These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Learning Objects: A User-Centered Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design research systematically creates or improves processes, products, and programs through an iterative progression connecting practice and theory (Reinking, 2008; van den Akker, 2006). Developing a new instructional systems design (ISD) processes through design research is necessary when new technologies emerge that challenge existing practices…

Branon, Rovy F., III

2011-01-01

2

User-Centered Design of Online Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

User-centered design (UCD) is gaining popularity in both the educational and business sectors. This is due to the fact that UCD sheds light on the entire process of analyzing, planning, designing, developing, using, evaluating, and maintaining computer-based learning. "User-Centered Design of Online Learning Communities" explains how computers can…

Lambropoulos, Niki, Ed.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.

2007-01-01

3

A study of the role of user-centered design methods in design team projects  

E-print Network

User-centered approaches to design can guide teams toward an understanding of users and aid teams in better posing design problems. This paper investigates the role of user-centered design approaches in design process and ...

Lai, Justin Y.

4

Metals Processing Laboratory User Center (MPLUS)  

SciTech Connect

The Metals Processing Laboratory User (MPLUS) Center was officially designated as a DOE User Facility in February, 1996. It`s primary purpose is to assist researchers in key U.S. industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency and enhancing U.S. competitiveness in the world market. The MPLUS Center provides users the unique opportunity to address technology-related issues to solve metals-processing problems from a fully integrated approach. DOE facilitates the process and catalyzes industrial interactions that enables technical synergy and financial leveraging to take place between the industrial sector identifying and prioritizing their technological needs, and MPLUS, which provides access to the technical expertise and specialized facilities to address these needs. MPLUS is designed to provide U.S. industries with access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals-processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals-processing technologies. As originated, MPLUS includes the following four primary user centers: Metals Processing, Metals Joining, Metals Characterization, and Metals Process Modeling. These centers are devoted to assisting U.S. industries in adjusting to rapid changes in the marketplace and in improving products and processes. This approach optimizes the complementary strengths of industry and government. Tremendous industrial response, has resulted in MPLUS expanding to meet the ever-growing technical needs and requests initiated by U.S. industry.

Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-04-01

5

User-Centered Graphical User Interface Design for GIS  

E-print Network

User-Centered Graphical User Interface Design for GIS April 1991 David P. Lanter NCGIA Department for Geographic Information and Analysis Report 91-6 #12;User-Centered Graphical User Interface Design for GIS design focuses on how to best represent the software functionality rather than on how to meet

California at Santa Barbara, University of

6

User-Centered Design for Multimedia Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for multimedia presentation design is described. The method consists of media selection guidelines that utilise definition of information and media types, and techniques for directing the user's attention in multimedia sequences. Contact points are proposed for design effects to link content themes across different media. The method is illustrated with a theatre publicity application and the techniques for

Alistair G. Sutcliffe

1999-01-01

7

Meta--Design: Beyond User-Centered and Participatory Design Gerhard Fischer  

E-print Network

Meta--Design: Beyond User-Centered and Participatory Design Gerhard Fischer University of Colorado-0430 ­ USA gerhard@cs.colorado.edu Abstract Meta-design characterizes objectives, techniques, and processes objective of meta-design is to create socio-technical environments that empower users to engage in informed

Fischer, Gerhard

8

Usability Studies and User-Centered Design in Digital Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital libraries continue to flourish. At the same time, the principles of user-centered design and the practice of usability testing have been growing in popularity, spreading their influence into the library sphere. This article explores the confluence of these two trends by surveying the current literature on usability studies of digital…

Comeaux, David J.

2008-01-01

9

A user-centered approach to designing home network interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study describes our approach to enhancing the way family members may interact with each other - and their homes - in the near future. Samsung Electronics and American Institutes for Research worked together to show how the user-centered design of network technology in the home could best enhance a family's ability to com-municate, play, and live harmoniously. We

Kook Hyun Chung; Kyoung Soon Oh; Cheong Hyun Lee; Jae Hyun Park; Sunae Kim; Soon Hee Kim; Beth Loring; Chris Hass

2003-01-01

10

User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University…

Bordac, Sarah; Rainwater, Jean

2008-01-01

11

Research on User-Centered Design and Recognition Pen Gestures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pen-based user interface has become a hot research field in recent years. Pen gesture plays an important role in Pen-based user interfaces. But it's difficult for UI designers to design, and for users to learn and use. In this pur- pose, we performed a research on user-centered design and recognition pen ges- tures. We performed a survey of 100 pen

Feng Tian; Tiegang Cheng; Hongan Wang; Guozhong Dai

2006-01-01

12

User-Centered Design and Usability Testing of a Web Site: An Illustrative Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of user-centered design and usability testing. Describes a Web site evaluation project at a university, the iterative process of rapid prototyping and usability testing, and how the findings helped to improve the design. Discusses recommendations for university Web site design and reflects on problems faced in usability…

Corry, Michael D.; Frick, Theodore W.; Hansen, Lisa

1997-01-01

13

A new user-centered design approach: A hair washing assistive device design for users with shoulder mobility restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilized a user-centered design approach as the foundation for a new Assistive Device (AD) design process. Observation and evaluation results from a Usability Context Analysis (UCA) was used to improve the analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT Analysis) and the matrix of Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses, and Strengths (TOWS matrix), resulting in two assistive device design methods

Fong-Gong Wu; Min-Yuan Ma; Ro-Han Chang

2009-01-01

14

Prosthesis-user-in-the-loop: user-centered design parameters and visual simulation.  

PubMed

After an amputation, processes of change in the body image as well as a change in body scheme have direct influences on the quality of living in every patient. Within this paper, a paradigm of experimental induced body illusion (the Rubber Hand Illusion, RHI) is integrated in a prosthetic hardware simulator concept. This concept combines biodynamical and visual feedback to enhance the quality of rehabilitation and to integrate patients' needs into the development of prostheses aiming on user-centered solutions. Therefore, user-centered design parameters are deducted. Furthermore, the basic concept of the visual simulation is presented and a possibility for its implementation is given. Finally, issues and conclusions for future work are described. PMID:23366292

Christ, O; Wojtusch, J; Beckerle, P; Wolff, K; Vogt, J; von Stryk, O; Rinderknecht, S

2012-01-01

15

Technology Transfer Challenges: A Case Study of User-Centered Design in NASA's Systems Engineering Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Upper Stage (US) section of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ares I rocket will require internal access platforms for maintenance tasks performed by humans inside the vehicle. Tasks will occur during expensive critical path operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) including vehicle stacking and launch preparation activities. Platforms must be translated through a small human access hatch, installed in an enclosed worksite environment, support the weight of ground operators and be removed before flight - and their design must minimize additional vehicle mass at attachment points. This paper describes the application of a user-centered conceptual design process and the unique challenges encountered within NASA's systems engineering culture focused on requirements and "heritage hardware". The NASA design team at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) initiated the user-centered design process by studying heritage internal access kits and proposing new design concepts during brainstorming sessions. Simultaneously, they partnered with the Technology Transfer/Innovative Partnerships Program to research inflatable structures and dynamic scaffolding solutions that could enable ground operator access. While this creative, technology-oriented exploration was encouraged by upper management, some design stakeholders consistently opposed ideas utilizing novel, untested equipment. Subsequent collaboration with an engineering consulting firm improved the technical credibility of several options, however, there was continued resistance from team members focused on meeting system requirements with pre-certified hardware. After a six-month idea-generating phase, an intensive six-week effort produced viable design concepts that justified additional vehicle mass while optimizing the human factors of platform installation and use. Although these selected final concepts closely resemble heritage internal access platforms, challenges from the application of the user-centered process provided valuable lessons for improving future collaborative conceptual design efforts.

Quick, Jason

2009-01-01

16

NGDS User Centered Design Meeting the Needs of the Geothermal Community  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure the widest and greatest utility of IT and software projects designed for geothermal reservoir engineer- ing the full consideration of end users’ task and workflow needs must be evaluated. This paper describes the user-centered design (UCD) approach taken in the development of a user interface (UI) solution for the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This development process has been research based, highly collabora- tive, and incorporates state-of-the-art practices to ensure a quality user experience. Work is continuing on the interface, including future usability tests to further refine the interfaces as the overall system is developed.

Boyd, Suzanne [Anthro-Tech, Inc; Zheng, Sam [Siemens Corporation; Patten, Kim [Arizona Geological Survey; Blackman, Harold [Boise State University

2013-10-01

17

NGDS USER CENTERED DESIGN MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure the widest and greatest utility of IT and software projects designed for geothermal reservoir engineering the full consideration of end users’ task and workflow needs must be evaluated. This paper describes the user-centered design (UCD) approach taken in the development of a user interface (UI) solution for the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This development process has been researched based, highly collaborative, and incorporates state-of-the-art practices to ensure a quality user experience. Work is continuing on the interface, including future usability tests to further refine the interfaces as the overall system is developed.

Boyd, Suzanne [Anthro-Tech; Zheng, Sam Xianjun [Siemens Corporation; Patten, Kim [Arizona Geological Survey; Blackman, Harold [Boise State University

2013-01-01

18

Integrating Agile and User-Centered Design A Systematic Mapping and Review of Evaluation and Validation Studies of Agile-UX  

E-print Network

Integrating Agile and User-Centered Design A Systematic Mapping and Review of Evaluation and Validation Studies of Agile-UX Gabriela Jurca, Theodore D. Hellmann, and Frank Maurer Department of Computer.maurer}@ucalgary.ca Abstract--Agile software engineering and user-centered design are two important development processes

Maurer, Frank

19

User Centered Interaction Design for Mobile Applications Focused on Visually Impaired and Blind People  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a User centered design (UCD) is a key success argument for modern software development. In this paper we present a case study\\u000a on developing a way finding application for mobile devices. The target users are people with special needs such as visually\\u000a impaired and blind people. It can be shown that user centered design is especially important for “not mainstream” user

Elmar Krajnc; Johannes Feiner; Stefan Schmidt

2010-01-01

20

User-centered design of mobile wellness applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PhD research explores the design space of mobil e wellness applications by utilizing design research methods. Several case studies are included in the research, e.g. (1),(2), (3),(4). The main focus of the research is on the aspects, considerat ions and solutions related to motivational and persuasive mo bile wellness applications. The research draws from the multiface ted combination of

Aino Ahtinen

2009-01-01

21

Creative user-centered visualization design for energy analysts and modelers.  

PubMed

We enhance a user-centered design process with techniques that deliberately promote creativity to identify opportunities for the visualization of data generated by a major energy supplier. Visualization prototypes developed in this way prove effective in a situation whereby data sets are largely unknown and requirements open - enabling successful exploration of possibilities for visualization in Smart Home data analysis. The process gives rise to novel designs and design metaphors including data sculpting. It suggests: that the deliberate use of creativity techniques with data stakeholders is likely to contribute to successful, novel and effective solutions; that being explicit about creativity may contribute to designers developing creative solutions; that using creativity techniques early in the design process may result in a creative approach persisting throughout the process. The work constitutes the first systematic visualization design for a data rich source that will be increasingly important to energy suppliers and consumers as Smart Meter technology is widely deployed. It is novel in explicitly employing creativity techniques at the requirements stage of visualization design and development, paving the way for further use and study of creativity methods in visualization design. PMID:24051818

Goodwin, Sarah; Dykes, Jason; Jones, Sara; Dillingham, Iain; Dove, Graham; Duffy, Alison; Kachkaev, Alexander; Slingsby, Aidan; Wood, Jo

2013-12-01

22

Using user-centered design to discover motivation and priorities in an established online community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poster presents our work using a face-to-face user-centered design method to inform the design of a reputation visualization for an established online community. The benefits of conducting an offline group session with online community members included insights into motivation and priorities, an understanding of community norms, and a member check on previous findings.

Elly Searle; Katie Derthick; Toni Ferro; Jonathan T. Morgan; Mark Zachry

2009-01-01

23

Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer

2013-01-01

24

User-Centered Design in a Time Crunch: A Case Study in Developing a Mobile Grocery Shopping Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-centered design is an important consideration in the technological world today, and exploring its implementation in various areas and situations is important. This case study addresses this in two ways. On one hand, it is meant to evaluate how user-centered design can be used in developing a mobile application, particularly, a grocery shopping application. On the other hand, it is

Josh Fridgen

25

An Analysis of Factors that Inhibit Business Use of User-Centered Design Principles: A Delphi Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of user-centered design (UCD) principles has a positive impact on the use of web-based interactive systems in customer-centric organizations. User-centered design methodologies are not widely adopted in organizations due to intraorganizational factors. A qualitative study using a modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors…

Hilton, Tod M.

2010-01-01

26

Improving the quality of numerical software through user-centered design  

SciTech Connect

The software interface - whether graphical, command-oriented, menu-driven, or in the form of subroutine calls - shapes the user`s perception of what software can do. It also establishes upper bounds on software usability. Numerical software interfaces typically are based on the designer`s understanding of how the software should be used. That is a poor foundation for usability, since the features that are ``instinctively right`` from the developer`s perspective are often the very ones that technical programmers find most objectionable or most difficult to learn. This paper discusses how numerical software interfaces can be improved by involving users more actively in design, a process known as user-centered design (UCD). While UCD requires extra organization and effort, it results in much higher levels of usability and can actually reduce software costs. This is true not just for graphical user interfaces, but for all software interfaces. Examples show how UCD improved the usability of a subroutine library, a command language, and an invocation interface.

Pancake, C. M., Oregon State University

1998-06-01

27

A Web-Based Program for Informal Caregivers of Persons With Alzheimer's Disease: An Iterative User-Centered Design  

PubMed Central

Background Web-based programs have been developed for informal caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s disease (PWAD). However, these programs can prove difficult to adopt, especially for older people, who are less familiar with the Internet than other populations. Despite the fundamental role of usability testing in promoting caregivers’ correct use and adoption of these programs, to our knowledge, this is the first study describing this process before evaluating a program for caregivers of PWAD in a randomized clinical trial. Objective The objective of the study was to describe the development process of a fully automated Web-based program for caregivers of PWAD, aiming to reduce caregivers’ stress, and based on the user-centered design approach. Methods There were 49 participants (12 health care professionals, 6 caregivers, and 31 healthy older adults) that were involved in a double iterative design allowing for the adaptation of program content and for the enhancement of website usability. This process included three component parts: (1) project team workshops, (2) a proof of concept, and (3) two usability tests. The usability tests were based on a mixed methodology using behavioral analysis, semistructured interviews, and a usability questionnaire. Results The user-centered design approach provided valuable guidelines to adapt the content and design of the program, and to improve website usability. The professionals, caregivers (mainly spouses), and older adults considered that our project met the needs of isolated caregivers. Participants underlined that contact between caregivers would be desirable. During usability observations, the mistakes of users were also due to ergonomics issues from Internet browsers and computer interfaces. Moreover, negative self-stereotyping was evidenced, when comparing interviews and results of behavioral analysis. Conclusions Face-to-face psycho-educational programs may be used as a basis for Web-based programs. Nevertheless, a user-centered design approach involving targeted users (or their representatives) remains crucial for their correct use and adoption. For future user-centered design studies, we recommend to involve end-users from preconception stages, using a mixed research method in usability evaluations, and implementing pilot studies to evaluate acceptability and feasibility of programs. PMID:25263541

Moulin, Florence; Wrobel, Jeremy; Batrancourt, Benedicte; Plichart, Matthieu; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

2014-01-01

28

User Centered Game Design: Evaluating Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games for Second Language Acquisition  

E-print Network

Unlike recreational games, serious games do more than entertain the player. Serious games promote acquisition of information and skills that are valued in both the virtual world and the real world. The challenge is to design and develop serious games that simultaneously create an enjoyable experience for the player as the player develops or improves her skill set as a result of game play and applies these newly developed skills in a real world setting. Because transfer of learning represents the primary goal of serious games, it is crucial that game designers understand the interactions associated with game tasks and their impact on players prior to game development. Borrowing heavily from interaction design, we introduce the user centered game design methodology as the framework for serious game design and apply this technique to the evaluation of the social interactions between Player Characters in a commercial Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game. Significant results from experimental studies suggest that this genre of games shows great promise as an unorthodox language learning tool for vocabulary acquisition and reveals the importance of social interactions in the virtual space of video games. Finally, we discuss the design implications for serious games that facilitate Second Language

A A. Rankin; Mckenzie Mcneal; Marcus W. Shute; Bruce Gooch

29

Agile Methods and User-Centered Design: How These Two Methodologies Are Being Successfully Integrated In Industry  

E-print Network

Agile Methods and User-Centered Design: How These Two Methodologies Are Being Successfully that is usable. Recently there has been some evidence that suggests using Agile methods alone does not ensure that an applications UI is usable. As a result, there is currently interest in combining Agile methods with user

Sillito, Jonathan

30

Infant feeding: the interfaces between interaction design and cognitive ergonomics in user-centered design.  

PubMed

This text presents a discussion on the process of developing interactive products focused on infant behavior, which result was an interactive game for encouraging infant feeding. For that, it describes the use of cognitive psychology concepts added to interaction design methodology. Through this project, this article sustains how the cooperative use of these concepts provides adherent solutions to users' needs, whichever they are. Besides that, it verifies the closeness of those methodologies to boundary areas of knowledge, such as design focused on user and ergonomics. PMID:22316864

Lima, Flavia; Araújo, Lilian Kely

2012-01-01

31

User-Centered Design and Fast Prototyping of an Ambient Assisted Living System for Elderly People  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Keep-In-Touch project, which aims at developing an integrated Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) solution assisting and monitoring elderly people in their daily-life activities, supporting personal autonomy and well-being, and maintaining social cohesion. The focus of this paper is the integration of interactive user modeling, the benefit of the combination of user-centered development method and fast prototyping implementation

Suzanne Kieffer; Jean-Yves Lionel Lawson; Benoit M. Macq

2009-01-01

32

Skills needed by user-centered design practitioners in real software development environments: report on the CHI'92 workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-centered design (UCD) of human-computer interfaces--including task flow and documentation---is gaining acceptance in software development organizations. But managers who want their organizations to start using UCD often do not know what characteristics to look for, in candidates for hiring or retraining to fill UCD roles; this article can help. It has the recommendations from participants in a CHI '92 conference

Tom Dayton; Pamela A. Burke; Andrew M. Cohill; Kate Ehrlich; Richard L. Henneman; John Karat; Mike Sellers; Mary R. Smith

1993-01-01

33

Beyond Usability: A New Frontier for User-Centered Design of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new challenge for the Future Internet initiatives: the need of bridging the digital divide that, even\\u000a in Europe, still hampers the access to the internet for a large part of the population. As a case study, we discuss the design\\u000a of communication services for elderly people in northern Italy. The process was conducted by a multi-disciplinary

Chiara Leonardi; Claudio Mennecozzi; Fabio Pianesi; Massimo Zancanaro

2008-01-01

34

Discount User-Centered e-Health Design: A Quick-but-not-Dirty Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The philosophy of discount usability engineering perfectly fits the health care setting, where cost-cutting is ubiquitously\\u000a present. We adapted Nielsen’s discount usability approach for the health care setting by combining traditional thinking aloud\\u000a (n=18) and Card Sorting (n=18) with online prototyping (n=5) and simplified thinking aloud (n=5). We used the approach to\\u000a design an efficient and effective website with infection

Fenne Verhoeven; Julia E. W. C. van Gemert-Pijnen

2010-01-01

35

User centered design in complex healthcare workflows: the case of care coordination and care management redesign  

PubMed Central

We present the User Need Analysis process for the Integrated Care Coordination Information System (ICCIS) research project at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU). The primary goal of the process was to select a mix of methodologies to perform user need analysis which would lead to generation of system requirements. The ICCIS Team developers would use these prioritized requirements to build the next generation of the ICCIS software that would help meet the overall goals of the care model. First, semi-structured User Discussion Guides and structured questioners were used to collect raw needs from Physicians, Nurses, IT and Administrative personal. Later Conjoint Analysis (CA) and Dimensional Analysis (DA) were used to generate emerging concepts and priorities from the discussions with the end-user community. PMID:20351819

Behkami, Nima A.; Dorr, David A.

2009-01-01

36

UDesign : toward a user-centered architecture  

E-print Network

As more companies encourage users to participate in the design of personalized products through online configuration tools, a new kind of user-centered business model emerges. One of the outcomes of this transformation, ...

Corem, Yaniv

2010-01-01

37

User-Centered Innovation: A Model for "Early Usability Testing."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study is to show how some concepts and techniques from disciplines outside Instructional Systems Development (ISD) have the potential to extend and enhance the traditional view of ISD practice when they are employed very early in the ISD process. The concepts and techniques employed were user-centered in design and usability, and…

Sugar, William A.; Boling, Elizabeth

38

The Development of a Mobile Monitoring and Feedback Tool to Stimulate Physical Activity of People With a Chronic Disease in Primary Care: A User-Centered Design  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity is an important aspect in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or type-2 diabetes. A monitoring and feedback tool combined with guidance by a primary care provider might be a successful method to enhance the level of physical activity in these patients. As a prerequisite for useful technology, it is important to involve the end-users in the design process from an early stage. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the user requirements for a tool to stimulate physical activity, embedded in primary care practice. The leading principle of this tool is to change behavior by self-monitoring, goal-setting, and feedback. Methods The research team collected qualitative data among 15 patients, 16 care professionals, and several experts. A prototype was developed in three stages. In stage 1, the literature was searched to identify end-users and context. In stage 2, the literature, experts and patient representatives were consulted to set up a use case with the general idea of the innovation. In stage 3, individual interviews and focus groups were held to identify the end-user requirements. Based on these requirements a prototype was built by the engineering team. Results The development process has led to a tool that generally meets the requirements of the end-users. A tri-axial activity sensor, worn on the hip, is connected by Bluetooth to a smartphone. In an app, quantitative feedback is given about the amount of activity and goals reached by means of graphical visualization, and an image shows a sun when the goal is reached. Overviews about activity per half an hour, per day, week, and month are provided. In the menu of the app and on a secured website, patients can enter information in individual sessions or read feedback messages generated by the system. The practice nurse can see the results of all patients on a secure webpage and can then discuss the results and set personalized goals in consultation with the patient. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a user-centered approach brings in valuable details (such as the requirements for feedback in activity minutes per day) to improve the fit between the user, technology, and the organization of care, which is important for the usability and acceptability of the tool. The tool embedded in primary care will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:25099556

Verwey, Renee; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Tange, Huibert; van der Weijden, Trudy; de Witte, Luc

2013-01-01

39

Community-based participatory research and user-centered design in a diabetes medication information and decision tool  

PubMed Central

Background Together, community-based participatory research (CBPR), usercentered design (UCD) and health information technology (HIT) offer promising approaches to improve health disparities in low-resource settings. Objectives This article describes the application of CBPR and UCD principles to the development of iDecide/Decido, an interactive, tailored, web-based diabetes medication education and decision support tool delivered by community health workers (CHWs) to African-American and Latino participants with diabetes in Southwest and Eastside Detroit. The decision aid is offered in English or Spanish and is delivered on an iPad in participants’ homes. Methods The overlapping principles of CBPR and UCD used to develop iDecide/Decido include: a user-focused or community approach; equitable academic and community partnership in all study phases; an iterative development process that relies on input from all stakeholders; and a program experience that is specified, adapted, and implemented with the target community. Results Collaboration between community members, researchers, and developers is especially evident in the program’s design concept, animations, pictographs, issue cards, goal setting, tailoring, and additional CHW tools. Conclusions Applying the principles of CBPR and UCD can be successfully employed in developing health information tools that are easy to use and understand, interactive, and target health disparities. PMID:23793248

Henderson, Vida A; Barr, Kathryn LC; An, Lawrence C; Guajardo, Claudia; Newhouse, William; Mase, Rebecca; Heisler, Michele

2014-01-01

40

Toward a User-Centered Academic Library Home Page  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past decade, academic libraries have struggled with the design of an effective library home page. Since librarians' mental models of information architecture differ from those of their patrons, usability assessments are necessary in designing a user-centered home page. This study details a usability sequence of card sort and paper and…

McHale, Nina

2008-01-01

41

User-centered evaluation of information: a research challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - This paper sets out to present the concept of the value of information, review the descriptive, rational, social and behavioral approaches for assessing the value of information, and explain why user-centered rather than information-centered evaluations are the most relevant. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - The paper starts by highlighting the main facets and market characteristics which influence the value of information.

Daphne R. Raban

2007-01-01

42

User-centered design of a web-based self-management site for individuals with type 2 diabetes – providing a sense of control and community  

PubMed Central

Background To design and test a web-based self-management tool for patients with type 2 diabetes for its usability and feasibility. Methods An evidence-based, theory-driven website was created for patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-three patients with type 2 diabetes aged???25 years were recruited from 2 diabetes care centers in Toronto, Canada. We employed focus group methodology to assess acceptability, sustainability, strengths and weaknesses of the self-management website. Based on these results, revisions were made to the website. Three cycles of individual usability testing sessions using cognitive task analysis were conducted with patients with type 2 diabetes. Revisions to the website were made based on results from this testing. Results We identified five themes concerning participants’ experiences of health care and related unmet needs: 1) Desire for information and for greater access to timely and personalized care to gain a sense of control of their disease; 2) Desire for community (sharing experiences with others) to fulfill practical and emotional needs; 3) Potential roles of an online self-management website in self-empowerment, behavior change, self-management and health care delivery; 4) Importance of a patient-centered perspective in presenting content (e.g. common assumptions, medical nomenclature, language, messaging, sociocultural context); 5) Barriers and facilitators to use of a self-management website (including perceived relevance of content, incorporation into usual routine, availability for goal-directed use, usability issues). Conclusions Participants outlined a series of unmet health care needs, and stated that they wanted timely access to tailored knowledge about their condition, mechanisms to control and track their disease, and opportunities to share experiences with other patients. These findings have implications for patients with type 2 diabetes of diverse ages, socioeconomic backgrounds, and disease severity, as well as to the design of other computer-based resources for chronic disease management. PMID:25056379

2014-01-01

43

Technical Communication User-Centered Design  

E-print Network

user #12;Children: a specific audience > 4th grade children playing an e-learning game #12;What tasks. Complete the math game to retrieve a part of the robot. #12;Deliverable: Video Clip of Game and informational tools needed to assure safe, appropriate, and effective use of science and technology as well

Heller, Barbara

44

Webgrep: Web Webgrep: User Centered Web Personalization  

E-print Network

Webgrep: Web Webgrep: User Centered Web Personalization y Hironobu Aoki yy Jiro Tanaka y Master and Electronics,University of Tsukuba WWW Web Web Webgrep Webgrep 1 Web Web Web Web Web [1] My Yahoo! [2] MyNetscape [3] amazon.com [4] Web Web 2 Web Web |1| #12;1. Web 2. 3. 4. Web WWWC [5] Web Auto [6] Web 1 2 Web 3

Tanaka, Jiro

45

Methodological Review A user-centered framework for redesigning health care interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous health care systems are designed without consideration of user-centered design guidelines. Consequently, systems are created ad hoc, users are dissatisfied and often systems are abandoned. This is not only a waste of human resources, but economic resources as well. In order to salvage such systems, we have combined different methods from the area of computer science, cognitive science, psychology,

Constance M. Johnson; Todd R. Johnson; Jiajie Zhang

46

Explanatory Lifelike Avatars: Performing User-Centered Tasks in 3D Learning Environments  

E-print Network

Explanatory Lifelike Avatars: Performing User-Centered Tasks in 3D Learning Environments James C pedagogical agents, explanatory lifelike avatars, which can perform user-designed tasks in rich 3D worlds. By generating task networks to perform student-designed tasks, an avatar task planner constructs and interprets

Zettlemoyer, Luke

47

Students and faculty come together in Human Centered Design & Engineering (HCDE) to focus on understanding human needs and interests as they solve the engineering problems our world is facing. From user-centered design to human-computer interaction, we  

E-print Network

-centered design to human-computer interaction, we are designing the future. INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH Our research, human-computer interaction, and related specializations. Doctor of Philosophy The PhD preparesStudents and faculty come together in Human Centered Design & Engineering (HCDE) to focus

48

Developing a user-centered mobile service interface based on a cognitive model of attention allocation  

E-print Network

by the driver at all times. This poses on the one hand a large challenge to designers and developers of in-carDeveloping a user-centered mobile service interface based on a cognitive model of attention sometimes even against legal restriction - e.g. in the car. Services running on these devices (e.g. email

Boyer, Edmond

49

Implementation of a user-centered framework in the development of a web-based health information database and call center.  

PubMed

As healthcare consumers increasingly turn to the World Wide Web (WWW) to obtain health information, it is imperative that health-related websites are user-centered. Websites are often developed without consideration of intended users' characteristics, literacy levels, preferences, and information goals resulting in user dissatisfaction, abandonment of the website, and ultimately the need for costly redesign. This paper provides a methodological review of a user-centered framework that incorporates best practices in literacy, information quality, and human-computer interface design and evaluation to guide the design and redesign process of a consumer health website. Following the description of the methods, a case analysis is presented, demonstrating the successful application of the model in the redesign of a consumer health information website with call center. Comparisons between the iterative revisions of the website showed improvements in usability, readability, and user satisfaction. PMID:21396486

Taylor, Heather A; Sullivan, Dori; Mullen, Cydney; Johnson, Constance M

2011-10-01

50

User Centered Research for Interactive Television Leena Eronen  

E-print Network

system learned from user's online activity at a given Web site and automatically constructed a profileUser Centered Research for Interactive Television Leena Eronen Telecommunications Software leronen@niksula.hut.fi Abstract This paper presents results from a qualitative user study. The aim

Masthoff, Judith

51

NETL - Supercomputing: NETL Simulation Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

SciTech Connect

NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC, integrates one of the world's largest high-performance computers with an advanced visualization center. The SBEUC offers a collaborative environment among researchers at NETL sites and those working through the NETL-Regional University Alliance.

None

2013-09-30

52

Breakthrough: NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

ScienceCinema

The National Energy Technology Laboratory relies on supercomputers to develop many novel ideas that become tomorrow's energy solutions. Supercomputers provide a cost-effective, efficient platform for research and usher technologies into widespread use faster to bring benefits to the nation. In 2013, Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz dedicated NETL's new supercomputer, the Simulation Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC. The SBEUC is dedicated to fossil energy research and is a collaborative tool for all of NETL and our regional university partners.

Guenther, Chris

2014-05-21

53

Breakthrough: NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)  

SciTech Connect

The National Energy Technology Laboratory relies on supercomputers to develop many novel ideas that become tomorrow's energy solutions. Supercomputers provide a cost-effective, efficient platform for research and usher technologies into widespread use faster to bring benefits to the nation. In 2013, Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz dedicated NETL's new supercomputer, the Simulation Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC. The SBEUC is dedicated to fossil energy research and is a collaborative tool for all of NETL and our regional university partners.

Guenther, Chris

2013-09-26

54

Future integrated design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design process is one of the sources used to produce requirements for a computer system to integrate and manage product design data, program management information, and technical computation and engineering data management activities of the aerospace design process. Design activities were grouped chronologically and explored for activity type, activity interface, data quantity, and data flow. The work was based on analysis of the design process of several typical aerospace products, including both conventional and supersonic airplanes and a hydrofoil design. Activities examined included research, preliminary design, detail design, manufacturing interface, product verification, and product support. The design process was then described in an IPAD environment--the future.

Meyer, D. D.

1980-01-01

55

Applying user-centered design to mobile application development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digia was among the first companies to develop third-party software applications that can be installed in Symbian smart phones by service providers or end users [3]. In 2001, Digia was searching for new product ideas for the nascent smart phone market. At the same time, the User Experience (UE) Group was established in the company and we began to work

Eeva Kangas; Timo Kinnunen

2005-01-01

56

Usability and Children's Software: A User-Centered Design Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses usability issues pertaining to the purpose of educational software, followed by suggestions for ways in which educational software can meet the language, physical, social, and cognitive needs of children. Guidelines and recommendations are provided for adapting usability engineering and testing procedures to educational software to…

Robertson, Jenifer Wals

1994-01-01

57

Evolving the scope of user-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

this article I only want tomention two of the 17 parts included in ISO 9241.These parts present a kind of high-level guidancethat we do not commonly associate with the term"standard," and cover principles for good dialoguedesign (Part 10) and guidance on how to specify andevaluate usability in different contexts (Part 11).Part 10 is titled "Dialogue Principles," and includesthe following seven

John Karat

1997-01-01

58

User-Centered Evaluation of Technosocial Predictive Analytic Systems  

SciTech Connect

In today’s technology filled world, it is absolutely essential to show the utility of new software, especially software that brings entirely new capabilities to potential users. In the case of technosocial predictive analytics, researchers are developing software capabilities to augment human reasoning and cognition. Getting acceptance and buy-in from analysts and decision makers will not be an easy task. In this position paper, we discuss an approach we are taking for user-centered evaluation that we believe will result in facilitating the adoption of technosocial predictive software by the intelligence community.

Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

2009-03-23

59

User-Centered Evaluation of Technosocial Predictive Analytics  

SciTech Connect

In today’s technology filled world, it is absolutely essential to show the utility of new software, especially software that brings entirely new capabilities to potential users. In the case of technosocial predictive analytics, researchers are developing software capabilities to augment human reasoning and cognition. Getting acceptance and buy-in from analysts and decision makers will not be an easy task. In this position paper, we discuss an approach we are taking for user-centered evaluation that we believe will result in adoption of technosocial predictive software by the intelligence community.

Scholtz, Jean C.; Whiting, Mark A.

2009-03-23

60

Academic Digital Library’s Evaluation Criteria: User-Centered Approach  

E-print Network

Abstract—Academic digital libraries emerged as a result of advances in computing and information systems technologies, and had been introduced in universities and to public. As results, moving in parallel with current technology in learning and researching environment indeed offers myriad of advantages especially to students and academicians, as well as researchers. This is due to dramatic changes in learning environment through the use of digital library system which giving spectacular impact on these societies’ way of performing their study/research. This paper presents a survey of current criteria for evaluating academic digital libraries’ performance. The goal is to discuss criteria being applied so far for academic digital libraries evaluation in the context of user-centered design. Although this paper does not comprehensively take into account all previous researches in evaluating academic digital libraries but at least it can be a guide in understanding the evaluation criteria being widely applied. Keywords—Academic digital libraries, evaluation criteria, performance, user-centered. D I.

Razilan A. Kadir; Wan A. K. W. Dollah; Fatimah A. Saaid; Diljit S

61

User-Centered Indexing for Adaptive Information Access  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are focusing on information access tasks characterized by large volume of hypermedia connected technical documents, a need for rapid and effective access to familiar information, and long-term interaction with evolving information. The problem for technical users is to build and maintain a personalized task-oriented model of the information to quickly access relevant information. We propose a solution which provides user-centered adaptive information retrieval and navigation. This solution supports users in customizing information access over time. It is complementary to information discovery methods which provide access to new information, since it lets users customize future access to previously found information. It relies on a technique, called Adaptive Relevance Network, which creates and maintains a complex indexing structure to represent personal user's information access maps organized by concepts. This technique is integrated within the Adaptive HyperMan system, which helps NASA Space Shuttle flight controllers organize and access large amount of information. It allows users to select and mark any part of a document as interesting, and to index that part with user-defined concepts. Users can then do subsequent retrieval of marked portions of documents. This functionality allows users to define and access personal collections of information, which are dynamically computed. The system also supports collaborative review by letting users share group access maps. The adaptive relevance network provides long-term adaptation based both on usage and on explicit user input. The indexing structure is dynamic and evolves over time. Leading and generalization support flexible retrieval of information under similar concepts. The network is geared towards more recent information access, and automatically manages its size in order to maintain rapid access when scaling up to large hypermedia space. We present results of simulated learning experiments.

Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie

1996-01-01

62

User-centered development of a smart phone mobile application delivering personalized real-time advice on sun protection.  

PubMed

Smart phones are changing health communication for Americans. User-centered production of a mobile application for sun protection is reported. Focus groups (n?=?16 adults) provided input on the mobile application concept. Four rounds of usability testing were conducted with 22 adults to develop the interface. An iterative programming procedure moved from a specification document to the final mobile application, named Solar Cell. Adults desired a variety of sun protection advice, identified few barriers to use and were willing to input personal data. The Solar Cell prototype was improved from round 1 (seven of 12 tasks completed) to round 2 (11 of 12 task completed) of usability testing and was interoperable across handsets and networks. The fully produced version was revised during testing. Adults rated Solar Cell as highly user friendly (mean?=?5.06). The user-centered process produced a mobile application that should help many adults manage sun safety. PMID:24058385

Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Lantz, Kathleen; Buller, Mary Klein

2013-09-01

63

Web Development with JavaScript and HTML5 Program An eight-week in-depth program focused on user-centered Web development  

E-print Network

Web Development with JavaScript and HTML5 Program An eight-week in-depth program focused on user-centered Web development Overview DePaul University's Web Development with JavaScript and HTML5 is designed-centered websites using JavaScript, HTML5, and related leading-edge technologies such as CSS3. These technologies

Schaefer, Marcus

64

Designing Ubiquitous Computing Systems for Sports Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on a user-centered, iterative design process for augmenting sports equipment with ubiquitous computing technology. In several design iterations, a fully working system for training and physiotherapy has been developed and deployed using hard- and software components of ubiquitous computing technology. We report on the design and development process that led to this system. Based on

Matthias Kranz; Wolfgang Spiessl; Albrecht Schmidt

2007-01-01

65

Measuring the Usability of Augmented Reality e-Learning Systems: A User-Centered Evaluation Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of Augmented Reality (AR) systems is creating new challenges and opportunities for the designers of e-learning systems. The mix of real and virtual requires appropriate interaction techniques that have to be evaluated with users in order to avoid usability problems. Formative usability aims at finding usability problems as early as possible in the development life cycle and is suitable to support the development of such novel interactive systems. This work presents an approach to the user-centered usability evaluation of an e-learning scenario for Biology developed on an Augmented Reality educational platform. The evaluation has been carried on during and after a summer school held within the ARiSE research project. The basic idea was to perform usability evaluation twice. In this respect, we conducted user testing with a small number of students during the summer school in order to get a fast feedback from users having good knowledge in Biology. Then, we repeated the user testing in different conditions and with a relatively larger number of representative users. In this paper we describe both experiments and compare the usability evaluation results.

Pribeanu, Costin; Balog, Alexandru; Iordache, Drago? Daniel

66

Technical ICTD -A User Centered Lifecycle Joerg Doerflinger1  

E-print Network

research methods along the en- tire development lifecycle spanning design, development, deployment research methods which often left frustrated end users alone with unusable research results. Success- ful) research field offers concepts with a clear end user focus. However, ap- plying Mobile HCI research methods

Boyer, Edmond

67

User-centered development of a pervasive healthcare application  

E-print Network

-centered development process of MARiS, a PDA-based mobile frontend to a hospital infor- mation system. It allows mobile with a considerable user base and which is currently in productive use in several German hospitals. For the system to what now is a successful commercial product. I. WHY A MOBILE HOSPITAL INFORMATION SYSTEM? The main

68

Process design Enrich process models with  

E-print Network

Process design · Enrich process models with imposed constraints and instantiate them · Ensure and visualization of constraint violations Semantic Constraints in Adaptive Process-Management-Systems Linh Thao Ly-ulm.de/in/iui-dbis/forschung/projekte/seaflows.html Contact Process evaluation · Use a visual logic-based specification language to model semantic constraints

Ulm, Universität

69

User-centered Social Information Retrieval Model Exploiting Annotations and Social  

E-print Network

User-centered Social Information Retrieval Model Exploiting Annotations and Social Relationships.Bouhini,Mathias.Gery,Christine.Largeron}@univ-st-etienne.fr Abstract. Social Information Retrieval (SIR) has extended the classical information retrieval models retrieval, since different users may express different information needs as the same query. Hence, we

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

Why Value is Everything: A User-Centered Approach to Internet Quality of Service and Pricing  

E-print Network

Why Value is Everything: A User-Centered Approach to Internet Quality of Service and Pricing Anna of quality. Price alone cannot be used to regulate demand for QoS. 1 Introduction The number of InternetS) requirements at different levels of granularity. It also means that the traditional Internet way of managing

Sasse, Angela

71

Beyond Foucault: Toward a User-Centered Approach to Sexual Harassment Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how United States national policy regarding sexual harassment exemplifies the Foucauldian paradigm in its attempt to regulate sexuality through seemingly authorless texts. Proposes a user-centered approach to policy drafting that values the knowledge of workers as users and makers of workplace policy. Argues that regulation through such…

Ranney, Frances J.

2000-01-01

72

User Centered and Ontology Based Information Retrieval System for Life Sciences  

E-print Network

User Centered and Ontology Based Information Retrieval System for Life Sciences Sylvie Ranwez1 documents is a major challenge. Current search engines suffer from two main drawbacks: there is limited the relevance of documents annotated by concepts of ontology. The selection of documents is then displayed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

Information Push-Delivery for User-Centered and Personalized Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, an Adaptive and Active Computing Paradigm (AACP) for personalized information service in heterogeneous environment\\u000a is proposed to provide user-centered, push-based high quality information service timely in a proper way, the motivation of\\u000a which is generalized as R4 Service: the Right information at the Right time in the Right way to the Right person, upon which\\u000a formalized algorithms

Zhiyun Xin; Jizhong Zhao; Chihong Chi; Jiaguang Sun

2005-01-01

74

Fully Integrating the Design Process  

SciTech Connect

The basic approach to designing nuclear facilities in the United States does not currently reflect the routine consideration of proliferation resistance and international safeguards. The fully integrated design process is an approach for bringing consideration of international safeguards and proliferation resistance, together with state safeguards and security, fully into the design process from the very beginning, while integrating them sensibly and synergistically with the other project functions. In view of the recently established GNEP principles agreed to by the United States and at least eighteen other countries, this paper explores such an integrated approach, and its potential to help fulfill the new internationally driven design requirements with improved efficiencies and reduced costs.

T.A. Bjornard; R.S. Bean

2008-03-01

75

Designing manipulative technologies for children with different abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a design approach for manipulative technologies that consider “user diversity” as a main lever for design. Different dimensions of “diversity” are considered, e.g., the users' age, abilities, culture, cultural background, and alphabetization. These dimensions drive the development of a user-centered design process for manipulative technologies for learning and play environments. In particular, we explore the possibility of allowing

Henrik Hautop Lund; Patrizia Marti

2005-01-01

76

HALS post processing software design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report discusses software that was designed and developed to process Hydrographic Airborne Laser Sounder (HALS) data tapes. The HALS survey produces tapes containing navigational, heading, altitude, and various housekeeping information, as well as raw laser ranging data from which ocean depths are to be extracted in a post-mission processing mode. The software performs its tasks in four sequential processing passes. Pass 1 processing techniques are based on research results concerning depth measurement bias caused by light propagation in sea water. Pass 2 utilizes computer/operator interactive CRT display techniques for editing purposes and computes position via an interactive process using Sodano inverse formulas. Pass 3 utilizes optimal filter techniques to resolve aircraft altitude, pitch, roll, and sea surface waves via a minimum variance solution on the slant range laser measurement from aircraft to sea surface. Pass 4 also operates via optimal filter theory and is designed to treat both depth error and position error simultaneously.

Byrnes, H. J.

1982-09-01

77

Sustainable design for multiple audiences: The usability study and iterative redesign of the Documenting the American South digital library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To demonstrate the value in conducting a usability study and following an iterative design process to create a more user-centered and sustainable digital library. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – After identifying three key user groups, a series of usability tests and focus groups were conducted to assess how users interact with the site's interface. An iterative design process followed involving the

Lisa R. Norberg; Kim Vassiliadis; Jean Ferguson; Natasha Smith

2005-01-01

78

Integrating the Design Thinking into the UCD's methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe how we have integrated several techniques of the “Design thinking” (DT) into the User Center Design (UCD) methodology in the process of development of project as a learning activity. The experimental activity has been carried out with students of the Human Computer Interaction's subject, corresponding to the 3° course of the School of Computer Science

C. S. G. Gonzalez; E. G. Gonza?lez; V. M. Cruz; J. S. Saavedra

2010-01-01

79

Promoting Teacher Adoption of GIS Using Teacher-Centered and Teacher-Friendly Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a case study that employed user-centered design to develop training tutorials for helping middle school social studies teachers use Web-based GIS in their classrooms. This study placed teachers in the center of the design process in planning, designing, and developing the tutorials. This article describes how…

Hong, Jung Eun

2014-01-01

80

Patterns for Usable Accessible Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Accessibility barriers exist on most websites and systems, making them difficult to use for individuals with disabilities\\u000a and other functional limitations. Usable Accessible Design aims to design usable software that addresses the potential needs of all users in the user-centered design\\u000a process with special consideration for users experiencing functional limitations. This paper showcases how accessibility concerns\\u000a affect us all and

Homa Javahery; Michael Gower; Daniel Sinnig; Peter Forbrig

81

Process Design in Process Control Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was designed to expose students to the complexities of designing an instrumentation and control system for the overall plant design. Project objectives, format, and student activities, accomplishments, and shortcomings are described. (JN)

Karim, M. Nazmul

1984-01-01

82

Automation of Design Engineering Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method, and a computer program that helps to implement the method, have been developed to automate and systematize the retention and retrieval of all the written records generated during the process of designing a complex engineering system. It cannot be emphasized strongly enough that all the written records as used here is meant to be taken literally: it signifies not only final drawings and final engineering calculations but also such ancillary documents as minutes of meetings, memoranda, requests for design changes, approval and review documents, and reports of tests. One important purpose served by the method is to make the records readily available to all involved users via their computer workstations from one computer archive while eliminating the need for voluminous paper files stored in different places. Another important purpose served by the method is to facilitate the work of engineers who are charged with sustaining the system and were not involved in the original design decisions. The method helps the sustaining engineers to retrieve information that enables them to retrace the reasoning that led to the original design decisions, thereby helping them to understand the system better and to make informed engineering choices pertaining to maintenance and/or modifications of the system. The software used to implement the method is written in Microsoft Access. All of the documents pertaining to the design of a given system are stored in one relational database in such a manner that they can be related to each other via a single tracking number.

Torrey, Glenn; Sawasky, Gerald; Courey, Karim

2004-01-01

83

Whatever Works: A Systematic User-Centered Training Protocol to Optimize Brain-Computer Interfacing Individually  

PubMed Central

This study implemented a systematic user-centered training protocol for a 4-class brain-computer interface (BCI). The goal was to optimize the BCI individually in order to achieve high performance within few sessions for all users. Eight able-bodied volunteers, who were initially naïve to the use of a BCI, participated in 10 sessions over a period of about 5 weeks. In an initial screening session, users were asked to perform the following seven mental tasks while multi-channel EEG was recorded: mental rotation, word association, auditory imagery, mental subtraction, spatial navigation, motor imagery of the left hand and motor imagery of both feet. Out of these seven mental tasks, the best 4-class combination as well as most reactive frequency band (between 8-30 Hz) was selected individually for online control. Classification was based on common spatial patterns and Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis. The number and time of classifier updates varied individually. Selection speed was increased by reducing trial length. To minimize differences in brain activity between sessions with and without feedback, sham feedback was provided in the screening and calibration runs in which usually no real-time feedback is shown. Selected task combinations and frequency ranges differed between users. The tasks that were included in the 4-class combination most often were (1) motor imagery of the left hand (2), one brain-teaser task (word association or mental subtraction) (3), mental rotation task and (4) one more dynamic imagery task (auditory imagery, spatial navigation, imagery of the feet). Participants achieved mean performances over sessions of 44-84% and peak performances in single-sessions of 58-93% in this user-centered 4-class BCI protocol. This protocol is highly adjustable to individual users and thus could increase the percentage of users who can gain and maintain BCI control. A high priority for future work is to examine this protocol with severely disabled users. PMID:24086710

Friedrich, Elisabeth V. C.; Neuper, Christa; Scherer, Reinhold

2013-01-01

84

The Importance of User-Centered Design: Exploring Findings and Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the rising number of information resources available, it is increasingly important for digital libraries and archives to create usable services that meet their users' needs. Seeking input from users at all stages of development can help achieve this goal. This article briefly defines four methodologies for gathering user input: focus groups,…

Lack, Rosalie

2006-01-01

85

User-centered design of a mobile application for sharing life memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

People have an inherent need to capture and collect life memories such as moments with children or special events with friends. Capturing life memories is either spontaneous or planned. Memories are stored and frequently shared with other people. New internet services allow online sharing of photographs but they bypass the mobile aspect in capturing and sharing multimedia. In this paper,

Thomas Olsson; Marika Lehtonen; Dana Pavel; Kaisa Väänänen-vainio-mattila

2007-01-01

86

Original Paper User-Centered Design of a Digital Knowledge Medium to  

E-print Network

in this transition period, and continue to support family members in managing care amongst themselves in the years medium is an electronic device that supports thought, coordination, and planning. Method: Computer system. Results: The results showed that primary caregivers who were busy had to perform complex tasks to schedule

Toronto, University of

87

User Centered System Design. Part II: Collected Papers from the UCSD HMI Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a collection of 11 recent papers by the Human-Machine Interaction Group at the University of California, San Diego. The following papers are included: (1) "Stages and Levels in Human-Machine Interaction," Donald A. Norman; (2) "The Nature of Expertise in UNIX," Stephen W. Draper; (3) "Users in the Real World," David Owen; (4)…

California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla. Inst. for Cognitive Science.

88

User-centered system design in an aging society : an integrated study on technology adoption  

E-print Network

The aging of the population is an important global phenomenon that is bringing changes and challenges to various areas of society. Technology has been explored as one way to cope with the complexities and uncertainties ...

Lee, Chaiwoo

2014-01-01

89

User-Centered Digital Library Project Phase 2: User Testing with Teachers and Students with Disabilities. Evaluation Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the User-Centered Digital Library Project, conducted by the National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) at WGBH, was to adapt the Teachers' Domain online digital library to enable teachers and students with disabilities to more readily use the resources in science classrooms. NCAM added accessibility features such as captions and audio…

Moeller, Babette

2010-01-01

90

A User-Centered Approach to Adaptive Hypertext Based on an Information Relevance Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.

Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James

1994-01-01

91

Material and processes selection in conceptual design  

E-print Network

Materials and manufacturing processes are an integral part of the design of a product. The need to combine materials and manufacturing processes selection during the early stages of the design has previously been realized. The work that generally...

Krishnakumar, Karthikeyan

2005-02-17

92

Managing Analysis Models in the Design Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of large, complex space systems depends on significant model-based support for exploration of the design space. Integrated models predict system performance in mission-relevant terms given design descriptions and multiple physics-based numerical models. Both the design activities and the modeling activities warrant explicit process definitions and active process management to protect the project from excessive risk. Software and systems engineering processes have been formalized and similar formal process activities are under development for design engineering and integrated modeling. JPL is establishing a modeling process to define development and application of such system-level models.

Briggs, Clark

2006-01-01

93

Design Expert's Participation in Elementary Students' Collaborative Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of the present study was to provide insights into how disciplinary expertise might be infused into Design and Technology classrooms and how authentic processes based on professional design practices might be constructed. We describe elementary students' collaborative lamp designing process, where the leadership was provided by a…

Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

2013-01-01

94

Graphic Design in Libraries: A Conceptual Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing successful library services requires efficient and effective communication with users; therefore, it is important that content creators who develop visual materials understand key components of design and, specifically, develop a holistic graphic design process. Graphic design, as a form of visual communication, is the process of…

Ruiz, Miguel

2014-01-01

95

Learning Design Repositories Structure Ontology and Processes  

E-print Network

narratives of learning scenarios, graphic models of learning designs, IMS-LD compliant XML manifests and some learning designs embedded in complete on-line courses. The graphical models and their corresponding XML+LD graphic editor [10] that supports an interactive design process more friendly to designers than form

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Informing Lesson Design with Human Information Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing effective instruction is the goal of any instructional designer. This article discusses how lesson design can be enhanced by incorporating certain fundamentals of cognitive psychology. The stages of human information processing and a typical four-step lesson are integrated in a model that can inform instructional design. (Contains 1…

Gagel, Charles W.

2005-01-01

97

Service Learning Course Designation: Proposed Process  

E-print Network

UW-Madison Service Learning Course Designation: Proposed Process March 3, 2011 Courses and course sections that are requested for designation as service learning opportunities in the Course Guide that designation. Note that a service learning designation is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED due to Risk Management

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

98

Digital fabrication in the architectural design process  

E-print Network

Digital fabrication is affecting the architectural design process due to the increasingly important role it has in the fabrication of architectural models. Many design professionals, professors, and students have experienced ...

Seely, Jennifer C. K., 1975-

2004-01-01

99

Project HealthDesign: Rethinking the power and potential of personal health records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project HealthDesign, a multi-year, multi-site project sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation with additional support from the California HealthCare Foundation, is designed to stimulate innovation in personal health records (PHRs). Project HealthDesign teams employed user-centered design processes to create designs and prototypes of computer-based applications to support and enhance human health for a wide range of patients, from children

Patricia Flatley Brennan; Stephen Downs; Gail R. Casper

2010-01-01

100

Exploring chaos to model the design process  

E-print Network

of design as a sequence of three rational processes (14) 10 Jansson's tsvo space model (15) 4 The different types of constraints within the design process The major processes occuring in Jansson's concept space. 19 6 Figure 6a depicts the skeleton upon.... It may no longer be sufficir nt to consider good design practice as depending solely on intuition and talent. As long as the process remains poorly understood, little progress v:ill be marie in devising wave to design better Thus f'ar. tlie most...

Sharkawy, Ahmed

2012-06-07

101

Biopulping process design and kinetics.  

PubMed

Biopulping is the solid-state fermentation of wood chips as a pretreatment for mechanical pulping processes. The two organisms that are currently of the greatest interest for biopulping are the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. P. chrysosporium has been shown to successfully biopulp wood (33% energy savings; 39% improvement in tear index) without the need for sterilization of the wood or nutrient supplementation. Demonstrating the practical and economical feasibility of the biopulping process requires process modeling based on accurate kinetic data. Techniques to monitor dry weight loss and growth rate as functions of time using carbon dioxide production data have been developed. Growth was shown to be linear with time on unsupplemented chips and exponential with time on supplemented chips. PMID:14545684

Wall, M B; Cameron, D C; Lightfoot, E N

1993-01-01

102

Process embedded design of integrated management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a process-based design of integrated management systems (IMS) implementation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An extensive survey of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. Based on the literature review, a comprehensive methodology for the design and implementation of an IMS was developed. Findings – A critical review of the strategies employed and of difficulties encountered

Muhammad Asif; Erik J. de Bruijn; Olaf A. M. Fisscher; Cory Searcy; Harm-Jan Steenhuis

2009-01-01

103

Process Design Manual for Nitrogen Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents theoretical and process design criteria for the implementation of nitrogen control technology in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Design concepts are emphasized through examination of data from full-scale and pilot installations. Design data are included on biological nitrification and denitrification, breakpoint…

Parker, Denny S.; And Others

104

Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96  

SciTech Connect

This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

NONE

1996-06-01

105

Design of an IT solution for distributed conceptual design processes  

E-print Network

This thesis explores the need for software tools to aid in the conceptual stage of product design processes in a geographically distributed work environment. While the need for such a solution exists, there have been few ...

Sim, Diana

2007-01-01

106

Molecular Thermodynamics for Chemical Process Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses that aspect of thermodynamics which is particularly important in chemical process design: the calculation of the equilibrium properties of fluid mixtures, especially as required in phase-separation operations. (MLH)

Prausnitz, J. M.

1976-01-01

107

Numerical simulations supporting the process design of ring rolling processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of radial-axial ring rolling (RAR) the motions of all tools are usually defined prior to simulation in the preprocessing step. However, the real process holds up to 8 degrees of freedom (DOF) that are controlled by industrial control systems according to actual sensor values and preselected control strategies. Since the histories of the motions are unknown before the experiment and are dependent on sensor data, the conventional FEA cannot represent the process before experiment. In order to enable the usage of FEA in the process design stage, this approach integrates the industrially applied control algorithms of the real process including all relevant sensors and actuators into the FE model of ring rolling. Additionally, the process design of a novel process 'the axial profiling', in which a profiled roll is used for rolling axially profiled rings, is supported by FEA. Using this approach suitable control strategies can be tested in virtual environment before processing.

Jenkouk, V.; Hirt, G.; Seitz, J.

2013-05-01

108

Modeling Dynamic Engineering Design Processes in PSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to make engineering design effective and efficient is to make its processes flexible - i.e. self-adjusting, self-configuring, and self- optimizing at run time. The paper presents the descriptive part of the Dynamic Engineering Design Process (DEDP) modeling framework developed in PSI1 project. The project aims to build a software tool assisting managers to analyze and enhance the productivity

Vadim Ermolayev; Eyck Jentzsch; Oleg Karsayev; Natalya Keberle; Wolf-ekkehard Matzke; Vladimir Samoilov

2005-01-01

109

Distributed Group Design Process: Lessons Learned.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A typical Web-based training development team consists of a project manager, an instructional designer, a subject-matter expert, a graphic artist, and a Web programmer. The typical scenario involves team members working together in the same setting during the entire design and development process. What happens when the team is distributed, that is…

Eseryel, Deniz; Ganesan, Radha

110

An efficient concept-design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept phase of product development is the key to minimizing and controlling future costs and lead-times. Moreover, much of the product's potential added value is set by concept design. Volvo Aero has shown how to turn theory into reality using a highly efficient design process. The main engine, the Vulcain, and its successor, the Vulcain 2, for the Ariane

Jan Häggander

111

The Engineering Process in Construction & Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research suggests that high-impact activities in science and math classes promote positive attitudinal shifts in students. By implementing high-impact activities, such as designing a school and a skate park, mathematical thinking can be linked to the engineering design process. This hands-on approach, when possible, to demonstrate or…

Stoner, Melissa A.; Stuby, Kristin T.; Szczepanski, Susan

2013-01-01

112

HYNOL PROCESS ENGINEERING: PROCESS CONFIGURATION, SITE PLAN, AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the design of the hydropyrolysis reactor system of the Hynol process. (NOTE: A bench scale methanol production facility is being constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing methanol from biomass using the Hynol process. The plant is bein...

113

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01

114

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Consistent Inventory Control  

E-print Network

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Consistent Inventory Control Elvira Marie B. Aske and Sigurd Skogestad Inventory or material balance control is an important part of process control. In the literature, many rules inventory control systems. Consistency means that the steady-state mass balances (total, component

Skogestad, Sigurd

115

Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP) is a collection of software tools that allow the efficient aerodynamic design and analysis of planar (two-dimensional and axisymmetric) inlets. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. A major element in PINDAP is a Fortran 90 code named PINDAP that can establish the parametric design of the inlet and efficiently model the geometry and generate the grid for CFD analysis with design changes to those parameters. The use of PINDAP is demonstrated for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic inlets.

Slater, John W.; Gruber, Christopher R.

2005-01-01

116

Supercritical Fluid Extraction- Process Simulation and Design  

E-print Network

" SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION PROCESS SIMULAnON AND DESIGN C.L. MARTIN AND AF. SEIBERT SEPARAnONS RESEARCH PROGRAM THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN AUSTIN, TEXAS 78712 ABSTRACT Supercritical fluid extrac~ion (SFE) currently fmds... case study, we will lise data taken fro~ one experimental run to simulate process flows, energy requirements and process conditions when separating isopropyl alcohol (IPA) from water employing supercritical carbon dioxide as the solvent. The SFE...

Martin, C. L.; Seibert, A. F.

117

Macrocell design for concurrent signal processing  

SciTech Connect

Macrocells serve as subsystems at the top level of the hardware design hierarchy. The authors present the macrocell design technique as applied to the implementation of real-time, sampled-data signal processing functions. The design of such circuits is particularly challenging due to the computationally intensive nature of signal-processing algorithms and the constraints of real-time operation. The most efficient designs make use of a high degree of concurrency-a property facilitated by the microcell approach. Two circuit projects whose development resulted largely from the macrocell methodology described are used as examples throughout the report: a linear-predictive vocoder circuit, and a front-end filter-bank chip for a speech recognition system. Both are monolithic multiprocessor implementations: the lpc vocoder circuit contains three processors, the filter-bank chip two processors. 10 references.

Pope, S.P.; Brodersen, R.W.

1983-01-01

118

Explanatory lifelike avatars: performing user-centered tasks in 3D learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their multimodal communicative abilities and strong visual presence, animated pedagogical agents offer significant promise for 3D learning environments. We describe a new class of animated pedagogical agents, explanatory lifelike avatars, which can perform user-designed tasks in rich 3D worlds. By generating task networks to perform student-designed tasks, an avatar task planner constructs and interprets action specifications that it

James C. Lester; Luke S. Zettlemoyer; Joël P. Grégoire; William H. Bares

1999-01-01

119

Robust PID Controller Design for Multivariable Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust PID controller design for multivariable processes is studied in this paper based on loop-shaping Hinfin control. In order to implement the complex Hinfin controller, we propose a method to reduce it to a multivariable PID controller, and give a method to choose the pre-compensator which determines the performance of the closed-loop system. The main contribution of the design method

Zhiqi Hu; Yujun He; Wei Li

2008-01-01

120

Functionally graded materials: Design, processing and applications  

SciTech Connect

In a Functionally Graded Material (FGM), the composition and structure gradually change over volume, resulting in corresponding changes in the properties of the material. By applying the many possibilities inherent in the FGM concept, it is anticipated that materials will be improved and new functions for them created. A comprehensive description of design, modeling, processing, and evaluation of FGMs as well as their applications is covered in this book. The contents include: lessons from nature; graded microstructures; modeling and design; characterization of properties; processing and fabrication; applications; and summary and outlook.

Miyamoto, Y. [ed.] [Osaka Univ. (JP); Kaysser, W.A.; Rabin, B.H.; Kawasaki, A.; Ford, R.G. [eds.

1999-09-01

121

Why Value Is Everything: A User-Centered Approach to Internet Quality of Service and Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To create a cceptable levels of Quality o f Service (QoS), designers need to b e able to predict users' behaviour in response to d ifferent l evels of QoS. However, predicting b ehaviour r equires an understanding o f users' requirements for specific tasks and contexts. This paper reports qualitative and experimental research that demonstrates that future network service

Anna Bouch; Martina Angela Sasse

2001-01-01

122

Design of environmentally benign processes: integration of solvent design and separation process synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a hybrid method for design of environmentally benign processes. The hybrid method integrates mathematical modelling with heuristic approaches to solving the optimisation problems related to separation process synthesis and solvent design and selection. A structured method of solution, which employs thermodynamic insights to reduce the complexity and size of the mathematical problem by eliminating redundant alternatives, has

Martin Hostrup; Peter M. Harper; Rafiqul Gani

1999-01-01

123

A User-Centered Approach on Combining Realism and Interactivity in Virtual Environments  

E-print Network

education. In what concerns realism, we introduce an image-based 3D cap- ture process, where realistic and special purpose display meth- ods. We have chosen to use view-dependent texture map- ping, with a small (images and 3D model). The resulting environment can be edited using standard 3D mod- elling tools

Boyer, Edmond

124

User Centered and Ontology Based Information Retrieval System for Life Sciences  

E-print Network

Because of the increasing number of electronic data, designing efficient tools to retrieve and exploit documents is a major challenge. Current search engines suffer from two main drawbacks: there is limited interaction with the list of retrieved documents and no explanation for their adequacy to the query. Users may thus be confused by the selection and have no idea how to adapt their query so that the results match their expectations. This paper describes a request method and an environment based on aggregating models to assess the relevance of documents annotated by concepts of ontology. The selection of documents is then displayed in a semantic map to provide graphical indications that make explicit to what extent they match the user's query; this man/machine interface favors a more interactive exploration of data corpus.

Ranwez, Sylvie; Sy, Mohameth-François; Montmain, Jacky; Crampes, Michel

2010-01-01

125

Mimicry of natural material designs and processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological structural materials, although composed of unremarkable substances synthesized at low temperatures, often exhibit superior mechanical properties. In particular, the quality in which nearly all biologically derived materials excel is toughness. The advantageous mechanical properties are attributable to the hierarchical, composite, structural arrangements common to biological systems. Materials scientists and engineers have increasingly recognized that biological designs or processing approaches applied to man-made materials (biomimesis) may offer improvements in performance over conventional designs and fabrication methods. In this survey, the structures and processing routes of marine shells, avian eggshells, wood, bone, and insect cuticle are briefly reviewed, and biomimesis research inspired by these materials is discussed. In addition, this paper describes and summarizes the applications of biomineralization, self-assembly, and templating with proteins to the fabrication of thin ceramic films and nanostructure devices.

