fabrication provides for a useful alternative to conventional techniques for soft lithographic stamp formation and patterning.

Johannes, Matthew Steven

173

Safety Analysis in Conceptual Design of Process Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis focuses on the conceptual design of process control systems, and on the problem of safety requirements determination. Safety analysis methods of process design are applied to tackle the problem and the information gap between process designers ...

A. Toola

1992-01-01

174

Mimicry of natural material designs and processes  

SciTech Connect

Biological structural materials, although composed of unremarkable substances synthesized at low temperatures, often exhibit superior mechanical properties. In particular, the quality in which nearly all biologically derived materials excel is toughness. The advantageous mechanical properties are attributable to the hierarchical, composite, structural arrangements common to biological systems. Materials scientists and engineers have increasingly recognized that biological designs or processing approaches applied to man-made materials (biomimesis) may offer improvements in performance over conventional designs and fabrication methods. In this survey, the structures and processing routes of marine shells, avian eggshells, wood, bone, and insect cuticle are briefly reviewed, and biomimesis research inspired by these materials is discussed. In addition, this paper describes and summarizes the applications of biomineralization, self-assembly, and templating with proteins to the fabrication of thin ceramic films and nanostructure devices.

Bond, G.M. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Richman, R.H. [Daedalus Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); McNaughton, W.P. [Cornice Engineering, Durango, CO (United States)

1995-06-01

175

Chemical Process Controller Design Using Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we show that genetic programming (GP) can be used to design discrete-time dynamic controllers that offer similar performance to standard Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers for a specific class of control objectives. Two processes are used as examples: an Auto-Regressive eXogeneous (ARX) system and a simulated non-linear Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR). Additionally, some of the generalisation

Dominic Searson; Mark Willis; Gary Montague

1998-01-01

176

A DESIGN CASE STUDY: INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional design practices in construction indicate that most of the emphasis appears to be on product design. This may be the result of the traditional process of design-bid-build, where the design team pre-defines means and methods to the contracting team. In contrast, lean design incorporates not only product design, but also process design. Process design is commonly one of the

Roberto Arbulu; Javier Soto

177

Reliability Methods for Shield Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space operations. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. An important component of this technology is the estimation of two most commonly identified uncertainties in radiation shield design, the shielding properties of materials used and the understanding of the biological response of the astronaut to the radiation leaking through the materials into the living space. The largest uncertainty, of course, is in the biological response to especially high charge and energy (HZE) ions of the galactic cosmic rays. These uncertainties are blended with the optimization design procedure to formulate reliability-based methods for shield design processes. The details of the methods will be discussed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.

2002-01-01

178

Reliability Methods for Shield Design Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space operations. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. An important component of this technology is the estimation of two most commonly identified uncertainties in radiation shield design, the shielding properties of materials used and the understanding of the biological response of the astronaut to the radiation leaking through the materials into the living space. The largest uncertainty, of course, is in the biological response to especially high charge and energy (HZE) ions of the galactic cosmic rays. These uncertainties are blended with the optimization design procedure to formulate reliability-based methods for shield design processes. The details of the methods will be discussed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.

2003-01-01

179

Saving Material with Systematic Process Designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global competition is forcing the stamping industry to further increase quality, to shorten time-to-market and to reduce total cost. Continuous balancing between these classical time-cost-quality targets throughout the product development cycle is required to ensure future economical success. In today's industrial practice, die layout standards are typically assumed to implicitly ensure the balancing of company specific time-cost-quality targets. Although die layout standards are a very successful approach, there are two methodical disadvantages. First, the capabilities for tool design have to be continuously adapted to technological innovations; e.g. to take advantage of the full forming capability of new materials. Secondly, the great variety of die design aspects have to be reduced to a generic rule or guideline; e.g. binder shape, draw-in conditions or the use of drawbeads. Therefore, it is important to not overlook cost or quality opportunities when applying die design standards. This paper describes a systematic workflow with focus on minimizing material consumption. The starting point of the investigation is a full process plan for a typical structural part. All requirements are definedaccording to a predefined set of die design standards with industrial relevance are fulfilled. In a first step binder and addendum geometry is systematically checked for material saving potentials. In a second step, blank shape and draw-in are adjusted to meet thinning, wrinkling and springback targets for a minimum blank solution. Finally the identified die layout is validated with respect to production robustness versus splits, wrinkles and springback. For all three steps the applied methodology is based on finite element simulation combined with a stochastical variation of input variables. With the proposed workflow a well-balanced (time-cost-quality) production process assuring minimal material consumption can be achieved.

Kerausch, M.

2011-08-01

180

Reactor design concepts for radiation processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the formative years of irradiation processing, the 1950s and 1960s, there was laboratory and academic interest in the use of this form of energy transfer to initiate polymerization for the manufacture of plastics and in other chemical processes. Studies were often based on low-dose-rate Cobalt-60 systems. The electron beam (EB) accelerator technology of the time was not as yet at the robust and industrially reliable state that it is now at the beginning of the twenty-first century. A series of reactor designs illustrate how an electron beam can be incorporated into reactor vessels for initiating gas and liquid phase polymerizations on a continuous basis. Development of such approaches, which would rely upon contemporary, high current electron beams to initiate polymerization, would help the chemical processing industry alleviate its problems of catalyst disposal and its related environmental concerns. Systems for treating materials in bulk at low doses, such as those typically used for grain disinfection, at high through-put rates, are also illustrated. Simplified shielding is envisioned in each proposed process system.

Berejka, Anthony J.

2004-09-01

181

The process of process reengineering: simulation for business processes and information systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business Process (BP) literature promotes the value of business processes as essential gearwheels that help organizations to reach their goals. Similarly, many process design approaches claim that Information Technology (IT) is a major enabler of business process, a view also shared by the Information Systems (IS) community. Despite this, BP and IS approaches do not provide clear guidance on how

Ray J. Paul; Alan Serrano

2003-01-01

182

Instructional Design as Design Problem Solving: An Iterative Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design, including instructional design, is one of most complex and ill-structured kinds of problem solving. Historically, instructional design has been conceptualized as a linear set of phases (e.g., analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation) that a designer progresses through. Silber (2007) has provided an alternative perspective…

Jonassen, David H.,

2008-01-01

183

System design of ELITE power processing unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electric Propulsion Insertion Transfer Experiment (ELITE) is a space mission planned for the mid 1990s in which technological readiness will be demonstrated for electric orbit transfer vehicles (EOTVs). A system-level design of the power processing unit (PPU), which conditions solar array power for the arcjet thruster, was performed to optimize performance with respect to reliability, power output, efficiency, specific mass, and radiation hardness. The PPU system consists of multiphased parallel switchmode converters, configured as current sources, connected directly from the array to the thruster. The PPU control system includes a solar array peak power tracker (PPT) to maximize the power delivered to the thruster regardless of variations in array characteristics. A stability analysis has been performed to verify that the system is stable despite the nonlinear negative impedance of the PPU input and the arcjet thruster. Performance specifications are given to provide the required spacecraft capability with existing technology.

Caldwell, David J.

184

A Transparent Way for Process Guidance in Satellite Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a satellite design process and its implementation within a process guidance tool (Process Steering Tool - ProST) for the work within a design center environment (Satellite Design Office - SDO). Process and tool have been developed at the Institute of Astronautics (LRT) of the Technische Universität München in cooperation with EADS Astrium Ottobrunn within

Stephan Finkel; Michael Burazanis

185

Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 2: The design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent to which IPAD is to support the design process is identified. Case studies of representative aerospace products were developed as models to characterize the design process and to provide design requirements for the IPAD computing system.

Gillette, W. B.; Turner, M. J.; Southall, J. W.; Whitener, P. C.; Kowalik, J. S.

1973-01-01

186

Universal Design: Process, Principles, and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing any product or environment involves the consideration of many factors, including aesthetics, engineering options, environmental issues, safety concerns, industry standards, and cost. Typically, designers focus their attention on the average user. In contrast, universal design (UD), according to the Center for Universal Design," is the…

Burgstahler, Sheryl

2009-01-01

187

Artificial intelligence in aesthetic and ergonomic product design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the process of defining suitable design solutions, the designer has to consider a wide-range of influential factors. Aesthetics and ergonomics certainly belong to the more complex ones. Less experienced designers could meet encounter several problems during this design stage. Although some literature can be found about industrial aesthetics and the aesthetic design of consumer goods, the designer still has

Jasmin Kaljun; Bojan Dolsak

2011-01-01

188

Sandia Extended Network: Overview of the Design Process  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process that will be used to develop and submit for approval designs for the Sandia Extended Network (SXN). The process follows the steps in the Change Management Process used in the Telecommunication Operations Department's quality management system. Those steps are planning, requirements review, detailed design analysis, implementation, verification, and validation. Two companion reports complete a description of the designs to date: ''Sandia Extended Network: Design Requirements and Sandia Extended Network: Conceptual Design Definition.''

GOMEZ, MICHAEL D.

2002-11-01

189

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR STRIPPING OF ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Procedures and correlations for designing and costing stripping towers for the removal of organics from aqueous streams are presented. The emphasis is on practical methods suitable for engineering estimates. The designs cover steam strippers with and without condensers and reflux...

190

SPC System Analysis and Design of Reflow Soldering Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reflow soldering process is the key process of SMT. Available control of reflow soldering process is the important process to ensure the SMT product quality and reliability. In this paper, taking reflow soldering process as the object, the SPC system of reflow soldering process is built; the process controlling project is designed; the choice of controlling variable, data collecting

Chun-quan Li; Zhao-hua Wu

2006-01-01

191

An intelligent approach to robust multi-response process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet strict customer demands in a global highly-complex industrial sector, it is necessary to design manufacturing processes based on a clear understanding of the customer's requirements and usage of a product, by translating this knowledge into the process parameter design. This paper presents an integrative, general and intelligent approach to the multi-response process design, based on Taguchi's

Tatjana V. Sibalija; Vidosav D. Majstorovic; Zoran D. Miljkovic

2010-01-01

192

An intelligent approach to robust multi-response process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet strict customer demands in a global highly-complex industrial sector, it is necessary to design manufacturing processes based on a clear understanding of the customer's requirements and usage of a product, by translating this knowledge into the process parameter design. This paper presents an integrative, general and intelligent approach to the multi-response process design, based on Taguchi's

Tatjana V. Sibalija; Vidosav D. Majstorovic; Zoran D. Miljkovic

2011-01-01

193

A Research on Green Product Design Process and Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses the concept properties, procedures and principles of green product design, develops the principles and evaluating indicators, and discusses a green design scheme evaluation process research based on the indicator system. The paper proposes a positive evaluation of the design process and model, realizes the combination of the summative assessment, stage assessment, diagnostic evaluation and dynamic optimization process.

Li Zhuo; Yan Shengxue

2010-01-01

194

77 FR 41248 - Disaster Designation Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State level of FSA. It also proposed to move the disaster designation regulations from...disaster designation regulations. This rule moves the disaster designation regulations from...of at least one crop (not property or things included in the rule's definition...

2012-07-13

195

Consumer's cognitive response-based creative product design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a creative product design process (PDP) based on customer's cognitive response (CCR) to product sign. Based on the user-product interaction model, combining with symbolic information-processing (SIP) and situativity (SIT) approaches, our work explored the process and methods of CCR, and then outlined the creative product design process model after analyzing the Gero's

Zhi-jun Wu; Liang-zhi Li; Chen Yu; Cai Yan

2010-01-01

196

The management of corporate image design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking numerous enterprise image design cycle confusion in the present China as a breach, the author proposed that in the enterprise image design, the idea identity system as the command, following MI strictly (mind identity)-BI (behavior identity)-VI (visual identity) design cycle; And further pointed out: In MI, in VI, BI three large-scale system respective construction, should take ¿the image¿ as

Shuxia Chen; Zheng Yang

2008-01-01

197

Process of system design and analysis  

SciTech Connect

The design of an effective physical protection system includes the determination of the physical protection system objectives, the initial design of a physical protection system, the evaluation of the design, and, probably, a redesign or refinement of the system. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operations and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating states, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: Class of adversary, adversary`s capabilities, and range of adversary`s tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not nuclear materials are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the materiaL The designer now knows the objectives of the physical protection system, that is, ``What to protect against whom.`` The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors, procedures, communication devices, and protective force personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a physical protection system is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the physical protection objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to assure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted.

Gardner, B.

1995-09-01

198

Instructional Design and Directed Cognitive Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper argues that the information processing model provides a promising basis on which to build a comprehensive theory of instruction. Characteristics of the major information processing constructs are outlined including attention, encoding and rehea...

R. C. Bovy

1981-01-01

199

Lunar fiberglass: Properties and process design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Clemson University ceramic engineering design for a lunar fiberglass plant is presented. The properties of glass fibers and metal-matrix composites are examined. Lunar geology is also discussed. A raw material and site are selected based on this information. A detailed plant design is presented, and summer experiments to be carried out at Johnson Space Center are reviewed.

Dalton, Robert; Nichols, Todd

1987-01-01

200

Computer Applications in the Design Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer Assisted Design (CAD) and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM) are emerging technologies now being used in home economics and interior design applications. A microcomputer in a computer network system is capable of executing computer graphic functions such as three-dimensional modeling, as well as utilizing office automation packages to…

Winchip, Susan

201

Space bioreactor: Design/process flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

Cross, John H.

1987-01-01

202

The Design of Evolutionary Process Modeling Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

To formalize a software process, its important aspects must be extracted as a model. Many processes are used re- peatedly, and the ability to automate a process is also de- sired. One approach is to use a notation that already exists, such as a programming language, and extend it. However, the intricacies and restrictions the programming language places on the

Darren C. Atkinson; John Noll

2004-01-01

203

THE REALITY OF DESIGN PROCESS PLANNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most companies struggle with the efficiency of their processes. One contributory factor is the lack of efficient process planning. This paper describes current planning practise in industry, which uses a multitude of different plans in parallel. The units of planning and their resulting plans roughly fall into product plans considering cost, bill of material and procurement considerations; process plans including

C M Eckert; P J Clarkson

204

Instructional Design and Directed Cognitive Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that the information processing model provides a promising basis on which to build a comprehensive theory of instruction. Characteristics of the major information processing constructs are outlined including attention, encoding and rehearsal, working memory, long term memory, retrieval, and metacognitive processes, and a unifying…

Bovy, Ruth Colvin

205

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the DOE ASPEN computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01

206

Automating the design process - Progress, problems, prospects, potential.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design process for large aerospace vehicles is discussed, with particular emphasis on structural design. Problems with current procedures are identified. Then, the contributions possible from automating the design process (defined as the best combination of men and computers) are considered. Progress toward automated design in the aerospace and other communities is reviewed, including NASA studies of the potential development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD). The need for and suggested directions of future research on the design process, both technical and social, are discussed. Although much progress has been made to exploit the computer in design, it is concluded that technology is available to begin using the computer to speed communications and management as well as calculations in the design process and thus build man-computer teams that can design better, faster and cheaper.

Heldenfels, R. R.

1973-01-01

207

Information Architecture without Internal Theory: An Inductive Design Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that information architecture design is primarily an inductive process, partly because it lacks internal theory and partly because it is an activity that supports emergent phenomena (user experiences) from basic design components. Suggests a resemblance to Constructive Induction, a design process that locates the best representational…

Haverty, Marsha

2002-01-01

208

Participatory Rural Appraisal Design: Conceptual and process issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emphasis in many past Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRAs) has been placed on the ‘doing’ dimension, with limited attention to the theoretical or conceptual underpinnings to process design. In this paper, conceptual and process issues relating to design are discussed, using a PRA case experience in the Kyeamba Valley, New South Wales, Australia. This design seeks to address issues embodied in

R. L. Ison

1995-01-01

209

Design considerations for fume hoods for process plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper design of fume hoods is a necessary requisite for a clean working environment for many industrial processes. Until recently, the design of these hoods has been rather a trial and error approach and not based on sound engineering design principles. Hatch Associates have developed and applied new techniques to establish hood parameters for different industrial processes. The paper reviews

H. D. GOODFELLOW; M. BENDER

1980-01-01

210

Representing and Capturing the Experts' Knowledge in a Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An object-oriented framework to support t he modeling and management of the design process is introduced. It naturally integrates the representation of both the design process itself, and the outcomes that are achieved as the result of the various design activities. The integral view of tracing that was adopted not only captures and manages the products being generated but also

Silvio Gonnet; Horacio P. Leone; Gabriela P. Henning

2003-01-01

211

Process Design Manual for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents a procedure for the design of land treatment systems. Slow rate, rapid infiltration, and overland flow processes for the treatment of municipal wastewaters are given emphasis. The basic unit operations and unit processes are discussed in detail, and the design concepts and criteria are presented. The manual includes design

Crites, R.; And Others

212

MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROCESS INTEGRATION AND DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A CLASSROOM BUILDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) professionals typically generate and analyze very few design alternatives during the conceptual stage of a project. One primary cause is limitations in the processes and software tools used by the AEC industry. The aerospace industry has overcome similar limitations by using Process Integration and Design Optimization (PIDO) software to support Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO),

Prasun Bansal; Grant Soremekun; John Haymaker

2008-01-01

213

Knowledge and Processes in Design. DPS Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four papers from a project concerning information-processing characterizations of the knowledge and processes involved in design are presented. The project collected and analyzed verbal protocols from instructional designers, architects, and mechanical engineers. A framework was developed for characterizing the problem spaces of design that…

Pirolli, Peter

214

Design and evaluation ofa minienvironment f or semiconductor manufacture processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new minienvironment for controlling the process area from ambient air contamination was designed and evaluated. The new design has a bu\\/er zone between the ambient and the process zones. A parametric study ofthis design using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was conducted for various cases. A full-scale experimental model was fabricated. The evaluation was completed by measurements of

S. C. Hu; Y. K. Chuah; M. C. Yen

215

The Use of Computer Graphics in the Design Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This master's thesis examines applications of computer technology to the field of industrial design and ways in which technology can transform the traditional process. Following a statement of the problem, the history and applications of the fields of computer graphics and industrial design are reviewed. The traditional industrial design process

Palazzi, Maria

216

Design Science Research for Business Process Design: Organizational Transition at Intersport Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business processes need to be aligned with business strategies. This paper elaborates on experiences from a business process design effort in an action research project performed at Intersport Sweden. The purpose with this project was to create a solid base for taking the retail chain Intersport into a new organizational state where the new process design is aligned with strategic goals. Although business process modeling is concerned with creating artifacts, traditionally information systems design science research has had little impact on research on business process models. In this paper, we address the question of how design science research can contribute to business process design. Three heuristic guidelines for creating organizational commitment and strategic alignment in process design are presented. The guidelines are derived from the successful actions taken in the research project. The development of these guidelines is used as a basis to reflect upon the contribution of design science research to business process design.

Lind, Mikael; Rudmark, Daniel; Seigerroth, Ulf

217

Resources Integration and Binding in Distributed Collaborative Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current CAD\\/CAE systems are not ideal for engineering design in distributed heterogeneous design resources. This paper investigates the approach and mechanism of distributed design resources integration and binding in collaborative design process based on service-oriented architecture. Service-Oriented Computing Environment (SORCER) is employed to build a highly flexible distributed network components environment-design service space. A SORCER Based Collaborative Design Environment is

Nan Li

2010-01-01

218

A simulation-enhanced lean design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A traditional lean transformation process does not validate the future state before implementation, relying instead on a series of iterations to modify the system until performance is satisfactory. An enhanced lean process that includes future state validation before implementation is presented. Simulation modeling and experimentation is proposed as the primary validation tool. Simulation modeling and experimentation extends value stream mapping

Jon H. Marvel; Charles R. Standridge

1970-01-01

219

Design Considerations for Digital Image Processing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brightness levels in a scene or image, together with the spatial relationships among these levels, comprise the total input and output data available to the digital image processor. Indeed, in any mathematical image processing operation, these are the elements of the image which are being manipulated and which represent the major concern of the image processing professional. However, many

J. M. Booth; J. B. Schroeder

1977-01-01

220

Analytical design planning technique: a model of the detailed building design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current planning practice takes little account of the interdisciplinary, iterative nature of the building design process. This leads to a compromised design process containing inevitable cycles of rework together with associated time and cost penalties in both design and construction. The Analytical Design Planning Technique (ADePT) is a planning methodology which helps to overcome these difficulties. This paper describes the

Simon Austin; Andrew Baldwin; Baizhan Li; Paul Waskett

1999-01-01

221

Understanding the Processes behind Student Designing: Cases from Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common perception of designing is that it represents a highly complex activity that is manageable by only a few. However it has also been argued that all individuals are innately capable of designing. Taking up this latter view, we explored the processes behind student designing in the context of Design and Technology (D&T), a subject taught at…

Lim, Susan Siok Hiang; Lim-Ratnam, Christina; Atencio, Matthew

2013-01-01

222

Expertise in professional software design: A process study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty professional software designers participated in a study in which they worked on a software design task and reported strategies for accomplishing that task. High performers were identified by a peer-nomination method and performance on a design_ Verbal protocol analysis based on a comparison of 12 high and 12 moderate performers indicated that high performers structured their design process by

Sabine Sonnentag

1998-01-01

223

Biochemical Engineering. Part II: Process Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes types of industrial techniques involving biochemical products, specifying the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous processes, and contrasting biochemical and chemical engineering. See SE 506 318 for Part I. (AL)

Atkinson, B.

