Sample records for user-centered design process

  1. Technical Communication User-Centered Design

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Technical Communication & User-Centered Design Professor Susan Feinberg, Ph.D. Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago, Illinois, USA #12;Overview > Part 1: Introduction to Technical Communication (Tech 1 Introduction to Technical Communication #12;What is Technical Communication? > Conveying technical

  2. Designing online courses: user-centered practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Blythe

    2001-01-01

    Teachers who develop Web-based courses must learn to act like designers; however, the type of design practice one undertakes has more than pedagogical implications. It can have political and ethical implications as well. In this article, I compare two models for design—systems and user-centered—each of which embodies different values. I argue that models of technology design can be applied to

  3. User-Centered Graphical User Interface Design for GIS

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    User-Centered Graphical User Interface Design for GIS April 1991 David P. Lanter NCGIA Department for Geographic Information and Analysis Report 91-6 #12;User-Centered Graphical User Interface Design for GIS design focuses on how to best represent the software functionality rather than on how to meet

  4. "Are You Talking to Me?"--Teaching User-Centered Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemnitzer, Ronald B.

    2005-01-01

    User-centered design (UCD) is an approach to design that grounds the process in information about the people who will use the product. UCD processes focus on users through the planning, design and development of a product. Establishing a User Profile is certainly a key element in user-centered design. For many products, such as an automobile, a…

  5. User-Centered Design through Learner-Centered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altay, Burçak

    2014-01-01

    This article initially demonstrates the parallels between the learner-centered approach in education and the user-centered approach in design disciplines. Afterward, a course on human factors that applies learner-centered methods to teach user-centered design is introduced. The focus is on three tasks to identify the application of theoretical and…

  6. Teaching User-Centered Design in New Product Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Edwin; Stone, Donn E.; Wilton, Taine

    2011-01-01

    Thanks in part to groundbreaking work by companies such as Apple and IDEO, there has been growing interest in design as a way to improve the odds of new product success. This paper describes a user-centered design workshop developed for a new product marketing course. The workshop included exercises designed to explain and illustrate the…

  7. Meta--Design: Beyond User-Centered and Participatory Design Gerhard Fischer

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Gerhard

    Meta--Design: Beyond User-Centered and Participatory Design Gerhard Fischer University of Colorado, Center for LifeLong Learning and Design (L3D) Department of Computer Science, 430 UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0430 ­ USA gerhard@cs.colorado.edu Abstract Meta-design characterizes objectives, techniques, and processes

  8. Usability Studies and User-Centered Design in Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Digital libraries continue to flourish. At the same time, the principles of user-centered design and the practice of usability testing have been growing in popularity, spreading their influence into the library sphere. This article explores the confluence of these two trends by surveying the current literature on usability studies of digital…

  9. User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordac, Sarah; Rainwater, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University…

  10. User-Centered Interface Design of Social Websites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang-cheng Lin; Chung-hsing Yeh

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops neural network (NN) models to examine how key design elements of a social website will affect users’ feelings\\u000a or perceptions. An experimental study of 96 university websites is conducted based on a user-centered approach. The study\\u000a identifies seven website design elements and 33 representative websites as experimental samples for training and testing four\\u000a NN models. These four

  11. Current State of Agile User-Centered Design: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

    Agile software development methods are quite popular nowadays and are being adopted at an increasing rate in the industry every year. However, these methods are still lacking usability awareness in their development lifecycle, and the integration of usability/User-Centered Design (UCD) into agile methods is not adequately addressed. This paper presents the preliminary results of a recently conducted online survey regarding the current state of the integration of agile methods and usability/UCD. A world wide response of 92 practitioners was received. The results show that the majority of practitioners perceive that the integration of agile methods with usability/UCD has added value to their adopted processes and to their teams; has resulted in the improvement of usability and quality of the product developed; and has increased the satisfaction of the end-users of the product developed. The top most used HCI techniques are low-fidelity prototyping, conceptual designs, observational studies of users, usability expert evaluations, field studies, personas, rapid iterative testing, and laboratory usability testing.

  12. A Study in User-Centered Design and Evaluation of Mental Tasks for BCI

    E-print Network

    Nijholt, Anton

    process may also help in moving beyond the limited mental tasks that are currently common in BCI systemsA Study in User-Centered Design and Evaluation of Mental Tasks for BCI Danny Plass-Oude Bos, Mannes. To illustrate the usefulness of these methods to BCI, we involved potential users in the design process of a BCI

  13. User-centered virtual environment design for virtual rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As physical and cognitive rehabilitation protocols utilizing virtual environments transition from single applications to comprehensive rehabilitation programs there is a need for a new design cycle methodology. Current human-computer interaction designs focus on usability without benchmarking technology within a user-in-the-loop design cycle. The field of virtual rehabilitation is unique in that determining the efficacy of this genre of computer-aided therapies requires prior knowledge of technology issues that may confound patient outcome measures. Benchmarking the technology (e.g., displays or data gloves) using healthy controls may provide a means of characterizing the "normal" performance range of the virtual rehabilitation system. This standard not only allows therapists to select appropriate technology for use with their patient populations, it also allows them to account for technology limitations when assessing treatment efficacy. Methods An overview of the proposed user-centered design cycle is given. Comparisons of two optical see-through head-worn displays provide an example of benchmarking techniques. Benchmarks were obtained using a novel vision test capable of measuring a user's stereoacuity while wearing different types of head-worn displays. Results from healthy participants who performed both virtual and real-world versions of the stereoacuity test are discussed with respect to virtual rehabilitation design. Results The user-centered design cycle argues for benchmarking to precede virtual environment construction, especially for therapeutic applications. Results from real-world testing illustrate the general limitations in stereoacuity attained when viewing content using a head-worn display. Further, the stereoacuity vision benchmark test highlights differences in user performance when utilizing a similar style of head-worn display. These results support the need for including benchmarks as a means of better understanding user outcomes, especially for patient populations. Conclusions The stereoacuity testing confirms that without benchmarking in the design cycle poor user performance could be misconstrued as resulting from the participant's injury state. Thus, a user-centered design cycle that includes benchmarking for the different sensory modalities is recommended for accurate interpretation of the efficacy of the virtual environment based rehabilitation programs. PMID:20170519

  14. User-centered systems engineering approach to design and modeling of smarter products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tareq Z. Ahram; Waldemar Karwowski

    2010-01-01

    Employing user-centered design principles along with systems engineering methodology to the development of smarter products has the potential of establishing a novel field of research. This paper introduces a novel user-centered human factors knowledge management framework for collaborative design and modeling of the next generation of smarter products. A conceptual framework and practical application of user-centered systems engineering approach to

  15. A Mobile/Web App for Long Distance Caregivers of Older Adults: Functional Requirements and Design Implications from a User Centered Design Process

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Steven S.; Gorman, Paul N.; Jimison, Holly B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends of population aging and globalization have required an increasing number of individuals to act as long distance caregivers (LDCs) to aging family members. Information technology solutions may ease the burden placed on LDCs by providing remote monitoring, easier access to information and enhanced communication. While some technology tools have been introduced, the information and technology needs of LDCs in particular are not well understood. Consequently, a needs assessment was performed by using video conferencing software to conduct semi-structured interviews with 10 LDCs. Interviews were enriched through the use of stimulus materials that included the demonstration of a prototype LDC health management web/mobile app. Responses were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed. Subjects indicated that information regarding medication regimens and adherence, calendaring, and cognitive health were most needed. Participants also described needs for video calling, activity data regarding sleep and physical exercise, asynchronous communication, photo sharing, journaling, access to online health resources, real-time monitoring, an overall summary of health, and feedback/suggestions to help them improve as caregivers. In addition, all respondents estimated their usage of a LDC health management website would be at least once per week, with half indicating a desire to access the website from a smartphone. These findings are being used to inform the design of a LDC health management website to promote the meaningful involvement of distant family members in the care of older adults. PMID:25954469

  16. User-Centered Design Practices Management and Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf Gaffar; Naouel Moha; Ahmed Seffah

    Poor design of interactive systems has been attributed to insufficient communication between different people involved in the design process. The software engineering community has popularized patterns as one possible solution to this problem. Interaction design patterns, also referred to as Human Computer Interaction (HCI)- or User Interface (UI) patterns, have been proposed as one step towards building more reusable components

  17. Designing User-Centered Web Applications in Web Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molly Hammar Cloyd

    2001-01-01

    As designers struggle to develop Web applications “in Web time,” they are under the added pressure of delivering usability. The author describes her company's successful transformation to user-driven processes for designing e-commerce applications. She also offers strategies for introducing human factors methods into a reluctant development organization

  18. NGDS User Centered Design Meeting the Needs of the Geothermal Community

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Suzanne [Anthro-Tech, Inc; Zheng, Sam [Siemens Corporation; Patten, Kim [Arizona Geological Survey; Blackman, Harold [Boise State University

    2013-10-01

    In order to ensure the widest and greatest utility of IT and software projects designed for geothermal reservoir engineer- ing the full consideration of end users’ task and workflow needs must be evaluated. This paper describes the user-centered design (UCD) approach taken in the development of a user interface (UI) solution for the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This development process has been research based, highly collabora- tive, and incorporates state-of-the-art practices to ensure a quality user experience. Work is continuing on the interface, including future usability tests to further refine the interfaces as the overall system is developed.

  19. NGDS USER CENTERED DESIGN MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Suzanne [Anthro-Tech; Zheng, Sam Xianjun [Siemens Corporation; Patten, Kim [Arizona Geological Survey; Blackman, Harold [Boise State University

    2013-12-23

    In order to ensure the widest and greatest utility of IT and software projects designed for geothermal reservoir engineering the full consideration of end users’ task and workflow needs must be evaluated. This paper describes the user-centered design (UCD) approach taken in the development of a user interface (UI) solution for the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This development process has been researched based, highly collaborative, and incorporates state-of-the-art practices to ensure a quality user experience. Work is continuing on the interface, including future usability tests to further refine the interfaces as the overall system is developed.

  20. User-centered design, activity-centered design, and goal-directed design: a review of three methods for designing web applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley Williams

    2009-01-01

    When conducting research with users in order to design web applications, the practitioner has a variety of methods from which to choose. This paper examines three such methods'User-Centered Design (UCD), Goal-Directed Design (GDD), and Activity-Centered Design (ACD)'in terms of their foundations, processes, and deliverables.

  1. A review of user-centered design for diabetes-related consumer health informatics technologies.

    PubMed

    LeRouge, Cynthia; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

    2013-07-01

    User-centered design (UCD) is well recognized as an effective human factor engineering strategy for designing ease of use in the total customer experience with products and information technology that has been applied specifically to health care information technology systems. We conducted a literature review to analyze the current research regarding the use of UCD methods and principles to support the development or evaluation of diabetes-related consumer health informatics technology (CHIT) initiatives. Findings indicate that (1) UCD activities have been applied across the technology development life cycle stages, (2) there are benefits to incorporating UCD to better inform CHIT development in this area, and (3) the degree of adoption of the UCD process is quite uneven across diabetes CHIT studies. In addition, few to no studies report on methods used across all phases of the life cycle with process detail. To address that void, the Appendix provides an illustrative case study example of UCD techniques across development stages. PMID:23911188

  2. A Review of User-Centered Design for Diabetes-Related Consumer Health Informatics Technologies

    PubMed Central

    LeRouge, Cynthia; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

    2013-01-01

    User-centered design (UCD) is well recognized as an effective human factor engineering strategy for designing ease of use in the total customer experience with products and information technology that has been applied specifically to health care information technology systems. We conducted a literature review to analyze the current research regarding the use of UCD methods and principles to support the development or evaluation of diabetes-related consumer health informatics technology (CHIT) initiatives. Findings indicate that (1) UCD activities have been applied across the technology development life cycle stages, (2) there are benefits to incorporating UCD to better inform CHIT development in this area, and (3) the degree of adoption of the UCD process is quite uneven across diabetes CHIT studies. In addition, few to no studies report on methods used across all phases of the life cycle with process detail. To address that void, the Appendix provides an illustrative case study example of UCD techniques across development stages. PMID:23911188

  3. Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

  4. Towards failure-based decision-making during design: user-centered design meets design methods research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca A. Barrientos; Elin R. Pedersen; Irem Y. Tumer

    2005-01-01

    The function failure design method was introduced to enable failure-based decision-making during the early stages of conceptual design. In ongoing work, design researchers are validating this design method on NASA mission design data. To facilitate the adoption of this method by practicing design engineers, a user-centered design approach is applied to the development of the design method tools. This paper

  5. Improving the quality of numerical software through user-centered design

    SciTech Connect

    Pancake, C. M., Oregon State University

    1998-06-01

    The software interface - whether graphical, command-oriented, menu-driven, or in the form of subroutine calls - shapes the user`s perception of what software can do. It also establishes upper bounds on software usability. Numerical software interfaces typically are based on the designer`s understanding of how the software should be used. That is a poor foundation for usability, since the features that are ``instinctively right`` from the developer`s perspective are often the very ones that technical programmers find most objectionable or most difficult to learn. This paper discusses how numerical software interfaces can be improved by involving users more actively in design, a process known as user-centered design (UCD). While UCD requires extra organization and effort, it results in much higher levels of usability and can actually reduce software costs. This is true not just for graphical user interfaces, but for all software interfaces. Examples show how UCD improved the usability of a subroutine library, a command language, and an invocation interface.

  6. A new user-centered design approach: a hair washing assistive device design for users with shoulder mobility restriction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fong-Gong; Ma, Min-Yuan; Chang, Ro-Han

    2009-09-01

    This study utilized a user-centered design approach as the foundation for a new Assistive Device (AD) design process. Observation and evaluation results from a Usability Context Analysis (UCA) was used to improve the analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT Analysis) and the matrix of Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses, and Strengths (TOWS matrix), resulting in two assistive device design methods named AD-SWOT and AD-TOWS. Thus, an AD-design process, tailored for designing assistive devices, was both established and tested. Owing to the information gained from using the design processes and evaluating product efficiency with various cases in the early part of the research, it was decided to use the AD-design process for the entire design process. Using this process, an adjustable hair washer for physically disabled individuals to wash their hair using normal postures was developed. Furthermore, the method derived in this study can also be applied to users suffering from single-sided shoulder-joint mobility disabilities, such as frontal flexion, scapular plan elevation, and restricted abductors. PMID:19232409

  7. Investigating Agile User-Centered Design in Practice: A Grounded Theory Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

    This paper investigates how the integration of agile methods and User-Centered Design (UCD) is carried out in practice. For this study, we have applied grounded theory as a suitable qualitative approach to determine what is happening in actual practice. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews with professionals who have already worked with an integrated agile UCD methodology. Further data was collected by observing these professionals in their working context, and by studying their documents, where possible. The emerging themes that the study found show that there is an increasing realization of the importance of usability in software development among agile team members. The requirements are emerging; and both low and high fidelity prototypes based usability tests are highly used in agile teams. There is an appreciation of each other's work from both UCD professionals and developers and both sides can learn from each other.

  8. Metaphor --A Pattern Language for User Centered Software Design Todd Coram (todd@btg.com) and Jim Lee (jlee@btg.com)

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    Metaphor -- A Pattern Language for User Centered Software Design Todd Coram (todd@btg.com) and Jim, Bringing Design to Software [Liddle96] Here are the beginnings of a pattern language that can be used

  9. The User-Centered Design as Novel Perspective for Evaluating the Usability of BCI-Controlled Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kübler, Andrea; Holz, Elisa M.; Riccio, Angela; Zickler, Claudia; Kaufmann, Tobias; Kleih, Sonja C.; Staiger-Sälzer, Pit; Desideri, Lorenzo; Hoogerwerf, Evert-Jan; Mattia, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    Albeit research on brain-computer interfaces (BCI) for controlling applications has expanded tremendously, we still face a translational gap when bringing BCI to end-users. To bridge this gap, we adapted the user-centered design (UCD) to BCI research and development which implies a shift from focusing on single aspects, such as accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR), to a more holistic user experience. The UCD implements an iterative process between end-users and developers based on a valid evaluation procedure. Within the UCD framework usability of a device can be defined with regard to its effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. We operationalized these aspects to evaluate BCI-controlled applications. Effectiveness was regarded equivalent to accuracy of selections and efficiency to the amount of information transferred per time unit and the effort invested (workload). Satisfaction was assessed with questionnaires and visual-analogue scales. These metrics have been successfully applied to several BCI-controlled applications for communication and entertainment, which were evaluated by end-users with severe motor impairment. Results of four studies, involving a total of N?=?19 end-users revealed: effectiveness was moderate to high; efficiency in terms of ITR was low to high and workload low to medium; depending on the match between user and technology, and type of application satisfaction was moderate to high. The here suggested evaluation metrics within the framework of the UCD proved to be an applicable and informative approach to evaluate BCI controlled applications, and end-users with severe impairment and in the locked-in state were able to participate in this process. PMID:25469774

  10. Multimedia Health Records: user-centered design approach for a multimedia uploading service.

    PubMed

    Plazzotta, Fernando; Mayan, John C; Storani, Fernando D; Ortiz, Juan M; Lopez, Gastón E; Gimenez, Gastón M; Luna, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia elements add value to text documents by transmitting information difficult to express in words. In healthcare, many professional and services keep this elements in their own repositories. This brings the problem of information fragmentation in different silos which hinder its access to other healthcare professionals. On the other hand patients have clinical data of their own in different formats generated in different healthcare organizations which is not accessible to professionals within our healthcare network. This paper describes the design, development and implementation processes of a service which allows media elements to be loaded in a patient clinical data repository (CDR) either through an electronic health record by professionals (EHR) or through a personal health record (PHR) by patients, in order to avoid fragmentation of the information. PMID:25991192

  11. A User-Centered Methodological Framework for the Design of Hypermedia-based CALL Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jae-eun; Wastell, David G.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses research aimed at improving the educational quality of hypermedia-based computer assisted language learning systems. Focuses on a methodological framework that draws on recent developments in the field of human-computer interaction regarding interactive system design and a general constructivist approach to the design of computer-based…

  12. "Less Clicking, More Watching": Results from the User-Centered Design of a Multi-Institutional Web Site for Art and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergo, John; Karat, Clare-Marie; Karat, John; Pinhanez, Claudio; Arora, Renee; Cofino, Thomas; Riecken, Doug; Podlaseck, Mark

    This paper summarizes a 10-month long research project conducted at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center aimed at developing the design concept of a multi-institutional art and culture web site. The work followed a user-centered design (UCD) approach, where interaction with prototypes and feedback from potential users of the web site were sought…

  13. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  14. Community-based participatory research and user-centered design in a diabetes medication information and decision tool

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Vida A; Barr, Kathryn LC; An, Lawrence C; Guajardo, Claudia; Newhouse, William; Mase, Rebecca; Heisler, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Background Together, community-based participatory research (CBPR), usercentered design (UCD) and health information technology (HIT) offer promising approaches to improve health disparities in low-resource settings. Objectives This article describes the application of CBPR and UCD principles to the development of iDecide/Decido, an interactive, tailored, web-based diabetes medication education and decision support tool delivered by community health workers (CHWs) to African-American and Latino participants with diabetes in Southwest and Eastside Detroit. The decision aid is offered in English or Spanish and is delivered on an iPad in participants’ homes. Methods The overlapping principles of CBPR and UCD used to develop iDecide/Decido include: a user-focused or community approach; equitable academic and community partnership in all study phases; an iterative development process that relies on input from all stakeholders; and a program experience that is specified, adapted, and implemented with the target community. Results Collaboration between community members, researchers, and developers is especially evident in the program’s design concept, animations, pictographs, issue cards, goal setting, tailoring, and additional CHW tools. Conclusions Applying the principles of CBPR and UCD can be successfully employed in developing health information tools that are easy to use and understand, interactive, and target health disparities. PMID:23793248

  15. Putting the users center stage: role playing and low-fi prototyping enable end users to design mobile systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dag Svanaes; Gry Seland

    2004-01-01

    This paper sums up lessons learned from a sequence of cooperative design workshops where end users were enabled to design mobile systems through scenario building, role playing, and low-fidelity prototyping. We present a resulting fixed workshop structure with well-chosen constraints that allows for end users to explore and design new technology and work practices. In these workshops, the systems developers

  16. ezHPC: Adopting a Program-Wide, User-Centered Design Approach to the ezHPC User Interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Baca; Wes Monceaux; Patti Duett; Kimba Buchanan; Scotty Swillie; Glen Browning; N. Rappold; S. Duett

    2007-01-01

    The Engineer Research and Development Center Major Shared Resource Center (ERDC MSRC) has been tasked by the Department of Defense (DoD) High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) to adopt a program-wide design for the development of the recently introduced ezHPC user interface. The purpose of ezHPC is to provide all HPCMP users intuitive, efficient access to high performance computing (HPC)

  17. An interactive and user-centered computer system to predict physician's disease judgments in discharge summaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan P. DeShazo; Anne M. Turner

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes a formative natural language processing (NLP) system that is grounded in user-centered design, simplification, and transparency of function. Methods: The NLP system was tasked to classify diseases within patient discharge summaries and is evaluated against clinician judgment during the 2008 i2b2 Shared Task competition. Text classification is performed by interactive, fully supervised learning using rule-based processes

  18. Toward a User-Centered Academic Library Home Page

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Nina

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, academic libraries have struggled with the design of an effective library home page. Since librarians' mental models of information architecture differ from those of their patrons, usability assessments are necessary in designing a user-centered home page. This study details a usability sequence of card sort and paper and…

  19. A Path to Providing User-Centered Subject Guides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tammy Stitz; Shari Laster; Frank J. Bove; Casey Wise

    2011-01-01

    The experience at the University of Akron illustrates a transitional path from static websites to dynamic, user-centered Web design. Starting with Web-based subject resource guides that were difficult to maintain and navigate, University Libraries migrated to a content management system that solved existing maintenance issues and created the opportunity for interactive resource lists. Subsequent usability testing found that users needed

  20. User-centered evaluation of information: a research challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphne R. Raban

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to present the concept of the value of information, review the descriptive, rational, social and behavioral approaches for assessing the value of information, and explain why user-centered rather than information-centered evaluations are the most relevant. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - The paper starts by highlighting the main facets and market characteristics which influence the value of information.

  1. Webgrep: Web Webgrep: User Centered Web Personalization

    E-print Network

    Tanaka, Jiro

    Webgrep: Web Webgrep: User Centered Web Personalization y Hironobu Aoki yy Jiro Tanaka y Master and Electronics,University of Tsukuba WWW Web Web Webgrep Webgrep 1 Web Web Web Web Web [1] My Yahoo! [2] MyNetscape [3] amazon.com [4] Web Web 2 Web Web |1| #12;1. Web 2. 3. 4. Web WWWC [5] Web Auto [6] Web 1 2 Web 3

  2. Applying a Warfighter-Centric System Design Process to a Department of Defense Acquisition Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela A. Savage-Knepshield

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes a user-centered system design process that was undertaken by a team of multidisciplinary engineers supporting the Joint Tactical Radio System Handheld, Manpack and Small Form Fit Program. Motivated by the need to manage the risk associated with designing a compact, software-programmable radio to meet the diverse needs of the joint forces, the team applied cognitive engineering

  3. Students and faculty come together in Human Centered Design & Engineering (HCDE) to focus on understanding human needs and interests as they solve the engineering problems our world is facing. From user-centered design to human-computer interaction, we

    E-print Network

    Students and faculty come together in Human Centered Design & Engineering (HCDE) to focus of the field. OUR VISION Educating tomorrow's leaders is our highest priority. Our students design the future with an interdisciplinary community of faculty, students, and researchers, our graduates are building the technologies

  4. A User-Centered Cooperative Information System for Medical Imaging Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Enrique J.; Quiles, Jose A.; Sanz, Marcos F.; del Pozo, Francisco

    1998-01-01

    Presents a cooperative information system for remote medical imaging diagnosis. General computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) problems addressed are definition of a procedure for the design of user-centered cooperative systems (conceptual level); and improvement of user feedback and optimization of the communication bandwidth in highly…

  5. User Centered Research for Interactive Television Leena Eronen

    E-print Network

    Masthoff, Judith

    User Centered Research for Interactive Television Leena Eronen Telecommunications Software television programs. During the study, the study participants were interviewed. They were asked to answer questions about their television use and to comment on artist's drawings presenting the possible future

  6. Future integrated design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The design process is one of the sources used to produce requirements for a computer system to integrate and manage product design data, program management information, and technical computation and engineering data management activities of the aerospace design process. Design activities were grouped chronologically and explored for activity type, activity interface, data quantity, and data flow. The work was based on analysis of the design process of several typical aerospace products, including both conventional and supersonic airplanes and a hydrofoil design. Activities examined included research, preliminary design, detail design, manufacturing interface, product verification, and product support. The design process was then described in an IPAD environment--the future.

  7. NETL - Supercomputing: NETL Simulation Based Engineering User Center (SBEUC)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-16

    NETL's Simulation-Based Engineering User Center, or SBEUC, integrates one of the world's largest high-performance computers with an advanced visualization center. The SBEUC offers a collaborative environment among researchers at NETL sites and those working through the NETL-Regional University Alliance.

  8. Creating User-Centered Instructions for Novice End-Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahl, Diane

    1999-01-01

    Discusses written instructional materials created by librarians for end users searching database systems. Highlights include novice user studies; the importance of print instruction in digital information environments; a paradigm shift from system-centered to user-centered focuses in technical writing and user documentation for software; and…

  9. Technical ICTD -A User Centered Lifecycle Joerg Doerflinger1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Technical ICTD - A User Centered Lifecycle Joerg Doerflinger1 and Tom Gross2 1 SAP Research, CEC Karlsruhe, Vincenz-Priessnitz-Strasse 1, Karlsruhe, 76131, Germany, joerg.doerflinger@sap.com 2 Faculty for technical ICTD research based on results and lessons learned of a research project in rural South Africa

  10. Detecting Changes in User-Centered Music Query Streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua-fu Li; Man-kwan Shan; Suh-yin Lee

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inthis paper, we propose an efficient algorithm, called MQS- change (changes of Music Query Streams), to detect the changes,of maximal ,melody ,structures in user-centered music query streams. Two music melody,structures (set of chord-sets and,string of chord-sets) are maintained ,and ,four melody structure changes (positive burst, negative burst, increasing change,and ,decreasing ,change) are monitored ,in a ,new ,data structure,MSC-list (a

  11. User-Centered Graphical User Interface Design for GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Lanter

    1991-01-01

    abstract Even the terminology they employ: files, directories, records, databases, logging on and off, function keys, scroll - bars, control - alt key combinations, etc is often unfamiliar and grounded in abstraction In everyday controls such as light switches, door handles and shower fittings, there is usually a fairly obvious correspondence between what a control looks and feels like physically

  12. J Med Libr Assoc 95(2) April 2007 173 Conducting a user-centered information needs assessment

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    for hospital librarians to design and deliver sophisticated information services aimed at specific professionalJ Med Libr Assoc 95(2) April 2007 173 Conducting a user-centered information needs assessment Regional Medical Center Libraries. Methods: An information needs assessment was conducted in a large

  13. Medical device design process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byron L. Gilman; James E. Brewer; Mark W. Kroll

    2009-01-01

    The current design process is a combination of methods from engineering disciplines, government regulatory agencies (domestic and international) and independent certification and compliance companies. The goal of the processes that have been developed is to be certain that a new product meets the users expectations, is safe and effective in providing its claimed benefits. As products have become more complex

  14. NPOESS VIIRS design process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Schueler, Carl F.; Miller, Shawn W.; Kealy, Peter M.; Cota, Stephen A.; Haas, Mike; Welsch, Carol

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) design process that achieved exceptional competitive IPO ratings for system optimization, sensor system design, and systems engineering, integration and test (SEIT). A novel aspect of the competition was provision to the sensor competitors of a specification of geophysical measurement requirements called Environmental Data Records (EDRs), rather than a sensor hardware specification. The contractors were required to derive optimal VIIRS hardware specifications from the EDRs and Raytheon's process is the subject of this paper. VIIRS will become the next-generation United States polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (MPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft. Beginning in 2008, the NPOESS VIIRS instrument will be launched into 1370, 1730, and 2130 local-time ascending-node sun-synchronous polar orbits as the single operational source for dozens of civil and defense environmental and weather products, as well as climate research data. VIIRS will replace three different currently operating sensors: the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Line-scan System (OLS), the NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS Terra and Aqua) MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). A critical VIIRS challenge was design optimization to differing requirements from the three user agencies (DoD, NOAA, and NASA) represented by the NPOESS Integrated Program Office.

  15. User-Centered Indexing for Adaptive Information Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1996-01-01

    We are focusing on information access tasks characterized by large volume of hypermedia connected technical documents, a need for rapid and effective access to familiar information, and long-term interaction with evolving information. The problem for technical users is to build and maintain a personalized task-oriented model of the information to quickly access relevant information. We propose a solution which provides user-centered adaptive information retrieval and navigation. This solution supports users in customizing information access over time. It is complementary to information discovery methods which provide access to new information, since it lets users customize future access to previously found information. It relies on a technique, called Adaptive Relevance Network, which creates and maintains a complex indexing structure to represent personal user's information access maps organized by concepts. This technique is integrated within the Adaptive HyperMan system, which helps NASA Space Shuttle flight controllers organize and access large amount of information. It allows users to select and mark any part of a document as interesting, and to index that part with user-defined concepts. Users can then do subsequent retrieval of marked portions of documents. This functionality allows users to define and access personal collections of information, which are dynamically computed. The system also supports collaborative review by letting users share group access maps. The adaptive relevance network provides long-term adaptation based both on usage and on explicit user input. The indexing structure is dynamic and evolves over time. Leading and generalization support flexible retrieval of information under similar concepts. The network is geared towards more recent information access, and automatically manages its size in order to maintain rapid access when scaling up to large hypermedia space. We present results of simulated learning experiments.

  16. Web Development with JavaScript and HTML5 Program An eight-week in-depth program focused on user-centered Web development

    E-print Network

    Schaefer, Marcus

    Web Development with JavaScript and HTML5 Program An eight-week in-depth program focused on user-centered Web development Overview DePaul University's Web Development with JavaScript and HTML5 is designed-centered websites using JavaScript, HTML5, and related leading-edge technologies such as CSS3. These technologies

  17. Reengineering the Project Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casani, E.; Metzger, R.

    1994-01-01

    In response to NASA's goal of working faster, better and cheaper, JPL has developed extensive plans to minimize cost, maximize customer and employee satisfaction, and implement small- and moderate-size missions. These plans include improved management structures and processes, enhanced technical design processes, the incorporation of new technology, and the development of more economical space- and ground-system designs. The Laboratory's new Flight Projects Implementation Office has been chartered to oversee these innovations and the reengineering of JPL's project design process, including establishment of the Project Design Center and the Flight System Testbed. Reengineering at JPL implies a cultural change whereby the character of its design process will change from sequential to concurrent and from hierarchical to parallel. The Project Design Center will support missions offering high science return, design to cost, demonstrations of new technology, and rapid development. Its computer-supported environment will foster high-fidelity project life-cycle development and cost estimating.

  18. Rhetoric and human-computer interaction: investigations into the writing of user-centered documentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Johnson

    1989-01-01

    This paper investigates the need for a user-centered theory of writing documentation. User-centered approaches present new challenges for writers, and it is argued that rhetoric and human-computer interaction are the most appropriate fields for developing a theory to meet those challenges. In addition, applications of the theory are proposed to aid writers in solving common documentation problems.“They perfect nature, and

  19. Automating the automobile design process

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.