Bond, G. M.; Richman, R. H.; McNaughton, W. P.

1995-06-01

126

Design Process Guide Method for Minimizing Loops and Conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new guide method for developing an easy-to-design process for product development. This process ensures a smaller number of wasteful iterations and less multiple conflicts. The design process is modeled as a sequence of design decisions. A design decision is defined as the process of determination of product attributes. A design task is represented as a calculation flow

Tsuyoshi Koga; Kazuhiro Aoyama

2009-01-01

127

Thinking and the Design Process. DIUL-RR-8414.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to focus attention on the design process in such computer science activities as information systems design, database design, and expert systems design, this paper examines three main phases of the design process: understanding the context of the problem, identifying the problem, and finding a solution. The processes that these phases…

Moulin, Bernard

128

Technological Design as an Evolutionary Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of technical artifacts is often seen as radically different from the evolution of biological species. Technical\\u000a artifacts are normally understood to result from the purposive intelligence of designers whereas biological species and organisms\\u000a are held to have resulted from evolution by natural selection. But could it be that technology, too, is really the outcome\\u000a of evolutionary processes rather

Philip Brey

129

Quantitative evolutionary design of nutrient processing: Glucose  

PubMed Central

Quantitative evolutionary design involves the numerical relationships, evolved through natural selection, of biological capacities to each other and to natural loads. Here we study the relation of nutrient-processing capacities of the intestine and of organs beyond it (such as liver and kidneys) to each other and to natural loads of nutrients normally consumed. To control experimentally the rate of nutrient delivery to organs beyond the intestine, we administered nutrients directly into the veins of rats by the method of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Control rats consuming the TPN solution by mouth ingested glucose at 42 mmol/day and processed it completely, as gauged by negligible appearance of glucose in urine and feces. Experimental rats receiving TPN were able to process infused glucose completely at rates up to 92 mmol/day. At higher infusion rates, they were unable to process further glucose, as gauged by rises in serum and urinary glucose levels and serum osmolality. At the highest infusion rates, they exhibited diuresis, dehydration, and both decreased weight gain and survival. These symptoms closely resemble the human diabetic condition known as nonketotic hypertonicity. Thus, a rat's body has a safety factor of 2.2 (=92/42) for glucose processing: it can process glucose at a rate 2.2 times its voluntary intake. This safety factor represents apparent excess capacity that may have evolved to process other nutrients converted into glucose, to minimize the risk of loads swamping capacities, to handle suddenly increased nutrient requirements, or to effect rapid mobilization of glucose. PMID:12077313

Steyermark, Anthony C.; Lam, Mandy M.; Diamond, Jared

2002-01-01

130

Saving Material with Systematic Process Designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global competition is forcing the stamping industry to further increase quality, to shorten time-to-market and to reduce total cost. Continuous balancing between these classical time-cost-quality targets throughout the product development cycle is required to ensure future economical success. In today's industrial practice, die layout standards are typically assumed to implicitly ensure the balancing of company specific time-cost-quality targets. Although die layout standards are a very successful approach, there are two methodical disadvantages. First, the capabilities for tool design have to be continuously adapted to technological innovations; e.g. to take advantage of the full forming capability of new materials. Secondly, the great variety of die design aspects have to be reduced to a generic rule or guideline; e.g. binder shape, draw-in conditions or the use of drawbeads. Therefore, it is important to not overlook cost or quality opportunities when applying die design standards. This paper describes a systematic workflow with focus on minimizing material consumption. The starting point of the investigation is a full process plan for a typical structural part. All requirements are definedaccording to a predefined set of die design standards with industrial relevance are fulfilled. In a first step binder and addendum geometry is systematically checked for material saving potentials. In a second step, blank shape and draw-in are adjusted to meet thinning, wrinkling and springback targets for a minimum blank solution. Finally the identified die layout is validated with respect to production robustness versus splits, wrinkles and springback. For all three steps the applied methodology is based on finite element simulation combined with a stochastical variation of input variables. With the proposed workflow a well-balanced (time-cost-quality) production process assuring minimal material consumption can be achieved.

Kerausch, M.

2011-08-01

131

Software design for panoramic astronomical pipeline processing  

E-print Network

We describe the software requirement and design specifications for all-sky panoramic astronomical pipelines. The described software aims to meet the specific needs of super-wide angle optics, and includes cosmic-ray hit rejection, image compression, star recognition, sky opacity analysis, transient detection and a web server allowing access to real-time and archived data. The presented software is being regularly used for the pipeline processing of 11 all-sky cameras located in some of the world's premier observatories. We encourage all-sky camera operators to use our software and/or our hosting services and become part of the global Night Sky Live network.

Lior Shamir; Robert J. Nemiroff; David O. Torrey; Wellesley E. Pereira

2005-11-23

132

METRICS: a system architecture for design process optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe METRICS, a system to recover design productivity via new infrastructure for design process optimization. METRICS seeks to treat system design and implementation as a science, rather than an art. A key precept is that measuring a design process is a prerequisite to optimizing it and continuously achieving maximum productivity. METRICS (i) unobtrusively gathers characteristics of design artifacts, design

S. Fenstermaker; David George; Andrew B. Kahng; Stefanus Mantik; B. Thielges

2000-01-01

133

Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed: Software design specification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed is a system for the analysis and characterization of adaptive filtering algorithms used for the excision of interfering tones from direct sequence spread spectrum communications systems. The design specification for the software to be developed for this testbed is described. The testbed system is divided into a number of subsystems and the required software for each subsystem is presented. The control and data flow between the subsystem as well as a modular breakdown of the software is provided. The online component of the host software provides all the control, monitoring, and storage functions for the embedded software system that resides on the bus in the host computer, a Sun workstation. The online component consists of five separate modules: user interface, graphical display, central processing, data storage, and development. The offline, or post-processing, component of the host software provides sophisticated statistical and spectral analysis of the data stored on disk. An interactive environment is provided for the user to develop customized analysis methods.

Parliament, Hugh A.

1990-06-01

134

The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of

Baohua Dong; Chunmi Zhang; Chen Zhuo

2011-01-01

135

Parametric Design within an Atomic Design Process (ADP) applied to Spacecraft Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes research investigating the development of a model for the initial design of complex systems, with application to spacecraft design. The design model is called an atomic design process (ADP) and contains four fundamental stages (specifications, configurations, trade studies and drivers) that constitute the minimum steps of an iterative process that helps designers find a feasible solution. Representative design models from the aerospace industry are reviewed and are compared with the proposed model. The design model's relevance, adaptability and scalability features are evaluated through a focused design task exercise with two undergraduate teams and a long-term design exercise performed by a spacecraft payload team. The implementation of the design model is explained in the context in which the model has been researched. This context includes the organization (a student-run research laboratory at the University of Michigan), its culture (academically oriented), members that have used the design model and the description of the information technology elements meant to provide support while using the model. This support includes a custom-built information management system that consolidates relevant information that is currently being used in the organization. The information is divided in three domains: personnel development history, technical knowledge base and laboratory operations. The focused study with teams making use of the design model to complete an engineering design exercise consists of the conceptual design of an autonomous system, including a carrier and a deployable lander that form the payload of a rocket with an altitude range of over 1000 meters. Detailed results from each of the stages of the design process while implementing the model are presented, and an increase in awareness of good design practices in the teams while using the model are explained. A long-term investigation using the design model consisting of the successful characterization of an imaging system for a spacecraft is presented. The spacecraft is designed to take digital color images from low Earth orbit. The dominant drivers from each stage of the design process are indicated as they were identified, with the accompanying hardware development leading to the final configuration that comprises the flight spacecraft.

Ramos Alarcon, Rafael

136

Process Support to Help Novices Design Software Faster and Better  

E-print Network

design, as practiced by ex- perts, is a very iterative process. The designer undertakes a series be viewed as a series of oppor- tunistic responses to the inconsistency of the design ­ when incon be particularly helpful for novice designers working within the context of specific design styles. Such a process

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

137

Design of nanomaterial synthesis by aerosol processes.  

PubMed

Aerosol synthesis of materials is a vibrant field of particle technology and chemical reaction engineering. Examples include the manufacture of carbon blacks, fumed SiO(2), pigmentary TiO(2), ZnO vulcanizing catalysts, filamentary Ni, and optical fibers, materials that impact transportation, construction, pharmaceuticals, energy, and communications. Parallel to this, development of novel, scalable aerosol processes has enabled synthesis of new functional nanomaterials (e.g., catalysts, biomaterials, electroceramics) and devices (e.g., gas sensors). This review provides an access point for engineers to the multiscale design of aerosol reactors for the synthesis of nanomaterials using continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics models spanning 10 and 15 orders of magnitude in length and time, respectively. Key design features are the rapid chemistry; the high particle concentrations but low volume fractions; the attainment of a self-preserving particle size distribution by coagulation; the ratio of the characteristic times of coagulation and sintering, which controls the extent of particle aggregation; and the narrowing of the aggregate primary particle size distribution by sintering. PMID:22468598

Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

2012-01-01

138

Design of Nanomaterial Synthesis by Aerosol Processes  

PubMed Central

Aerosol synthesis of materials is a vibrant field of particle technology and chemical reaction engineering. Examples include the manufacture of carbon blacks, fumed SiO2, pigmentary TiO2, ZnO vulcanizing catalysts, filamentary Ni, and optical fibers, materials that impact transportation, construction, pharmaceuticals, energy, and communications. Parallel to this, development of novel, scalable aerosol processes has enabled synthesis of new functional nanomaterials (e.g., catalysts, biomaterials, electroceramics) and devices (e.g., gas sensors). This review provides an access point for engineers to the multiscale design of aerosol reactors for the synthesis of nanomaterials using continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics models spanning 10 and 15 orders of magnitude in length and time, respectively. Key design features are the rapid chemistry; the high particle concentrations but low volume fractions; the attainment of a self-preserving particle size distribution by coagulation; the ratio of the characteristic times of coagulation and sintering, which controls the extent of particle aggregation; and the narrowing of the aggregate primary particle size distribution by sintering. PMID:22468598

Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

2013-01-01

139

Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 2: The design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent to which IPAD is to support the design process is identified. Case studies of representative aerospace products were developed as models to characterize the design process and to provide design requirements for the IPAD computing system.

Gillette, W. B.; Turner, M. J.; Southall, J. W.; Whitener, P. C.; Kowalik, J. S.

1973-01-01

140

Universal Design: Process, Principles, and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing any product or environment involves the consideration of many factors, including aesthetics, engineering options, environmental issues, safety concerns, industry standards, and cost. Typically, designers focus their attention on the average user. In contrast, universal design (UD), according to the Center for Universal Design," is the…

Burgstahler, Sheryl

2009-01-01

141

THE DESIGN PROCESS THROUGH THE EYES OF  

E-print Network

.................................................................................2 A On Design Culture.......................................................................20 Picture 1. Observation of Woman cooking with Disability

Agogino, Alice M.

142

How Educational Design Enhances the Learning Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses designing schools that blend intense educational planning with school architecture and the notion of shared school and community facilities. Additionally discussed are differences between urban and rural school designs, technology in school design, differences in design requirements of foreign schools, and the direction of the school…

Schneider, Jay W.

2000-01-01

143

Integrated Design of Chemical Processes and Utility Systems  

E-print Network

The pinch concept for integrated heat recovery networks has recently become established in chemical process design. This paper presents an overview of the concept and shows how it has now been extended to total process design (reactors, separators...

Linnhoff, B.

144

Audio-visual frameworks for design process representation  

E-print Network

The design process is based on a recursive and iterative feedback between a designer's ideas and their physical representation. In most practices, this feedback takes place upon one single medium, which endows the designer ...

Soares, Gonçalo Ducla, 1977-

2004-01-01

145

Modeling and performance simulation of mould-design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mould design usually lies on the critical path of new product development. The mould-design process generally involves complex\\u000a and multi-related design problems. The use of the IDEF0 descriptive model or similar tools alone in the analysis of complicated\\u000a processes like the mould-design process usually encounter difficulties due to the complexity of the process. A quantitative\\u000a analysis model thus seems necessary

K. S. Chin; C. K. Mok; Xu Zu

2007-01-01

146

Launch Vehicle Design Process: Characterization, Technical Integration, and Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering design is a challenging activity for any product. Since launch vehicles are highly complex and interconnected and have extreme energy densities, their design represents a challenge of the highest order. The purpose of this document is to delineate and clarify the design process associated with the launch vehicle for space flight transportation. The goal is to define and characterize a baseline for the space transportation design process. This baseline can be used as a basis for improving effectiveness and efficiency of the design process. The baseline characterization is achieved via compartmentalization and technical integration of subsystems, design functions, and discipline functions. First, a global design process overview is provided in order to show responsibility, interactions, and connectivity of overall aspects of the design process. Then design essentials are delineated in order to emphasize necessary features of the design process that are sometimes overlooked. Finally the design process characterization is presented. This is accomplished by considering project technical framework, technical integration, process description (technical integration model, subsystem tree, design/discipline planes, decision gates, and tasks), and the design sequence. Also included in the document are a snapshot relating to process improvements, illustrations of the process, a survey of recommendations from experienced practitioners in aerospace, lessons learned, references, and a bibliography.

Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Humphries, W. R.

2001-01-01

147

Automatic optimal feeder design in steel casting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for automatic optimal feeder design in steel casting processes is presented. The initial design is the casting part (without feeders) which is placed in a suitable mold box. Design of each feeder contains the following steps: determination of the feeder-neck connection point on the casting surface, initial feeder design, feeder shape optimization and feeder topology optimization. Completing designing

Rohallah Tavakoli; Parviz Davami

2008-01-01

148

Process Support to Help Novices Design Software Faster and Better  

E-print Network

design, as practiced by ex- perts, is a very iterative process. The designer undertakes a series be viewed as a series of oppor- tunistic responses to the inconsistency of the design ­ when incon be particularly helpful for novice designers working within the context of specific design patterns

Cass, Aaron G.

149

Real Time Mechatronic Design Process for Research and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design methodology used in various real time mechatronics projects that involve data acquisition, real time control and embedded processing. As a design philosophy, mechatronics serves as an integrating approach to engineering design. A mechatronically designed product relies heavily on system sensing and component modeling and simulation to establish the optimal design tradeoffs between electronic and mechanical

Devdas Shetty; Jun Kondo; Claudio Campana; Richard A. Kolk

2002-01-01

150

Engineering DesignEngineering Design ...... ... is a creative process,... is a creative process,  

E-print Network

good design decisions.govern good design decisions. A good designer needs to useA good designer needs) ·· Literature and patent surveysLiterature and patent surveys An inventive design approachAn inventive design

Kostic, Milivoje M.

151

Process Considerations in Surface Condenser Design  

E-print Network

effective designs are achieved and that proper system flexibility is ensured. Poddar Plot for Surface Condensers ShelI-and-tube exchanger design procedures took a significant step forward with the introduction by Tarun Poddar (2) of the design space... ? the exchanger must transfer a specified heat load ? the tubeside pressure drop must be below a maximum value ? the shelIside pressure drop must be below a maximum value The sheIl-and-tube exchanger design space can be considered to be two dimensional...

Polley, G. T.; Terranova, A.; Capel, A. C. P.

152

Interactive graphics, the design process, and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of design and drafting is changing continuously - its parameters are ever shifting and its applications are increasing. The use of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is becoming increasingly common in industry. However, instruction in CAD and CAM has in general not been incorporated into university curricula. This paper addresses the need for increased instruction in

1980-01-01

153

Rapid Prototyping in the Instructional Design Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses instructional design models and examines rapid prototyping, a model that combines computer design strategies, constructivist learning theory, and cognitive psychology. Highlights include limitations of linear models; instructional problems appropriate and those not appropriate for rapid prototyping; and rapid prototyping as a paradigm…

Nixon, Elizabeth Krick; Lee, Doris

2001-01-01

154

Computer Applications in the Design Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer Assisted Design (CAD) and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM) are emerging technologies now being used in home economics and interior design applications. A microcomputer in a computer network system is capable of executing computer graphic functions such as three-dimensional modeling, as well as utilizing office automation packages to…

Winchip, Susan

155

That's Entertainment! Designing Streaming, Multimedia Web Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the use of streaming multimedia narratives in web entertainment. Based on experience gained during the user centered design of a website for art and culture, we provide evidence that users want and like \\

Clare-marie Karat; John Karat; John Vergo; Claudio S. Pinhanez; Doug Riecken; Thomas Cofino

2002-01-01

156

Process of designing city housing in Japan  

E-print Network

pose of this thesis is to show one design approach to providing more preferable housing for users in Japan. Chapter 1 gives an overview of trends in Japanese housing construction, describes user requirements, analyzes ...

Kurokawa, Shoji

1983-01-01

157

A participatory process supporting design of future work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates how a participatory design process has developed as a result of empirical studies with workers. The view on design as a process presented here necessitates an explicit analysis of work where both workers and designers participate. The analysis gives workers a possibility to reflect on present and future work practices and to evaluate effects in advance. Moreover,

Eva Olsson; Niklas Johansson; Jan Gullikssen; Bengt Sandblad

158

Designing Educative Curriculum Materials: A Theoretically and Empirically Driven Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors argue for a design process in the development of educative curriculum materials that is theoretically and empirically driven. Using a design-based research approach, they describe their design process for incorporating educative features intended to promote teacher learning into existing, high-quality curriculum…

Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Arias, Anna Maria; Bismack, Amber Schultz; Marulis, Loren M.; Iwashyna, Stefanie K.

2014-01-01

159

The Effects of Manufacturing Processes on Powertrain Design Decisions  

E-print Network

the design of a fuel injector nozzle, where uncertain- ties in manufacturing processes are addressed by means of probabilistic optimization. The fuel injector nozzle is designed to meet stringent emission requirements withoutThe Effects of Manufacturing Processes on Powertrain Design Decisions by Zhijun Li A thesis

Papalambros, Panos

160

Information Architecture without Internal Theory: An Inductive Design Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that information architecture design is primarily an inductive process, partly because it lacks internal theory and partly because it is an activity that supports emergent phenomena (user experiences) from basic design components. Suggests a resemblance to Constructive Induction, a design process that locates the best representational…

Haverty, Marsha

2002-01-01

161

Generating Simulation Network for Design Process based on DSM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of simulation technique is becoming more popular in managing design process. However, developing a simulation model can be very tedious and knowledge demanding, and a simulation model developed for one project cannot readily be used for others due to the unique nature of design project. This paper develops a generalized simulation model for the design process which is capable

Md. Aslam Hossain

2009-01-01

162

Process Design Manual for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents a procedure for the design of land treatment systems. Slow rate, rapid infiltration, and overland flow processes for the treatment of municipal wastewaters are given emphasis. The basic unit operations and unit processes are discussed in detail, and the design concepts and criteria are presented. The manual includes design

Crites, R.; And Others

163

A Rational Design Process: How and Why to Fake It  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many have sought a software design process that allows a program to be derived systematically from a precise statement of re- quirements. This paper proposes that, although we will not succeed in designing a real product in that'way, we can produce documentation that makes it appear that the software was designed by such a process. We first describe the ideal

David Lorge Parnas; Paul C. Clements

1985-01-01

164

Knowledge and Processes in Design. DPS Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four papers from a project concerning information-processing characterizations of the knowledge and processes involved in design are presented. The project collected and analyzed verbal protocols from instructional designers, architects, and mechanical engineers. A framework was developed for characterizing the problem spaces of design that…

Pirolli, Peter

165

Design Science Research for Business Process Design: Organizational Transition at Intersport Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Business processes need to be aligned with business strategies. This paper elaborates on experiences from a business process design effort in an action research project performed at Intersport Sweden. The purpose with this project was to create a solid base for taking the retail chain Intersport into a new organizational state where the new process design is aligned with strategic goals. Although business process modeling is concerned with creating artifacts, traditionally information systems design science research has had little impact on research on business process models. In this paper, we address the question of how design science research can contribute to business process design. Three heuristic guidelines for creating organizational commitment and strategic alignment in process design are presented. The guidelines are derived from the successful actions taken in the research project. The development of these guidelines is used as a basis to reflect upon the contribution of design science research to business process design.

Lind, Mikael; Rudmark, Daniel; Seigerroth, Ulf

166

Designing a process migration facility: The Charlotte experience  

E-print Network

Designing a process migration facility: The Charlotte experience Yeshayahu Artsy Raphael Finkel Systems, Process Migration, System Design Abstract Our goal in this paper is to discuss our experience with process migration in the Charlotte distributed operating system. We also draw upon the experience of other

Finkel, Raphael

167

Work Structuring to Achieve Integrated ProductProcess Design  

E-print Network

Work Structuring to Achieve Integrated Product­Process Design Cynthia C. Y. Tsao, A.M.ASCE1 ; Iris presents "work structuring," a term used to describe the effort of integrating product and process design throughout the project development process. To illustrate current work structuring practice, we describe

Tommelein, Iris D.

168

pH-NEUTRALIZATION: INTEGRATED PROCESS AND CONTROL DESIGN  

E-print Network

pH-NEUTRALIZATION: INTEGRATED PROCESS AND CONTROL DESIGN Audun Faanes ¢¡ £ Sigurd Skogestad Keywords: Process control, pH control, Processs design, PID control 1. INTRODUCTION The pH-neutralization of acids or bases has significant industrial importance. The aim of the process is to change the pH

Skogestad, Sigurd

169

Process Variation Tolerant 9T SRAM Bit Cell Design  

E-print Network

Process Variation Tolerant 9T SRAM Bit Cell Design 03/21/2012 1 Presented By Oghenekarho Okobiah G Introduction Need of Efficient SRAM Design Nano-CMOS SRAM Design Challenges Standard 6T SRAM Proposed 9T SRAM Simulation Results Conclusion 03/21/2012 2 #12;Why Efficient SRAM Design ? · Amount of on

Mohanty, Saraju P.

170

A Reference Process to Design Information Systems for Sustainable Design based on LCA, PSS, Social and  

E-print Network

A Reference Process to Design Information Systems for Sustainable Design based on LCA, PSS, Social of Sustainable Design, SD, is to satisfy customer needs while reducing environmental impacts. The main challenge: SOA, Reference Process, Sustainable Design, Information Systems, Information Systems to Support

Boyer, Edmond

171

Erlang Behaviours: Programming with Process Design Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erlang processes run independently of each other, each using separate memory and communicating with each other by message passing. These processes, while executing different code, do so following a number of common patterns. By examining different examples of Erlang-style concurrency in client/server architectures, we identify the generic and specific parts of the code and extract the generic code to form a process skeleton. In Erlang, the most commonly used patterns have been implemented in library modules, commonly referred to as OTP behaviours. They contain the generic code framework for concurrency and error handling, simplifying the complexity of concurrent programming and protecting the developer from many common pitfalls.

Cesarini, Francesco; Thompson, Simon

172

Reducing Design Cycle Time and Cost Through Process Resequencing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In today's competitive environment, companies are under enormous pressure to reduce the time and cost of their design cycle. One method for reducing both time and cost is to develop an understanding of the flow of the design processes and the effects of the iterative subcycles that are found in complex design projects. Once these aspects are understood, the design manager can make decisions that take advantage of decomposition, concurrent engineering, and parallel processing techniques to reduce the total time and the total cost of the design cycle. One software tool that can aid in this decision-making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). The DeMAID software minimizes the feedback couplings that create iterative subcycles, groups processes into iterative subcycles, and decomposes the subcycles into a hierarchical structure. The real benefits of producing the best design in the least time and at a minimum cost are obtained from sequencing the processes in the subcycles.

Rogers, James L.

2004-01-01

173

Pharmaceutical tablet compaction : product and process design  

E-print Network

This thesis explores how tablet performance is affected by microstructure, and how microstructure can be controlled by selection of excipients and compaction parameters. A systematic strategy for formulation and process ...

Pore, Mridula

2009-01-01

174

RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION  

E-print Network

in a purely deterministic approach, replacing iterative trial-and- error process development on the shop floor system optimization. In optimization of the casting feeding system, optimal sizes and locations

Beckermann, Christoph

175

Language design for distributed stream processing  

E-print Network

Applications that combine live data streams with embedded, parallel, and distributed processing are becoming more commonplace. WaveScript is a domain-specific language that brings high-level, type-safe, garbage-collected ...

Newton, Ryan Rhodes, 1980-

2009-01-01

176

Designing and implementing auxiliary operational processes  

E-print Network

Amazon.com, one of the largest and most profitable online retailers, has been experiencing such dramatic growth rates that it must continually update and modify its fulfillment process in order to meet customer demand for ...

Smith, Zachary R

2008-01-01

177

INTEGRATION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND PROCESS INTENSIFICATION IN THE DESIGN OF PROCESSES FOR UTILIZING BIOBASED GLYCEROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The expected results include an integrated process and mechanical design including a fabrication plan for the glycerol dehydration reactor, comprehensive heat and material balance, environmental impact assessment and comprehensive safety review. The resulting process design w...

178

Processes and Knowledge in Designing Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from a study of problem solving in the domain of instructional design are presented. Subjects were eight teacher trainees who were recent graduates of or were enrolled in the Stanford Teacher Education Program at Stanford University (California). Subjects studied a computer-based tutorial--the VST2000--about a fictitious vehicle. The…

Greeno, James G.; And Others

179

Evolutionary design changes mark FCC process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 50 years since the birth of fluid catalytic cracking, there have been so many changes in the appearance and design of the FCC unit that its forefathers wouldn't recognize their offspring. These changes have been brought about by modifications in almost every element involved, including feedstocks, catalysts, equipment, and products. Additionally, a better understanding of the technologies, particularly

1992-01-01

180

Design Principles for Distributed Knowledge Building Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore various interpretations of the term distributed cognition, then turn our attention to communities grounded in the practice of collaborative knowledge building. We discuss CSILE (Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environments), a technology designed to support contributions to a communal database. Shared responsibility for this community resource extends to aspects of school practice typically handled exclusively by teachers,

Jim Hewitt; Marlene Scardamalia

1998-01-01

181

Outline of a design science research process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions about the body of knowledge of information systems, including the research domain, relevant perspectives and methods have been going on for a long time. Many researchers vote for a combination of research perspectives and their respective research methodologies; rigour and relevance as requirements in design science are generally accepted. What has been lacking is a formalisation of a detailed

Philipp Offermann; Olga Levina; Marten Schönherr; Udo Bub

2009-01-01

182

The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of the drawings and post artistic processing have been implemented. Additionally, with the use of this software, working efficiency has greatly increased and drawings have become more specific and more specialized. By analyzing the application of photoshop image processing software in environmental design and comparing and contrasting traditional hand drawing and drawing with modern technology, this essay will further explore the way for computer technology to play a bigger role in environmental design.

Dong, Baohua; Zhang, Chunmi; Zhuo, Chen

2011-02-01

183

Optimal conceptual design of processes with heterogeneous catalytic reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an optimisation-based method for the screening and conceptual design of processes with heterogeneous catalytic reactors. The method follows a multi-level approach to process synthesis to establish performance targets and identify high-performance designs. At each level, process superstructures are optimised to explore performance limits of the system and to guide the understanding of the relationships between individual design

Daniel Montolio-Rodriguez; Patrick Linke; David Linke; Mirko Z. Stijepovic

2010-01-01

184

Optimizing the closures development process using the design structure matrix  

E-print Network

Product development processes are inherently complex sets of activities that involve a vast number of connections between participants. Engineers, designers, marketers, financial analysts, and manufacturers all have to ...

McGill, Eric Andrew

2005-01-01

185

Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems  

E-print Network

ammonia system for condensing carbon dioxide (-10?F). Target i ng for the base case des i gn showed the process pinch to be at ambient conditions. Hot wash water and intennittent steam loads during each brew made up the bulk of the heating... ammonia system for condensing carbon dioxide (-10?F). Target i ng for the base case des i gn showed the process pinch to be at ambient conditions. Hot wash water and intennittent steam loads during each brew made up the bulk of the heating...

Witherell, W. D.

186

Designing intelligent help for information processing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As information processing systems become more prevalent in the workplace there is an every expanding community of users that need to be instructed in their use. This requirement may be met by trainers and, to a lesser extent, by manuals (possibly presented on-line). However, the first solution is expensive, and the second limited in its objectives. So the goal of

Conroy Mallen

1996-01-01

187

Adding Users to the Website Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

Tomeo, Megan L.

2012-01-01

188

METEOR-S PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT TOOL  

E-print Network

The growing popularity of Service Oriented Computing based on Web services standards is creating a need for paradigms to represent and design business processes. Significant work has been done in the representation aspects with regards to WSBPEL. However, design and modeling of business processes is still an open issue. In this thesis, we present a novel designer which supports intuitive modeling of Web processes, using a template based approach for semiautomatically integrating partners either at design time or at deployment time. The process design and development tool described in this work helps process developers create complex business processes using an easy to use Graphical User Interface. The tool which provides a variety of features is developed as a plugin to Eclipse platform. This work has been done as part of

Ranjit Mulye

2005-01-01

189

Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

Meyer, D. D.

1979-01-01

190

Ceramic processing: Experimental design and optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this paper are to: (1) gain insight into the processing of ceramics and how green processing can affect the properties of ceramics; (2) investigate the technique of slip casting; (3) learn how heat treatment and temperature contribute to density, strength, and effects of under and over firing to ceramic properties; (4) experience some of the problems inherent in testing brittle materials and learn about the statistical nature of the strength of ceramics; (5) investigate orthogonal arrays as tools to examine the effect of many experimental parameters using a minimum number of experiments; (6) recognize appropriate uses for clay based ceramics; and (7) measure several different properties important to ceramic use and optimize them for a given application.

Weiser, Martin W.; Lauben, David N.; Madrid, Philip

1992-01-01

191

Process Design and Optimization of Biorefining Pathways  

E-print Network

of the particular fermentation. Anaerobic digestion is a fermentation technique occurring mostly in waste water treatment, sludge degradation, and landfills. It operates at anaerobic conditions and 6 produces biogas that includes methane and carbon... ROI Return on Investment viii SCFD Standard Cubic Feet per Day SMDS Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis SMR Steam Methane Reforming SPD Slurry-Phase Distillate Process TAC Total Annualized Cost TCI Total Capital Investment TEHL Table...

Bao, Buping

2012-07-16

192

Constraint Analysis: A Design Process for Specifying Operations on Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design process for an object-oriented database design environment, known as constraint analysis, is presented. Given the increased level of semantics associated with an object-oriented database schema, constraint analysis makes use of semantics expressed as database constraints to support the flexible specification of propagation actions for operations on objects. Constraints are formally represented using Horn logic. The constraint analysis process

Susan Darling Urban; Lois M. L. Delcambre

1990-01-01

193

Debating Professional Designations for Evaluators: Reflections on the Canadian Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a reflective account of a consultation process on professional designations for evaluators initiated and coordinated by the Canadian Evaluation Society (CES). Described are: (1) the forces leading CES to generate discussion and debate about professional designations for Canadian evaluators, (2) the process of developing and…

Cousins, J. Bradley; Cullen, Jim; Malik, Sumbal; Maicher, Brigitte

2009-01-01

194

Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

1971-01-01

195

Point Process Model for Reliability Analysis of Evolutionary Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A point process model is developed to asses s the reliability of new designs which are variants of an existing product. The model is Bayesian and makes use of existing expert judgement. Prior distributions are used to assess the number of inherent weaknesses introduced through evolution of the design. The enhancement of the design will be experienced through a growth

John Quigley; Lesley Walls

196

XML-based product information processing method for product design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

Zhang, Zhen Yu

2011-12-01

197

XML-based product information processing method for product design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

Zhang, Zhen Yu

2012-01-01

198

A novel framework for simultaneous separation process and product design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to introduce a systematic framework for simultaneous solution of process\\/product design problems related to separation. This framework is based on the recently developed property clustering approach that allows one to perform design calculations on a component-free (or composition-free) basis. Removing the composition dependency from the design problem enables the simultaneous consideration of process and

M. R. Eden; S. B. Jørgensen; R. Gani; M. M. El-Halwagi

2004-01-01

199

An approach for designing management support systems: the design science research process and its outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design science research involves creating and evaluating innovative methods and approaches to be used in design practice. We present an approach to be used in the process of designing Management Support Systems (MSS). The nature of managerial work makes the design, development, and implementation of MSS a major challenge. The MSS literature suggests that determining MSS requirements and specification of

Sven A. Carlsson; Stefan Henningsson; Christina Keller

2009-01-01

200

Importance of Industrial Design and its collaboration process with Engineering Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there are Industrial Design (ID) centric living commodities like home electric appliances in one hand and Engineering Design (ED) centric industrial goods like automotive parts in another, Engineering Designer (EDer) and Industrial Designer (IDer) collaborate in the development process of office equipment such as copier and facsimile that is positioned in between two types of products. Meanwhile, management strategy

Kazuhide Sugiyama; Hiroshi Osada

2011-01-01

201

Transparent Process Migration: Design Alternatives and the Sprite Implementation \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Transparent Process Migration: Design Alternatives and the Sprite Implementation \\Lambda Fred to be moved between hosts at any time. We use this process migration mechanism to offload work onto idle machines, and also to evict migrated processes when idle workstations are reclaimed by their owners. Sprite

Douglis, Fred

202

Numerical analysis and optimal design of composite thermoforming process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a numerical methodology to simulate and design the composite thermoforming process. First, in the process simulation, the FEM modeling including flow, heat transfer and residual stress is developed to analyze the thermoforming process of composite laminates with woven fabric microstructures. The governing equations and material properties of thermoplastic composites at the forming temperature are obtained

Shih-Wei Hsiao; Noboru Kikuchi

1999-01-01

203

DESIGN FOR PROCESS SECURITY Korkut Uygun and Yinlun Huang*  

E-print Network

, cyber security, and process security. While the first two can be assured through improving plantDESIGN FOR PROCESS SECURITY Korkut Uygun and Yinlun Huang* Department of Chemical Engineering Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77706 Abstract Chemical process security has been an area of interest due

Huang, Yinlun

204

Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The sequential manner in which materials and processes for a manufactured product are selected is inherently less than optimal. Designers` tendency to choose processes and materials with which they are familiar exacerbate this problem. A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach is presented.