1972-01-01

224

Virtual process design techniques for intelligent manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design techniques discussed here are concerned with computer integrated, cellular manufacturing systems. Such systems consist of automated robotic cells. Planning and control within a cell is carried out in off- and on-line modes by a hierarchical controller. A workstation and its control modules are called computer assisted workcell (CAW). An intelligent CAW should determine control laws so that manufacturing

W. Jacak; J. Rozenblit

1993-01-01

225

Outline of a design science research process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions about the body of knowledge of information systems, including the research domain, relevant perspectives and methods have been going on for a long time. Many researchers vote for a combination of research perspectives and their respective research methodologies; rigour and relevance as requirements in design science are generally accepted. What has been lacking is a formalisation of a detailed

Philipp Offermann; Olga Levina; Marten Schönherr; Udo Bub

2009-01-01

226

Processes and Knowledge in Designing Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from a study of problem solving in the domain of instructional design are presented. Subjects were eight teacher trainees who were recent graduates of or were enrolled in the Stanford Teacher Education Program at Stanford University (California). Subjects studied a computer-based tutorial--the VST2000--about a fictitious vehicle. The…

Greeno, James G.; And Others

227

A design optimization process for Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom Program is used to develop and implement a process for design optimization. Because the relative worth of arbitrary design concepts cannot be assessed directly, comparisons must be based on designs that provide the same performance from the point of view of station users; such designs can be compared in terms of life cycle cost. Since the technology required to produce a space station is widely dispersed, a decentralized optimization process is essential. A formulation of the optimization process is provided and the mathematical models designed to facilitate its implementation are described.

Chamberlain, Robert G.; Fox, George; Duquette, William H.

1990-01-01

228

Launch Vehicle Design Process Description and Training Formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A primary NASA priority is to reduce the cost and improve the effectiveness of launching payloads into space. As a consequence, significant improvements are being sought in the effectiveness, cost, and schedule of the launch vehicle design process. In order to provide a basis for understanding and improving the current design process, a model has been developed for this complex, interactive process, as reported in the references. This model requires further expansion in some specific design functions. Also, a training course for less-experienced engineers is needed to provide understanding of the process, to provide guidance for its effective implementation, and to provide a basis for major improvements in launch vehicle design process technology. The objective of this activity is to expand the description of the design process to include all pertinent design functions, and to develop a detailed outline of a training course on the design process for launch vehicles for use in educating engineers whose experience with the process has been minimal. Building on a previously-developed partial design process description, parallel sections have been written for the Avionics Design Function, the Materials Design Function, and the Manufacturing Design Function. Upon inclusion of these results, the total process description will be released as a NASA TP. The design function sections herein include descriptions of the design function responsibilities, interfaces, interactive processes, decisions (gates), and tasks. Associated figures include design function planes, gates, and tasks, along with other pertinent graphics. Also included is an expanded discussion of how the design process is divided, or compartmentalized, into manageable parts to achieve efficient and effective design. A detailed outline for an intensive two-day course on the launch vehicle design process has been developed herein, and is available for further expansion. The course is in an interactive lecture/workshop format to engage the participants in active learning. The course addresses the breadth and depth of the process, requirements, phases, participants, multidisciplinary aspects, tasks, critical elements,as well as providing guidance from previous lessons learned. The participants are led to develop their own understanding of the current process and how it can be improved. Included are course objectives and a session-by-session outline of course content. Also included is an initial identification of visual aid requirements.

Atherton, James; Morris, Charles; Settle, Gray; Teal, Marion; Schuerer, Paul; Blair, James; Ryan, Robert; Schutzenhofer, Luke

1999-01-01

229

MIDAS: a framework for integrated design and manufacturing process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a development of a framework for managing design and manufacturing process in a distributed environment. The framework offers the following facilities: (1) to represent the complicated engineering design processes (2) to coordinate design activities and execute the process in a distributed environment and (3) to support a collaborative design by sharing data and processes. In this paper, the process flow graphs, which consist in tasks and the corresponding input and output data, are used to depict the engineering design process on a process modeling browser. The engineering activities in the represented processes can be executed in a distributed environment through the cockpit of the framework. The communication among the related engineers to support a collaborative design is made on the collaborative design browser with SML underlying data structures of representing process information to make the framework extensible and platform- independent. The formal and flexible approach of the proposed framework to integrate the engineering design processes can be also effectively applied to coordinate concurrent engineering activities in a distributed environment.

Chung, Moon Jung; Kwon, Patrick; Pentland, Brian

2000-10-01

230

Inherent Safety and Process Design a Literature Study. Plant Design Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of process design is to create a process that is profitable, economic, safe, environmentally benign and user friendly. This is achieved by the optimization of process alternatives according to economic and functional criteria. It is required that ...

C. Martina K. Cziner M. Hurme

2001-01-01

231

Adding Users to the Website Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

Tomeo, Megan L.

2012-01-01

232

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input\\/output diagrams and stream design data sheets for 161

Honea

1985-01-01

233

Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

Meyer, D. D.

1979-01-01

234

Ceramic processing: Experimental design and optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this paper are to: (1) gain insight into the processing of ceramics and how green processing can affect the properties of ceramics; (2) investigate the technique of slip casting; (3) learn how heat treatment and temperature contribute to density, strength, and effects of under and over firing to ceramic properties; (4) experience some of the problems inherent in testing brittle materials and learn about the statistical nature of the strength of ceramics; (5) investigate orthogonal arrays as tools to examine the effect of many experimental parameters using a minimum number of experiments; (6) recognize appropriate uses for clay based ceramics; and (7) measure several different properties important to ceramic use and optimize them for a given application.

Weiser, Martin W.; Lauben, David N.; Madrid, Philip

1992-01-01

235

Ontology Development for Designing and Managing Dynamic Business Process Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in flexible process design and deployment technologies, such as web services and flexible workflow systems, promise the development of flexible intra- and inter-organizational business process networks with potential economic benefits. However, exploiting this potential requires the development of scalable process-management technologies that provide a consistent viewpoint and common language (for describing properties of the process network) to all

Therani Madhusudan

2007-01-01

236

Design considerations of color image processing pipeline for digital cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many individual image processing steps have been well addressed in the field, very few good image pipeline designs were proposed to integrate these processing stages. In this paper, a new color image processing pipeline (IPP), which processes the image raw data captured from CCD\\/CMOS sensors and converts to the final color with exposure corrected, is presented, it bridges the

Wen-Chung Kao; Sheng-Hong Wang; Lien-Yang Chen; Sheng-Yuan Lin

2006-01-01

237

Simulation for business processes and information systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business process (BP) literature promotes the value of business processes as essential gearwheels that help organizations to reach their goals. Similarly, many process design approaches claim that information technology (IT) is a major enabler of business process, a view also shared by the information systems (IS) community. Despite this, BP and IS approaches do not provide clear guidance on how

Ray J. Paul; Alan Serrano

2003-01-01

238

Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.  

PubMed

Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. PMID:21624834

Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

2011-09-01

239

Developing distributed applications for integrated product and process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heterogeneous computing environment characterizes today's manufacturing situation. This is a stumbling block for the efficient implementation of manufacturing concepts such as integrated product and process design (IPPD). A computing environment for IPPD would require the seamless integration of the various product and process design software systems. The exchange of information between these systems should be efficient, compatible and synchronous.

F. Mervyn; A. Senthil Kumar; S. H. Bok; Andrew Y. C. Nee

2004-01-01

240

Debating Professional Designations for Evaluators: Reflections on the Canadian Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a reflective account of a consultation process on professional designations for evaluators initiated and coordinated by the Canadian Evaluation Society (CES). Described are: (1) the forces leading CES to generate discussion and debate about professional designations for Canadian evaluators, (2) the process of developing and…

Cousins, J. Bradley; Cullen, Jim; Malik, Sumbal; Maicher, Brigitte

2009-01-01

241

HDMI interface based vidio post process platform design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, based on the Xilinx XUP V5-LX110T board, a video post processing platform with a professional HDMI interface circuitry is designed and a novel de-interlacing algorithm is designed, which performs better than the industry leading algorithms as experimental results show. This platform is to verify our HD video post processing SOC chip which is under development.

Lei Wu; Eryan Yang; Ronghui Cheng; Jingjing Zhao

2010-01-01

242

Results-Based Interaction Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interaction design is a user-centered approach to development in which users and their goals are the driving force behind a project's design. Interaction design principles are fundamental to the design and implementation of effective websites, but they are not sufficient. This article argues that, to reach its full potential, a website should also…

Weiss, Meredith

2008-01-01

243

Thermodynamic modeling for supercritical fluid process design  

SciTech Connect

The present paper describes a predictive model for ascertaining the process parameters toward establishing an economically viable supercritical fluid technology. The model utilizes the Peng-Robinson equation of state with a modified covolume-dependent (CVD) mixing rule to be able to predict the solubility of mixed solids in pure and mixed supercritical carbon dioxide from minimum information, such as the pure component solubilities. The model can predict the solubility data at various temperatures by virtue of its temperature-insensitive CVD interaction parameter. In order to make the model completely predictive, the CVD interaction parameter has been correlated in terms of the easily available pure component properties, such as solid molar volume, van der Waals volumes, and dipole moments. For mixed solvent, however, a more rigorous correlation is needed to account for stronger solute-cosolvent interactions. The validity of the model has also been tested for the solubility predictions of liquid solutes in the supercritical solvent. Slightly higher deviations of the liquid-phase compositions indicate that the mixing rule is rather well suited for the dilute supercritical solution. The utility of the model has been demonstrated for separation of palmitic acid from tripalmitin. The process parameters have been established under the equilibrium condition utilizing the well-predicted crossover pressures and solubility behavior with temperature.

Mukhopadhyay, M.; Rao, G.V.R. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay (India))

1993-05-01

244

Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

1971-01-01

245

The electronic design notebook: performing medium and processing medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional “Engineer's Notebook” is a volume of bound paper pages. This archaic system is still the medium of choice for mechanical engineers during the conceptual phase of design. In making this choice, designers are taking aperformer's view, choosing freedom and agility in the initial making of drawings over processing power. The paper notebook allows the designer to quickly write

Fred Lakin; John Wambaugh; Larry J. Leifer; Dave Cannon; Cecilia Sivard

1989-01-01

246

Product and process design optimization by quality engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is concerned with product and process design optimization by quality engineering based on the work of Dr Taguchi, with emphasis on the optimization of dynamic systems and tolerance design. Various quality loss functions are presented in this thesis which can be used for quality evaluation. The goal of robust design for dynamic systems is to reduce the deviations

Guangming Chen

1990-01-01

247

Research on Process Planning for Product Multidisciplinary Cooperative Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing complexity of product function and structure, product multidisciplinary cooperative design becomes fairly necessary. Between design task will have each kind of demonstration or latent relation and the interaction In product multidisciplinary cooperative design, it brings the difficulty for the task decomposition and the process planning. The task decomposition and the planning strategy was advanced focusing on the

Weihua Cui

2010-01-01

248

XML-based product information processing method for product design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

Zhang, Zhen Yu

2011-12-01

249

Defining process design space for monoclonal antibody cell culture.  

PubMed

The concept of design space has been taking root as a foundation of in-process control strategies for biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. During mapping of the process design space, the multidimensional combination of operational variables is studied to quantify the impact on process performance in terms of productivity and product quality. An efficient methodology to map the design space for a monoclonal antibody cell culture process is described. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was used as the basis for the process characterization exercise. This was followed by an integrated study of the inoculum stage of the process which includes progressive shake flask and seed bioreactor steps. The operating conditions for the seed bioreactor were studied in an integrated fashion with the production bioreactor using a two stage design of experiments (DOE) methodology to enable optimization of operating conditions. A two level Resolution IV design was followed by a central composite design (CCD). These experiments enabled identification of the edge of failure and classification of the operational parameters as non-key, key or critical. In addition, the models generated from the data provide further insight into balancing productivity of the cell culture process with product quality considerations. Finally, process and product-related impurity clearance was evaluated by studies linking the upstream process with downstream purification. Production bioreactor parameters that directly influence antibody charge variants and glycosylation in CHO systems were identified. PMID:20589669

Abu-Absi, Susan Fugett; Yang, LiYing; Thompson, Patrick; Jiang, Canping; Kandula, Sunitha; Schilling, Bernhard; Shukla, Abhinav A

2010-08-15

250

Design Down Process: Designing a School in Iceland with Its Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a process used by an architect to work with the stakeholders of a school in Iceland to design a new building. The process, called "design down," starts with the biggest issues and moves toward more detailed aspects. It starts with looking at the school's learning signature, learning expectations, the learning process, and the learning…

PEB Exchange, 2002

2002-01-01

251

Metrics for applying GOF design patterns in refactoring processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a kind of software design measures that help us to determine the application of Gang-Of-Four design patterns to refactoring processes. Refactoring using design patterns is one of the promising approaches to improve the designs during development activities, and a crucial issue is to identify when, where and which patterns could be applied. We analyzed several actual object-oriented

Taichi Muraki; Motoshi Saeki

2001-01-01

252

Optimal design of powder compaction processes via genetic algorithm technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an optimal design is performed for powder die-pressing process based on the genetic algorithm approach. It includes the shape optimization of powder component, the optimal design of punch movements, and the friction optimization of powder–tool interface. The genetic algorithm is employed to perform an optimal design based on a fixed-length vector of design variables. The technique is

A. R. Khoei; Sh. Keshavarz; S. O. R. Biabanaki

2010-01-01

253

Safety analysis in conceptual design of process control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual design of process control systems, and the problem of safety requirements determination are investigated. Safety analysis methods of process design are applied. A two phase method Safe Control Requirements Analysis Method (SCRAM) was applied for analyzing the safety aspects of large processes within reasonable time. The first phase studies potential accidents on the basis of materials handled in the process circumstances. The second phase studies ways in which the process is led to unsafe states and how accidents may subsequently develop. The basic idea is to find the hazardous states of the process, the critical process parameters, and the accident chains. The desired operating conditions and parameters to be controlled are determined. The results show that the method identifies safety critical parameters and control actions and can be used for control system designers' purposes.

Toola, Arja

1992-10-01

254

Design of Robust PID Controllers for Unstable Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IMC-PID tuning rule has been proposed for the several unstable processes and unstable process with negative zero. The results of the searching of the IMC filter for the PID controller design clearly exhibit that the critically damped filter doesn't always gives the best response, and it depends upon the category of the process model. The value of damping factor

M. Shamsuzzoha; Moonyong Lee

2006-01-01

255

An optimal design for process quality improvement: modelling and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing research works on process quality improvement focus largely on the linkages between quality improvement cost and production economics such as set-up cost and defect rate reduction. This paper deals with the optimal design problem for process improvement by balancing the sunk investment cost and revenue increments due to the process improvement. We develop an optimal model based on Taguchi

Jen-Ming Chen; Jia-Chi Tsou

2003-01-01

256

Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The sequential manner in which materials and processes for a manufactured product are selected is inherently less than optimal. Designers` tendency to choose processes and materials with which they are familiar exacerbate this problem. A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach is presented.

Kleban, S.D.

1998-07-01

257

ACS Batch Processing System. Volume I. System Design Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ACS Batch Processing System, System Design Document presents the results of the analysis of the batch processing programs which were extracted for use within the Batch Processing System (BPS) and a summary of the capabilities of the BPS system as it w...

F. C. Budelman G. J. Graklanoff P. R. Soderholm

1974-01-01

258

Design, processing, and testing of LSI arrays for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of a particular process for the fabrication of large scale integrated circuits is described. Test arrays were designed, built, and tested, and then utilized. A set of optimum dimensions for LSI arrays was generated. The arrays were applied to yield improvement through process innovation, and additional applications were suggested in the areas of yield prediction, yield modeling, and process reliability.

Ipri, A. C.

1976-01-01

259

Architectural design support for business process and business network engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concurrent enterprises and networks of business processes cannot function without each other. Co- operation in networks allows for faster reaction to business opportunities. Co-operation requires that the business processes and information technology (IT) systems within and between companies are well-aligned with the demands their environment puts upon them. This requires a careful and effective analysis and design of business processes

Henry M. Franken; René Bal; Harmen Van Den Berg; Wil Janssen; Henny De Vos

2000-01-01

260

Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic flowsheet modeling and simulation is a pre-requisite for the design, analysis, control and optimization of an integrated process. Whilst several integrated modeling and simulation tools (commercial and non-commercial) have proven to be effective for fluids processes, their use has been fairly limited for solids processes. The objective of this study is to build a dynamic flowsheet simulation of an

Fani Boukouvala; Rohit Ramachandran; Aditya Vanarase; Fernando J. Muzzio; Marianthi G. Ierapetritou

2011-01-01

261

Associating a Design Model and its Machining Process Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems with the conventional process of creating products is the poor association between product design and manufacturing engineering. Although, a product is represented as a 3D CAD model, in-process models (IPMs) of a process plan are usually 2D drawings that have little association with the product model. The lack of association requires an excessive amount of

Sang C. Park

2005-01-01

262

23 CFR 636.109 - How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process? 636... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636...How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process?...

2010-04-01

263

23 CFR 636.109 - How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process? 636... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636...How does the NEPA process relate to the design-build procurement process?...

2009-04-01

264

Low energy process variation tolerant digital image processing system design based on accuracy-energy tradeoffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a low energy image processing system design based on efficient accuracy-energy tradeoffs. The proposed design allows aggressive voltage scaling in the presence of process variation by employing an error concealing method based on the inherent error tolerance of digital signal processing applications. Based on a system-level analysis, we demonstrate that significant energy savings can be

Se Hun Kim; Saibal Mukhopadhyay; Honggab Kim; Marilyn Wolf

2011-01-01

265

A manufacturing process information model for design and process planning integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Design and Process Planning Integration (DPPI) project is developing an open, neutral manufacturing process object model to enable software interoperability among preliminary product design, process planning, and manufacturing execution. This object model has been used as the basis for developing the ISO 16100 standard: Industrial automation systems & integration—Manufacturing software capability profiling,

Shaw C. Feng; Eugene Y. Song

2003-01-01

266

An extended model of design process of lean production systems by means of process variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an axiomatic modeling of lean production system design, using process variables (PVs). So far, we had developed a model for conceptual design of lean production systems by means of FR–DP relationships, the key characteristics of axiomatic design (AD) methodology, appeared in the proceedings of Second International Conference of Axiomatic Design. Albeit the model in question

Mahmoud Houshmand; Bizhan Jamshidnezhad

2006-01-01

267

A Framework for Efficient Process Development Using Optimal Experimental Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The aim of this study was to develop and demonstrate a framework assuring efficient process development using fewer experiments\\u000a than standard experimental designs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A novel optimality criterion for experimental designs (Iw criterion) is defined that leads to more efficient process development\\u000a because: (a) prior knowledge is used in the experimental design to focus on optimal processing conditions and (b) a

Peter van de Ven; Sabina Bijlsma; Erik Gout; Kees van der Voort Maarschalk; Uwe Thissen

2011-01-01

268

GREENING OF OXIDATION CATALYSIS THROUGH IMPROVED CATALYST AND PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Greening of Oxidation Catalysis Through Improved Catalysts and Process Design Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas Becker, and Raymond Smith United State Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W...

269

Case study: Lockheed-Georgia Company integrated design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A case study of the development of an Integrated Design Process is presented. The approach taken in preparing for the development of an integrated design process includes some of the IPAD approaches such as developing a Design Process Model, cataloging Technical Program Elements (TPE's), and examining data characteristics and interfaces between contiguous TPE's. The implementation plan is based on an incremental development of capabilities over a period of time with each step directed toward, and consistent with, the final architecture of a total integrated system. Because of time schedules and different computer hardware, this system will not be the same as the final IPAD release; however, many IPAD concepts will no doubt prove applicable as the best approach. Full advantage will be taken of the IPAD development experience. A scenario that could be typical for many companies, even outside the aerospace industry, in developing an integrated design process for an IPAD-type environment is represented.

Waldrop, C. T.

1980-01-01

270

Design of a distributed image processing and dissemination system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and implementation of a distributed image processing and dissemination system was undertaken and accomplished as part of a prototype communication and intelligence (CI) system, the contingency support system (CSS), which is intended to support ...

P. Rafferty, L. Hower

1990-01-01

271

An investigation of radiometer design using digital processing techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of digital signal processing techniques in Dicke switching radiometer design was investigated. The general approach was to develop an analytical model of the existing analog radiometer and identify factors which adversly affect its performance. A digital processor was then proposed to verify the feasibility of using digital techniques to minimize these adverse effects and improve the radiometer performance. Analysis and preliminary test results comparing the digital and analog processing approaches in radiometers design were analyzed.

Lawrence, R. W.

1981-01-01

272

Risk Informed Design as Part of the Systems Engineering Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the importance of Risk Informed Design (RID) as an important feature of the systems engineering process. RID is based on the principle that risk is a design commodity such as mass, volume, cost or power. It also reviews Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) as it is used in the product life cycle in the development of NASA's Constellation Program.

Deckert, George

2010-01-01

273

METHODS FOR INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN DECISIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this cooperative agreement was to postulate a means by which an engineer could routinely include environmental considerations in day-to-day conceptual design problems; a means that could easily integrate with existing design processes, and thus avoid massive retr...

