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  1. Binding of GID1 to DELLAs promotes dissociation of GAF1 from DELLA in GA dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Jutarou; Ito, Takeshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Takahashi, Yohsuke

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are important phytohormones for plant growth and development. DELLAs are members of the plant-specific GRAS protein family and act as repressors of GA signaling. DELLAs are rapidly degraded in the presence of GAs. GA-GID1-DELLA complexes are recognized and ubiquitinated by the SCF(SLY) complex. The sleepy1 (sly1) F-box mutant exhibits dwarfism and low-germination phenotypes due to high accumulation of DELLAs. Overexpression of GID1 in the sly1 mutant partially rescues these phenotypes without degradation of DELLAs suggesting that proteolysis independent regulation of DELLAs exists in GA signaling. But the molecular mechanisms of non-proteolytic regulation of DELLA are largely unknown. Recently we identified a DELLA binding transcription factor, GAI-ASSOCIATED FACTOR1 (GAF1). GAF1 also interacts with co-repressor TOPLESS RELATED (TPR) in nuclei. DELLAs and TPR act as coactivator and corepressor of GAF1, respectively. GAs converts the GAF1 complex from transcriptional activator to repressor via degradation of DELLAs. The overexpression of ΔPAM, lacking of DELLAs binding region of GAF1, partially rescue dwarf phenotypes of GA deficient or GA insensitive mutant. In this study, we investigate the relationship between non-proteolytic regulation of DELLAs and GA signaling via DELLA-GAF1 complex using modified yeast two-hybrid system. PMID:26237582

  2. Gibberellin signaling: a theme and variations on DELLA repression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DELLA proteolysis through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway or through the proteolysis-independent mechanisms. GA triggers DELLA proteolysis via a series of protein-protein interactions. GA binding to the GID1 GA receptor increases the affinity of GID1 for DELLA leading to the formation of the GID1-G...

  3. Silencing of DELLA induces facultative parthenocarpy in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Martí, Cristina; Orzáez, Diego; Ellul, Philippe; Moreno, Vicente; Carbonell, Juan; Granell, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    DELLA proteins are plant nuclear factors that restrain growth and proliferation in response to hormonal signals. The effects of the manipulation of the DELLA pathway in the making of a berry-like fruit were investigated. The expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana gain-of-function DELLA allele Atgai (del) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) produced partially sterile dwarf plants and compacted influorescences, as expected for a constitutively activated growth repressor. In contrast, antisense silencing of the single endogenous tomato DELLA gene homologue (SlDELLA) produced slender-like plants with elongated flower trusses. Interestingly, the depletion of SlDELLA in tomato was sufficient to overcome the growth arrest normally imposed on the ovary at anthesis, resulting in parthenocarpic fruits in the absence of pollination. Antisense SlDELLA-engineered fruits were smaller in size and elongated in shape compared with wild type. Cell number estimations showed that fruit set, resulting from reduced SlDELLA expression, arose from activated cell elongation at the longitudinal and lateral axes of the fruit pericarp, bypassing phase-II (post-pollination) cell divisions. Parthenocarpy caused by SlDELLA depletion is facultative, as hand pollination restored wild-type fruit phenotype. This indicates that fertilization-associated SlDELLA-independent signals are operational in ovary-fruit transitions. SlDELLA was also found to restrain growth in other reproductive structures, affecting style elongation, stylar hair primordial growth and stigma development. PMID:17883372

  4. Cloning and characterization of DELLA genes in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Shen, Q; Cui, J; Fu, X Q; Yan, T X; Tang, K X

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GA) are some of the most important phytohormones involved in plant development. DELLA proteins are negative regulators of GA signaling in many plants. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of three DELLA genes were cloned from Artemisia annua. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AaDELLA1 and AaDELLA2 were located in the same cluster, but AaDELLA3 was not. Subcellular localization analysis suggested that AaDELLAs can be targeted to the nucleus and/or cytoplasm. Real-time PCR indicated that all three AaDELLA genes exhibited the highest expression in seeds. Expression of all AaDELLA genes was enhanced by exogenous MeJA treatment but inhibited by GA3 treatment. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that AaDELLAs could interact with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor AaMYC2, suggesting that GA and JA signaling may be involved in cross-talk via DELLA and MYC2 interaction in A. annua. PMID:26345940