Kleban, S.D.

1998-07-01

205

Results-Based Interaction Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interaction design is a user-centered approach to development in which users and their goals are the driving force behind a project's design. Interaction design principles are fundamental to the design and implementation of effective websites, but they are not sufficient. This article argues that, to reach its full potential, a website should also…

Weiss, Meredith

2008-01-01

206

SenseMS: a user-centered approach to enrich the messaging experience for teens by non-verbal means  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the user study and design of a concept to improve mobile messaging for teens. A study of current mobile phone use by teens (16-18) showed that, while they prefer communicating by Short Message Service (SMS), they miss expressiveness in this application. An enhanced SMS application, SenseMS, is designed to support affective communication. An evaluation of a SenseMS

Alia K. Amin; B. T. A. Kersten; Olga A. Kulyk; P. H. Pelgrim; C. M. Wang; Panos Markopoulos

2005-01-01

207

Less Clicking, More Watching: Results of the Iterative Design and Evaluation of Entertaining Web Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on a web application intended to provide an entertaining and engaging cultural experience for users is described. Initial discovery phase research, using user-centered design, suggested that such an application should be designed with a \\

Clare-Marie Karat; Claudio Pinhanez; John Karat; Renee Arora; John Vergo

2001-01-01

208

Semantic Service Design for Collaborative Business Processes in Internetworked Enterprises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern collaborating enterprises can be seen as borderless organizations whose processes are dynamically transformed and integrated with the ones of their partners (Internetworked Enterprises, IE), thus enabling the design of collaborative business processes. The adoption of Semantic Web and service-oriented technologies for implementing collaboration in such distributed and heterogeneous environments promises significant benefits. IE can model their own processes independently by using the Software as a Service paradigm (SaaS). Each enterprise maintains a catalog of available services and these can be shared across IE and reused to build up complex collaborative processes. Moreover, each enterprise can adopt its own terminology and concepts to describe business processes and component services. This brings requirements to manage semantic heterogeneity in process descriptions which are distributed across different enterprise systems. To enable effective service-based collaboration, IEs have to standardize their process descriptions and model them through component services using the same approach and principles. For enabling collaborative business processes across IE, services should be designed following an homogeneous approach, possibly maintaining a uniform level of granularity. In the paper we propose an ontology-based semantic modeling approach apt to enrich and reconcile semantics of process descriptions to facilitate process knowledge management and to enable semantic service design (by discovery, reuse and integration of process elements/constructs). The approach brings together Semantic Web technologies, techniques in process modeling, ontology building and semantic matching in order to provide a comprehensive semantic modeling framework.

Bianchini, Devis; Cappiello, Cinzia; de Antonellis, Valeria; Pernici, Barbara

209

GREENING OF OXIDATION CATALYSIS THROUGH IMPROVED CATALYST AND PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Greening of Oxidation Catalysis Through Improved Catalysts and Process Design Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas Becker, and Raymond Smith United State Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W...

210

SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems, due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and complicated ...

211

Computer-aided Tooling Design for Manufacturing Processes  

E-print Network

Tooling design for manufacturing processes refers to direct tooling for making a part such as molds and dies for injection molded parts and metal stampings, or for supporting machining operations such as jigs and fixtures. ...

Nee, Andrew Y. C.

212

Decision support tools for environmentally conscious chemical process design  

E-print Network

The environment has emerged as an important determinant of the performance of the modern chemical industry. Process engineering in the 21st century needs to evolve to include environmental issues as part of the design ...

Cano Ruiz, José Alejandro, 1969-

1999-01-01

213

Material evaluation and selection processes to enable design for manufacture  

E-print Network

In order to optimize product designs it is necessary to quickly evaluate many candidate materials in terms of performance and processing costs. Evaluation using physical prototypes yields concrete results but is time ...

Abler, Craig Bennett, 1975-

2006-01-01

214

Case study: Lockheed-Georgia Company integrated design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A case study of the development of an Integrated Design Process is presented. The approach taken in preparing for the development of an integrated design process includes some of the IPAD approaches such as developing a Design Process Model, cataloging Technical Program Elements (TPE's), and examining data characteristics and interfaces between contiguous TPE's. The implementation plan is based on an incremental development of capabilities over a period of time with each step directed toward, and consistent with, the final architecture of a total integrated system. Because of time schedules and different computer hardware, this system will not be the same as the final IPAD release; however, many IPAD concepts will no doubt prove applicable as the best approach. Full advantage will be taken of the IPAD development experience. A scenario that could be typical for many companies, even outside the aerospace industry, in developing an integrated design process for an IPAD-type environment is represented.

Waldrop, C. T.

1980-01-01

215

An investigation of radiometer design using digital processing techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of digital signal processing techniques in Dicke switching radiometer design was investigated. The general approach was to develop an analytical model of the existing analog radiometer and identify factors which adversly affect its performance. A digital processor was then proposed to verify the feasibility of using digital techniques to minimize these adverse effects and improve the radiometer performance. Analysis and preliminary test results comparing the digital and analog processing approaches in radiometers design were analyzed.

Lawrence, R. W.

1981-01-01

216

Designing data collection schemes for process capability analysis  

E-print Network

DESIGNING DATA COLLECTION SCHEMES FOR PROCESS CAPABILITY ANALYSIS A Thesis by NITIN RAMESH MANTRI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1994 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering DESIGNING DATA COLLECTION SCHEMES FOR PROCESS CAPABILITY ANALYSIS A Thesis by NITIN RAMESH MANTRI Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Mantri, Nitin Ramesh

2012-06-07

217

Process Materialization Using Templates and Rules to Design Flexible Process Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main idea in this paper is to show how flexible processes can be designed by combining generic process templates and business rules. We instantiate a process by applying rules to specific case data, and running a materialization algorithm. The customized process instance is then executed in an existing workflow engine. We present an architecture and also give an algorithm for process materialization. The rules are written in a logic-based language like Prolog. Our focus is on capturing deeper process knowledge and achieving a holistic approach to robust process design that encompasses control flow, resources and data, as well as makes it easier to accommodate changes to business policy.

Kumar, Akhil; Yao, Wen

218

Risk Informed Design as Part of the Systems Engineering Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the importance of Risk Informed Design (RID) as an important feature of the systems engineering process. RID is based on the principle that risk is a design commodity such as mass, volume, cost or power. It also reviews Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) as it is used in the product life cycle in the development of NASA's Constellation Program.

Deckert, George

2010-01-01

219

Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes,  

E-print Network

Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes, and making products to improve the quality of human life and shape the economy. Mechanical engineers apply the principles of physics, mathematics, computing and practical skills to design mechanical systems and artefacts

Waikato, University of

220

COORDINATION AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF THE PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS  

E-print Network

COORDINATION AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF THE PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS Antonio J. Bailetti*, John R addresses the following question: how does the coordination challenge faced by managers change over the life of time bound projects such as product design. We use coordination structure, an approach to modeling

Callahan, John

221

METHODS FOR INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN DECISIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this cooperative agreement was to postulate a means by which an engineer could routinely include environmental considerations in day-to-day conceptual design problems; a means that could easily integrate with existing design processes, and thus avoid massive retr...

222

Creating persuasive technologies: an eight-step design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines eight steps to follow as best practices in the early stages of persuasive technology design. The eight-step process, drawn from demonstrated successes in industry practice, begins with defining the persuasion goal to match a target audience with an appropriate technology channel. Subsequent steps include imitating successful examples of persuasive design, performing rapid trials, measuring behavioral outcomes, and

B. J. Fogg

2009-01-01

223

Design optimisation of aluminium recycling processes using Taguchi technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a robust design method is developed for reducing cost and improving quality in aluminium recycling. An experimental investigation into the process parameter effects is presented to determine the optimum configuration of design parameters for performance, quality and cost. The Taguchi method is applied initially to plan a minimum number of experiments. Orthogonal array techniques are used to

A. R Khoei; I Masters; D. T Gethin

2002-01-01

224

Altering Design Decisions to Better Suit Facilities Management Processes  

E-print Network

promises. As for FM?s supportive role and non-core considerations, Hamel and Pralahad (1994; Quoted in Waheed and Fernie 2009) in their description of core and non-core organizational capabilities related to customer advantage and company...]. Van Aken, J. E. 2005. Valid knowledge for the professional design of large and complex design processes. Design Studies 26:379-404. Waheed, Z. and Fernie, S. 2009. Knowledge based facilities management. Facilities 27(7/8):258-266. Way, M...

Jawdeh, H. B.; Abudul-Malak, M. A.; Wood, G.

2010-01-01

225

Theory and Practice Meets in Industrial Process Design Educational Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Software engineer should see himself as a business process designer in enterprise resource planning system (ERP) re-engineering\\u000a project. Software engineers and managers should have design dialogue. The objective of this paper is to discuss the motives\\u000a to study the design research in connection of management education in order to envision and understand the soft human issues\\u000a in the management context.

Heli Aramo-Immonen; Tarja Toikka

2010-01-01

226

Reducing the complexity of the software design process with object-oriented design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing software is a complex process. How object-oriented design (OOD), coupled with formalized documentation and tailored object diagraming techniques, can reduce the complexity of the software design process is described and illustrated. The described OOD methodology uses a hierarchical decomposition approach in which parent objects are decomposed into layers of lower level child objects. A method of tracking the assignment of requirements to design components is also included. Increases in the reusability, portability, and maintainability of the resulting products are also discussed. This method was built on a combination of existing technology, teaching experience, consulting experience, and feedback from design method users. The discussed concepts are applicable to hierarchal OOD processes in general. Emphasis is placed on improving the design process by documenting the details of the procedures involved and incorporating improvements into those procedures as they are developed.

Schuler, M. P.

1991-01-01

227

Sketching in Design Journals: An Analysis of Visual Representations in the Product Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the sketching behavior of designers and the role of sketching in the design process. Observations from a descriptive study of sketches provided in design journals, characterized by a protocol measuring sketching activities, are presented. A distinction is made between journals that are entirely tangible and those that contain…

Lau, Kimberly; Oehlberg, Lora; Agogino, Alice

2009-01-01

228

Designing for an Informal Learning Environment: Towards a Participatory Simulation Design Process for Public Policy Planning  

E-print Network

Designing for an Informal Learning Environment: Towards a Participatory Simulation Design Process for Public Policy Planning Chandan Dasgupta1 , Leilah Lyons1,2 , Moira Zellner3,4 , Andrew Greenlee3 Learning's ultimate aim is to design a computer-based tool to encourage stakeholders to share knowledge, learn from

Lyons, Leilah

229

Theory and Practice Meets in Industrial Process Design -Educational Perspective-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software engineer should see himself as a business process designer in enterprise resource planning system (ERP) re-engineering project. Software engineers and managers should have design dialogue. The objective of this paper is to discuss the motives to study the design research in connection of management education in order to envision and understand the soft human issues in the management context. Second goal is to develop means of practicing social skills between designers and managers. This article explores the affective components of design thinking in industrial management domain. In the conceptual part of this paper are discussed concepts of network and project economy, creativity, communication, use of metaphors, and design thinking. Finally is introduced empirical research plan and first empirical results from design method experiments among the multi-disciplined groups of the master-level students of industrial engineering and management and software engineering.

Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Toikka, Tarja

230

SusDesign – An approach for a sustainable process system design and its application to a thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a structured process design approach, SusDesign, for the sustainable development of process systems. At each level of process design, design alternatives are generated using a number of thermodynamic tools and applying pollution prevention strategies followed by analysis, evaluation and screening processes for the selection of potential design options. The evaluation and optimization are carried out based on

Khandoker Abul Hossain; Faisal Khan; Kelly Hawboldt

2010-01-01

231

Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

1972-01-01

232

Processing design of a networked passive coherent location system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the design of a bistatic passive coherent location radar receiver system using Software Defined Radio (SDR) techniques. The receiver of the bistatic system is made up of a RF front-end, digitisation section, digital signal processing section and user interface. The integration of various components of the system are discussed. The digital signal processing stages of the system

Craig Tong; Michael Inggs; Gunther Lange

2011-01-01

233

Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University  

E-print Network

certain process satisfy some specific experimentally determined statistics of grain size distribution. 3D. Rhodes Hall Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853-3801 Email: bw336@cornell.edu URL: http;Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University Primary Development Employ model

Zabaras, Nicholas J.

234

Incorporating manufacturability constraints into the design process of heterogeneous objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, such as Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENSTM), can be used to fabricate heterogeneous objects with gradient variations in material composition. These objects are generally characterized by enhanced functional performance. Past research on the design of such objects has focused on representation, modeling, and functional performance. However, the inherent constraints in RP processes, such as system capability and processing time, lead to heterogeneous objects that may not meet the designer's original intent. To overcome this situation, the research presented in this paper focuses on the identification and implementation of manufacturing constraints into the design process. A node-based finite element modeling technique is used for the representation and analysis and the multicriteria design problem corresponds to finding the nodal material compositions that minimize structural weight and maximize thermal performance. The optimizer used in this research is a real-valued Evolutionary Strategies (ES), which is well suited for this type of multi-modal problem. Two limitations of the LENS manufacturing process, which have an impact on the design process, are identified and implemented. One of them is related to the manufacturing time, which is considered as an additional criterion to be minimized in the design problem for a preselected tool path. A brake disc rotor made of two materials, aluminum for lightweight and steel for superior thermal characteristics, is used to illustrate the tradeoff between manufacturability and functionality.

Hu, Yuna; Blouin, Vincent Y.; Fadel, Georges M.

2004-11-01

235

Evaluation of the FCHART/SLR solar design process  

SciTech Connect

The actual heating requirements of 137 passive solar houses were compared to the requirements predicted by a typical design process that used the FCHART/SLR design tool. The calculation of the actual space-heating auxiliary energy needed by the houses during the 1979-1980 heating season was based on fuel bills and appliance use information. The prediction for each residence relied on site-specific weather data for that period, on owner-estimated occupancy patterns, and on measured building characteristics. FCHART/SLR was used with this information to predict the space-heating auxiliary. A statistical comparison of the actual and predicted auxiliaries showed that the design process overpredicted the auxiliary requirement by 60% with 112% standard deviation. A simple heat-loss calculation that ignored the solar contribution proved as accurate a predictor of the heating requirement as the solar design process in some cases.

Fanning, M.W.

1982-01-01

236

Natural gas operations: considerations on process transients, design, and control.  

PubMed

This manuscript highlights tangible benefits deriving from the dynamic simulation and control of operational transients of natural gas processing plants. Relevant improvements in safety, controllability, operability, and flexibility are obtained not only within the traditional applications, i.e. plant start-up and shutdown, but also in certain fields apparently time-independent such as the feasibility studies of gas processing plant layout and the process design of processes. Specifically, this paper enhances the myopic steady-state approach and its main shortcomings with respect to the more detailed studies that take into consideration the non-steady state behaviors. A portion of a gas processing facility is considered as case study. Process transients, design, and control solutions apparently more appealing from a steady-state approach are compared to the corresponding dynamic simulation solutions. PMID:22056010

Manenti, Flavio

2012-03-01

237

Integration of Process-Oriented Tolerancing and Maintenance Planning in Design of Multistation Manufacturing Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing systems are inherently imperfect both statically and dynamically. Tolerance and maintenance design are two major tools to address the static and dynamic imperfection of manufacturing processes (i.e., inherent process imperfection and tooling deterioration, respectively). Yet, traditionally, tolerance and maintenance designs have been studied separately to address these two critical areas of manufacturing systems. This paper presents an integrated framework

Yong Chen; Yu Ding; Jionghua Jin; D. Ceglarek

2006-01-01

238

The shielding design process--new plants to decommissioning.  

PubMed

BNFL have over 25 years experience of designing nuclear plant for the whole-fuel cycle. In the UK, a Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is to be set up to ensure that Britain's nuclear legacy is cleaned up safely, securely and cost effectively. The resulting challenges and opportunities for shielding design will be substantial as the shielding design process was originally devised for the design of new plants. Although its underlying principles are equally applicable to decommissioning and remediation of old plants, there are many aspects of detailed application that need to adapt to this radically different operating environment. The paper describes both the common issues and the different challenges of shielding design at different operational phases. Sample applications will be presented of both new plant and decommissioning projects that illustrate not only the robust nature of the processes being used, but also how they lead to cost-effective solutions making a substantive and appropriate contribution to radiological protection goals. PMID:16604700

Jeffries, Graham; Cooper, Andrew; Hobson, John

2005-01-01

239

Designing a New Urban Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Web site design and information architecture in light of principles of New Urbanism that are being applied in urban planning situations. Topics include networked electronic environment design; user-centered network design; multidisciplinary approaches; knowledge access and collaboration; and the Global Information Infrastructure…

Burke, Lauren

2002-01-01

240

Mould design and casting process improvement on vibrator shell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrator shell is a part with complex structure. While the vibrator shell is designed and manufactured by traditional sand casting process, more than 80% castings are found the defects of porosity, shrinkage and pouring-shortage at the top. Aiming to the problems in traditional sand casting, this paper focused on the improvement of castings structure and the optimization of casting process. Designing process bar in the gate-channel region which is connected with the gate in castings is used to improve the castings structure, and low speed filling and solidification under high pressure are adopted to optimize the casting process which is finished by self-made four-column type hydraulic machine equipped. It can be seen that the castings quality can be greatly improved by process improvement.

Zhang, Lipan; Fang, Ligao; Chen, Zhong; Song, Kai

2011-12-01

241

The INTUITION Design Process: Structuring Military Multimodal Interactive Cockpits Design According to the MVC Design Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the design and implementation of multimodal user interfaces. The use of multiple modalities such as vision, speech and gesture opens a vast world of possibilities in user interface design. Although the potential for innovation is high, the current understanding of how to design and build multimodal user interfaces is still primitive. The power and versatility

Rémi Bastide; Laurence Nigay; Didier Bazalgette; Yacine Bellik; Christian Nouvel

242

DESIGN OF A REAL-TIME DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AUDIO PROCESSING TECHNIQUE  

E-print Network

, for taking me in as a research student and guiding me in this process with so much enthusiasm and support. vi NOMENCLATURE A/D Analog-to-Digital D/A Digital-to-Analog DSK Digital Signal Processing Starter Kit DSP Digital Signal Processing EVM... .................................................................. 4 Real-time DSP design considerations ............................................. 4 Motivation ....................................................................................... 6 Organization of the thesis...

Jagielski, Christopher

2012-04-24

243

Design, processing, and materials for large-stroke actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive optics (AO) applications in astronomy and vision science require deformable mirrors with larger stroke, higher packing density and at lower cost than currently available technology. The use of high-aspect ratio Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) processing techniques to fabricate large-stroke actuators that can meet stroke, packing density and cost specifications for AO applications have been explored. Different actuator designs, materials and postprocessing procedures fabricated in two different high-aspect ratio processes have been investigated. These manufacturing processes allow high-precision multilayer fabrication, and both parallel plate and comb drive actuator deformable mirror designs have been created. Multilayer fabrication has reduced pull-in voltage requirements for large stroke comb-drive actuators. The design, modeling and simulation of these actuators are compared to experimental measurements of their pull-voltages, which characterizes their stiffness and maximum stroke.

Fernández, Bautista; Kubby, Joel

2007-02-01

244

Introducing Graphic Designers in a Web Development Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web development teams include not only software engineers but also graphic designers. In this work, we extend the OOWS method\\u000a in order to introduce graphic designers into its development process. To do this, we extend the automatic code generation\\u000a strategy of the OOWS method to obtain code that provides users with the information and functionality captured in the requirements\\u000a model

Pedro Valderas; Vicente Pelechano; Oscar Pastor

2007-01-01

245

Product and Process Improvement Using Mixture-Process Variable Designs and Robust Optimization Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The quality of an industrial product depends on the raw material proportions and the process variable levels, both of which need to be taken into account in designing a product. This article presents a case study from the food industry in which both kinds of variables were studied by combining a constrained mixture experiment design and a central composite process variable design. Based on the natural structure of the situation, a split-plot experiment was designed and models involving the raw material proportions and process variable levels (separately and combined) were fitted. Combined models were used to study: (i) the robustness of the process to variations in raw material proportions, and (ii) the robustness of the raw material recipes with respect to fluctuations in the process variable levels. Further, the expected variability in the robust settings was studied using the bootstrap.

Sahni, Narinder S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Naes, Tormod

2009-04-01

246

Application of process monitoring to verify facility design  

SciTech Connect

Process monitoring has been proposed as a safeguards measure to ensure that a facility is operating as designed, or as a surveillance measure to ensure that material is not removed from the facility in an undeclared manner. In a process-monitoring system, the facility operator monitors process operations such as tank levels, densities, and temperatures; process flows; and physical parameters such as valve positions to ensure that the operations performed are both desired and required. At many facilities (for example, Idaho), the process-monitoring system is also an important safety feature to prevent criticality. Verifying facility design is necessary for application of safeguards in a reprocessing plant. Verifying all pipes and valves through comparison of blueprints with the as-built facility is an almost impossible task with the International Atomic Energy Agency's limited inspection resources. We propose applying process monitoring for international safeguards facility design verification. By carefully selecting process-operating variables, it may be possible to verify that plant flows are as described and that key measurement points are not bypassed. 8 refs.

Hakkila, E.A.

1989-01-01

247

Design of launch systems using continuous improvement process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to identify a systematic process for improving ground operations for future launch systems. This approach is based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) continuous improvement process. While the continuous improvement process is normally identified with making incremental changes to an existing system, it can be used on new systems if they use past experience as a knowledge base. In the case of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the Space Shuttle operations provide many lessons. The TQM methodology used for this paper will be borrowed from the United States Air Force 'Quality Air Force' Program. There is a general overview of the continuous improvement process, with concentration on the formulation phase. During this phase critical analyses are conducted to determine the strategy and goals for the remaining development process. These analyses include analyzing the mission from the customers point of view, developing an operations concept for the future, assessing current capabilities and determining the gap to be closed between current capabilities and future needs and requirements. A brief analyses of the RLV, relative to the Space Shuttle, will be used to illustrate the concept. Using the continuous improvement design concept has many advantages. These include a customer oriented process which will develop a more marketable product and a better integration of operations and systems during the design phase. But, the use of TQM techniques will require changes, including more discipline in the design process and more emphasis on data gathering for operational systems. The benefits will far outweigh the additional effort.

Brown, Richard W.

1995-01-01

248

System design considerations for free-fall materials processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design constraints for orbiting materials processing systems are dominated by the limitations of the flight vehicle/crew and not by the processes themselves. Although weight, size and power consumption are all factors in the design of normal laboratory equipment, their importance is increased orders of magnitude when the equipment must be used in an orbital facility. As a result, equipment intended for space flight may have little resemblance to normal laboratory apparatus although the function to be performed may be identical. The same considerations influence the design of the experiment itself. The processing requirements must be carefully understood in terms of basic physical parameters rather than defined in terms of equipment operation. Preliminary experiments and analysis are much more vital to the design of a space experiment than they are on earth where iterative development is relatively easy. Examples of these various considerations are illustrated with examples from the M518 and MA-010 systems. While these are specific systems, the conclusions apply to the design of flight materials processing systems both present and future.

Seidensticker, R. G.

1974-01-01

249

Digitally mediated design : using computer programming to develop a personal design process  

E-print Network

This thesis is based on the proposal that the current system of architectural design education confuses product and process. Students are assessed through, and therefore concentrate on, the former whilst the latter is left ...

Yakeley, Megan (Megan Webster), 1966-

2000-01-01

250

Inservice Teachers' Approaches to Open-Ended Engineering Design Problems and the Engineering Design Process  

E-print Network

of the engineering design process provided by the Massachusetts Frameworks? 3. How do their self-reported confidence experience that led to increased confidence in their use of the LEGO pieces and ROBOLAB tool set. #12

251

Improving Software Development Process through Economic Mechanism Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the novel concept of applying economic mechanism design to software development process, and aim to find ways to adjust the incentives and disincentives of the software organization to align them with the motivations of the participants in order to maximize the delivered value of a software project. We envision a set of principles to design processes that allow people to be self motivated but constantly working toward project goals. The resulting economic mechanism will rely on game theoretic principles (i.e. Stackelberg games) for leveraging the incentives, goals and motivation of the participants in the service of project and organizational goals.

Yilmaz, Murat; O'Connor, Rory V.; Collins, John

252

Review of laser mega joule target area: Design and processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French Laser Mega Joule (LMJ) target area is currently designed to achieve ignition and significant fusion gain in the laboratory. Design studies for target equipments are well advanced, target chamber and target area frame (concrete) is even started. A detailed overview of the target area equipments is presented: target chamber, frame, diagnostic inserter manipulator, final optic assembly, dual diagnostic and laser reference, non cryogenic target positioner. Recent technical and architectural choices are detailed including safety transfers and alignment processes (target, laser and diagnostic). All these target equipments allow to optimize shot chronogram, from target metrology to the shot, including calibration process.

Geitzholz, M.; Lanternier, C.

2006-06-01

253

The engineering design process as a model for STEM curriculum design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engaging pedagogics have been proven to be effective in the promotion of deep learning for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students. In many cases, academic institutions have shown a desire to improve education by implementing more engaging techniques in the classroom. The research framework established in this dissertation has been governed by the axiom that students should obtain a deep understanding of fundamental topics while being motivated to learn through engaging techniques. This research lays a foundation for future analysis and modeling of the curriculum design process where specific educational research questions can be considered using standard techniques. Further, a clear curriculum design process is a key step towards establishing an axiomatic approach for engineering education. A danger is that poor implementation of engaging techniques will counteract the intended effects. Poor implementation might provide students with a "fun" project, but not the desired deep understanding of the fundamental STEM content. Knowing that proper implementation is essential, this dissertation establishes a model for STEM curriculum design, based on the well-established engineering design process. Using this process as a perspective to model curriculum design allows for a structured approach. Thus, the framework for STEM curriculum design, established here, provides a guided approach for seamless integration of fundamental topics and engaging pedagogics. The main steps, or phases, in engineering design are: Problem Formulation, Solution Generation, Solution Analysis, and Solution Implementation. Layering engineering design with education curriculum theory, this dissertation establishes a clear framework for curriculum design. Through ethnographic engagement by this researcher, several overarching themes are revealed through the creation of curricula using the design process. The application of the framework to specific curricula was part of this dissertation research. Examples of other STEM curricula using the framework were also presented. Moreover, the framework is presented in such a way that it can be implemented by other educational design teams.

Corbett, Krystal Sno

254

Waste receiving and processing facility module 1, detailed design report  

SciTech Connect

WRAP 1 baseline documents which guided the technical development of the Title design included: (a) A/E Statement of Work (SOW) Revision 4C: This DOE-RL contractual document specified the workscope, deliverables, schedule, method of performance and reference criteria for the Title design preparation. (b) Functional Design Criteria (FDC) Revision 1: This DOE-RL technical criteria document specified the overall operational criteria for the facility. The document was a Revision 0 at the beginning of the design and advanced to Revision 1 during the tenure of the Title design. (c) Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) Revision 3: This baseline criteria document prepared by WHC for DOE-RL augments the FDC by providing further definition of the process, operational safety, and facility requirements to the A/E for guidance in preparing the design. The document was at a very preliminary stage at the onset of Title design and was revised in concert with the results of the engineering studies that were performed to resolve the numerous technical issues that the project faced when Title I was initiated, as well as, by requirements established during the course of the Title II design.

Not Available

1993-10-01

255

Aerospace structural design process improvement using systematic evolutionary structural modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidisciplinary team tasked with an aircraft design problem must understand the problem requirements and metrics to produce a successful design. This understanding entails not only knowledge of what these requirements and metrics are, but also how they interact, which are most important (to the customer as well as to aircraft performance), and who in the organization can provide pertinent knowledge for each. In recent years, product development researchers and organizations have developed and successfully applied a variety of tools such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to coordinate multidisciplinary team members. The effectiveness of these methods, however, depends on the quality and fidelity of the information that team members can input. In conceptual aircraft design, structural information is of lower quality compared to aerodynamics or performance because it is based on experience rather than theory. This dissertation shows how advanced structural design tools can be used in a multidisciplinary team setting to improve structural information generation and communication through a systematic evolution of structural detail. When applied to conceptual design, finite element-based structural design tools elevate structural information to the same level as other computationally supported disciplines. This improved ability to generate and communicate structural information enables a design team to better identify and meet structural design requirements, consider producibility issues earlier, and evaluate structural concepts. A design process experiment of a wing structural layout in collaboration with an industrial partner illustrates and validates the approach.

Taylor, Robert Michael

2000-10-01

256

Design Down Process: Designing a School in Iceland with Its Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an example of an architect working with future school users in Iceland to design their school. The architect has developed a process that he uses with students, staff and the local community to create a learning environment in which the design intends for freedom and creativity to be integrated into the students’ daily learning experiences. The school to

Bruce Jilk

2002-01-01

257

Rational-design process and evaluation of street-lighting design for apartment complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes the application of a rational-design process for street-lighting design considering the characteristics of space and the apartment complex on the basis of the recommended illumination levels for such. In this study, space syntax theory, which is used to generate a strategic-design framework based on detailed analysis of spatial configuration and represent any urban area as a matrix

An-Seop Choi; Soo-Jung Jang; Byong-Chul Park; Young-Ook Kim; Yong-Shik Kim

2007-01-01

258

Process Design and Integration of Shale Gas to Methanol  

E-print Network

Noureldin for assistance with process design. 6 NOMENCLATURE C2 ? ethane C3 ? propane DEA ? diethanolamine GHG ? greenhouse gas kWh ? kilowatt hour LPG ? liquefied petroleum gas MDEA ? methyldiethanolamine MEA ? monoethanolamine Me... are separated into light and heavy fractions through cooling and partial condensation in a heat exchanger. Modern plants use cryogenic separation to separate propane and butane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). In this process, crude gas...

Ehlinger, Victoria M.

2013-02-04

259

The Building Bridges Project: Involving Older Adults in the Design of a Communication Technology to Support Peer-to-Peer Social Engagement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a variety of factors that can lead to social isolation and loneliness in old age, including decline in physical and mental health, as well as change to social environment. The Building Bridges project explores how communication technology can help older adults remain socially connected. This paper will first provide an overview of a prototype communication system designed to support peer-to-peer group interaction. A description of the user-centered design process will be provided to demonstrate the importance of involving older adults at the earliest stages. The implications for designing new technology for older adults are discussed.

Wherton, Joseph; Prendergast, David

260

Optimal filter design approaches to statistical process control for autocorrelated processes  

E-print Network

number or the time line. Interest in effective implementation of control charts for autocorrelated processes has increased in recent years. However, because of the complexities involved, few systematic design approaches have thus far been developed. Many...