274

Biological Process Optimal Design in a Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract The aim of this paper is to determine the optimal design and operation of an activated sludge system that is being installed in a small town in the north of Portugal. This process design takes into consideration real data in order to define the objective cost function which includes both investment and operation costs. The collected data were

I. A. C. P. Espírito-Santo; E. M. G. P. Fernandes; M. M. Araújo; E. C. Ferreira

275

Process design of the LASL Bismuth Sulfate thermochemical hydrogen cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process engineering flowsheet reflecting an improved design of the LASL Bismuth Sulfate thermochemical cycle is presented. The design is based on laboratory data that indicate a lowered endothermic heat load for a partial decomposition of the solid bismuth sulfate. A small electrical energy demand should result from operation of the sulfur dioxide electrolytic step at lower acid concentration,

K. E. Cox; J. H. Pendergrass; W. M. Jones

1979-01-01

276

The Design Process and User Focused Digital Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis presents a qualitative inquiry into how the graphic design process is being reconfigured within the new digital media landscape. The literature review looks at the historical relationship between graphic design and technology from the invention of the printing press to the personal computer and reviews how this relationship is again affected by the emergence of the computer as

Elaine M. Keating

2004-01-01

277

Conversion and Design in the Research Utilization Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the conceptual process that takes place in reconstituting a research finding or generalization in the form of an application concept that can guide practice. Two steps are identified: (a) conversion and (b) design. Conversion involves formulating a basic prescriptive construct. Design is the more detailed articulation of implementation of the construct in an application environment. The industrial

Jack Rothman

1978-01-01

278

Design process for developing a liquid cooling garment hood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid cooling garment (LCG) protects astronauts by providing cooling effects and preventing them from overheating. The objectives of this project were to improve fit and comfort of the original LCG hood of the MACS-Delphi garment and develop a new prototype. The project was conducted by researchers with different backgrounds: apparel design and physiology and psychology. A design process framework

Dong-Eun Kim; Karen LaBat

2010-01-01

279

Reducing the complexity of the software design process with object-oriented design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing software is a complex process. How object-oriented design (OOD), coupled with formalized documentation and tailored object diagraming techniques, can reduce the complexity of the software design process is described and illustrated. The described OOD methodology uses a hierarchical decomposition approach in which parent objects are decomposed into layers of lower level child objects. A method of tracking the assignment of requirements to design components is also included. Increases in the reusability, portability, and maintainability of the resulting products are also discussed. This method was built on a combination of existing technology, teaching experience, consulting experience, and feedback from design method users. The discussed concepts are applicable to hierarchal OOD processes in general. Emphasis is placed on improving the design process by documenting the details of the procedures involved and incorporating improvements into those procedures as they are developed.

Schuler, M. P.

1991-01-01

280

Unexpected discoveries and S-invention of design requirements: important vehicles for a design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designers, during a conceptual design process, do not just synthesize solutions that satisfy initially given requirements, but also invent design issues or requirements that capture important aspects of the given problem. How do they do this? What becomes the impetus for the invention of important issues or requirements? So-called `unexpected discoveries', the acts of attending to visuo-spatial features in sketches

Masaki Suwa; John Gero; Terry Purcell

2000-01-01

281

Sketching in Design Journals: An Analysis of Visual Representations in the Product Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the sketching behavior of designers and the role of sketching in the design process. Observations from a descriptive study of sketches provided in design journals, characterized by a protocol measuring sketching activities, are presented. A distinction is made between journals that are entirely tangible and those that contain…

Lau, Kimberly; Oehlberg, Lora; Agogino, Alice

2009-01-01

282

Rates of reaction and process design data for the Hydrocarb Process  

SciTech Connect

In support of studies for developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb Process, experimental and process design data are reported. The experimental work includes the hydropryolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a tubular reactor. The rates of reaction and conversion were obtained at temperature and pressure conditions pertaining to a Hydrocarb Process design. A Process Simulation Computer Model was used to design the process and obtain complete energy and mass balances. Multiple feedstocks including biomass with natural gas and biomass with coal were evaluated. Additional feedstocks including green waste, sewage sludge and digester gas were also evaluated for a pilot plant unit.

Steinberg, M.; Kobayashi, Atsushi [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Tung, Yuanki [Hydrocarb Corp., New York, NY (United States)

1992-08-01

283

Overlay target design and evaluation for SADP process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay performance has been a critical factor for advanced semiconductor manufacturing for years. Over time these requirements become more stringent as design rules shrink. Overlay mark design and selection are the first two steps of overlay control, and it is known that different overlay mark designs will have different responses to process conditions. An overlay mark optimized for traditional process might not be suitable for SADP (self-aligned double patterning) technology due to changes in lithography and etching process conditions. For instance, the traditional BIB (box-in-box) target defined by the core mask becomes a template structure in SADP flow, the pitch and cycle of the overlay mark is further changed after spacer formation and core film removal hence the mark recognition and robustness have been challenging for the subsequent process layers. The comprehensive study on the methodology of overlay mark design and selection is still not available for SADP process. In this paper, various types of overlay marks were designed to comply with the SADP process to get rid of the weaknesses of traditional targets. TMU (total measurement uncertainty) performance was adopted to determine the optimal overlay marks for meeting production overlay control requirements in SADP process flow. The results have suggested the segmented marks outperform to non-segmented marks on image contrast as well as TMU.

Yeh, C. W.; Huang, Chao-Tien H.; Lin, Kengchi; Huang, C. H.; Yang, Elvis; Yang, T. H.; Chen, K. C.; Lu, Chih-Yuan

2012-03-01

284

From linear adaptive filtering to nonlinear information processing - The design and analysis of information processing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in computing capabilities and the interest in new challenging signal processing problems that cannot be successfully solved using traditional techniques have sparked an interest in information-theoretic signal processing techniques. Adaptive nonlinear filters that process signals based on their information content have become a major focus of interest. The design and analysis of such nonlinear information processing systems is

Deniz Erdogmus; Jose Principe

2006-01-01

285

Theory and Practice Meets in Industrial Process Design -Educational Perspective-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software engineer should see himself as a business process designer in enterprise resource planning system (ERP) re-engineering project. Software engineers and managers should have design dialogue. The objective of this paper is to discuss the motives to study the design research in connection of management education in order to envision and understand the soft human issues in the management context. Second goal is to develop means of practicing social skills between designers and managers. This article explores the affective components of design thinking in industrial management domain. In the conceptual part of this paper are discussed concepts of network and project economy, creativity, communication, use of metaphors, and design thinking. Finally is introduced empirical research plan and first empirical results from design method experiments among the multi-disciplined groups of the master-level students of industrial engineering and management and software engineering.

Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Toikka, Tarja

286

Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

1972-01-01

287

Processing Software Source Text in Automated Design Recovery and Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software source text is the raw material of program understanding and transformation systems. In order to share the results of source analyses, both between phases of a design recovery process, and between tools and systems in different processes, a source text interchange format is needed. This paper describes a simple technique, 'source factoring', by which a common structural decomposition of

Andrew J. Malton; Kevin A. Schneider; James R. Cordy; Thomas R. Dean; Darren Cousineau; Jason Reynolds

2001-01-01

288

PASM parallel processing system: Hardware design and operating system concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since circuit switching speeds are reaching fundamental limits, avenues to speed up computations other than that using faster components are being explored. PASM is a dynamically reconfigurable SIMD\\/MIMD parallel processing system design for up to 1024 processing elements (PEs). It can be dynamically reconfigured to work as one or more SIMD (single instruction stream - multiple data stream) and\\/or MIMD

Schwederski

1987-01-01

289

Team Efficiencies Within a Model-Driven Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith & Koenig 1998) formulated a model-based design process describing a triad of people, process, and technology (PPT) within an aerospace culture. It suggested that the time required for an organization to change to a new approach is a function of a minimum development time and powerful forces acting in tension (Lewin 1951).

Lynda J. Koenig; David B. Smith; California Boulevard Pasadena; Stephen D. Wall

290

Incorporating manufacturability constraints into the design process of heterogeneous objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, such as Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENSTM), can be used to fabricate heterogeneous objects with gradient variations in material composition. These objects are generally characterized by enhanced functional performance. Past research on the design of such objects has focused on representation, modeling, and functional performance. However, the inherent constraints in RP processes, such as system capability and processing time, lead to heterogeneous objects that may not meet the designer's original intent. To overcome this situation, the research presented in this paper focuses on the identification and implementation of manufacturing constraints into the design process. A node-based finite element modeling technique is used for the representation and analysis and the multicriteria design problem corresponds to finding the nodal material compositions that minimize structural weight and maximize thermal performance. The optimizer used in this research is a real-valued Evolutionary Strategies (ES), which is well suited for this type of multi-modal problem. Two limitations of the LENS manufacturing process, which have an impact on the design process, are identified and implemented. One of them is related to the manufacturing time, which is considered as an additional criterion to be minimized in the design problem for a preselected tool path. A brake disc rotor made of two materials, aluminum for lightweight and steel for superior thermal characteristics, is used to illustrate the tradeoff between manufacturability and functionality.

Hu, Yuna; Blouin, Vincent Y.; Fadel, Georges M.

2004-11-01

291

Scheduling design processes with interdependent tasks: A systems analysis approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research develops a model to determine the optimal task schedule for a product development process. The model takes into account both the speed of the design process and the quality of the system it produces. In particular, the model also accounts for interdependencies in the design process and for the effects of concurrent engineering. Parallel development speeds up the process, but requires increased communication among tasks. If the communication fails to occur, errors and inconsistencies can develop in the product, leading to a lower system reliability. For any process, there needs to be a balance between speed of design completion and product quality. This research develops a series of analytical models and a simulation to capture the effects of schedule changes and interdependence between design tasks. The models provide as output the expected time of project completion and the expected number of design errors present in each design component or subsystem. The full distribution for these quantities is calculated in the simulation. The conditions for convergence are also derived for each model. The models are illustrated through the development of the spacecraft control electronics (SCE) for a new communications satellite.

Pugnetti, Carlo Felice

292

Propelling design evolution: using a scientifically driven design process to incrementally advance architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis explores the influence of design evolution within the professions of architecture, industrial design, and engineering. Design evolution is a process that can be accelerated through collaboration between various groups linked to the development and production of designed objects. Working as interdisciplinary professionals, I support the incremental advancement of contemporary products in order to encourage positive human progress.\\u000aAs

Robert Thaddeus Gassman

2009-01-01

293

Natural gas operations: considerations on process transients, design, and control.  

PubMed

This manuscript highlights tangible benefits deriving from the dynamic simulation and control of operational transients of natural gas processing plants. Relevant improvements in safety, controllability, operability, and flexibility are obtained not only within the traditional applications, i.e. plant start-up and shutdown, but also in certain fields apparently time-independent such as the feasibility studies of gas processing plant layout and the process design of processes. Specifically, this paper enhances the myopic steady-state approach and its main shortcomings with respect to the more detailed studies that take into consideration the non-steady state behaviors. A portion of a gas processing facility is considered as case study. Process transients, design, and control solutions apparently more appealing from a steady-state approach are compared to the corresponding dynamic simulation solutions. PMID:22056010

Manenti, Flavio

2012-03-01

294

The shielding design process--new plants to decommissioning.  

PubMed

BNFL have over 25 years experience of designing nuclear plant for the whole-fuel cycle. In the UK, a Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is to be set up to ensure that Britain's nuclear legacy is cleaned up safely, securely and cost effectively. The resulting challenges and opportunities for shielding design will be substantial as the shielding design process was originally devised for the design of new plants. Although its underlying principles are equally applicable to decommissioning and remediation of old plants, there are many aspects of detailed application that need to adapt to this radically different operating environment. The paper describes both the common issues and the different challenges of shielding design at different operational phases. Sample applications will be presented of both new plant and decommissioning projects that illustrate not only the robust nature of the processes being used, but also how they lead to cost-effective solutions making a substantive and appropriate contribution to radiological protection goals. PMID:16604700

Jeffries, Graham; Cooper, Andrew; Hobson, John

2005-01-01

295

Information Flow in the Launch Vehicle Design/Analysis Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of a team effort aimed at defining the information flow between disciplines at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engaged in the design of space launch vehicles. The information flow is modeled at a first level and is described using three types of templates: an N x N diagram, discipline flow diagrams, and discipline task descriptions. It is intended to provide engineers with an understanding of the connections between what they do and where it fits in the overall design process of the project. It is also intended to provide design managers with a better understanding of information flow in the launch vehicle design cycle.

Humphries, W. R., Sr.; Holland, W.; Bishop, R.

1999-01-01

296

Design flow for implementing image processing in FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design flow for implementing a dynamic gamma algorithm in an FPGA is described. Real-time video processing makes enormous demands on processing resources. An FPGA solution offers some advantages over commercial video chip and DSP implementation alternatives. The traditional approach to FPGA development involves a system engineer designing, modeling and verifying an algorithm and writing a specification. A hardware engineer uses the specification as a basis for coding in VHDL and testing the algorithm in the FPGA with supporting electronics. This process is work intensive and the verification of the image processing algorithm executing on the FPGA does not occur until late in the program. The described design process allows the system engineer to design and verify a true VHDL version of the algorithm, executing in an FPGA. This process yields reduced risk and development time. The process is achieved by using Xilinx System Generator in conjunction with Simulink® from The MathWorks. System Generator is a tool that bridges the gap between the high level modeling environment and the digital world of the FPGA. System Generator is used to develop the dynamic gamma algorithm for the contrast enhancement of a candidate display product. The results of this effort are to increase the dynamic range of the displayed video, resulting in a more useful image for the user.

Trakalo, M.; Giles, G.

2007-05-01

297

Design techniques for surface-micromachining MEMS processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes design techniques and structural components for building surface- micromachined polycrystalline silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The devices presented in this paper were fabricated thorugh the ARPA-sponsored multi-user MEMS process (MUMPS), but the ideas are applicable to other surface-micromachining polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) processes. Specific devices are not discussed; instead, generic design and assembly techniques are presented to give novice or experienced MEMS designers new tools and ideas to improve their own designs. The topological effects which result from the fabrication of surface-micromachined polysilicon structures can be detrimental to many designs. However, these same effects can be turned into an advantage for the MEMS designer. Design techniques are presented for using conformal layer topologies to shape structures for guide rails, bossing, or to obtain closer tolerances than the design rules would seen to imply. Methods are also described for wiring hinged devices and large systems. These techniques were developed from the experience gained by the faculty and students at the Air Force Institute of Technology from the design of over 200 different devices and test structures on over 25 MUMPS die in the past two years.

Comtois, John H.; Bright, Victor M.

1995-09-01

298

The Building Bridges Project: Involving Older Adults in the Design of a Communication Technology to Support Peer-to-Peer Social Engagement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a variety of factors that can lead to social isolation and loneliness in old age, including decline in physical and mental health, as well as change to social environment. The Building Bridges project explores how communication technology can help older adults remain socially connected. This paper will first provide an overview of a prototype communication system designed to support peer-to-peer group interaction. A description of the user-centered design process will be provided to demonstrate the importance of involving older adults at the earliest stages. The implications for designing new technology for older adults are discussed.

Wherton, Joseph; Prendergast, David

299

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A design method for process design kit based on an SMIC 65 nm process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frame structure of a process design kit (PDK) is described in detail, and a practical design method for PDK is presented. Based on this method, a useful SMIC 65 nm PDK has been successfully designed and realized, which is applicable to native EDA software of Zeni. The design process and difficulties of PDK are introduced by developing and analyzing these parameterized cell (Pcell) devices (MOS, resistor, etc.). A structured design method was proposed to implement Pcell, which makes thousands upon thousands of source codes of Pcell concise, readable, easy-to-upkeep and transplantable. Moreover, a Pcase library for each Pcell is designed to verify the Pcell in batches. By this approach, the Pcell can be verified efficiently and the PDK will be more reliable and steady. In addition, the component description format parameters and layouts of the Pcell are optimized by adding flexibility and improving performance, which benefits analog and custom IC designers to satisfy the demand of design. Finally, the SMIC 65 nm PDK was applied to IC design. The results indicate that the SMIC 65 nm PDK is competent to support IC design.

Haiyan, Luo; Lan, Chen; Minghui, Yin

2010-10-01

300

Space Station Freedom Program preliminary design review process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To conduct the Program Requirements Review of the Space Station Freedom, a Preliminary Design Review Board (PDR) has been established. The PDR will assess the preliminary design of the assembled manned base including the assembly process, the launch, and on-orbit stage configuration, the design approach, the on-orbit verification plans, supportability, reliability, safety, interfaces with the NASA infrastructure (the NSTS, TDRSS, and Ground operations) and international partners. Issues such as the coordination of a common interpretation of design requirements, coordination of interfaces, and convergence of design perspectives vs. proper allocation of resources are discussed. The impact of the resolution of the secondary ripple effect of design decisions which may cause programmatic difficulties is also addressed.

Carlise, R. F.; Adair, Billy

1989-01-01

301

Design considerations for fume hoods for process plants.  

PubMed

Proper design of fume hoods is a necessary requisite for a clean working environment for many industrial processes. Until recently, the design of these hoods has been rather a trial and error approach and not based on sound engineering design principles. Hatch Associates have developed and applied new techniques to establish hood parameters for different industrail processes. The paper reviews the developed techniques and illustrates practical application of these techniques to the solving of difficult and comples fume hood design and operating performance problems. The scope of the paper covers the following subject areas: definitions and general considerations: evaluation of volume and heat flow rates for emission sources; local capture of process emissions; remote capture of process emissions and case studies of fume hood applications. The purpose of the paper is to detail a coherent approach in the analysis of emission problems which will result in the development of an efficient design of a fume capture hood. An efficient fume hood can provide a safe working place as well as a clean external environment. Although the techniques can be applied to smaller sources, the case studies which will be examined will be for fume hoods in the flow design range of 50 000 CFM to +1 000 000 CFM. PMID:7415967

Goodfellow, H D; Bender, M

1980-07-01

302

The INTUITION Design Process: Structuring Military Multimodal Interactive Cockpits Design According to the MVC Design Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the design and implementation of multimodal user interfaces. The use of multiple modalities such as vision, speech and gesture opens a vast world of possibilities in user interface design. Although the potential for innovation is high, the current understanding of how to design and build multimodal user interfaces is still primitive. The power and versatility

Rémi Bastide; Laurence Nigay; Didier Bazalgette; Yacine Bellik; Christian Nouvel

303

Advanced Test Reactor Design Basis Reconstitution Project Issue Resolution Process  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Design Basis Reconstitution Program (DBRP) is a structured assessment and reconstitution of the design basis for the ATR. The DBRP is designed to establish and document the ties between the Document Safety Analysis (DSA), design basis, and actual system configurations. Where the DBRP assessment team cannot establish a link between these three major elements, a gap is identified. Resolutions to identified gaps represent configuration management and design basis recovery actions. The proposed paper discusses the process being applied to define, evaluate, report, and address gaps that are identified through the ATR DBRP. Design basis verification may be performed or required for a nuclear facility safety basis on various levels. The process is applicable to large-scale design basis reconstitution efforts, such as the ATR DBRP, or may be scaled for application on smaller projects. The concepts are applicable to long-term maintenance of a nuclear facility safety basis and recovery of degraded safety basis components. The ATR DBRP assessment team has observed numerous examples where a clear and accurate link between the DSA, design basis, and actual system configuration was not immediately identifiable in supporting documentation. As a result, a systematic approach to effectively document, prioritize, and evaluate each observation is required. The DBRP issue resolution process provides direction for consistent identification, documentation, categorization, and evaluation, and where applicable, entry into the determination process for a potential inadequacy in the safety analysis (PISA). The issue resolution process is a key element for execution of the DBRP. Application of the process facilitates collection, assessment, and reporting of issues identified by the DBRP team. Application of the process results in an organized database of safety basis gaps and prioritized corrective action planning and resolution. The DBRP team follows the ATR DBRP issue resolution process which provides a method for the team to promptly sort and prioritize questions and issues between those that can be addressed as a normal part of the reconstitution project and those that are to be handle as PISAs. Presentation of the DBRP issue resolution process provides an example for similar activities that may be required at other facilities within the Department of Energy complex.

Steven D. Winter; Gregg L. Sharp; William E. Kohn; Richard T. McCracken

2007-05-01

304

Prodrugs design based on inter- and intramolecular chemical processes.  

PubMed

This review provides the reader a concise overview of the majority of prodrug approaches with the emphasis on the modern approaches to prodrug design. The chemical approach catalyzed by metabolic enzymes which is considered as widely used among all other approaches to minimize the undesirable drug physicochemical properties is discussed. Part of this review will shed light on the use of molecular orbital methods such as DFT, semiempirical and ab initio for the design of novel prodrugs. This novel prodrug approach implies prodrug design based on enzyme models that were utilized for mimicking enzyme catalysis. The computational approach exploited for the prodrug design involves molecular orbital and molecular mechanics (DFT, ab initio, and MM2) calculations and correlations between experimental and calculated values of intramolecular processes that were experimentally studied to assign the factors determining the reaction rates in certain processes for better understanding on how enzymes might exert their extraordinary catalysis. PMID:23998799

Karaman, Rafik

2013-12-01

305

A design framework for exploratory geovisualization in epidemiology  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a design framework for geographic visualization based on iterative evaluations of a toolkit designed to support cancer epidemiology. The Exploratory Spatio-Temporal Analysis Toolkit (ESTAT), is intended to support visual exploration through multivariate health data. Its purpose is to provide epidemiologists with the ability to generate new hypotheses or further refine those they may already have. Through an iterative user-centered design process, ESTAT has been evaluated by epidemiologists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Results of these evaluations are discussed, and a design framework based on evaluation evidence is presented. The framework provides specific recommendations and considerations for the design and development of a geovisualization toolkit for epidemiology. Its basic structure provides a model for future design and evaluation efforts in information visualization.

Robinson, Anthony C.

2009-01-01

306

Design of expendable conductivity temperature depth survey data processing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme of economical and easy to carry XCTD survey data processing system is designed. In this design, the Cortex-M3 core-based high-performance processor STM32 is used as a host controller and communicates with SD memory card on SPI Bus. lt establishes FAT32 file system. So the problems of large data storage and interface with PC are solved by the system.

Hanbai Fan; Shaoxian Wang

2010-01-01

307

Product and Process Improvement Using Mixture-Process Variable Designs and Robust Optimization Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The quality of an industrial product depends on the raw material proportions and the process variable levels, both of which need to be taken into account in designing a product. This article presents a case study from the food industry in which both kinds of variables were studied by combining a constrained mixture experiment design and a central composite process variable design. Based on the natural structure of the situation, a split-plot experiment was designed and models involving the raw material proportions and process variable levels (separately and combined) were fitted. Combined models were used to study: (i) the robustness of the process to variations in raw material proportions, and (ii) the robustness of the raw material recipes with respect to fluctuations in the process variable levels. Further, the expected variability in the robust settings was studied using the bootstrap.