    1986-03-01

    Traditional CAD/CAM speeds product design, analysis, and manufacturing by giving engineers and designers the ability to view and manipulate computer models of automobiles from a variety of perspectives, such as interiors, exteriors, and cross sections. Computer-aided styling (CAS) hastens the automobile design process in the same manner by allowing data to be captured earlier in the design cycle. The goal of CAS is to be able to determine in advance if a design can be aesthetically pleasing - without having to build even the first prototype. Just like CAD/CAM, styling is an iterative process, with CAS techniques speeding the design. Faster iterations mean that more designs can be reviewed and that designers can react more quickly to changing market trends.

  20. Mobile 3D television: development of core technological elements and user-centered evaluation methods toward an optimized system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotchev, Atanas; Smolic, Aljoscha; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Strohmeier, Dominik; Bozdagi Akar, Gozde; Merkle, Philipp; Daskalov, Nikolai

    2009-02-01

    A European consortium of six partners has been developing core technological components of a mobile 3D television system over DVB-H channel. In this overview paper, we present our current results on developing optimal methods for stereo-video content creation, coding and transmission and emphasize their significance for the power-constrained mobile platform, equipped with auto-stereoscopic display. We address the user requirements by applying modern usercentered approaches taking into account different user groups and usage contexts in contrast to the laboratory assessment methods which, though standardized, offer limited applicability to real applications. To this end, we have been aiming at developing a methodological framework for the whole system development process. One of our goals has been to further develop the user-centered approach towards experienced quality of critical system components. In this paper, we classify different research methods and technological solutions analyzing their pros and constraints. Based on this analysis we present the user-centered methodological framework being used throughout the whole development process of the system and aimed at achieving the best performance and quality appealing to the end user.

  1. PARTICIPATORY ICON DESIGN FOR MEDICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Batu SALMAN; Ji Young KIM; Adem KARAHOCA; Hong-In CHENG

    Medical information systems which support high quality electronic health records are significant part of hospital processes. Usable and efficient user interfaces should be developed by implementing user centered development methodologies to gather the reliable and accurate data in medical information systems. It is known that better human- computer interface can be designed by the user-participatory development processes. The proper design

  2. Hydroforming design and process advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, J.T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ni, C.M. [General Motors Corp., Warren, MI (United States). GM Technical Center

    1996-10-10

    The hydroforming process involves hydraulically forming components by conforming them to the inner contours of a die. These contours can be complex and can often cause the material being formed to be stressed to rupture. Considerable process knowledge and materials modeling expertise is required to design hydroform dies and hydroformed parts that are readily formed without being overly stressed. For this CRADA, materials properties for steel tubes subjected to hydraulic stresses were collected; algorithms were developed which combined the materials properties data with process knowledge; and a user friendly graphical interface was utilized to make the system usable by a design engineer. A prototype hydroforming advisor was completed and delivered to GM. The technical objectives of the CRADA were met allowing for the development of an intelligent design systems, prediction of forming properties related to hydroforming, simulation and modeling of process execution, and design optimization. The design advisor allows a rapid and seamless approach to integration an otherwise enormous and onerous task of analysis and evaluation.

  3. Why Value is Everything: A User-Centered Approach to Internet Quality of Service and Pricing

    E-print Network

    Sasse, Angela

    Why Value is Everything: A User-Centered Approach to Internet Quality of Service and Pricing Anna Bouch and M. Angela Sasse Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street of quality. Price alone cannot be used to regulate demand for QoS. 1 Introduction The number of Internet

  4. Advancing User-Centered Evaluation of Visual Analytic Environments through Contests

    E-print Network

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    Security (DHS). DHS users represent a wide variety of domains which overlap greatly with non-homeland security ones. The need for materials for user-centered evaluations is particularly important in the DHS community. First, many of the tasks performed by DHS users are critical tasks where users have little time

  5. A User-Centered Approach to Evaluating Human Interaction with Web Search Engines: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda

    2002-01-01

    Explores a user-centered approach to evaluating the Web search engine Inquirus. Inquirus was rated highly by users on various usability measures; all users experienced some level of shift/change in their information problem, information seeking, and personal knowledge due to their Inquirus interaction; and different users experienced different…

  6. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design of a chemical process involves many aspects: from profitability, flexibility and reliability to safety to the environment. While each of these is important, in this work, the focus will be on profitability and the environment. Key to the study of these aspects is the ...

  7. Communication Functions and the Adaptation of Design Representations in Interdisciplinary Teams

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    follows technique to fashion personas, task analyses, and other design representations. Once completedCommunication Functions and the Adaptation of Design Representations in Interdisciplinary Teams@u.washington.edu Abstract Design representations in user-centered design serve inten- tions for directing design process

  8. A CONTEXT AWARE FRAMEWORK FOR USER CENTERED British Telecommunications Plc, 1B-17, Plaza Sentral, Jalan Stesen

    E-print Network

    Bargiela, Andrzej

    A CONTEXT AWARE FRAMEWORK FOR USER CENTERED SERVICES SIMON HOH British Telecommunications Plc, 1B@utem.edu.my AND CHIN CHIN WONG British Telecommunications Plc, 1B-17, Plaza Sentral, Jalan Stesen Sentral 5, Kuala as an enabler for user centered services. Firstly, we will discuss about a sensory API mechanism developed

  9. Process Design in Process Control Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karim, M. Nazmul

    1984-01-01

    A project was designed to expose students to the complexities of designing an instrumentation and control system for the overall plant design. Project objectives, format, and student activities, accomplishments, and shortcomings are described. (JN)

  10. Automation of Design Engineering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrey, Glenn; Sawasky, Gerald; Courey, Karim

    2004-01-01

    A method, and a computer program that helps to implement the method, have been developed to automate and systematize the retention and retrieval of all the written records generated during the process of designing a complex engineering system. It cannot be emphasized strongly enough that all the written records as used here is meant to be taken literally: it signifies not only final drawings and final engineering calculations but also such ancillary documents as minutes of meetings, memoranda, requests for design changes, approval and review documents, and reports of tests. One important purpose served by the method is to make the records readily available to all involved users via their computer workstations from one computer archive while eliminating the need for voluminous paper files stored in different places. Another important purpose served by the method is to facilitate the work of engineers who are charged with sustaining the system and were not involved in the original design decisions. The method helps the sustaining engineers to retrieve information that enables them to retrace the reasoning that led to the original design decisions, thereby helping them to understand the system better and to make informed engineering choices pertaining to maintenance and/or modifications of the system. The software used to implement the method is written in Microsoft Access. All of the documents pertaining to the design of a given system are stored in one relational database in such a manner that they can be related to each other via a single tracking number.

  11. 10 DESIGN SCIENCE RESEARCH FOR BUSINESS PROCESS DESIGN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    10 DESIGN SCIENCE RESEARCH FOR BUSINESS PROCESS DESIGN: Organizational Transition at Intersport strategies. This paper elaborates on experiences from a business process design effort in an action research for taking the retail chain Intersport into a new organizational state where the new process design

  12. Optimal process capability analysis for process design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angus Jeang

    2010-01-01

    Conventional process capability analysis is used to measure and control the quality level of a production process in real exercises for on-line quality management. There has been a deficiency in this type of management; namely, the defects which occur in the production process are only passively detected and modified afterwards. Additionally, conventional process capability expression has difficulty distinguishing between alternatives

  13. Metallurgical Process Design A tribute to Douglas' conceptual design approach

    E-print Network

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    1 Metallurgical Process Design ­ A tribute to Douglas' conceptual design approach Andreas A study illuminates a practical design problem for cleaner metallurgical manufacturing. The task consists operational bounds is presented. The article uses the case study to elucidate methodological aspects

  14. Design exploration assessment methodology: testing the guidance of design processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Murrie Clevenger; John Riker Haymaker; Andrew Ehrich

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the design exploration assessment methodology (DEAM) for comparing design process impact and outcome. Current practice fails to reliably generate high-performing alternatives in part because it lacks systematic means to compare existing or emerging design processes. Researchers lack empirical methods and data to evaluate design challenges and the strategies available to address them. In this paper, we document

  15. Material and processes selection in conceptual design 

    E-print Network

    Krishnakumar, Karthikeyan

    2005-02-17

    Materials and manufacturing processes are an integral part of the design of a product. The need to combine materials and manufacturing processes selection during the early stages of the design has previously been realized. ...

  16. Material and processes selection in conceptual design

    E-print Network

    Krishnakumar, Karthikeyan

    2005-02-17

    Materials and manufacturing processes are an integral part of the design of a product. The need to combine materials and manufacturing processes selection during the early stages of the design has previously been realized. The work that generally...

  17. RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION Richard Hardin1 , K.K. Choi1 , and Christoph 52242-1527 Keywords: Casting Process Design, Optimization, Reliability-Based Design Optimization purpose reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) software tool previously developed at the University

  18. Managing Analysis Models in the Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2006-01-01

    Design of large, complex space systems depends on significant model-based support for exploration of the design space. Integrated models predict system performance in mission-relevant terms given design descriptions and multiple physics-based numerical models. Both the design activities and the modeling activities warrant explicit process definitions and active process management to protect the project from excessive risk. Software and systems engineering processes have been formalized and similar formal process activities are under development for design engineering and integrated modeling. JPL is establishing a modeling process to define development and application of such system-level models.

  19. Research opportunities and facilities at ORNL`s residual stress user center

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, C.R.; Watkins, T.R.; Kozaczek, K.; Wang, X.-L.; Spooner, S.

    1994-09-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program at ORNL was established to help solve high-temperature materials problems that limit the efficiency and reliability of advanced energy-conversion systems. Both proprietary and nonproprietary research can be conducted within the user program. The facilities are open to researchers in US industry, universities, and federal laboratories. The Residual Stress User Center (RSUC), one of the six HTML user centers, was recently established and consists of two high precision x-ray diffraction systems for measurement of residual strain and texture. Both biaxial and triaxial residual strain data can be collected. Attachments to the diffraction system include a position sensitive detector and a laser specimen positioning system. The RSUC has capabilities for electropolishing and strain measurement with strain gauges. A complementary neutron diffraction facility has recently been developed and demonstrated at the High Flux Isotope Reactor at ORNL. The neutron diffraction facility enables mapping of macro residual stresses throughout the volume of a component, complementing the near surface stress measurements available by x-ray diffraction. The neutron facility has been proposed as an addition to the RSUC.

  20. Instructional Design and the Curriculum Development Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Walter

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the history of the use of the Instructional Design Process (a "systems approach" that can be applied to the curriculum development process) and its advantages. Includes a summary of the process and a list of references. (MD

  1. Informing Geospatial Toolset Design: Understanding the Process of Cancer Data Exploration and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Tanuka; Griffin, Amy L.; MacEachren, Alan M.; Kluhsman, Brenda C.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new methods and tools that support knowledge construction from complex geospatial datasets related to public health. This study is part of a larger effort to develop, implement, and test such methods and tools. To be successful, the design of methods and tools must be grounded in a solid understanding of the work practices within the domain of use; the research reported here focuses on developing that understanding. We adopted a user-centered approach to toolset design where we investigated the work of cancer researchers and used the results of that investigation as inputs into the development of design guidelines for new geovisualization and spatial analysis tools. Specifically, we conducted key informant interviews focused on use, or potential use, of geographic information, methods, and tools and complemented this with a systematic analysis of published, peer-reviewed articles on geospatial cancer research. Results were used to characterize the typical process of analysis, to identify fundamental differences between intensive users of geospatial methods and infrequent users, and to outline key stages in analysis and tasks within the stages that methods and tools must support. Our findings inform design and implementation decisions for visual and analytic tools that support cancer prevention and control research and they provide insight into the processes used by cancer researchers for addressing the challenges of geographic factors in public health research and policy. PMID:18060824

  2. Research opportunities in service process design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur V. Hill; David A. Collier; Craig M. Froehle; John C. Goodale; Richard D. Metters; Rohit Verma

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the new issues and research opportunities related to four service operations design topics—the design of retail and e-tail service processes, design of service processes involving waiting lines and workforce staffing, service design for manufacturing, and re-engineering service processes. All four topics are motivated by new technologies (particularly web-based technologies) and require a multi-disciplinary approach

  3. User Centered System Design: Papers for the CHI '83 Conference on Human Factors in Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., San Diego. Center for Human Information Processing.

    Four papers from the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) Project on Human-Computer Interfaces are presented in this report. "Evaluation and Analysis of User's Activity Organization," by Liam Bannon, Allen Cypher, Steven Greenspan, and Melissa Monty, analyzes the activities performed by users of computer systems, develops a framework for…

  4. Original Paper User-Centered Design of a Digital Knowledge Medium to

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    , Toronto, ON, Canada 2 Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy Department; Health Policy, Management in this transition period, and continue to support family members in managing care amongst themselves in the years the burden of managing care schedules for families with a member who has brain injury. A digital knowledge

  5. User centered design of the digital book: why looking backward can help us move forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, Jillian C.

    2006-02-01

    What is emerging from the digital book revolution is a state of technology that has brought new affordances to the book, such as search, hyperlinking, personalization, dynamic content, 24/7 access, automated indexing and summarizing, aggregated content, and new modes of reading and access. These could solve some of the issues users have with the static content of traditional bound volumes, but the technology so far has staunchly ignored the tried and true technologies of books, such as infinite resolution, high contrast, low glare, haptic navigation, typographic niceties, and the rights of first sale to borrow, lend, or resell a work. By exploring a survey of literature, reviews, and user tests, I intend to address the point of how the current concept of the digital book is an inappropriate tool for the user and the task of reading, and as a result not been enthusiastically embraced by the market. The collected evidence indicates that it is impossible to forget our past in our quest for the future, and that technology can help us to unite the disparate realities of analog and digital to create a truly digital book.

  6. User Centered System Design. Part II: Collected Papers from the UCSD HMI Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla. Inst. for Cognitive Science.

    This report is a collection of 11 recent papers by the Human-Machine Interaction Group at the University of California, San Diego. The following papers are included: (1) "Stages and Levels in Human-Machine Interaction," Donald A. Norman; (2) "The Nature of Expertise in UNIX," Stephen W. Draper; (3) "Users in the Real World," David Owen; (4)…

  7. The Importance of User-Centered Design: Exploring Findings and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lack, Rosalie

    2006-01-01

    Given the rising number of information resources available, it is increasingly important for digital libraries and archives to create usable services that meet their users' needs. Seeking input from users at all stages of development can help achieve this goal. This article briefly defines four methodologies for gathering user input: focus groups,…

  8. Controller design for serial processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audun Faanes; Sigurd Skogestad

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we aim at obtaining insight into how a multivariable feedback controller works, with special attention to serial processes. Serial processes are important in the process industry, and the structure of this process makes it simple to classify the different elements of the multivariable controller.In particular, we focus on the difference between the feedforward and feedback parts of

  9. Informing Lesson Design with Human Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagel, Charles W.

    2005-01-01

    Designing effective instruction is the goal of any instructional designer. This article discusses how lesson design can be enhanced by incorporating certain fundamentals of cognitive psychology. The stages of human information processing and a typical four-step lesson are integrated in a model that can inform instructional design. (Contains 1…

  10. Digital fabrication in the architectural design process

    E-print Network

    Seely, Jennifer C. K., 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Digital fabrication is affecting the architectural design process due to the increasingly important role it has in the fabrication of architectural models. Many design professionals, professors, and students have experienced ...

  11. Incorporating design outsourcing decisions within the design of collaborative design processes

    E-print Network

    Incorporating design outsourcing decisions within the design of collaborative design processes as its weakest member. In addition, companies are not only outsourcing manufacturing activities to other companies, but also increasingly outsourcing design activities to partnering companies [4]. Design

  12. Transformational Design of Digital Signal Processing Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter F. A. Middelhoek

    1994-01-01

    In the design of modern digital systems, such as image processing systems, it is, because of their complexity, of great importance that correctness is guaranteed during the design. Transformational design is a method that integrates guaranteed correctness into the design process. Correctness-by-construction is obtained by applying local behavior-preserving transformations —which have themselves already been proven correct— to derive an implementation

  13. A Gradually Proceeded Software Architecture Design Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Licong Tian; Li Zhang; Bosheng Zhou; Guanqun Qian

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a When design software architecture for large systems, designers often face with the problem how to move from requirements to\\u000a a coarse-grained abstract architecture, then gradually refine it into more concrete ones, and last to detail design and implementation.\\u000a Steps involved to implement such a process remain vague. Designers usually implement this process intuitively and opportunistically.\\u000a We propose a Gradually Proceeded

  14. Using Declarative Specifications in Business Process Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina Rychkova; Gil Regev; Alain Wegmann

    2008-01-01

    Business process modeling techniques, such as BPMN, encourage the early specification of the exact order in which the activities of the process will be executed. However, a business process may be exposed to different environments and subjected to many conditions in which a sequence cannot be identified at design time. We present declarative business process specifications that can be used

  15. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  16. Design well site selection process

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.H. Jr.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The sequence of steps leading to selection of optimum locations for design wells for geopressured-geothermal resource evaluation is described. The steps are regional appraisal, trend appraisal, evaluation and ranking and well site location. The objective is to identify large volume, high temperature, high pressure, low salinity aquifers capable of high-rate fluid production and concomitant energy recovery.

  17. Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. [Lurgi Process

    SciTech Connect

    Honea, F.I.

    1985-09-01

    The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) is the first commercial coal-to-synthetic natural gas plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams, and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the Department of Energy's ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Process Design Manual for Nitrogen Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Denny S.; And Others

    This manual presents theoretical and process design criteria for the implementation of nitrogen control technology in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Design concepts are emphasized through examination of data from full-scale and pilot installations. Design data are included on biological nitrification and denitrification, breakpoint…

  19. User-centered development and testing of a monitoring system that provides feedback regarding physical functioning to elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Joan; Neyens, Jacques CL; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; van Rossum, Erik; Sipers, Walther; Habets, Herbert; Hewson, David J; de Witte, Luc P

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To involve elderly people during the development of a mobile interface of a monitoring system that provides feedback to them regarding changes in physical functioning and to test the system in a pilot study. Methods and participants The iterative user-centered development process consisted of the following phases: (1) selection of user representatives; (2) analysis of users and their context; (3) identification of user requirements; (4) development of the interface; and (5) evaluation of the interface in the lab. Subsequently, the monitoring and feedback system was tested in a pilot study by five patients who were recruited via a geriatric outpatient clinic. Participants used a bathroom scale to monitor weight and balance, and a mobile phone to monitor physical activity on a daily basis for six weeks. Personalized feedback was provided via the interface of the mobile phone. Usability was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 7 using a modified version of the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ); higher scores indicated better usability. Interviews were conducted to gain insight into the experiences of the participants with the system. Results The developed interface uses colors, emoticons, and written and/or spoken text messages to provide daily feedback regarding (changes in) weight, balance, and physical activity. The participants rated the usability of the monitoring and feedback system with a mean score of 5.2 (standard deviation 0.90) on the modified PSSUQ. The interviews revealed that most participants liked using the system and appreciated that it signaled changes in their physical functioning. However, usability was negatively influenced by a few technical errors. Conclusion Involvement of elderly users during the development process resulted in an interface with good usability. However, the technical functioning of the monitoring system needs to be optimized before it can be used to support elderly people in their self-management. PMID:24039407

  20. Development of a design performance measurement matrix for improving collaborative design during a design process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanyuan Yin; Shengfeng Qin; Ray Holland

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how to measure collaborative design performance and, in turn, improve the final design output during a design process, with a clear objective to develop a design performance measurement (DPM) matrix to measure design project team members' design collaboration performances. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology adopted in this research uses critical literature

  1. WORKSHOP ON ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    To encourage the consideration of environmental issues during chemical process design, the USEPA has developed techniques and software tools to evaluate the relative environmental impact of a chemical process. These techniques and tools aid in the risk management process by focus...

  2. A User-Centered Approach to Adaptive Hypertext Based on an Information Relevance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James

    1994-01-01

    Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.

  3. Design Evaluation Process for Existing Waste Removal Design Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.D.

    1995-05-12

    This document provides guidelines for implementing Engineering`s responsibility relating to evaluating the adequacy of existing project design outputs. At this time, there exists design documents that were prepared and approved for modifications to operating facilities, that may or may not have been constructed, but have never been turned over to the Operating Facility Management. The process described herein describes the methodology to perform an evaluation of these existing designs and document the findings. The key elements in this process are (1) to evaluate the existing design for general adequacy of the design, (2) to evaluate the existing design due to changes subsequent to the issuance of the documents (i.e. lessons learned, codes or standards change, changes to input documents, ect.), and (3) to verify the existence of critical supporting documentation in the areas of personnel safety, facility safety or environmental compliance.

  4. Fuzzy Design of Process Tolerances to Maximise Process Capability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeong-Hoang Lee; Chiu-Chi Wei; Ching-Liang Chang

    1999-01-01

    A novel formulation for designing process tolerances to maximise the process capability index is presented in this study.\\u000a The proposed model simultaneously optimises the process capability of each operation, and is consolidated into a single objective\\u000a fuzzy programming. A step fuzzy membership function is employed to represent the lower and upper bounds of the process capability\\u000a index, the problem is

  5. User-Centered Digital Library Project Phase 2: User Testing with Teachers and Students with Disabilities. Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Babette

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the User-Centered Digital Library Project, conducted by the National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) at WGBH, was to adapt the Teachers' Domain online digital library to enable teachers and students with disabilities to more readily use the resources in science classrooms. NCAM added accessibility features such as captions and audio…

  6. NetEye: A User-Centered Wireless Sensor Network Testbed for High-Fidelity, Robust Experimentation

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Hongwei

    NetEye: A User-Centered Wireless Sensor Network Testbed for High-Fidelity, Robust Experimentation Company, divya@ford.com ABSTRACT Experimentation infrastructures for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have of building-scale and outdoor WSN deployments. Building upon the authors' experience in developing and us- ing

  7. Conceptual Design of Continuous Processes for

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    of Conceptual Designs of CNT Processes CNT PFR Process CNT-FBR Process Catalyst Fe Co ­ Mo Fe(CO)5 Fe + 5CO Silica Reactants CO and Fe(CO)5 CO Reactor Type Plug Flow Reactor Fluidized Bed Reactor Conditions 1050 o-PFR Process Reactants, Product and Emissions Feed kg/hr Other kg/hr Product kg/hr Emissions kg/hr CO 2,637 O2

  8. Chemical Process Design: An Integrated Teaching Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews a one-semester senior plant design/laboratory course, focusing on course structure, student projects, laboratory assignments, and course evaluation. Includes discussion of laboratory exercises related to process waste water and sludge. (SK)

  9. DESIGN MODEL FOR THE OVERLAND FLOW PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A design model in the 'Process Design Manual, Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater' was verified as to removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and further developed to include removal of total suspended solids, ammonia, and total organic carbon by this field investigation. T...

  10. Speech-processing strategies designed for

    E-print Network

    Loeb, Gerald E.

    cochlear prosthesis (Advanced Bionics Corp., Sylmar, Calif.) has revealed that adult implant users differ or in the manner in which their central nervous systems originally learned FromAdvancedBionicsCorp. PresentedattheSixthSymposiumonCochlearImplantsinChildrenSpeech-processing children strategies designed for GERALDE.LOEB,MD,Sylmar, California The design

  11. Virtual Reality in the landscape design process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lammeren van R. J. A; Viktor Clerc; Henk Kramer; A. Ligtenberg

    2002-01-01

    simulation Summary The paper starts to introduce the landscape architectural design objects. From a digital perspective these interrelations of these objects can be modelled. Especially modelling changes in time by Virtual Reality could support the design process. After a introduction of Virtual Reality by the seven factors (immersion, interactivity, information intensity, intelligent objects, autonomous agents, augmented, selection) the promising opportunities

  12. HYNOL PROCESS ENGINEERING: PROCESS CONFIGURATION, SITE PLAN, AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the design of the hydropyrolysis reactor system of the Hynol process. (NOTE: A bench scale methanol production facility is being constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing methanol from biomass using the Hynol process. The plant is bein...

  13. Economic and environmental strategies for process design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adama Ouattara; Luc Pibouleau; Catherine Azzaro-Pantel; Serge Domenech; Philippe Baudet; Benjamin Yao

    This paper first addresses the definition of various objectives involved in eco-efficient processes, taking simultaneously into account ecological and economic considerations. The environmental aspect at the preliminary design phase of chemical processes is quantified by using a set of metrics or indicators following the guidelines of sustainability concepts proposed by IChemE (2001). The resulting multiobjective problem is solved by a

  14. Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Gruber, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    The Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP) is a collection of software tools that allow the efficient aerodynamic design and analysis of planar (two-dimensional and axisymmetric) inlets. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. A major element in PINDAP is a Fortran 90 code named PINDAP that can establish the parametric design of the inlet and efficiently model the geometry and generate the grid for CFD analysis with design changes to those parameters. The use of PINDAP is demonstrated for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic inlets.

  15. Project HealthDesign: Rethinking the power and potential of personal health records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Flatley Brennan; Stephen Downs; Gail R. Casper

    2010-01-01

    Project HealthDesign, a multi-year, multi-site project sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation with additional support from the California HealthCare Foundation, is designed to stimulate innovation in personal health records (PHRs). Project HealthDesign teams employed user-centered design processes to create designs and prototypes of computer-based applications to support and enhance human health for a wide range of patients, from children

  16. Interactive graphics, the design process, and education

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-01

    The field of design and drafting is changing continuously - its parameters are ever shifting and its applications are increasing. The use of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is becoming increasingly common in industry. However, instruction in CAD and CAM has in general not been incorporated into university curricula. This paper addresses the need for increased instruction in interactive graphics at the student level, and particularly in conjunction with the design process used by engineers, designers, and drafters. The development of three-dimensional graphical models using CAD is seen as a vital part of product development. Applications to printed circuit design and numerical control (NC) operations are discussed. Effective educational programs in the use of CAD must relate to designers, users, and managers and may be developed either by industry or academia. Possible approaches to new programs include coursework, projects involving CAD, and special collaborative efforts between industry and academic institutions. 1 figure.

  17. Innovation mode of product design process management based on modularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Ma; Heng Xu; Lian Wang

    2011-01-01

    Product design process is a complex system engineering. To improve the management efficiency of product design process, this paper, presents a new mode of product design process management from the perspective of modularization. Firstly, the related concepts and attributes of product design process module (DPM) are put forward. Then, the structure model of product design process based on DPM is

  18. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

  19. Macrocell design for concurrent signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, S.P.; Brodersen, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Macrocells serve as subsystems at the top level of the hardware design hierarchy. The authors present the macrocell design technique as applied to the implementation of real-time, sampled-data signal processing functions. The design of such circuits is particularly challenging due to the computationally intensive nature of signal-processing algorithms and the constraints of real-time operation. The most efficient designs make use of a high degree of concurrency-a property facilitated by the microcell approach. Two circuit projects whose development resulted largely from the macrocell methodology described are used as examples throughout the report: a linear-predictive vocoder circuit, and a front-end filter-bank chip for a speech recognition system. Both are monolithic multiprocessor implementations: the lpc vocoder circuit contains three processors, the filter-bank chip two processors. 10 references.

  20. Interactive Radiology teaching file system: the development of a MIRC-compliant and user-centered e-learning resource.

    PubMed

    dos-Santos, M; Fujino, A

    2012-01-01

    Radiology teaching usually employs a systematic and comprehensive set of medical images and related information. Databases with representative radiological images and documents are highly desirable and widely used in Radiology teaching programs. Currently, computer-based teaching file systems are widely used in Medicine and Radiology teaching as an educational resource. This work addresses a user-centered radiology electronic teaching file system as an instance of MIRC compliant medical image database. Such as a digital library, the clinical cases are available to access by using a web browser. The system has offered great opportunities to some Radiology residents interact with experts. This has been done by applying user-centered techniques and creating usage context-based tools in order to make available an interactive system. PMID:23367264

  1. Involving Users in the Design of a Mobile Office Robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Severinson-Eklundh; Anders Green; Helge Hüttenrauch; Lars Oestreicher; Mikael Norman

    2003-01-01

    Abstract — This paper describes the experiences from the iterative design of a fetch-and–carry-robot, to be used by motionimpaired people in an office environment. A user-centered approach was chosen, involving several steps of information elicitation to inform the design. We describe the main elements of the design process, the communication and interaction components ofthe final prototype system, and an evaluation

  2. Designing effective interfaces for process management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.E.; Senyk, J.W.; Jundt, L.O. [Fisher-Rosemount Systems, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Traditionally, control system user interface designers have focused on controlling the process, so operators were forced to handle other responsibilities using additional terminals or computers. The result was a control room filled with different pieces of hardware, each with its own user interface. Advances in hardware and software have helped solve the problems of multiple user interfaces. New user interfaces based on a single set of standards make it possible to more effectively integrate process control data with other information needed to support decision making. In designing such systems, the different types of information that the systems are required to handle place special demands on the designers. Important considerations include the proper use of display elements (such as windows, menus, and buttons), real-time constraints (such a system response times, non-occluded display elements for critical information, and alarm annunciation), and efficient window management. This paper addresses some of the design criteria for such process management systems and proposes solutions to the identified design requirements.

  3. A design process of switched Ethernet architectures

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A design process of switched Ethernet architectures according to real-time application constraints Vandoeuvre l`es Nancy, Cedex, France Abstract Ethernet networks are based on a medium access method which based on genetic algorithms to minimize end-to-end delays by providing a good distribution

  4. Integrated Computer Software for Process Design Methodology 

    E-print Network

    Gautam, R.

    1985-01-01

    for rating and design of heat exchanger equipment will also be discussed. The system has interfaces for novice as well as expert users. It uses a micro-computer based environment to provide an integrated system with an interactive graphics process engineering...

  5. Integrated Computer Software for Process Design Methodology

    E-print Network

    Gautam, R.

    for rating and design of heat exchanger equipment will also be discussed. The system has interfaces for novice as well as expert users. It uses a micro-computer based environment to provide an integrated system with an interactive graphics process engineering...

  6. Designing Instruction That Supports Cognitive Learning Processes

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ruth; Harrelson, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of current cognitive learning processes, including a summary of research that supports the use of specific instructional methods to foster those processes. We have developed examples in athletic training education to help illustrate these methods where appropriate. Data Sources: Sources used to compile this information included knowledge base and oral and didactic presentations. Data Synthesis: Research in educational psychology within the past 15 years has provided many principles for designing instruction that mediates the cognitive processes of learning. These include attention, management of cognitive load, rehearsal in working memory, and retrieval of new knowledge from long-term memory. By organizing instruction in the context of tasks performed by athletic trainers, transfer of learning and learner motivation are enhanced. Conclusions/Recommendations: Scientific evidence supports instructional methods that can be incorporated into lesson design and improve learning by managing cognitive load in working memory, stimulating encoding into long-term memory, and supporting transfer of learning. PMID:12937537

  7. Combining Design Patterns and Elements of Social Computing for the Design of User Centered Online Help Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckner, Markus; Schworm, Silke; Wolff, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Many current (online) help systems fail because users refuse to use them or, even if they do so, they do not perceive them as helpful. There is an obvious gap between the intentions of the help content authors and the achievement of objectives concerning the perceived usefulness by help users. Problems may be divided into psychological and…

  8. Design and Problem Solving: The Engineering Design Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Heitkamp, Greg

    Engineering is everywhere in life. Without even knowing it, we encounter ideas, design and solutions created by engineers on a day-to-day basis. This website, created by Engineering Technology Pathways, "examines how engineers create the solutions used by mankind." Larger issues such as how product development, innovation, and invention can either positively or negatively influence society are addressed. Students will be asked to replicate the design process in a hands-on activity. The process will incorporate ideas such as data collection, problem solving, creation of a model or prototype, and finally, the refinement of these ideas. Overall, this is a great activity because it first provides good background information on the topic and then asks student to directly apply what they learned in a theoretical fashion.