  5. DELLA proteins regulate arbuscule formation in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Daniela S.; Levy, Julien G.; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Pumplin, Nathan; Harrison, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    Most flowering plants are able to form endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this mutualistic association, the fungus colonizes the root cortex and establishes elaborately branched hyphae, called arbuscules, within the cortical cells. Arbuscule development requires the cellular reorganization of both symbionts, and the resulting symbiotic interface functions in nutrient exchange. A plant symbiosis signaling pathway controls the development of the symbiosis. Several components of the pathway have been identified, but transcriptional regulators that control downstream pathways for arbuscule formation are still unknown. Here we show that DELLA proteins, which are repressors of gibberellic acid (GA) signaling and function at the nexus of several signaling pathways, are required for arbuscule formation. Arbuscule formation is severely impaired in a Medicago truncatula Mtdella1/Mtdella2 double mutant; GA treatment of wild-type roots phenocopies the della double mutant, and a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) enables arbuscule formation in the presence of GA. Ectopic expression of della1-Δ18 suggests that DELLA activity in the vascular tissue and endodermis is sufficient to enable arbuscule formation in the inner cortical cells. In addition, expression of della1-Δ18 restores arbuscule formation in the symbiosis signaling pathway mutant cyclops/ipd3, indicating an intersection between DELLA and symbiosis signaling for arbuscule formation. GA signaling also influences arbuscule formation in monocots, and a Green Revolution wheat variety carrying dominant DELLA alleles shows enhanced colonization but a limited growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. PMID:24297892

  6. Removal of DELLA repression promotes leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingxun; Maodzeka, Antony; Zhou, Longhua; Ali, Essa; Wang, Zhong; Jiang, Lixi

    2014-04-01

    Leaf senescence is an integrated response of leaf cells to developmental age and various internal and environmental signals. However, the role of gibberellins (GA) in leaf senescence is not clear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of DELLA on leaf senescence. Compared with the wild type (WT), leaf senescence occurred earlier in the mutant ga1-3 gai-t6 rga-t2 rgl1-1 rgl2-1 (abbreviated as Q-DELLA/ga1-3) whose DELLA repression was removed, whereas leaf senescence was retarded in the mutant ga1-3 whose GA biosynthesis was blocked and whose DELLA proteins accumulated abnormally. During leaf senescence, SAG12 and SAG29 were upregulated in Q-DELLA/ga1-3 and downregulated in ga1-3 plants. The Q-DELLA/ga1-3 senescent leaves contained more sugar but less chlorophyll and fatty acids (FAs) than those of ga1-3 and WT. Both absolute and relative contents of C18:3 in Q-DELLA/ga1-3 senescent leaves were lower compared with those of the WT and ga1-3 leaves. The genes regulating FA β-oxidation in Q-DELLA/ga1-3, such as KAT2, LACS6, LACS7, ACX1, ACX2 and MAP2, were significantly upregulated. The removal of DELLA repression highly upregulated certain genes on various hormone pathways, suggesting that GA signaling acts upstream of the jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene pathways in regulating leaf senescence. PMID:24576761

  7. Fruit Growth in Arabidopsis Occurs via DELLA-Dependent and DELLA-Independent Gibberellin Responses[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Sara; Ljung, Karin; Sorefan, Karim; Alvey, Elizabeth; Harberd, Nicholas P.; Østergaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Fruit growth and development depend on highly coordinated hormonal activities. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes growth by inducing degradation of the growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the extent to which DELLA proteins contribute to GA-mediated gynoecium and fruit development remains to be clarified. Here, we provide an in-depth characterization of the role of DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana fruit growth. We show that DELLA proteins are key regulators of reproductive organ size and important for ensuring optimal fertilization. We demonstrate that the seedless fruit growth (parthenocarpy) observed in della mutants can be directly attributed to the constitutive activation of GA signaling. It has been known for >75 years that another hormone, auxin, can induce formation of seedless fruits. Using mutants with complete lack of DELLA activity, we show here that auxin-induced parthenocarpy occurs entirely through GA signaling in Arabidopsis. Finally, we uncover the existence of a DELLA-independent GA response that promotes fruit growth. This response requires GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1–mediated GA perception and a functional 26S proteasome and involves the basic helix-loop-helix protein SPATULA as a key component. Taken together, our results describe additional complexities in GA signaling during fruit development, which may be particularly important to optimize the conditions for successful reproduction. PMID:23064323

  8. Lifting DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination by nonproteolytic gibberellin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination can be lifted through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and proteolysis-independent GA signaling. GA-binding to the GID1 (GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1) GA receptors stimulates GID1-GA-DELLA complex formation which in turn triggers DELLA protein ubiq...