Sahni, Narinder S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Naes, Tormod

2009-04-01

308

User-Centered Design Driven Development of a Virtual Reality Therapy Application for Iraq War Combat-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experience, including (but not limited to) military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage, and terror...

A. Treskunov A. A. Rizzo G. Reger J. Pair K. Graap

2006-01-01

309

Use of qualitative methods and user-centered design to develop customized health information technology tools within federally qualified health centers to keep children insured.  

PubMed

Lack of health insurance negatively impacts children's health. Despite federal initiatives to expand children's coverage and accelerate state outreach efforts, millions of US children remain uninsured or experience frequent gaps in coverage. Most current efforts to enroll and retain eligible children in public insurance programs take place outside of the health care system. This study is a partnership between patients' families, medical informaticists, federally qualified health center (FQHC) staff, and researchers to build and test information technology tools to help FQHCs reach uninsured children and those at risk for losing coverage. PMID:24594562

DeVoe, Jennifer; Angier, Heather; Likumahuwa, Sonja; Hall, Jennifer; Nelson, Christine; Dickerson, Kay; Keller, Sara; Burdick, Tim; Cohen, Deborah

2014-01-01

310

Evaluating two process scale chromatography column header designs using CFD.  

PubMed

Chromatography is an indispensable unit operation in the downstream processing of biomolecules. Scaling of chromatographic operations typically involves a significant increase in the column diameter. At this scale, the flow distribution within a packed bed could be severely affected by the distributor design in process scale columns. Different vendors offer process scale columns with varying design features. The effect of these design features on the flow distribution in packed beds and the resultant effect on column efficiency and cleanability needs to be properly understood in order to prevent unpleasant surprises on scale-up. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides a cost-effective means to explore the effect of various distributor designs on process scale performance. In this work, we present a CFD tool that was developed and validated against experimental dye traces and tracer injections. Subsequently, the tool was employed to compare and contrast two commercially available header designs. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:837-844, 2014. PMID:24616438

Johnson, Chris; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Antoniou, Chris

2014-07-01

311

Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review  

SciTech Connect

The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

Not Available

1980-01-07

312

Aerospace structural design process improvement using systematic evolutionary structural modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidisciplinary team tasked with an aircraft design problem must understand the problem requirements and metrics to produce a successful design. This understanding entails not only knowledge of what these requirements and metrics are, but also how they interact, which are most important (to the customer as well as to aircraft performance), and who in the organization can provide pertinent knowledge for each. In recent years, product development researchers and organizations have developed and successfully applied a variety of tools such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to coordinate multidisciplinary team members. The effectiveness of these methods, however, depends on the quality and fidelity of the information that team members can input. In conceptual aircraft design, structural information is of lower quality compared to aerodynamics or performance because it is based on experience rather than theory. This dissertation shows how advanced structural design tools can be used in a multidisciplinary team setting to improve structural information generation and communication through a systematic evolution of structural detail. When applied to conceptual design, finite element-based structural design tools elevate structural information to the same level as other computationally supported disciplines. This improved ability to generate and communicate structural information enables a design team to better identify and meet structural design requirements, consider producibility issues earlier, and evaluate structural concepts. A design process experiment of a wing structural layout in collaboration with an industrial partner illustrates and validates the approach.

Taylor, Robert Michael

2000-10-01

313

Design of a Computerized Medical School Admissions Process  

PubMed Central

A Computerized Admissions Process (CAP) was developed for the St. Louis University School of Medicine. This system is written in MUMPS and currently runs on a Tandem Computer System located at the Medical School. The system was designed to achieve several important goals. First, the system must be interactive, providing full integration of various clerical, word processing and administrative functions that comprise the admissions process. Second, there must be a capability for user-defined screening criteria. Third, data entry must be minimized. Fourth, the system must be designed to allow reconfiguration in order to reflect possible future changes in the overall admissions process. A discussion of the present admissions system as a single “state” of a more Generalized Action System (GAS) is presented.

Oberst, Robert J.; McPeters, Nancy A.; Comas, Manuel R.

1983-01-01

314

Integrating Science into Design Technology Projects: Using a Standard Model in the Design Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth graders built a model windmill using a three-step process: (1) open exploration of designs; (2) application of a standard model incorporating features of suggested designs; and (3) refinement of preliminary models. The approach required math, science, and technology teacher collaboration and adequate time. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

Zubrowski, Bernard

2002-01-01

315

Integrated Design System (IDS) Tools for the Spacecraft Aeroassist/Entry Vehicle Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The definition of the Integrated Design System technology focus area as presented in the NASA Information Technology center of excellence strategic plan is described. The need for IDS tools in the aeroassist/entry vehicle design process is illustrated. Initial and future plans for spacecraft IDS tool development are discussed.

Olynick, David; Braun, Robert; Langhoff, Steven R. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

316

Motivating the Notion of Generic Design within Information Processing Theory: The Design Problem Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of generic design, while it has been around for 25 years, is not often articulated, especially within Newell and Simon's (1972) Information Processing Theory framework. Design is merely lumped in with other forms of problem solving activity. Intuitively it is felt that there should be a level of description of the phenomenon which…

Goel, Vinod; Pirolli, Peter

317

Design and Evaluation of Computer Generated Hologram with Binary Subwavelength Structure Designed by Deterministic Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A binary subwavelength structure for multilevel phase modulation can be designed by our previously proposed deterministic\\u000a design method without iterative optimization method. To use our design technique in various applications of a computer generated\\u000a hologram (CGH) like an array illuminator, beam-shaping, signal processing, and so on, an image quality of a reconstructed\\u000a image from a CGH has become much more

Takehito Oonishi; Tsuyoshi Konishi; Kazuyoshi Itoh

2007-01-01

318

Preform design of a generic turbine disk forging process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work uses the finite-element-based inverse die contact tracking method to design the preform die shapes of a generic turbine-disk forging process. First, for a one-stage forging process, folding defects, extensive flash and underfill resulting from using an improper initial billet size are investigated. Trial forward simulations are performed while varying the height-to-diameter ratio and the optimal aspect ratio of

Guoqun Zhao; Zhenduo Zhao; Tonghai Wang; Ramana V. Grandhi

1998-01-01

319

A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2005-07-01

320

Noise control, sound, and the vehicle design process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many products, noise and sound are viewed as necessary evils that need to be dealt with in order to bring the product successfully to market. They are generally not product ``exciters'' although some vehicle manufacturers do tune and advertise specific sounds to enhance the perception of their products. In this paper, influencing the design process for the ``evils,'' such as wind noise and road noise, are considered in more detail. There are three ingredients to successfully dealing with the evils in the design process. The first of these is knowing how excesses in noise effects the end customer in a tangible manner and how that effects customer satisfaction and ultimately sells. The second is having and delivering the knowledge of what is required of the design to achieve a satisfactory or even better level of noise performance. The third ingredient is having the commitment of the designers to incorporate the knowledge into their part, subsystem or system. In this paper, the elements of each of these ingredients are discussed in some detail and the attributes of a successful design process are enumerated.

Donavan, Paul

2005-09-01

321

Material, process, and product design of thermoplastic composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoplastic composites made of polypropylene (PP) and E-glass fibers were investigated experimentally as well as theoretically for two new classes of product designs. The first application was for reinforcement of wood. Commingled PP\\/glass yarn was consolidated and bonded on wood panel using a tie layer. The processing parameters, including temperature, pressure, heating time, cooling time, bonding strength, and bending strength

Heming Dai

2001-01-01

322

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Approximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use this infor...

323

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

324

Design of an applied optical fiber process tomography system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel optical fiber process tomography (OFPT) probe is developed; in which, eight optical fiber sensor units are uniformly distributed around the cylindrical container. Each unit comprises three optical fiber collimators, one photo detector and one optical window. The window is specially designed to make the light pass through and the container waterproof. All devices in the

Chunsheng Yan; Jing Zhong; Yanbiao Liao; Shurong Lai; Min Zhang; Dewen Gao

2005-01-01

325

A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

326

Great Plains Gasification Project Process Stream Design Data. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major ...

F. I. Honea

1985-01-01

327

Design of a pixel array circuit for thinning process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a pixel array circuit for image acquisition and thinning is presented. The circuit is designed to have a simple structure with four connections per pixel. In each pixel, the operations for the thinning process are performed using simple MOS switches and latches. Logic functions are implemented in NMOS pass transistor logic gates to minimize the circuit area

Chunyan Wang; Kuo-ting Wu

2004-01-01

328

OPTIMUM REACTOR DESIGN IN METHANATION PROCESSES WITH NONUNIFORM CATALYSTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generic methodology is developed to design a heterogeneous catalytic reactor for methanation processes. For the optimization of a heterogeneous catalytic reactor, nonuniform catalyst pellets such as a layered catalyst are considered with respect to reaction type, reactor performance, and component distribution inside the catalyst. Heterogeneous uniform and nonuniform catalyst models were developed to analyze the effect of mass and

Sungwon Hwang; Robin Smith

2008-01-01

329

Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

Alha, Katariina

2004-01-01

330

COMPOSITION OF ORGANISATIONAL PROCESS MODELS FOR SUPPORTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis focuses on the analysis of organisational models that can express processes and behaviour of multi-functional human organisations. Those models should be able to assist the designing of information systems that support decision-making in the organisation. An organisation, as seen in the thesis, comprises a set of autonomously functioning and proactively collaborating actors that interact by exchanging time- sensitive

Raul Savimaa

331

The Role of Dialogic Processes in Designing Career Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role played by dialogic processes in the designing or redesigning of future expectations during a career guidance intervention. It discusses a specific method ("Giving instruction to a double") developed and used during career counseling sessions with two recent doctoral graduates. It intends both to help them outline or…

Bangali, Marcelline; Guichard, Jean

2012-01-01

332

Shipbuilder/Supplier Design Process (The National Shipbuilding Research Program).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cost of warships has increased dramatically in recent years. Much of this increase is certainly justifiable in terms of enhanced capability - - but not all. A sizable portion can also be attributed to a design process for major equipment that does not...

R. C. Condon

1992-01-01

333

An Exploration of Design Students' Inspiration Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our purpose was to explore how different sources of inspiration influenced two groups of students' inspiration process and their attitudes toward their design projects. Assigned sources of inspiration and instructor's assistance in the search for inspiration varied for two groups of students completing a small culture inspired product…

Dazkir, Sibel S.; Mower, Jennifer M.; Reddy-Best, Kelly L.; Pedersen, Elaine L.

2013-01-01

334

Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

1998-12-01

335

Extension of the Framework of Knowledge Process Analysis: A Case Study of Design Research Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study undergoes the approach of Knowledge process analysis in an academic research project. It investigates the knowledge creation primitives of KPA used in previous studies and tests other possible primitives from the domain of design studies. This is a step improving KPA with design research experience.

Georgi V. Georgiev; Kozo Sugiyama; Yukari Nagai

2009-01-01

336

Optical notch filter design based on digital signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on digital signal processing theory, a novel method of designing optical notch filter is proposed for Mach-Zehnder interferometer with cascaded optical fiber rings coupled structure. The method is simple and effective, and it can be used to implement the designing of the optical notch filter which has arbitrary number of notch points in one free spectrum range (FSR). A design example of notch filter based on cascaded single-fiber-rings is given. On this basis, an improved cascaded double-fiber-rings structure is presented to eliminate the effect of phase shift caused by the single-fiber-ring structure. This new structure can improve the stability and applicability of system. The change of output intensity spectrum is finally investigated for each design parameter and the tuning characteristics of the notch filter are also discussed.

Guo, Sen; Zhang, Juan; Li, Xue

2011-05-01

337

Design modification of cyclically periodic structure using Gaussian process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclically periodic structures, such as blade-disk assembly in turbo-machinery, are widely used in engineering practice. While these structures are generally designed to be periodic with identical substructures, it is well-known that small random uncertainties exist among substructures which in certain cases may cause drastic change in the dynamic responses, a phenomenon known as vibration localization. Previous studies have illustrated that the introduction of small design modifications, i.e., intentional mistuning, may alleviate such vibration localization. The design objective here thus is to identify proper deign modification that can reduce the response variation under uncertainties. In this research, we first develop a perturbation-based approach to efficiently quantify the variation of forced response of a periodic structure, without and with the design modification, under uncertainties. We then propose a Gaussian process emulation which enables us to evaluate the objective function over the design space by using only a small number of design candidates. The combination of these algorithms allows us to perform effective design modification to minimize the response variation in nearly periodic structures.

Zhou, K.; Tang, J.

2013-04-01

338

Designed CVD growth of graphene via process engineering.  

PubMed

Graphene, the atomic thin carbon film with honeycomb lattice, holds great promise in a wide range of applications, due to its unique band structure and excellent electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Scientists are researching this star material because of the development of various emerging preparation techniques, among which chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has received the fastest advances in the past few years. For the CVD growth of graphene, the ultimate goal is to achieve the highest quality in the largest scale and lowest cost with a precise control of layer thickness, stacking order, and crystallinity. To meet this goal, researchers need a comprehensive understanding and effective controlling of the growth process, especially to its elementary steps. In this Account, we focus on our recent progresses toward the controlled surface growth of graphene and its two-dimensional (2D) hybrids via rational designs of CVD elementary processes, namely, process engineering. A typical CVD process consists of four main elementary steps: (A) adsorption and catalytic decomposition of precursor gas, (B) diffusion and dissolution of decomposed carbon species into bulk metal, (C) segregation of dissolved carbon atoms onto the metal surface, and finally, (D) surface nucleation and growth of graphene. Absence or enhancement of each elementary step would lead to significant changes in the whole growth process. Metals with certain carbon solubility, such as nickel and cobalt, involve all four elementary steps in a typical CVD process, thus providing us an ideal system for process engineering. The elementary segregation process can be completely blocked if molybdenum is introduced into the system as an alloy catalyst, yielding perfect monolayer graphene almost independent of growth parameters. On the other hand, the segregation-only process of predissolved solid carbons is also capable of high-quality graphene growth. By using a synergetic Cu-Ni alloy, we are able to further enhance the control to such a segregation technique, especially for the thickness of graphene. By designing a cosegregation process of carbon atoms with other elements, such as nitrogen, doped graphene could be synthesized directly with a tunable doping profile. Copper with negligible carbon solubility provides another platform for process engineering, where both carbon dissolution and segregation steps are negligible in the CVD process. Carbon atoms decomposed from precursors diffuse on the surface and build up the thermodynamically stable honeycomb lattice. As a result, graphene growth on copper is self-limited, and formation of multilayer graphene is generally prohibited. Being able to control this process better, as well as the high quality produced, makes copper-based growth the dominating synthesis procedure in the graphene community. We designed a two-temperature zone system to spatially separate the catalytic decomposition step of carbon precursors and the surface graphitization step for breaking this self-limited growth feature, giving high-quality Bernal stacked bilayer graphene via van der Waals epitaxy. We performed the so-called wrinkle engineering by growing graphene on nanostructured copper foil together with a structure-preserved surface transfer. In such a way, we controlled the wrinkling or folding on graphene and further fabricated graphene nanoribbon arrays by self-masked plasma etching. Moreover, by designing a two-step patching growth process on copper, we succeeded in synthesizing the mosaic graphene, a patchwork of intrinsic and nitrogen-doped graphene connected by single crystalline graphene p-n junctions. By following a general concept of process engineering, our work on the designed CVD growth of graphene and its 2D hybrids provides a unique insight of this research field. It enables the precise growth control of graphene together with the in-depth understanding of CVD growth process, which would further stimulate the pace of graphene applications. PMID:23869401

Yan, Kai; Fu, Lei; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

2013-10-15

339

A Review of the Design Process for Implantable Orthopedic Medical Devices  

PubMed Central

The design process for medical devices is highly regulated to ensure the safety of patients. This paper will present a review of the design process for implantable orthopedic medical devices. It will cover the main stages of feasibility, design reviews, design, design verification, manufacture, design validation, design transfer and design changes.

Aitchison, G.A; Hukins, D.W.L; Parry, J.J; Shepherd, D.E.T; Trotman, S.G

2009-01-01

340

THE USE OF STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL AND DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS IN PRODUCT AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality and productivity improvement has become an essential element of the overall strategic plan for most organizations. This has sparked renewed interest in statistical methods for quality improvement. This paper reviews some recent developments in statistical methodology that have application in product and process improvement, concentrating on statistical process control and design of experiments. Some directions for future research are

DOUGLAS C. MONTGOMERY

1992-01-01

341

California State Library: Processing Center Design and Specifications. Volume I, System Description and Input Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scope of the California State Library-Processing Center (CSL-PC) project is to develop the design and specifications for a computerized technical processing center to provide services to a network of participating California libraries. Immediate objectives are: (1) retrospective conversion of card catalogs to a machine-form data base,…

Sherman, Don; Shoffner, Ralph M.

342

Design and development of EMR supporting medical process management.  

PubMed

Current EMR system benefits physicians by facilitating order entry and reducing errors. It can improve the safety and effectiveness of medical services, but cannot manage the whole medical process and the quality of medical services. In addition to physicians, EMR should be designed for all medical professionals because medical services cannot be accomplished by physicians alone, but also requires the involvement of other medical professionals. Therefore, we applied PDCA, the famous quality management cycle to design a comprehensive and coherent EMR system which can be used throughout the entire treatment process. EMR with the PDCA Cycle can record every order state and every treatment procedure in order to monitor the whole medical process. This extends the safety from planning the treatment to fulfilling it. By analyzing the records, doctors and hospital managers can perfect the medical process and improve healthcare quality. The EMR we designed with the PDCA Cycle provides a record entry interface for physicians and a worksheet interface for nurses and other professionals. Every treatment procedure and every change of orders or tasks will be fed back to medical professionals. So information generated from the beginning to the end of treatment will link with each other to avoid any information islands. Furthermore, the EMR can display the additional information intuitively and real-timely without increasing the burden of medical professionals' work. PMID:20811768

Li, Jing-Song; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Chu, Jian; Suzuki, Muneou; Araki, Kenji

2012-06-01

343

A Taguchi study of the aeroelastic tailoring design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Taguchi study was performed to determine the important players in the aeroelastic tailoring design process and to find the best composition of the optimization's objective function. The Wing Aeroelastic Synthesis Procedure (TSO) was used to ascertain the effects that factors such as composite laminate constraints, roll effectiveness constraints, and built-in wing twist and camber have on the optimum, aeroelastically tailored wing skin design. The results show the Taguchi method to be a viable engineering tool for computational inquiries, and provide some valuable lessons about the practice of aeroelastic tailoring.

Bohlmann, Jonathan D.; Scott, Robert C.

1991-01-01

344

Validation-based sparse Gaussian process classifier design.  

PubMed

Gaussian processes (GPs) are promising Bayesian methods for classification and regression problems. Design of a GP classifier and making predictions using it is, however, computationally demanding, especially when the training set size is large. Sparse GP classifiers are known to overcome this limitation. In this letter, we propose and study a validation-based method for sparse GP classifier design. The proposed method uses a negative log predictive (NLP) loss measure, which is easy to compute for GP models. We use this measure for both basis vector selection and hyperparameter adaptation. The experimental results on several real-world benchmark data sets show better or comparable generalization performance over existing methods. PMID:19292648

Shevade, Shirish; Sundararajan, S

2009-07-01

345

Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine  

SciTech Connect

The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels in the hydroceramic grout process (i.e., 21 m) appears to be about the same as that estimated by the Direct Cementitious Waste Process in 1998, for which a conceptual design was developed. Some of the conceptual design efforts in the 1998 study may be applicable to the stabilizer processes addressed in this EDF. (e) The gamma radiation fields near the process vessels handling HLW calcine would vary from a range of about 300-350 R/hr at a distance of 2.5 cm from the side of the vessels to a range of about 50-170 R/hr at a distance of 100 cm from the side of the vessels. The calculations were made for combined calcine, which was defined as the total HLW calcine inventory uniformly mixed. (f) The gamma radiation fields near the stabilized waste in canisters would range from about 25-170 R/hr at 2.5 cm from the side of the canister and 5-35 R/hr at 100 cm from the side of the canister, depending on the which bin set was the source of calcine.

T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

2005-06-01

346

Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology  

SciTech Connect

Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

2005-06-30

347

Robust process design and springback compensation of a decklid inner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Springback compensation is one of the key topics in current die face engineering. The accuracy of the springback simulation, the robustness of method planning and springback are considered to be the main factors which influences the effectiveness of springback compensation. In the present paper, the basic principles of springback compensation are presented firstly. These principles consist of an accurate full cycle simulation with final validation setting and the robust process design and optimization are discussed in detail via an industrial example, a decklid inner. Moreover, an effective compensation strategy is put forward based on the analysis of springback and the simulation based springback compensation is introduced in the phase of process design. In the end, the final verification and comparison in tryout and production is given in this paper, which verified that the methodology of robust springback compensation is effective during the die development.