  9. A User-Centered, Modular Authorization Service Built on an RBAC Foundation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ellen Zurko; Richard Simon; Tom Sanfilippo

    1999-01-01

    Psychological acceptability has been mentioned as a requirement for secure systems for as long as least privi- lege and fail safe defaults, but until now has been all but ignored in the actual design of secure systems. We place this principle at the center of our design for Adage, an authorization service for distributed applications. We employ usability design techniques

  10. A DESIGN CASE STUDY: INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Arbulu; Javier Soto

    Traditional design practices in construction indicate that most of the emphasis appears to be on product design. This may be the result of the traditional process of design-bid-build, where the design team pre-defines means and methods to the contracting team. In contrast, lean design incorporates not only product design, but also process design. Process design is commonly one of the

  11. Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.

    1986-09-01

    Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

  12. Design of coal processing plants in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, J.C. [James C. Donnelly and Associates, Wangi Wangi, New South Wales (Australia); Hoare, I.C. [CSIRO, North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    Planning of a new plant involves investigation of many factors both technical and economic. A wide range of preparation processes and equipment is on offer, but the nature of the coal to be treated and the product specifications usually dictate process selection. Simple or moderately difficult separation can be achieved with jigs, spirals or water washing cyclones. Coal which is difficult to treat, or which has to be separated at partition density lower than 1.5, is normally washed in a heavy medium process. In large plants it is usual to separate the coal into large, small and fine fractions and beneficiate each fraction in a circuit designed to suit the particle size handled. A good deal of information is required to enable design to proceed. It includes: sizing analyses on each coal type; comprehensive washability analysis on each size fraction of each coal type; froth flotation, oil agglomeration and filtration tests; flocculation and sedimentation tests on tailings; site survey plans and geotechnical reports; analysis of ground water and mine water likely to be used in the coal preparation process; compaction tests on rejects and tailings for design of reject emplacements. Basic decisions include plant capacity, hours to be worked each week, the number of products required and specifications for these. The sizes of raw coal and clean coal stockpiles must be determined and the degree of unmanned automation to be adopted for coal handling and selection of stockyard machines. When all these decisions are made, a block type Process Flow Sheet should be prepared in accordance with standard formats as set down by ISO-924 and ISO-561 or AS-1414. This sets out the basic processes and solids flow rates.

  13. Nonempirical Design of Rapid Thermal Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habuka, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Sakurai, Takashi; Negishi, Youichi; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2001-12-01

    In order to develop a nonempirical technology to design a rapid thermal processing (RTP) system, a direct approach model using the ray tracing simulation (DARTS) is applied for designing the small RTP system composed of tungsten/halogen filament lamps, specular reflectors and a silicon wafer. The temperature profiles on the silicon wafer surface are theoretically predicted and experimentally evaluated using the two RTP systems. The quantitative agreement of the theoretically predicted and experimentally evaluated temperature profiles on the silicon surface suggests that the nonempirical design of the RTP system is possible using the DARTS model. The reflection-resolved analysis based on this model is considered to provide information on the entire path of the rays from the lamps to the silicon wafer surface and on the heat loss caused by the reflectors in the RTP system.

  14. Conceptual design of carbon nanotube processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adedeji E. Agboola; Ralph W. Pike; T. A. Hertwig; Helen H. Lou

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes, discovered in 1991, are a new form of pure carbon that is perfectly straight tubules with diameter in nanometers,\\u000a length in microns. The conceptual designs of two processes are described for the industrial-scale production of carbon nanotubes\\u000a that are based on available laboratory synthesis techniques and purification methods. Two laboratory-scale catalytic chemical\\u000a vapor deposition reactors were selected for

  15. METRICS: a system architecture for design process optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Fenstermaker; David George; Andrew B. Kahng; Stefanus Mantik; Bart Thielges

    2000-01-01

    We describe METRICS, a system to recover design productivity via new infrastructure for design process optimization. METRICS seeks to treat system design and implementation as a science, rather than an art. A key precept is that measuring a design process is a prerequisite to optimizing it and continuously achieving maximum productivity. METRICS (i) unobtrusively gathers characteristics of design artifacts, design

  16. The process of process reengineering: simulation for business processes and information systems design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray J. Paul; Alan Serrano

    2003-01-01

    Business Process (BP) literature promotes the value of business processes as essential gearwheels that help organizations to reach their goals. Similarly, many process design approaches claim that Information Technology (IT) is a major enabler of business process, a view also shared by the Information Systems (IS) community. Despite this, BP and IS approaches do not provide clear guidance on how

  17. Design Process Guide Method for Minimizing Loops and Conflicts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Tsuyoshi; Aoyama, Kazuhiro

    We propose a new guide method for developing an easy-to-design process for product development. This process ensures a smaller number of wasteful iterations and less multiple conflicts. The design process is modeled as a sequence of design decisions. A design decision is defined as the process of determination of product attributes. A design task is represented as a calculation flow that depends on the product constraints between the product attributes. We also propose an automatic planning algorithm for the execution of the design task, in order to minimize the design loops and design conflicts. Further, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed guide method by developing a prototype design system and a design example of piping for a power steering system. We find that the proposed method can successfully minimize design loops and design conflicts. This paper addresses (1) a design loop model, (2) a design conflict model, and (3) how to minimize design loops and design conflicts.

  18. Reliability Methods for Shield Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space operations. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. An important component of this technology is the estimation of two most commonly identified uncertainties in radiation shield design, the shielding properties of materials used and the understanding of the biological response of the astronaut to the radiation leaking through the materials into the living space. The largest uncertainty, of course, is in the biological response to especially high charge and energy (HZE) ions of the galactic cosmic rays. These uncertainties are blended with the optimization design procedure to formulate reliability-based methods for shield design processes. The details of the methods will be discussed.

  19. Saving Material with Systematic Process Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerausch, M.

    2011-08-01

    Global competition is forcing the stamping industry to further increase quality, to shorten time-to-market and to reduce total cost. Continuous balancing between these classical time-cost-quality targets throughout the product development cycle is required to ensure future economical success. In today's industrial practice, die layout standards are typically assumed to implicitly ensure the balancing of company specific time-cost-quality targets. Although die layout standards are a very successful approach, there are two methodical disadvantages. First, the capabilities for tool design have to be continuously adapted to technological innovations; e.g. to take advantage of the full forming capability of new materials. Secondly, the great variety of die design aspects have to be reduced to a generic rule or guideline; e.g. binder shape, draw-in conditions or the use of drawbeads. Therefore, it is important to not overlook cost or quality opportunities when applying die design standards. This paper describes a systematic workflow with focus on minimizing material consumption. The starting point of the investigation is a full process plan for a typical structural part. All requirements are definedaccording to a predefined set of die design standards with industrial relevance are fulfilled. In a first step binder and addendum geometry is systematically checked for material saving potentials. In a second step, blank shape and draw-in are adjusted to meet thinning, wrinkling and springback targets for a minimum blank solution. Finally the identified die layout is validated with respect to production robustness versus splits, wrinkles and springback. For all three steps the applied methodology is based on finite element simulation combined with a stochastical variation of input variables. With the proposed workflow a well-balanced (time-cost-quality) production process assuring minimal material consumption can be achieved.

  20. Software design for panoramic astronomical pipeline processing

    E-print Network

    Lior Shamir; Robert J. Nemiroff; David O. Torrey; Wellesley E. Pereira

    2005-11-23

    We describe the software requirement and design specifications for all-sky panoramic astronomical pipelines. The described software aims to meet the specific needs of super-wide angle optics, and includes cosmic-ray hit rejection, image compression, star recognition, sky opacity analysis, transient detection and a web server allowing access to real-time and archived data. The presented software is being regularly used for the pipeline processing of 11 all-sky cameras located in some of the world's premier observatories. We encourage all-sky camera operators to use our software and/or our hosting services and become part of the global Night Sky Live network.

  1. A user-centered methodology for knowledge based systems development: MODESTI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michkle DURIBREUX-COCQUEBERT; Bernard HOURIEZ

    1996-01-01

    A knowledge based system (KBS) has to permit one or several users, generally non-experts, to solve problems regarding human expertise. Current KBS development methods help designers to define systems which operate correctly from an expert's competence point of view, but which have important deficiencies from an interaction with users point of view. This paper presents the basis of a methodology

  2. Process support to help novices design software faster and better

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron G. Cass; Leon J. Osterweil

    2005-01-01

    In earlier work we have argued that formal process definitions can be useful in improving our understanding and performance of soft- ware development processes. There has, however, been consider- able sentiment that formalized processes cannot capture the cre- ative process of software design. This paper describes our exper- imentation with the hypothesis that both design speed and design quality can

  3. A Signal Processing Approach To Fair Surface Design Charles Robertson

    E-print Network

    Kazhdan, Michael

    A Signal Processing Approach To Fair Surface Design Slide 1 Charles Robertson A Signal Processing: Charles Robertson A Signal Processing Approach To Fair Surface Design Slide 2 Charles Robertson Overview Introduction Fairing Subdivision Constraints Conclusions A Signal Processing Approach To Fair Surface Design

  4. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 2: The design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillette, W. B.; Turner, M. J.; Southall, J. W.; Whitener, P. C.; Kowalik, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The extent to which IPAD is to support the design process is identified. Case studies of representative aerospace products were developed as models to characterize the design process and to provide design requirements for the IPAD computing system.

  5. User-centered Content Provisioning over Large Collections of eBooks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sascha Tönnies; Wolf-Tilo Balke

    Managing and distributing published information is traditionally the mission of libraries. But in times of digital information provisioning and perso- nalized content delivery, the processes to fulfill this mission have to be re- considered. Beyond simple keyword indexing using library categorization sys- tems, digital corpora need to be preprocessed for later access directly by the end user. Thus, major functions

  6. Function flow-based product design process modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuxia Li; Hongbo Shan

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, product design process is divided into multiple phases, and the distributed design flow across these phases emphasizes on task solving and realization within one of the design phases in term of the perspective of designer. Increasing personalized product design demand, however, often leads to frequent redesign of design work mainly due to distortion of ambiguous and discrete customer requirement

  7. A new approach to the detail design phase of the IIDE Design Process through insights from software design 

    E-print Network

    Bhat, Gireesh Keshav

    2002-01-01

    The Engineering Design Process has been described in different ways by means of different approaches. Attempts to compare the Design Process in mechanical engineering with design in other fields have been made. This thesis compares the IIDE...

  8. Integrated Design of Chemical Processes and Utility Systems 

    E-print Network

    Linnhoff, B.

    1985-01-01

    The pinch concept for integrated heat recovery networks has recently become established in chemical process design. This paper presents an overview of the concept and shows how it has now been extended to total process design (reactors, separators...

  9. Audio-visual frameworks for design process representation

    E-print Network

    Soares, Gonçalo Ducla, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    The design process is based on a recursive and iterative feedback between a designer's ideas and their physical representation. In most practices, this feedback takes place upon one single medium, which endows the designer ...

  10. Design of Nanomaterial Synthesis by Aerosol Processes

    PubMed Central

    Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol synthesis of materials is a vibrant field of particle technology and chemical reaction engineering. Examples include the manufacture of carbon blacks, fumed SiO2, pigmentary TiO2, ZnO vulcanizing catalysts, filamentary Ni, and optical fibers, materials that impact transportation, construction, pharmaceuticals, energy, and communications. Parallel to this, development of novel, scalable aerosol processes has enabled synthesis of new functional nanomaterials (e.g., catalysts, biomaterials, electroceramics) and devices (e.g., gas sensors). This review provides an access point for engineers to the multiscale design of aerosol reactors for the synthesis of nanomaterials using continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics models spanning 10 and 15 orders of magnitude in length and time, respectively. Key design features are the rapid chemistry; the high particle concentrations but low volume fractions; the attainment of a self-preserving particle size distribution by coagulation; the ratio of the characteristic times of coagulation and sintering, which controls the extent of particle aggregation; and the narrowing of the aggregate primary particle size distribution by sintering. PMID:22468598

  11. A new method for design cycle period management in aircraft design process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Soltanmohammad; S. M. Malaek

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present research into reducing the aircraft design cycle period, by reducing the necessary number of design cycle iterations. The design cycle period is one of the main characteristics of the design process and design cycle iterations play a major role in the design cycle period. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To achieve the above-mentioned

  12. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF HIERARCHICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hierarchical methods are often used in the conceptual stages of process design to synthesize and evaluate process alternatives. In this work, the methods of hierarchical process design will be focused on environmental aspects. In particular, the design methods will be coupled to ...

  13. Launch Vehicle Design Process: Characterization, Technical Integration, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Humphries, W. R.

    2001-01-01

    Engineering design is a challenging activity for any product. Since launch vehicles are highly complex and interconnected and have extreme energy densities, their design represents a challenge of the highest order. The purpose of this document is to delineate and clarify the design process associated with the launch vehicle for space flight transportation. The goal is to define and characterize a baseline for the space transportation design process. This baseline can be used as a basis for improving effectiveness and efficiency of the design process. The baseline characterization is achieved via compartmentalization and technical integration of subsystems, design functions, and discipline functions. First, a global design process overview is provided in order to show responsibility, interactions, and connectivity of overall aspects of the design process. Then design essentials are delineated in order to emphasize necessary features of the design process that are sometimes overlooked. Finally the design process characterization is presented. This is accomplished by considering project technical framework, technical integration, process description (technical integration model, subsystem tree, design/discipline planes, decision gates, and tasks), and the design sequence. Also included in the document are a snapshot relating to process improvements, illustrations of the process, a survey of recommendations from experienced practitioners in aerospace, lessons learned, references, and a bibliography.

  14. Web-enabled collaborative design process management: application to multichip module design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla C. Madni; Azad M. Madni

    1998-01-01

    The design of complex systems is a complex process that requires multiple tradeoffs and design iterations. It involves multiple core competencies that seldom reside in a single organization or geographical site. It typically requires multiple design tools that come from different vendors. Design process management in such an environment is key to infusing discipline as well as reducing design cycle

  15. Variable QoS from Shared Web Caches: User-Centered Design and Value-Sensitive Replacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terence P. Kelly; Sugih Jamin

    1999-01-01

    Due to differences in server capacity, exter- nal bandwidth, and client demand, some Web servers value cache hits more than others. Assuming that a shared cache knows the extent to which different servers value hits, it may employ a value-sensitive replacement policy in order to gen- erate maximum aggregate value for servers. We consider both the prediction and value aspects

  16. Hype, harmony and human factors: applying user-centered design to achieve sustainable telehealth program adoption and growth.

    PubMed

    Rossos, P G; St-Cyr, O; Purdy, B; Toenjes, C; Masino, C; Chmelnitsky, D

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of international experience with the use of information and communication technologies in healthcare delivery, widespread telehealth adoption remains limited and progress slow. Escalating health system challenges related to access, cost and quality currently coincide with rapid advancement of affordable and reliable internet based communication technologies creating unprecedented opportunities and incentives for telehealth. In this paper, we will describe how Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and user-centric elements have been incorporated into the establishment of telehealth within a large academic medical center to increase acceptance and sustainability. Through examples and lessons learned we wish to increase awareness of HFE and its importance in the successful implementation, innovation and growth of telehealth programs. PMID:25980714

  17. Flexible automation of hardware design tasks using software process technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Kramer; B. Dinler; W. A. Halang; A. D. Stoyenko

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid approach towards design management. It was applied in a case study linking automated software development and behavioral synthesis. The process-centered software development environment MARVEL is combined with the ALLIANCE design tool box to provide a flexible hardware design management environment. It automatically activates tools according to the design flow, checks access rights of designers, and

  18. Process capability: a criterion for optimizing multiple response product and process design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Plante

    2001-01-01

    In this research, we consider the maximization of process capability as the criterion in product\\/process design that is used for selecting preferred design factor levels and propose several approaches for single and multiple response performance measure designs. All of these approaches assume that the relationship between a process performance measure and a set of design factors is represented via an

  19. Process-Based Cost Modeling to Support Target Value Design

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Hung Viet

    2010-01-01

    method to support the cost evaluation of multiple product- and process designmethods are insufficient to trade off multiple alternatives of product- and process designproduct- and process design. This raises a need for an alternative cost modeling method,

  20. Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Honea, F.I.

    1985-09-01

    The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the DOE ASPEN computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs.

  1. Augmenting the Design Process Transformations from Abstract Design Representations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Budgen; Grant Friel

    1992-01-01

    Most of the software design practices that are in current use are based upon the use of graphical notations, and while providing a suitable vehicle for the designer's need to model abstract ideas about the structure of a solution and its expected behaviour, these forms lack any rigour in their syntax and semantics. This paper describes some of the work

  2. Process Design Manual for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, R.; And Others

    This manual presents a procedure for the design of land treatment systems. Slow rate, rapid infiltration, and overland flow processes for the treatment of municipal wastewaters are given emphasis. The basic unit operations and unit processes are discussed in detail, and the design concepts and criteria are presented. The manual includes design

  3. Information Architecture without Internal Theory: An Inductive Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverty, Marsha

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that information architecture design is primarily an inductive process, partly because it lacks internal theory and partly because it is an activity that supports emergent phenomena (user experiences) from basic design components. Suggests a resemblance to Constructive Induction, a design process that locates the best representational…

  4. An intelligent system for biosignal processing circuit design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Sheng Cheng; C.-T. Tsai

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent system for automatically and quickly designing biosignal processing circuits is presented. The system provides three functions: (1) to design the biosignal processing circuits based upon the user specifications; (2) to adjust the circuit design or chip selection by the user as a high-level demand; and (3) to link to circuit simulation and layout packages for

  5. Newport News Shipbuilding Company Interview re Ship Design Process

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    Newport News Shipbuilding Company Interview re Ship Design Process November 20, 1995 TR96;Newport News Shipbuilding Company Interview re Ship Design Process, November 20, 1995 Fred Brooks and maintainability 1.4. Four types of detailed design tasks: · Specifying parts to be made from standard stock

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER Conceptual design of carbon nanotube processes

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    - ability analysis showed that both process designs were economically feasible. For the CNT-PFR process online: 10 January 2007 Ó Springer-Verlag 2007 Abstract Carbon nanotubes, discovered in 1991, are a new. The conceptual designs of two processes are described for the industrial-scale production of carbon nanotubes

  7. Conceptual design of industrial wastewater treatment processes: primary treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inês S. F. Freitas; Carlos A. V. Costa; Rui A. R. Boaventura

    2000-01-01

    The conceptual design of industrial wastewater treatment flowsheets implies the selection and sequencing of technologies in order to obtain a set of feasible treatment options, each achieving the proposed treatment goals. A design methodology was developed to support engineers in the conceptual design of wastewater treatment facilities and help them to improve creativeness and effectiveness. This hierarchical process design package

  8. Understanding the Processes behind Student Designing: Cases from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Susan Siok Hiang; Lim-Ratnam, Christina; Atencio, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    A common perception of designing is that it represents a highly complex activity that is manageable by only a few. However it has also been argued that all individuals are innately capable of designing. Taking up this latter view, we explored the processes behind student designing in the context of Design and Technology (D&T), a subject taught at…

  9. Reducing Design Cycle Time and Cost Through Process Resequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    2004-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, companies are under enormous pressure to reduce the time and cost of their design cycle. One method for reducing both time and cost is to develop an understanding of the flow of the design processes and the effects of the iterative subcycles that are found in complex design projects. Once these aspects are understood, the design manager can make decisions that take advantage of decomposition, concurrent engineering, and parallel processing techniques to reduce the total time and the total cost of the design cycle. One software tool that can aid in this decision-making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). The DeMAID software minimizes the feedback couplings that create iterative subcycles, groups processes into iterative subcycles, and decomposes the subcycles into a hierarchical structure. The real benefits of producing the best design in the least time and at a minimum cost are obtained from sequencing the processes in the subcycles.

  10. Integrating Thermal Tools Into the Mechanical Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Siebes, Georg; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    The intent of mechanical design is to deliver a hardware product that meets or exceeds customer expectations, while reducing cycle time and cost. To this end, an integrated mechanical design process enables the idea of parallel development (concurrent engineering). This represents a shift from the traditional mechanical design process. With such a concurrent process, there are significant issues that have to be identified and addressed before re-engineering the mechanical design process to facilitate concurrent engineering. These issues also assist in the integration and re-engineering of the thermal design sub-process since it resides within the entire mechanical design process. With these issues in mind, a thermal design sub-process can be re-defined in a manner that has a higher probability of acceptance, thus enabling an integrated mechanical design process. However, the actual implementation is not always problem-free. Experience in applying the thermal design sub-process to actual situations provides the evidence for improvement, but more importantly, for judging the viability and feasibility of the sub-process.

  11. A genetic algorithm for use in creative design processes 1 A Genetic Algorithm for use in Creative Design Processes

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    A genetic algorithm for use in creative design processes 1 A Genetic Algorithm for use in Creative with natural growth mechanisms applied to architectural design processes. We implement a genetic algorithm.1 Integral evolutionary design There are numerous examples of evolutionary algorithms: genetic algorithms

  12. Including Student Voice in the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Amy Stevens; Gill, Peggy B.

    2006-01-01

    Addressing educational change through systems design allows disciplined inquiry into the complex and emerging social structures of this dynamic system. One such method, narrative story, provides a way to examine the historical and current-lived practice of those engaged in the educational system. As a design conversation, it encourages the…

  13. Computer Applications in the Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchip, Susan

    Computer Assisted Design (CAD) and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM) are emerging technologies now being used in home economics and interior design applications. A microcomputer in a computer network system is capable of executing computer graphic functions such as three-dimensional modeling, as well as utilizing office automation packages to…

  14. Space bioreactor: Design/process flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

  15. Economic Process Capability Index for Product Design and Process Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angus Jeang

    2008-01-01

    The process capability index (PCI) is a value which reflects real-time quality status. The PCI acts as the reference for real-time\\u000a monitoring that enables process controllers to acquire a better grasp of the quality of their on site processes. The PCI value\\u000a is typically defined as the ability to carry out a task or achieve a goal. However, simply increasing

  16. Process of designing city housing in Japan

    E-print Network

    Kurokawa, Shoji

    1983-01-01

    pose of this thesis is to show one design approach to providing more preferable housing for users in Japan. Chapter 1 gives an overview of trends in Japanese housing construction, describes user requirements, analyzes ...

  17. Integrating Safety Issues in Optimizing Solvent Selection and Process Design 

    E-print Network

    Patel, Suhani Jitendra

    2011-10-21

    Incorporating consideration for safety issues while designing solvent processes has become crucial in light of the chemical process incidents involving solvents that have taken place in recent years. The implementation of ...

  18. Simultaneous process and molecular design/selection through property integration 

    E-print Network

    Qin, Xiaoyun

    2007-04-25

    The overall purpose of this work is to develop systematic methodology for the simultaneous design and selection of processes and molecules (materials). A propertybased approach is used to develop an interface between process ...

  19. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH FUGITIVE AND OPEN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the economics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. ...

  20. Designing web sites: The cognitive processes of lay-designers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Bonnardel; Laurence Lanzone

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few years, the World Web Wide (web) has become a ubiquitous infrastructure, supporting a wide range of services offered by large organizations as well as small and medium-sized enterprises. One of the most striking characteristics of the web is how it can enable individuals to design and \\

  1. In-design process hotspot repair using pattern matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Daehyun; Ha, Naya; Jeon, Junsu; Kang, Jae-Hyun; Paek, Seung Weon; Choi, Hungbok; Kim, Kee Sup; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Hurat, Philippe; Luo, Wilbur

    2012-03-01

    As patterning for advanced processes becomes more challenging, designs must become more process-aware. The conventional approach of running lithography simulation on designs to detect process hotspots is prohibitive in terms of runtime for designers, and also requires the release of highly confidential process information. Therefore, a more practical approach is required to make the In-Design process-aware methodology more affordable in terms of maintenance, confidentiality, and runtime. In this study, a pattern-based approach is chosen for Process Hotspot Repair (PHR) because it accurately captures the manufacturability challenges without releasing sensitive process information. Moreover, the pattern-based approach is fast and well integrated in the design flow. Further, this type of approach is very easy to maintain and extend. Once a new process weak pattern has been discovered (caused by Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP), etch, lithography, and other process steps), the pattern library can be quickly and easily updated and released to check and fix subsequent designs. This paper presents the pattern matching flow and discusses its advantages. It explains how a pattern library is created from the process weak patterns found on silicon wafers. The paper also discusses the PHR flow that fixes process hotspots in a design, specifically through the use of pattern matching and routing repair.

  2. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

  3. Process Design and Optimization of Biorefining Pathways 

    E-print Network

    Bao, Buping

    2012-07-16

    Studies ..................................................................................................... 42#1; 3.4.1#1; Case Study 1: Maximum Yield for Production of Gasoline from a Cellulosic Biomass... Biomass Feedstock ........................ 12 Figure 1.4. The Pretreatment for MSW Process .............................................................. 13 Figure 2.1. Process Synthesis Representation...

  4. Simulation for business processes and information systems design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray J. Paul; Alan Serrano

    2003-01-01

    Business process (BP) literature promotes the value of business processes as essential gearwheels that help organizations to reach their goals. Similarly, many process design approaches claim that information technology (IT) is a major enabler of business process, a view also shared by the information systems (IS) community. Despite this, BP and IS approaches do not provide clear guidance on how

  5. Numerical Simulations and Design of Shearing Process for Aluminum Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aniruddha Khadke; Somnath Ghosh

    2005-01-01

    This work combines experimental studies with finite element simulations to develop a reliable numerical model for the simulation of shearing process in aluminum alloys. The critical concern with respect to product quality in this important process is burr forma- tion. Numerical simulations are aimed at understanding the role of process variables on burr formation and for recommending process design parameters.

  6. Design considerations of color image processing pipeline for digital cameras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Chung Kao; Sheng-Hong Wang; Lien-Yang Chen; Sheng-Yuan Lin

    2006-01-01

    Although many individual image processing steps have been well addressed in the field, very few good image pipeline designs were proposed to integrate these processing stages. In this paper, a new color image processing pipeline (IPP), which processes the image raw data captured from CCD\\/CMOS sensors and converts to the final color with exposure corrected, is presented, it bridges the

  7. Erlang Behaviours: Programming with Process Design Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesarini, Francesco; Thompson, Simon

    Erlang processes run independently of each other, each using separate memory and communicating with each other by message passing. These processes, while executing different code, do so following a number of common patterns. By examining different examples of Erlang-style concurrency in client/server architectures, we identify the generic and specific parts of the code and extract the generic code to form a process skeleton. In Erlang, the most commonly used patterns have been implemented in library modules, commonly referred to as OTP behaviours. They contain the generic code framework for concurrency and error handling, simplifying the complexity of concurrent programming and protecting the developer from many common pitfalls.

  8. Designing and implementing auxiliary operational processes

    E-print Network

    Smith, Zachary R

    2008-01-01

    Amazon.com, one of the largest and most profitable online retailers, has been experiencing such dramatic growth rates that it must continually update and modify its fulfillment process in order to meet customer demand for ...

  9. Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems 

    E-print Network

    Witherell, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    When considering electric driven refrigeration compressors, proper integration with the process may result in reduced power consumption. However, the total utility situation must be considered when evaluating the compressor driver. Conversion from...

  10. Evaluating design for manufacturing with process capability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wingerden, Johannes; Le Cam, Laurent; Garg, Manish; Aksenov, Yuri; Dirksen, Peter

    2005-05-01

    The shrinking of the dimensions for each new process generation increases the challenges for lithography significantly. In order to guarantee manufacturability for future process generations, a strong interaction between lithography and design is required. A quantitative measure for the manufacturability is of key importance for driving the improvements in the design for manufacturing process. Aerial image slopes or contrasts in simulated images provide a measure for the sensitivity to process variations, but do not take the statistical process variation into account. This may result in sub-optimal choices in the design for manufacturing process. This paper discusses the process capability analysis and provides an optimal design with corresponding imaging conditions, taking the statistical fluctuations of exposure dose and focus into account. The mean CD value and the CD spread are calculated as a function of the amount of variation in the process variables like focus and exposure dose. Comparing these distribution parameters to the process specifications yields the so-called process capability index as a quantitative measure for the manufacturability. Another advantage is the possibility to include the effect of mask errors on the manufacturability. Until now, however, this method had only been demonstrated for line space features. In this paper we extend the process capability analysis method for calculating the manufacturability of arbitrary layouts. The analysis is demonstrated in an evaluation of the manufacturability of various gate layer designs, both conventional as well as litho-driven re-designs.

  11. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: MUNICIPAL SLUDGE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides general guidance and a source of information to be used in the planning, design, and operation of a landfill receiving municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge. Major alternative sludge landfilling methods are identified and described. Guidance is given on...

  12. Reliability Methods for Shield Design Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Tripathi; J. W. Wilson

    Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space operations. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and

  13. Reliability Methods for Shield Design Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Tripathi; J. W. Wilson

    2003-01-01

    Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space operations. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and

  14. Processes and Knowledge in Designing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.; And Others

    Results from a study of problem solving in the domain of instructional design are presented. Subjects were eight teacher trainees who were recent graduates of or were enrolled in the Stanford Teacher Education Program at Stanford University (California). Subjects studied a computer-based tutorial--the VST2000--about a fictitious vehicle. The…

  15. Designing Specification Languages for Process Control Systems

    E-print Network

    Leveson, Nancy

    for commercial passenger aircraft called TCAS II (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System). Because the upgrades and changes to TCAS II. Those designing specification languages often have themselves in mind manufacturers, component subcontractors, airlines, and pilot groups that reviewed the TCAS specification during

  16. Supporting medical device development: a standard product design process model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourdes A. Medina; Gül E. Okudan Kremer; Richard A. Wysk

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the complex nature of the medical device development (MDD) process and presents a product design process model to aid designers engaged in MDD. Basically, the model serves as a conceptual framework and provides a set of formalisms to define the development landscape for medical devices. Specifically, the model describes the phases of MDD and their relationships, including

  17. Improvement of economic integration of design with process capability index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen He; Zhihong Zhang; Bingguang Li; Binshan Lin

    2009-01-01

    The current model of economic integration of design possesses advantages of less bias and lower cost than traditional methods. However few methods are designed for manufacturability. Process capability analysis has been proven in practice to be a very valuable engineering decision tool. This paper presents a process capability index (PCI) approach to improve the economic integration model. In this paper,

  18. Improvement of Economic Integration of Design with Process Capability Index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Zhihong; He Zhen; Guo Wei

    2007-01-01

    The model of economic integration of design proposed by Kim and Cho possesses advantages of less bias and lower cost than traditional methods. But this method does not design for manufacturability. Process capability analysis has proven in practice to be a very valuable engineering decision tool. So process capability index (PCI) is introduced to improve the model. The methodology is

  19. Toward proactive (eco)design process: modeling information transformations among designers activities

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ecoeffective products. Therefore, this paper proposes a three-step method to build dynamic information exchanges between environmental engineers and product designers activities involved along the design process of developing such a method in the industry to build a constant proactivity along the design process between

  20. Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

  1. Product and process design optimization by quality engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangming Chen

    1990-01-01

    This research is concerned with product and process design optimization by quality engineering based on the work of Dr Taguchi, with emphasis on the optimization of dynamic systems and tolerance design. Various quality loss functions are presented in this thesis which can be used for quality evaluation. The goal of robust design for dynamic systems is to reduce the deviations

  2. The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G. [CD & W Inc., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

  3. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  4. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2011-12-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  5. Streamlining Instructional Design Process with Electronic Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Li; Juhong Liu; Mary Ellen Pierson

    Electronic communication tools, especially e-mail, are coming to be used for more than their original communication capabilities. E-mail has been found to contain much knowledge creation and sharing relevant to organizations and groups. This study will highlight the ability to categorize e-mail and other electronic communication tools within the unique cultural context of instructional designers. The researchers propose to evaluate

  6. Adding Users to the Website Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomeo, Megan L.

    2012-01-01

    Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

  7. Algorithmic Processes for Increasing Design Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, William R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the role of algorithmic processes as a supplementary method for producing cost-effective and efficient instructional materials. Examines three approaches to problem solving in the context of developing training materials for the Naval Training Command: application of algorithms, quasi-algorithms, and heuristics. (EAO)

  8. Design of smart imagers with image processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgeniya N. Serova; Yury A. Shiryaev; Anton O. Udovichenko

    2005-01-01

    This paper is devoted to creation of novel CMOS APS imagers with focal plane parallel image preprocessing for smart technical vision and electro-optical systems based on neural implementation. Using analysis of main biological vision features, the desired artificial vision characteristics are defined. Image processing tasks can be implemented by smart focal plane preprocessing CMOS imagers with neural networks are determined.