Chin, Chang-Ho

2005-11-01

261

A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

2006-08-31

262

Thermoplastics as engineering materials: The mechanics, materials, design, processing link  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the use of plastics has been growing at a significant pace because of weight reduction, ease of fabrication of complex shapes, and cost reduction resulting from function integration, the engineering applications of plastics have only become important in the past fifteen years. An inadequate understanding of the mechanics issues underlying the close coupling among the design, the processing (fabrication),

Vijay K. Stokes

1995-01-01

263

Design of Controller for Nonlinear Process Using Soft Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at exploring the use of designing a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) tuned using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is proposed for a spherical tank to control its level. System identification of this nonlinear process is done using a black box model, which is approximated to be a First Order Plus Dead Time (FOPDT) model. Then, the controller

S. Nithya; N. Sivakumaran; T. Balasubramanian; N. Anantharaman

2008-01-01

264

An Exploration of Design Students' Inspiration Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our purpose was to explore how different sources of inspiration influenced two groups of students' inspiration process and their attitudes toward their design projects. Assigned sources of inspiration and instructor's assistance in the search for inspiration varied for two groups of students completing a small culture inspired product…

Dazkir, Sibel S.; Mower, Jennifer M.; Reddy-Best, Kelly L.; Pedersen, Elaine L.

2013-01-01

265

Design of Part Feeding and Assembly Processes with Dynamics  

E-print Network

Design of Part Feeding and Assembly Processes with Dynamics Peng Song, J. C. Trinkle, Vijay Kumar tools, especially dynamic models that underlie these models. We describe two dynamic models, the Stewart-Trinkle describe two dynamic models: the Stewart-Trinkle model [1], a linear complementary problem model

Trinkle, Jeff

266

Portfolio assessment on chemical reactor analysis and process design courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he\\/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999–2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new assessment method for the students, about half of

Katariina Alha

2004-01-01

267

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

268

DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Approximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use this infor...

269

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Temperature Cascade Control of Distillation Columns  

E-print Network

main objectives for the regulatory control system are as follows: 1. Take care of control tasks where control. This is because the main control objective at this level is to facilitate good operation, that isPROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Temperature Cascade Control of Distillation Columns Erik A. Wolff

Skogestad, Sigurd

270

INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

271

Quality Control through Design and Process: Gambrel Roof Truss Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Customers determine whether a product fulfills their needs or satisfies them. "Quality control", then, is the process of finding out what the customer wants, along with designing, producing, delivering, and servicing the product--and ultimately satisfying the customer's expectations. For many years, people considered a product to be of good…

Ward, Dell; Jones, James

2011-01-01

272

Design of Complex Event Processing System for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Middleware design for wireless sensor network is a novel approach to solve the complexity of the development and deployment of the wireless sensor network applications. Complex event processing system for wireless sensor network is proposed and evaluated. The system utilized the computing power of the network nodes to reduce the network communication data, so that it can save the nodes'

Peng Li; Wang Bingwen

2010-01-01

273

Separation process design and synthesis based on thermodynamic insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new methodology which employs physicochemical properties and their relationships to separation techniques for design and synthesis of separation processes. The methodology covers a wide range of separation problems and consists of selection and identification of separation techniques (and the corresponding separation tasks), the sequencing of the separation tasks and the determination of appropriate and consistent conditions

Cecilia A. Jaksland; Rafiqul Gani; Kristian M. Lien

1995-01-01

274

Molecular structure based estimation of properties for process design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of molecular structure based methods for estimation of properties from a process\\/product design point of view. Properties are classified as primary (dependent only on the molecular structure) and secondary (dependent on the molecular structure and other variables\\/properties). Estimation methods are classified as “reference” (accurate but computationally expensive) and “approximate” (limited application range but computationally simple).

Rafiqul Gani; Leonidas Constantinou

1996-01-01

275

The Design-Build Process for the Research Support Facility  

E-print Network

of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to directly impact national energy security by redefining.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory used a performance-based design-build contract process to build one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world. #12;#12;Table

276

The design process for wheel-robot integration  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the design process for wheel-robot integration was documented and reflected on. The project focused on redesigned certain aspects a half-scale wheel-robot to be integrated with a half-scale CityCar prototype ...

Carvajal, Michael Angelo

2009-01-01

277

Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

Alha, Katariina

2004-01-01

278

Facilitating effective HCI design meetings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over several years we have participated as facilitators in many Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) design meetings. Our focus has been on developing team re- sults needed to achieve user-centered design of software for computer systems. We describe frameworks for partnership, stages of meetings, and team conversations that we have found useful. In order to illustrate our general approach, we select one

John L. Bennett; John Karat

1994-01-01

279

Towards Reuse of Business Processes Patterns to Design Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Service Oriented Architecture is a promising architectural approach to solve the integration problem originated by business process integration and automation requirements. Defining the appropriate granularity and scope of services is a critical issue to allow their reuse. Architecture abstractions, such as patterns, are a medium to capture design knowledge and to allow the reuse of successful previous designs. The continual rise of abstraction in software engineering approaches have been a central driver of this work, placing the notion of patterns at business model level. In this paper we propose a set of pattern-based techniques to define the scope and granularity of services based on identified patterns in business process models. Graph-based pattern matching and pattern discovery are proposed to recommend the scope and granularity of services on process-centric description models. Matching of generalised patterns and hierarchical matching are discussed.

Gacitua-Decar, Veronica; Pahl, Claus

280

Penetrator reliability investigation and design exploration : from conventional design processes to innovative uncertainty-capturing algorithms.  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on research and algorithmic development in optimization under uncertainty (OUU) problems driven by earth penetrator (EP) designs. While taking into account uncertainty, we addressed three challenges in current simulation-based engineering design and analysis processes. The first challenge required leveraging small local samples, already constructed by optimization algorithms, to build effective surrogate models. We used Gaussian Process (GP) models to construct these surrogates. We developed two OUU algorithms using 'local' GPs (OUU-LGP) and one OUU algorithm using 'global' GPs (OUU-GGP) that appear competitive or better than current methods. The second challenge was to develop a methodical design process based on multi-resolution, multi-fidelity models. We developed a Multi-Fidelity Bayesian Auto-regressive process (MF-BAP). The third challenge involved the development of tools that are computational feasible and accessible. We created MATLAB{reg_sign} and initial DAKOTA implementations of our algorithms.

Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Heaphy, Robert (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Gramacy, Robert B. (University of Cambridge); Taddy, Matt (University of California, Santa Cruz, CA); Chiesa, Michael L.; Thomas, Stephen W. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Swiler, Laura Painton (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Hough, Patricia Diane; Lee, Herbert K. H. (University of California, Santa Cruz, CA); Trucano, Timothy Guy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Gray, Genetha Anne

2006-11-01

281

A Review of the Design Process for Implantable Orthopedic Medical Devices  

PubMed Central

The design process for medical devices is highly regulated to ensure the safety of patients. This paper will present a review of the design process for implantable orthopedic medical devices. It will cover the main stages of feasibility, design reviews, design, design verification, manufacture, design validation, design transfer and design changes. PMID:19662153

Aitchison, G.A; Hukins, D.W.L; Parry, J.J; Shepherd, D.E.T; Trotman, S.G

2009-01-01

282

RATES OF REACTION AND PROCESS DESIGN DATA FOR THE HYDROCARB PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides experimental and process design data in support of studies for developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb process. The experimental work includes the hydropyrolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a 2.44 m ...

283

RATES OF REACTION AND PROCESS DESIGN DATA FOR THE HYDROCARB PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides experimental and process design data in support of studies far developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb process. he experimental work includes the hydropyrolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a 2.44 m l...

284

A symbolic methodology to improve disassembly process design.  

PubMed

Millions of end-of-life electronic components are retired annually due to the proliferation of new models and their rapid obsolescence. The recovery of resources such as plastics from these goods requires their disassembly. The time required for each disassembly and its associated cost is defined by the operator's familiarity with the product design and its complexity. Since model proliferation serves to complicate an operator's learning curve, it is worthwhile to investigate the benefits to be gained in a disassembly operator's preplanning process. Effective disassembly process design demands the application of green engineering principles, such as those developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A), which include regard for product complexity, structural commonality, separation energy, material value, and waste prevention. This paper introduces the concept of design symbolsto help the operator more efficiently survey product complexity with respect to location and number of fasteners to remove a structure that is common to all electronics: the housing. With a sample of 71 different computers, printers, and monitors, we demonstrate that appropriate symbols reduce the total disassembly planning time by 13.2 min. Such an improvement could well make efficient the separation of plastic that would otherwise be destined for waste-to-energy or landfill. The symbolic methodology presented may also improve Design for Recycling and Design for Maintenance and Support. PMID:14700328

Rios, Pedro; Blyler, Leslie; Tieman, Lisa; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

2003-12-01

285

Operation and design of selected industrial process heat field tests  

SciTech Connect

The DOE program of solar industrial process heat field tests has shown solar energy to be compatible with numerous industrial needs. Both the operational projects and the detailed designs of systems that are not yet operational have resulted in valuable insights into design and hardware practice. Typical of these insights are the experiences discussed for the four projects reviewed. Future solar IPH systems should benefit greatly not only from the availability of present information, but also from the wealth of operating experience from projects due to start up in 1981.

Kearney, D. W.

1981-02-01

286

Power processing methodology. [computerized design of spacecraft electric power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the interim results of a program to investigate the feasibility of formulating a methodology for the modeling and analysis of aerospace electrical power processing systems. The object of the total program is to develop a flexible engineering tool which will allow the power processor designer to effectively and rapidly assess and analyze the tradeoffs available by providing, in one comprehensive program, a mathematical model, an analysis of expected performance, simulation, and a comparative evaluation with alternative designs. This requires an understanding of electrical power source characteristics and the effects of load control, protection, and total system interaction.

Fegley, K. A.; Hansen, I. G.; Hayden, J. H.

1974-01-01

287

Remote Maintenance Design Guide for Compact Processing Units  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Robotics and Process Systems (RPSD) personnel have extensive experience working with remotely operated and maintained systems. These systems require expert knowledge in teleoperation, human factors, telerobotics, and other robotic devices so that remote equipment may be manipulated, operated, serviced, surveyed, and moved about in a hazardous environment. The RPSD staff has a wealth of experience in this area, including knowledge in the broad topics of human factors, modular electronics, modular mechanical systems, hardware design, and specialized tooling. Examples of projects that illustrate and highlight RPSD's unique experience in remote systems design and application include the following: (1) design of a remote shear and remote dissolver systems in support of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fuel recycling research and nuclear power missions; (2) building remotely operated mobile systems for metrology and characterizing hazardous facilities in support of remote operations within those facilities; (3) construction of modular robotic arms, including the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator, which was designed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Advanced ServoManipulator, which was designed for the DOE; (4) design of remotely operated laboratories, including chemical analysis and biochemical processing laboratories; (5) construction of remote systems for environmental clean up and characterization, including underwater, buried waste, underground storage tank (UST) and decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) applications. Remote maintenance has played a significant role in fuel reprocessing because of combined chemical and radiological contamination. Furthermore, remote maintenance is expected to play a strong role in future waste remediation. The compact processing units (CPUs) being designed for use in underground waste storage tank remediation are examples of improvements in systems processing radiological contamination. A CPU is a minimally sized operating assemblage of processing equipment that performs a specified function. This technical report details remote maintenance guidelines for a CPU system being built at ORNL to ensure that sludge sent to a waste repository is in the appropriate form for transport through the storage facility pipe lines. The CPU conditions the sludge by (a) reducing the size of particulates that do not meet piping system requirements and (b) preparing the sludge for transport. The CPU has filters, grinders, sensors, valves, and pipes that must be remotely maintained. In the near future, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is expected to use many CPUs with remote maintenance characteristics similar to those of the ORNL CPU. These guidelines will aid the designers of those systems especially when design encompasses the often-used approach of surveying commercially available hardware and making modifications appropriate for remote operations. This is a cost-effective approach for design of systems for remote maintenance and is the approach that will be used in design of CPU's and remote maintenance equipment.

Draper, J.V.

2000-07-13

288

User-Centered Design Driven Development of a Virtual Reality Therapy Application for Iraq War Combat-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experience, including (but not limited to) military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage, and terror...

A. Treskunov, A. A. Rizzo, G. Reger, J. Pair, K. Graap

2006-01-01

289

Design of synthetic microbial communities for biotechnological production processes.  

PubMed

In their natural habitats microorganisms live in multi-species communities, in which the community members exhibit complex metabolic interactions. In contrast, biotechnological production processes catalyzed by microorganisms are usually carried out with single strains in pure cultures. A number of production processes, however, may be more efficiently catalyzed by the concerted action of microbial communities. This review will give an overview of organismic interactions between microbial cells and of biotechnological applications of microbial communities. It focuses on synthetic microbial communities that consist of microorganisms that have been genetically engineered. Design principles for such synthetic communities will be exemplified based on plausible scenarios for biotechnological production processes. These design principles comprise interspecific metabolic interactions via cross-feeding, regulation by interspecific signaling processes via metabolites and autoinducing signal molecules, and spatial structuring of synthetic microbial communities. In particular, the implementation of metabolic interdependencies, of positive feedback regulation and of inducible cell aggregation and biofilm formation will be outlined. Synthetic microbial communities constitute a viable extension of the biotechnological application of metabolically engineered single strains and enlarge the scope of microbial production processes. PMID:24943116

Jagmann, Nina; Philipp, Bodo

2014-08-20

290

Design of a Small Scale High Temperature Gas Loop for Process Heat Exchanger Design Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed a small scale gas loop that can simulate reference operating conditions, that is, a temperature up to 950 deg C and a pressure up to 6 MPa. Main objective of the loop is to screen the candidate process-heat-exchanger designs of a very small capacity of 10 â 20 kW. We arranged the components of a primary gas loop

Hong SungDeok; Oh DongSeok; Lee WonJae; Chang JongHwa

2006-01-01

291

Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine  

SciTech Connect

The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels in the hydroceramic grout process (i.e., 21 m) appears to be about the same as that estimated by the Direct Cementitious Waste Process in 1998, for which a conceptual design was developed. Some of the conceptual design efforts in the 1998 study may be applicable to the stabilizer processes addressed in this EDF. (e) The gamma radiation fields near the process vessels handling HLW calcine would vary from a range of about 300-350 R/hr at a distance of 2.5 cm from the side of the vessels to a range of about 50-170 R/hr at a distance of 100 cm from the side of the vessels. The calculations were made for combined calcine, which was defined as the total HLW calcine inventory uniformly mixed. (f) The gamma radiation fields near the stabilized waste in canisters would range from about 25-170 R/hr at 2.5 cm from the side of the canister and 5-35 R/hr at 100 cm from the side of the canister, depending on the which bin set was the source of calcine.

T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

2005-06-01

292

Timing control and signal processing design of the MOPITT instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MOPITT instrument operates on the principle of correlation spectroscopy where the incoming signal is modulated by gas filter and chopper mechanisms and synchronously demodulated within the signal processing system. The performance and flexibility required by the MOPITT instrument resulted in the development of a novel timing control and signal processing design. This design synchronizes modulation and demodulation from a central programmable timing control unit. The data collection system performs a highly linear sigma-delta analog-to-digital conversion prior to signal demodulation. The demodulation operation includes data averaging which reduces the sampled signal bandwidth and extends the signal to noise ratio of the data to in excess of the analog-to-digital converter's rated 16-bit dynamic range.

Henry, Dennis; Hackett, John P.; Drummond, James R.; Colley, Roger

2002-02-01

293

Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology  

SciTech Connect

Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

2005-06-30

294

Instrumentation and Control in the Engineering Design Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Technology and engineering are often considered related topics, but this relationship often stems from the final output of technologically savvy products. One rarely considers the technology used by the engineer in the design of these goods. This website, created by Engineering Technology Pathways, address "the role of instrumentation control in the engineering design process." Addressing such things as the engineersâ knowledge of these systems, the interest of society in the technology, and the actual role of the instrumentation in the design laboratory are addressed in the presentation. The page also provides a student guide that comments on the theories the student should attain proficiency in, after the lecture. Overall, this is a good resource for instructors wanting a guide to instrumentation and the role it plays in engineering.

Heitkamp, Greg; Nettleton, Brian

2010-10-07

295

Design and Analysis of Flexible Biodiesel Processes with Multiple Feedstocks  

E-print Network

that constitute building blocks towards achieving the unifying goal of the dissertation. The first problem addresses the design and techno-economic analysis of an integrated system for the production of biodiesel from algal oil. With the sequestration... of carbon dioxide from power plant flue gases, algae growth and processing has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Algae are a non-food oil feedstock source and various pathways and technologies for obtaining algal oil were investigated...

Pokoo-Aikins, Grace Amarachukwu

2011-10-21

296

Energy codes and the building design process: Opportunities for improvement  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act (EPAct), passed by Congress in 1992, requires states to adopt building energy codes for new commercial buildings that meet or exceed the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and Illuminating Engineers Society of North America (IES) Standard 90.1-1989 by October 24, 1994. In response to EPAct many states will be adopting a state-wide energy code for the first time. Understanding the role of stakeholders in the building design process is key to the successful implementation of these codes. In 1993, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a survey of architects and designers to determine how much they know about energy codes, to what extent energy-efficiency concerns influence the design process, and how they convey information about energy-efficient designs and products to their clients. Findings of the PNL survey, together with related information from a survey by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) and other reports, are presented in this report. This information may be helpful for state and utility energy program managers and others who will be involved in promoting the adoption and implementation of state energy codes that meet the requirements of EPAct.

Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.; Rigler, E.J.

1994-05-01

297

Making an Aquarium Environment Interactive: A Design Research Analysis of Exhibit Design Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of an interactive aquarium design motivated by the employment of an innovative technology used in scientific research. The study was informed by research on free-choice learning describing the effects of interactive devices on visitor learning, engagement, and attitudes. The researcher used design research methods to conduct multiple iterations of aquarium environment modifications. Observation data of visitor interactions were analyzed in the development of three different aquarium environments. The researcher used survey, interview, and observation data to study visitor interactions in the three contrasting aquarium environments. Results describe exhibit factors associated with visitor behaviors using the scientific instrument and social or individual interactions in the exhibit environments. Results also present an analysis of design processes that were shaped by data on desired visitor interactions and adult learning. Through design research methods, this study contributes to theory of exhibit design for visitor engagement and learning.

Hanshumaker, William

298

A new general method for designing affinity chromatography processes.  

PubMed

Affinity chromatography is widely used for selectively recovering a target solute from a complex mixture. The challenge in designing a capture process is to achieve high yield, high column utilization, and high sorbent productivity while satisfying loading time and pressure limit requirements. The conventional design method based on constant-pattern waves cannot be used for small feed batches or short columns, which do not allow the formation of such waves. Other design methods in the literature rely on simulations or experimental trials, and can be time-consuming and costly. In this study, a new design method with no need of simulations is developed for constant pattern and non-constant pattern systems with Langmuir isotherms. Given feed conditions, loading time, and desired yield, the design requires only the values of certain intrinsic parameters, which can be estimated from a small number of bench-scale experiments. The minimum column volume for capture can be estimated either graphically or analytically. The method is tested with Protein A chromatography data for antibody purification. It is applicable to a wide range of production scales and design requirements. The effects of material properties, feed composition, feed volume, and design requirements on the column volume for capture can be found graphically. When the loading time relative to a characteristic diffusion time is 0.5 or larger, the minimum column volume approaches that of an ideal system. A short loading time increases sorbent productivity, but increases the minimum column volume. A high feed concentration, a high equilibrium capacity, and a small diffusion time relative to the loading time can reduce the minimum column volume and increase productivity. PMID:24997111

Ling, Lei; Kao, Lee-Wei; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

2014-08-15

299

Quality-by-Design (QbD): An integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach for a dynamic pharmaceutical co-precipitation process characterization and process design space development.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to develop an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach for a dynamic pharmaceutical co-precipitation process characterization and design space development. A dynamic co-precipitation process by gradually introducing water to the ternary system of naproxen-Eudragit L100-alcohol was monitored at real-time in situ via Lasentec FBRM and PVM. 3D map of count-time-chord length revealed three distinguishable process stages: incubation, transition, and steady-state. The effects of high risk process variables (slurry temperature, stirring rate, and water addition rate) on both derived co-precipitation process rates and final chord-length-distribution were evaluated systematically using a 3(3) full factorial design. Critical process variables were identified via ANOVA for both transition and steady state. General linear models (GLM) were then used for parameter estimation for each critical variable. Clear trends about effects of each critical variable during transition and steady state were found by GLM and were interpreted using fundamental process principles and Nyvlt's transfer model. Neural network models were able to link process variables with response variables at transition and steady state with R(2) of 0.88-0.98. PVM images evidenced nucleation and crystal growth. Contour plots illustrated design space via critical process variables' ranges. It demonstrated the utility of integrated PAT approach for QbD development. PMID:21138762

Wu, Huiquan; White, Maury; Khan, Mansoor A

2011-02-28

300

Material, process, and product design of thermoplastic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic composites made of polypropylene (PP) and E-glass fibers were investigated experimentally as well as theoretically for two new classes of product designs. The first application was for reinforcement of wood. Commingled PP/glass yarn was consolidated and bonded on wood panel using a tie layer. The processing parameters, including temperature, pressure, heating time, cooling time, bonding strength, and bending strength were tested experimentally and evaluated analytically. The thermoplastic adhesive interface was investigated with environmental scanning electron microscopy. The wood/composite structural design was optimized and evaluated using a Graphic Method. In the second application, we evaluated use of thermoplastic composites for explosion containment in an arrester. PP/glass yarn was fabricated in a sleeve form and wrapped around the arrester. After consolidation, the flexible composite sleeve forms a solid composite shell. The composite shell acts as a protection layer in a surge test to contain the fragments of the arrester. The manufacturing process for forming the composite shell was designed. Woven, knitted, and braided textile composite shells made of commingled PP/glass yarn were tested and evaluated. Mechanical performance of the woven, knitted, and braided composite shells was examined analytically. The theoretical predictions were used to verify the experimental results.

Dai, Heming

301

The effect of alternative approaches to design instruction (structural or functional) on students’ mental models of technological design processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to examine the relationship between alternative approaches towards problem solving\\/design teaching (structural or functional), students' mental modeling of the design process, and the quality of their solutions to design tasks. The structural approach emphasizes the need for an ordered and systematic learning of the design process stages, while the functional approach emphasizes the teaching and study of

David Mioduser; Osnat Dagan

2007-01-01

302

Safeguards design strategies: designing and constructing new uranium and plutonium processing facilities in the United States  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) is transforming its outdated and oversized complex of aging nuclear material facilities into a smaller, safer, and more secure National Security Enterprise (NSE). Environmental concerns, worker health and safety risks, material security, reducing the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy while maintaining the capability for an effective nuclear deterrence by the United States, are influencing this transformation. As part of the nation's Uranium Center of Excellence (UCE), the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, will advance the U.S.'s capability to meet all concerns when processing uranium and is located adjacent to the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF), designed for consolidated storage of enriched uranium. The HEUMF became operational in March 2010, and the UPF is currently entering its final design phase. The designs of both facilities are for meeting anticipated security challenges for the 21st century. For plutonium research, development, and manufacturing, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement (CMRR) building at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico is now under construction. The first phase of the CMRR Project is the design and construction of a Radiological Laboratory/Utility/Office Building. The second phase consists of the design and construction of the Nuclear Facility (NF). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) selected these two sites as part of the national plan to consolidate nuclear materials, provide for nuclear deterrence, and nonproliferation mission requirements. This work examines these two projects independent approaches to design requirements, and objectives for safeguards, security, and safety (3S) systems as well as the subsequent construction of these modern processing facilities. Emphasis is on the use of Safeguards-by-Design (SBD), incorporating Systems Engineering (SE) principles for these two projects.

Scherer, Carolynn P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Jon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-28

303

Compensation for Lithography Induced Process Variations during Physical Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses the challenge of designing robust integrated circuits in the deep sub micron regime in the presence of lithography process variability. By extending and combining existing process and circuit analysis techniques, flexible software frameworks are developed to provide detailed studies of circuit performance in the presence of lithography variations such as focus and exposure. Applications of these software frameworks to select circuits demonstrate the electrical impact of these variations and provide insight into variability aware compact models that capture the process dependent circuit behavior. These variability aware timing models abstract lithography variability from the process level to the circuit level and are used to estimate path level circuit performance with high accuracy with very little overhead in runtime. The Interconnect Variability Characterization (IVC) framework maps lithography induced geometrical variations at the interconnect level to electrical delay variations. This framework is applied to one dimensional repeater circuits patterned with both 90nm single patterning and 32nm double patterning technologies, under the presence of focus, exposure, and overlay variability. Studies indicate that single and double patterning layouts generally exhibit small variations in delay (between 1--3%) due to self compensating RC effects associated with dense layouts and overlay errors for layouts without self-compensating RC effects. The delay response of each double patterned interconnect structure is fit with a second order polynomial model with focus, exposure, and misalignment parameters with 12 coefficients and residuals of less than 0.1ps. The IVC framework is also applied to a repeater circuit with cascaded interconnect structures to emulate more complex layout scenarios, and it is observed that the variations on each segment average out to reduce the overall delay variation. The Standard Cell Variability Characterization (SCVC) framework advances existing layout-level lithography aware circuit analysis by extending it to cell-level applications utilizing a physically accurate approach that integrates process simulation, compact transistor models, and circuit simulation to characterize electrical cell behavior. This framework is applied to combinational and sequential cells in the Nangate 45nm Open Cell Library, and the timing response of these cells to lithography focus and exposure variations demonstrate Bossung like behavior. This behavior permits the process parameter dependent response to be captured in a nine term variability aware compact model based on Bossung fitting equations. For a two input NAND gate, the variability aware compact model captures the simulated response to an accuracy of 0.3%. The SCVC framework is also applied to investigate advanced process effects including misalignment and layout proximity. The abstraction of process variability from the layout level to the cell level opens up an entire new realm of circuit analysis and optimization and provides a foundation for path level variability analysis without the computationally expensive costs associated with joint process and circuit simulation. The SCVC framework is used with slight modification to illustrate the speedup and accuracy tradeoffs of using compact models. With variability aware compact models, the process dependent performance of a three stage logic circuit can be estimated to an accuracy of 0.7% with a speedup of over 50,000. Path level variability analysis also provides an accurate estimate (within 1%) of ring oscillator period in well under a second. Another significant advantage of variability aware compact models is that they can be easily incorporated into existing design methodologies for design optimization. This is demonstrated by applying cell swapping on a logic circuit to reduce the overall delay variability along a circuit path. By including these variability aware compact models in cell characterization libraries, design metrics such as circuit timing, power, area, and delay var

Chin, Eric Yiow-Bing

304

Dynamic simulation for IGCC process and control design  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulation analysis is a valuable tool that increases the understanding of unit interactions and control system performance in a complex integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant. The Sarlux integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant must simultaneously satisfy electrical power and refinery hydrogen and steam demands (trigeneration gasification). The plant`s gasifier, heat recovery, sulfur removal, hydrogen recovery and steam power generation units are highly integrated and require coordinated control. In this study, dynamic simulation provides insights into the behavior of the process and combined cycle units during normal and upset conditions. The dynamic simulation is used to design a control system that drives the gasifiers to satisfy power, steam and hydrogen demands before a load change or upset is detected by the syngas pressure controller. At the study conclusion, the model will demonstrate how the IGCC plant will respond to the contractual maximum load change rate and process upsets. The study tests the basic process and control system design during the project engineering phase to minimize startup troubleshooting and expensive field changes.

Depew, C.; Martinez, A. [Fluor Daniel, Irvine, CA (United States); Collodi, G.; Meloni, R. [Snamprogetti, Milan (Italy)

1998-01-01

305

Design of LAMOST data processing and production database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before LAMOST spectra release, raw data need to go through a series of processes, i.e. a pipeline after observed, including 2D reduction, spectral analysis, eyeball identification. It is a proper strategy that utilizing a database to integrate them. By using database the coupling between relative modules would be reduced to make the adding or removing of them more convenient, and the dataflow seems to be more clearly. The information of a specific object, from target selection to intermediate results and spectrum production, can be efficiently accessed and traced back through the database search, rather than via FITS reading. Furthermore, since the pipeline has not been perfected yet, the eyeball check is needed before the spectra are released, and an appropriate database can make the feedback period of eyeball check result more conveniently, thus the improvement of the pipeline will be more purposely. Finally, database can be a data mining tools for the statistics and analysis of massive astronomical data. This article focuses on the database design and the data processing flow built on it for LAMOST. The database design requirement of the existing routines, such as input/output, the relationship or dependence between them is introduced. Accordingly, the database structure suited for multiple version data process and eyeball verification is presented. The dataflow, how the pipeline is integrated relied on such a dedicated database system and how it worked are also explained. In addition, some user interfaces, eyeball check interfaces, statistical functions are also presented.

Guo, Yanxin; Luo, Ali; Wang, Fengfei; Bai, Zhongrui; Li, Jian

2012-09-01

306

How to specify, design and maintain online process analyzers  

SciTech Connect

In the vast majority of the CPI, determining the chemical compositions and physical properties of process materials has been the responsibility of the analytical laboratory. The chemistry or the operator periodically takes samples from the process that are carried to the lab for analysis. However, as global competitiveness, quality improvement and environmental concerns have grown in importance, process feedback must be quicker and more accurate than ever before. Customers are demanding that product lots be exactly the same, every time. Several analytical methods - gas chromatography, infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy - have successfully made the transition from the lab to the process line. Each method has its own price, accuracy, complexity and maintenance requirements. A thorough knowledge of this information and the teamwork required to install an economical and effective system is critical. The major parts of an online process analyzer are: the sampling apparatus, the analyzer itself, and the methods used for data correlation, reporting and communication. Care should be taken in the design and selection of each part. The paper discusses these major parts for gas chromatography and spectroscopy systems.

Crandall, J.A. (Perkin-Elmer Corp., Norwalk, CT (United States))

1993-04-01

307

Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description  

SciTech Connect

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

LANE, M.P.

1999-02-24

308

INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY - HIERARCHICAL PROCESS DESIGN (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Hierarchical process design is a method for developing conceptual designs of chemical processes where one uses more detail as designs progress. At each level of the hierarchy the designer evaluates the economics of a process, so that uneconomical processes can be dropped as early...

309

Analyzing patterns of writing and sketching in the product design process  

E-print Network

Design notebooks, or logbooks, are typically used to record notes during the design process. These notes consist of text entries as well as sketches with varying levels of detail. Previous research on the design process ...

Smith, Rebecca A. (Rebecca Anna)

2009-01-01

310

A case study of the use of ergonomics information in a heavy engineering design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this case study was to investigate the use of ergonomics information in an engineering design company's design process. Interviews were undertaken with engineers and designers in the company to establish their knowledge of the design process and use of ergonomics in design. Several of the company’s installed designs were also evaluated to identify if the end product

Narelle Skepper; Leon Straker; Clare Pollock

2000-01-01

311

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-11-01

312

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program  

SciTech Connect

The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

1992-01-01

313

[Design of an HACCP program for a cocoa processing facility].  

PubMed

The HACCP plan is a food safety management tool used to control physical, chemical and biological hazards associated to food processing through all the processing chain. The aim of this work is to design a HACCP Plan for a Venezuelan cocoa processing facility.The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP). The existence and effectiveness of these prerequisite programs were previously assessed.Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) audit to cocoa nibs suppliers were performed. To develop the HACCP plan, the five preliminary tasks and the seven HACCP principles were accomplished according to Codex Alimentarius procedures. Three Critical Control Points (CCP) were identified using a decision tree: winnowing (control of ochratoxin A), roasting (Salmonella control) and metallic particles detection. For each CCP, Critical limits were established, the Monitoring procedures, Corrective actions, Procedures for Verification and Documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application was established. To implement and maintain a HACCP plan for this processing plant is suggested. Recently OchratoxinA (OTA) has been related to cocoa beans. Although the shell separation from the nib has been reported as an effective measure to control this chemical hazard, ochratoxin prevalence study in cocoa beans produced in the country is recommended, and validate the winnowing step as well PMID:24020255

López D'Sola, Patrizia; Sandia, María Gabriela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Hernández Serrano, Pilar

2012-12-01

314

Optimizing product life cycle processes in design phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life cycle concepts do not only serve as basis in assisting product developers understand the dependencies between products and their life cycles, they also help in identifying potential opportunities for improvement in products. Common traditional concepts focus mainly on energy and material flow across life phases, necessitating the availability of metrics derived from a reference product. Knowledge of life cycle processes won from an existing product is directly reused in its redesign. Depending on sales volume nevertheless, the environmental impact before product optimization can be substantial. With modern information technologies today, computer-aided life cycle methodologies can be applied well before product use. On the basis of a virtual prototype, life cycle processes are analyzed and optimized, using simulation techniques. This preventive approach does not only help in minimizing (or even eliminating) environmental burdens caused by product, costs incurred due to changes in real product can also be avoided. The paper highlights the relationship between product and life cycle and presents a computer-based methodology for optimizing the product life cycle during design, as presented by SFB 392: Design for Environment - Methods and Tools at Technical University, Darmstadt.