Zhang, Xiaojing; Grimm, Peter; Carleer, Bart; Jin, Weimin; Liu, Gang; Cheng, Yingchao

2013-12-01

348

Simulating Perceptive Processes of Pilots to Support System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an approach towards supporting the ergonomic design of aircraft cockpits by predicting the probability\\u000a that pilots might miss relevant information due to routine learning effects combined with non-adequate placement of display\\u000a instruments. The approach is based on an executable cognitive pilot model. We focus on the cognitive interaction between (1)\\u000a rule-based processing of flight procedures,

Andreas Lüdtke; Jan-patrick Osterloh

2009-01-01

349

Subsystem Exchange in a Concurrent Design Process Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides insight into the novel solutions used to build SoCs targeting increased productivity in a complex environment. Design of such SoCs relies on multi-team, multi-site cooperation and data exchange. The data exchange, made possible though descriptions based on The SPIRIT Consortium's IP-XACT™ specification and the automation for its processing, forms the basis of the approach. Initially, the specification

Marino Strik; Alain Gonier; Paul Williams

2008-01-01

350

Subsystem exchange in a concurrent design process environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides insight into the novel solutions used to build SoCs targeting increased productivity in a complex environment. Design of such SoCs relies on multi-team, multi-site cooperation and data exchange. The data exchange, made possible though descriptions based on The SPIRIT Consortium's IP-XACT#8482; specification and the automation for its processing, forms the basis of the approach. Initially, the specification

Marino Strik; Alain Gonier; Paul Williams

2008-01-01

351

A Programming Environment for Packet-processing Systems: Design Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the vision and the design of a programming environment, called Shangri-La, aimed at making future generations of packet-processing systems - multi-core, light-weight threaded hardware in general, and network processor (NP)-based systems in particular - as easily programmable as today's workstations and servers. Our environment consists of: (1) a domain- specific programming language for specifying packet-

Harrick Vin; Jayaram Mudigonda; Jamie Jason; Erik J. Johnson; Roy Ju; Aaron Kunze; Ruiqi Lian

2004-01-01

352

PASM parallel processing system: Hardware design and operating system concepts  

SciTech Connect

Since circuit switching speeds are reaching fundamental limits, avenues to speed up computations other than that using faster components are being explored. PASM is a dynamically reconfigurable SIMD/MIMD parallel processing system design for up to 1024 processing elements (PEs). It can be dynamically reconfigured to work as one or more SIMD (single instruction stream - multiple data stream) and/or MIMD (multiple instruction stream - multiple data stream) machines. A prototype with 30 MC68000 microprocessors, including 16 PEs in the computational engine, was designed and constructed. The design of the prototype hardware is described, as well as the design tradeoffs that were made. Extending the current prototype by the addition of a Network Interface Unit (NIU) to each PE is proposed. The powerful reconfiguration capabilities of PASM can be fully utilized only if all tradeoffs influencing recongifuration are known. Attributes of the PASM architecture, operating system software, and potential application programs that affect both the cost and advantages of system reconfiguration are investigated. This information can be incorporated in a knowledge base for an Intelligent Operating System that automatically configures and reconfigures the PASM system.

Schwederski, T.

1987-01-01

353

Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

1990-01-01

354

Process Cost Modeling for Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This report outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are costed according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this report is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool. In successive sections, the report addresses the issues of cost modeling as follows. First, an introduction is presented to provide the background for the research work. Next, a quick review of cost estimation techniques is made with the intention to highlight their inappropriateness for what is really needed at the conceptual phase of the design process. The First-Order Process Velocity Cost Model (FOPV) is discussed at length in the next section. This is followed by an application of the FOPV cost model to a generic wing. For designs that have no precedence as far as acquisition costs are concerned, cost data derived from the FOPV cost model may not be accurate enough because of new requirements for shape complexity, material, equipment and precision/tolerance. The concept of Cost Modulus is introduced at this point to compensate for these new burdens on the basic processes. This is treated in section 5. The cost of a design must be conveniently linked to its CAD representation. The interfacing of CAD models and spreadsheets containing the cost equations is the subject of the next section, section 6. The last section of the report is a summary of the progress made so far, and the anticipated research work to be achieved in the future.

Bao, Han P.; Freeman, William (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

355

Development of the Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic development of an engine inlet requires a comprehensive program of both wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. To save time and resources, much "testing" is done using CFD before any design ever enters a wind tunnel. The focus of my project this summer is on CFD analysis tool development. In particular, I am working to further develop the capabilities of the Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP). "PINDAP" is a collection of computational tools that allow for efficient and accurate design and analysis of the aerodynamics about and through inlets that can make use of a planar (two-dimensional or axisymmetric) geometric and flow assumption. PINDAP utilizes the WIND CFD flow solver, which is capable of simulating the turbulent, compressible flow field. My project this summer is a continuation of work that I performed for two previous summers. Two years ago, I used basic features of the PINDAP to design a Mach 5 hypersonic scramjet engine inlet and to demonstrate the feasibility of the PINDAP. The following summer, I worked to develop its geometry and grid generation capabilities to include subsonic and supersonic inlets, complete bodies and cowls, conic leading and trailing edges, as well as airfoils. These additions allowed for much more design flexibility when using the program.

Gruber, Christopher R.

2004-01-01

356

A new general method for designing affinity chromatography processes.  

PubMed

Affinity chromatography is widely used for selectively recovering a target solute from a complex mixture. The challenge in designing a capture process is to achieve high yield, high column utilization, and high sorbent productivity while satisfying loading time and pressure limit requirements. The conventional design method based on constant-pattern waves cannot be used for small feed batches or short columns, which do not allow the formation of such waves. Other design methods in the literature rely on simulations or experimental trials, and can be time-consuming and costly. In this study, a new design method with no need of simulations is developed for constant pattern and non-constant pattern systems with Langmuir isotherms. Given feed conditions, loading time, and desired yield, the design requires only the values of certain intrinsic parameters, which can be estimated from a small number of bench-scale experiments. The minimum column volume for capture can be estimated either graphically or analytically. The method is tested with Protein A chromatography data for antibody purification. It is applicable to a wide range of production scales and design requirements. The effects of material properties, feed composition, feed volume, and design requirements on the column volume for capture can be found graphically. When the loading time relative to a characteristic diffusion time is 0.5 or larger, the minimum column volume approaches that of an ideal system. A short loading time increases sorbent productivity, but increases the minimum column volume. A high feed concentration, a high equilibrium capacity, and a small diffusion time relative to the loading time can reduce the minimum column volume and increase productivity. PMID:24997111

Ling, Lei; Kao, Lee-Wei; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

2014-08-15

357

System design and performances of ASTER Level-1 data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASTER is a multispectral imager which covers wide spectral region from visible to thermal infrared with 14 spectral bands, and will fly on EOS-AM1 in 1999. To meet this wide spectral coverage, ASTER has three optical sensing subsystems (multi-telescope system), VNIR, SWIR and TIR. This multi- telescope configuration requires highly refined ground processing for the generation of Level-1 data products that are radiometrically calibrated and geometrically corrected. A prototype Level-1 processing software system is developed to satisfy these requirements. System design concept adopted includes; (1) 'Automatic Processing,' (2)'ALL-IN-ONE-CONCEPT' in which the processing is carried out using information included in Level-0 data product only, (3) 'MODULE INDEPENDENCE' in which only process control module independently control other modules to change any operational conditions. (4) 'FLEXIBILITY' in which important operation parameters are set from an external component to make the processing condition change easier. The adaptability and the performance of the developed software system are evaluated using simulation data.

Nishida, Sumiyuki; Hachiya, Jun; Matsumoto, Ken; Fujisada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masatane

1998-12-01

358

Mechanical design and design processes for the Telescope Optical Assembly of the Optical Communications Demonstrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mechanical design has been developed for the Telescope Optical Assembly (TOA) of the Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD). The TOA is the portion of the OCD instrument that integrates all the optical elements of the system with the exception of the Laser Transmitter Assembly (LXA) which is fiber coupled to the TOA. The TOA structure is composed primarily of aluminum components with some use of steel and invar. The assembly is contained within a 16 cm MUL 20 cm X 33 cm envelope and has an estimated mass of 5.5 kg. The mechanical design was developed using Computervision's CADDS 5 computer aided design software. Code V optical design data was used as a primary input and was efficiently and accurately transferred form the optical designer to the mechanical designer through the use of IGES files. In addition to enabling rapid transfer of the initial optical design as well as subsequent optical design refinements, the IGES transfer process was also used to expedite preliminary thermal and dynamic analyses.

von Lossberg, Bryan R.

1994-08-01

359

Recent Advances in Process Optimization and Control for the Design of Sheet and Tube Hydroforming Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is concentrated on the last developments related to process design for sheet and tube hydroforming. The paper first analysis the ways to account properly flow movements and pressure drops occurring in sheet and tube hydroforming that can interact with sheet or tube deformation during hydroforming described with a flow-structural approach, based on an ALE approach accounting well the structural interactions. Then different optimization strategies for process parameters are presented on the basis of cost functions associated to final geometry of sheet or tubular components, based on gradient approach as well as stochastic ones, depending on the number of parameters and on the sensitivity of parameters relatively to the response functions. Finally an integrated design approach based on control of processes is described combining optimization and continuous adjustment of process parameters to get the required parts accounting the machine tool limits and the material ones. Different applications are given related to typical components that are used in automotive industry.

Gelin, J. C.; Labergere, C.; Thibaud, S.

2005-08-01

360

Low-cost EUV collector development: design, process, and fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost of ownership (COO) is an area of concern that may limit the adoption and usage of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL). One of the key optical components that contribute to the COO budget is the collector. The collectors being fabricated today are based on existing x-ray optic design and fabrication processes. The main contributors to collector COO are fabrication cost and lifetime. We present experimental data and optical modeling to demonstrate a roadmap for optimized efficiency and a possible approach for significant reduction in collector COO. Current state of the art collectors are based on a Wolter type-1 design and have been adapted from x-ray telescopes. It uses a long format that is suitable for imaging distant light sources such as stars. As applied to industrial equipment and very bright nearby sources, however, a Wolter collector tends to be expensive and requires significant debris shielding and integrated cooling solutions due to the source proximity and length of the collector shells. Three collector concepts are discussed in this work. The elliptical collector that has been used as a test bed to demonstrate alternative cost effective fabrication method has been optimized for collection efficiency. However, this fabrication method can be applied to other optical designs as well. The number of shells and their design may be modified to increase the collection efficiency and to accommodate different EUV sources The fabrication process used in this work starts with a glass mandrel, which is elliptical on the inside. A seed layer is coated on the inside of the glass mandrel, which is then followed by electroplating nickel. The inside/exposed surface of the electroformed nickel is then polished to meet the figure and finish requirements for the particular shell and finally coated with Ru or a multilayer film depending on the angle of incidence of EUV light. Finally the collector shell is released from the inside surface of the mandrel. There are several potential cost and fabrication advantages to this process. There is flexibility in the choice of material for producing the mandrel - this allows for optimizing the cost of fabrication of the mandrel. Moreover, since the final surface and figure of the collector optic can be modified, after electroforming the optic, the mandrel, in principle does not have a limited lifetime. Finally, the mandrel provides mechanical support to the electroformed optic throughout the fabrication process, thereby reducing deformation of the optic during polishing and coating. The optical design, optimization of collection efficiency, fabrication and characterization results is discussed in this work.

Venables, Ranju D.; Goldstein, Michael; Engelhaupt, Darell; Lee, Sang H.; Panning, Eric M.

2007-03-01

361

Safeguards design strategies: designing and constructing new uranium and plutonium processing facilities in the United States  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) is transforming its outdated and oversized complex of aging nuclear material facilities into a smaller, safer, and more secure National Security Enterprise (NSE). Environmental concerns, worker health and safety risks, material security, reducing the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy while maintaining the capability for an effective nuclear deterrence by the United States, are influencing this transformation. As part of the nation's Uranium Center of Excellence (UCE), the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, will advance the U.S.'s capability to meet all concerns when processing uranium and is located adjacent to the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF), designed for consolidated storage of enriched uranium. The HEUMF became operational in March 2010, and the UPF is currently entering its final design phase. The designs of both facilities are for meeting anticipated security challenges for the 21st century. For plutonium research, development, and manufacturing, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement (CMRR) building at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico is now under construction. The first phase of the CMRR Project is the design and construction of a Radiological Laboratory/Utility/Office Building. The second phase consists of the design and construction of the Nuclear Facility (NF). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) selected these two sites as part of the national plan to consolidate nuclear materials, provide for nuclear deterrence, and nonproliferation mission requirements. This work examines these two projects independent approaches to design requirements, and objectives for safeguards, security, and safety (3S) systems as well as the subsequent construction of these modern processing facilities. Emphasis is on the use of Safeguards-by-Design (SBD), incorporating Systems Engineering (SE) principles for these two projects.

Scherer, Carolynn P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Jon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-28

362

Material, process, and product design of thermoplastic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic composites made of polypropylene (PP) and E-glass fibers were investigated experimentally as well as theoretically for two new classes of product designs. The first application was for reinforcement of wood. Commingled PP/glass yarn was consolidated and bonded on wood panel using a tie layer. The processing parameters, including temperature, pressure, heating time, cooling time, bonding strength, and bending strength were tested experimentally and evaluated analytically. The thermoplastic adhesive interface was investigated with environmental scanning electron microscopy. The wood/composite structural design was optimized and evaluated using a Graphic Method. In the second application, we evaluated use of thermoplastic composites for explosion containment in an arrester. PP/glass yarn was fabricated in a sleeve form and wrapped around the arrester. After consolidation, the flexible composite sleeve forms a solid composite shell. The composite shell acts as a protection layer in a surge test to contain the fragments of the arrester. The manufacturing process for forming the composite shell was designed. Woven, knitted, and braided textile composite shells made of commingled PP/glass yarn were tested and evaluated. Mechanical performance of the woven, knitted, and braided composite shells was examined analytically. The theoretical predictions were used to verify the experimental results.

Dai, Heming

363

Design of a flexible image processing library in C++  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two crucial, complementary, issues faced during design and implementation of practically any but a simple image processing library. First is an ability to represent a variety of image types, typically the discriminate feature being the pixel type, e.g. binary, short integer, long integer, or floating point. The second issue is implementation of image processing algorithms that will be able to operate on each of the supported image representations. In many traditional library designs this leads to reimplementation of the same algorithm many times, once for each possible image representation. Some attempts to alleviate this problem introduce elaborate schemes of dynamic pixel representation and registration. This results in single algorithm implementation, however, due to dynamic pixel registration, efficiency of these implementations is poor. In this paper, we investigate use of parameterized algorithms and design issues involved in implementing them in C++. We permit single expression of the algorithm to be used with any concrete representation of an image. Use of advanced features of C++ and object-oriented programming allow us to use static pixel representations, where pixel types are resolved during compile time instead of run time. This approach leads to very flexible and efficient implementations. We have both advantages: single algorithm implementation for numerous image representations, and best possible speed of execution.

Sacha, Jaroslaw P.; Shabestari, Behrouz N.; Kohler, Timothy A.

1997-09-01

364

Co-Simulation for Advanced Process Design and Optimization  

SciTech Connect

Meeting the increasing demand for clean, affordable, and secure energy is arguably the most important challenge facing the world today. Fossil fuels can play a central role in a portfolio of carbon-neutral energy options provided CO{sub 2} emissions can be dramatically reduced by capturing CO{sub 2} and storing it safely and effectively. Fossil energy industry faces the challenge of meeting aggressive design goals for next-generation power plants with CCS. Process designs will involve large, highly-integrated, and multipurpose systems with advanced equipment items with complex geometries and multiphysics. APECS is enabling software to facilitate effective integration, solution, and analysis of high-fidelity process/equipment (CFD) co-simulations. APECS helps to optimize fluid flow and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance. APECS offers many advanced capabilities including ROMs, design optimization, parallel execution, stochastic analysis, and virtual plant co-simulations. NETL and its collaborative R&D partners are using APECS to reduce the time, cost, and technical risk of developing high-efficiency, zero-emission power plants with CCS.

Stephen E. Zitney

2009-01-01

365

Air classification theory and design for municipal solid waste processing  

SciTech Connect

Research conducted at Duke University over the past 12 years has led to the development of a promising alternative method for processing municipal solid waste prior to energy production or resource recovery. Pulsed flow air classification is a laboratory-tested method which successfully separates the combustible from the noncombustible components of MSW. IN 1986, Duke subcontracted to EG G Idaho to perform research in this area for the US Department of Energy. This document represent the final report of that effect, and places this research in the context of all air classification research conducted at Duke University. The goal of this final report is to document the history of pulsed flow air classifier theory and design, while emphasizing test results which confirm success with MSW processing. The three objectives are: Summarize the pulsed-flow air classification theory developed at Duke University; Document the equipment, procedures, test protocols, and results from research constructed at Duke University, with a focus on the combinations and classifier heights and feed rates which produce the best achievable separations, as well as a focus on the estimated cost of a complete classification system; Draw conclusions on the relative merits of selected air classifiers. The development of the theory and design of pulsed flow air classification is initially presented and experimental results are summarized. Pulsing and non-pulsing classifiers are discussed, and a complete system is designed and costed.

Not Available

1993-04-01

366

Design and Evaluation of Computer Generated Hologram with Binary Subwavelength Structure Designed by Deterministic Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A binary subwavelength structure for multilevel phase modulation can be designed by our previously proposed deterministic design method without iterative optimization method. To use our design technique in various applications of a computer generated hologram (CGH) like an array illuminator, beam-shaping, signal processing, and so on, an image quality of a reconstructed image from a CGH has become much more important. In this paper, we verify the image quality of a reconstructed image from a CGH designed by our method in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the spatial resolution. Simulation results show that our technique can theoretically achieve a MTF of more than 99% over a wide range and a spatial resolution of less than 9.66?m.

Oonishi, Takehito; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Kazuyoshi

2007-09-01

367

Compensation for Lithography Induced Process Variations during Physical Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses the challenge of designing robust integrated circuits in the deep sub micron regime in the presence of lithography process variability. By extending and combining existing process and circuit analysis techniques, flexible software frameworks are developed to provide detailed studies of circuit performance in the presence of lithography variations such as focus and exposure. Applications of these software frameworks to select circuits demonstrate the electrical impact of these variations and provide insight into variability aware compact models that capture the process dependent circuit behavior. These variability aware timing models abstract lithography variability from the process level to the circuit level and are used to estimate path level circuit performance with high accuracy with very little overhead in runtime. The Interconnect Variability Characterization (IVC) framework maps lithography induced geometrical variations at the interconnect level to electrical delay variations. This framework is applied to one dimensional repeater circuits patterned with both 90nm single patterning and 32nm double patterning technologies, under the presence of focus, exposure, and overlay variability. Studies indicate that single and double patterning layouts generally exhibit small variations in delay (between 1--3%) due to self compensating RC effects associated with dense layouts and overlay errors for layouts without self-compensating RC effects. The delay response of each double patterned interconnect structure is fit with a second order polynomial model with focus, exposure, and misalignment parameters with 12 coefficients and residuals of less than 0.1ps. The IVC framework is also applied to a repeater circuit with cascaded interconnect structures to emulate more complex layout scenarios, and it is observed that the variations on each segment average out to reduce the overall delay variation. The Standard Cell Variability Characterization (SCVC) framework advances existing layout-level lithography aware circuit analysis by extending it to cell-level applications utilizing a physically accurate approach that integrates process simulation, compact transistor models, and circuit simulation to characterize electrical cell behavior. This framework is applied to combinational and sequential cells in the Nangate 45nm Open Cell Library, and the timing response of these cells to lithography focus and exposure variations demonstrate Bossung like behavior. This behavior permits the process parameter dependent response to be captured in a nine term variability aware compact model based on Bossung fitting equations. For a two input NAND gate, the variability aware compact model captures the simulated response to an accuracy of 0.3%. The SCVC framework is also applied to investigate advanced process effects including misalignment and layout proximity. The abstraction of process variability from the layout level to the cell level opens up an entire new realm of circuit analysis and optimization and provides a foundation for path level variability analysis without the computationally expensive costs associated with joint process and circuit simulation. The SCVC framework is used with slight modification to illustrate the speedup and accuracy tradeoffs of using compact models. With variability aware compact models, the process dependent performance of a three stage logic circuit can be estimated to an accuracy of 0.7% with a speedup of over 50,000. Path level variability analysis also provides an accurate estimate (within 1%) of ring oscillator period in well under a second. Another significant advantage of variability aware compact models is that they can be easily incorporated into existing design methodologies for design optimization. This is demonstrated by applying cell swapping on a logic circuit to reduce the overall delay variability along a circuit path. By including these variability aware compact models in cell characterization libraries, design metrics such as circuit timing, power, area, and delay var

Chin, Eric Yiow-Bing

368

Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.  

PubMed

Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level. PMID:12141993

Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

2002-09-01

369

Dynamic simulation for IGCC process and control design  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulation analysis is a valuable tool that increases the understanding of unit interactions and control system performance in a complex integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant. The Sarlux integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant must simultaneously satisfy electrical power and refinery hydrogen and steam demands (trigeneration gasification). The plant`s gasifier, heat recovery, sulfur removal, hydrogen recovery and steam power generation units are highly integrated and require coordinated control. In this study, dynamic simulation provides insights into the behavior of the process and combined cycle units during normal and upset conditions. The dynamic simulation is used to design a control system that drives the gasifiers to satisfy power, steam and hydrogen demands before a load change or upset is detected by the syngas pressure controller. At the study conclusion, the model will demonstrate how the IGCC plant will respond to the contractual maximum load change rate and process upsets. The study tests the basic process and control system design during the project engineering phase to minimize startup troubleshooting and expensive field changes.

Depew, C.; Martinez, A. [Fluor Daniel, Irvine, CA (United States); Collodi, G.; Meloni, R. [Snamprogetti, Milan (Italy)

1998-01-01

370

The FEYNMAN tools for quantum information processing: Design and implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FEYNMAN tools have been re-designed with the goal to establish and implement a high-level (computer) language that is capable to deal with the physics of finite, n-qubit systems, from frequently required computations to mathematically advanced tasks in quantum information processing. In particular, emphasis has been placed to introduce a small but powerful set of keystring-driven commands in order to support both, symbolic and numerical computations. Though the current design is implemented again within the framework of MAPLE, it is general and flexible enough to be utilized and combined with other languages and computational environments. The present implementation facilitates a large number of computational tasks, including the definition, manipulation and parametrization of quantum states, the evaluation of quantum measures and quantum operations, the evolution of quantum noise in discrete models, quantum measurements and state estimation, and several others. The design is based on a few high-level commands, with a syntax close to the mathematical notation and its use in the literature, and which can be generalized quite readily in order to solve computational tasks at even higher degree of complexity. In this work, I present and discuss the (re-design of the) FEYNMAN tools and make major parts of the code available for public use. Moreover, a few selected examples are shown and demonstrate possible application of this toolbox. The FEYNMAN tools are provided as MAPLE library and can hence be used on all platforms on which this computer-algebra system is accessible.