  9. Design of Freeze-Drying Processes for Pharmaceuticals: Practical Advice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Pikal

    2004-01-01

    Design of freeze-drying processes is often approached with a “trial and error” experimental plan or, worse yet, the protocol used in the first laboratory run is adopted without further attempts at optimization. Consequently, commercial freeze-drying processes are often neither robust nor efficient. It is our thesis that design of an “optimized” freeze-drying process is not particularly difficult for most products,

  10. Processing and designing parts using structural reaction injection molding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Eckler; T. C. Wilkinson

    1987-01-01

    A new process called structural reaction injection molding (SRIM) has been developed to combine the high strength and modulus\\u000a properties of fiber reinforced composites with the advantages of the reaction injection molding process. Along with the process,\\u000a a new reactive resin has been developed expressly for the structural RIM process. With the new resin and SRIM process conventional\\u000a design methods

  11. Inferring Design Environment (IDE) : "(re) shaping a design pattern as a learning process"

    E-print Network

    Gunji, Akira

    2005-01-01

    This proposal examines the Design process through developing a dialog or game-like graphic software environment. Inferring Design Environment (IDE) is a concept sketch that assimilates a dialog or turn-taking game onto a ...

  12. An analysis of architectural design process

    E-print Network

    Leveridge, Yolanda Kay

    2013-02-22

    . The variety of materials and methods has led to a more complex system of design (Esherick, 17). As the technology becomes more advanced, so too must the educational system, because the profession is forced to adopt new techniques. Education stands... safety v as a concern as the original house burned-down several years ago. Patricia Lahasky also had reoccurring foot problems and using a wheelchair in the future was a possibility. I found that the room in which they spend the majority of their time...

  13. Ceramic processing: Experimental design and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Martin W.; Lauben, David N.; Madrid, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to: (1) gain insight into the processing of ceramics and how green processing can affect the properties of ceramics; (2) investigate the technique of slip casting; (3) learn how heat treatment and temperature contribute to density, strength, and effects of under and over firing to ceramic properties; (4) experience some of the problems inherent in testing brittle materials and learn about the statistical nature of the strength of ceramics; (5) investigate orthogonal arrays as tools to examine the effect of many experimental parameters using a minimum number of experiments; (6) recognize appropriate uses for clay based ceramics; and (7) measure several different properties important to ceramic use and optimize them for a given application.

  14. Designing a process for executing projects under an international agreement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    Projects executed under an international agreement require special arrangements in order to operate within confines of regulations issued by the State Department and the Commerce Department. In order to communicate enterprise-level guidance and procedural information uniformly to projects based on interpretations that carry the weight of institutional authority, a process was developed. This paper provides a script for designing processes in general, using this particular process for context. While the context is incidental, the method described is applicable to any process in general. The paper will expound on novel features utilized for dissemination of the procedural details over the Internet following such process design.

  15. H-Coal process and plant design

    DOEpatents

    Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ); DeVaux, George R. (Princeton, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    A process for converting coal and other hydrocarbonaceous materials into useful and more valuable liquid products. The process comprises: feeding coal and/or other hydrocarbonaceous materials with a hydrogen-containing gas into an ebullated catalyst bed reactor; passing the reaction products from the reactor to a hot separator where the vaporous and distillate products are separated from the residuals; introducing the vaporous and distillate products from the separator directly into a hydrotreater where they are further hydrogenated; passing the residuals from the separator successively through flash vessels at reduced pressures where distillates are flashed off and combined with the vaporous and distillate products to be hydrogenated; transferring the unseparated residuals to a solids concentrating and removal means to remove a substantial portion of solids therefrom and recycling the remaining residual oil to the reactor; and passing the hydrogenated vaporous and distillate products to an atmospheric fractionator where the combined products are fractionated into separate valuable liquid products. The hydrogen-containing gas is generated from sources within the process.

  16. Design, processing, and testing of LSI arrays for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipri, A. C.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of a particular process for the fabrication of large scale integrated circuits is described. Test arrays were designed, built, and tested, and then utilized. A set of optimum dimensions for LSI arrays was generated. The arrays were applied to yield improvement through process innovation, and additional applications were suggested in the areas of yield prediction, yield modeling, and process reliability.

  17. Context-Aware Design for Process Flexibility and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Today's organizations face continuous and unprecedented changes in their business environment. Traditional process design tools tend to be inflexible and can only support rigidly defined processes (e.g., order processing in the supply chain). This considerably restricts their real-world applications value, especially in the dynamic and…

  18. Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, S.D.

    1998-07-01

    The sequential manner in which materials and processes for a manufactured product are selected is inherently less than optimal. Designers` tendency to choose processes and materials with which they are familiar exacerbate this problem. A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach is presented.

  19. Nursing job process analysis from viewpoint of process design by job diagram.

    PubMed

    Dannoue, Hideo; Tsuru, Satoko; Munechika, Masahiko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Recently Japan demands more and more quality assurance in clinical practice. Several aspects of issues have been discussed to provide significant suggestions for nursing quality assurance. In the quality management field, Process Design, which is known to contribute to quality assurance, is an important frame. This study attempts to analyze the nursing job process from the viewpoint of process design. As a result, some knowledge on the nursing job process could be comprehended. Process analysis from the viewpoint of Process Design is considered significant in nursing practice and further improvement of its technique and application is a challenge for the future. PMID:17102465

  20. An heuristic based practical tool for casting process design

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, N.K.; Smith, K.A.; Voller, V.R.; Haberle, K.F. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The work in this paper reports on an heuristic based computer tool directed at casting process design; in particular key design parameters, such as part orientation, location of sprues, feeding rates, etc. The underlying principal used is that a given casting can be represented on identifying and classifying its critical features. The input to the system consists of the attributes of the features and the graphical output provides semi-quantitative information on key design parameters. Results on real castings match those of the expert casting designers and in some cases potential design improvements have been suggested by the system.

  1. Designing process wells for an underground coal-gasification environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.S.

    1981-06-01

    Recent large-scale field experiments designed to advance the state of underground coal gasification (UCG) technology have forced the recognition of some critical uncertainties associated with the UCG process. Among the most important of these uncertainties occurs in attempting to define the reaction zone geometry. Batch processing of a flat-lying coal seam between two process wells involves complex flow patterns, any number of separate reaction zones, and interactions with surrounding media. All of these factors have significant impact on the overall efficiency of the UCG process, and all of them in turn are strongly affected by success or failure in maintaining the integrity of the process wells. The reasons why process well integrity is so important are covered here in a review and evaluation of significant data generated from various field tests, including identification of well failure mechanisms. We observe a close relationship between process well behavior and process performance, which leads us to conclude that reliable process well performance is critical in establishing and maintaining control over the UCG process. As a logical extension of this evaluation, we develop design and performance criteria for UCG process wells. Applications to the next generation of field tests are presented in the form of proposed design features for UCG process wells, features intended to prevent the failure modes that have occurred in past field experiments.

  2. Process-Based Cost Modeling to Support Target Value Design

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Hung Viet

    2010-01-01

    Cost Estimation of Highway Projects. ” Journal of Constructionproject including: design, specification, cost estimate, construction,and cost of waste by using process mapping. This project is a new construction

  3. Design and Implementation of a Program Outcome Assessment Process

    E-print Network

    Kurdahi, Fadi J.

    for and ability to engage in lifelong learning. EECS 115 X X (j) Knowledge of contemporary issues. EECS 115 X X (kDesign and Implementation of a Program Outcome Assessment Process for an ABET-accredited Computer

  4. Using GREENSCOPE for Sustainable Process Design: An Educational Opportunity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing sustainability can be approached through the education of those who design, construct, and operate facilities. As chemical engineers learn elements of process systems engineering, they can be introduced to sustainability concepts. The EPA’s GREENSCOPE methodolo...

  5. Computer-aided Tooling Design for Manufacturing Processes

    E-print Network

    Nee, Andrew Y. C.

    Tooling design for manufacturing processes refers to direct tooling for making a part such as molds and dies for injection molded parts and metal stampings, or for supporting machining operations such as jigs and fixtures. ...

  6. Multiple beam offset antenna design processes. [MSAT antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Both RF design steps and performance evaluation processes of multiple beam offset parabolic reflectors are described. Attempts are made to present the general methodology with a demonstration of the final results.

  7. Intensive Design: Examining Individual Differences in Text Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Margaret

    1984-01-01

    Presents results from a study that used an intensive design approach to investigate cognitive aspects of fluent reading. Cites data from the study to illustrate the advantages of the methodology for monitoring intrasubject variability in text processing. (FL)

  8. Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes,

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    Mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is about solving problems, designing processes, and making products to improve the quality of human life and shape the economy. Mechanical engineers apply, from power stations to cars, robots and computers. The professional training mechanical engineers

  9. Holistic design and simulation system in sheet metal forming processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Y. Yang; S. W. Lee; J. B. Kim; J. W. Yoon; D. W. Lee

    1998-01-01

    A holistic approach for design and simulation of sheet metal forming processes is nowadays required, based on the multilevel\\u000a strategies depending on the necessary information. This would save the lead time for product development and ensure the quality\\u000a of a sheet metal product. The multilevel approach consists of the use of simplified analysis for the basic design of forming\\u000a processes

  10. A robust tolerance design method based on process capability.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan-long; Yang, Jiang-xin; Wu, Zhao-tong; Wu, Li-qun

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method for robust tolerance design in terms of Process Capability Indices (PCI). The component tolerance and the suitable manufacturing processes can be selected based on the real manufacturing context. The robustness of design feasibility under the effect of uncertainties is also discussed. A comparison between the results obtained by the proposed model and other methods indicates that robust and reliable tolerance can be obtained. PMID:14663857

  11. student conduct process Our student conduct process is designed to promote

    E-print Network

    Missouri-Rolla, University of

    student conduct process Our student conduct process is designed to promote honesty, fairness outlined by the university; communitystandards.mst.edu. Following is an overview of the conduct process. An explanation of the allegation, the student conduct process and any applicable policies will be discussed

  12. Reducing the complexity of the software design process with object-oriented design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Designing software is a complex process. How object-oriented design (OOD), coupled with formalized documentation and tailored object diagraming techniques, can reduce the complexity of the software design process is described and illustrated. The described OOD methodology uses a hierarchical decomposition approach in which parent objects are decomposed into layers of lower level child objects. A method of tracking the assignment of requirements to design components is also included. Increases in the reusability, portability, and maintainability of the resulting products are also discussed. This method was built on a combination of existing technology, teaching experience, consulting experience, and feedback from design method users. The discussed concepts are applicable to hierarchal OOD processes in general. Emphasis is placed on improving the design process by documenting the details of the procedures involved and incorporating improvements into those procedures as they are developed.

  13. Analog Integrated Circuits Design for Processing Physiological Signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Li; Carmen C. Y. Poon; Yuan-Ting Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Analog integrated circuits (ICs) designed for processing physiological signals are important building blocks of wearable and implantable medical devices used for health monitoring or restoring lost body functions. Due to the nature of physiological signals and the corresponding application scenarios, the ICs designed for these applications should have low power consumption, low cutoff frequency, and low input-referred noise. In this

  14. The Metamodel: a Starting Point for Design Processes Construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeria SEIDITA; Massimo COSSENTINO; Vincent HILAIRE; Nicolas GAUD; St'ephane GALLAND; Abderrafiaa KOUKAM; Salvatore GAGLIO

    2010-01-01

    The construction of ad-hoc design processes following the Situational Method Engineering (SME) paradigm is currently carried out by adopting a set of phases for which, until now, no well defined techniques and guidelines have been established. The consequence is that organizations are very dependent on method designers' skills. In this paper, we propose an approach based on SME for constructing

  15. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual presents a rational procedure for the design of land treatment systems. Slow rate, rapid infiltration, and overland flow processes for the treatment of municipal wastewaters are discussed in detail, and the design concepts and criteria are presented. A two-phased plann...

  16. Design of a noise specification for process plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sutton

    1968-01-01

    This paper reviews noise in relation to the design of petroleum and chemical process plant. The selection of design noise criteria is considered with particular reference to community noise. The problems in drafting and applying a practical plant noise specification are discussed, and areas where further research is needed are identified. The subject is dealt with from the viewpoint of

  17. Computer aided analysis and design of sheet metal forming processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Firat

    2007-01-01

    The finite element simulations of a sheet metal forming process help the methods and tooling engineer designing the forming interface for a stamping part by shifting the costly press shop try-outs to the computer aided design environment. The finite element models used in the sheet metal formability and stamping feasibility assessment studies are commonly based on the ideally rigid die-face

  18. Integration of Process-Oriented Tolerancing and Maintenance Planning in Design of Multistation Manufacturing Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Chen; Yu Ding; Jionghua Jin; D. Ceglarek

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing systems are inherently imperfect both statically and dynamically. Tolerance and maintenance design are two major tools to address the static and dynamic imperfection of manufacturing processes (i.e., inherent process imperfection and tooling deterioration, respectively). Yet, traditionally, tolerance and maintenance designs have been studied separately to address these two critical areas of manufacturing systems. This paper presents an integrated framework

  19. Theory and Practice Meets in Industrial Process Design -Educational Perspective-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Toikka, Tarja

    Software engineer should see himself as a business process designer in enterprise resource planning system (ERP) re-engineering project. Software engineers and managers should have design dialogue. The objective of this paper is to discuss the motives to study the design research in connection of management education in order to envision and understand the soft human issues in the management context. Second goal is to develop means of practicing social skills between designers and managers. This article explores the affective components of design thinking in industrial management domain. In the conceptual part of this paper are discussed concepts of network and project economy, creativity, communication, use of metaphors, and design thinking. Finally is introduced empirical research plan and first empirical results from design method experiments among the multi-disciplined groups of the master-level students of industrial engineering and management and software engineering.

  20. Application of hazard assessment techniques in the CISF design process

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, J.R.; Henry, T.

    1997-10-29

    The Department of Energy has submitted to the NRC staff for review a topical safety analysis report (TSAR) for a Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF). The TSAR will be used in licensing the CISF when and if a site is designated. CISF1 design events are identified based on thorough review of design basis events (DBEs) previously identified by dry storage system suppliers and licensees and through the application of hazard assessment techniques. A Preliminary Hazards Assessment (PHA) is performed to identify design events applicable to a Phase 1 non site specific CISF. A PHA is deemed necessary since the Phase 1 CISF is distinguishable from previous dry store applications in several significant operational scope and design basis aspects. In addition to assuring all design events applicable to the Phase 1 CISF are identified, the PHA served as an integral part of the CISF design process by identifying potential important to safety and defense in depth facility design and administrative control features. This paper describes the Phase 1 CISF design event identification process and summarizes significant PHA contributions to the CISF design.

  1. Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

  2. The Design of the Borealis Stream Processing Engine

    E-print Network

    Loo, Boon Thau

    1 The Design of the Borealis Stream Processing Engine CIDR 2005 Brandeis University, Brown, query languages Efficient single-site processing [STREAM, TelegraphCQ, NiagaraCQ, Gigascope, Aurora] Basic distributed systems Servers [TelegraphCQ, Medusa/Aurora] or sensor networks [TinyDB, Cougar

  3. Processing design of a networked passive coherent location system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Tong; Michael Inggs; Gunther Lange

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the design of a bistatic passive coherent location radar receiver system using Software Defined Radio (SDR) techniques. The receiver of the bistatic system is made up of a RF front-end, digitisation section, digital signal processing section and user interface. The integration of various components of the system are discussed. The digital signal processing stages of the system

  4. A Systems Analysis Approach to Word Information Processing Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, John

    1984-01-01

    The life-cycle approach to the process of redesigning a business education curriculum to include word/information processing includes four steps: the study phase, the design phase, the development phase, and the operation phase. The method implements extensive curriculum changes in an orderly and effective manner. (SK)

  5. Process oriented design aids for very large scale integrated circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kamiya

    1979-01-01

    Process oriented circuit design aids to simulate the more complex circuits, and still accurately reflect the smaller size MOS transistor characteristics are developed. Precise device modeling for small size MOSFET's, process characterization in connection with device model parameters, and development of the presently available high level LSI logic circuit simulator (MOTIS), compatible with a general purpose circuit analysis program such

  6. DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH OPEN AND FUGITIVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the conomics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. Th...

  7. Propelling design evolution: using a scientifically driven design process to incrementally advance architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Thaddeus Gassman

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores the influence of design evolution within the professions of architecture, industrial design, and engineering. Design evolution is a process that can be accelerated through collaboration between various groups linked to the development and production of designed objects. Working as interdisciplinary professionals, I support the incremental advancement of contemporary products in order to encourage positive human progress.\\u000aAs

  8. Toward an Effective Design Process: Enhancing Building Performance through Better Integration of Facility Management Perspectives in the Design Process 

    E-print Network

    Kalantari Hematabadi, Seyed Saleh

    2014-08-20

    ......................................................................................................... 62 3.4. Quantitative Method .............................................................................................. 62 3.4.1. Developing the Survey Questionnaire ............................................................ 62 3... 3. Design Development Spiral with Additional Respect to the Sustainability ..... 25 Figure 4. The Map of Managing the Building Design Process and 14 Toyota Way Principles...

  9. Computer-aided design tools for economical MEMS fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Christian; Priebe, Andreas; Brueck, Rainer; Hahn, Kai

    1999-03-01

    Since the early 70s when microsystem technology was first introduce an enormous market for MST-products has been developed. Airbag sensors, micro pumps, ink jet nozzles etc. and the market is just about to start up. Establishing these products for a reasonable price requires mass production. Meanwhile, also computer-based design-tools have been developed in order to reduce the expenses for MST-design. In contrast to other physical design processes like e.g. in micro electronics, MEMS physical design is characterized by the fact that each product requires a tailored sequence of fabrication steps, usually selected from a variety of processing alternatives. The selection from these alternatives is based on economical constraints. Therefore, the design has a strong influence on the money and time spent to take an MST-product to market.

  10. Process Design and Integration of Shale Gas to Methanol 

    E-print Network

    Ehlinger, Victoria M.

    2013-02-04

    the entire process. 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to Dr. Mahmoud El-Halwagi for assistance with the process analysis, energy integration, and cost estimation, Kerron Gabriel for assistance with process design and simulation set up, and Mohamed..., 1395 p. 5. Goellner, J.F., Expanding the Shale Gas Infrastructure. Chemical Engineering Progress, 2012. 108(8): p. 49-+. 6. Cheng, W.-H. and H.H. Kung, Methanol Production and Use. Chemical Industries. 1994: Marcel Dekker. 7. Bao, B., M.M. El...

  11. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE DESIGN OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES USING HIERARCHICAL DESIGN AND SIMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design of chemical processes is normally an interactive process of synthesis and analysis. When one also desires or needs to limit the amount of pollution generated by the process the difficulty of the task can increase substantially. In this work, we show how combining hier...

  12. Feature-based metal stamping part and process design. Part II: stamping process planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunbing Tang; Benhe Gao

    2007-01-01

    In metal stamping development, stamping process planning plays quite an important role for the related die design. As mentioned in Part-I [Feature-based metal stamping part and process design. Part 1: stampability evaluation, 2007, 45, 2673–2695], the feature can encapsulate comprehensive engineering information; this paper proposes to realize stamping process planning based on feature mapping. A feature mapping system, between a

  13. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A design method for process design kit based on an SMIC 65 nm process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiyan, Luo; Lan, Chen; Minghui, Yin

    2010-10-01

    The frame structure of a process design kit (PDK) is described in detail, and a practical design method for PDK is presented. Based on this method, a useful SMIC 65 nm PDK has been successfully designed and realized, which is applicable to native EDA software of Zeni. The design process and difficulties of PDK are introduced by developing and analyzing these parameterized cell (Pcell) devices (MOS, resistor, etc.). A structured design method was proposed to implement Pcell, which makes thousands upon thousands of source codes of Pcell concise, readable, easy-to-upkeep and transplantable. Moreover, a Pcase library for each Pcell is designed to verify the Pcell in batches. By this approach, the Pcell can be verified efficiently and the PDK will be more reliable and steady. In addition, the component description format parameters and layouts of the Pcell are optimized by adding flexibility and improving performance, which benefits analog and custom IC designers to satisfy the demand of design. Finally, the SMIC 65 nm PDK was applied to IC design. The results indicate that the SMIC 65 nm PDK is competent to support IC design.

  14. DESIGN OF A REAL-TIME DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AUDIO PROCESSING TECHNIQUE 

    E-print Network

    Jagielski, Christopher

    2012-04-24

    , for taking me in as a research student and guiding me in this process with so much enthusiasm and support. vi NOMENCLATURE A/D Analog-to-Digital D/A Digital-to-Analog DSK Digital Signal Processing Starter Kit DSP Digital Signal Processing EVM... .................................................................. 4 Real-time DSP design considerations ............................................. 4 Motivation ....................................................................................... 6 Organization of the thesis...

  15. Prodrugs design based on inter- and intramolecular chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik

    2013-12-01

    This review provides the reader a concise overview of the majority of prodrug approaches with the emphasis on the modern approaches to prodrug design. The chemical approach catalyzed by metabolic enzymes which is considered as widely used among all other approaches to minimize the undesirable drug physicochemical properties is discussed. Part of this review will shed light on the use of molecular orbital methods such as DFT, semiempirical and ab initio for the design of novel prodrugs. This novel prodrug approach implies prodrug design based on enzyme models that were utilized for mimicking enzyme catalysis. The computational approach exploited for the prodrug design involves molecular orbital and molecular mechanics (DFT, ab initio, and MM2) calculations and correlations between experimental and calculated values of intramolecular processes that were experimentally studied to assign the factors determining the reaction rates in certain processes for better understanding on how enzymes might exert their extraordinary catalysis. PMID:23998799

  16. Designing future products: what difficulties do designers encounter and how can their creative process be supported?

    PubMed

    Bonnardel, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    To remain competitive, companies must regularly offer new products to consumers. A major challenge for designers is therefore to come up with design solutions and define products that are both new and adapted to future users and usages. Although classic methods and ergonomic recommendations are useful in most run-of-the-mill design contexts, they are of limited benefit when the design situation requires greater creativity. This paper therefore addresses issues related to product design by pursuing a triple objective: (1) highlight the difficulties encountered by designers in imagining and conceiving new products, (2) find out which conditions could help designers come up with creative ideas for innovative products, and (3) suggest methods and tools to support designers' creative process and help them take other stakeholders' needs and expectations into consideration. PMID:22317539

  17. Articulation and Sharing of Distributed Design Project and Process Knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vadim Ermolayev; Frank Dengler; Eyck Jentzsch; Wolf-Ekkehard Matzke

    \\u000a The paper reports on the work in the case study of the ACTIVE project on the use of the combination of knowledge process learning,\\u000a articulation and sharing technologies for increasing the performance and decreasing the ramp-up efforts in engineering design\\u000a projects. This knowledge is mined from distributed heterogeneous datasets, fused, and further used for visualizing design\\u000a project plan information in

  18. Digitally mediated design : using computer programming to develop a personal design process

    E-print Network

    Yakeley, Megan (Megan Webster), 1966-

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is based on the proposal that the current system of architectural design education confuses product and process. Students are assessed through, and therefore concentrate on, the former whilst the latter is left ...

  19. Design of launch systems using continuous improvement process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify a systematic process for improving ground operations for future launch systems. This approach is based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) continuous improvement process. While the continuous improvement process is normally identified with making incremental changes to an existing system, it can be used on new systems if they use past experience as a knowledge base. In the case of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the Space Shuttle operations provide many lessons. The TQM methodology used for this paper will be borrowed from the United States Air Force 'Quality Air Force' Program. There is a general overview of the continuous improvement process, with concentration on the formulation phase. During this phase critical analyses are conducted to determine the strategy and goals for the remaining development process. These analyses include analyzing the mission from the customers point of view, developing an operations concept for the future, assessing current capabilities and determining the gap to be closed between current capabilities and future needs and requirements. A brief analyses of the RLV, relative to the Space Shuttle, will be used to illustrate the concept. Using the continuous improvement design concept has many advantages. These include a customer oriented process which will develop a more marketable product and a better integration of operations and systems during the design phase. But, the use of TQM techniques will require changes, including more discipline in the design process and more emphasis on data gathering for operational systems. The benefits will far outweigh the additional effort.

  20. Application of process monitoring to verify facility design

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Process monitoring has been proposed as a safeguards measure to ensure that a facility is operating as designed, or as a surveillance measure to ensure that material is not removed from the facility in an undeclared manner. In a process-monitoring system, the facility operator monitors process operations such as tank levels, densities, and temperatures; process flows; and physical parameters such as valve positions to ensure that the operations performed are both desired and required. At many facilities (for example, Idaho), the process-monitoring system is also an important safety feature to prevent criticality. Verifying facility design is necessary for application of safeguards in a reprocessing plant. Verifying all pipes and valves through comparison of blueprints with the as-built facility is an almost impossible task with the International Atomic Energy Agency's limited inspection resources. We propose applying process monitoring for international safeguards facility design verification. By carefully selecting process-operating variables, it may be possible to verify that plant flows are as described and that key measurement points are not bypassed. 8 refs.

  1. Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-07

    The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

  2. Improving Software Development Process through Economic Mechanism Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Murat; O'Connor, Rory V.; Collins, John

    We introduce the novel concept of applying economic mechanism design to software development process, and aim to find ways to adjust the incentives and disincentives of the software organization to align them with the motivations of the participants in order to maximize the delivered value of a software project. We envision a set of principles to design processes that allow people to be self motivated but constantly working toward project goals. The resulting economic mechanism will rely on game theoretic principles (i.e. Stackelberg games) for leveraging the incentives, goals and motivation of the participants in the service of project and organizational goals.

  3. A Review of the Design Process for Implantable Orthopedic Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Aitchison, G.A; Hukins, D.W.L; Parry, J.J; Shepherd, D.E.T; Trotman, S.G

    2009-01-01

    The design process for medical devices is highly regulated to ensure the safety of patients. This paper will present a review of the design process for implantable orthopedic medical devices. It will cover the main stages of feasibility, design reviews, design, design verification, manufacture, design validation, design transfer and design changes. PMID:19662153

  4. Integrating Science into Design Technology Projects: Using a Standard Model in the Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrowski, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Fourth graders built a model windmill using a three-step process: (1) open exploration of designs; (2) application of a standard model incorporating features of suggested designs; and (3) refinement of preliminary models. The approach required math, science, and technology teacher collaboration and adequate time. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  5. Motivating the Notion of Generic Design within Information Processing Theory: The Design Problem Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Vinod; Pirolli, Peter

    The notion of generic design, while it has been around for 25 years, is not often articulated, especially within Newell and Simon's (1972) Information Processing Theory framework. Design is merely lumped in with other forms of problem solving activity. Intuitively it is felt that there should be a level of description of the phenomenon which…

  6. Sketching in Design Journals: an Analysis of Visual Representations in the Product Design Process

    E-print Network

    Agogino, Alice M.

    Sketching in Design Journals: an Analysis of Visual Representations in the Product Design Process journals, characterized by a protocol measuring sketching activities, are presented. A distinction is made between journals that are entirely tangible and those that contain some digitally-produced content

  7. Process Improvement Through Tool Integration in Aero-Mechanical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Emerging capabilities in commercial design tools promise to significantly improve the multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary design and analysis coverage for aerospace mechanical engineers. This paper explores the analysis process for two example problems of a wing and flap mechanical drive system and an aircraft landing gear door panel. The examples begin with the design solid models and include various analysis disciplines such as structural stress and aerodynamic loads. Analytical methods include CFD, multi-body dynamics with flexible bodies and structural analysis. Elements of analysis data management, data visualization and collaboration are also included.

  8. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics

    1994-12-31

    The computational requirements for design and manufacture of automotive components have seen dramatic increases for producing automobiles with three times the mileage. Automotive component design systems are becoming increasingly reliant on structural analysis requiring both overall larger analysis and more complex analyses, more three-dimensional analyses, larger model sizes, and routine consideration of transient and non-linear effects. Such analyses must be performed rapidly to minimize delays in the design and development process, which drives the need for parallel computing. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in superplastic forming and automotive crash worthiness.

  9. Design of a Computerized Medical School Admissions Process

    PubMed Central

    Oberst, Robert J.; McPeters, Nancy A.; Comas, Manuel R.

    1983-01-01

    A Computerized Admissions Process (CAP) was developed for the St. Louis University School of Medicine. This system is written in MUMPS and currently runs on a Tandem Computer System located at the Medical School. The system was designed to achieve several important goals. First, the system must be interactive, providing full integration of various clerical, word processing and administrative functions that comprise the admissions process. Second, there must be a capability for user-defined screening criteria. Third, data entry must be minimized. Fourth, the system must be designed to allow reconfiguration in order to reflect possible future changes in the overall admissions process. A discussion of the present admissions system as a single “state” of a more Generalized Action System (GAS) is presented.

  10. The INTUITION Design Process: Structuring Military Multimodal Interactive Cockpits Design According to the MVC Design Pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rémi Bastide; Laurence Nigay; Didier Bazalgette; Yacine Bellik; Christian Nouvel

    This article is concerned with the design and implementation of multimodal user interfaces. The use of multiple modalities such as vision, speech and gesture opens a vast world of possibilities in user interface design. Although the potential for innovation is high, the current understanding of how to design and build multimodal user interfaces is still primitive. The power and versatility

  11. Introduction to the Third Workshop on Business Process Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Davenport; Selma Limam Mansar; Hajo A. Reijers

    2007-01-01

    If one considers business processes that are in use today, be it by banks, insurance companies, governmental agencies, hosptitals,\\u000a etc., it is sometimes difficult to imagine that they were once consciously designed. Their structures can be extremely complicated,\\u000a responsibilities for their parts may have been widely distributed, and no particular participant really has an overview of\\u000a the entire process anymore.