Faneye, Ola. B.; Anderl, Reiner

2002-02-01

315

Software Design Improvements. Part 2; Software Quality and the Design and Inspection Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of assurance engineering techniques improves the duration of failure-free performance of software. The totality of features and characteristics of a software product are what determine its ability to satisfy customer needs. Software in safety-critical systems is very important to NASA. We follow the System Safety Working Groups definition for system safety software as: 'The optimization of system safety in the design, development, use and maintenance of software and its integration with safety-critical systems in an operational environment. 'If it is not safe, say so' has become our motto. This paper goes over methods that have been used by NASA to make software design improvements by focusing on software quality and the design and inspection process.

Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.; Ziemianski, Tom

1997-01-01

316

A qualitative study of the design process: the effects of a microcomputing system on beginning design students  

E-print Network

METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN PROCESS: PREVIOUS INQUIRIES An existing body of literature on architectural design research, problem-solving and creative thinking was used to establish a framework for evaluating the data. Some of these studies attempt to describe... is the testing stage. The designer will suspend the design process and critically examine what he has produced. The designer reviews his previous work and refines the idea at the same time [19]. 'Ihe initial imaging rarely produces a final solution. After...

Ayers, Gayle Yvonne

2012-06-07

317

Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1997-01-01

318

Modern process designs for very high NGL recovery  

SciTech Connect

Typical margins between NGL and sales gas can justify consideration of very high NGL recovery from natural gas but traditionally, very high percentage recovery of propane or ethane has led to disproportionally high incremental power consumption and hence expensive compressors. Recent technical advances in the process design of cryogenic gas processing plants and in the equipment they se have led to a new breed of flowsheets that can cost-effectively give propane recoveries of as high as 99%. The high NGL recovery achievable with modern plants is economically possible due to their high thermodynamic efficiency. This is mainly because they use the refrigeration available from the process more effectively and so recover more NGL. A high pressure rectification step can further improve NGL recovery economically, especially on larger plants. This residual NGL content would normally remain in the sales gas on a conventional turboexpander plant. Improved recovery of NGL can be obtained with little or no increase in sales gas compression power compared to conventional plants by judicious use of heat exchanger area. With high feed gas pressure and particularly with dense phase operation, the use of two expanders in series for feed gas let-down gives good process efficiency and relatively low specific power per ton of NGL recovered. Use of two expanders also avoids excessive liquid flows in the expander exhaust, thus improving the performance and reliability of the turboexpander system. The techniques discussed in the paper can be employed on revamps to improve NGL recovery. Improved process performance relies heavily on the use of efficient, multistream plant-fin exchangers and these can be easily added to an existing facility to increase NGL production.

Finn, A.J.; Tomlinson, T.R.; Johnson, G.L.

1999-07-01

319

Materials, design and processing of air encapsulated MEMS packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work uses a three-dimensional air cavity technology to improve the fabrication, and functionality of microelectronics devices, performance of on-board transmission lines, and packaging of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). The air cavity process makes use of the decomposition of a patterned sacrificial polymer followed by the diffusion of its by-products through a curing polymer overcoat to obtain the embedded air structure. Applications and research of air cavities have focused on simple designs that concentrate on the size and functionality of the particular device. However, a lack of guidelines for fabrication, materials used, and structural design has led to mechanical stability issues and processing refinements. This work investigates improved air gap cavities for use in MEMS packaging processes, resulting in fewer fabrication flaws and lower cost. The identification of new materials, such as novel photo-definable organic/inorganic hybrid polymers, was studied for increased strength and rigidity due to their glass-like structure. A novel epoxy polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) material was investigated and characterized for use as a photodefineable, permanent dielectrics with improved mechanical properties. The POSS material improved the air gap fabrication because it served as a high-selectivity etch mask for patterning sacrificial materials as well as a cavity overcoat material with improved rigidity. An investigation of overcoat thickness and decomposition kinetics provided a fundamental understanding of the properties that impart mechanical stability to cavities of different shape and volume. Metallization of the cavities was investigated so as to provide hermetic sealing and improved cavity strength. The improved air cavity, wafer-level packages were tested using resonator-type devices and chip-level lead frame packaging. The air cavity package was molded under traditional lead frame molding pressures and tested for mechanical integrity. The development of mechanical models complimented the experimental studies. A model of the overcoat materials used the film properties and elastic deformations to study the stress-strain behavior of the suspended dielectric films under external forces. The experimental molding tests and mechanical models were used to establish processing conditions and physical designs for the cavities as a function of cavity size. A novel, metal-free chip package was investigated combining the in-situ thermal decomposition of the sacrificial material during post-mold curing of the lead frame molding compound. Sacrificial materials were characterized for their degree of decomposition during the molding cure to provide a chip package with improved mechanical support and no size restrictions. Improvements to the air cavities for MEMS packaging led to investigations and refinements of other microfabrication processes. The sacrificial polycarbonate materials were shown to be useful as temporary bonding materials for wafer-level bonding. The release temperature and conditions of the processed wafer can be changed based on the polycarbonates formulation. The electroless deposition of metal was investigated as an alternative process for metalizing the air cavities. The deposition of silver and copper using a Sn/Ag catalyst as a replacement for costly palladium activation was demonstrated. The electroless deposition was tested on polymer and silicon dioxide surfaces for organic boards and through-silicon vias.

Fritz, Nathan T.

320

From Safe Nanomanufacturing to Nanosafe-by-Design processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial needs in terms of multifunctional components are increasing. Many sectors are concerned, from the integrated direct nanoparticles production to the emerging combinations which include the metal matrix composites (MMC), ductile ceramics and ceramic matrix composites, polymer matrix composites (PMC) for bulk application and advanced surface coatings in the fields of automotive, aerospace, energy production and building applications. Moreover, domains with a planetary impact such as environmental issues, as well as aspects for instance health (toxicity) and hazard assessment (ignition and explosion severity) were also taken into account. Nanotechnologies play an important role in promoting innovation in design and realization of multifunctional products for the future, either by improving usual products or creating new functions and/or new products. Nevertheless, this huge evolution in terms of materials could only be promoted by increasing the social acceptance and by acting on the different main technological and economic challenges and developing safe oriented processes. Nowadays, a huge number of developments of nanoparticles are potentially industrial up-scalable. However, some doubts exist about the handling's safety of the current technologies. For these reasons, the main purpose was to develop a self-monitored automation in the production line coupling different techniques in order to simplify processes such as in-situ growth nanoparticles into a nanostructured matrix, over different substrates and/or the nanopowders synthesis, functionalization, dry or wet safe recovery system, granulation, consolidation in single-step, by monitoring at real time the processing parameters such as powder stoichiometry. With the aim of assuring the traceability of the product during the whole life, starting from the conception and including the R&D, the distribution and the use were also considered. The optimization in terms of processing, recovery and conditioning, permits to increase its versatility, thus leading to the increase of the added value to the production. This review put in evidence -by different examples- the progress achieved since the beginning of Nanosafe integrated initiative developed by CEA and its partners as well as promoting, firstly the safety at work place, and then extending to an integrated and controlled in-situ production by of Nanosafe-by-Design controlled processes.

Schuster, F.; Lomello, F.

2013-04-01

321

Data Quality Objectives Process for Designation of K Basins Debris  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a schedule and approach for the removal of spent fuels, sludge, and debris from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins, located in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site. The project that is the subject of this data quality objective (DQO) process is focused on the removal of debris from the K Basins and onsite disposal of the debris at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material previously has been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) or Central Waste Complex (CWC). The goal of this DQO process and the resulting Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is to provide the strategy for characterizing and designating the K-Basin debris to determine if it meets the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), Revision 3 (BHI 1998). A critical part of the DQO process is to agree on regulatory and WAC interpretation, to support preparation of the DQO workbook and SAP.

WESTCOTT, J.L.

2000-05-22

322

On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes  

SciTech Connect

This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study.

Xanthopoulos, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Laboratory of Statistics and Quantitative Analysis, Industrial Management Division, P.O. Box 461, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Iakovou, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Laboratory of Statistics and Quantitative Analysis, Industrial Management Division, P.O. Box 461, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: eiakovou@auth.gr

2009-05-15

323

Adapting the Engineering Design Process for Elementary Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kindergarten through fifth grade students are uniquely challenged each and every day they attend Douglas L. Jamerson, Jr. Center for Mathematics and Engineering (DLJCME). As a new elementary school in the Pinellas County (FL) School District, in 2003-2004, Jamersons administration and staff have been charged with the task of building an elementary school with a math and engineering focus. After one academic year, Jamerson is well on its way. The school is recognized by the United States Department of Education as a Center for Mathematics and Engineering for Elementary Education. The mission for DLJCME is to promote, facilitate, and improve the use of mathematics and the understanding of science among its students by integrating mathematics, science, and engineering design within every subject and across each grade level at Jamerson Elementary. D.L. Jamersons overarching goal is to present required standards-based curriculum as a learning adventure that is enriched by applying engineering skills (integrated knowledge of mathematics, science, language, history, and the arts) for problem solving and higher order thinking at the appropriate level in all classrooms and subjects. The execution of its curriculum is not the production of a collection of miniature things like pyramids or volcanoes. Nor are Jamerson students in the gadget, robot, widget, and/or thing-a-majig creation business. DLJCME uses the engineering design process and its associated engineering projects as the foundation of an instructional strategy to help its students gain important conceptual understandings as well as develop secure problem solving skills. At Jamerson, design activities emphasize design challenges that rely on mathematics and science skills also being taught at each grade level as well as any relevant knowledge and skills developed, learned, and secured in earlier grades. This approach prompts inquiry and analysis as well as discourse among students and teachers. It also leads to project concept closure which is seldom accomplished in many trial and error design efforts. A vision of the schoolwide curriculum is illustrated in Figure 1, which was developed by the Douglas L. Jamerson Core Team during its early goal setting workshops before the school officially opened.

Barger, Marilyn; Gilbert, Richard A.; Little, Robin; Poth, Robert

2009-07-28

324

fMRI paradigm designing and post-processing tools  

PubMed Central

In this article, we first review some aspects of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm designing for major cognitive functions by using stimulus delivery systems like Cogent, E-Prime, Presentation, etc., along with their technical aspects. We also review the stimulus presentation possibilities (block, event-related) for visual or auditory paradigms and their advantage in both clinical and research setting. The second part mainly focus on various fMRI data post-processing tools such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and Brain Voyager, and discuss the particulars of various preprocessing steps involved (realignment, co-registration, normalization, smoothing) in these software and also the statistical analysis principles of General Linear Modeling for final interpretation of a functional activation result. PMID:24851001

James, Jija S; Rajesh, PG; Chandran, Anuvitha VS; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

2014-01-01

325

Identifying User Needs and the Participative Design Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the number of persons with dementia increases and also the demands on care and support at home, additional solutions to support persons with dementia are needed. The COGKNOW project aims to develop an integrated, user-driven cognitive prosthetic device to help persons with dementia. The project focuses on support in the areas of memory, social contact, daily living activities and feelings of safety. The design process is user-participatory and consists of iterative cycles at three test sites across Europe. In the first cycle persons with dementia and their carers (n = 17) actively participated in the developmental process. Based on their priorities of needs and solutions, on their disabilities and after discussion between the team, a top four list of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions was made and now serves as the basis for development: in the area of remembering - day and time orientation support, find mobile service and reminding service, in the area of social contact - telephone support by picture dialling, in the area of daily activities - media control support through a music playback and radio function, and finally, in the area of safety - a warning service to indicate when the front door is open and an emergency contact service to enhance feelings of safety. The results of this first project phase show that, in general, the people with mild dementia as well as their carers were able to express and prioritize their (unmet) needs, and the kind of technological assistance they preferred in the selected areas. In next phases it will be tested if the user-participatory design and multidisciplinary approach employed in the COGKNOW project result in a user-friendly, useful device that positively impacts the autonomy and quality of life of persons with dementia and their carers.

Meiland, Franka; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta; Andersson, Anna-Lena

326

Process template based flexible resource integration for product innovative reuse design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innovative design process of complex products is characteristic of top-down decomposition, dynamic change and circular iteration. Different design resources including tools, knowledge and available product objects are needed to assist designers in solving various design problems. In this paper, a process template based flexible design resource integration framework is proposed. The framework is divided into two levels, namely the

Yuliang Li; Wei Zhao

2011-01-01

327

Design process of an area-efficient photobioreactor.  

PubMed

This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such intensities that the light energy can be efficiently used for biomass formation. A statement of goals is formulated and constraints are specified to which the GSC needs to comply. Specifications are generated for a prototype which form and function achieve the stated goals and satisfy the specified constraints. This results in a design in which sunlight is captured into vertical plastic light guides. Sunlight reflects internally in the guide and eventually scatters out of the light guide into flat-panel photobioreactor compartments. Sunlight is focused on top of the light guides by dual-axis positioning of linear Fresnel lenses. The shape and material of the light guide is such that light is maintained in the guides when surrounded by air. The bottom part of a light guide is sandblasted to obtain a more uniform distribution of light inside the bioreactor compartment and is triangular shaped to ensure the efflux of all light out of the guide. Dimensions of the guide are such that light enters the flat-panel photobioreactor compartment at intensities that can be efficiently used by the biomass present. The integration of light capturing, transportation, distribution and usage is such that high biomass productivities per area can be achieved. PMID:18266033

Zijffers, Jan-Willem F; Janssen, Marcel; Tramper, Johannes; Wijffels, René H

2008-01-01

328

The bioinspired design process : according to project complexity and motivation  

E-print Network

Taking cues from natural creatures and systems is becoming a more widely used technique in engineering design. This design philosophy or technique is referred to as bioinspired design or biomimicry. Prior art has focused ...

Obert, Emily

2013-01-01

329

(New process modeling, design and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality and improved productivity in the process industries)  

SciTech Connect

Highlights are reported of work to date on: resilient design and control of chemical reactors (polymerization, packed bed), operation of complex processing systems (compensators for multivariable systems with delays and Right Half Plane zeroes, process identification and controller design for multivariable systems, nonlinear systems control, distributed parameter systems), and computer-aided design software (CONSYD, POLYRED, expert systems). 15 figs, 54 refs. (DLC)

Not Available

1991-01-01

330

[New process modeling, design and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality and improved productivity in the process industries  

SciTech Connect

Highlights are reported of work to date on: resilient design and control of chemical reactors (polymerization, packed bed), operation of complex processing systems (compensators for multivariable systems with delays and Right Half Plane zeroes, process identification and controller design for multivariable systems, nonlinear systems control, distributed parameter systems), and computer-aided design software (CONSYD, POLYRED, expert systems). 15 figs, 54 refs. (DLC)

Not Available

1991-12-31

331

HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by PBMR (Pty.) Ltd. in the RSA, with the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the US as part of the NHI. This work was performed by SRNL, Westinghouse Electric Company, Shaw, PBMR (Pty) Ltd., and Technology Insights under a Technical Consulting Agreement (TCA). Westinghouse Electric, serving as the lead for the PBMR process heat application team, established a cost-shared TCA with SRNL to prepare an updated HyS thermochemical water-splitting process flowsheet, a nuclear hydrogen plant preconceptual design and a cost estimate, including the cost of hydrogen production. SRNL was funded by DOE under the NHI program, and the Westinghouse team was self-funded. The results of this work are presented in this Final Report. Appendices have been attached to provide a detailed source of information in order to document the work under the TCA contract.

Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

2009-05-12

332

Process design applied to optimise a directly compressible powder produced via a continuous manufacturing process.  

PubMed

Manufacturing of 'ready-to-compress' powder mixtures for direct compression was performed by spray drying, without granulation, milling and/or blending steps in between spray drying and compaction. Powder mixtures containing acetaminophen, mannitol, erythritol, maltodextrin, crospovidone, colloidal silicon dioxide and polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monooleate were prepared via co-spray drying. A feed suspension having a solid content of 27.2% w/w was selected for further process optimisation because of its high process yield, excellent flowability and short tablet disintegration time. Experimental design was applied to evaluate processibility, physico-chemical properties and compactability of the spray dried powder mixtures. Significant and adequate regression models were developed for powder flowability, median particle size, bulk density, residual moisture content and process yield. An increasing inlet and outlet drying air temperature improved process yield. However, a higher inlet drying air temperature had a negative influence on density and moisture content, while the latter decreased at higher outlet drying air temperatures. Median particle size increased with a higher inlet temperature, while the outlet temperature had the opposite affect. Numerical optimisation determined the optimal spray drying process (inlet temperature: 221 degrees C, outlet temperature: 81 degrees C and atomisation pressure: 6 bar) in order to produce 'ready-to-compress' powder mixtures. PMID:17964129

Gonnissen, Y; Gonçalves, S I V; De Geest, B G; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

2008-03-01

333

Universal Design in Postsecondary Education: Process, Principles, and Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing any product or environment involves the consideration of many factors, including aesthetics, engineering options, environmental issues, safety concerns, industry standards, and cost. Typically, designers focus their attention on the average user. In contrast, universal design (UD), according to the Center for Universal Design, "is the…

Burgstahler, Sheryl

2009-01-01

334

Newport News Shipbuilding Company Interview re Ship Design Process  

E-print Network

.g., hull design, computational fluid dynamics, and arrangement, but it is not necessarily what they need as a model For the new Double Eagle product line, NNS designers studied existing tankers owned by customers, etc. 1.14. Preliminary design and hull design are heavily supported by analysis programs, mostly

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

335

An integrated process for designing around existing patents through the theory of inventive problem-solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patent infringements have become an important issue for industries when developing products. Designing around existing patents of competitors is a task constantly faced by designers. New design problems, which are often a 'local innovation' of an existing patent, are generated during the design-around process. Innovative design methodologies are needed to solve these new design problems, while the rules of patent

Yung-Chieh Hung; Yeh-Liang Hsu

2007-01-01

336

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO ENHANCE AND ENCOURAGE SUSTAINABLE CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an opportunity to minimize the potential environmental impacts (PEIs) of industrial chemical processes by providing process designers with timely data nad models elucidating environmentally favorable design options. The second generation of the Waste Reduction (WAR) algo...

337

Process of videotape making: presentation design, software, and hardware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of technical video tape presentations for communicating abstractions of complex data is now becoming commonplace. While the use of video tapes in the day-to-day work of scientists and engineers is still in its infancy, their use as applications oriented conferences is now growing rapidly. Despite these advancements, there is still very little that is written down about the process of making technical videotapes. For printed media, different presentation styles are well known for categories such as results reports, executive summary reports, and technical papers and articles. In this paper, the authors present ideas on the topic of technical videotape presentation design in a format that is worth referring to. They have started to document the ways in which the experience of media specialist, teaching professionals, and character animators can be applied to scientific animation. Software and hardware considerations are also discussed. For this portion, distinctions are drawn between the software and hardware required for computer animation (frame at a time) productions, and live recorded interaction with a computer graphics display.

Dickinson, Robert R.; Brady, Dan R.; Bennison, Tim; Burns, Thomas; Pines, Sheldon

1991-06-01

338

Rethinking Design Process: Using 3D Digital Models as an Interface in Collaborative Session  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a pilot study for an alternative design process by integrating a designer-user collaborative session with digital models. The collaborative session took place in a 3D AutoCAD class for a real world project. The 3D models served as an interface for designer-user collaboration during the design process. Students not only learned…

Ding, Suining

2008-01-01

339

Intelligent reasoning assistant for incorporating manufacturability issues into the design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an integrated Intelligent Reasoning Assistant (IRA) as an approach to incorporate manufacturability issues into the design process. By using a series of pre-established geometric features available from a CAD system and manufacturing knowledge captured from experienced design and manufacturing personnel, the proposed model is used to recommend feasible manufacturing process sequences and design changes that enhance design

Rogelio Soto

1997-01-01

340

Design of sustainable chemical processes: Systematic retrofit analysis generation and evaluation of alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to present a generic and systematic methodology for identifying the feasible retrofit design alternatives of any chemical process. The methodology determines a set of mass and energy indicators from steady-state process data, establishes the operational and design targets, and through a sensitivity-based analysis, identifies the design alternatives that can match a set of design

Ana Carvalho; Rafiqul Gani; Henrique Matos

2008-01-01

341

Problems with specifying Tmin in design of processes with heat exchangers  

E-print Network

Problems with specifying Tmin in design of processes with heat exchangers Jørgen Bauck Jensen case studies. Keywords: Tmin, vapour compression cycle, heat exchanger, design. 1 Introduction simple and common approach for design of processes with heat exchangers, especially at an early design

Skogestad, Sigurd

342

Incorporating Vehicle Emission Models into the Highway Design Process  

E-print Network

the adverse impact of highway transportation on the environment. However, the research regarding the reduction of the adverse impact through highway design is still in its infancy. Furthermore, highway design manuals/guidebooks do not provide any information...

Ko, Myung-Hoon

2012-02-14

343

Recombinant design : leveraging process capture for collective creativity  

E-print Network

Design is omnipresent and fundamental to the modern world, yet so little of the rich semantic information of the design evolution is preserved. If we are to gain the greatest knowledge and utility from a creative work, we ...

Ding, Annie

2006-01-01

344

Representation of thermal energy in the design process  

E-print Network

The goal of thermal design is to go beyond the comfort zone. In spatial design architects don't just look up square footage requirements and then draw a rectangle that satisfies the givens. There must be an interpretation. ...

Roth, Shaun

1995-01-01

345

Predictive Modeling in Plasma Reactor and Process Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research continues toward the improvement and increased understanding of high-density plasma tools. Such reactor systems are lauded for their independent control of ion flux and energy enabling high etch rates with low ion damage and for their improved ion velocity anisotropy resulting from thin collisionless sheaths and low neutral pressures. Still, with the transition to 300 mm processing, achieving etch uniformity and high etch rates concurrently may be a formidable task for such large diameter wafers for which computational modeling can play an important role in successful reactor and process design. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor is the focus of the present investigation. The present work attempts to understand the fundamental physical phenomena of such systems through computational modeling. Simulations will be presented using both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for argon and chlorine discharges. ICP reactors generally operate at pressures on the order of 1 to 10 mTorr. At such low pressures, rarefaction can be significant to the degree that the constitutive relations used in typical CFD techniques become invalid and a particle simulation must be employed. This work will assess the extent to which CFD can be applied and evaluate the degree to which accuracy is lost in prediction of the phenomenon of interest; i.e., etch rate. If the CFD approach is found reasonably accurate and bench-marked with DSMC and experimental results, it has the potential to serve as a design tool due to the rapid time relative to DSMC. The continuum CFD simulation solves the governing equations for plasma flow using a finite difference technique with an implicit Gauss-Seidel Line Relaxation method for time marching toward a converged solution. The equation set consists of mass conservation for each species, separate energy equations for the electrons and heavy species, and momentum equations for the gas. The sheath is modeled by imposing the Bohm velocity to the ions near the walls. The DSMC method simulates each constituent of the gas as a separate species which would be analogous in CFD to employing separate species mass, momentum, and energy equations. All particles including electrons are moved and allowed to collide with one another with the stipulation that the electrons remain tied to the ions consistent with the concept of ambipolar diffusion. The velocities of the electrons are allowed to be modified during collisions and are not confined to a Maxwellian distribution. These benefits come at a price in terms of computational time and memory. The DSMC and CFD are made as consistent as possible by using similar chemistry and power deposition models. Although the comparison of CFD and DSMC is interesting, the main goal of this work is the increased understanding of high-density plasma flowfields that can then direct improvements in both techniques. This work is unique in the level of the physical models employed in both the DSMC and CFD for high-density plasma reactor applications. For example, the electrons are simulated in the present DSMC work which has not been done before for low temperature plasma processing problems. In the CFD approach, for the first time, the charged particle transport (discharge physics) has been self-consistently coupled to the gas flow and heat transfer.

Hash, D. B.; Bose, D.; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

346

Communication roles that support collaboration during the design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely acknowledged that design (and development) teams increasingly include participants from different domains who must explore and integrate their specialized knowledge in order to create innovative and competitive artefacts and reduce design and development costs. Thus communication, including integration of specialized knowledge and negotiation of differences among domain specialists, has emerged as a fundamental component of the design

Diane H. Sonnenwald

1996-01-01

347

Jig of passenger vehicle chassis design and welding process simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the design theory of jig welding and installing chassis wiring. The welding fixture and the weld install main line of the various locations of the passenger vehicle after floor are planed and designed, using CATIA V5R17 to modelling and assembling the jig, Conforms to the request jig chart is designed and produces the engineering plat. Then using the

Yinhu Qiao; Jiang Han; Chunyan Zhang

2010-01-01

348

An investigation of factors related to the design of prototype process equipment for the enzymatic processing of fish  

E-print Network

AN INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS RELATED TO THE DESIGN OF PROTOTYPE PROCESS EQUIPMENT FOR THE ENZYMATIC PROCESSING OF FISH A Thesis SURESH SOMALAL SHAH Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A f M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1964 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS RELATED TO THE DESIGN OF PROTOTYPE PROCESS EQUIPMENT FOR THE ENZYMATIC PROCESSING OF FISH A Thesis By SURESH SOMALAL SHAH...

Shah, Suresh Somalal

2012-06-07

349

Developing a 3D Game Design Authoring Package to Assist Students' Visualization Process in Design Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of 3D digital game design requires the development of students' meta-skills, from story creativity to 3D model construction, and even the visualization process in design thinking. The characteristics a good game designer should possess have been identified as including redesign things, creativity thinking and the ability to…

Kuo, Ming-Shiou; Chuang, Tsung-Yen

2013-01-01

350

Transparent Process Migration: Design Alternatives and the Sprite Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Sprite operating system allows executing processes to be moved between hosts at any time. We use this process migration mechanism to offload work onto idle machines, and also to evict migrated processes when idle workstations are reclaimed by their owners. Sprite's migration mechanism provides a high degree of transparency both for migrated processes and for users. Idle machines

Fred Douglis; John K. Ousterhout

1991-01-01

351

Zero-Release Mixed Waste Process Facility Design and Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A zero-release offgas cleaning system for mixed-waste thermal treatment processes has been evaluated through experimental scoping tests and process modeling. The principles can possibly be adapted to a fluidized-bed calcination or stream reforming process, a waste melter, a rotarykiln process, and possibly other waste treatment thermal processes. The basic concept of a zero-release offgas cleaning system is to recycle the

Richard D. Boardman; John A. Deldebbio; Robert J. Kirkham; Martin K. Clemens; Robert Geosits; Ping Wan

2004-01-01

352

An Examination of the Decision-Making Process Used by Designers in Multiple Disciplines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design-thinking is an inductive and participatory process in which designers are required to manage constraints, generate solutions, and follow project timelines in order to complete project goals. The researchers used this exploration study to look at how designers in various disciplinary fields approach design projects. Designers were asked to…

Stefaniak, Jill E.; Tracey, Monica W.

2014-01-01

353

Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes--a process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework.  

PubMed

A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and fermentation-based products. The method exploits the synergic combination of continuous flow technologies (e.g., microfluidic techniques) and process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools for faster process design and increased process understanding throughout the whole drug product and process development cycle. The design framework structures the many different and challenging design problems (e.g., solvent selection, reactor design, and design of separation and purification operations), driving the user from the initial drug discovery steps--where process knowledge is very limited--toward the detailed design and analysis. Examples from the literature of PSE methods and tools applied to pharmaceutical process design and novel pharmaceutical production technologies are provided along the text, assisting in the accumulation and interpretation of process knowledge. Different criteria are suggested for the selection of batch and continuous processes so that the whole design results in low capital and operational costs as well as low environmental footprint. The design framework has been applied to the retrofit of an existing batch-wise process used by H. Lundbeck A/S to produce an API: zuclopenthixol. Some of its batch operations were successfully converted into continuous mode, obtaining higher yields that allowed a significant simplification of the whole process. The material and environmental footprint of the process--evaluated through the process mass intensity index, that is, kg of material used per kg of product--was reduced to half of its initial value, with potential for further reduction. The case-study includes reaction steps typically used by the pharmaceutical industry featuring different characteristic reaction times, as well as L-L separation and distillation-based solvent exchange steps, and thus constitutes a good example of how the design framework can be useful to efficiently design novel or already existing API manufacturing processes taking advantage of continuous processes. PMID:22820647

Cervera-Padrell, Albert E; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren; Gani, Rafiqul; Gernaey, Krist V

2012-10-01

354

Controller design issues in the feedback control of radio frequency plasma processing reactors  

E-print Network

Controller design issues in the feedback control of radio frequency plasma processing reactors the potential for improving the reliability and performance of radio frequency rf plasma processing reactors feedback control of inductively coupled plasma processing reactors for polysilicon etching and

Kushner, Mark

355

Statistical control and design optimization in slitting process  

E-print Network

The incorrect slitting is the defect waste in slitting process which does not meet the single pack width and crease-to-edge width requirements. It is the highest contributor to the overall defect waste in slitting process ...

Tanuwijaya, Willy Perdana

2010-01-01

356

A multi-domain process design and improvement framework  

E-print Network

Processes in manufacturing, services, and healthcare are complex socio-technical systems composed of intricately sequenced activities supported by elements drawn from multiple domains. While many of these processes offer ...

Nicol, Robert A. (Robert Arthur), 1969-

2010-01-01

357

Purification process design in the production of styrene monomer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic study of two alternatives for styrene monomer purification based on equilibrium staged processes is presented. For this purpose, the solubility of t-butylcatechol (TBC) in styrene and the styrene–water liquid–liquid equilibrium were experimentally determined. In terms of economics, a combined process extraction–distillation shows worse results than a conventional distillation process, for the styrene purification, but this process could be

Ismael Díaz; Paul Langston; Gabriel Ovejero; María Dolores Romero; Eduardo Díez

2010-01-01

358

Innovation Process Design: A Change Management and Innovation Dimension Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors propose an innovative approach to the management of innovation integrating business, process, and maturity dimensions. Core element of the concept is the adaptation of ISO/IEC 15504 to the innovation process including 14 innovation drivers. Two managerial models are applied to conceptualize and visualize the respective innovation strategies, the Balanced Scorecard and a Barriers in Change Processes Model. An illustrative case study shows a practical implementation process.

Peisl, Thomas; Reger, Veronika; Schmied, Juergen

359

Authenticity in the Process of Learning about Instructional Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authentic learning is touted as a powerful learning approach, particularly in the context of problem-based learning (Savery, 2006). Teaching and learning in the area of instructional design appears to offer a strong fit between the tenets of authentic learning and the practice of instructional design. This paper details the efforts to broaden and…

Wilson, Jay R.; Schwier, Richard A.

2009-01-01

360

Concurrent design and manufacturing process of automotive composite components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To present the findings of the research on the use of concurrent engineering in the development of polymeric based composite automotive clutch pedal. It covers the use of various IT such as expert system, FEA, CAD, mould flow and rapid prototyping in order to carry out various activities such as material selection, total design, design analysis and mould

S. M. Sapuan

2005-01-01

361

Robust controllers enhanced with design and implementation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, instructional material on the design of robust controllers that applies to introductory graduate or advanced undergraduate courses on control is provided. The main objective is the presentation of key concepts and interpretations that help students learn robust control design. The use of recently developed techniques in robust control such as Hinfin, mu analysis, and synthesis is explored.