Fritzsche, S.

2014-06-01

371

DESIGN AND HIGH POWER PROCESSING OF RFQ INPUT POWER COUPLERS*  

SciTech Connect

A RF power coupling system has been developed for future upgrade of input coupling of the RFQ in the SNS linac. The design employs two coaxial loop couplers for 402.5 MHz operation. Each loop is fed through a coaxial ceramic window that is connected to an output of a magic-T waveguide hybrid through a coaxial to waveguide transition. The coaxial loop couplers are designed, manufactured, and high power processed. Two couplers will be used in parallel to power the accelerating structure with up to total 800 kW peak power at 6% duty cycle. RF and mechanical properties of the couplers are discussed. Result of high power RF conditioning that is performed in the RF test facility of the SNS is presented.

Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Vassioutchenko, Alexandre V [ORNL; Aleksandrov, Alexander V [ORNL; Anderson, David E [ORNL; Champion, Mark [FNAL; Crofford, Mark T [ORNL; Gibson, Paul E [ORNL; Hardek, Thomas W [ORNL; Ladd, Peter [ORNL; McCarthy, Mike [ORNL; Stout, Daniel S [ORNL

2007-01-01

372

Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description  

SciTech Connect

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

LANE, M.P.

1999-02-24

373

Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

2011-05-01

374

Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence  

SciTech Connect

Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

Neugebauer, R. [Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, Chemnitz (Germany); Professorship for Machine Tools and Forming Technology, TU Chemnitz (Germany); Schieck, F. [Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, Chemnitz (Germany); Rautenstrauch, A. [Professorship for Machine Tools and Forming Technology, TU Chemnitz (Germany)

2011-05-04

375

Recent Advances in Process Optimization and Control for the Design of Sheet and Tube Hydroforming Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is concentrated on the last developments related to process design for sheet and tube hydroforming. The paper first analysis the ways to account properly flow movements and pressure drops occurring in sheet and tube hydroforming that can interact with sheet or tube deformation during hydroforming described with a flow-structural approach, based on an ALE approach accounting well the

J. C. Gelin; C. Labergere; S. Thibaud

2005-01-01

376

California State Library: Processing Center Design and Specifications. Volume II, File Maintenance and Output Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the report on the California State Library Processing Center (CSL-PC) design and specifications, this volume covers: (1) file maintenance, a discussion of updating system files with new entries and MARC tapes; (2) authority verification, the correction and standardization of subject headings and author names; (3) the filing system for a…

Sherman, Don; Shoffner, Ralph M.

377

Architecting Usability Properties in the E-Learning Instructional Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper advances a framework for architecting usability properties in the e-learning instructional design process. To understand the framework for architecting usability properties into the e-learning instructional design process, the following have been defined: instructional design process, e-learning instructional design process, usability…

Koohang, Alex; du Plessis, Jacques

2004-01-01

378

Optimizing the Wire-Bonding Process for Copper Ball Bonding, Using classic Experimental Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two classic experimental designs were used to develop the copper ball bonding process. A two-level factorial design was used to screen five process variables simultaneously and determine whether any of them had a significant effect on the process. A four-factor central composite design was used to optimize and map the bonding process window. The efficiency of using designed experiments allowed

MICHAEL SHEAFFER; LEE R. LEVINE; BRIAN SCHLAIN

1987-01-01

379

INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY - HIERARCHICAL PROCESS DESIGN (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Hierarchical process design is a method for developing conceptual designs of chemical processes where one uses more detail as designs progress. At each level of the hierarchy the designer evaluates the economics of a process, so that uneconomical processes can be dropped as early...

380

Designing robust gate implementations for quantum-information processing  

SciTech Connect

Quantum-information processing systems are often operated through time-dependent controls; choosing these controls in a way that makes the resulting operation insensitive to variations in unknown or uncontrollable system parameters is an important prerequisite for obtaining high-fidelity gate operations. In this article we present a numerical method for constructing such robust control sequences for a quite general class of quantum-information processing systems. As an application of the method we have designed a robust implementation of a phase-shift operation central to rare-earth-metal quantum computing, an ensemble quantum computing system proposed by Ohlsson et al. [Opt. Commun. 201, 71 (2002)]. In this case the method has been used to obtain a high degree of insensitivity with respect to differences between ensemble members, but it is equally well suited for quantum computing with a single physical system.

Wesenberg, Janus H. [QUANTOP, Danish Research Foundation Center for Quantum Optics, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2004-04-01

381

Design and Process Considerations for a Tunneling Tip Accelerometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we discuss issues related to the fabrication of a bulk micromachined single axis accelerometer. The accelerometer is designed to have a full scale range of ten millig and a sensitivity of tens of nanog. During the process, three distinctly different die are fabricated. These are subsequently assembled using an ally bonding technique. During the bonding operation, electrical contacts are made between layers. The accelerometer is controlled by electrostatic force plates above and below the proof mass. The lower electrode has a dual role. In operation, it provides a necessary control electrode. When not in operation, it is used to clamp the proof mass and prevents its motion. Results of the fabrication process and initial testing of the clamping function are reported.

Paul M. Zavracky, Bob McClelland, Keith Warner, Neil Sherman, Frank Hartley

1995-01-01

382

Passive Solar Design Process for a Small Office/Laboratory Building.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to assess the compatibility of existing passive solar design tools with the architectural process, a case study design for a small commercial building has been performed. The architectural process employed in the design is presented, the areas wi...

B. Andersson R. Kammerud W. Place

1979-01-01

383

Mind and method: an examination of cognitive activities in the design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creative process is a multifaceted and dynamic path of thinking required to execute a project in design-based disciplines (i.e., interior design, architecture). This research seeks to better understand the creative design process by investigating design student experiences during the course of a two week chair design project assignment. This study used an exploratory design to collect data from student

Amy Mattingly

2011-01-01

384

A case study of the use of ergonomics information in a heavy engineering design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this case study was to investigate the use of ergonomics information in an engineering design company's design process. Interviews were undertaken with engineers and designers in the company to establish their knowledge of the design process and use of ergonomics in design. Several of the company’s installed designs were also evaluated to identify if the end product

Narelle Skepper; Leon Straker; Clare Pollock

2000-01-01

385

Using instructional design process to improve design and development of Internet interventions.  

PubMed

Given the wide reach and extensive capabilities of the Internet, it is increasingly being used to deliver comprehensive behavioral and mental health intervention and prevention programs. Their goals are to change user behavior, reduce unwanted complications or symptoms, and improve health status and health-related quality of life. Internet interventions have been found efficacious in addressing a wide range of behavioral and mental health problems, including insomnia, nicotine dependence, obesity, diabetes, depression, and anxiety. Despite the existence of many Internet-based interventions, there is little research to inform their design and development. A model for behavior change in Internet interventions has been published to help guide future Internet intervention development and to help predict and explain behavior changes and symptom improvement outcomes through the use of Internet interventions. An argument is made for grounding the development of Internet interventions within a scientific framework. To that end, the model highlights a multitude of design-related components, areas, and elements, including user characteristics, environment, intervention content, level of intervention support, and targeted outcomes. However, more discussion is needed regarding how the design of the program should be developed to address these issues. While there is little research on the design and development of Internet interventions, there is a rich, related literature in the field of instructional design (ID) that can be used to inform Internet intervention development. ID models are prescriptive models that describe a set of activities involved in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of instructional programs. Using ID process models has been shown to increase the effectiveness of learning programs in a broad range of contexts. ID models specify a systematic method for assessing the needs of learners (intervention users) to determine the gaps between current knowledge and behaviors, and desired outcomes. Through the ID process, designers focus on the needs of learners, taking into account their prior knowledge; set measurable learning objectives or performance requirements; assess learners' achievement of the targeted outcomes; and employ cycles of continuous formative evaluation to ensure that the intervention meets the needs of all stakeholders. The ID process offers a proven methodology for the design of instructional programs and should be considered an integral part of the creation of Internet interventions. By providing a framework for the design and development of Internet interventions and by purposefully focusing on these aspects, as well as the underlying theories supporting these practices, both the theories and the interventions themselves can continue to be refined and improved. By using the behavior change model for Internet interventions along with the best research available to guide design practice and inform development, developers of Internet interventions will increase their ability to achieve desired outcomes. PMID:22743534

Hilgart, Michelle M; Ritterband, Lee M; Thorndike, Frances P; Kinzie, Mable B

2012-01-01

386

Using Instructional Design Process to Improve Design and Development of Internet Interventions  

PubMed Central

Given the wide reach and extensive capabilities of the Internet, it is increasingly being used to deliver comprehensive behavioral and mental health intervention and prevention programs. Their goals are to change user behavior, reduce unwanted complications or symptoms, and improve health status and health-related quality of life. Internet interventions have been found efficacious in addressing a wide range of behavioral and mental health problems, including insomnia, nicotine dependence, obesity, diabetes, depression, and anxiety. Despite the existence of many Internet-based interventions, there is little research to inform their design and development. A model for behavior change in Internet interventions has been published to help guide future Internet intervention development and to help predict and explain behavior changes and symptom improvement outcomes through the use of Internet interventions. An argument is made for grounding the development of Internet interventions within a scientific framework. To that end, the model highlights a multitude of design-related components, areas, and elements, including user characteristics, environment, intervention content, level of intervention support, and targeted outcomes. However, more discussion is needed regarding how the design of the program should be developed to address these issues. While there is little research on the design and development of Internet interventions, there is a rich, related literature in the field of instructional design (ID) that can be used to inform Internet intervention development. ID models are prescriptive models that describe a set of activities involved in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of instructional programs. Using ID process models has been shown to increase the effectiveness of learning programs in a broad range of contexts. ID models specify a systematic method for assessing the needs of learners (intervention users) to determine the gaps between current knowledge and behaviors, and desired outcomes. Through the ID process, designers focus on the needs of learners, taking into account their prior knowledge; set measurable learning objectives or performance requirements; assess learners’ achievement of the targeted outcomes; and employ cycles of continuous formative evaluation to ensure that the intervention meets the needs of all stakeholders. The ID process offers a proven methodology for the design of instructional programs and should be considered an integral part of the creation of Internet interventions. By providing a framework for the design and development of Internet interventions and by purposefully focusing on these aspects, as well as the underlying theories supporting these practices, both the theories and the interventions themselves can continue to be refined and improved. By using the behavior change model for Internet interventions along with the best research available to guide design practice and inform development, developers of Internet interventions will increase their ability to achieve desired outcomes.

Hilgart, Michelle M; Thorndike, Frances P; Kinzie, Mable B

2012-01-01

387

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-01-01

388

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-11-01

389

Design process for developing a liquid cooling garment hood.  

PubMed

A liquid cooling garment (LCG) protects astronauts by providing cooling effects and preventing them from overheating. The objectives of this project were to improve fit and comfort of the original LCG hood of the MACS-Delphi garment and develop a new prototype. The project was conducted by researchers with different backgrounds: apparel design and physiology and psychology. A design process framework developed by LaBat and Sokolowski (1999) was used in order to help facilitate the process and aid in communication during the multi-disciplinary collaboration. Four crucial problems were identified: 1) the tubing layout that circulates water did not conform to the shape of the head and tubing distribution was not maximised; 2) a difficult stitching method was being used to attach tubing; 3) fabric sources were inconsistent; 4) the hood did not fit properly. Each problem was addressed, improvements implemented and a revised hood was developed. The hood was tested in an environmental chamber and demonstrated effective cooling. Revisions implemented for the LCG hood may be applied to revisions of the whole-body LCG. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The objectives of this project were to improve fit and comfort of the original LCG hood and develop a new prototype. The new prototype will increase safety of the astronauts by providing better heat extraction quality and improved fit and increased wearer comfort. PMID:20496248

Kim, Dong-Eun; LaBat, Karen

2010-06-01

390

Design, processing, and testing of lsi arrays for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a MOS 256-bit Random Access Memory (RAM) is discussed. Technological achievements comprise computer simulations that accurately predict performance; aluminum-gate COS/MOS devices including a 256-bit RAM with current sensing; and a silicon-gate process that is being used in the construction of a 256-bit RAM with voltage sensing. The Si-gate process increases speed by reducing the overlap capacitance between gate and source-drain, thus reducing the crossover capacitance and allowing shorter interconnections. The design of a Si-gate RAM, which is pin-for-pin compatible with an RCA bulk silicon COS/MOS memory (type TA 5974), is discussed in full. The Integrated Circuit Tester (ICT) is limited to dc evaluation, but the diagnostics and data collecting are under computer control. The Silicon-on-Sapphire Memory Evaluator (SOS-ME, previously called SOS Memory Exerciser) measures power supply drain and performs a minimum number of tests to establish operation of the memory devices. The Macrodata MD-100 is a microprogrammable tester which has capabilities of extensive testing at speeds up to 5 MHz. Beam-lead technology was successfully integrated with SOS technology to make a simple device with beam leads. This device and the scribing are discussed.

Lile, W. R.; Hollingsworth, R. J.

1972-01-01

391

Software Design Improvements. Part 2; Software Quality and the Design and Inspection Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of assurance engineering techniques improves the duration of failure-free performance of software. The totality of features and characteristics of a software product are what determine its ability to satisfy customer needs. Software in safety-critical systems is very important to NASA. We follow the System Safety Working Groups definition for system safety software as: 'The optimization of system safety in the design, development, use and maintenance of software and its integration with safety-critical systems in an operational environment. 'If it is not safe, say so' has become our motto. This paper goes over methods that have been used by NASA to make software design improvements by focusing on software quality and the design and inspection process.

Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.; Ziemianski, Tom

1997-01-01

392

Design of a Small Scale High Temperature Gas Loop for Process Heat Exchanger Design Tests  

SciTech Connect

We designed a small scale gas loop that can simulate reference operating conditions, that is, a temperature up to 950 deg C and a pressure up to 6 MPa. Main objective of the loop is to screen the candidate process-heat-exchanger designs of a very small capacity of 10 {approx} 20 kW. We arranged the components of a primary gas loop and a secondary SO{sub 3} loop. Design requirements are prepared for the safe design of a main heater, a hot-gas-duct and a process heat exchanger that avoid a risk of a failure owing to thermal stresses, a flow-induced vibration or an acoustic vibration in both nitrogen and helium mediums. In the primary and secondary loops, the hot-gas-ducts are internally insulated by a ceramic fiber insulation material to protect the pressure housing from high gas temperatures. We determined a total pressure loss of the primary loop to be 66 kPa and the minimum outer diameter of the loop pressure pipe to be 90 mm at a hot location that will prevent a thermal failure. Very toxic SO{sub 3} secondary loop is needed a scrubber and a SO{sub 3} collector for safety and preventing a contamination of the environment. (authors)

SungDeok, Hong; DongSeok, Oh; WonJae, Lee; JongHwa, Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

393

Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1997-01-01

394

Climate Monitoring Satellite Designed in a Concurrent Engineering Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective method of detecting Green House Gases (GHG CO2 and CH4) is using satellites, operating in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Satellite based greenhouse gas emissions monitoring is challenging and shows an ambitions level of requirements. Until now for corresponding scientific payload it is common to use a purpose-built satellite bus, or to install the payload on board of a larger conventional satellite. These approaches fulfils all customer requirements but could be critical from a financial point of view. Between 2014 and 2020, no space-based CH4 detection and if at all limited CO2 detection capabilities are planned internationally. In order to fill this gap the Institute for Environmental Physics (IUP) of the University of Bremen plans a GHG satellite mission with near-surface sensitivity called "CarbonSat". It shall perform synchronous global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 observations with the accuracy, precision and coverage needed to significantly advance our knowledge about the sources and sinks of Green House Gases. In order to verify technical and financial opportunities of a small satellite a Concurrent Engi-neering Study (CE-study) has been performed at DLR Bremen, Germany. To reuse knowledge in compact satellite design, the Compact/SSB (Standard Satellite Bus) was chosen as baseline design. The SSB has been developed by DLR and was already used for BIRD (Bispectral Infra-Red Detection) mission but also adapted to the ongoing missions like TET (Technologie-Erprobungs-Trüger) or AsteroidFinder. This paper deals with the highly effective design process a within the DLR-CE-Facility and with the outcomes of the CE-study. It gives an overview of the design status as well as an outlook for comparable missions.

Bauer, Waldemar; Braukhane, A.; Quantius, D.; Dumont, E.; Grundmann, J. T.; Romberg, O.

395

Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design Process: Evolution and Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design team is responsible for defining a launch to orbit trajectory profile that satisfies all programmatic mission objectives and defines the ground and onboard reconfiguration requirements for this high-speed and demanding flight phase. This design, verification and reconfiguration process ensures that all applicable mission scenarios are enveloped within integrated vehicle and spacecraft certification constraints and criteria, and includes the design of the nominal ascent profile and trajectory profiles for both uphill and ground-to-ground aborts. The team also develops a wide array of associated training, avionics flight software verification, onboard crew and operations facility products. These key ground and onboard products provide the ultimate users and operators the necessary insight and situational awareness for trajectory dynamics, performance and event sequences, abort mode boundaries and moding, flight performance and impact predictions for launch vehicle stages for use in range safety, and flight software performance. These products also provide the necessary insight to or reconfiguration of communications and tracking systems, launch collision avoidance requirements, and day of launch crew targeting and onboard guidance, navigation and flight control updates that incorporate the final vehicle configuration and environment conditions for the mission. Over the course of the Space Shuttle Program, ascent trajectory design and mission planning has evolved in order to improve program flexibility and reduce cost, while maintaining outstanding data quality. Along the way, the team has implemented innovative solutions and technologies in order to overcome significant challenges. A number of these solutions may have applicability to future human spaceflight programs.

Picka, Bret A.; Glenn, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

396

From Safe Nanomanufacturing to Nanosafe-by-Design processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial needs in terms of multifunctional components are increasing. Many sectors are concerned, from the integrated direct nanoparticles production to the emerging combinations which include the metal matrix composites (MMC), ductile ceramics and ceramic matrix composites, polymer matrix composites (PMC) for bulk application and advanced surface coatings in the fields of automotive, aerospace, energy production and building applications. Moreover, domains with a planetary impact such as environmental issues, as well as aspects for instance health (toxicity) and hazard assessment (ignition and explosion severity) were also taken into account. Nanotechnologies play an important role in promoting innovation in design and realization of multifunctional products for the future, either by improving usual products or creating new functions and/or new products. Nevertheless, this huge evolution in terms of materials could only be promoted by increasing the social acceptance and by acting on the different main technological and economic challenges and developing safe oriented processes. Nowadays, a huge number of developments of nanoparticles are potentially industrial up-scalable. However, some doubts exist about the handling's safety of the current technologies. For these reasons, the main purpose was to develop a self-monitored automation in the production line coupling different techniques in order to simplify processes such as in-situ growth nanoparticles into a nanostructured matrix, over different substrates and/or the nanopowders synthesis, functionalization, dry or wet safe recovery system, granulation, consolidation in single-step, by monitoring at real time the processing parameters such as powder stoichiometry. With the aim of assuring the traceability of the product during the whole life, starting from the conception and including the R&D, the distribution and the use were also considered. The optimization in terms of processing, recovery and conditioning, permits to increase its versatility, thus leading to the increase of the added value to the production. This review put in evidence -by different examples- the progress achieved since the beginning of Nanosafe integrated initiative developed by CEA and its partners as well as promoting, firstly the safety at work place, and then extending to an integrated and controlled in-situ production by of Nanosafe-by-Design controlled processes.

Schuster, F.; Lomello, F.

2013-04-01

397

Data Quality Objectives Process for Designation of K Basins Debris  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a schedule and approach for the removal of spent fuels, sludge, and debris from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins, located in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site. The project that is the subject of this data quality objective (DQO) process is focused on the removal of debris from the K Basins and onsite disposal of the debris at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material previously has been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) or Central Waste Complex (CWC). The goal of this DQO process and the resulting Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is to provide the strategy for characterizing and designating the K-Basin debris to determine if it meets the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), Revision 3 (BHI 1998). A critical part of the DQO process is to agree on regulatory and WAC interpretation, to support preparation of the DQO workbook and SAP.

WESTCOTT, J.L.

2000-05-22

398

On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes  

SciTech Connect

This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study.