  12. Inverse Analysis to Formability Design in a Deep Drawing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buranathiti, Thaweepat; Cao, Jian

    Deep drawing process is an important process adding values to flat sheet metals in many industries. An important concern in the design of a deep drawing process generally is formability. This paper aims to present the connection between formability and inverse analysis (IA), which is a systematical means for determining an optimal blank configuration for a deep drawing process. In this paper, IA is presented and explored by using a commercial finite element software package. A number of numerical studies on the effect of blank configurations to the quality of a part produced by a deep drawing process were conducted and analyzed. The quality of the drawing processes is numerically analyzed by using an explicit incremental nonlinear finite element code. The minimum distance between elemental principal strains and the strain-based forming limit curve (FLC) is defined as tearing margin to be the key performance index (KPI) implying the quality of the part. The initial blank configuration has shown that it plays a highly important role in the quality of the product via the deep drawing process. In addition, it is observed that if a blank configuration is not greatly deviated from the one obtained from IA, the blank can still result a good product. The strain history around the bottom fillet of the part is also observed. The paper concludes that IA is an important part of the design methodology for deep drawing processes.

  13. A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  14. Noise control, sound, and the vehicle design process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donavan, Paul

    2005-09-01

    For many products, noise and sound are viewed as necessary evils that need to be dealt with in order to bring the product successfully to market. They are generally not product ``exciters'' although some vehicle manufacturers do tune and advertise specific sounds to enhance the perception of their products. In this paper, influencing the design process for the ``evils,'' such as wind noise and road noise, are considered in more detail. There are three ingredients to successfully dealing with the evils in the design process. The first of these is knowing how excesses in noise effects the end customer in a tangible manner and how that effects customer satisfaction and ultimately sells. The second is having and delivering the knowledge of what is required of the design to achieve a satisfactory or even better level of noise performance. The third ingredient is having the commitment of the designers to incorporate the knowledge into their part, subsystem or system. In this paper, the elements of each of these ingredients are discussed in some detail and the attributes of a successful design process are enumerated.

  15. A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  16. A Framework to Design and Optimize Chemical Flooding Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2006-08-31

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  17. DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Aproximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use tis inform...

  18. A Design Theory for Systems That Support Emergent Knowledge Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lynne Markus; Ann Majchrzak; Les Gasser

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the design problem of providing IT support for emerging knowledge pro- cesses (EKPs). EKPs are organizational activity patterns that exhibit three characteristics in com- bination: an emergent process of deliberations with no best structure or sequence; requirements for knowledge that are complex (both general and situational), distributed across people, and evolving dynamically; and an actor set that

  19. Process Paradigms in Design and Composition: Affinities and Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostelnick, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Argues that comparing developments in the process approach to writing and the design methods movement sheds light on the evolution and future direction of the writing paradigm. Argues that sensitivity to the variety of writing tasks and social contexts is more effective than a single amorphous model. (RS)

  20. Altering Design Decisions to Better Suit Facilities Management Processes 

    E-print Network

    Jawdeh, H. B.; Abudul-Malak, M. A.; Wood, G.

    2010-01-01

    that FM practically links the work type and nature to the work location and consequently handles issues such as human resources, process engineering, ergonomics, architecture, and interior design. FM supports organisations? businesses through... by Pitt & Tucker (2008), physical properties include structural integrity, lighting, heating, energy efficiency, maintainability and durability; while functional aspects incorporate space, layout, ergonomics, image, ambience, communication, health...

  1. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes the basic principles of land treatment and presents a rational procedure for design of land treatment systems. Information contained in this manual can be used in identifying alternatives during planning, in selecting a process alternative or site, in determ...

  2. USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS TO DESIGN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic algorithm calculations are applied to the design of chemical processes to achieve improvements in environmental and economic performance. By finding the set of Pareto (i.e., non-dominated) solutions one can see how different objectives, such as environmental and economic ...

  3. Design and Analysis of Flexible Biodiesel Processes with Multiple Feedstocks 

    E-print Network

    Pokoo-Aikins, Grace Amarachukwu

    2011-10-21

    the design and techno-economic analysis of an integrated system for the production of biodiesel from algal oil. With the sequestration of carbon dioxide from power plant flue gases, algae growth and processing has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas...

  4. A process for free-space laser communications system design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick G. Walther; John D. Moores; Robert J. Murphy; Steven Michael; George A. Nowak

    2009-01-01

    We present a design methodology for free-space laser communications systems. The first phase includes a characterization through numerical simulations of the channel to evaluate the range of extinction and scintillation. The second phase is the selection of fade mitigation schemes, which would incorporate pointing, acquisition, tracking, and communication system parameters specifically tailored to the channel. Ideally, the process would include

  5. Ingenuity in Action: Connecting Tinkering to Engineering Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jennifer; Werner-Avidon, Maia; Newton, Lisa; Randol, Scott; Smith, Brooke; Walker, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    The Lawrence Hall of Science, a science center, seeks to replicate real-world engineering at the "Ingenuity in Action" exhibit, which consists of three open-ended challenges. These problems encourage children to engage in engineering design processes and problem-solving techniques through tinkering. We observed and interviewed 112…

  6. The Design-Build Process for the Research Support Facility

    E-print Network

    contract process to build one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world. #12;#12;Table.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory used a performance-based design-build of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to directly impact national energy security by redefining

  7. A Process Variation Tolerant Self-Compensation Sense Amplifier Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aarti Choudhary

    2008-01-01

    As we move under the aegis of the Moore's law, we have to deal with its darker side with problems like leakage and short channel effects. Once we go beyond 45nm regime process variations also have emerged as a significant design concern.Embedded memories uses sense amplifier for fast sensing and typically, sense amplifiers uses pair of matched transistors in a

  8. Process and Prospects for the Designed Hydrograph, Lower Missouri River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Jacobson; D. L. Galat; C. H. Hay

    2005-01-01

    The flow regime of the Lower Missouri River (LMOR, Gavins Point, SD to St. Louis, MO) is being redesigned to restore elements of natural variability while maintaining project purposes such as power production, flood control, water supply, and navigation. Presently, an experimental hydrograph alteration is planned for Spring, 2006. Similar to many large, multi-purpose rivers, the ongoing design process involves

  9. DESIGNING EFFICIENT, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A catalytic reforming process has been studied using hierarchical design and simulation calculations. Approximations for the fugitive emissions indicate which streams allow the most value to be lost and which have the highest potential environmental impact. One can use this infor...

  10. Quality Control through Design and Process: Gambrel Roof Truss Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dell; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Customers determine whether a product fulfills their needs or satisfies them. "Quality control", then, is the process of finding out what the customer wants, along with designing, producing, delivering, and servicing the product--and ultimately satisfying the customer's expectations. For many years, people considered a product to be of good…

  11. Integrating Agile Development Processes and User Centred Design-

    E-print Network

    Cairns, Paul

    and evaluate the role that can be played by Usability Maturity Models (UMMs) in integrating ag- ile processes Usability Maturity Model for utilisation in the Agile domain in order to assess the organisation's UCD Design Integration (AUCDI) and util- ising the model in assessing their usability maturity level

  12. INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY INTO HIERARCHICAL CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating Industrial Ecology into Hierarchical Chemical Process Design: Determining Targets for the Exchange of Waste The exchange of waste to be used as a recycled feed has long been encouraged by practitioners of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a field t...

  13. Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

    1998-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

  14. Architectural design of heterogeneous metallic nanocrystals--principles and processes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Qingbo; Yao, Qiaofeng; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Heterogeneous metal nanocrystals (HMNCs) are a natural extension of simple metal nanocrystals (NCs), but as a research topic, they have been much less explored until recently. HMNCs are formed by integrating metal NCs of different compositions into a common entity, similar to the way atoms are bonded to form molecules. HMNCs can be built to exhibit an unprecedented architectural diversity and complexity by programming the arrangement of the NC building blocks ("unit NCs"). The architectural engineering of HMNCs involves the design and fabrication of the architecture-determining elements (ADEs), i.e., unit NCs with precise control of shape and size, and their relative positions in the design. Similar to molecular engineering, where structural diversity is used to create more property variations for application explorations, the architectural engineering of HMNCs can similarly increase the utility of metal NCs by offering a suite of properties to support multifunctionality in applications. The architectural engineering of HMNCs calls for processes and operations that can execute the design. Some enabling technologies already exist in the form of classical micro- and macroscale fabrication techniques, such as masking and etching. These processes, when used singly or in combination, are fully capable of fabricating nanoscopic objects. What is needed is a detailed understanding of the engineering control of ADEs and the translation of these principles into actual processes. For simplicity of execution, these processes should be integrated into a common reaction system and yet retain independence of control. The key to architectural diversity is therefore the independent controllability of each ADE in the design blueprint. The right chemical tools must be applied under the right circumstances in order to achieve the desired outcome. In this Account, after a short illustration of the infinite possibility of combining different ADEs to create HMNC design variations, we introduce the fabrication processes for each ADE, which enable shape, size, and location control of the unit NCs in a particular HMNC design. The principles of these processes are discussed and illustrated with examples. We then discuss how these processes may be integrated into a common reaction system while retaining the independence of individual processes. The principles for the independent control of each ADE are discussed in detail to lay the foundation for the selection of the chemical reaction system and its operating space. PMID:25343731

  15. Penetrator reliability investigation and design exploration : from conventional design processes to innovative uncertainty-capturing algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Heaphy, Robert (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Gramacy, Robert B. (University of Cambridge); Taddy, Matt (University of California, Santa Cruz, CA); Chiesa, Michael L.; Thomas, Stephen W. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Swiler, Laura Painton (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Hough, Patricia Diane; Lee, Herbert K. H. (University of California, Santa Cruz, CA); Trucano, Timothy Guy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Gray, Genetha Anne

    2006-11-01

    This project focused on research and algorithmic development in optimization under uncertainty (OUU) problems driven by earth penetrator (EP) designs. While taking into account uncertainty, we addressed three challenges in current simulation-based engineering design and analysis processes. The first challenge required leveraging small local samples, already constructed by optimization algorithms, to build effective surrogate models. We used Gaussian Process (GP) models to construct these surrogates. We developed two OUU algorithms using 'local' GPs (OUU-LGP) and one OUU algorithm using 'global' GPs (OUU-GGP) that appear competitive or better than current methods. The second challenge was to develop a methodical design process based on multi-resolution, multi-fidelity models. We developed a Multi-Fidelity Bayesian Auto-regressive process (MF-BAP). The third challenge involved the development of tools that are computational feasible and accessible. We created MATLAB{reg_sign} and initial DAKOTA implementations of our algorithms.

  16. RATES OF REACTION AND PROCESS DESIGN DATA FOR THE HYDROCARB PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides experimental and process design data in support of studies far developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb process. he experimental work includes the hydropyrolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a 2.44 m l...

  17. RATES OF REACTION AND PROCESS DESIGN DATA FOR THE HYDROCARB PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides experimental and process design data in support of studies for developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb process. The experimental work includes the hydropyrolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a 2.44 m ...

  18. Process simulation in stamping – recent applications for product and process design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Thomas; T Oenoki; T Altan

    2000-01-01

    Process simulation for product and process design is currently being practiced in industry. However, a number of input variables have a significant effect on the accuracy and reliability of computer predictions. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of FE-simulations for predicting part characteristics and process conditions in forming complex-shaped, industrial parts.In industrial applications, there are two objectives for

  19. Designed CVD growth of graphene via process engineering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kai; Fu, Lei; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2013-10-15

    Graphene, the atomic thin carbon film with honeycomb lattice, holds great promise in a wide range of applications, due to its unique band structure and excellent electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Scientists are researching this star material because of the development of various emerging preparation techniques, among which chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has received the fastest advances in the past few years. For the CVD growth of graphene, the ultimate goal is to achieve the highest quality in the largest scale and lowest cost with a precise control of layer thickness, stacking order, and crystallinity. To meet this goal, researchers need a comprehensive understanding and effective controlling of the growth process, especially to its elementary steps. In this Account, we focus on our recent progresses toward the controlled surface growth of graphene and its two-dimensional (2D) hybrids via rational designs of CVD elementary processes, namely, process engineering. A typical CVD process consists of four main elementary steps: (A) adsorption and catalytic decomposition of precursor gas, (B) diffusion and dissolution of decomposed carbon species into bulk metal, (C) segregation of dissolved carbon atoms onto the metal surface, and finally, (D) surface nucleation and growth of graphene. Absence or enhancement of each elementary step would lead to significant changes in the whole growth process. Metals with certain carbon solubility, such as nickel and cobalt, involve all four elementary steps in a typical CVD process, thus providing us an ideal system for process engineering. The elementary segregation process can be completely blocked if molybdenum is introduced into the system as an alloy catalyst, yielding perfect monolayer graphene almost independent of growth parameters. On the other hand, the segregation-only process of predissolved solid carbons is also capable of high-quality graphene growth. By using a synergetic Cu-Ni alloy, we are able to further enhance the control to such a segregation technique, especially for the thickness of graphene. By designing a cosegregation process of carbon atoms with other elements, such as nitrogen, doped graphene could be synthesized directly with a tunable doping profile. Copper with negligible carbon solubility provides another platform for process engineering, where both carbon dissolution and segregation steps are negligible in the CVD process. Carbon atoms decomposed from precursors diffuse on the surface and build up the thermodynamically stable honeycomb lattice. As a result, graphene growth on copper is self-limited, and formation of multilayer graphene is generally prohibited. Being able to control this process better, as well as the high quality produced, makes copper-based growth the dominating synthesis procedure in the graphene community. We designed a two-temperature zone system to spatially separate the catalytic decomposition step of carbon precursors and the surface graphitization step for breaking this self-limited growth feature, giving high-quality Bernal stacked bilayer graphene via van der Waals epitaxy. We performed the so-called wrinkle engineering by growing graphene on nanostructured copper foil together with a structure-preserved surface transfer. In such a way, we controlled the wrinkling or folding on graphene and further fabricated graphene nanoribbon arrays by self-masked plasma etching. Moreover, by designing a two-step patching growth process on copper, we succeeded in synthesizing the mosaic graphene, a patchwork of intrinsic and nitrogen-doped graphene connected by single crystalline graphene p-n junctions. By following a general concept of process engineering, our work on the designed CVD growth of graphene and its 2D hybrids provides a unique insight of this research field. It enables the precise growth control of graphene together with the in-depth understanding of CVD growth process, which would further stimulate the pace of graphene applications. PMID:23869401

  20. A Taguchi study of the aeroelastic tailoring design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlmann, Jonathan D.; Scott, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A Taguchi study was performed to determine the important players in the aeroelastic tailoring design process and to find the best composition of the optimization's objective function. The Wing Aeroelastic Synthesis Procedure (TSO) was used to ascertain the effects that factors such as composite laminate constraints, roll effectiveness constraints, and built-in wing twist and camber have on the optimum, aeroelastically tailored wing skin design. The results show the Taguchi method to be a viable engineering tool for computational inquiries, and provide some valuable lessons about the practice of aeroelastic tailoring.

  1. Operation and design of selected industrial process heat field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D. W.

    1981-02-01

    The DOE program of solar industrial process heat field tests has shown solar energy to be compatible with numerous industrial needs. Both the operational projects and the detailed designs of systems that are not yet operational have resulted in valuable insights into design and hardware practice. Typical of these insights are the experiences discussed for the four projects reviewed. Future solar IPH systems should benefit greatly not only from the availability of present information, but also from the wealth of operating experience from projects due to start up in 1981.

  2. Remote Maintenance Design Guide for Compact Processing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.

    2000-07-13

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Robotics and Process Systems (RPSD) personnel have extensive experience working with remotely operated and maintained systems. These systems require expert knowledge in teleoperation, human factors, telerobotics, and other robotic devices so that remote equipment may be manipulated, operated, serviced, surveyed, and moved about in a hazardous environment. The RPSD staff has a wealth of experience in this area, including knowledge in the broad topics of human factors, modular electronics, modular mechanical systems, hardware design, and specialized tooling. Examples of projects that illustrate and highlight RPSD's unique experience in remote systems design and application include the following: (1) design of a remote shear and remote dissolver systems in support of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fuel recycling research and nuclear power missions; (2) building remotely operated mobile systems for metrology and characterizing hazardous facilities in support of remote operations within those facilities; (3) construction of modular robotic arms, including the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator, which was designed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Advanced ServoManipulator, which was designed for the DOE; (4) design of remotely operated laboratories, including chemical analysis and biochemical processing laboratories; (5) construction of remote systems for environmental clean up and characterization, including underwater, buried waste, underground storage tank (UST) and decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) applications. Remote maintenance has played a significant role in fuel reprocessing because of combined chemical and radiological contamination. Furthermore, remote maintenance is expected to play a strong role in future waste remediation. The compact processing units (CPUs) being designed for use in underground waste storage tank remediation are examples of improvements in systems processing radiological contamination. A CPU is a minimally sized operating assemblage of processing equipment that performs a specified function. This technical report details remote maintenance guidelines for a CPU system being built at ORNL to ensure that sludge sent to a waste repository is in the appropriate form for transport through the storage facility pipe lines. The CPU conditions the sludge by (a) reducing the size of particulates that do not meet piping system requirements and (b) preparing the sludge for transport. The CPU has filters, grinders, sensors, valves, and pipes that must be remotely maintained. In the near future, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is expected to use many CPUs with remote maintenance characteristics similar to those of the ORNL CPU. These guidelines will aid the designers of those systems especially when design encompasses the often-used approach of surveying commercially available hardware and making modifications appropriate for remote operations. This is a cost-effective approach for design of systems for remote maintenance and is the approach that will be used in design of CPU's and remote maintenance equipment.

  3. Automating the packing heuristic design process with genetic programming.

    PubMed

    Burke, Edmund K; Hyde, Matthew R; Kendall, Graham; Woodward, John

    2012-01-01

    The literature shows that one-, two-, and three-dimensional bin packing and knapsack packing are difficult problems in operational research. Many techniques, including exact, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, have been investigated to solve these problems and it is often not clear which method to use when presented with a new instance. This paper presents an approach which is motivated by the goal of building computer systems which can design heuristic methods. The overall aim is to explore the possibilities for automating the heuristic design process. We present a genetic programming system to automatically generate a good quality heuristic for each instance. It is not necessary to change the methodology depending on the problem type (one-, two-, or three-dimensional knapsack and bin packing problems), and it therefore has a level of generality unmatched by other systems in the literature. We carry out an extensive suite of experiments and compare with the best human designed heuristics in the literature. Note that our heuristic design methodology uses the same parameters for all the experiments. The contribution of this paper is to present a more general packing methodology than those currently available, and to show that, by using this methodology, it is possible for a computer system to design heuristics which are competitive with the human designed heuristics from the literature. This represents the first packing algorithm in the literature able to claim human competitive results in such a wide variety of packing domains. PMID:21609273

  4. Design of synthetic microbial communities for biotechnological production processes.

    PubMed

    Jagmann, Nina; Philipp, Bodo

    2014-08-20

    In their natural habitats microorganisms live in multi-species communities, in which the community members exhibit complex metabolic interactions. In contrast, biotechnological production processes catalyzed by microorganisms are usually carried out with single strains in pure cultures. A number of production processes, however, may be more efficiently catalyzed by the concerted action of microbial communities. This review will give an overview of organismic interactions between microbial cells and of biotechnological applications of microbial communities. It focuses on synthetic microbial communities that consist of microorganisms that have been genetically engineered. Design principles for such synthetic communities will be exemplified based on plausible scenarios for biotechnological production processes. These design principles comprise interspecific metabolic interactions via cross-feeding, regulation by interspecific signaling processes via metabolites and autoinducing signal molecules, and spatial structuring of synthetic microbial communities. In particular, the implementation of metabolic interdependencies, of positive feedback regulation and of inducible cell aggregation and biofilm formation will be outlined. Synthetic microbial communities constitute a viable extension of the biotechnological application of metabolically engineered single strains and enlarge the scope of microbial production processes. PMID:24943116

  5. Enhancements to the optimization process in lens design (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Geoff; Schuhmann, Rainer G.

    2001-12-01

    The full optimization process includes definition and maintenance of the merit function, selection of optimization strategy, the actual automatic improvement of the system, designer intervention and review of the final results. Well optimized systems are almost always achieved, not by a single run, but by repeated backtracking and re-optimization. A number of improvements to the whole process are presented, both to the damped lest squares algorithm itself and to the 'handling.' The enhancements include extensions to the classical damped least squares. These enhancements have been implemented in the widely used WinLens software package.

  6. A qualitative study of the design process: the effects of a microcomputing system on beginning design students 

    E-print Network

    Ayers, Gayle Yvonne

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe the effects of a micro computer on the design process. In a beginning design studio class, students were required to produce a two dimensional design by traditional methods, pen on ...

  7. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

    2005-06-01

    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels in the hydroceramic grout process (i.e., 21 m) appears to be about the same as that estimated by the Direct Cementitious Waste Process in 1998, for which a conceptual design was developed. Some of the conceptual design efforts in the 1998 study may be applicable to the stabilizer processes addressed in this EDF. (e) The gamma radiation fields near the process vessels handling HLW calcine would vary from a range of about 300-350 R/hr at a distance of 2.5 cm from the side of the vessels to a range of about 50-170 R/hr at a distance of 100 cm from the side of the vessels. The calculations were made for combined calcine, which was defined as the total HLW calcine inventory uniformly mixed. (f) The gamma radiation fields near the stabilized waste in canisters would range from about 25-170 R/hr at 2.5 cm from the side of the canister and 5-35 R/hr at 100 cm from the side of the canister, depending on the which bin set was the source of calcine.

  8. Using Process Visualizations to Validate Electronic Form Design

    PubMed Central

    Marquard, Jenna L.; Mei, Yi You

    2010-01-01

    Electronic reporting systems have the potential to support health care quality improvement initiatives across varied health care settings, specifically in low-technology settings such as long-term residential care facilities (LTRCFs). Yet, these organizations face financial barriers to implementing such systems and the LTRCF workforce is generally not as technology-ready as larger organizations’ workforces. Electronic reporting systems implemented in these settings must therefore be inexpensive and easy-to-use. This paper outlines a novel technique – process visualization – for systematically assessing the order in which users complete electronic forms, an inexpensively-developed patient falls reporting form in this case. These visualizations can help designers uncover usage patterns not evident via other usability methods. Based on this knowledge, designers can validate the design of the electronic forms, informing their subsequent redesign. PMID:21347028

  9. IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session.

  10. IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, R.H.

    1993-03-01

    Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session.

  11. Laser spark plug numerical design process with experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.; Woodruff, S.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the numerical modeling design procedure for a miniaturized laser spark plug. In previous work both side pumped and end pumped laser spark plugs were empirically designed and tested. Experimental data from the previous laser spark plug development cycles is compared to the output predicted by a known set of rate equations. The rate equations are used to develop interrelated inter cavity time dependent waveforms that are then used to identify key variables. These variables are then input to a set of secondary equations for determining the output pulse energy, output power, and output pulse width of the simulated laser system. The physical meaning and the operation of the rate equations is explained in detail. This paper concentrates on the process and decision points needed to successfully design a solid state passively Q-switched laser system, either side pumped or end pumped, that produces the appropriate output needed for use as a laser spark plug for internal combustion engines.

  12. Making an Aquarium Environment Interactive: A Design Research Analysis of Exhibit Design Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanshumaker, William

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of an interactive aquarium design motivated by the employment of an innovative technology used in scientific research. The study was informed by research on free-choice learning describing the effects of interactive devices on visitor learning, engagement, and attitudes. The researcher used design research methods to conduct multiple iterations of aquarium environment modifications. Observation data of visitor interactions were analyzed in the development of three different aquarium environments. The researcher used survey, interview, and observation data to study visitor interactions in the three contrasting aquarium environments. Results describe exhibit factors associated with visitor behaviors using the scientific instrument and social or individual interactions in the exhibit environments. Results also present an analysis of design processes that were shaped by data on desired visitor interactions and adult learning. Through design research methods, this study contributes to theory of exhibit design for visitor engagement and learning.

  13. Improving Tools and Processes in Mechanical Design Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative product development projects in the aerospace and defense industry are held hostage to high cost and risk due to poor alignment of collaborative design tools and processes. This impasse can be broken if companies will jointly develop implementation approaches and practices in support of high value working arrangements. The current tools can be used to better advantage in many situations and there is reason for optimism that tool vendors will provide significant support.

  14. High performance cluster system design for remote sensing data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuanli; Shen, Wenming; Xiong, Wencheng; Fu, Zhuo; Xiao, Rulin

    2012-10-01

    During recent years, cluster systems have played a more important role in the architecture design of high-performance computing area which is cost-effective and efficient parallel computing system able to satisfy specific computational requirements in the earth and space sciences communities. This paper presents a powerful cluster system built by Satellite Environment Center, Ministry of Environment Protection of China that is designed to process massive remote sensing data of HJ-1 satellites automatically everyday. The architecture of this cluster system including hardware device layer, network layer, OS/FS layer, middleware layer and application layer have been given. To verify the performance of our cluster system, image registration has been chose to experiment with one scene of HJ-1 CCD sensor. The experiments of imagery registration shows that it is an effective system to improve the efficiency of data processing, which could provide a response rapidly in applications that certainly demand, such as wild land fire monitoring and tracking, oil spill monitoring, military target detection, etc. Further work would focus on the comprehensive parallel design and implementations of remote sensing data processing.

  15. Architecting Usability Properties in the E-Learning Instructional Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koohang, Alex; du Plessis, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    This paper advances a framework for architecting usability properties in the e-learning instructional design process. To understand the framework for architecting usability properties into the e-learning instructional design process, the following have been defined: instructional design process, e-learning instructional design process, usability…

  16. Process Cost Modeling for Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Freeman, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This report outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are costed according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this report is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool. In successive sections, the report addresses the issues of cost modeling as follows. First, an introduction is presented to provide the background for the research work. Next, a quick review of cost estimation techniques is made with the intention to highlight their inappropriateness for what is really needed at the conceptual phase of the design process. The First-Order Process Velocity Cost Model (FOPV) is discussed at length in the next section. This is followed by an application of the FOPV cost model to a generic wing. For designs that have no precedence as far as acquisition costs are concerned, cost data derived from the FOPV cost model may not be accurate enough because of new requirements for shape complexity, material, equipment and precision/tolerance. The concept of Cost Modulus is introduced at this point to compensate for these new burdens on the basic processes. This is treated in section 5. The cost of a design must be conveniently linked to its CAD representation. The interfacing of CAD models and spreadsheets containing the cost equations is the subject of the next section, section 6. The last section of the report is a summary of the progress made so far, and the anticipated research work to be achieved in the future.

  17. Analyzing patterns of writing and sketching in the product design process

    E-print Network

    Smith, Rebecca A. (Rebecca Anna)

    2009-01-01

    Design notebooks, or logbooks, are typically used to record notes during the design process. These notes consist of text entries as well as sketches with varying levels of detail. Previous research on the design process ...

  18. Development of the Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Christopher R.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic development of an engine inlet requires a comprehensive program of both wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. To save time and resources, much "testing" is done using CFD before any design ever enters a wind tunnel. The focus of my project this summer is on CFD analysis tool development. In particular, I am working to further develop the capabilities of the Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP). "PINDAP" is a collection of computational tools that allow for efficient and accurate design and analysis of the aerodynamics about and through inlets that can make use of a planar (two-dimensional or axisymmetric) geometric and flow assumption. PINDAP utilizes the WIND CFD flow solver, which is capable of simulating the turbulent, compressible flow field. My project this summer is a continuation of work that I performed for two previous summers. Two years ago, I used basic features of the PINDAP to design a Mach 5 hypersonic scramjet engine inlet and to demonstrate the feasibility of the PINDAP. The following summer, I worked to develop its geometry and grid generation capabilities to include subsonic and supersonic inlets, complete bodies and cowls, conic leading and trailing edges, as well as airfoils. These additions allowed for much more design flexibility when using the program.

  19. Using process mining for automatic support of clinical pathways design.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Valdivieso, Bernardo; Traver, Vicente; Benedi, Jose Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The creation of tools supporting the automatization of the standardization and continuous control of healthcare processes can become a significant helping tool for clinical experts and healthcare systems willing to reduce variability in clinical practice. The reduction in the complexity of design and deployment of standard Clinical Pathways can enhance the possibilities for effective usage of computer assisted guidance systems for professionals and assure the quality of the provided care. Several technologies have been used in the past for trying to support these activities but they have not been able to generate the disruptive change required to foster the general adoption of standardization in this domain due to the high volume of work, resources, and knowledge required to adequately create practical protocols that can be used in practice. This chapter proposes the use of the PALIA algorithm, based in Activity-Based process mining techniques, as a new technology to infer the actual processes from the real execution logs to be used in the design and quality control of healthcare processes. PMID:25417080

  20. Moving bed biofilm reactor technology: process applications, design, and performance.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, James P; Boltz, Joshua P

    2011-06-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) can operate as a 2- (anoxic) or 3-(aerobic) phase system with buoyant free-moving plastic biofilm carriers. These systems can be used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, aquaculture, potable water denitrification, and, in roughing, secondary, tertiary, and sidestream applications. The system includes a submerged biofilm reactor and liquid-solids separation unit. The MBBR process benefits include the following: (1) capacity to meet treatment objectives similar to activated sludge systems with respect to carbon-oxidation and nitrogen removal, but requires a smaller tank volume than a clarifier-coupled activated sludge system; (2) biomass retention is clarifier-independent and solids loading to the liquid-solids separation unit is reduced significantly when compared with activated sludge systems; (3) the MBBR is a continuous-flow process that does not require a special operational cycle for biofilm thickness, L(F), control (e.g., biologically active filter backwashing); and (4) liquid-solids separation can be achieved with a variety of processes, including conventional and compact high-rate processes. Information related to system design is fragmented and poorly documented. This paper seeks to address this issue by summarizing state-of-the art MBBR design procedures and providing the reader with an overview of some commercially available systems and their components. PMID:21751715

  1. Lessons from nature: computational design of biomimetic compounds and processes.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Esra; Ashari, Negar; Browning, Nicholas; Brunk, Elizabeth; Campomanesa, Pablo; Perez, Marta A S; Rothlisberger, Ursula

    2014-09-01

    Through millions of years of evolution, Nature has accomplished the development of highly efficient and sustainable processes and the idea to understand and copy natural strategies is therefore very appealing. However, in spite of intense experimental and computational research, it has turned out to be a difficult task to design efficient biomimetic systems. Here we discuss a novel strategy for the computational design of biomimetic compounds and processes that consists of i) target selection; ii) atomistic and electronic characterization of the wild type system and the biomimetic compounds; iii) identification of key descriptors through feature selection iv) choice of biomimetic template and v) efficient search of chemical and sequence space for optimization of the biomimetic system. As a proof-of-principles study, this general approach is illustrated for the computational design of a 'green' catalyst mimicking the action of the zinc metalloenzyme Human Carbonic Anhydrase (HCA). HCA is a natural model for CO2 fixation since the enzyme is able to convert CO2 into bicarbonate. Very recently, a weakly active HCA mimic based on a trihelical peptide bundle was synthetized. We have used quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) Car-Parrinello simulations to study the mechanisms of action of HCA and its peptidic mimic and employed the obtained information to guide the design of improved biomimetic analogues. Applying a genetic algorithm based optimization procedure, we were able to re-engineer and optimize the biomimetic system towards its natural counter part. In a second example, we discuss a similar strategy for the design of biomimetic sensitizers for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:25437785

  2. Safeguards design strategies: designing and constructing new uranium and plutonium processing facilities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Jon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-28

    In the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) is transforming its outdated and oversized complex of aging nuclear material facilities into a smaller, safer, and more secure National Security Enterprise (NSE). Environmental concerns, worker health and safety risks, material security, reducing the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy while maintaining the capability for an effective nuclear deterrence by the United States, are influencing this transformation. As part of the nation's Uranium Center of Excellence (UCE), the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, will advance the U.S.'s capability to meet all concerns when processing uranium and is located adjacent to the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF), designed for consolidated storage of enriched uranium. The HEUMF became operational in March 2010, and the UPF is currently entering its final design phase. The designs of both facilities are for meeting anticipated security challenges for the 21st century. For plutonium research, development, and manufacturing, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement (CMRR) building at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico is now under construction. The first phase of the CMRR Project is the design and construction of a Radiological Laboratory/Utility/Office Building. The second phase consists of the design and construction of the Nuclear Facility (NF). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) selected these two sites as part of the national plan to consolidate nuclear materials, provide for nuclear deterrence, and nonproliferation mission requirements. This work examines these two projects independent approaches to design requirements, and objectives for safeguards, security, and safety (3S) systems as well as the subsequent construction of these modern processing facilities. Emphasis is on the use of Safeguards-by-Design (SBD), incorporating Systems Engineering (SE) principles for these two projects.