  9. An E. coli expression system optimized for DELLA proteins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolin; Frearson, Nicky; Kirk, Christopher; Jones, William T; Harvey, Dawn; Rakonjac, Jasna; Foster, Toshi; Al-Samarrai, Taha

    2008-03-01

    The DELLA proteins are involved in regulation of plant growth in response to phytohormonal signals such as GA, ethylene, and auxin. They have become one of most challenging and active area of research due to their fundamental roles in plant biology. Here, we describe the first successful expression of the N-terminal domains of DELLA proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Malus domestica in Escherichia coli system which will be used to produce monoclonal antibodies for profiling protein micro-arrays. Optimizations of the cloning, expression, and purification using specific tags have been discussed. PMID:17949995

  10. L'uso della metafora nell'educazione linguistica (Use of the Metaphor in Language Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mininni, Giuseppe

    1986-01-01

    Urges educators to utilize metaphors in language instruction. Two experiments support this position. The results of the first experiment reveal that students learn lexical items more efficiently if presented in metaphors. The results of the second experiment indicate the usefulness of metaphors in developing students' critical thinking. (CFM)

  11. The "Accademia della Crusca" in Italy: Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    An informal organisation that is becoming quite influential in the spread of Italian in Italy, as well as abroad, is the "Accademia della Crusca" which began its activities during the Renaissance, under quite different auspices. Founded in Florence in 1582-1583, this Academy was inspired by the theories of Pietro Bembo (1470-1547), a Venetian who…

  12. A Pivotal Role of DELLAs in Regulating Multiple Hormone Signals.

    PubMed

    Davière, Jean-Michel; Achard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Plant phenotypic plasticity is controlled by diverse hormone pathways, which integrate and convey information from multiple developmental and environmental signals. Moreover, in plants many processes such as growth, development, and defense are regulated in similar ways by multiple hormones. Among them, gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones with pleiotropic actions, regulating various growth processes throughout the plant life cycle. Previous work has revealed extensive interplay between GAs and other hormones, but the molecular mechanism became apparent only recently. Molecular and physiological studies have demonstrated that DELLA proteins, considered as master negative regulators of GA signaling, integrate multiple hormone signaling pathways through physical interactions with transcription factors or regulatory proteins from different families. In this review, we summarize the latest progress in GA signaling and its direct crosstalk with the main phytohormone signaling, emphasizing the multifaceted role of DELLA proteins with key components of major hormone signaling pathways. PMID:26415696

  13. DELLA activity is required for successful pollen development in the Columbia ecotype of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Plackett, Andrew R G; Ferguson, Alison C; Powers, Stephen J; Wanchoo-Kohli, Aakriti; Phillips, Andrew L; Wilson, Zoe A; Hedden, Peter; Thomas, Stephen G

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gibberellin (GA) signalling, mediated through the DELLA proteins, has a negative impact on plant fertility. Loss of DELLA activity in the monocot rice (Oryza sativa) causes complete male sterility, but not in the dicot model Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler), in which DELLA function has been studied most extensively, leading to the assumption that DELLA activity is not essential for Arabidopsis pollen development. A novel DELLA fertility phenotype was identified in the Columbia (Col-0) ecotype that necessitates re-evaluation of the general conclusions drawn from Ler. Fertility phenotypes were compared between the Col-0 and Ler ecotypes under conditions of chemical and genetic GA overdose, including mutants in both ecotypes lacking the DELLA paralogues REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) and GA INSENSITIVE (GAI). Ler displays a less severe fertility phenotype than Col-0 under GA treatment. Col-0 rga gai mutants, in contrast with the equivalent Ler phenotype, were entirely male sterile, caused by post-meiotic defects in pollen development, which were rescued by the reintroduction of DELLA into either the tapetum or developing pollen. We conclude that DELLA activity is essential for Arabidopsis pollen development. Differences between the fertility responses of Col-0 and Ler might be caused by differences in downstream signalling pathways or altered DELLA expression. PMID:24400898