Xanthopoulos, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Laboratory of Statistics and Quantitative Analysis, Industrial Management Division, P.O. Box 461, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Iakovou, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Laboratory of Statistics and Quantitative Analysis, Industrial Management Division, P.O. Box 461, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: eiakovou@auth.gr

2009-05-15

399

Integrating Science into Design Technology Projects: Using a Standard Model in the Design Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Technology education at the elementary and middle school levels has been undergoing major revisions in recent years. There are currently a variety of pedagogical approaches to introduce elementary and middle school students to the processes and content of technological know-how and knowledge. These approaches span a range from a completely open-ended design challenge to a tightly structured, lengthy curriculum program. Given that there is an on-going debate about the nature of technology education and that current practices may be seen as transitional in nature, there are shortcomings in these practices that need to be addressed. One problem shared with other domains, such as science and mathematics, is a lack of depth. There is a need to balance the making of models or products with critical thinking. In addition, it is recognized that basic science knowledge would enrich and result in a more effective design process, at least in some areas of engineering technology. Given the time constraints of elementary and middle school teachers, this possible enrichment tends to be neglected. Coming at this from the other direction are science curriculum programs and teachers who recognize the highly motivating aspects of design problems. They tend to emphasize the inquiry process over the design process. What could be a mutually reinforcing and rich undertaking, where inquiry and design are dealt with in-depth, currently tends to be a situation where both are slighted. I will propose a pedagogical model that attempts to address this issue by advocating a special type of integration. This will be illustrated by a case study of a 4th grade class building and investigating a model windmill. I will illustrate how the introduction of what I call a "standard model" can be used to help students develop some basic scientific understanding, which can then be applied to making a more effective design. I will also discuss some issues of implementation that need to be addressed if such an approach is adopted. Target Audience: General Public

Zubrowski, Bernard

2009-09-24

400

Working on the Boundaries: Philosophies and Practices of the Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While systems engineering process is a program formal management technique and contractually binding, the design process is the informal practice of achieving the design project requirements throughout all design phases of the systems engineering process. The design process and organization are systems and component dependent. Informal reviews include technical information meetings and concurrent engineering sessions, and formal technical discipline reviews are conducted through the systems engineering process. This paper discusses and references major philosophical principles in the design process, identifies its role in interacting systems and disciplines analyses and integrations, and illustrates the process application in experienced aerostructural designs.

Ryan, R.; Blair, J.; Townsend, J.; Verderaime, V.

1996-01-01

401

Design support systems for process engineering—II. KBDS: An experimental prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

KBDS is a prototype design support system for process engineering. It was created as an experimental vehicle to test and develop ideas about the representation of the design process, and to demonstrate how such a representation can be used to support the design activity. Our starting point is a representation of the design process consisting of three spaces: One for

R. Bañares-Alcántara; H. M. S. Lababidi

1995-01-01

402

Green process design, industrial ecology, and sustainability: A systems analysis perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systems analysis perspective that extends the traditional process design framework to green process design and industrial ecology leading to sustainability. For green process design this involves starting the design decisions as early as chemical and material selection stage on one end, and managing and planning decisions at the other end. However, uncertainties and multiple and conflicting

Urmila Diwekar

2005-01-01

403

fMRI paradigm designing and post-processing tools.  

PubMed

In this article, we first review some aspects of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm designing for major cognitive functions by using stimulus delivery systems like Cogent, E-Prime, Presentation, etc., along with their technical aspects. We also review the stimulus presentation possibilities (block, event-related) for visual or auditory paradigms and their advantage in both clinical and research setting. The second part mainly focus on various fMRI data post-processing tools such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and Brain Voyager, and discuss the particulars of various preprocessing steps involved (realignment, co-registration, normalization, smoothing) in these software and also the statistical analysis principles of General Linear Modeling for final interpretation of a functional activation result. PMID:24851001

James, Jija S; Rajesh, Pg; Chandran, Anuvitha Vs; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

2014-01-01

404

fMRI paradigm designing and post-processing tools  

PubMed Central

In this article, we first review some aspects of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm designing for major cognitive functions by using stimulus delivery systems like Cogent, E-Prime, Presentation, etc., along with their technical aspects. We also review the stimulus presentation possibilities (block, event-related) for visual or auditory paradigms and their advantage in both clinical and research setting. The second part mainly focus on various fMRI data post-processing tools such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and Brain Voyager, and discuss the particulars of various preprocessing steps involved (realignment, co-registration, normalization, smoothing) in these software and also the statistical analysis principles of General Linear Modeling for final interpretation of a functional activation result.

James, Jija S; Rajesh, PG; Chandran, Anuvitha VS; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

2014-01-01

405

A Design Verification of the Parallel Pipelined Image Processings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a case study of the design and verification of a parallel and pipe-lined image processing unit based on an extended Petri net, which is called a Logical Colored Petri net (LCPN). This is suitable for Flexible-Manufacturing System (FMS) modeling and discussion of structural properties. LCPN is another family of colored place/transition-net(CPN) with the addition of the following features: integer value assignment of marks, representation of firing conditions as marks' value based formulae, and coupling of output procedures with transition firing. Therefore, to study the behavior of a system modeled with this net, we provide a means of searching the reachability tree for markings.

Wasaki, Katsumi; Harai, Toshiaki

2008-11-01

406

Process and reactor design for biophotolytic hydrogen production.  

PubMed

The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has the ability to produce molecular hydrogen (H2), a clean and renewable fuel, through the biophotolysis of water under sulphur-deprived anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to advance the development of a practical and scalable biophotolytic H2 production process. Experiments were carried out using a purpose-built flat-plate photobioreactor, designed to facilitate green algal H2 production at the laboratory scale and equipped with a membrane-inlet mass spectrometry system to accurately measure H2 production rates in real time. The nutrient control method of sulphur deprivation was used to achieve spontaneous H2 production following algal growth. Sulphur dilution and sulphur feed techniques were used to extend algal lifetime in order to increase the duration of H2 production. The sulphur dilution technique proved effective at encouraging cyclic H2 production, resulting in alternating Chlamydomonas reinhardtii recovery and H2 production stages. The sulphur feed technique enabled photobioreactor operation in chemostat mode, resulting in a small improvement in H2 production duration. A conceptual design for a large-scale photobioreactor was proposed based on these experimental results. This photobioreactor has the capacity to enable continuous and economical H2 and biomass production using green algae. The success of these complementary approaches demonstrate that engineering advances can lead to improvements in the scalability and affordability of biophotolytic H2 production, giving increased confidence that H2 can fulfil its potential as a sustainable fuel of the future. PMID:23689756

Tamburic, Bojan; Dechatiwongse, Pongsathorn; Zemichael, Fessehaye W; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Hellgardt, Klaus

2013-07-14

407

Design process of an area-efficient photobioreactor.  

PubMed

This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such intensities that the light energy can be efficiently used for biomass formation. A statement of goals is formulated and constraints are specified to which the GSC needs to comply. Specifications are generated for a prototype which form and function achieve the stated goals and satisfy the specified constraints. This results in a design in which sunlight is captured into vertical plastic light guides. Sunlight reflects internally in the guide and eventually scatters out of the light guide into flat-panel photobioreactor compartments. Sunlight is focused on top of the light guides by dual-axis positioning of linear Fresnel lenses. The shape and material of the light guide is such that light is maintained in the guides when surrounded by air. The bottom part of a light guide is sandblasted to obtain a more uniform distribution of light inside the bioreactor compartment and is triangular shaped to ensure the efflux of all light out of the guide. Dimensions of the guide are such that light enters the flat-panel photobioreactor compartment at intensities that can be efficiently used by the biomass present. The integration of light capturing, transportation, distribution and usage is such that high biomass productivities per area can be achieved. PMID:18266033

Zijffers, Jan-Willem F; Janssen, Marcel; Tramper, Johannes; Wijffels, René H

2008-01-01

408

Experimental design for dynamics identification of cellular processes.  

PubMed

We address the problem of using nonlinear models to design experiments to characterize the dynamics of cellular processes by using the approach of the Maximally Informative Next Experiment (MINE), which was introduced in W. Dong et al. (PLoS ONE 3(8):e3105, 2008) and independently in M.M. Donahue et al. (IET Syst. Biol. 4:249-262, 2010). In this approach, existing data is used to define a probability distribution on the parameters; the next measurement point is the one that yields the largest model output variance with this distribution. Building upon this approach, we introduce the Expected Dynamics Estimator (EDE), which is the expected value using this distribution of the output as a function of time. We prove the consistency of this estimator (uniform convergence to true dynamics) even when the chosen experiments cluster in a finite set of points. We extend this proof of consistency to various practical assumptions on noisy data and moderate levels of model mismatch. Through the derivation and proof, we develop a relaxed version of MINE that is more computationally tractable and robust than the original formulation. The results are illustrated with numerical examples on two nonlinear ordinary differential equation models of biomolecular and cellular processes. PMID:24522560

Dinh, Vu; Rundell, Ann E; Buzzard, Gregery T

2014-03-01

409

Models for nitrification process design: one or two AOB populations?  

PubMed

Models for engineering design of nitrifying systems use one ammonia oxidizer biomass (AOB) state variable. A simple extension using two AOB populations allows a more accurate prediction of nitrification systems at switching process environments. These two AOB subpopulations are characterized by two different sets of kinetic parameters. Selection pressure and competition between the two functional AOB populations are determined by process conditions as demonstrated by three case studies: Case study I describes dynamics of two AOB populations showing different temperature sensitivities (modified Arrhenius term on growth and decay) when bioaugmented from the warm sidestream treatment environment to the cold mainstream and vice-versa. Case study II investigates competition between fast growing micro-strategists and k-strategists adjusted to low ammonia levels depending on the internal mixed liquor recycle rate (IMLR). Case study III shows that AOB transferred from the waste activated sludge of an SBR to the parallel continuous flow system with different decay kinetics can overgrow or coexist with the original population. PMID:22097033

Wett, B; Jimenez, J A; Takács, I; Murthy, S; Bratby, J R; Holm, N C; Rönner-Holm, S G E

2011-01-01

410

Methane to methanol: Reactor design and process evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The design of a supersonic nozzle reactor for controlling the partial oxidation of methane to methanol and alternative condenser and gas separation systems were investigated. GENMIX, a simplified fluid dynamics code available at Los Alamos, was modified to simulate mixing and simultaneous chemical reaction in the reaction vessel. Preliminary studies indicate that complete mixing of reactants in a coaxial supersonic expansion nozzle is impossible in the time scale of reaction. A global kinetic model was regressed from computer simulations of the complete reaction mechanism. The global model is felt to be sufficient for preliminary nozzle simulations in a temperature range of 800-1000 K, initial pressure of 60 atm, and initial oxygen concentrations of approximately 33 mol%. Attempts to incorporate global kinetics into the fluid dynamics code were not successful because of code limitations. Two condenser system configurations for the removal of methanol from the process stream were evaluated by simulation with ASPEN PLUS. A two-step series condensation is less energy intensive and has a lower equipment cost than a system consisting of a condenser and distillation column. However, the condenser and distillation system have a higher methanol recovery and product purity. Investigation of possible methods for the separation of methane and carbon monoxide from the process stream revealed that membrane techniques, pressure swing adsorption, and adsorption into propane are feasible alternatives. 27 refs.

Tepermeister, I.; Smith, J.

1988-10-01

411

A Theoretically-based Process for Organizing Design Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their introduction, hundreds of dieren t design patterns have been discovered and documented to address a variety of problems we encounter in software design and construction. However, to use any one of these design patterns eectiv ely and quickly, one must have access to a design pattern denition that unambiguously gives away its intended purpose, and nd an easy

Sargon Hasso; C. R. Carlson

2005-01-01

412

Universal Design in Postsecondary Education: Process, Principles, and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing any product or environment involves the consideration of many factors, including aesthetics, engineering options, environmental issues, safety concerns, industry standards, and cost. Typically, designers focus their attention on the average user. In contrast, universal design (UD), according to the Center for Universal Design, "is the…

Burgstahler, Sheryl

2009-01-01

413

Yucca Mountain Project: ESF Title I design control process review report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) Title 1 Design Control Process Review was initiated in response to direction from the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) (letter: Kale to Gertz, NRC Concerns on Title 1 Design Control Process, Nove...

1989-01-01

414

Type-2 fuzzy model based controller design for neutralization processes.  

PubMed

In this study, an inverse controller based on a type-2 fuzzy model control design strategy is introduced and this main controller is embedded within an internal model control structure. Then, the overall proposed control structure is implemented in a pH neutralization experimental setup. The inverse fuzzy control signal generation is handled as an optimization problem and solved at each sampling time in an online manner. Although, inverse fuzzy model controllers may produce perfect control in perfect model match case and/or non-existence of disturbances, this open loop control would not be sufficient in the case of modeling mismatches or disturbances. Therefore, an internal model control structure is proposed to compensate these errors in order to overcome this deficiency where the basic controller is an inverse type-2 fuzzy model. This feature improves the closed-loop performance to disturbance rejection as shown through the real-time control of the pH neutralization process. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the inverse type-2 fuzzy model controller structure compared to the inverse type-1 fuzzy model controller and conventional control structures. PMID:22036014

Kumbasar, Tufan; Eksin, Ibrahim; Guzelkaya, Mujde; Yesil, Engin

2012-03-01

415

Predictive Modeling in Plasma Reactor and Process Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research continues toward the improvement and increased understanding of high-density plasma tools. Such reactor systems are lauded for their independent control of ion flux and energy enabling high etch rates with low ion damage and for their improved ion velocity anisotropy resulting from thin collisionless sheaths and low neutral pressures. Still, with the transition to 300 mm processing, achieving etch uniformity and high etch rates concurrently may be a formidable task for such large diameter wafers for which computational modeling can play an important role in successful reactor and process design. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor is the focus of the present investigation. The present work attempts to understand the fundamental physical phenomena of such systems through computational modeling. Simulations will be presented using both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for argon and chlorine discharges. ICP reactors generally operate at pressures on the order of 1 to 10 mTorr. At such low pressures, rarefaction can be significant to the degree that the constitutive relations used in typical CFD techniques become invalid and a particle simulation must be employed. This work will assess the extent to which CFD can be applied and evaluate the degree to which accuracy is lost in prediction of the phenomenon of interest; i.e., etch rate. If the CFD approach is found reasonably accurate and bench-marked with DSMC and experimental results, it has the potential to serve as a design tool due to the rapid time relative to DSMC. The continuum CFD simulation solves the governing equations for plasma flow using a finite difference technique with an implicit Gauss-Seidel Line Relaxation method for time marching toward a converged solution. The equation set consists of mass conservation for each species, separate energy equations for the electrons and heavy species, and momentum equations for the gas. The sheath is modeled by imposing the Bohm velocity to the ions near the walls. The DSMC method simulates each constituent of the gas as a separate species which would be analogous in CFD to employing separate species mass, momentum, and energy equations. All particles including electrons are moved and allowed to collide with one another with the stipulation that the electrons remain tied to the ions consistent with the concept of ambipolar diffusion. The velocities of the electrons are allowed to be modified during collisions and are not confined to a Maxwellian distribution. These benefits come at a price in terms of computational time and memory. The DSMC and CFD are made as consistent as possible by using similar chemistry and power deposition models. Although the comparison of CFD and DSMC is interesting, the main goal of this work is the increased understanding of high-density plasma flowfields that can then direct improvements in both techniques. This work is unique in the level of the physical models employed in both the DSMC and CFD for high-density plasma reactor applications. For example, the electrons are simulated in the present DSMC work which has not been done before for low temperature plasma processing problems. In the CFD approach, for the first time, the charged particle transport (discharge physics) has been self-consistently coupled to the gas flow and heat transfer.

Hash, D. B.; Bose, D.; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

416

Rethinking Design Process: Using 3D Digital Models as an Interface in Collaborative Session  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a pilot study for an alternative design process by integrating a designer-user collaborative session with digital models. The collaborative session took place in a 3D AutoCAD class for a real world project. The 3D models served as an interface for designer-user collaboration during the design process. Students not only learned…

Ding, Suining

2008-01-01

417

A PROPOSAL TO INTEGRATE TRIZ INTO THE PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research work is being undertaken at the Center for Innovation and Product Design at the Monterrey Institute of Technology (Mexico), looking for the integration of different design tools and methodologies to increase product design effectiveness and productivity. This paper describes the integration of TRIZ and \\

Noel León-Rovira

418

Human Factors Inputs to the Training Device Design Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines are presented for achieving human factors inputs to the design of synthetic training systems. A method is developed for design and organization of training concepts and data supportive to the human factors specialist in deriving the functional specifications for the design of any complex training device. Three major sections are…

Smode, Alfred F.

419

Design, experimentation, and modeling of a novel continuous biodrying process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive production of sludge in the pulp and paper industry has made the effective sludge management increasingly a critical issue for the industry due to high landfill and transportation costs, and complex regulatory frameworks for options such as sludge landspreading and composting. Sludge dewatering challenges are exacerbated at many mills due to improved in-plant fiber recovery coupled with increased production of secondary sludge, leading to a mixed sludge with a high proportion of biological matter which is difficult to dewater. In this thesis, a novel continuous biodrying reactor was designed and developed for drying pulp and paper mixed sludge to economic dry solids level so that the dried sludge can be economically and safely combusted in a biomass boiler for energy recovery. In all experimental runs the economic dry solids level was achieved, proving the process successful. In the biodrying process, in addition to the forced aeration, the drying rates are enhanced by biological heat generated through the microbial activity of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms naturally present in the porous matrix of mixed sludge. This makes the biodrying process more attractive compared to the conventional drying techniques because the reactor is a self-heating process. The reactor is divided into four nominal compartments and the mixed sludge dries as it moves downward in the reactor. The residence times were 4-8 days, which are 2-3 times shorter than the residence times achieved in a batch biodrying reactor previously studied by our research group for mixed sludge drying. A process variable analysis was performed to determine the key variable(s) in the continuous biodrying reactor. Several variables were investigated, namely: type of biomass feed, pH of biomass, nutrition level (C/N ratio), residence times, recycle ratio of biodried sludge, and outlet relative humidity profile along the reactor height. The key variables that were identified in the continuous biodrying reactor were the type of biomass feed and the outlet relative humidity profiles. The biomass feed is mill specific and since one mill was studied for this study, the nutrition level of the biomass feed was found adequate for the microbial activity, and hence the type of biomass is a fixed parameter. The influence of outlet relative humidity profile was investigated on the overall performance and the complexity index of the continuous biodrying reactor. The best biodrying efficiency was achieved at an outlet relative humidity profile which controls the removal of unbound water at the wet-bulb temperature in the 1st and 2nd compartments of the reactor, and the removal of bound water at the dry-bulb temperature in the 3rd and 4th compartments. Through a systematic modeling approach, a 2-D model was developed to describe the transport phenomena in the continuous biodrying reactor. The results of the 2-D model were in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. It was found that about 30% w/w of the total water removal (drying rate) takes place in the 1st and 2nd compartments mainly under a convection dominated mechanism, whereas about 70% w/w of the total water removal takes place in the 3rd and 4th compartments where a bioheat-diffusion dominated mechanism controls the transport phenomena. The 2-D model was found to be an appropriate tool for the estimation of the total water removal rate (drying rate) in the continuous biodrying reactor when compared to the 1-D model. A dimensionless analysis was performed on the 2-D model and established the preliminary criteria for the scale-up of the continuous biodrying process. Finally, a techno-economic assessment of the continuous biodrying process revealed that there is great potential for the implementation of the biodrying process in Canadian pulp and paper mills. The techno-economic results were compared to the other competitive existing drying technologies. It was proven that the continuous biodrying process results in significant economic benefits and has great potential to address the current industr

Navaee-Ardeh, Shahram

420

Direct selective laser sintering of high performance metals: Machine design, process development and process control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes the development of an advanced manufacturing technology known as Direct Selective Laser Sintering (Direct SLS). Direct SLS is a laser based rapid manufacturing technology that enables production of functional, fully dense, metal and cermet components via the direct, layerwise consolidation of constituent powders. Specifically, this dissertation focuses on a new, hybrid net shape manufacturing technique known as Selective Laser Sintering/Hot Isostatic Pressing (SLS/HIP). The objective of research presented in this dissertation was to establish the fundamental machine technology and processing science to enable direct SLS fabrication of metal components composed of high performance, high temperature metals and alloys. Several processing requirements differentiate direct SLS of metals from SLS of polymers or polymer coated powders. Perhaps the most important distinguishing characteristic is the regime of high temperatures involved in direct SLS of metals. Biasing the temperature of the feedstock powder via radiant preheat prior to and during SLS processing was shown to be beneficial. Preheating the powder significantly influenced the flow and wetting characteristics of the melt. During this work, it was conclusively established that powder cleanliness is of paramount importance for successful layerwise consolidation of metal powders by direct SLS. Sequential trials were conducted to establish optimal bake-out and degas cycles under high vacuum. These cycles agreed well with established practices in the powder metallurgy industry. A study of some of the important transport mechanisms in direct SLS of metals was undertaken to obtain a fundamental understanding of the underlying process physics. This study not only provides an explanation of phenomena observed during SLS processing of a variety of metallic materials but also helps in developing selection schemes for those materials that are most amenable to direct SLS processing. The development of machine, processing and control technologies during this research effort enabled successful production of a number of integrally canned test specimens in Alloy 625 (InconelRTM 625 superalloy) and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The overall goal of this research was to develop direct SLS of metals armed with a fundamental understanding of the underlying physics. The knowledge gained from experimental and analytical work is essential for three key objectives: machine design, process development and process control. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Das, Suman

1998-11-01

421

Transparent Process Migration: Design Alternatives and the Sprite Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Sprite operating system allows executing processes to be moved between hosts at any time. We use this process migration mechanism to offload work onto idle machines, and also to evict migrated processes when idle workstations are reclaimed by their owners. Sprite's migration mechanism provides a high degree of transparency both for migrated processes and for users. Idle machines

Fred Douglis; John K. Ousterhout

1991-01-01

422

A study of optimizing processes for metallized textile design application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to find an optimum electroless plating process in order to obtain relatively low surface resistance, and improve functional properties and appearance of nickel-plated and copper-plated polyester fabrics. The optimum results indicate that the NiSO4 concentration and temperature of the bath in the plating process are most important factors influencing surface resistance of electroless nickel-plated polyester fabric. However, NiSO4 concentration and pH of the plating bath are most significant factors affecting electroless copper plating. The micro-structures and properties of nickel and copper, and nickel/copper multi-layer plated polyester fabrics have been studied. In the case of electroless nickel plating, the nickel deposit layer becomes more uniform and continuous when prepared at higher NiSO4 concentration and higher bath temperature. As for the electroless copper plating, the surface morphology of the copper deposits indicates that the average diameter of the particles is increased with the rise of NiSO4 concentration and pH. The surface morphology of nickel/copper multi-layer deposits reveals the presence of ultra-fine nodules and the deposits are compact and uniform in size. There is an increase in EMI SE with respect to the rise of Ni 2+ concentration and bath temperature for electroless nickel plating; and EMI SE increases with the rise of Ni2+ concentration and pH of the plating solution for electroless copper plating on polyester fabric. With the same deposit weight, the EMI SE of nickel/copper-plated fabric is greatly higher than that of the nickel-plated fabric, but slightly lower than that of the copper-plated fabric. However, the anti-corrosive property of nickel/copper-plated fabrics is significantly superior to the copper-plated fabrics, but slightly inferior to the nickel-plated fabric. Design application effects have been explored by the controlling plating conditions. The electroless plating parameters play an important role in the metallized fabric appearance based on their influences on color and texture. This study has developed optimization productions of electroless plating of nickel, copper and nickel/copper multi-layer on polyester fabric in terms of the functional and aesthetic effects.