  3. Co-Simulation for Advanced Process Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    Meeting the increasing demand for clean, affordable, and secure energy is arguably the most important challenge facing the world today. Fossil fuels can play a central role in a portfolio of carbon-neutral energy options provided CO{sub 2} emissions can be dramatically reduced by capturing CO{sub 2} and storing it safely and effectively. Fossil energy industry faces the challenge of meeting aggressive design goals for next-generation power plants with CCS. Process designs will involve large, highly-integrated, and multipurpose systems with advanced equipment items with complex geometries and multiphysics. APECS is enabling software to facilitate effective integration, solution, and analysis of high-fidelity process/equipment (CFD) co-simulations. APECS helps to optimize fluid flow and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance. APECS offers many advanced capabilities including ROMs, design optimization, parallel execution, stochastic analysis, and virtual plant co-simulations. NETL and its collaborative R&D partners are using APECS to reduce the time, cost, and technical risk of developing high-efficiency, zero-emission power plants with CCS.

  4. Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE). Volume 1: Design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Groom, Steven L.; Mazer, Alan S.; Williams, Winifred I.

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of a Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE), which is intended to become the support system software for a prototype high performance science analysis workstation are described. The target machine for this software is a JPL/Caltech Mark 3fp Hypercube hosted by either a MASSCOMP 5600 or a Sun-3, Sun-4 workstation; however, the design will accommodate other concurrent machines of similar architecture, i.e., local memory, multiple-instruction-multiple-data (MIMD) machines. The CIPE system provides both a multimode user interface and an applications programmer interface, and has been designed around four loosely coupled modules: user interface, host-resident executive, hypercube-resident executive, and application functions. The loose coupling between modules allows modification of a particular module without significantly affecting the other modules in the system. In order to enhance hypercube memory utilization and to allow expansion of image processing capabilities, a specialized program management method, incremental loading, was devised. To minimize data transfer between host and hypercube, a data management method which distributes, redistributes, and tracks data set information was implemented. The data management also allows data sharing among application programs. The CIPE software architecture provides a flexible environment for scientific analysis of complex remote sensing image data, such as planetary data and imaging spectrometry, utilizing state-of-the-art concurrent computation capabilities.

  5. The UC Davis Design Major engages exploration and the process of design to solve and inform

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. Coding for Designers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50. 3-D Object Design. Drafting & Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. Photography for Designers

  6. The FEYNMAN tools for quantum information processing: Design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, S.

    2014-06-01

    The FEYNMAN tools have been re-designed with the goal to establish and implement a high-level (computer) language that is capable to deal with the physics of finite, n-qubit systems, from frequently required computations to mathematically advanced tasks in quantum information processing. In particular, emphasis has been placed to introduce a small but powerful set of keystring-driven commands in order to support both, symbolic and numerical computations. Though the current design is implemented again within the framework of MAPLE, it is general and flexible enough to be utilized and combined with other languages and computational environments. The present implementation facilitates a large number of computational tasks, including the definition, manipulation and parametrization of quantum states, the evaluation of quantum measures and quantum operations, the evolution of quantum noise in discrete models, quantum measurements and state estimation, and several others. The design is based on a few high-level commands, with a syntax close to the mathematical notation and its use in the literature, and which can be generalized quite readily in order to solve computational tasks at even higher degree of complexity. In this work, I present and discuss the (re-design of the) FEYNMAN tools and make major parts of the code available for public use. Moreover, a few selected examples are shown and demonstrate possible application of this toolbox. The FEYNMAN tools are provided as MAPLE library and can hence be used on all platforms on which this computer-algebra system is accessible.

  7. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    SciTech Connect

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  8. Optimization of laser cutting processes using design of experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huehnlein, K.; Tschirpke, K.; Hellmann, R.

    We report on the optimization of laser cutting of thin Al2O3 ceramic layers using a design of experiment (DOE) approach. DOE allows to separate the most important influencing factors on the targeted cutting process, to clarify their interaction, to reduce the overall amount of parameter sets that need to be examined and to identify the optimized parameter regions, respectively. Using both, a continuous wave 500 W fiber laser and a 200 W CO2 laser, we have optimized and compared the cutting of 250 ? m thin Al2O3 ceramic substrate layers applying a commercial DOE software. Our results demonstrate the potential of DOE to optimize laser material processes.

  9. Design of experiments for thermal protection system process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longani, Hans R.

    2000-01-01

    Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) structures were protected from heating due to aeroshear, radiation and plume impingement by a Thermal Protection System (TPS) known as Marshall Sprayable Ablative (MSA-2). MSA-2 contains Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) which due to strict environmental legislation was eliminated. MSA-2 was also classified as hazardous waste, which makes the disposal very costly. Marshall Convergent Coating (MCC-1) replaced MSA-2, and eliminated the use of solvents by delivering the dry filler materials and the fluid resin system to a patented spray gun which utilizes Convergent Spray Technologies spray process. The selection of TPS material was based on risk assessment, performance comparisons, processing, application and cost. Design of Experiments technique was used to optimize the spraying parameters. .

  10. A semantic indexation method to assist with the architectural design process by images.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A semantic indexation method to assist with the architectural design process by images. Sabrina image is often easier to interpret by the designer. To assist the design process, we are working. 1. INTRODUCTION To assist the design process, we are working on the construction of an image

  11. Iteration in Systems Analysis and Design: Cognitive Processes and Representational Artifacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Berente; Kalle Lyytinen

    2005-01-01

    The idea of iteration is inherent to systems analysis and design methodologies and practices. In this essay we explore the notion of iteration, and distinguish two dimensions of iteration: iterations inherent in cognitive processes and iterations over representational artifacts. Cognitive iterations can be concerned with the design; the design process; or stages within the design process. Representational artifacts can take

  12. DISCRETE MANUFACTURING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION USING COMPUTER SIMULATION AND GENERALIZED HILL CLIMBING ALGORITHMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHELDON H. JACOBSON; KELLY A. SULLIVAN; ALAN W. JOHNSON

    1998-01-01

    Discrete manufacturing process designs can be modelled using computer simulation. Determining optimal designs using such models is very difficult, due to the large number of manufacturing process sequences and associated parameter settings that exist. This has forced researchers to develop heuristic strategies to address such design problems. This paper introduces a new general heuristic strategy for discrete manufacturing process design

  13. Reducing manufacturing process variability using experimental design technique: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiju Antony; Michael Hughes; Mike Kaye

    1999-01-01

    Experimental design is a powerful technique for understanding a process, studying the impact of potential variables affecting a process and providing spontaneous insight for continuous quality improvement possibilities. It has proved to be very effective for improving the process yield, process performance and reducing process variability. A number of successful applications of the experimental design technique for process optimisation have

  14. Integration of Product Design Process and Task Management for Product Data Management Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Lu; Wu-liang Peng; Cheng-en Wang

    2007-01-01

    Product design is an evolving process which is characterized with creativity and uncertainty. The task management in this\\u000a process is different from traditional ones because it involves more specific factors such as user specifications, product\\u000a design specifications, reengineering, design process, and design data. In this article, we aim to analyze product design process\\u000a with the viewpoint of project management and

  15. [Design of an HACCP program for a cocoa processing facility].

    PubMed

    López D'Sola, Patrizia; Sandia, María Gabriela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Hernández Serrano, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    The HACCP plan is a food safety management tool used to control physical, chemical and biological hazards associated to food processing through all the processing chain. The aim of this work is to design a HACCP Plan for a Venezuelan cocoa processing facility.The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP). The existence and effectiveness of these prerequisite programs were previously assessed.Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) audit to cocoa nibs suppliers were performed. To develop the HACCP plan, the five preliminary tasks and the seven HACCP principles were accomplished according to Codex Alimentarius procedures. Three Critical Control Points (CCP) were identified using a decision tree: winnowing (control of ochratoxin A), roasting (Salmonella control) and metallic particles detection. For each CCP, Critical limits were established, the Monitoring procedures, Corrective actions, Procedures for Verification and Documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application was established. To implement and maintain a HACCP plan for this processing plant is suggested. Recently OchratoxinA (OTA) has been related to cocoa beans. Although the shell separation from the nib has been reported as an effective measure to control this chemical hazard, ochratoxin prevalence study in cocoa beans produced in the country is recommended, and validate the winnowing step as well PMID:24020255

  16. A design framework for exploratory geovisualization in epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a design framework for geographic visualization based on iterative evaluations of a toolkit designed to support cancer epidemiology. The Exploratory Spatio-Temporal Analysis Toolkit (ESTAT), is intended to support visual exploration through multivariate health data. Its purpose is to provide epidemiologists with the ability to generate new hypotheses or further refine those they may already have. Through an iterative user-centered design process, ESTAT has been evaluated by epidemiologists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Results of these evaluations are discussed, and a design framework based on evaluation evidence is presented. The framework provides specific recommendations and considerations for the design and development of a geovisualization toolkit for epidemiology. Its basic structure provides a model for future design and evaluation efforts in information visualization. PMID:20390052

  17. Simulative design and process optimization of the two-stage stretch-blow molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Rasche, S.; Windeck, C.

    2015-05-01

    The total production costs of PET bottles are significantly affected by the costs of raw material. Approximately 70 % of the total costs are spent for the raw material. Therefore, stretch-blow molding industry intends to reduce the total production costs by an optimized material efficiency. However, there is often a trade-off between an optimized material efficiency and required product properties. Due to a multitude of complex boundary conditions, the design process of new stretch-blow molded products is still a challenging task and is often based on empirical knowledge. Application of current CAE-tools supports the design process by reducing development time and costs. This paper describes an approach to determine optimized preform geometry and corresponding process parameters iteratively. The wall thickness distribution and the local stretch ratios of the blown bottle are calculated in a three-dimensional process simulation. Thereby, the wall thickness distribution is correlated with an objective function and preform geometry as well as process parameters are varied by an optimization algorithm. Taking into account the correlation between material usage, process history and resulting product properties, integrative coupled simulation steps, e.g. structural analyses or barrier simulations, are performed. The approach is applied on a 0.5 liter PET bottle of Krones AG, Neutraubling, Germany. The investigations point out that the design process can be supported by applying this simulative optimization approach. In an optimization study the total bottle weight is reduced from 18.5 g to 15.5 g. The validation of the computed results is in progress.

  18. Exploring Creativity in the Design Process: A Systems-Semiotic Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Argyris Arnellos; Thomas Spyrou; John Darzentas

    2005-01-01

    This paper attempts to establish a systems-semiotic framework explaining creativity in the design process, where the design process is considered to have as its basis the cognitive process. The design process is considered as the interaction between two or more cognitive systems resulting in a purposeful and ongoing transformation of their already complex representational structures and the production of newer

  19. Software Design Improvements. Part 2; Software Quality and the Design and Inspection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.; Ziemianski, Tom

    1997-01-01

    The application of assurance engineering techniques improves the duration of failure-free performance of software. The totality of features and characteristics of a software product are what determine its ability to satisfy customer needs. Software in safety-critical systems is very important to NASA. We follow the System Safety Working Groups definition for system safety software as: 'The optimization of system safety in the design, development, use and maintenance of software and its integration with safety-critical systems in an operational environment. 'If it is not safe, say so' has become our motto. This paper goes over methods that have been used by NASA to make software design improvements by focusing on software quality and the design and inspection process.

  20. Sampling design for spatially distributed hydrogeologic and environmental processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology for the design of sampling networks over space is proposed. The methodology is based on spatial random field representations of nonhomogeneous natural processes, and on optimal spatial estimation techniques. One of the most important results of random field theory for physical sciences is its rationalization of correlations in spatial variability of natural processes. This correlation is extremely important both for interpreting spatially distributed observations and for predictive performance. The extent of site sampling and the types of data to be collected will depend on the relationship of subsurface variability to predictive uncertainty. While hypothesis formulation and initial identification of spatial variability characteristics are based on scientific understanding (such as knowledge of the physics of the underlying phenomena, geological interpretations, intuition and experience), the support offered by field data is statistically modelled. This model is not limited by the geometric nature of sampling and covers a wide range in subsurface uncertainties. A factorization scheme of the sampling error variance is derived, which possesses certain atttactive properties allowing significant savings in computations. By means of this scheme, a practical sampling design procedure providing suitable indices of the sampling error variance is established. These indices can be used by way of multiobjective decision criteria to obtain the best sampling strategy. Neither the actual implementation of the in-situ sampling nor the solution of the large spatial estimation systems of equations are necessary. The required values of the accuracy parameters involved in the network design are derived using reference charts (readily available for various combinations of data configurations and spatial variability parameters) and certain simple yet accurate analytical formulas. Insight is gained by applying the proposed sampling procedure to realistic examples related to sampling problems in two dimensions. ?? 1992.

  1. Design of a Small Scale High Temperature Gas Loop for Process Heat Exchanger Design Tests

    SciTech Connect

    SungDeok, Hong; DongSeok, Oh; WonJae, Lee; JongHwa, Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    We designed a small scale gas loop that can simulate reference operating conditions, that is, a temperature up to 950 deg C and a pressure up to 6 MPa. Main objective of the loop is to screen the candidate process-heat-exchanger designs of a very small capacity of 10 {approx} 20 kW. We arranged the components of a primary gas loop and a secondary SO{sub 3} loop. Design requirements are prepared for the safe design of a main heater, a hot-gas-duct and a process heat exchanger that avoid a risk of a failure owing to thermal stresses, a flow-induced vibration or an acoustic vibration in both nitrogen and helium mediums. In the primary and secondary loops, the hot-gas-ducts are internally insulated by a ceramic fiber insulation material to protect the pressure housing from high gas temperatures. We determined a total pressure loss of the primary loop to be 66 kPa and the minimum outer diameter of the loop pressure pipe to be 90 mm at a hot location that will prevent a thermal failure. Very toxic SO{sub 3} secondary loop is needed a scrubber and a SO{sub 3} collector for safety and preventing a contamination of the environment. (authors)

  2. The Building Bridges Project: Involving Older Adults in the Design of a Communication Technology to Support Peer-to-Peer Social Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wherton, Joseph; Prendergast, David

    There are a variety of factors that can lead to social isolation and loneliness in old age, including decline in physical and mental health, as well as change to social environment. The Building Bridges project explores how communication technology can help older adults remain socially connected. This paper will first provide an overview of a prototype communication system designed to support peer-to-peer group interaction. A description of the user-centered design process will be provided to demonstrate the importance of involving older adults at the earliest stages. The implications for designing new technology for older adults are discussed.

  3. (New process modeling, design and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality and improved productivity in the process industries)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Highlights are reported of work to date on: resilient design and control of chemical reactors (polymerization, packed bed), operation of complex processing systems (compensators for multivariable systems with delays and Right Half Plane zeroes, process identification and controller design for multivariable systems, nonlinear systems control, distributed parameter systems), and computer-aided design software (CONSYD, POLYRED, expert systems). 15 figs, 54 refs. (DLC)

  4. [New process modeling, design and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality and improved productivity in the process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Highlights are reported of work to date on: resilient design and control of chemical reactors (polymerization, packed bed), operation of complex processing systems (compensators for multivariable systems with delays and Right Half Plane zeroes, process identification and controller design for multivariable systems, nonlinear systems control, distributed parameter systems), and computer-aided design software (CONSYD, POLYRED, expert systems). 15 figs, 54 refs. (DLC)

  5. From Safe Nanomanufacturing to Nanosafe-by-Design processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, F.; Lomello, F.

    2013-04-01

    Industrial needs in terms of multifunctional components are increasing. Many sectors are concerned, from the integrated direct nanoparticles production to the emerging combinations which include the metal matrix composites (MMC), ductile ceramics and ceramic matrix composites, polymer matrix composites (PMC) for bulk application and advanced surface coatings in the fields of automotive, aerospace, energy production and building applications. Moreover, domains with a planetary impact such as environmental issues, as well as aspects for instance health (toxicity) and hazard assessment (ignition and explosion severity) were also taken into account. Nanotechnologies play an important role in promoting innovation in design and realization of multifunctional products for the future, either by improving usual products or creating new functions and/or new products. Nevertheless, this huge evolution in terms of materials could only be promoted by increasing the social acceptance and by acting on the different main technological and economic challenges and developing safe oriented processes. Nowadays, a huge number of developments of nanoparticles are potentially industrial up-scalable. However, some doubts exist about the handling's safety of the current technologies. For these reasons, the main purpose was to develop a self-monitored automation in the production line coupling different techniques in order to simplify processes such as in-situ growth nanoparticles into a nanostructured matrix, over different substrates and/or the nanopowders synthesis, functionalization, dry or wet safe recovery system, granulation, consolidation in single-step, by monitoring at real time the processing parameters such as powder stoichiometry. With the aim of assuring the traceability of the product during the whole life, starting from the conception and including the R&D, the distribution and the use were also considered. The optimization in terms of processing, recovery and conditioning, permits to increase its versatility, thus leading to the increase of the added value to the production. This review put in evidence -by different examples- the progress achieved since the beginning of Nanosafe integrated initiative developed by CEA and its partners as well as promoting, firstly the safety at work place, and then extending to an integrated and controlled in-situ production by of Nanosafe-by-Design controlled processes.

  6. On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulos, A; Iakovou, E

    2009-05-01

    This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study. PMID:19138507

  7. The Conceptual Design of a Radiant Chamber and Preliminary Optimization of a Process Tubular Furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zdenek Jegla

    2006-01-01

    The design procedure of a process tubular furnace (or fired heater) can generally be divided into three design stages: the preliminary design of furnace, a detailed thermal and hydraulic simulation of the furnace, and final design solution, and the mechanical solution of the furnace (stress analysis, drawings preparation, etc.). The first design stage (the preliminary design of the furnace and

  8. Tools for efficient design of multicomponent separation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Joshua Lee

    Separations account for as much as 85% of plant operating costs in chemical production; it is therefore important that they be designed with energy efficiency in mind. This can only be achieved if two things are achieved: the complete space of design options is known, and an accurate way is developed to compare all possible design options. For both membrane separation cascades and multicomponent distillation configurations, this dissertation explores methods for designing energy efficient separations. The operating cost of membranes used in production of nitrogen gas from air is largely driven by the compressors required to maintain a pressure differential. Optimization of the total compressor duty can reveal an ideal cascade arrangement and set of operating conditions for a given feed and recovery. With this optimization technique in hand, it is then possible to examine the effect of introducing extra stages to form intermediate stage cascades. Furthermore, the effect of varying the recovery of the nitrogen stream can be examined to discover a U-shaped relationship between recovery and energy requirement. Conventional distillation configurations use n -- 1 distillation columns to separate a multicomponent feed mixture into pure products. Past research has identified a way to quickly and algorithmically generate the complete ranklist of regular-column configurations using an integer programming formulation called the matrix method. Using this method, a formulation is here presented for the complete nonlinear programming problem which, for a given configuration, can ensure the globally minimum vapor duty of the configuration. Furthermore, a set of nonlinear equations designed to represent the capital and operating costs of the system are described. The need for a global optimization algorithm in the formulation of the cost product is demonstrated by comparison with a two-stage search algorithm; in addition, the cost formulation is compared to that of the vapor duty formulation and the relative effect of capital and operating cost is weighed for an example feed. Previous methods based on Underwood's equations have no accounting for the temperature at which utilities are required. To account for this, a thermodynamic efficiency function is developed which allows the complete search space to be ranklisted in order of the exergy loss occurring within the configuration. Examining these results shows that this objective function favors configurations which move their reboiler and condenser duties to milder temperature exchangers. A graphical interface is presented which allows interpretation of any of the above results in a quick and intuitive fashion, complete with system flow and composition data and the ability to filter the complete search space based on numerical and structural criteria. This provides a unique way to compare and contrast configurations as well as allowing considerations like column retrofit and maximum controllability to be considered. Using all five of these screening techniques, the traditional intuition-based methods of separations process design can be augmented with analytical and algorithmic tools which enable selection of a process design with low cost and high efficiency.

  9. Process and Prospects for the Designed Hydrograph, Lower Missouri River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Galat, D. L.; Hay, C. H.

    2005-05-01

    The flow regime of the Lower Missouri River (LMOR, Gavins Point, SD to St. Louis, MO) is being redesigned to restore elements of natural variability while maintaining project purposes such as power production, flood control, water supply, and navigation. Presently, an experimental hydrograph alteration is planned for Spring, 2006. Similar to many large, multi-purpose rivers, the ongoing design process involves negotiation among many management and stakeholder groups. The negotiated process has simplified the hydrograph into two key elements -- the spring rise and the summer low - with emphasis on the influence of these elements on three threatened or endangered species. The spring rise has been hypothesized to perform three functions: build sandbars for nesting of the interior least tern and piping plover, provide episodic connectivity with low-lying flood plain, and provide a behavioral spawning cue for the pallid sturgeon. Among these, most emphasis has been placed on the spawning cue because concerns about downstream flood hazards have limited flow magnitudes to those that are thought to be geomorphically ineffective, and channelization and incision provide little opportunity for moderate flows to connect to the flood plain. Our analysis of the natural hydrologic regime provides some insight into possible spring rise design elements, including timing, rate of rise and fall, and length of spring flow pulses. The summer low has been hypothesized to emerge sandbars for nesting and to maximize area of shallow, slow water for rearing of larval and juvenile fish. Re-engineering of the navigation channel to provide greater diversity of habitat during navigation flows has been offered as an alternative to the summer low. Our analysis indicates that re-engineering has potential to increase habitat availability substantially, but the ecological results are so-far unknown. The designed hydrograph that emerges from the multi-objective process will likely represent a compromise of many values and is unlikely to bear close resemblance to the natural hydrograph. Nonetheless, the hydrograph will provide an essential first step in experimentation and adaptive management of the Lower Missouri River.

  10. Use of qualitative methods and user-centered design to develop customized health information technology tools within federally qualified health centers to keep children insured.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Jennifer; Angier, Heather; Likumahuwa, Sonja; Hall, Jennifer; Nelson, Christine; Dickerson, Kay; Keller, Sara; Burdick, Tim; Cohen, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Lack of health insurance negatively impacts children's health. Despite federal initiatives to expand children's coverage and accelerate state outreach efforts, millions of US children remain uninsured or experience frequent gaps in coverage. Most current efforts to enroll and retain eligible children in public insurance programs take place outside of the health care system. This study is a partnership between patients' families, medical informaticists, federally qualified health center (FQHC) staff, and researchers to build and test information technology tools to help FQHCs reach uninsured children and those at risk for losing coverage. PMID:24594562

  11. User-centered design driven development of a virtual reality therapy application for Iraq war combat-related post traumatic stress disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A A Rizzo; K Graap; J Pair; G Reger; A Treskunov; T Parsons

    2006-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experience including (but not limited to) military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage and terrorist attacks. Initial data suggests that at least 1 out of 6 Iraq War veterans are exhibiting symptoms of depression, anxiety and

  12. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO ENHANCE AND ENCOURAGE SUSTAINABLE CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an opportunity to minimize the potential environmental impacts (PEIs) of industrial chemical processes by providing process designers with timely data nad models elucidating environmentally favorable design options. The second generation of the Waste Reduction (WAR) algo...

  13. Identifying User Needs and the Participative Design Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiland, Franka; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta; Andersson, Anna-Lena

    As the number of persons with dementia increases and also the demands on care and support at home, additional solutions to support persons with dementia are needed. The COGKNOW project aims to develop an integrated, user-driven cognitive prosthetic device to help persons with dementia. The project focuses on support in the areas of memory, social contact, daily living activities and feelings of safety. The design process is user-participatory and consists of iterative cycles at three test sites across Europe. In the first cycle persons with dementia and their carers (n = 17) actively participated in the developmental process. Based on their priorities of needs and solutions, on their disabilities and after discussion between the team, a top four list of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions was made and now serves as the basis for development: in the area of remembering - day and time orientation support, find mobile service and reminding service, in the area of social contact - telephone support by picture dialling, in the area of daily activities - media control support through a music playback and radio function, and finally, in the area of safety - a warning service to indicate when the front door is open and an emergency contact service to enhance feelings of safety. The results of this first project phase show that, in general, the people with mild dementia as well as their carers were able to express and prioritize their (unmet) needs, and the kind of technological assistance they preferred in the selected areas. In next phases it will be tested if the user-participatory design and multidisciplinary approach employed in the COGKNOW project result in a user-friendly, useful device that positively impacts the autonomy and quality of life of persons with dementia and their carers.

  14. Using experimental design modules for process characterization in manufacturing/materials processes laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ankenman, Bruce; Ermer, Donald; Clum, James A.

    1994-01-01

    Modules dealing with statistical experimental design (SED), process modeling and improvement, and response surface methods have been developed and tested in two laboratory courses. One course was a manufacturing processes course in Mechanical Engineering and the other course was a materials processing course in Materials Science and Engineering. Each module is used as an 'experiment' in the course with the intent that subsequent course experiments will use SED methods for analysis and interpretation of data. Evaluation of the modules' effectiveness has been done by both survey questionnaires and inclusion of the module methodology in course examination questions. Results of the evaluation have been very positive. Those evaluation results and details of the modules' content and implementation are presented. The modules represent an important component for updating laboratory instruction and to provide training in quality for improved engineering practice.

  15. Engineering the Future: Science, Technology, and Design Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering the Future: Science, Technology, and the Design Process is a full-year course designed to introduce students to the world of technology and engineering, as a first step in becoming technologically literate citizens. Additionally, the course will help beginning high school students answer the question: "Why should I study math, science and engineering if I don't plan on a technical career?" Through this course's practical real-world connections, students have an opportunity to see how science, mathematics, and engineering are part of their every day world, and why it is important for every citizen to be technologically and scientifically literate. Engineering the Future maps directly to the Standards for Technological Literacy (ITEA 2000), Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS 1993) and National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996), as well as many state science frameworks. In brief, the course is intended to help today's high school students understand the ways in which they will engineer the world of the future whether or not they choose to pursue technical careers.

  16. Process and reactor design for biophotolytic hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Tamburic, Bojan; Dechatiwongse, Pongsathorn; Zemichael, Fessehaye W; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Hellgardt, Klaus

    2013-07-14

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has the ability to produce molecular hydrogen (H2), a clean and renewable fuel, through the biophotolysis of water under sulphur-deprived anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to advance the development of a practical and scalable biophotolytic H2 production process. Experiments were carried out using a purpose-built flat-plate photobioreactor, designed to facilitate green algal H2 production at the laboratory scale and equipped with a membrane-inlet mass spectrometry system to accurately measure H2 production rates in real time. The nutrient control method of sulphur deprivation was used to achieve spontaneous H2 production following algal growth. Sulphur dilution and sulphur feed techniques were used to extend algal lifetime in order to increase the duration of H2 production. The sulphur dilution technique proved effective at encouraging cyclic H2 production, resulting in alternating Chlamydomonas reinhardtii recovery and H2 production stages. The sulphur feed technique enabled photobioreactor operation in chemostat mode, resulting in a small improvement in H2 production duration. A conceptual design for a large-scale photobioreactor was proposed based on these experimental results. This photobioreactor has the capacity to enable continuous and economical H2 and biomass production using green algae. The success of these complementary approaches demonstrate that engineering advances can lead to improvements in the scalability and affordability of biophotolytic H2 production, giving increased confidence that H2 can fulfil its potential as a sustainable fuel of the future. PMID:23689756

  17. Design process of an area-efficient photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zijffers, Jan-Willem F; Janssen, Marcel; Tramper, Johannes; Wijffels, René H

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such intensities that the light energy can be efficiently used for biomass formation. A statement of goals is formulated and constraints are specified to which the GSC needs to comply. Specifications are generated for a prototype which form and function achieve the stated goals and satisfy the specified constraints. This results in a design in which sunlight is captured into vertical plastic light guides. Sunlight reflects internally in the guide and eventually scatters out of the light guide into flat-panel photobioreactor compartments. Sunlight is focused on top of the light guides by dual-axis positioning of linear Fresnel lenses. The shape and material of the light guide is such that light is maintained in the guides when surrounded by air. The bottom part of a light guide is sandblasted to obtain a more uniform distribution of light inside the bioreactor compartment and is triangular shaped to ensure the efflux of all light out of the guide. Dimensions of the guide are such that light enters the flat-panel photobioreactor compartment at intensities that can be efficiently used by the biomass present. The integration of light capturing, transportation, distribution and usage is such that high biomass productivities per area can be achieved. PMID:18266033

  18. Process design applied to optimise a directly compressible powder produced via a continuous manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Y; Gonçalves, S I V; De Geest, B G; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2008-03-01

    Manufacturing of 'ready-to-compress' powder mixtures for direct compression was performed by spray drying, without granulation, milling and/or blending steps in between spray drying and compaction. Powder mixtures containing acetaminophen, mannitol, erythritol, maltodextrin, crospovidone, colloidal silicon dioxide and polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monooleate were prepared via co-spray drying. A feed suspension having a solid content of 27.2% w/w was selected for further process optimisation because of its high process yield, excellent flowability and short tablet disintegration time. Experimental design was applied to evaluate processibility, physico-chemical properties and compactability of the spray dried powder mixtures. Significant and adequate regression models were developed for powder flowability, median particle size, bulk density, residual moisture content and process yield. An increasing inlet and outlet drying air temperature improved process yield. However, a higher inlet drying air temperature had a negative influence on density and moisture content, while the latter decreased at higher outlet drying air temperatures. Median particle size increased with a higher inlet temperature, while the outlet temperature had the opposite affect. Numerical optimisation determined the optimal spray drying process (inlet temperature: 221 degrees C, outlet temperature: 81 degrees C and atomisation pressure: 6 bar) in order to produce 'ready-to-compress' powder mixtures. PMID:17964129

  19. Rethinking Design Process: Using 3D Digital Models as an Interface in Collaborative Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Suining

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study for an alternative design process by integrating a designer-user collaborative session with digital models. The collaborative session took place in a 3D AutoCAD class for a real world project. The 3D models served as an interface for designer-user collaboration during the design process. Students not only learned…

  20. The bioinspired design process : according to project complexity and motivation

    E-print Network

    Obert, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Taking cues from natural creatures and systems is becoming a more widely used technique in engineering design. This design philosophy or technique is referred to as bioinspired design or biomimicry. Prior art has focused ...