Vilma A. Oliveira; Eduardo S. Tognetti; Daniel Siqueira

2006-01-01

362

Conflict Management in Design Process: Focus on Changes Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design has increasingly become a collaborative endeavour carried out by multiple actors with diverse kinds of expertise. A critical element of collaborative design is to manage conflict, emerging due to the multi-actors interaction, and particularly the impacts once the conflict is resolved. Indeed, the conflict resolution comes up with a solution which often implies modifications on the product and the

Khadidja Grebici; Mohamed-zied Ouertani; Eric Blanco; Lilia Gzara Yesilbas; Dominique Rieu

2006-01-01

363

Designing a Process Migration Facility: The Charlotte Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal in this paper is to discuss our e xperience with process migration in the Charlotte distributed operating system. We a lso dra wu pon the experience of other oper- ating systems in which migration has been implemented. Ap rocess migration facility in ad istributed operating system dynamically relocates processes among the component machines. A successful process migration facility

Yeshayahu Artsy; Raphael A. Finkel

1989-01-01

364

Product Design and Manufacturing Process: Dynamic Implications for Innovation Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

For industrial companies innovations of the product system as well as innovations of the manufacturing processes are essential. Due to technological facts there is a tight relationship between technical products and the processes implemented to generate these products. Innovation management has to take into account the dynamics of the underlying product-process interactions and the resulting constraints coming to a coherent

Joachim Stumpfe

365

Methods and guidelines for the design and development of domestic ubiquitous computing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bringing ubiquitous computing applications to home environments is a great challenge. In our research we investigate how applications can be conceived, designed, and implemented that fit into people's lives. In particular we describe our experiments on how methods of user centered design and participatory design can be appropriated to find users' requirements and design ideas for ubiquitous computing applications for

Albrecht Schmidt; Lucia Terrenghi

2006-01-01

366

Methods and Guidelines for the Design and Development of Domestic Ubiquitous Computing Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bringing ubiquitous computing applications to home environments is a great challenge. In our research we investigate how applications can be conceived, designed, and implemented that fit into people's lives. In particular we describe our experiments on how methods of user centered design and participatory design can be appropriated to find users' requirements and design ideas for ubiquitous computing applications for

Albrecht Schmidt; Lucia Terrenghi; Paul Holleis

2007-01-01

367

Process Integration: Designing for Energy, Capital and Operability  

E-print Network

Over the last five years, significant energy savings have been achieved by several international companies using the pinch concept for heat integration. New concepts are now being added to help the designer deal with capital cost minimization...

Linnhoff, B.

368

DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTROL OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents design procedures and guidelines for the selection of aeration equipment and dissolved (DO) control systems for activated sludge treatment plants. Aeration methods, equipment and application techniques are examined and selection procedures offered. Various DO...

369

Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laboratory facilities are complex, technically sophisticated, and mechanically intensive structures that are expensive to build and to maintain. Hundreds of decisions must be made before and during new construction or renovation that will determine how successfully the facility will function when completed and how successfully it can be maintained once put into service. This book provides guidance on effective approaches for building laboratory facilities in the chemical and biochemical sciences. It contains both basic and laboratory-specific information addressed to the user community-the scientists and administrators who contract with design and construction experts. The book will also be important to the design and construction communities-the architects, laboratory designers, and engineers who will design the facility and the construction personnel who will build it-to help them communicate with the scientific community for whom they build laboratory facilities.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2000-01-01

370

The Effect of Natural Language Processing in Bioinspired Design  

E-print Network

design methods are applied to seek a biologically inspired solution to geoengineering. Bioinspired solutions developed in the case study include droplet density shields, phosphorescent mineral injection, and reflective orbiting satellites. The success...

Burns, Madison Suzann 1987-

2012-10-23

371

Investigating the Impact of Design Processes on Children Mona Leigh Guha and Allison Druin  

E-print Network

children's technology and the design processes used to create it, there is a dearth of information of users, children have been involved in the design of new technology for years. Publications on children]. The main purpose for including children in a technology design process is to create better children

Golbeck, Jennifer

372

From Concept to Software: Developing a Framework for Understanding the Process of Software Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of technological innovation and the process of design focuses on the design of computer software. Offers a framework for understanding the design process by examining two computer programs: FliPS, a multimedia program for learning complex problems in chemistry; and Tiger, a Web-based program for managing and publishing electronic…

Mishra, Punyashloke; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Sophia

1999-01-01

373

Negotiation in collaborative assessment of design solutions: an empirical study on a Concurrent Engineering process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Concurrent engineering, design solutions are not only produced by individuals specialized in a given field. Due to the team nature of the design activity, solutions are negotiated. Our objective is to analyse the argumentation processes leading to these negotiated solutions. These processes take place in the meetings which group together specialists with a co-design aim. We conducted cognitive ergonomics

Géraldine Martin; Françoise Détienne; Elisabeth Lavigne

2007-01-01

374

Meta-analyses and adaptive group sequential designs in the clinical development process  

E-print Network

stages within a single study using a (possibly adaptive) group sequential design. We present two examples the design of one study may depend on results from other studies in the series. Near the end of the processMeta-analyses and adaptive group sequential designs in the clinical development process Christopher

Bath, University of

375

Design and Testing of a Friction Stir Processing Machine for Laboratory Research  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the design, fabrication and testing of a friction stir processing machine. The machine is intended to be a flexible research tool for a broad range of friction stir processing studies. The machine design also addresses the need for an affordable, robust design for general laboratory use.

Karen S. Miller; Rodney J. Bitsoi; Eric D. Larsen; Herschel B. Smartt

2006-08-01

376

Case Based Reasoning and Production Process Design: The Case of P-Truck Curing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes P{Truck Curing, a Case Based Rea- soning system supporting the design of the curing phase for truck tyre production. The design of this process provides a trade{ofi between an optimal curing degree, to avoid imperfections in the flnal product, and the reduction of costs, related to thermal energy employed in the curing. Expert curing process designers store

Stefania Bandini; Ettore Colombo; Fabio Sartori; Giuseppe Vizzari

2004-01-01

377

Using P-Values To Design Statistical Process Control Charts Zhonghua Li1  

E-print Network

Using P-Values To Design Statistical Process Control Charts Zhonghua Li1 , Peihua Qiu2 , Snigdhansu Phase II statistical process control (SPC) charts are designed using control limits; a chart gives a signal of process distributional shift when its charting statistic exceeds a properly chosen control

Qiu, Peihua

378

Designing and Evaluating MPI2 Dynamic Process Management Support for InfiniBand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic process management is a feature of MPI-2 that allows an MPI process to create new processes and manage communication with these processes. The dynamic creation of processes allows application writers to develop multiscale applications or master\\/worker based programs. Although several MPI implementations support this fea- ture we are not aware of any studies on the issues in designing the

Tejus Gangadharappa; Matthew J. Koop; Dhabaleswar K. Panda

2009-01-01

379

Creating healing spaces, the process of designing holistically a battered women shelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

My interest in the environment has led me to study the effects of space on people, both natural and man-made. This project explores how architects and designers can design spaces conducive to the healing process. The emphasis of this thesis is on my design methodology, with the hope that this project will help other designers in their struggle to create

Lilian Menéndez

2001-01-01

380

Design alternatives for process group membership and multicast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process groups are a natural tool for distributed programming, and are increasingly important in distributed computing environments. However, there is little agreement on the most appropriate semantics for process group membership and group communication. These issues are of special importance in the Isis system, a toolkit for distributed programming. Isis supports several styles of process group, and a collection of group communication protocols spanning a range of atomicity and ordering properties. This flexibility makes Isis adaptable to a variety of applications, but is also a source of complexity that limits performance. This paper reports on a new architecture that arose from an effort to simplify Isis process group semantics. Our findings include a refined notion of how the clients of a group should be treated, what the properties of a multicast primitive should be when systems contain large numbers of overlapping groups, and a new construct called the casuality domain. As an illustration, we apply the architecture to the problem of converting processes into fault-tolerant process groups in a manner that is 'transparent' to other processes in the system.

Birman, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Robert; Gleeson, Barry

1991-01-01

381

The use of process models to enhance device performance through semiconductor design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As semiconductor manufacturing nodes march towards increasingly aggressive process nodes, the features that can be manufactured on a silicon wafer are becoming more and more constrained. These constraints are arising from the need for manufacturing process margin, the result of which is improved yields and wafer throughput. For less aggressive process nodes, these constraints have been transferred between the design and manufacturing communities using tables of design rules. However, as process nodes march forward, these are rules are getting complex and unmanageable. A better methodology to communicate design rules is to build a model of the manufacturing process for use by the design team. This model can then be used to analyze a piece of layout for manufacturing robustness, and allow the design to make informed layout revisions. Design rules encompass effects due to many manufacturing processes including exposure, registration, etch, reticle construction, electro migration, etc. In order to create useful design rules, all of these processes must be understood and combined into a set of process rules. In order to reduce the complexity of the design rules table, a process model may be applied in complex pattern configurations. This study will seek to understand the definition of complex configurations for photolithography design rules, and it will attempt to demonstrate the usefulness of model-based design rules.

Melvin, Lawrence S., III; Zhang, Daniel

2006-03-01

382

Preparing Instructional Designers for Game-Based Learning: Part III. Game Design as a Collaborative Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this three part series, four professors who teach graduate level courses on the design of instructional video games discuss their perspectives on preparing instructional designers to optimize game-based learning. Part I set the context for the series and one of four panelists discussed what he believes instructional designers should know about…

Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard

2010-01-01

383

Business Process Design Method Based on Business Event Model for Enterprise Information System Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional business process design methods, in which the usecase is the most typical, have no useful framework to design the activity sequence with. Therefore, the design efficiency and quality vary widely according to the designer’s experience and skill. In this paper, to solve this problem, we propose the business events and their state transition model (a basic business event model) based on the language/action perspective, which is the result in the cognitive science domain. In the business process design, using this model, we decide event occurrence conditions so that every event synchronizes with each other. We also propose the design pattern to decide the event occurrence condition (a business event improvement strategy). Lastly, we apply the business process design method based on the business event model and the business event improvement strategy to the credit card issue process and estimate its effect.

Kobayashi, Takashi; Komoda, Norihisa

384

The Design, Testing and Operation of the IUE Data Processing Unit Power Supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operation is reported of the power supply for the IUE data processing unit. Design specifications are presented along with performance data and parts selection. Illustrations show the completed circuit with and without its covers.

Gillis, J. A., Jr.

1974-01-01

385

Design and development of a supplier evaluation process  

E-print Network

Low-cost sourcing is a strategy many companies, including Pratt & Whitney, use to reduce part costs. As they increase their efforts to resource products to low-cost regions, Pratt & Whitney needs a robust process to ...

Corum, Andrew (Andrew R.)

2009-01-01

386

Designing persuasive destination websites: a mental imagery processing perspective  

E-print Network

and second, to test their influence on persuasion-related outcomes such as attitude strength, confidence, and attitude resistance. Finally, this study investigates the role of individual processing style (e.g., visualizer or verbalizer) as a moderator...

Lee, Woo Jin

2009-05-15

387

pHNEUTRALIZATION: INTEGRATED PROCESS AND CONTROL DESIGN  

E-print Network

responses for mixing or reaction pro­ cesses and from the instrumentation. For pH control processes . If the volume is increased, then the mixing speed is also usually increased and these two effects are opposing

Skogestad, Sigurd

388

Using design of experiments to improve a batch chemical process  

E-print Network

Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics has made a strong commitment to manufacturing seasonal influenza vaccines through their cell culture technology called Optaflu®. The goal of this project is to improve overall process yield ...

Hill, Andrew, S.M. (Andrew James). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

389

Process and design techniques for low loss integrated silicon photonics  

E-print Network

Microprocessors have truly revolutionized the efficiency of the world due to the high-volume and low-cost of complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process technology. However, the traditional scaling methods by ...

Sparacin, Daniel Knight

2006-01-01

390

Designing Optimal Heat and Power Systems for Industrial Processes  

E-print Network

new and powerful approach to Process Integration has emerged that goes by the name of Pinch Technology. Its principal developer is Professor Bodo Linnhoff of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), Manchester... new and powerful approach to Process Integration has emerged that goes by the name of Pinch Technology. Its principal developer is Professor Bodo Linnhoff of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), Manchester...

Rutkowski, M. A.; Witherell, W. D.

391

Constraints Based Modeling for Innovative Product & Process Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative, constraints based modeling (CBM) approach proved successful for product developments and process improvements.\\u000a The product developments involved specifying the chemical composition range for a set of chromium-free, high-performance consumable\\u000a electrodes intended for gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) of high-strength steels used in hull constructions while significantly\\u000a reducing energy costs. The process improvements involved selecting appropriate non-carcinogenic chemicals for a

K. Sampath

2007-01-01

392

Simultaneous process and molecular design/selection through property integration  

E-print Network

CO2-Eq. Carbon dioxide equivalent d Characteristic value in Eq. (3.30) DEG Diethylene glycol DGA Diglycolamine E Emission F Process source flowrate f fresh source index fi,j flowrate of source i entering... gas treatment facility, two process sources diethylene glycol (DEG) (S1) and monoethanolamine (MEA) (S2) are used with a fresh stream of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) (F1) to make up the solvent loss (Kohl and Nielsen, 1997). Operating experience...

Qin, Xiaoyun

2007-04-25

393

Automated runner blade design optimization process based on CFD verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norcan Hydraulic Turbine Inc. has introduced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), as a foundation for the development of new hydraulic technologies. Recently, research and development (R&D) efforts have been focused on the enhancement of turbine runner design methods, resulting in the creation of runner blade shape optimization algorithms, in an attempt to maximize the hydraulic efficiency of the entire turbine. The

Jacek Swiderski; Joseph N. Martin

394

Characters as agents for the co-design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a proposed new method for helping to understand the emotional requirements of children during the conceptual phase of designing an interface. The approach may be particularly useful where the feelings of the child are critical, but are difficult to investigate; for example when the issues are sensitive and may provoke emotional responses. Here we explore an approach

Cathy Grundy; Lyn Pemberton; Richard Morris

2012-01-01

395

Steam boilers: process models for improved operation and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass combustion can be an economic way to contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions, which are a main suspect of the so-called greenhouse effect. In order to promote a widespread utilization of biomass combustion, operational problems like fuel treatment, slagging, fouling and corrosion have to be solved. There are few research initiatives focused on the improvement of design and

F. Ahnert

2007-01-01

396

High School Student Modeling in the Engineering Design Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A diverse group of 20 high school students from four states in the US were individually provided with an engineering design challenge. Students chosen were in capstone engineering courses and had taken multiple engineering courses. As students considered the problem and developed a solution, observational data were recorded and artifacts…

Mentzer, Nathan; Huffman, Tanner; Thayer, Hilde

2014-01-01

397

An Elective Course on Computer-Aided Process Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate chemical engineering course which has been offered at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The objectives, structure, instructional materials and content of this course, which emphasizes the structure and usage of computer-aided design systems, are also included. (HM)

Sommerfeld, Jude T.

1979-01-01

398

Process Design Manual: Wastewater Treatment Facilities for Sewered Small Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual attempts to describe new treatment methods, and discuss the application of new techniques for more effectively removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from wastewater. Topics covered include: fundamental design considerations, flow equalization, headworks components, clarification of raw wastewater, activated sludge, package plants,…

Leffel, R. E.; And Others

399

HOOD SYSTEM DESIGN FOR CAPTURE OF PROCESS FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a technical manual whose emphasis is on the design and evaluation of actual hood systems used to control various fugitive particulate emission sources. Engineering analyses of the most important hood types are presented to provide a conceptual understanding of...

400

COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN OF DEFORMATION PROCESSES FOR THE CONTROL OF  

E-print Network

.D. Cornell University 2004 An important goal of modern manufacturing research and development is to deter are combined to address realistic industrial design problems. Additionally, these techniques are extended completing his high school education from Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (H. A. L.) Senior Secondary School

Zabaras, Nicholas J.

401

Design Process of Deep Soil Mixed Walls for Excavation Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of deep soil mixing (DSM) technology for excavation support is growing in use across the world. In recent years, a number of projects in the United States have incorporated DSM for excavation walls. As deep soil mixing becomes a more economical alternative to traditional excavation support systems, determining which methods of design are most appropriate will become an

Cassandra J. Rutherford; Giovanna Biscontin; Demetrious Koutsoftas; Ove Arup; Jean-Louis Briaud

402

Design and development of a layer-based additive manufacturing process for the realization of metal parts of designed mesostructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-density cellular materials, metallic bodies with gaseous voids, are a unique class of materials that are characterized by their high strength, low mass, good energy absorption characteristics, and good thermal and acoustic insulation properties. In an effort to take advantage of this entire suite of positive mechanical traits, designers are tailoring the cellular mesostructure for multiple design objectives. Unfortunately, existing cellular material manufacturing technologies limit the design space as they are limited to certain part mesostructure, material type, and macrostructure. The opportunity that exists to improve the design of existing products, and the ability to reap the benefits of cellular materials in new applications is the driving force behind this research. As such, the primary research goal of this work is to design, embody, and analyze a manufacturing process that provides a designer the ability to specify the material type, material composition, void morphology, and mesostructure topology for any conceivable part geometry. The accomplishment of this goal is achieved in three phases of research: (1) Design---Following a systematic design process and a rigorous selection exercise, a layer-based additive manufacturing process is designed that is capable of meeting the unique requirements of fabricating cellular material geometry. Specifically, metal parts of designed mesostructure are fabricated via three-dimensional printing of metal oxide ceramic powder followed by post-processing in a reducing atmosphere. (2) Embodiment ---The primary research hypothesis is verified through the use of the designed manufacturing process chain to successfully realize metal parts of designed mesostructure. (3) Modeling & Evaluation ---The designed manufacturing process is modeled in this final research phase so as to increase understanding of experimental results and to establish a foundation for future analytical modeling research. In addition to an analysis of the physics of primitive creation and an investigation of failure modes during the layered fabrication of thin trusses, build time and cost models are presented in order to verify claims of the process's economic benefits. The main contribution of this research is the embodiment of a novel manner for realizing metal parts of designed mesostructure.

Williams, Christopher Bryant

403

New Materials Design Through Friction Stir Processing Techniques  

SciTech Connect

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has reached a large interest in the scientific community and in the last years also in the industrial environment, due to the advantages of such solid state welding process with respect to the classic ones. The complex material flow occurring during the process plays a fundamental role in such solid state welding process, since it determines dramatic changes in the material microstructure of the so called weld nugget, which affects the effectiveness of the joints. What is more, Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is mainly being considered for producing high-strain-rate-superplastic (HSRS) microstructure in commercial aluminum alloys. The aim of the present research is the development of a locally composite material through the Friction Stir Processing (FSP) of two AA7075-T6 blanks and a different material insert. The results of a preliminary experimental campaign, carried out at the varying of the additional material placed at the sheets interface under different conditions, are presented. Micro and macro observation of the such obtained joints permitted to investigate the effects of such process on the overall joint performance.

Buffa, G.; Fratini, L. [Dipartimento di Tecnologia Meccanica, Produzione e Ingegneria Gestionale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze 90128 Palermo (Italy); Shivpuri, R. [Ohio State University, Department of Industrial, Welding and Systems Engineering, 1971 Neil Avenue, 210 Baker Systems, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2007-04-07

404

Transparent process migration: Design alternatives and the Sprite implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sprite operating system allows executing processes to be moved between hosts at any time. We use this process migration mechanism to offload work onto idle machines, and also to evict migrated processes when idle workstations are reclaimed by their owners. Sprite's migration mechanism provides a high degree of transparency both for migrated processes and for users. Idle machines are identified, and eviction is invoked, automatically by daemon processes. On Sprite it takes up to a few hundred milliseconds on SPARCstation 1 workstations to perform a remote exec, while evictions typically occur in a few seconds. The pmake program uses remote invocation to invoke tasks concurrently. Compilations commonly obtain speedup factors in the range of three to six; they are limited primarily by contention for centralized resources such as file servers. CPU-bound tasks such as simulations can make more effective use of idle hosts, obtaining as much as eight-fold speedup over a period of hours. Process migration has been in regular service for over two years.

Douglis, Fred; Ousterhout, John

1991-01-01

405

Cost model relationships between textile manufacturing processes and design details for transport fuselage elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Textile manufacturing processes offer potential cost and weight advantages over traditional composite materials and processes for transport fuselage elements. In the current study, design cost modeling relationships between textile processes and element design details were developed. Such relationships are expected to help future aircraft designers to make timely decisions on the effect of design details and overall configurations on textile fabrication costs. The fundamental advantage of a design cost model is to insure that the element design is cost effective for the intended process. Trade studies on the effects of processing parameters also help to optimize the manufacturing steps for a particular structural element. Two methods of analyzing design detail/process cost relationships developed for the design cost model were pursued in the current study. The first makes use of existing databases and alternative cost modeling methods (e.g. detailed estimating). The second compares design cost model predictions with data collected during the fabrication of seven foot circumferential frames for ATCAS crown test panels. The process used in this case involves 2D dry braiding and resin transfer molding of curved 'J' cross section frame members having design details characteristic of the baseline ATCAS crown design.

Metschan, Stephen L.; Wilden, Kurtis S.; Sharpless, Garrett C.; Andelman, Rich M.

1993-01-01

406

30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

...OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable...and regulatory responsibilities, are applicable in Massachusetts beginning on May 28...

2014-07-01

407

30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable...and regulatory responsibilities, are applicable in Massachusetts beginning on May 28...

2012-07-01

408

30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable...and regulatory responsibilities, are applicable in Massachusetts beginning on May 28...

2013-07-01

409

30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable...and regulatory responsibilities, are applicable in Massachusetts beginning on May 28...

2011-07-01

410

A Multi-touch Approach to Control MRI Scans: A User-Centered Study Report Tulio de Souza Alcantara, Pierre Bastianelli, Jennifer Ferreira, Frank Maurer  

E-print Network

and evaluated. We addressed the usability issues found by proposing a user- friendly and efficient high the evaluations, a second iteration of the process was started: brainstorming sessions were conducted again of the equipment, computing power and image processing algorithms. As observed by the authors, operating

Maurer, Frank

411

Process design for wastewater treatment: catalytic ozonation of organic pollutants.  

PubMed

Emerging micropollutants have been recently the target of interest for their potential harmful effects in the environment and their resistance to conventional water treatments. Catalytic ozonation is an advanced oxidation process consisting of the formation of highly reactive radicals from the decomposition of ozone promoted by a catalyst. Nanocarbon materials have been shown to be effective catalysts for this process, either in powder form or grown on the surface of a monolithic structure. In this work, carbon nanofibers grown on the surface of a cordierite honeycomb monolith are tested as catalyst for the ozonation of five selected micropollutants: atrazine (ATZ), bezafibrate, erythromycin, metolachlor, and nonylphenol. The process is tested both in laboratorial and real conditions. Later on, ATZ was selected as a target pollutant to further investigate the role of the catalytic material. It is shown that the inclusion of a catalyst improves the mineralization degree compared to single ozonation. PMID:24056437

Derrouiche, S; Bourdin, D; Roche, P; Houssais, B; Machinal, C; Coste, M; Restivo, J; Orfão, J J M; Pereira, M F R; Marco, Y; Garcia-Bordeje, E

2013-01-01

412

Process Design and Monitoring for Plasma Sprayed Abradable Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abradable coatings in compressor and high-pressure stages of gas turbines must provide specific hardness and porosity values\\u000a to achieve an optimal cut-in of the blade tips. A fractional factorial experimental plan was designed to investigate the influence\\u000a of the plasma spraying parameters argon flow rate, current, spraying distance and powder feed rate on these properties of\\u000a magnesia spinel. Based on

Tanja Steinke; Georg Mauer; Robert Vaßen; Detlev Stöver; Dan Roth-Fagaraseanu; Matthew Hancock

2010-01-01

413

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, VOL 22, 11971205 (1997) RING PERMEAMETRY: DESIGN, OPERATION AND ERROR  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, VOL 22, 1197­1205 (1997) RING PERMEAMETRY: DESIGN, OPERATION of permeability estimates is illustrated. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth surf. process. landforms, 22, 1197

Chappell, Nick A

414

Application of the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) to the real estate development process  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a pioneering application of an engineering systems framework, the Design Structure Matrix (DSM), to model the real estate development (RED) process. The DSM is a process modeling tool that originated ...

Bulloch, Benjamin (Benjamin Edward)

2009-01-01

415

Application of the Design Structure Matrix to integrated product development process  

E-print Network

A challenging aspect of managing complex product development process is the ability to account for iterations, which are inherent in the design process. A leading edge approach to account for iterations in development ...

Nebiyeloul-Kifle, Yonas, 1964-

2005-01-01

416

Design of a process for steam gasification of PVC waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

One possibility for recycling of PVC waste is steam gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The main products are syngas, employable for energy recovery and HCl that can be reused for PVC production in an oxychlorination plant. In this study the technical and economical feasibility of this process is investigated based on experimental data and the implementation of proven

M. J. P Slapak; J. M. N van Kasteren; A. A. H Drinkenburg

2000-01-01

417

Data Quality Objectives Process for Designation of K Basins Debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a schedule and approach for the removal of spent fuels, sludge, and debris from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins, located in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site. The project that is the subject of this data quality objective (DQO) process is focused on the removal of debris from

2000-01-01

418

Design and Thermal Balance of Boilers for Processing Municipal Refuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology for thermal processing of the municipal refuse (MR) has evolved through a long history — from smallsize ovens without heat recovery, equipped with rudimentary facilities for combustion product treatment, to powerful, modern, environment-friendly plants for generating thermal and electric energy. During the course of boiler evolution, the technical requirements placed on boilers’ operation likewise underwent change. At present, a

A. I. Tugov; M. A. Izyumov; V. M. Supranov

2002-01-01

419

Journal of Language Design Modelling improvisatory and compositional processes  

E-print Network

Abstract An application of formal languages to the representation of musical processes is introduced, ethnomusicology. Music, like mathematics but unlike language, is not intelligible unless it is grammatical: its Indian classical music tends to follow a precise system, the rules of which are generally not explicit

Boyer, Edmond

420

Goal-Oriented Requirements Analysis for Process Control Systems Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, a lot of effort has been focused on automating the generation of software applications. The automation process can start early, after some manual stage(s) or following (a) previous automatic stage(s). Such automation tools should have the capability of generating executable programs, specifications, or formal requirements, as appropriate. The requirements gathering and checking is considered as

Islam A. M. El-maddah; T. S. E. Maibaum

2003-01-01

421

Waste Feed Delivery Purex Process Connector Design Pressure  

SciTech Connect

The pressure retaining capability of the PUREX process connector is documented. A context is provided for the connector's current use within existing Projects. Previous testing and structural analyses campaigns are outlined. The deficient condition of the current inventory of connectors and assembly wrenches is highlighted. A brief history of the connector is provided. A bibliography of pertinent references is included.

BRACKENBURY, P.J.

2000-04-11

422

Encyclopedia of chemical processing and design. Volume 19  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains contributions from chemists and engineers from academia and industry, and covers the environmental impact of energy, epoxy resins, essential oils, and ethanol among other subjects beginning with the letter ''e''. Contents, abridged are: conversion to SI units; energy, low heat sources; engineering contractors; enhanced oil recovery costs; enzyme processing; equipment, used; essential oils; and esterification.

Maiketta, J.J.; Cunningham, W.A

1983-01-01

423

Thermoeconomic design of a multi-effect evaporation mechanical vapor compression (MEE–MVC) desalination process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents thermoeconomic design for a multi-effect evaporation–mechanical vapor compression (MEE–MVC) desalination process. Exergy and thermoeconomic mathematical models of the considered process units are developed and presented in this work. The design data of an existing MEE–MVC (1500 m3\\/day) desalination process is used for the present analysis. The effect of using external steam to initiate the evaporation process is

A. S. Nafey; H. E. S. Fath; A. A. Mabrouk

2008-01-01

424

A Systematic Literature Review on Agile Development Processes and User Centred Design Integration  

E-print Network

-driven methods via a compromise between absence of a process and exces- sive process [29]. Agile processes aim philosophical and principled differences between Agile methods and UCD in focus, evaluation method, cul- tureA Systematic Literature Review on Agile Development Processes and User Centred Design Integration

Cairns, Paul

425

Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design  

SciTech Connect

Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high {sup 239}Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations.

Brown, T.H.

1997-11-01

426

Simultaneous Design, Scheduling and Operation Through Process Integration  

E-print Network

Waste stream y Heating utility z Interval in temperature interval diagram xv Sets EMU Environmental management units CP Cold streams CU Cooling utilities HP Hot streams HU Heating utilities INPUT Input streams OUTPUT... Operating variable POC t Plant operating cost during period t tij uv r ,, Flowrate recycled back to the process to the i u th input of the u th unit EMU TAC Total annualized cost of the environmental management system w W Flowrate of the w...

Al-Mutairi, Eid M.

2009-05-15

427

Process Options for Nominal 2-K Helium Refrigeration System Designs  

SciTech Connect

Nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems are frequently used for superconducting radio frequency and magnet string technologies used in accelerators. This paper examines the trade-offs and approximate performance of four basic types of processes used for the refrigeration of these technologies; direct vacuum pumping on a helium bath, direct vacuum pumping using full or partial refrigeration recovery, cold compression, and hybrid compression (i.e., a blend of cold and warm sub-atmospheric compression).

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

2012-07-01

428

Development of a basic procedure to design sorption processes.  

PubMed

The intention of this work is to offer, within the shortest time, an appropriate sorption separation process for almost any odour problem. The development is based on the preparation and characterisation of new adsorbents, the strategy for the selection of the best adsorbent, the process engineering and the choice of a suitable regeneration procedure. In this context a new method for the characterisation of the adsorbents - the adsorption profile analysis - was developed. The classification of the adsorbents was carried out by means of a cluster analysis, which simplifies the selection of the most suitable adsorbent for a particular problem. The physical and chemical behaviour of silica-adsorbents could be tailored by silanisation of the surfaces. Methods for the determination of process engineering parameters were developed, established and used. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms were determined with a magnetic adsorption balance. In a laboratory-scale fixed bed adsorber, breakthrough curves of different support materials were investigated and compared. For the investigations of different regeneration procedures, four innovative methods were employed: microwave desorption, ultrasonic desorption, ultrasonic-water desorption and extraction with water. Of the four desorption methods examined, microwave desorption and ultrasonic-water desorption demonstrated the best results. PMID:16143502

Cartellieri, A; Thiesen, P H; Niemeyer, B

2005-01-01

429

Predictive Models for Semiconductor Device Design and Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The device feature size continues to be on a downward trend with a simultaneous upward trend in wafer size to 300 mm. Predictive models are needed more than ever before for this reason. At NASA Ames, a Device and Process Modeling effort has been initiated recently with a view to address these issues. Our activities cover sub-micron device physics, process and equipment modeling, computational chemistry and material science. This talk would outline these efforts and emphasize the interaction among various components. The device physics component is largely based on integrating quantum effects into device simulators. We have two parallel efforts, one based on a quantum mechanics approach and the second, a semiclassical hydrodynamics approach with quantum correction terms. Under the first approach, three different quantum simulators are being developed and compared: a nonequlibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach, Wigner function approach, and a density matrix approach. In this talk, results using various codes will be presented. Our process modeling work focuses primarily on epitaxy and etching using first-principles models coupling reactor level and wafer level features. For the latter, we are using a novel approach based on Level Set theory. Sample results from this effort will also be presented.

Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

430

Interaction Designer This is a New Zealand born and raised company, which identified, then became a leading light in user-  

E-print Network

a leading light in user- centered design solutions in digital media. They have offices all over the world and visual design systems for medium to large websites and mobile apps. Skills: · Degree in Media Design. · Technical skills in HTML & CSS, FireWorks, Photoshop, InDesign, Illustrator or other specialist areas

Sun, Jing

431

Fluidized bed incineration process design for transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect

A fluidized bed incineration facility has been installed at the Rocky Flats Plant to develop and demonstrate a process for the combustion of transuranic waste. The unit's capacity is about 82 kg/hr of combustible solid waste, which is nine times higher than the rate for the operating pilot-scale unit. The facility utilizes nonaqueous, in situ neutralization of acid gases. These gases are generated during the combustion of halogen-containing materials. The low-temperature (550 /sup 0/C) operation eliminates refractory-lined equipment.

Johnson, A. J.; Meyer, F. G.; Anderson, D. L.; Bell, B. A.; Feng, P. K.