Guo, Ronghui

423

Designing for Usable Disappearance - Mediating Coherence, Scope, and Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I emphazise on the users' experience when faced to disappearing user interfaces. I will start out, confronting potential conveniences of ubiquitous computing and related visions to possible shortcomings in their implementation due to design flaws. Three key issues for user-centered design of disappearing interfaces in ubiquitous computing are proposed, namely perceived coherence of computerized devices, awareness of

Thorsten Prante

424

Researches on Digital Industrial Design System and its Application on Air Nailer Design Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the combination of the industrial design activity and digital technique, a Digital Industrial Design System is established, with which digital product design evaluation and product digital simulation technologies are integrated into. The human-machine analysis and engineering analysis methods are imported when the modeling results have been finished to give the designer the means to make the design results more

Xianfeng Jiang; Junyuan Li; Lei Liu

2010-01-01

425

Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

2000-01-01

426

Ergonomics and sustainability in the design of everyday use products.  

PubMed

The relationship between Ergonomics and Design is a key element in the sustainability project, as well as in many other areas of experimental design. In the Design for Sustainability field, Ergonomics is a strategic factor for design culture innovation, providing designers with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding human characteristics and capabilities, as well as user needs and desires during use and interaction with products in work activities and everyday life. Ergonomics is also a strategic innovative factor in design development and manufacturing processes. In fact, ergonomics provides a methodological approach in user-product interaction evaluation processes through the use of participatory design and survey methods, user trials, direct observation, savings and resource conservation, etc.On the other hand, design offers solutions able to interpret user needs and expectations, at the same time suggesting new behaviors and lifestyles.In Design for Sustainability, the ergonomic and user-centered approach contributes greatly to lifestyles and innovative use of products--making it possible to understand and interpret real people needs and expectations in their everyday actions and behavior.New consumption patterns, new awareness of lifestyles, energy source consumption, purchasing methods and consumption style etc. can be supported by design innovation, responding to expressed and unexpressed user needs. With this in mind, the ergonomic approach represents the starting point for design choices and at the same time, a tool for assessing their appropriateness and effectiveness. PMID:22317314

Tosi, Francesca

2012-01-01

427

Process Platform Planning for Variety Coordination from Design to Production in Mass Customization Manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key challenge of implementing mass customization manufacturing lies in the variety dilemma exhibited by frequent design changes and recurrent process variations. A holistic view of variety handling gives rise to the importance of variety coordination from design to production. This paper proposes a concept of process platform for coordinating product and process variety. Fundamental issues of process platforms are

Jianxin Jiao; Lianfeng Zhang; Shaligram Pokharel

2005-01-01

428

Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes--a process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework.  

PubMed

A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and fermentation-based products. The method exploits the synergic combination of continuous flow technologies (e.g., microfluidic techniques) and process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools for faster process design and increased process understanding throughout the whole drug product and process development cycle. The design framework structures the many different and challenging design problems (e.g., solvent selection, reactor design, and design of separation and purification operations), driving the user from the initial drug discovery steps--where process knowledge is very limited--toward the detailed design and analysis. Examples from the literature of PSE methods and tools applied to pharmaceutical process design and novel pharmaceutical production technologies are provided along the text, assisting in the accumulation and interpretation of process knowledge. Different criteria are suggested for the selection of batch and continuous processes so that the whole design results in low capital and operational costs as well as low environmental footprint. The design framework has been applied to the retrofit of an existing batch-wise process used by H. Lundbeck A/S to produce an API: zuclopenthixol. Some of its batch operations were successfully converted into continuous mode, obtaining higher yields that allowed a significant simplification of the whole process. The material and environmental footprint of the process--evaluated through the process mass intensity index, that is, kg of material used per kg of product--was reduced to half of its initial value, with potential for further reduction. The case-study includes reaction steps typically used by the pharmaceutical industry featuring different characteristic reaction times, as well as L-L separation and distillation-based solvent exchange steps, and thus constitutes a good example of how the design framework can be useful to efficiently design novel or already existing API manufacturing processes taking advantage of continuous processes. PMID:22820647

Cervera-Padrell, Albert E; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren; Gani, Rafiqul; Gernaey, Krist V

2012-10-01

429

Analyzing a Process of Collaborative Game Design Involving Online Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore modeling problem solving and design using state-space-search methodology by engaging in the design of an educational game. We also explore how online communication tools (OCTs) could be used to support collaborative design using two online tools: 1) CoSolve, a collaborative problem-solving environment we developed, and 2) INFACT, a discussion forum that we built for use in education. We

Sandra B. Fan; Brian R. Johnson; Yun-En Liu; Tyler S. Robison; Rolfe R. Schmidt; Steven L. Tanimoto

2010-01-01

430

Decentralized Tomato Processing: Plant Design, Costs, and Economic Feasibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Decentralized tomato processing merits consideration as an alternative to the conventional centralized operation, which processes fresh tomatoes into a finished product in a single factory. A study was made to determine savings that would be made if the c...

E. V. Jesse W. G. Schultz J. L. Bomben

1975-01-01

431

Efficient integration of optimal solvent and process design using molecular clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a molecular clustering approach for the efficient incorporation of solvent design information into process synthesis in the integrated design of solvent\\/process systems. The approach is to be used in conjunction with an integrated solvent\\/process design approach where the solvent design stage utilises multi-objective optimisation in order to identify Pareto optimal solvent candidates that are subsequently evaluated in a

Athanasios I. Papadopoulos; Patrick Linke

2006-01-01

432

Innovation Process Design: A Change Management and Innovation Dimension Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors propose an innovative approach to the management of innovation integrating business, process, and maturity dimensions. Core element of the concept is the adaptation of ISO/IEC 15504 to the innovation process including 14 innovation drivers. Two managerial models are applied to conceptualize and visualize the respective innovation strategies, the Balanced Scorecard and a Barriers in Change Processes Model. An illustrative case study shows a practical implementation process.

Peisl, Thomas; Reger, Veronika; Schmied, Juergen

433

Cooperation System Design for the XMDR-Based Business Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a cooperation system for the XMDR-based business process. The proposed system solves the problem of heterogeneousness that may take place regarding interoperability of queries in a XMDR-based business process. Heterogeneousness in an operation of a business process may involve metadata collision, schema collision, or data collision. This can be handled by operating a business process by making use of XMDR-based Global Query and Local Query.

Moon, Seokjae; Jung, Gyedong; Hwang, Chigon; Choi, Youngkeun

434

Substrate Design & Process Optimization of LGA (BT-based) Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the trends moving towards smaller packaging technologies, land grid array (LGA) is rapidly becoming the package of choice. BT (bismaleimide triazine) substrate is being used due to its excellent electrical insulation, low CTE and high Tg. Optimized substrate design is essential in ensuring reliable package performance at field. Finite element analysis was performed on two different substrate designs in

Carrie CHEW; Chip King Tan

2006-01-01

435

Authenticity in the Process of Learning about Instructional Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authentic learning is touted as a powerful learning approach, particularly in the context of problem-based learning (Savery, 2006). Teaching and learning in the area of instructional design appears to offer a strong fit between the tenets of authentic learning and the practice of instructional design. This paper details the efforts to broaden and…

Wilson, Jay R.; Schwier, Richard A.

2009-01-01

436

Design and study of aqueous processable positive-tone photoresists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in developing materials with reduced environmental impact has led us to design resist formulations that can be cast from and developed with aqueous media. A water soluble chemically amplified positive tone photoresist based on thermal decarboxylation of a half ester of malonic acid has been designed. Two solubility switches are required for this application. Sequential volatilization of ammonia followed

Shintaro Yamada; Jordan Owens; Timo Rager; Morton Nielsen; Jeffrey D. Byers; C. Grant Willson

2000-01-01

437

An Optimal System Design Process for a MARS Roving Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of determining the optimal design for a Mars roving vehicle is considered. A system model is generated by consideration of the physical constraints on the design parameters and the requirement that the system be deliverable to the Mars surface...

C. Pavarini J. Baker A. Goldberg

1971-01-01

438

Quality Assurance in Packaging Design Through the Peer Review Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The formulation of a peer design review group, the method for accomplishing the study, and the organization and scope of the task are presented by using the recently accomplished TRUPACT preliminary design peer review as a case study. (ERA citation 08:034...

J. A. Andersen

1983-01-01

439

An adaptive simulation approach designed for tube hydroforming processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of a tube hydroforming process is largely dependent on the process control parameters (i.e. the internal pressure and the axial feeding) since they determine the occurrence of forming limits such as wrinkling and bursting. Therefore, these parameters should be carefully selected. In this paper an adaptive method is presented to obtain a more efficient process control for tube

A. Aydemir; J. H. P. de Vree; W. A. M. Brekelmans; M. G. D. Geers; W. H. Sillekens; R. J. Werkhoven

2005-01-01

440

VLSI design and implementation fuels the signal-processing revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article provides a comprehensive overview of the history of how signal-processing researchers have been effectively transforming signal-processing algorithms into efficient implementations. Starting from the early days of analog circuits for signal processing, to digital signal processors (DSPs), to application specific DSPs and programmable DSPs, and to the trend of integrating a complete system on a single chip, this article

J. M. Rabaey; W. Gass; R. Brodersen; T. Nishitani; Tsuhan Chen

1998-01-01

441

Decision support tools for process design and selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed a new tool that is capable of reducing the complexity of the process synthesis problem and analyzing a trade-off between the environmental impact, economy and robustness of a chemical process. In addition, new efficient process robustness parameters were also proposed. Static flexibility was indicated by the failure probability which could be calculated with a small number of iterations.

Soorathep Kheawhom; Masahiko Hirao

2002-01-01

442

Combining total quality management and simulation with application to family therapy process design.  

PubMed

This case study shows how a new combined total quality management and simulation procedure was used to design, test, and implement a unique clinical process for brief systems family therapy. A process design procedure was developed that combines total quality management and simulation strategies and tactics. The six strategic check-points of the new procedure emphasize the use of both designed experimentation and process modeling and simulation to find process faults, evaluate process improvement alternatives, and test selected process improvements. Other information needed for process design was gathered from families in therapy, the family therapy literature and observations of student and experienced therapists. Simulation helped identify and compare alternative sequences of therapy process steps. Designed experimentation revealed improvements resulting from the new Brief Systems Family Therapy process as used by doctoral-level family therapy practicum students in a university clinic. PMID:7662876

Standridge, C R; Brown-Standridge, M D

1995-01-01

443

PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA guidance on land treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater is updated for the first time since 1984. The significant new technilogical changes include phytoremediation, vadose zone monitoring, new design approaches to surface irrigation, center pivot irrigation,...

444

Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design Process: Evolution and Lessons Learned.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Space Shuttle Ascent Flight Design team is responsible for defining a launch to orbit trajectory profile that satisfies all programmatic mission objectives and defines the ground and onboard reconfiguration requirements for this high-speed and demandi...

B. A. Picka C. B. Glenn

2011-01-01

445

Process Design Manual: Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance on land treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater was updated for the first time since 1984. Significant new technological changes include phytoremediation, vadose zone monitoring, new design approa...

2006-01-01

446

Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laboratory facilities are complex, technically sophisticated, and mechanically intensive structures that are expensive to build and to maintain. Hundreds of decisions must be made before and during new construction or renovation that will determine how successfully the facility will function when completed and how successfully it can be maintained once put into service. This book provides guidance on effective approaches for building laboratory facilities in the chemical and biochemical sciences. It contains both basic and laboratory-specific information addressed to the user community-the scientists and administrators who contract with design and construction experts. The book will also be important to the design and construction communities-the architects, laboratory designers, and engineers who will design the facility and the construction personnel who will build it-to help them communicate with the scientific community for whom they build laboratory facilities.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2000-01-01

447

Methane to Methanol: Reactor Design and Process Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of a supersonic nozzle reactor for controlling the partial oxidation of methane to methanol and alternative condenser and gas separation systems were investigated. GENMIX, a simplified fluid dynamics code available at Los Alamos, was modified t...

I. Tepermeister J. Smith

1988-01-01

448

DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTROL OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents design procedures and guidelines for the selection of aeration equipment and dissolved (DO) control systems for activated sludge treatment plants. Aeration methods, equipment and application techniques are examined and selection procedures offered. Various DO...

449

Computer-aided design tools for economical MEMS fabrication processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 70s when microsystem technology was first introduce an enormous market for MST-products has been developed. Airbag sensors, micro pumps, ink jet nozzles etc. and the market is just about to start up. Establishing these products for a reasonable price requires mass production. Meanwhile, also computer-based design-tools have been developed in order to reduce the expenses for MST-design.

Christian Schneider; Andreas Priebe; Rainer Brueck; Kai Hahn

1999-01-01

450

An Engineering Design Process Supported by Knowledge Retrieval from a Spatial Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is presented which has the purpose of allowing the search of a nonhomogeneous database which contains engineering design information and other data relevant to the engineering design process. The purpose of the work is to develop a system which improves the design process by providing a quick access mechanism to heterogeneous, complex knowledge. The algorithm is based on

Mark L. Manwaring; Terry G. Glagowski; Kent L. Jones

1996-01-01

451

Design and Testing of a Friction Stir Processing Machine for Laboratory Research  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the design, fabrication and testing of a friction stir processing machine. The machine is intended to be a flexible research tool for a broad range of friction stir processing studies. The machine design also addresses the need for an affordable, robust design for general laboratory use.

Karen S. Miller; Rodney J. Bitsoi; Eric D. Larsen; Herschel B. Smartt

2006-08-01

452

From Concept to Software: Developing a Framework for Understanding the Process of Software Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of technological innovation and the process of design focuses on the design of computer software. Offers a framework for understanding the design process by examining two computer programs: FliPS, a multimedia program for learning complex problems in chemistry; and Tiger, a Web-based program for managing and publishing electronic…

Mishra, Punyashloke; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Sophia

1999-01-01

453

Design sensitivity analysis and optimization of the hydroforming process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tube hydroforming has recently been drawing the attention of the automotive industries due to its several advantages over conventional methods. It can produce a wide range of products such as sub-frames, engine cradles, and exhaust manifolds with cheaper production cost by reducing the overall number of processes. The tube hydroforming process is based on the use of internal pressure combined

Jae-Bong Yang; Byung-Hee Jeon; Soo-Ik Oh

2001-01-01

454

A Formal Model for Business Process Modeling and Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We present a formal framework for representing enterpriseknowledge. The concepts of our framework (objectives and goals, rolesand actors, actions and processes, responsibilities and constraints) allowbusiness analysts to capture enterprise knowledge in a way that is bothintuitive and mathematically formal. We also outline the basic steps ofa methodology that allows business analysts to produce detailed, formalspecifications of business processes from

Manolis Koubarakis; Dimitris Plexousakis

2000-01-01

455

Design of an improved transmission\\/data processing code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically there has been strong difference of opinion in the construction of 6-bit (64-character) data codes, based upon whether the code is to be used for communications or data processing. This paper reports on investigation of an improved code which meets transmission requirements and requires very little modification for varied data processing usage.

Robert W. Bemer; H. J. Smith Jr.; Francis A. Williams

1961-01-01

456

DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE PROCESSES WITH SIMULATION: THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM  

EPA Science Inventory

The WAR Algorithm, a methodology for determining the potential environmental impact (PEI) of a chemical process, is presented with modifications that account for the PEI of the energy consumed within that process. From this theory, four PEI indexes are used to evaluate the envir...

457

Collaborative design of supply chain management key processes in the semiconductor industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on designing a comprehensive set of key processes for semiconductor manufacturing supply chain and evaluating the relative importance of these key processes. The design and evaluation are performed by a multidisciplinary team consists of over twenty members from both academia and industry. This study adopts focus group methodology and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) for collaboration. The

Ta-Ping Lu; Amy J. C. Trappey; Yi-Kuang Chen; Yu-Da Chang

2012-01-01

458

The impact of design management and process management on quality: an empirical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design management and process management are two important elements of total quality management (TQM) implementation. They are drastically different in their targets of improvement, visibility, and techniques. In this paper, we establish a framework for identifying the synergistic linkages of design and process management to the operational quality outcomes during the manufacturing process (internal quality) and upon the field usage

Sanjay L. Ahire; Paul Dreyfus

2000-01-01

459

Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer's attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant gu...

E. T. Gitau G. A. Coles J. Hockert M. D. Zentner

2013-01-01

460

A Model-Based Methodology for Simultaneous Design and Control of a Bioethanol Production Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a model-based methodology to solve an integrated process design and control (IPDC) problem for a bioethanol production process is presented. The IPDC problem is formulated and solved such that the economic performance is optimized in terms of a cost effective design and controllable process. The concepts of attainable region (AR) and driving force (DF) are used within

Merlin Alvarado-Morales; Mohd Kamaruddin Abd Hamid; Gürkan Sin; Krist V. Gernaey; John M. Woodley; Rafiqul Gani

2009-01-01

461

Internal model control and process uncertainty: mapping uncertainty regions for SISO controller design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete SISO controller design technique is presented that allows robust controller design in the face of process uncertainty. Process-uncertainty descriptions with meaningful physical interpretations are compatible with the technique. A test for robust performance can be applied when the process is described by a transfer function with real parameter variations. First a method is presented for locating all possible

DANIEL L. LAUGHLIN; KENNETH G. JORDAN; MANFRED MORARI

1986-01-01

462

Manufacturing process and material selection in concurrent collaborative design of MEMS devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present knowledge of an intensive approach and system for selecting suitable manufacturing processes and materials for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices in concurrent collaborative design environment. In the paper, fundamental issues on MEMS manufacturing process and material selection such as concurrent design framework, manufacturing process and material hierarchies, and selection strategy are first addressed. Then, a fuzzy

Xuan F. Zha; H. Du

2003-01-01

463

A method for describing information required by the database design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research in the area of database design has been directed towards the development of structured or automated database design techniques. The first phase of the database design process, information requirements specification and analysis, is unfortunately ignored. The lack of concern for whether or not the input to the design techniques can be collected in the real world and for

Beverly K. Kahn

1976-01-01

464

Design alternatives for process group membership and multicast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process groups are a natural tool for distributed programming, and are increasingly important in distributed computing environments. However, there is little agreement on the most appropriate semantics for process group membership and group communication. These issues are of special importance in the Isis system, a toolkit for distributed programming. Isis supports several styles of process group, and a collection of group communication protocols spanning a range of atomicity and ordering properties. This flexibility makes Isis adaptable to a variety of applications, but is also a source of complexity that limits performance. This paper reports on a new architecture that arose from an effort to simplify Isis process group semantics. Our findings include a refined notion of how the clients of a group should be treated, what the properties of a multicast primitive should be when systems contain large numbers of overlapping groups, and a new construct called the casuality domain. As an illustration, we apply the architecture to the problem of converting processes into fault-tolerant process groups in a manner that is 'transparent' to other processes in the system.

Birman, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Robert; Gleeson, Barry

1991-01-01

465

Role of safety evaluations in the design change process  

SciTech Connect

The technical specifications for most nuclear power plants, including Pacific Gas and Electric Company's (PG and E's) Diablo Canyon Power Plant, require that all proposed changes to the plant be reviewed by a designated standing committee (called the plant safety review committee at Diablo Canyon) to determine, in accordance with 10CFR50.59, if they constitute an unreviewed safety question. This paper discusses the unique aspects of PG and E's extensive program to assure that the related safety aspects of the design change are thoroughly investigated and documented prior to submitting the proposed modification to the standing committee for approval.

Connell, E.C. III

1987-01-01

466

Judgement by design: Towards a model for studying and improving the competition process in architecture and urban design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the fields of architectural and urban design, judging is a disciplinary tradition. There is hardly any design that is not complemented by a judging process be it in schools, in professional offices, and in this peculiar democratic phenomenon called: architectural competition. Although commonly spread in the everyday practice, judgement has been little theorised. If asked to give a

Jean-Pierre Chupin

2011-01-01

467

Implementing a Completely Web-based Nursing Research Course: Instructional Design, Process, and Evaluation Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a master's-level nursing research course taught entirely online, including instructional design considerations (faculty commitments, technical issues, library resources, intellectual property), process (student expectations, participation), and evaluation design. (SK)

Wills, Celia E.; Stommel, Manfred; Simmons, Michael

2001-01-01

468

36 CFR 62.4 - Natural landmark designation and recognition process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural landmark designation and recognition process...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL NATURAL LANDMARKS PROGRAM § 62.4 Natural landmark designation and recognition...

2010-07-01

469

36 CFR 62.4 - Natural landmark designation and recognition process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Natural landmark designation and recognition process...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL NATURAL LANDMARKS PROGRAM § 62.4 Natural landmark designation and recognition...

2009-07-01

470

Photographic Processing Interpretation Facility Wastewater Conceptual Treatment Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force maintains and operates self-contained, mobile photographic processing and interpretation units in support of air reconnaissance. Should the need arise, these units could be deployed to forward operating areas where there may be no