  1. Image Modeling with Parametric Texture Sources for Design and Analysis of Image Processing Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Girod, Bernd

    Image Modeling with Parametric Texture Sources for Design and Analysis of Image Processing statistical image model is proposed to facilitate the design and analysis of image processing algorithms of the algorithm. For the design and analysis of image processing algorithms, two classic statistical image models

  2. Dynamic Project and Workflow Management for Design Processes in Chemical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Westfechtel, Bernhard

    . Keywords process systems engineering, business decision making, workflow management 1. INTRODUCTION DesignDynamic Project and Workflow Management for Design Processes in Chemical Engineering Markus Heller difficult to manage the workflow in design processes, i.e., to coordinate the effort of experts working

  3. The Integrated Design Process from the Facilitator's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeehyun

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to clarify the integrated design process from an educational standpoint, and identify its influencing factors and the role of facilitator. Through a literature review, the integrated design process and the role of facilitator were framed, and through the case study, the whole process of integrated design and the…

  4. Application of a feasible formability diagram for the effective design in stamping processes of automotive panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae-Cheol Ko; Seung-Hoon Cha; Sang-Kon Lee; Chan-Joo Lee; Byung-Min Kim

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a method of process design that uses a feasible formability diagram, which denotes the safe region without fracture and wrinkle, for the effective and rapid design of stamping processes. To determine the feasible formability diagram, FE-analyses have been performed for combinations of process variables that correspond to the orthogonal array of design

  5. Conceptual design of metallurgical processes based on thermodynamic and economic insights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aninda Chakraborty; Karl A Purkarthofer; Andreas A Linninger

    2004-01-01

    This work illuminates a practical design approach for developing economically viable and thermodynamically feasible metallurgical manufacturing processes. Successively refined economic potential estimators serve as the driving force for systematically advancing the design effort. The focus on process economics aims at identifying design inferior options and discarding process configurations with marginal economic performance early in the development cycle. In the proposed

  6. Towards supporting evocation processes in creative design: A cognitive approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Bonnardel; Evelyne Cauzinille-marmèche

    2005-01-01

    In order to contribute to a better understanding of creativity in non-routine design activities, we conducted an experimental study that focused on a cognitive mechanism involved in creative design, that of the re-use of aspects derived from previous sources of inspiration. Our objective was to determine to what extent designers consider potential sources as useful for solving a specific design

  7. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  8. An Examination of the Decision-Making Process Used by Designers in Multiple Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefaniak, Jill E.; Tracey, Monica W.

    2014-01-01

    Design-thinking is an inductive and participatory process in which designers are required to manage constraints, generate solutions, and follow project timelines in order to complete project goals. The researchers used this exploration study to look at how designers in various disciplinary fields approach design projects. Designers were asked to…

  9. The integration of Dow's Fire and Explosion Index into process design and optimization to achieve an inherently safer design 

    E-print Network

    Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

    2006-10-30

    .2 Inherently Safer Design.................................................................................2 1.3 Safety Studies................................................................................................3 1.4 Hazard Indices...............................................................................13 1.7.1 Design Stage Used in This Research..................................................13 1.7.2 Hazard Analysis Tools and Program Developer................................15 1.7.3 Integrating Hazard Analysis into Process Design...

  10. A review of research in mechanical engineering design. Part I: Descriptive, prescriptive, and computer-based models of design processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Finger; John R. Dixon

    1989-01-01

    This is the first of a two part paper summarizing and reviewing research in mechanical engineering design theory and methodology. Part I includes: 1) descriptive models; 2) prescrptive models; and 3) computer-based models of design processes. Part II, which will appear in the next issue of this journal, will include: 4) languages, representations, and environments for design; 5) analysis in

  11. Integrated Design and Process Technology, IDPT-2003 Printed in the United States of America, June, 2003

    E-print Network

    Westfechtel, Bernhard

    ] which were designed for repet- itive business processes, e.g., by automating routine work in banks, 2003 c2003 Society for Design and Process Science A Management System for Evolving Development processes are inherently difficult to man- age. Tools for managing development processes have to cope

  12. An efficient algorithm for designing reliable large-scale process networks

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    bullwhip effect in a supply chain). #12;222 Design of reliable process networks takes random process In collaboration with The Dow Chemical Company #12;111 Design of reliable process networks takes random process allowable capacities, supply of raw material, etc.) Number of failure modes and their corresponding

  13. Process Platform Planning for Variety Coordination From Design to Production in Mass Customization Manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lianfeng Zhang; Shaligram Pokharel

    2007-01-01

    The key challenge of implementing mass customization manufacturing lies in the variety dilemma exhibited by frequent design changes and recurrent process variations. A holistic view of variety handling gives rise to the importance of variety coordination from design to production. This paper proposes a concept of process platform for coordinating product and process variety. Fundamental issues of process platforms are

  14. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) Methods: Their Synergy with Computer Technology in Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1998-01-01

    The paper identifies speed, agility, human interface, generation of sensitivity information, task decomposition, and data transmission (including storage) as important attributes for a computer environment to have in order to support engineering design effectively. It is argued that when examined in terms of these attributes the presently available environment can be shown to be inadequate a radical improvement is needed, and it may be achieved by combining new methods that have recently emerged from multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) with massively parallel processing computer technology. The caveat is that, for successful use of that technology in engineering computing, new paradigms for computing will have to be developed - specifically, innovative algorithms that are intrinsically parallel so that their performance scales up linearly with the number of processors. It may be speculated that the idea of simulating a complex behavior by interaction of a large number of very simple models may be an inspiration for the above algorithms, the cellular automata are an example. Because of the long lead time needed to develop and mature new paradigms, development should be now, even though the widespread availability of massively parallel processing is still a few years away.

  15. Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) Methods: Their Synergy with Computer Technology in the Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1999-01-01

    The paper identifies speed, agility, human interface, generation of sensitivity information, task decomposition, and data transmission (including storage) as important attributes for a computer environment to have in order to support engineering design effectively. It is argued that when examined in terms of these attributes the presently available environment can be shown to be inadequate. A radical improvement is needed, and it may be achieved by combining new methods that have recently emerged from multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO) with massively parallel processing computer technology. The caveat is that, for successful use of that technology in engineering computing, new paradigms for computing will have to be developed - specifically, innovative algorithms that are intrinsically parallel so that their performance scales up linearly with the number of processors. It may be speculated that the idea of simulating a complex behaviour by interaction of a large number of very simple models may be an inspiration for the above algorithms; the cellular automata are an example. Because of the long lead time needed to develop and mature new paradigms, development should begin now, even though the widespread availability of massively parallel processing is still a few years away.

  16. Process design and evaluation of production of bioethanol and ?-lactam antibiotic from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-11-01

    To design biorefinery processes producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass with dilute acid pretreatment, biorefinery processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. To improve the efficiency of biomass use and the economics of biorefinery, additional pretreatment processes were designed and evaluated, in which a combined process of dilute acid and aqueous ammonia pretreatments, and a process of waste media containing xylose were used, for the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Finally, the productivity and economics of the designed processes were compared. PMID:25262428

  17. The design of a next-generation process language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley M. Sutton Jr.; Leon J. Osterweil

    1997-01-01

    Process languages remain a vital area of software process research. Among the important issue for process languages are semantic richness, ease of use, appropriate abstractions, process composability, visualization, and support for multiple paradigms. The need to balance semantic richness with ease of use is particularly critical. JIL addresses these issues in a number of innovative ways. It models processes in

  18. Direct selective laser sintering of high performance metals: Machine design, process development and process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Suman

    1998-11-01

    This dissertation describes the development of an advanced manufacturing technology known as Direct Selective Laser Sintering (Direct SLS). Direct SLS is a laser based rapid manufacturing technology that enables production of functional, fully dense, metal and cermet components via the direct, layerwise consolidation of constituent powders. Specifically, this dissertation focuses on a new, hybrid net shape manufacturing technique known as Selective Laser Sintering/Hot Isostatic Pressing (SLS/HIP). The objective of research presented in this dissertation was to establish the fundamental machine technology and processing science to enable direct SLS fabrication of metal components composed of high performance, high temperature metals and alloys. Several processing requirements differentiate direct SLS of metals from SLS of polymers or polymer coated powders. Perhaps the most important distinguishing characteristic is the regime of high temperatures involved in direct SLS of metals. Biasing the temperature of the feedstock powder via radiant preheat prior to and during SLS processing was shown to be beneficial. Preheating the powder significantly influenced the flow and wetting characteristics of the melt. During this work, it was conclusively established that powder cleanliness is of paramount importance for successful layerwise consolidation of metal powders by direct SLS. Sequential trials were conducted to establish optimal bake-out and degas cycles under high vacuum. These cycles agreed well with established practices in the powder metallurgy industry. A study of some of the important transport mechanisms in direct SLS of metals was undertaken to obtain a fundamental understanding of the underlying process physics. This study not only provides an explanation of phenomena observed during SLS processing of a variety of metallic materials but also helps in developing selection schemes for those materials that are most amenable to direct SLS processing. The development of machine, processing and control technologies during this research effort enabled successful production of a number of integrally canned test specimens in Alloy 625 (InconelRTM 625 superalloy) and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The overall goal of this research was to develop direct SLS of metals armed with a fundamental understanding of the underlying physics. The knowledge gained from experimental and analytical work is essential for three key objectives: machine design, process development and process control. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  19. Participatory design for drug-drug interaction alerts.

    PubMed

    Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Almerares, Alfredo; Stanziola, Enrique; Risk, Marcelo; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of decision support systems, in the point of care, to alert drug-drug interactions has been shown to improve quality of care. Still, the use of these systems has not been as expected, it is believed, because of the difficulties in their knowledge databases; errors in the generation of the alerts and the lack of a suitable design. This study expands on the development of alerts using participatory design techniques based on user centered design process. This work was undertaken in three stages (inquiry, participatory design and usability testing) it showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction in the system. PMID:25991099

  20. Personas, Participatory Design and Product Development: An Infrastructure for Engagement

    E-print Network

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Personas, Participatory Design and Product Development: An Infrastructure for Engagement Jonathan@microsoft.com ABSTRACT The design of commercial products that are intended to serve millions of people has been, design method, scenario, user-centered design INTRODUCTION Cooperative design techniques that can

  1. Representation of thermal energy in the design process

    E-print Network

    Roth, Shaun

    1995-01-01

    The goal of thermal design is to go beyond the comfort zone. In spatial design architects don't just look up square footage requirements and then draw a rectangle that satisfies the givens. There must be an interpretation. ...

  2. Predictive Modeling in Plasma Reactor and Process Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hash, D. B.; Bose, D.; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Research continues toward the improvement and increased understanding of high-density plasma tools. Such reactor systems are lauded for their independent control of ion flux and energy enabling high etch rates with low ion damage and for their improved ion velocity anisotropy resulting from thin collisionless sheaths and low neutral pressures. Still, with the transition to 300 mm processing, achieving etch uniformity and high etch rates concurrently may be a formidable task for such large diameter wafers for which computational modeling can play an important role in successful reactor and process design. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor is the focus of the present investigation. The present work attempts to understand the fundamental physical phenomena of such systems through computational modeling. Simulations will be presented using both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for argon and chlorine discharges. ICP reactors generally operate at pressures on the order of 1 to 10 mTorr. At such low pressures, rarefaction can be significant to the degree that the constitutive relations used in typical CFD techniques become invalid and a particle simulation must be employed. This work will assess the extent to which CFD can be applied and evaluate the degree to which accuracy is lost in prediction of the phenomenon of interest; i.e., etch rate. If the CFD approach is found reasonably accurate and bench-marked with DSMC and experimental results, it has the potential to serve as a design tool due to the rapid time relative to DSMC. The continuum CFD simulation solves the governing equations for plasma flow using a finite difference technique with an implicit Gauss-Seidel Line Relaxation method for time marching toward a converged solution. The equation set consists of mass conservation for each species, separate energy equations for the electrons and heavy species, and momentum equations for the gas. The sheath is modeled by imposing the Bohm velocity to the ions near the walls. The DSMC method simulates each constituent of the gas as a separate species which would be analogous in CFD to employing separate species mass, momentum, and energy equations. All particles including electrons are moved and allowed to collide with one another with the stipulation that the electrons remain tied to the ions consistent with the concept of ambipolar diffusion. The velocities of the electrons are allowed to be modified during collisions and are not confined to a Maxwellian distribution. These benefits come at a price in terms of computational time and memory. The DSMC and CFD are made as consistent as possible by using similar chemistry and power deposition models. Although the comparison of CFD and DSMC is interesting, the main goal of this work is the increased understanding of high-density plasma flowfields that can then direct improvements in both techniques. This work is unique in the level of the physical models employed in both the DSMC and CFD for high-density plasma reactor applications. For example, the electrons are simulated in the present DSMC work which has not been done before for low temperature plasma processing problems. In the CFD approach, for the first time, the charged particle transport (discharge physics) has been self-consistently coupled to the gas flow and heat transfer.

  3. Industrial Energy Conservation by New Process Design and Efficiency Improvements

    E-print Network

    Kusik, C. L.; Stickles, R. P.; Machacek, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    by about 20%. Further gains can be realized through industrial process changes and application of new process technologies. In this paper, new process technologies likely to be considered for implementation in the future are identified along...

  4. A PROPOSAL TO INTEGRATE TRIZ INTO THE PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel León-Rovira

    Research work is being undertaken at the Center for Innovation and Product Design at the Monterrey Institute of Technology (Mexico), looking for the integration of different design tools and methodologies to increase product design effectiveness and productivity. This paper describes the integration of TRIZ and \\

  5. Impact of gin saw tooth design on textile processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toothed gin saws have been used to separate cotton fiber from the seed for over 200 years. There have been many saw tooth designs developed over the years. Most of these designs were developed by trial and error. A complete and scientific analysis of tooth design has never been done. It is not k...

  6. Measuring the development process: A tool for software design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moy, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    The design metrics evaluator (DME), a component of an automated software design analysis system, is described. The DME quantitatively evaluates software design attributes. Its use directs attention to areas of a procedure, module, or complete program having a high potential for error.

  7. Tool support for the management of design processes in chemical engineering

    E-print Network

    Westfechtel, Bernhard

    mutual relation- ships between parts of the design product are neither explicitly stored nor maintained or maintain the complex product of a design process. Moreover, there are lot of gaps with respect to toolTool support for the management of design processes in chemical engineering Manfred Nagl

  8. Grosjean, S., Fixmer, P. et Brassac, Ch. (2000). Those psychological tools inside the design process,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2000-01-01

    1 Grosjean, S., Fixmer, P. et Brassac, Ch. (2000). Those psychological tools inside the design process, Knowledge-Based Systems 13, Elsevier Science, 3-9. Those "psychological tools" inside the design an interaction-oriented approach to the process of designing a document for the end-user. We emphasize exchange

  9. The Design Studio as Teaching/Learning Medium--A Process-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Maya N.; Turkkan, Elif E.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a design studio teaching experience exploring the design process itself as a methodological tool. We consider the structure of important phases of the process that contain different levels of design thinking: conception, function and practical knowledge as well as the transitions from inception to construction. We show how…

  10. Transparent Process Migration: Design Alternatives and the Sprite Implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Douglis; John K. Ousterhout

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARY The Sprite operating system allows executing processes to be moved between hosts at any time. We use this process migration mechanism to offload work onto idle machines, and also to evict migrated processes when idle workstations are reclaimed by their owners. Sprite's migration mechanism provides a high degree of transparency both for migrated processes and for users. Idle machines

  11. Microbial resources and industrial microbial processes design and behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamdi

    2007-01-01

    The large diversity in the microorganisms explain why they are involved in many industrial microbial processes. The industrial microbial processes concern fermented food preparations, microbial cell and metabolite productions and wastes processing. They are made in fundamentally the same way with three steps: pretreatment of raw matter, microbial conversion, and product recovery. The obtaining an efficient process is based on

  12. Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model

    SciTech Connect

    Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

    2011-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

  13. Integrating optical fabrication and metrology into the optical design process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, James E.

    2014-12-01

    Image degradation due to scattered radiation from residual optical fabrication errors is a serious problem in many short wavelength (X-ray/EUV) imaging systems. Most commercially-available image analysis codes (ZEMAX, Code V, ASAP, FRED, etc.) currently require the scatter behavior (BSDF data) to be provided as input in order to calculate the image quality of such systems. This BSDF data is difficult to measure and rarely available for the operational wavelengths of interest. Since the smooth-surface approximation is often not satisfied at these short wavelengths, the classical Rayleigh-Rice expression that indicates the BRDF is directly proportional to the surface PSD cannot be used to calculate BRDFs from surface metrology data for even slightly rough surfaces. However, an FFTLog numerical Hankel transform algorithm enables the practical use of the computationally intensive Generalized Harvey-Shack (GHS) surface scatter theory [1] to calculate BRDFs from surface PSDs for increasingly short wavelengths that violate the smooth surface approximation implicit in the Rayleigh-Rice surface scatter theory [2-3]. The recent numerical validation [4] of the GHS theory (a generalized linear systems formulation of surface scatter theory), and an analysis of image degradation due to surface scatter in the presence of aberrations [5] has provided credence to the development of a systems engineering analysis of image quality as degraded not only by diffraction effects and geometrical aberrations, but to scattering effects due to residual optical fabrication errors as well. These advances, combined with the continuing increase in computer speed, leave us poised to fully integrate optical metrology and fabrication into the optical design process.

  14. An Expert System to Support Clothing Design Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Santos; Francisco Rebelo

    2007-01-01

    In the context of expert systems technologies and human computer interaction, the goal of this project is to construct an\\u000a interactive design support to fashion designers when designing workwear or corporatewear clothes. This system will be fed\\u000a by a semantic database that describes the relations between function and clothes specific context of use under the user’s\\u000a perspective. This application will

  15. Tutorial 6: Modeling and Simulation of Dynamic Engineering Design Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vadim Ermolayev; Vladimir I. Gorodetski; Eyck Jentzsch; Wolf-ekkehard Matzke

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a Design – a signature of human intelligence – was always a great challenge for researches in various disciplines. For example,\\u000a observations of how humans act in design produced several fundamental ideas in AI and DAI – automated problem solving and\\u000a reasoning [3]. In return, the researchers as the broad community attacked the problems of design domain by attempting to engineer

  16. A process-centric ship design management framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beom-Seon JangBenedikte; Benedikte Harstad Kallåk; Chang-Hyun Lee; Dae-Eun Ko; Yong-Suk Suh; Young-Soon Yang

    2010-01-01

    As the concept of concurrent engineering has emerged along with support for optimization techniques, lots of endeavors have\\u000a been made to apply optimization techniques to real design problems for holistic decision-making. Even if the range of design\\u000a problems to which optimization is applicable has been extended, most ship designs use an iterative and manual approach due\\u000a to the difficulties of

  17. Impact of Process and Temperature Variations on Network-on-Chip Design Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Li; Li-shiuan Peh; Priyadarsan Patra

    2008-01-01

    With the continuing scaling of CMOS technologies, process variation is becoming a key factor highly im- pacting system-level power and temperature. Tradi- tional methods of assuming a uniform temperature and no process variation can lead to gross inaccuracies even for system-level design, thus it is critical to con- sider the effects of process variation and temperature variation during early design

  18. Optimization of a granulation and tabletting process by sequential design and multivariate analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bergman; M. E. Johansson; T. Lundstedt; E. Seifert; J. Åberg

    1998-01-01

    Sequential design and multivariate analysis were adopted to search for an optimal and robust granulation and tabletting process for a melt granulation process. The advantage with this procedure should be to produce tablets directly from granules prepared in one step without addition of any solvents. First the granulation process was investigated by a 26?2 fractional factorial design with six center

  19. Application of EMC design in launcher multichannel signal testing and processing system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao-jun Xin; Jing-bo Yao

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the electromagnetic environments and the strict request of EMC in the field of aerospace vehicle launching, a multi-channel signal testing and processing system of launcher is setup based on several EMC design methods. The operating principles of EMC design of the system are presented, and the designing ideas of power supply, signal isolating, PCB designing and filtering are

  20. Feature-based metal stamping part and process design. Part I: stampability evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunbing Tang; Benhe Gao

    2007-01-01

    It is essential to devise a representation scheme for the metal stamping part design which allows the designer to capture and reason the design information, and ultimately, to take various considerations into account and make evaluation decisions. In our research, the feature-based approach is used to represent the metal stamping part, and feature-based metal stamping part and process design has

  1. Designing persuasive destination websites: a mental imagery processing perspective 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Woo Jin

    2009-05-15

    The previous research have found that consumers' choices of vacations may be significantly influenced by mental imagery processing, which is considered to be high elaboration cognitive processing. Mental imagery is defined ...

  2. 36 CFR 62.4 - Natural landmark designation and recognition process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Natural landmark designation and recognition process...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL NATURAL LANDMARKS PROGRAM § 62.4 Natural landmark designation and recognition...

  3. NASA Now: Engineering Design Process: Hubble Space Telescope - Duration: 6 minutes, 32 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, NASA engineer Russ Werneth discusses the continuous nature of the engineering design process and shares what it was like to design and plan the spacewalks that were key...

  4. Designing data collection schemes for process capability analysis 

    E-print Network

    Mantri, Nitin Ramesh

    1994-01-01

    limits. However, specifications are not necessary to perform a process capability analysis. It is often convenient to have a simple quantitative way to express process capability. One way to do so is through the process capability indices (PCIs... collection schemes is essential to the estimation and interpretation of process capability indices. Although the use of indices is criticized by statisticians, their use is a deep rooted practice in industry. Therefore the least that can be done...

  5. Modeling Web-Based Educational Systems: Process Design Teaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokou, Franca Pantano; Rokou, Elena; Rokos, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    Using modeling languages is essential to the construction of educational systems based on software engineering principles and methods. Furthermore, the instructional design is undoubtedly the cornerstone of the design and development of educational systems. Although several methodologies and languages have been proposed for the specification of…

  6. Designing a Process Migration Facility: The Charlotte Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeshayahu Artsy; Raphael A. Finkel

    1989-01-01

    Our goal in this paper is to discuss our e xperience with process migration in the Charlotte distributed operating system. We a lso dra wu pon the experience of other oper- ating systems in which migration has been implemented. Ap rocess migration facility in ad istributed operating system dynamically relocates processes among the component machines. A successful process migration facility

  7. Information modeling for variation management during the product and manufacturing process design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Y. Dantan; A. Hassan; A. Etienne; A. Siadat; P. Martin

    2008-01-01

    For car and aircraft industries, Design for Manufacturing, Robust Design and Conceptual Process Planning are a key activity\\u000a to evaluate manufacturability, to improve design in the product development stage. Moreover, the inherent imperfections of\\u000a manufacturing processes and resources (Manufacturing Process Key Characteristics, MPKCs) involve a degradation of functional\\u000a part or product characteristics (Part \\/ Product Key Characteristics, PKCs). The management

  8. Cost model relationships between textile manufacturing processes and design details for transport fuselage elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metschan, Stephen L.; Wilden, Kurtis S.; Sharpless, Garrett C.; Andelman, Rich M.

    1993-01-01

    Textile manufacturing processes offer potential cost and weight advantages over traditional composite materials and processes for transport fuselage elements. In the current study, design cost modeling relationships between textile processes and element design details were developed. Such relationships are expected to help future aircraft designers to make timely decisions on the effect of design details and overall configurations on textile fabrication costs. The fundamental advantage of a design cost model is to insure that the element design is cost effective for the intended process. Trade studies on the effects of processing parameters also help to optimize the manufacturing steps for a particular structural element. Two methods of analyzing design detail/process cost relationships developed for the design cost model were pursued in the current study. The first makes use of existing databases and alternative cost modeling methods (e.g. detailed estimating). The second compares design cost model predictions with data collected during the fabrication of seven foot circumferential frames for ATCAS crown test panels. The process used in this case involves 2D dry braiding and resin transfer molding of curved 'J' cross section frame members having design details characteristic of the baseline ATCAS crown design.

  9. Process Integration: Designing for Energy, Capital and Operability 

    E-print Network

    Linnhoff, B.

    1985-01-01

    Over the last five years, significant energy savings have been achieved by several international companies using the pinch concept for heat integration. New concepts are now being added to help the designer deal with capital cost minimization...

  10. Design for Process Integration and Efficient Energy Utilization 

    E-print Network

    James, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Today's energy availability and pricing structure has focused attention upon those design techniques which result in an improvement in the level of energy utilisation. Energy integration is one such technique, where this refers to the matching...

  11. Laboratory Design, Construction, and Renovation: Participants, Process, and Product

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory facilities are complex, technically sophisticated, and mechanically intensive structures that are expensive to build and to maintain. Hundreds of decisions must be made before and during new construction or renovation that will determine how successfully the facility will function when completed and how successfully it can be maintained once put into service. This book provides guidance on effective approaches for building laboratory facilities in the chemical and biochemical sciences. It contains both basic and laboratory-specific information addressed to the user community-the scientists and administrators who contract with design and construction experts. The book will also be important to the design and construction communities-the architects, laboratory designers, and engineers who will design the facility and the construction personnel who will build it-to help them communicate with the scientific community for whom they build laboratory facilities.

  12. Process Integration: Designing for Energy, Capital and Operability

    E-print Network

    Linnhoff, B.

    Over the last five years, significant energy savings have been achieved by several international companies using the pinch concept for heat integration. New concepts are now being added to help the designer deal with capital cost minimization...

  13. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA guidance on land treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater is updated for the first time since 1984. The significant new technilogical changes include phytoremediation, vadose zone monitoring, new design approaches to surface irrigation, center pivot irrigation,...

  14. DESIGN OF SOFTWARE SENSORS FOR UNMEASURABLE VARIABLES OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESSES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    DESIGN OF SOFTWARE SENSORS FOR UNMEASURABLE VARIABLES OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESSES Simeonov, I variables of anaerobic digestion processes. For this purpose, different mathematical models of anaerobic digestion and different theoretical approaches (differential algebraic approach, Kalman filter modifications

  15. INCORPORATING ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS INTO PROCESS DESIGN: THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WASR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory integrates environmental impact assessment into chemical process design Potential en...

  16. The Design of the Borealis Stream Processing Engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Abadi; Y. Ahmad; H. Balakrishnan

    2004-01-01

    Borealis is a second-generation distributed stream pro-cessing engine that is being developed at Brandeis Uni-versity, Brown University, and MIT. Borealis inherits core stream processing functionality from Aurora [14] and distribution functionality from Medusa [51]. Bo-realis modifies and extends both systems in non-trivial and critical ways to provide advanced capabilities that are commonly required by newly-emerging stream pro-cessing applications. In this

  17. Modeling and supporting task-oriented group processes: Purposeful complex adaptive systems and Evolutionary Systems Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin F. Shakun

    1996-01-01

    Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD) is a universal general problem solving, formal modeling, design framework for purposeful\\u000a complex adaptive systems (PCAS) and processes, i.e., task-oriented group processes. These processes constitute policy making,\\u000a group decision, negotiation, and multiagent problem solving with human and\\/or artificial agents. ESD is also a framework for\\u000a computer group support systems (GSS) that support these processes. The ESD

  18. Modeling and supporting task-oriented group processes: Purposeful complex adaptive systems and Evolutionary Systems Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin F. Shakun

    1996-01-01

    Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD) is a universal general problem solving, formal modeling, design framework for purposeful complex adaptive systems (PCAS) and processes, i.e., task-oriented group processes. These processes constitute policy making, group decision, negotiation, and multiagent problem solving with human and\\/or artificial agents. ESD is also a framework for computer group support systems (GSS) that support these processes. The ESD

  19. Thermoeconomic design of a multi-effect evaporation mechanical vapor compression (MEE–MVC) desalination process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Nafey; H. E. S. Fath; A. A. Mabrouk

    2008-01-01

    This work presents thermoeconomic design for a multi-effect evaporation–mechanical vapor compression (MEE–MVC) desalination process. Exergy and thermoeconomic mathematical models of the considered process units are developed and presented in this work. The design data of an existing MEE–MVC (1500 m3\\/day) desalination process is used for the present analysis. The effect of using external steam to initiate the evaporation process is

  20. Machine-Assisted Design of Business Process Models Using Descriptor Space Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya Lincoln; Mati Golani; Avigdor Gal

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a In recent years, researchers have become increasingly interested in developing methods and tools for automating the design\\u000a of business process models. This work suggests a method for machine-assisted design of new process models, based on business\\u000a logic that is extracted from real-life process repositories using a linguistic analysis of the relationships between constructs\\u000a of process descriptors. The analysis enables the

  1. Designing and Securing an Event Processing System for Smart Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zang

    2011-01-01

    Smart spaces, or smart environments, represent the next evolutionary development in buildings, banking, homes, hospitals, transportation systems, industries, cities, and government automation. By riding the tide of sensor and event processing technologies, the smart environment captures and processes information about its surroundings as well as…

  2. Process-Aware Information Systems: Design, Enactment, and Analysis

    E-print Network

    van der Aalst, Wil

    .g., ERP systems). The shift from data orientation to process orientation has in- creased the importance systems such as FileNet P8, Staffware, WebSphere, FLOWer and YAWL and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems such as SAP and Oracle. Moreover, many domain specific systems have components driven by (process

  3. Risk-Driven Design Processes: Balancing Efficiency with Resilience in Product Design

    E-print Network

    Oehmen, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Current design methods and approaches focus on increasing the efficiency of the product design system by, for example, eliminating waste and focusing on value creation. However, continuing failures in the development of ...

  4. High-level design and analysis of business processes the advantages of declarative specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina Rychkova; Gil Regev; Alain Wegmann

    2008-01-01

    Business process modeling techniques, such as BPMN, encourage the early specification of the exact order in which the activities of the process will be executed. However, a business process may be exposed to different environments and subjected to many conditions in which a sequence cannot be identified at design time. We present declarative business process specifications that can be used

  5. Business process-oriented design of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems for small and medium enterprises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Quiescenti; M. Bruccoleri; U. La Commare; S. Noto La Diega; G. Perrone

    2006-01-01

    In the last few years, many organizations have used business process modelling as an effective tool for managing organizational changes. However, process modelling has rarely been exploited for supporting the entire business process management life cycle. This includes the design of business processes as well as their implementation and control. The adoption and implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems

  6. Preparing Instructional Designers for Game-Based Learning: Part III. Game Design as a Collaborative Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this three part series, four professors who teach graduate level courses on the design of instructional video games discuss their perspectives on preparing instructional designers to optimize game-based learning. Part I set the context for the series and one of four panelists discussed what he believes instructional designers should know about…

  7. Design and manufacturing tools for laser beam processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaierle, Stefan; Fuerst, B.; Kittel, Jochen; Kreutz, Ernst-Wolfgang; Poprawe, Reinhart

    1999-08-01

    Today's situation with increasingly shorter time-to-market limits and growing variant spectra calls for advanced methods in the manufacturing domain. A big potential for gaining faster and better manufacturing results lies in the application of offline programming, especially if processing small lot sizes. Offline programming offers as main advantage a notable reduction of deadlock times of manufacturing systems. Applying this technology there is no time consumptive teach-in on the robots necessary. A technology module based on CAD/CAM technique--mainly for 3D welding applications--is described which permits to carry out offline path and process planning including simulation and visualization of the processing task.

  8. An interfaces approach to TES ground data system processing design with the Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurian, R.; Grifin, A.

    2002-01-01

    Developing production-quality software to process the large volumes of scientific data is the responsibility of the TES Ground Data System, which is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory together with support contractor Raytheon/ITSS. The large data volume and processing requirements of the TES pose significant challenges to the design.