1980-07-19

432

The contribution of electronic communication media to the design process: communicative and cultural implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovation in a company's design process is increasingly a matter of cooperation between the company and its customers. New information and communication technology (ICT) possibilities such as electronic communication (EC) media generate even more opportunities for companies to collaborate with customers during the early stages of research and development. This exploratory study examined the design process of five Dutch firms

ANTOON P. D. VAN LUXEMBURG; JAN M. ULIJN; N. Amare

2002-01-01

433

The Use of Executive Control Processes in Engineering Design by Engineering Students and Professional Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cognitive construct that is important when solving engineering design problems is executive control process, or metacognition. It is a central feature of human consciousness that enables one "to be aware of, monitor, and control mental processes." The framework for this study was conceptualized by integrating the model for creative design, which…

Dixon, Raymond A.; Johnson, Scott D.

2012-01-01

434

Integrating environmental concerns into the design process: the gap between theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the product design process and integration of environmental performance criteria during this critical stage. Specifically, the authors explore environmentally responsible manufacturing (ERM) as perceived and acted on by two critical groups within this design process. The first consists of the champions and supporters of ERM, who either formally or informally act as advocates of ERM within

Robert B. Handfield; Steven A. Melnyk; Roger J. Calantone; Sime Curkovic

2001-01-01

435

Development of a Robust Computational Design Simulator for Industrial Deformation Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of this continuing DMII-funded NSF project, computationally rigorous gradient-based optimiza- tion methodologies are being addressed for a virtual materials process design that is based on quantified product quality and accounts for process targets and constraints including economic aspects. Computa- tional design techniques will be developed that can be used to select the necessary sequence of forming and intermediate

Nicholas Zabaras

2002-01-01

436

Process design of oil and gas production facilities using expert systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expert system known as the Automated Project Design System (APDS#8482;) has been developed to assist process and facilities engineers in performing preliminary feasibility studies, optimization studies, and provide the basic information required for the initiation of the detailed design for offshore oil and gas production facilities.Given the feedstock and product specifications, the expert system produces a preliminary process flow

Hafez Aghili; George Montgomery; Al Amlani; Jatin Shah II

1988-01-01

437

PROCESS DESIGN ENGINEERING PUREX ESSENTIAL WASTE ROUTING SYSTEM AND 241AX TANK FARM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of additional storage facilities for liquid wastes from the ; Purex Process is described. The proposed facility, consisting of eight 580,000 ; gallon net volume storage tanks with built-in leak detection, waste divertors, ; piping, instrumentation, change house, and miscellaneous appurtenances is ; diagramed. Process design, radiation shielding, hazards, and cost are discussed. ; (M.C.G.);

E. doud; H. W. Stivers; G. H. Bauer; G. W. Morrow; F. A. MacLean; S. P. Robertson

1962-01-01

438

Design and construction of earth retaining walls for deep excavation – a risk management process  

Microsoft Academic Search

TR26: 2010: Technical Reference for Deep Excavation requires a detailed assessment of buildings in proximity to the site. The requirement is an important part of a risk management process for the design of temporary works for deep excavations. This paper will present the key elements of the risk management process for design and construction. It will demonstrate that the risk

Paul Fok; Bian Hong Neo; Dazhi Wen; Chepurthy Veeresh

2012-01-01

439

Development of Conceptual Design Support Tool Founded on Formalization of Conceptual Design Process for Regenerative Life Support Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS), which maintain human lives by recycling substances essential for living, are comprised of humans, plants, and material circulation systems. The plants supply food to the humans or reproduce water and gases by photosynthesis, while the material circulation systems recycle physicochemically and circulate substances disposed by humans and plants. RLSS attracts attention since manned space activities have been shifted from previous short trips to long-term stay activities as such base as a space station, a lunar base, and a Mars base. The present typical space base is the International Space Station (ISS), a manned experimental base for prolonged stays, where RLSS recycles only water and air. In order to accommodate prolonged and extended manned activity in future space bases, developing RLSS that implements food production and regeneration of resources at once using plants is expected. The configuration of RLSS should be designed to suit its own duty, for which design requirements for RLSS with an unprecedented configuration may arise. Accordingly, it is necessary to establish a conceptual design method for generalized RLSS. It is difficult, however, to systematize the design process by analyzing previous design because there are only a few ground-experimental facilities, namely CEEF (Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities) of Japan, BIO-Plex (Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex) of the U.S., and BIOS3 of Russia. Thus a conceptual design method which doesn’t rely on previous design examples is required for generalized RLSS from the above reasons. This study formalizes a conceptual design process, and develops a conceptual design support tool for RLSS based on this design process.

Miyajima, Hiroyuki; Yuhara, Naohiro

440

Construction design as a process for flow : applying lean principles to construction design  

E-print Network

Delays and cost overruns are the rule rather than the exception in the construction industry. Design changes due to lack of constructability late in the construction phase generating costly ripple effect which create delay ...

Soto, Leticia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

441

Process design of helium refrigerators collaborated with the predesign of turbo expander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbo expanders are the most critical components in helium refrigerators. However, since the performance of expanders is dependent on a number of operating parameters and the relations between them are quite complex, usually only very simple modeling for expanders is applied during the process design, with which the scale and performance of expanders cannot be rated. Hence the design parameters specified by process design may not match the current turbine technology. As a solution, we employed a collaborated design method with which a predesign for turbo expanders is integrated into the process design. The tip wheel diameter, the tip speed, the rotational speed and the efficiency of turbo expander are preliminarily calculated. Evaluation of these parameters helps us to check if the process design is appropriate or need to be further improved.

Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Dong, B.; Tang, J. C.; Liu, L. Q.

2014-01-01

442

A model of creative design process for fostering creativity of students in design education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creativity, which is concerned with problem solving, is essential if we are to generate new solutions to the massive and complex\\u000a problems in the unknown future. Our next generation needs an educational platform where they can be taught to possess creativity.\\u000a Design education is such a way to foster students’ creativity. Therefore, it is essential to understand the creative design

Yi Lin Wong; Kin Wai Michael Siu

443

Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design  

SciTech Connect

FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

Coles, Garill A.; Hockert, John; Gitau, Ernest TN; Zentner, Michael D.

2013-01-26

444

Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design  

SciTech Connect

FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

Coles, Garill A.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Zentner, Michael D.

2012-11-09

445

Design of interchannel MRF model for probabilistic multichannel image processing.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a novel framework that exploits an informative reference channel in the processing of another channel. We formulate the problem as a maximum a posteriori estimation problem considering a reference channel and develop a probabilistic model encoding the interchannel correlations based on Markov random fields. Interestingly, the proposed formulation results in an image-specific and region-specific linear filter for each site. The strength of filter response can also be controlled in order to transfer the structural information of a channel to the others. Experimental results on satellite image fusion and chrominance image interpolation with denoising show that our method provides improved subjective and objective performance compared with conventional approaches. PMID:20875973

Koo, Hyung Il; Cho, Nam Ik

2011-03-01

446

What Have We Learned from Communication Design Failure?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In closing, the guest editors of this "Visible Language" special series reflect on the failures identified in the various papers and interpret what this suggests for design education and research in the context of changing practice. The failures cited in this series point out the fractures in our understanding and practices from user-centered,…

Poggenpohl, Sharon; Winkler, Dietmar R.

2010-01-01

447

Conversion of microalgae to jet fuel: process design and simulation.  

PubMed

Microalgae's aquatic, non-edible, highly genetically modifiable nature and fast growth rate are considered ideal for biomass conversion to liquid fuels providing promise for future shortages in fossil fuels and for reducing greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions from combustion. We demonstrate adaptability of PRO/II software by simulating a microalgae photo-bio-reactor and thermolysis with fixed conversion isothermal reactors adding a heat exchanger for thermolysis. We model a cooling tower and gas floatation with zero-duty flash drums adding solids removal for floatation. Properties data are from PRO/II's thermodynamic data manager. Hydrotreating is analyzed within PRO/II's case study option, made subject to Jet B fuel constraints, and we determine an optimal 6.8% bioleum bypass ratio, 230°C hydrotreater temperature, and 20:1 bottoms to overhead distillation ratio. Process economic feasibility occurs if cheap CO2, H2O and nutrient resources are available, along with solar energy and energy from byproduct combustion, and hydrotreater H2 from product reforming. PMID:24997379

Wang, Hui-Yuan; Bluck, David; Van Wie, Bernard J

2014-09-01

448

Personas and decision making in the design process: an ethnographic case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personas have become a well-lauded method to aid designers in keeping the needs of the intended user population at the forefront of the design process. However, few studies have ethnographically observed design teams that use personas, and fewer studies have looked specifically at how designers linguistically invoke personas in their decision-making sessions. This discourse analysis of the decision-making sessions of

Erin Friess

2012-01-01

449

Elementary teachers' mental models of engineering design processes: A comparison of two communities of practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educating K-12 students in the processes of design engineering is gaining popularity in public schools. Several states have adopted standards for engineering design despite the fact that no common agreement exists on what should be included in the K-12 engineering design process. Furthermore, little pre-service and in-service professional development exists that will prepare teachers to teach a design process that is fundamentally different from the science teaching process found in typical public schools. This study provides a glimpse into what teachers think happens in engineering design compared to articulated best practices in engineering design. Wenger's communities of practice work and van Dijk's multidisciplinary theory of mental models provide the theoretical bases for comparing the mental models of two groups of elementary teachers (one group that teaches engineering and one that does not) to the mental models of design engineers (including this engineer/researcher/educator and professionals described elsewhere). The elementary school teachers and this engineer/researcher/educator observed the design engineering process enacted by professionals, then answered questions designed to elicit their mental models of the process they saw in terms of how they would teach it to elementary students. The key finding is this: Both groups of teachers embedded the cognitive steps of the design process into the matrix of the social and emotional roles and skills of students. Conversely, the engineers embedded the social and emotional aspects of the design process into the matrix of the cognitive steps of the design process. In other words, teachers' mental models show that they perceive that students' social and emotional communicative roles and skills in the classroom drive their cognitive understandings of the engineering process, while the mental models of this engineer/researcher/educator and the engineers in the video show that we perceive that cognitive understandings of the engineering process drive the social and emotional roles and skills used in that process. This comparison of mental models with the process that professional designers use defines a problem space for future studies that investigate how to incorporate engineering practices into elementary classrooms. Recommendations for engineering curriculum development and teacher professional development based on this study are presented.

McMahon, Ann P.

450

Virtual Display Design and Evaluation of Clothing: A Design Process Support System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a new computer-aided educational system for clothing visual merchandising and display. It aims to provide an operating environment that supports the various stages of display design in a user-friendly and intuitive manner. First, this paper provides a brief introduction to current software applications in the field of…

Zhang, Xue-Fang; Huang, Ren-Qun

2014-01-01

451

Design and Implementation of a Process Migration System for the Linux Environment  

E-print Network

Design and Implementation of a Process Migration System for the Linux Environment Nalini Vasudevan Prasanna Venkatesh Abstract This paper reviews the field of process migration by summarizing the key concepts and giving an overview of a high level process migration algorithm and also provides a unique

452

Reengineering the design change package process for the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station  

SciTech Connect

This reengineering effort looked at the process by which Pennsylvania Power & Light Company performs major modifications, called design change packages (DCPs). The task started with a vision that individual modification projects and the modification process as a whole could be optimized at a significantly lower cost without compromising other department processes and resource requirements.

Meltzer, W.B. [Pennsylvania Power and Light Company, Allentown, PA (United States); Dobson, W.L. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Reading, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

453

Production of activated carbon from bamboo scaffolding waste—process design, evaluation and sensitivity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feasibility study has been carried out on the preliminary process design of the production of activated carbon from the bamboo scaffolding waste based on 30tonnes of bamboo waste per day throughput. A comparison of the process economics of the stand-alone bamboo carbonization plant with a plant that is integrated into another major processing facility has been studied. The preliminary

Keith K. H. Choy; John P. Barford; Gordon McKay

2005-01-01

454

Production of activated carbons from waste tire – process design and economical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process design and economic analysis of process plants to produce activated carbons from waste tires and coal have been performed. The potential range of products from each process has been considered, namely for waste tire – pyro-gas, active carbon, carbon black and pyro-oil; for coal – pyro-gas and active carbons. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out on the main

Danny C. K. Ko; Edward L. K. Mui; Ken S. T. Lau; Gordon McKay

2004-01-01

455

Intelligent Design | Overwhelming Evidence Human DNA repair process video -by chance?  

E-print Network

Intelligent Design | Overwhelming Evidence Human DNA repair process video - by chance? Uncommon Descent - Sat, 2009-01-31 00:42 More details of DNA repair have been revealed. See: Human DNA repair process recorded in action (Video) (PhysOrg.com) -- A key phase in the repair process of damaged human DNA

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

456

Design Considerations of Polishing Lap for Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper establishes a relationship between the polishing process parameters and the generation of mid spatial-frequency error. The consideration of the polishing lap design to optimize the process in order to keep residual errors to a minimum and optimization of the process (speeds, stroke, etc.) and to keep the residual mid spatial-frequency error to a minimum, is also presented.

Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Ramsey, Brian D.

2009-01-01

457

Integration of thermodynamic insights and MINLP optimization for the synthesis, design and analysis of process flowsheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated approach to the solution of process synthesis, design and analysis problems. Integration is achieved by combining two different process synthesis techniques, one based on thermodynamic insights and the other based on structural optimisation, together with a simulation engine and a properties prediction package. Process flowsheets with or without reaction blocks are considered in this paper.

Martin Hostrup; Rafiqul Gani; Zdravko Kravanja; Aleksander Sorsak; Ignacio Grossmann

2001-01-01

458

Engineering Management Model for the early stage of Conceptual Design for the Product Innovation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The product concept phase of the product innovation process is a creative and interdisciplinary activity that transforms a market opportunity and technological innovation into successful products. It is a set of activity based processes in a product-oriented enterprise, and is essential to the economics success of such organization. Well-designed processes reduce development time, create better products, generate profit, and increase

N. Jamali; ETH Zürich; M. Meier

459

The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

2011-01-01

460

Materials and Process Design for High-Temperature Carburizing: Integrating Processing and Performance  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to develop an integrated process for fast, high-temperature carburizing. The new process results in an order of magnitude reduction in cycle time compared to conventional carburizing and represents significant energy savings in addition to a corresponding reduction of scrap associated with distortion free carburizing steels.

D. Apelian

2007-07-23

461

Function-based design process for an intelligent ground vehicle vision system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An engineering design framework for an autonomous ground vehicle vision system is discussed. We present both the conceptual and physical design by following the design process, development and testing of an intelligent ground vehicle vision system constructed for the 2008 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition. During conceptual design, the requirements for the vision system are explored via functional and process analysis considering the flows into the vehicle and the transformations of those flows. The conceptual design phase concludes with a vision system design that is modular in both hardware and software and is based on a laser range finder and camera for visual perception. During physical design, prototypes are developed and tested independently, following the modular interfaces identified during conceptual design. Prototype models, once functional, are implemented into the final design. The final vision system design uses a ray-casting algorithm to process camera and laser range finder data and identify potential paths. The ray-casting algorithm is a single thread of the robot's multithreaded application. Other threads control motion, provide feedback, and process sensory data. Once integrated, both hardware and software testing are performed on the robot. We discuss the robot's performance and the lessons learned.

Nagel, Robert L.; Perry, Kenneth L.; Stone, Robert B.; McAdams, Daniel A.

2010-10-01

462

A Framework for Preliminary Design of Aircraft Structures Based on Process Information. Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses the general framework and development of a computational tool for preliminary design of aircraft structures based on process information. The described methodology is suitable for multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) activities associated with integrated product and process development (IPPD). The framework consists of three parts: (1) product and process definitions; (2) engineering synthesis, and (3) optimization. The product and process definitions are part of input information provided by the design team. The backbone of the system is its ability to analyze a given structural design for performance as well as manufacturability and cost assessment. The system uses a database on material systems and manufacturing processes. Based on the identified set of design variables and an objective function, the system is capable of performing optimization subject to manufacturability, cost, and performance constraints. The accuracy of the manufacturability measures and cost models discussed here depend largely on the available data on specific methods of manufacture and assembly and associated labor requirements. As such, our focus in this research has been on the methodology itself and not so much on its accurate implementation in an industrial setting. A three-tier approach is presented for an IPPD-MDO based design of aircraft structures. The variable-complexity cost estimation methodology and an approach for integrating manufacturing cost assessment into design process are also discussed. This report is presented in two parts. In the first part, the design methodology is presented, and the computational design tool is described. In the second part, a prototype model of the preliminary design Tool for Aircraft Structures based on Process Information (TASPI) is described. Part two also contains an example problem that applies the methodology described here for evaluation of six different design concepts for a wing spar.

Rais-Rohani, Masoud

1998-01-01

463

Coal conversion systems design and process modeling. Volume 1: Application of MPPR and Aspen computer models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a coal gasification system design and mass and energy balance simulation program for the TVA and other similar facilities is described. The materials-process-product model (MPPM) and the advanced system for process engineering (ASPEN) computer program were selected from available steady state and dynamic models. The MPPM was selected to serve as the basis for development of system level design model structure because it provided the capability for process block material and energy balance and high-level systems sizing and costing. The ASPEN simulation serves as the basis for assessing detailed component models for the system design modeling program. The ASPEN components were analyzed to identify particular process blocks and data packages (physical properties) which could be extracted and used in the system design modeling program. While ASPEN physical properties calculation routines are capable of generating physical properties required for process simulation, not all required physical property data are available, and must be user-entered.

1981-01-01

464

A novel double loop control model design for chemical unstable processes.  

PubMed

In this manuscript, based on Smith predictor control scheme for unstable process in industry, an improved double loop control model is proposed for chemical unstable processes. Inner loop is to stabilize integrating the unstable process and transform the original process to first-order plus pure dead-time dynamic stable process. Outer loop is to enhance the performance of set point response. Disturbance controller is designed to enhance the performance of disturbance response. The improved control system is simple with exact physical meaning. The characteristic equation is easy to realize stabilization. Three controllers are separately design in the improved scheme. It is easy to design each controller and good control performance for the respective closed-loop transfer function separately. The robust stability of the proposed control scheme is analyzed. Finally, case studies illustrate that the improved method can give better system performance than existing design methods. PMID:24309506

Cong, Er-Ding; Hu, Ming-Hui; Tu, Shan-Tung; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Shao, Hui-He

2014-03-01

465

TOWARDS THE DESIGN OF A LAYER-BASED ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR THE REALIZATION OF METAL PARTS OF DESIGNED  

E-print Network

and configured in order to effectively support and improve multiple functions of a part (i.e., structural heat-exchangers as a result of designing an AM process for a specific class of geometry (e.g. considerations for small wall of AM for production-scale manufacturing are also detailed. Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Cellular

466

TOWARDS THE DESIGN OF A LAYER-BASED ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR THE REALIZATION OF METAL PARTS OF DESIGNED MESOSTRUCTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-density cellular materials, metallic bodies with gaseous voids, are a unique class of materials that have high strength, good energy absorption characteristics, good thermal and acoustic insulation properties, accompanied by an extremely low mass. Unfortunately, current cellular material manufacturing processes severely limit a designer's ability to control the part mesostructure, the material composition, and the part macrostructure. As such, the

Christopher B. Williams; Farrokh Mistree; David W. Rosen

467

Building a chemical process design system within soar—1. Design issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the potential to include automatic learning in a design agent by implementing a simple distillation sequencing system, CPD-Soar, within Soar. Soar is an integrated software architecture with a build-in set of mechanisms for exhibiting intelligent behavior, including problem-solving, learning and interaction with the environment. Soar has a number of scientific uses: computer scientists build artificially intelligent agents with

A. K. Modi; A. Newell; D. M. Steier; A. W. Westerberg

1995-01-01

468

Improving the Aircraft Design Process Using Web-based Modeling and Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing and developing new aircraft systems is time-consuming and expensive. Computational simulation is a promising means for reducing design cycle times, but requires a flexible software environment capable of integrating advanced multidisciplinary and muitifidelity analysis methods, dynamically managing data across heterogeneous computing platforms, and distributing computationally complex tasks. Web-based simulation, with its emphasis on collaborative composition of simulation models, distributed heterogeneous execution, and dynamic multimedia documentation, has the potential to meet these requirements. This paper outlines the current aircraft design process, highlighting its problems and complexities, and presents our vision of an aircraft design process using Web-based modeling and simulation.

Reed, John A.; Follen, Gregory J.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

2003-01-01

469

Improving the Aircraft Design Process Using Web-Based Modeling and Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing and developing new aircraft systems is time-consuming and expensive. Computational simulation is a promising means for reducing design cycle times, but requires a flexible software environment capable of integrating advanced multidisciplinary and multifidelity analysis methods, dynamically managing data across heterogeneous computing platforms, and distributing computationally complex tasks. Web-based simulation, with its emphasis on collaborative composition of simulation models, distributed heterogeneous execution, and dynamic multimedia documentation, has the potential to meet these requirements. This paper outlines the current aircraft design process, highlighting its problems and complexities, and presents our vision of an aircraft design process using Web-based modeling and simulation.

Reed, John A.; Follen, Gregory J.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Follen, Gregory J. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

470

The Iterative Design Process in Research and Development: A Work Experience Paper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The iterative design process is one of many strategies used in new product development. Top-down development strategies, like waterfall development, place a heavy emphasis on planning and simulation. The iterative process, on the other hand, is better suited to the management of small to medium scale projects. Over the past four months, I have worked with engineers at Johnson Space Center on a multitude of electronics projects. By describing the work I have done these last few months, analyzing the factors that have driven design decisions, and examining the testing and verification process, I will demonstrate that iterative design is the obvious choice for research and development projects.

Sullivan, George F. III

2013-01-01

471

Agency, invention, and sympatric design platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project investigates the problems associated with course software platforms from the perspective of user-centered design, examining student agency and invention specifically in environments like WebCT, Wikis, and MS SharePoint 3.0. I argue for course design platforms that are structured on informed technogogies at the instructor and curricular levels. Drawing on concepts from biological evolution and anthropology, I propose that

Brian J. Mcnely

2007-01-01

472

Assessing Process and Coating Reliability Through Monitoring of Process and Design  

E-print Network

barrier coatings, variability, yttria-stabilized zirconia 1. Background Plasma spray is a highly complex; in revised form October 14, 2009) Thermal spray in general, plasma spray in particular, is a highly complex on design- relevant coating properties were obtained for plasma-sprayed zirconia through recourse to novel

Nakamura, Toshio

473

The PhOCoe Model--ergonomic pattern mapping in participatory design processes.  

PubMed

The discipline and practice of human factors and ergonomics is quite rich in terms of the availability of analysis, development and evaluation tools and methods for its various processes. However, we lack effective instruments to either map or regulate comprehensively and effectively, cognitive and organizational related impacts, especially the environmental ones. Moreover, when ergonomic transformations through design - such as a new workstation design or even an entire new facility - is at play, ergonomics professionals tend to stay at bay, relying solely on design professionals and engineers. There is vast empirical evidence showing that participation of ergonomists as project facilitators, may contribute to an effective professional synergy amongst the various stakeholders in a multidisciplinary venue. When that happens, everyone wins - users and designers alike -because eventual conflicts, raised up in the midst of options selection, are dissipated in exchange for more convergent design alternatives. This paper presents a method for participatory design, in which users are encouraged to actively participate in the whole design process by sharing their real work activities with the design team. The negotiated results inferred from the ergonomic action and translated into a new design, are then compiled into a "Ergonomic Pattern Manual". This handbook of ergonomics-oriented design guidelines contains essential guidelines to be consulted in recurrent design project situations in which similar patterns might be used. The main drive is simple: nobody knows better than workers themselves what an adequate workplace design solution (equipment, workstation, office layout) should be. PMID:22317120

Silva e Santos, Marcello

2012-01-01

474

Holistic and Consistent Design Process for Hollow Structures Based on Braided Textiles and RTM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper elaborates a holistic and consistent design process for 2D braided composites in conjunction with Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM). These technologies allow a cost-effective production of composites due to their high degree of automation. Literature can be found that deals with specific tasks of the respective technologies but there is no work available that embraces the complete process chain. Therefore, an overall design process is developed within the present paper. It is based on a correlated conduction of sub-design processes for the braided preform, RTM-injection, mandrel plus mould and manufacturing. For each sub-process both, individual tasks and reasonable methods to accomplish them are presented. The information flow within the design process is specified and interdependences are illustrated. Composite designers will be equipped with an efficient set of tools because the respective methods regard the complexity of the part. The design process is applied for a demonstrator in a case study. The individual sub-design processes are accomplished exemplarily to judge about the feasibility of the presented work. For validation reasons, predicted braiding angles and fibre volume fractions are compared with measured ones and a filling and curing simulation based on PAM-RTM is checked against mould filling studies. Tool concepts for a RTM mould and mandrels that realise undercuts are tested. The individual process parameters for manufacturing are derived from previous design steps. Furthermore, the compatibility of the chosen fibre and matrix system is investigated based on pictures of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The annual production volume of the demonstrator part is estimated based on these findings.

Gnädinger, Florian; Karcher, Michael; Henning, Frank; Middendorf, Peter

2014-06-01

475

Design of a dataway processor for a parallel image signal processing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, demands for high-speed signal processing have been increasing especially in the field of image data compression, computer graphics, and medical imaging. To achieve sufficient power for real-time image processing, we have been developing parallel signal-processing systems. This paper describes a communication processor called 'dataway processor' designed for a new scalable parallel signal-processing system. The processor has six high-speed communication

Mitsuru Nomura; Tetsurou Fujii; Sadayasu Ono

1995-01-01

476

A new approach to the detail design phase of the IIDE Design Process through insights from software design  

E-print Network

. . . Figure 27 Checklist for Functional Data. Figure 28 Checklist for Non-Functional Data. Figure 29 Checklist for Identification of Interfaces. Figure 30 Checklist for Assembly and Part Drawings . . Figure 31 Checklist for Detail Calculations . . Figure... 32 Checklist for Three-Dimensional Computer Models. . . . . Figure 33 Checklist for Exploded Views . . . . . Figure 34 Checklist for Design for Manufacturability of the Component. . . . Figure 35 Checklist for Assembly Procedures. Figure 36...

Bhat, Gireesh Keshav

2012-06-07

477

Design and implementation of the parallel processing system of multi-channel polarization images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with traditional optical intensity image processing, polarization images processing has two main problems. One is that the amount of data is larger. The other is that processing tasks is more complex. To resolve these problems, the parallel processing system of multi-channel polarization images is designed by the multi-DSP technique. It contains a communication control unit (CCU) and a data processing array (DPA). CCU controls communications inside and outside the system. Its logics are designed by a FPGA chip. DPA is made up of four Digital Signal Processor (DSP) chips, which are interlinked by the loose coupling method. DPA implements processing tasks including images registration and images synthesis by parallel processing methods. The polarization images parallel processing model is designed on multi levels including the system task, the algorithm and the operation. Its program is designed by the assemble language. While the polarization image resolution is 782x582 pixels, the pixel data length is 12 bits in the experiment. After it received 3 channels of polarization image simultaneously, this system implements parallel task to acquire the target polarization characteristics. Experimental results show that this system has good real-time and reliability. The processing time of images registration is 293.343ms while the registration accuracy achieves 0.5 pixel. The processing time of images synthesis is 3.199ms.

Li, Zhi-yong; Huang, Qin-chao

2013-08-01

478

A preliminary process design and economic assessment of a catalyst rejuvenation process for waste disposal of refinery spent catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spent hydroprocessing catalysts from refineries have been classified as hazardous solid waste by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), refiners must find a viable but economical solution to solve this serious environmental issue. Catalyst rejuvenation is an attractive option for minimizing the environmental problems associated with spent catalysts. In this study, a preliminary design for such a process and

Meena Marafi; Antony Stanislaus; Ezra Kam

2008-01-01

479

CENSUS DESIGNATED PLACE AND FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARD (FIPS) POPULATED PLACEBOUNDARIES FOR THE STATE OF ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set consists of Census Designated Place and Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Populated Place boundaries for the State of Arizona which were extracted from the 1992 U.S. Census Bureau TIGER line files. ...

480

HIERARCHIAL DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF PROCESSES TO GENERATE WASTE-RECYCLED FEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hierarchical Design and Evaluation of Processes to Generate Waste-Recycled Feeds Raymond L. Smith U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development National Risk Management Research Laboratory 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive Cincinna...

481

The design, synthesis and properties of pressure-processable biodegradable block copolymers  

E-print Network

In this thesis, biodegradable block copolyesters were specifically designed and synthesized for their susceptibility to pressure-induced mixing. These baroplastic materials are capable of being processed and molded through ...

Lovell, Nathan Gary

2005-01-01

482

The Design of Evolutionary Process Modeling Languages Darren C. Atkinson, Daniel C. Weeks, and John Noll  

E-print Network

The Design of Evolutionary Process Modeling Languages Darren C. Atkinson, Daniel C. Weeks, and John. If the language definition is too loose, it may not be amenable to meaning- ful analysis or automation

Noll, John

483

DESIGN OF A TRAP GREASE UPGRADER FOR BIOFUEL PROCESSING - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

This project provides capstone senior design experience to several teams of engineering undergraduates at Drexel University through the technical and economic evaluation of a trap grease to biodiesel conversion process. The project incorporates two phases: Phase I characteri...

484

Climbing The Knowledge Mountain - The New Solids Processing Design And Management Manual (Presentation)  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA, Water Environment Federation (WEF) and Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), are undertaking a massive effort to produce a Solids Processing Design and Management Manual (Manual). The Manual, repr...

485

Climbing The Knowledge Mountain - The New Solids Processing Design And Management Manual  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA, Water Environment Federation (WEF) and Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), are undertaking a massive effort to produce a Solids Processing Design and Management Manual (Manual). The Manual, repr...

486

The classification and analysis of terrace houses and the rationalization of their design process  

E-print Network

This study was done in relation to contextual levels; A general level of structural-methodical rationalization problems of the planning and design process. This general level was related mainly to the building types which ...

Nattel, Gabriel Moshe

1979-01-01

487

Dramatic Reductions in Lead Time at Volvo Based on Restructuring the Design Process and Introducing Computers  

E-print Network

Dramatic Reductions in Lead Time at Volvo Based on Restructuring the Design Process and Introducing gets 924,000, more than all the US car builders combined. Thus proportionately, Sweden's car industry

Whitney, Daniel

488

GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

489

Development of an automated research and design system for technological processes of heat and mass transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proves the necessity of developing problem-oriented automated research and design systems (ARDSs) for technological processes of heat and mass transfer. The structure, operation, and functions of ARDSs are discussed together with their software and hardware.

S. V. Mishchenko; S. V. Ponomarev

1994-01-01

490

System design process for refractive simultaneous short and long wave infrared imaging.  

PubMed

The future of optical design is multispectral imaging. Advancements in detector technology have led to the challenge of imaging over both short wave infrared and long wave infrared spectrums. This paper discusses the technical hurdles associated with designing a refractor to image over both of these spectrums, such as minimizing chromatic focal shift while maximizing contrast. The design process is outlined on an eight element F/1, 23° full field of view solution. Optomechanical design forms are evaluated by analyzing possible stresses and tolerance errors. Antireflection coating designs are discussed to complete the full system. This entire design process is highlighted as a feasibility study for the future of multispectral imaging devices. PMID:23669687

Herman, Eric; Czajkowski, Amber; Stroschine, Daniel; Sparrold, Scott

2013-04-20

491

Process technology and design parameter impact on SRAM Bit-Cell Sleep effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRAM Bit-Cell Sleep technique is extensively used in processors to minimize SRAM leakage power. However, magnitude of leakage power savings from SRAM bit-cell sleep technique is dependent on process technology and various design parameters. This paper analyzes influence of design parameters like VCCMIN_RET, DVS, ITD and NBTI on effectiveness of SRAM bit-cell sleep scheme. Impact of Process Technology on SRAM

Guru Shamanna; B. S. Kshatri; R. Gaurav; Y. S. Tew; P. Marfatia; Y. Raghavendra; V. Naik

2010-01-01

492

Design of visual prosthesis image processing system based on SoC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a visual prosthesis image processing system based on Leon3 SoC (System on Chip) platform. The system is built through GRLIB system development platform. It integrates the image preprocessing IP core, image encoder IP core and image data modulation IP core we designed. We transplant the system to the FPGA development board and verify the system functions. The results show that the designed system can achieve the functions of visual prosthesis image processing system effectively.

Guo, Fei; Yang, Yuan; Gao, Yong; Wu, Chuan Ke