  9. Interdependency Study of Process and Design Parameter Scaling for Power Optimization of Nano-CMOS Circuits under Process Variation

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    Interdependency Study of Process and Design Parameter Scaling for Power Optimization of Nano-CMOS Circuits under Process Variation Abstract In sub-65nm CMOS technology, switching power and gate as well paths in a nano- CMOS transistor during power dissipation in different states of operation [4, 16, 24

  10. Nonlinear design of geophysical surveys and processing strategies 

    E-print Network

    Guest, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of all scientific experiments is to infer knowledge about a set of parameters of interest through the process of data collection and analysis. In the geosciences, large sums of money are spent on the ...

  11. 17 CFR 38.12 - Process for a designated contract market to make a swap available to trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Process for a designated contract market to make a swap available to trade...TRADING COMMISSION DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS General Provisions § 38.12 Process for a designated contract market to make a swap available to...

  12. Design, processing, and testing of LSI arrays for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    At wafer probe, units of the TA6567 circuit, a beam leaded COS/MOS/SOS 256-bit RAM, were demonstrated to be functionally perfect. An aluminum gate current-sense version and a silicon-gate voltage-sense version of this memory were developed. Initial base line data for the beam lead SOS process using the TA5388 circuit show the stability of the dc device characteristics through the beam lead processing.

  13. Constraints Based Modeling for Innovative Product & Process Designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sampath

    2007-01-01

    An innovative, constraints based modeling (CBM) approach proved successful for product developments and process improvements.\\u000a The product developments involved specifying the chemical composition range for a set of chromium-free, high-performance consumable\\u000a electrodes intended for gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) of high-strength steels used in hull constructions while significantly\\u000a reducing energy costs. The process improvements involved selecting appropriate non-carcinogenic chemicals for a

  14. NASA scatterometer research data processing system: Requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. S.; Benada, J. R.; Noon, E. L.; Leach, G. E.; Brown, J. W.; Pihos, G.; Mccabe, P. J.; Lame, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    A data processing system for research users of the NASA scatterometer data is introduced. A system with multiple processors and large storage capacity is needed to deal with the volume of sensor data (40 Mbytes/day) and the computationally intensive processing it requires. Dealiasing is required to select a unique wind vector from the multiple solutions obtained. Wind field maps are required to give investigators an overview of the large volumes of data.

  15. Application of FE analysis for optimal design of caulking process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junyoung Park; Seogou Choi; Kyounghoan Na; Youngsuk Kim

    2008-01-01

    An inner tie-rod (ITR) end-assembly module is widely used in the steering systems of automobiles. The ITR module is composed of a ball-stud, ball-seat, and socket and manufactured by a caulking process. To ensure that the final ITR module is qualified for application, the caulking process of the ITR module should be optimized to satisfy certain requirements, including the allowable

  16. Process Design Manual: Wastewater Treatment Facilities for Sewered Small Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffel, R. E.; And Others

    This manual attempts to describe new treatment methods, and discuss the application of new techniques for more effectively removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from wastewater. Topics covered include: fundamental design considerations, flow equalization, headworks components, clarification of raw wastewater, activated sludge, package plants,…

  17. Steam boilers: process models for improved operation and design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ahnert

    2007-01-01

    Biomass combustion can be an economic way to contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions, which are a main suspect of the so-called greenhouse effect. In order to promote a widespread utilization of biomass combustion, operational problems like fuel treatment, slagging, fouling and corrosion have to be solved. There are few research initiatives focused on the improvement of design and

  18. WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITIES FOR SEWERED SMALL COMMUNITIES. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this manual is to provide the engineering community and related industry a new source of information to be used in the planning, design and operation of present and future wastewater treatment facilities for sewered small communities. Case histories are utilized wh...

  19. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this manual is to provide the engineering community and related industry with a new source of information to be used in the planning, design, and operation of present and future wastewater pollution control facilities. This manual supplements this existing knowledg...

  20. Integrating the Affective Domain into the Instructional Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Robert G.

    This study begins with a definition of the affective domain and its importance to learning, outlining its impact both in achieving affective behaviors and in facilitating cognitive and psychomotor objectives. The study then develops a model of instructional design that incorporates the affective domain as an integral component. The model combines…

  1. Responsive Instructional Design: Scaffolding the Adoption and Change Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.

    Besides a host of technical and logistical questions, more subtle issues, related to teachers' pedagogical visions and beliefs, as well as their perceived confidence for using technology, are also known to impede meaningful classroom technology use. Assuming that most designers and staff developers are fairly well prepared to provide technical…

  2. High School Student Modeling in the Engineering Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan; Huffman, Tanner; Thayer, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    A diverse group of 20 high school students from four states in the US were individually provided with an engineering design challenge. Students chosen were in capstone engineering courses and had taken multiple engineering courses. As students considered the problem and developed a solution, observational data were recorded and artifacts…

  3. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT'S APPLICATION IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF MILLING PROCESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Baji; S. Jozi; S. Podrug

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of cutting parameters on surface roughness of steel workpiece. The experi- ments have been carried out in accordance with a design of experiments (DOE). Equation for the surface roug- hness, as a function of cutting parameters, has been obtained by means of regression analysis. To obtain the minimal value of surface roughness, the equation optimizing

  4. ESD Reliability Challenges for RF\\/Mixed Signal Design & Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natarajan Mahadeva Iyer; M. K. Radhakrishnan

    2003-01-01

    Summary form only given. The ESD reliability challenges faced from technology generations, as well as, circuit design point of view are reviewed. After a brief introduction on the fundamental of electrostatic discharge, detailed description on the ESD testing and models are presented. This intended to provide an in-depth insight into the ESD models, physical and circuit equivalents, relevant international testing

  5. A hardware design of navigation receiver signal processing platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wang; Chuncheng Wang; Yanling Hao

    2009-01-01

    A hardware design of receiver which uses the FPGA + DSP + ARM structure is presented in this paper. The communication between functional units and display control units are discussed on the research of integrated OEM board for traditional receivers. The experiment result shows that the signal platform has the low power dissipation, small size, high performances, so it is

  6. Use of process maps to develop a management briefing sheet for a design consultancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isao T Matsumoto; John Stapleton; Jacqueline Glass; Tony Thorpe

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Process mapping can lead to a more holistic understanding of how an organisation works. This paper seeks to discuss how an engineering design consultancy, which had developed a series of process maps on the design of steel frame buildings, developed a powerful management tool, the Management Briefing Sheet which has yielded numerous additional benefits enabling practice to be

  7. Design of a validation test process of an automotive software Roy Awedikian, Bernard Yannou

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    quality indicators such as the structural and functional coverage but also the tests cost that we1 Design of a validation test process of an automotive software Roy Awedikian, Bernard Yannou Ecole to validate and monitor the new software testing process. Keywords: test design space, exploration, decision

  8. The Design of the Borealis Stream Processing Engine Daniel J. Abadi1

    E-print Network

    Lindner, Wolfgang

    , Brown University, and MIT. Borealis inherits core stream processing functionality from Aurora [14 in terms of our own design considera- tions for Borealis, the successor to Aurora, but it should PermissionThe Design of the Borealis Stream Processing Engine Daniel J. Abadi1 , Yanif Ahmad2 , Magdalena

  9. RAMSES: A Method for the Design Process of Interactive Information Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Assia Mouloudi; Pierre Morizet-Mahoudeaux; Annette Valentin

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a method that aims at structuring the design process of interactive information systems (IIS). This method, which takes parts of its ground in the joint cognitive systems approach, formalizes the integration of usage data in the design process of IIS. Data are generated by using methods of activity analysis. The assumption is that for integrating usage data

  10. A NOVEL APPROACH TO BUSINESS PROCESS DESIGN IN A REGULATED INDUSTRY

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Mitchell

    A NOVEL APPROACH TO BUSINESS PROCESS DESIGN IN A REGULATED INDUSTRY Approved by NOVEL APPROACH TO BUSINESS PROCESS DESIGN IN A REGULATED INDUSTRY A Dissertation Presented regulations is more important than ever. Therefore, there is an unfulfilled need to develop a theoretical

  11. Multi-discipline fusion design of structure and process based on simulation technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Chen; Jianmin Han; Zhiyong Yang; Guiyong Qiu; Weijing Li

    2009-01-01

    The conflict between structure design and casting process of castings has been studied to make them have good casting structure feasibility. In this paper, it takes the use of structure and process integrated design based on simulation technology to resolve the conflict. Casting structure feasibility of aluminum axle box for the high speed train application, as an example, was analyzed

  12. Integrating product and process design with optimal control: A case study of solvent recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saadet Ulas; Urmila M. Diwekar

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes the simultaneous integration of environmentally benign solvent selection (product design), solvent recycling (process design) and optimal control for the separation of azeotropic systems using batch distillation. The previous work performed by Kim et al. (2004. Entrainer selection and solvent recycling in complex batch distillation. Chemical Engineering Communications 191(12), 1606–1633) combines the chemical synthesis and process synthesis under

  13. Systems Theory for the civil engineer The design process: insights from expert system development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. O. Denis Russell

    1991-01-01

    The drive to develop expert systems is forcing would-be developers to examine and make explicit the mental processes which experts use. Much of what an expert actually does is carried out intuitively and without any conscious thought. The procedures and mental processes used in civil engineering design involve a ‘creative phase’, where the design first takes shape and then ‘evolves’,

  14. Integrating environmental concerns into the design process: the gap between theory and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Handfield; Steven A. Melnyk; Roger J. Calantone; Sime Curkovic

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the product design process and integration of environmental performance criteria during this critical stage. Specifically, the authors explore environmentally responsible manufacturing (ERM) as perceived and acted on by two critical groups within this design process. The first consists of the champions and supporters of ERM, who either formally or informally act as advocates of ERM within

  15. A SCALABLE REED-SOLOMON DECODING PROCESSOR BASED ON UNIFIED FINITE-FIELD PROCESSING ELEMENT DESIGN

    E-print Network

    Hung, Shih-Hao

    A SCALABLE REED-SOLOMON DECODING PROCESSOR BASED ON UNIFIED FINITE-FIELD PROCESSING ELEMENT DESIGN in details the methodologies of the RS decoding procedure, and design a coarse-grain unified finite-field-Solomon decoder. 2. UNIFIED FINITE-FIELD PROCESSING ELEMENT There are three major DSP operations in the RS decoder

  16. Formulation of an integrated robust design and tactics optimization process for undersea weapon systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Frits

    2005-01-01

    In the current Navy environment of undersea weapons development, the engineering aspect of design is decoupled from the development of the tactics with which the weapon is employed. Tactics are developed by intelligence experts, warfighters, and wargamers, while torpedo design is handled by engineers and contractors. This dissertation examines methods by which the conceptual design process of undersea weapon systems,

  17. New methods, new methodology: Advanced CFD in the Snecma turbomachinery design process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Vuillez; Bertrand Petot

    1994-01-01

    CFD tools represent a significant source of improvements in the design process of turbomachinery components, leading to higher performances, cost and cycle savings as well as lower associated risks. Such methods are the backbone of compressor and turbine design methodologies at Snecma. In the 80's, the use of 3D Euler solvers was a key factor in designing fan blades with

  18. Proceedings ofAsia-Pacific Microwave Conference 2007 Design of Integrated RF Modules with Process

    E-print Network

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    Proceedings ofAsia-Pacific Microwave Conference 2007 Design of Integrated RF Modules with Process) design and analysis for integrated RF modules. Through PCM integration, the measured substrate yield designs of RF front-end modules, which will reduce the manufacturing cost, RF test cost, and time

  19. Liability and its influence on designing for product and process safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Baram

    2007-01-01

    This paper sketches the regulatory framework within which design takes place and then focuses on tort liability in the USA and European Union domains, its doctrines of fault-based liability and strict liability, and their relevance to product and process design. It also discusses new environmental liability laws and other recent developments which have design implications. Finally, it discusses company decision-making

  20. A Critical Review of Instructional Design Process of Distance Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; ur-Rahman, Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Instructional design refers to planning, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. It is an applied field of study aiming at the application of descriptive research outcomes in regular instructional settings. The present study was designed to critically review the process of instructional design at Allama Iqbal Open University…

  1. Design considerations for solar industrial process heat systems: nontracking and line focus collector technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F. (ed.)

    1981-03-01

    Items are listed that should be considered in each aspect of the design of a solar industrial process heat system. The collector technologies covered are flat-plate, evacuated tube, and line focus. Qualitative design considerations are stressed rather than specific design recommendations. (LEW)

  2. Research on rapid design process model of large-scale valve for product innovation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. D. Li; R. H. Tan; L. X. Geng; B. J. Yang

    2007-01-01

    Product innovation is an important means to compete for markets for enterprises during the era of mass customization. Manufacturing enterprises pay more attention to the innovation ability in product design and development field. The objective of this research is to solve rapid innovation design questions of the large-scale valve through establishing rapid design process model based on product platform. At

  3. How do waterscape projects combine landscape design and natural processes to create dialogues that engage

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    How do waterscape projects combine landscape design and natural processes to create dialogues. Landscape architects, planners and designers know better the fundamentals of water and its power, some ecologically and culturally conscious design practitioners have tried to develop a way to combine

  4. An integrated framework of statistical process control and design of experiments for optimizing wire electrochemical turning process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salah Haridy; Sherif Araby Gouda; Zhang Wu

    2011-01-01

    Design of experiments (DOE) and statistical process control (SPC) have been separately used in many traditional and non-traditional\\u000a machining processes, but recently these two approaches are being combined and reevaluated for more effective use and accurate\\u000a conclusions. DOE and SPC are very efficient tools to maintain the process on target and within boundaries of natural variations\\u000a and to achieve the

  5. Operational concepts and implementation strategies for the design configuration management process.

    SciTech Connect

    Trauth, Sharon Lee

    2007-05-01

    This report describes operational concepts and implementation strategies for the Design Configuration Management Process (DCMP). It presents a process-based systems engineering model for the successful configuration management of the products generated during the operation of the design organization as a business entity. The DCMP model focuses on Pro/E and associated activities and information. It can serve as the framework for interconnecting all essential aspects of the product design business. A design operation scenario offers a sense of how to do business at a time when DCMP is second nature within the design organization.

  6. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-11-09

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  7. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Hockert, John; Gitau, Ernest TN; Zentner, Michael D.

    2013-01-26

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  8. A case-based reasoning approach to automated weld-process design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. O'connor; M. S. Lan; D. R. Partridge; J. M. F. Lee

    1992-01-01

    In this article, we present a case-based-reasoning approach for the solution of complex manufacturing problems. We describe an application of this methodology to the development of an automated system for weld-process design. We also describe the generic system design and implementation of a Weld-Process Design Advisor (WPDA). The uniqueness of this system is that it combines case-based and heuristic rule-based

  9. Design of Complex Sheet Metal Forming Processes: A New Computer Aided Progressive Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ingarao; R. Di Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    The growing interest in sheet metal stamping processes, particularly in automotive industry, led to three main issues in this\\u000a field: request of very complex shapes; growing interest in springback control; solution of multi-objective problems. This\\u000a makes the design of the sheet metal stamping processes very difficult, since the number of both design variables and design\\u000a objectives are progressively increased; therefore,

  10. The design of an irradiator for the continuous processing of liquid latex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, O.; Langley, R.; Zn, Wan Manshol Bin W.

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents anew design concept for a gamma irradiation plant for the continuous processing of pumpable liquids. Typical applications of such a plant include ? the irradiation vulcanisation of natural latex rubber ? disinfection of municipal sewage sludge for agricultural use ? sterilisation of liquids in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries ? industrial processing of bulk liquids The authors describe the design and operation of the latex irradiator now operating on a small production scale in Malaysia and proposed developments. The design allows irradiation processing to be carried out under an inert or other gaseous environment. State-of-the-art computer control system ensures the fully automatic processing operation needed by industrial computers.

  11. Process design for wastewater treatment: catalytic ozonation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Derrouiche, S; Bourdin, D; Roche, P; Houssais, B; Machinal, C; Coste, M; Restivo, J; Orfão, J J M; Pereira, M F R; Marco, Y; Garcia-Bordeje, E

    2013-01-01

    Emerging micropollutants have been recently the target of interest for their potential harmful effects in the environment and their resistance to conventional water treatments. Catalytic ozonation is an advanced oxidation process consisting of the formation of highly reactive radicals from the decomposition of ozone promoted by a catalyst. Nanocarbon materials have been shown to be effective catalysts for this process, either in powder form or grown on the surface of a monolithic structure. In this work, carbon nanofibers grown on the surface of a cordierite honeycomb monolith are tested as catalyst for the ozonation of five selected micropollutants: atrazine (ATZ), bezafibrate, erythromycin, metolachlor, and nonylphenol. The process is tested both in laboratorial and real conditions. Later on, ATZ was selected as a target pollutant to further investigate the role of the catalytic material. It is shown that the inclusion of a catalyst improves the mineralization degree compared to single ozonation. PMID:24056437

  12. A signal processing approach to fair surface design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Taubin

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new tool for interactive free-form fair surface design. By generalizing classical discrete Fourier analysis to two-dimensional discrete surface signals – functions defined on polyhedral surfaces of arbitrary topology –, we reduce the problem of surface smoothing, or fairing, to low-pass filtering. We describe a very simple surface signal low-pass filter algorithm that applies to

  13. Photovoltaic\\/diesel hybrid systems: The design process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Jones; R. N. Chapman

    1987-01-01

    A photovoltaic\\/storage system by itself may be uneconomical for stand-alone applications with large energy demands. However, by combining the PV system with a back-up energy source, such as a diesel, gasoline, or propane\\/thermoelectric generator, system economics can be improved. Such PV\\/fossil hybrid systems are being used, but their design has required detailed modeling to determine the optimal mix of photovoltaics

  14. The Effect of Natural Language Processing in Bioinspired Design 

    E-print Network

    Burns, Madison Suzann 1987-

    2012-10-23

    ocean fertilization mechanism, the growth of algae is accomplished in enclosed tubes called photobioreactors (PBRs), which are designed to promote algal growth through constant provision and balance of light, temperature, and nutrients. These enclosed... balance of nutrients is critical to the success of algal growth in a photobioreactor. The small-scale application of algal growth allows it to be regulated and controlled more efficiently, and the potential for biomass fuel from harvested algae...

  15. Using RGB Image Processing for Designing an Alginate Edible Film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian A. Acevedo; Darío A. López; María J. Tapia; Javier Enrione; Olivier Skurtys; Franco Pedreschi; Donald I. Brown; Werner Creixell; Fernando Osorio

    The use of edible films to coat food products is a technique that allows for an extended shelf-life. One of the most widely\\u000a used polymers is calcium alginate. However, this polymer can modify the original food color and the perception by consumers.\\u000a The objective was to design an alginate film based principally on color changes using a RGB color model.

  16. Design of ecologically safe and science intensive electrochemical processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. G. Budnikova; T. V. Gryaznova; S. A. Krasnov; I. M. Magdeev; O. G. Sinyashin

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the results of and prospects for studies aimed at design of new science intensive, environmentally safe\\u000a technologies for the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds by halogenation of ?-olefins, including modification of rapeseed\\u000a oil; it also considers methods for the production of some other intermediates for chemical industry. New synthetic applications\\u000a have been developed, using combined methods of classical

  17. Designing persuasive destination websites: a mental imagery processing perspective

    E-print Network

    Lee, Woo Jin

    2009-05-15

    for Tourism. Special thanks to Han Young for designing the destination Web site for the experiment and the other members who helped me recruit subjects for this study. Moreover, I would like to express my deep thanks to my friend, Hye Jeong, who truly helps... are viewed, the same imagined objects have almost identical properties in the workings of the mind (Eysenck & Keane, 2000; Richardson, 1999). According to Branthwaite (2002), from the point of view of communication and persuasion, mental imagery has...

  18. The anaerobic SBR process: basic principles for design and automation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. ruiz; M. Torrijos; P. Sousbie; J. Lebrato Martinez; R. Moletta

    Abstract This study has determined the purification performance,and the basic principles for the design of ananaerobic,SBR (ASBR) to be used to treat wastewater generated in the food industries. Two ASBR’s were set up and one fed with a slaughterhouse effluent at low concentration, the other with concentrated dairy wastewater. The maximum,loading rate applied should not exceed 4.5 g of COD\\/L\\/day

  19. Inverse transonic wing design on a vector processer 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, William Kyle

    1982-01-01

    shapes along the inverse wing stations is also included. Many results are presented for design cases at both subcritical and supercritical Mach numbers. 1V A KNOVLEDGEKENTS The author wisl'. es to extend his sincere appreciation to Dr. L. A. Carlscn... from inverse. 45 13 Comparison of analysis input pressures to those obtained by the small perturbation inverse program at a subcritical Mach number for y/b/2=0. 1875. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 14 Comparison of modified input...

  20. Process and Sensor Noise Robustness in Detection Filter Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randal K. Douglas; Jason L. Speyer

    1991-01-01

    A detection filter insensitive to process and sensor noise is developed. The approach is to minimize the H2 or H¿-norm of the transfer functions from the noise to the failure indicators with respect to the detection filter gain. Given a set of detection filter invariant state subspaces, the detection filter gain which preserves these subspaces is parameterized. Next the noise

  1. Designing Business Process Oriented Knowledge Infrastructures Markus Strohmaier

    E-print Network

    and knowledge in- frastructures provide a fundament for effective management of relevant knowledge within orga represents a big step towards the management of organizational knowledge by managing the knowledge about directly or indirectly value-generating processes. With the emergence of knowledge management, new

  2. EVALUATING AND DESIGNING CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals and chemical processes are at the heart of most environmental problems. This isn't surprising since chemicals make up all of the products we use in our lives. The common use of cjhemicals makes them of high interest for systems analysis, particularly because of environ...

  3. Design of radiation hard CMOS APS image sensors in a 0.35-um standard process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    El-Sayed I. Eid; Tony Y. Chan; Eric R. Fossum; Richard H. Tsai; Robert Spagnuolo; John J. Deily

    2001-01-01

    A CMOS APS Image sensor test chip was designed employing the physical design techniques of enclosed geometry and guard ring, and according to the design rules of a 0.35-micrometers CMOS standard process that has a gate oxide thickness of approximately 7.0 nm. Three sets of radiation tolerant photodiode active pixels were developed employing these design techniques. They are N-type, and

  4. Integration of marketing domain and R&D domain in NPD design process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Namwoo Kang; Junyoung Kim

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – To solve the trade-offs between marketing and R&D domains and to minimize information loss in new product development (NPD), this study proposes an integrated design process as a new solution to the interface system between the two domains. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – House of Quality integrated with multivariate statistical analysis is used for determining important design features. These design features

  5. Making Explicit in Design Education: Generic Elements in the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dooren, Elise; Boshuizen, Els; van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Asselbergs, Thijs; van Dorst, Machiel

    2014-01-01

    In general, designing is conceived as a complex, personal, creative and open-ended skill. Performing a well-developed skill is mainly an implicit activity. In teaching, however, it is essential to make explicit. Learning a complex skill like designing is a matter of doing and becoming aware how to do it. For teachers and students therefore, it…

  6. Design Process of Flight Vehicle Structures for a Common Bulkhead and an MPCV Spacecraft Adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin; Hull, Patrick V.

    2015-01-01

    Design and manufacturing space flight vehicle structures is a skillset that has grown considerably at NASA during that last several years. Beginning with the Ares program and followed by the Space Launch System (SLS); in-house designs were produced for both the Upper Stage and the SLS Multipurpose crew vehicle (MPCV) spacecraft adapter. Specifically, critical design review (CDR) level analysis and flight production drawing were produced for the above mentioned hardware. In particular, the experience of this in-house design work led to increased manufacturing infrastructure for both Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF), improved skillsets in both analysis and design, and hands on experience in building and testing (MSA) full scale hardware. The hardware design and development processes from initiation to CDR and finally flight; resulted in many challenges and experiences that produced valuable lessons. This paper builds on these experiences of NASA in recent years on designing and fabricating flight hardware and examines the design/development processes used, as well as the challenges and lessons learned, i.e. from the initial design, loads estimation and mass constraints to structural optimization/affordability to release of production drawing to hardware manufacturing. While there are many documented design processes which a design engineer can follow, these unique experiences can offer insight into designing hardware in current program environments and present solutions to many of the challenges experienced by the engineering team.

  7. INTEC CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System Closure: Process Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmitt, Raymond Rodney; Faultersack, Wendell Gale; Foster, Jonathan Kay; Berry, Stephen Michael

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the engineering activities that have been completed in support of the closure plan for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System. This effort includes detailed assessments of methods and equipment for performing work in four areas: 1. A cold (nonradioactive) mockup system for testing equipment and procedures for vessel cleanout and vessel demolition. 2. Cleanout of process vessels to meet standards identified in the closure plan. 3. Dismantlement and removal of vessels, should it not be possible to clean them to required standards in the closure plan. 4. Cleanout or removal of pipelines and pumps associated with the CPP-603 basin water treatment system. Cleanout standards for the pipes will be the same as those used for the process vessels.

  8. Bodyscan data usage and the clothing design process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Hussey

    ABSTRACT This paper ,concentrates ,on the ,second ,and ,third phases ,of a ,developmental ,data collection process ,which ,was ,devised ,to enable ,focus group ,interviews ,to extract tacit interrelationship knowledge,from businesses,across,a regional clothing industry sector. It is intended,that the findings obtained,will identify the extent to which,new technologies,are being utilised within the Small to Medium ,sized Enterprise (SME) sector (Europa, 2005). Digital

  9. The Design of the Borealis Stream Processing Engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Abadi; Yanif Ahmad; Magdalena Balazinska; Ugur Çetintemel; Mitch Cherniack; Jeong-hyon Hwang; Wolfgang Lindner; Anurag Maskey; Alex Rasin; Esther Ryvkina; Nesime Tatbul; Ying Xing

    2005-01-01

    Borealis is a second-generation distributed stream pro- cessing engine that is being developed at Brandeis Uni- versity, Brown University, and MIT. Borealis inherits core stream processing functionality from Aurora (14) and distribution functionality from Medusa (51). Bo- realis modifies and extends both systems in non-trivial and critical ways to provide advanced capabilities that are commonly required by newly-emerging stream pro-

  10. Process Options for Nominal 2-K Helium Refrigeration System Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

    2012-07-01

    Nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems are frequently used for superconducting radio frequency and magnet string technologies used in accelerators. This paper examines the trade-offs and approximate performance of four basic types of processes used for the refrigeration of these technologies; direct vacuum pumping on a helium bath, direct vacuum pumping using full or partial refrigeration recovery, cold compression, and hybrid compression (i.e., a blend of cold and warm sub-atmospheric compression).

  11. Design, processing and testing of LSI arrays: Hybrid microelectronics task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.; Stuhlbarg, S. M.; Ravetti, R. G.; Zulueta, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical cost factors were generated for both hybrid microcircuit and printed wiring board packaging methods. A mathematical cost model was created for analysis of microcircuit fabrication costs. The costing factors were refined and reduced to formulae for computerization. Efficient methods were investigated for low cost packaging of LSI devices as a function of density and reliability. Technical problem areas such as wafer bumping, inner/outer leading bonding, testing on tape, and tape processing, were investigated.

  12. Assessment of chemical process hazards in early design stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shailesh Shah; Ulrich Fischer; Konrad Hungerbühler

    2005-01-01

    A new method called SREST-layer-assessment method with automated software tool is presented that in a hierarchical approach reveals the degree of non-ideality of chemical processes with regard to SHE (safety, health and environment) aspects at different layers: the properties of the chemical substances involved (substance assessment layer (SAL)), possible interactions between the substances (reactivity assessment layer (RAL)), possible hazard scenarios

  13. Predictive Models for Semiconductor Device Design and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The device feature size continues to be on a downward trend with a simultaneous upward trend in wafer size to 300 mm. Predictive models are needed more than ever before for this reason. At NASA Ames, a Device and Process Modeling effort has been initiated recently with a view to address these issues. Our activities cover sub-micron device physics, process and equipment modeling, computational chemistry and material science. This talk would outline these efforts and emphasize the interaction among various components. The device physics component is largely based on integrating quantum effects into device simulators. We have two parallel efforts, one based on a quantum mechanics approach and the second, a semiclassical hydrodynamics approach with quantum correction terms. Under the first approach, three different quantum simulators are being developed and compared: a nonequlibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach, Wigner function approach, and a density matrix approach. In this talk, results using various codes will be presented. Our process modeling work focuses primarily on epitaxy and etching using first-principles models coupling reactor level and wafer level features. For the latter, we are using a novel approach based on Level Set theory. Sample results from this effort will also be presented.

  14. Modeling of Eco Manufacturing Process Design for the Wood Material Coating Stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suthep Butdee; Serge Tichkiewitch

    This paper proposes the model of Eco manufacturing process design for the wood material coating stage. The objective is to improve productivity of the process and ecological aspect for workplace environment. The manufacturing time should be the shortest and also the color spraying emission must be reduced. In this study, different types of coating processes are discussed and compared. The

  15. Design parameters of boric acid production process from colemanite ore in the presence of propionic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kuskay; A. N. Bulutcu

    2011-01-01

    In this study, three different boric acid production process alternatives which can be performed in the presence of propionic acid and\\/or calcium propionate were evaluated. The process in which calcium propionate is the recycling component was selected as the best alternative and modeled. Some of the design parameters were determined for the selected process. These parameters are solubility change of

  16. Design and application of acetonitrile refining process and computer intelligent control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X.-F. Sun; Y.-J. Cai; L.-Y. Xia; H.-T. Pan

    2010-01-01

    A continuous process for refining high purity acetonitrile synthesized by dimethyl sulphate and sodium cyanide was designed, and the advanced computer monitoring technology and intelligent control technology were used to monitor and control this process in real time. The continuous process resolved the difficulties of low product purity and yield efficiently by using some distillation techniques, such as pressure swing

  17. Design and Evaluation of an Educational Software Process Simulation Environment and Associated Model

    E-print Network

    van der Hoek, André

    Design and Evaluation of an Educational Software Process Simulation Environment and Associated@ics.uci.edu, andre@ics.uci.edu Abstract Simulation is an educational tool that is commonly used to teach processes that are infea- sible to practice in the real world. Software process education is a domain that has not yet

  18. Assessment of environment-, health- and safety aspects of fine chemical processes during early design phases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guntram Koller; Ulrich Fischer; Konrad Hungerbühler

    1999-01-01

    Most environmental-, health- and safety problems (EHS) of a chemical process are fixed during the early stages of the design process, when the chemical reaction pathway and the reaction parameters (e.g. solvents, temperature) are selected. Although a large variety of methods exist for assessing EHS problems of existing processes, none of them can be applied as a general method during

  19. Design Considerations of Polishing Lap for Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper establishes a relationship between the polishing process parameters and the generation of mid spatial-frequency error. The consideration of the polishing lap design to optimize the process in order to keep residual errors to a minimum and optimization of the process (speeds, stroke, etc.) and to keep the residual mid spatial-frequency error to a minimum, is also presented.

  20. Toward an Effective Design Process: Enhancing Building Performance through Better Integration of Facility Management Perspectives in the Design Process

    E-print Network

    Kalantari Hematabadi, Seyed Saleh

    2014-08-20

    and energy-use patterns anticipated by the building’s designers. The current research took a slightly different approach to this topic, by evaluating the outlooks and practices of facility managers (rather than occupants). In doing so, it helped 5.... In the quantitative material, survey results are presented and interpreted. Chapter VI provides a discussion of the research findings, and compares these results against outlooks given in the previous literature. Finally, Chapter VII is a conclusion that highlights...