  14. Proteolysis-independent down-regulation of DELLA repression by the gibberellin receptor GID1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents evidence for proteolysis-independent regulation of DELLA repression of gibberellin (GA) signaling in Arabidopsis. DELLA proteins are negative regulators of GA responses including seed germination, stem elongation, and fertility. GA can stimulate GA responses by causing proteolys...

  15. Melatonin mediates the stabilization of DELLA proteins to repress the floral transition in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haitao; Wei, Yunxie; Wang, Qiannan; Reiter, Russel J; He, Chaozu

    2016-04-01

    Precise floral transition from vegetative growth phase to reproductive growth phase is very important in plant life cycle. In flowering genetic pathways, DELLA proteins are master transcriptional regulators of gibberelic acid (GA) pathway, and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a core repressor of vernalization pathway as well as downstream of DELLAs. As a crucial messenger in plants, the possible involvement of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) in flowering and underlying molecular mechanism are unknown in Arabidopsis. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin treatment delayed floral transition in Arabidopsis. Exogenous melatonin treatment conferred protein stabilizations of DELLAs [REPRESSOR of ga1-3 (RGA) and RGA-LIKE3 (RGL3)], without regulating the transcripts of DELLAs and endogenous GA level. Notably, exogenous melatonin delayed plant flowering and DELLA-activated transcripts of FLC were alleviated in della mutants, and those were exacerbated in DELLA overexpressing plants. Taken together, this study provides direct link between melatonin and floral transition, and indicates the novel involvement of DELLAs-activated FLC in melatonin-mediated flowering in Arabidopsis. PMID:26887824

  16. Maize DELLA proteins dwarf plant8 and dwarf plant9 as modulators of plant development.

    PubMed

    Lawit, Shai J; Wych, Heidi M; Xu, Deping; Kundu, Suman; Tomes, Dwight T

    2010-11-01

    DELLA proteins are nuclear-localized negative regulators of gibberellin signaling found ubiquitously throughout higher plants. Dominant dwarfing mutations of DELLA proteins have been primarily responsible for the dramatic increases in harvest index of the 'green revolution'. Maize contains two genetic loci encoding DELLA proteins, dwarf plant8 (d8) and dwarf plant 9 (d9). The d8 gene and three of its dominant dwarfing alleles have been previously characterized at the molecular level. Almost 20 years after the initial description of the mutant, this investigation represents the first molecular characterization of d9 and its gibberellin-insensitive mutant, D9-1. We have molecularly, subcellularly and phenotypically characterized the gene products of five maize DELLA alleles in transgenic Arabidopsis. In dissecting the molecular differences in D9-1, a critical residue for normal DELLA function has been uncovered, corresponding to E600 of the D9 protein. The gibberellin-insensitive D9-1 was found to produce dwarfing and, notably, earlier flowering in Arabidopsis. Conversely, overexpression of the D9-1 allele delayed flowering in transgenic maize, while overexpression of the d9 allele led to earlier flowering. These results corroborate findings that DELLA proteins are at the crux of many plant developmental pathways and suggest differing mechanisms of flowering time control by DELLAs in maize and Arabidopsis. PMID:20937610

  17. Genome Wide Binding Site Analysis Reveals Transcriptional Coactivation of Cytokinin-Responsive Genes by DELLA Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Marín-de la Rosa, Nora; Pfeiffer, Anne; Hill, Kristine; Locascio, Antonella; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Miskolczi, Pal; Grønlund, Anne L.; Wanchoo-Kohli, Aakriti; Thomas, Stephen G.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Lohmann, Jan U.; Blázquez, Miguel A.; Alabadí, David

    2015-01-01

    The ability of plants to provide a plastic response to environmental cues relies on the connectivity between signaling pathways. DELLA proteins act as hubs that relay environmental information to the multiple transcriptional circuits that control growth and development through physical interaction with transcription factors from different families. We have analyzed the presence of one DELLA protein at the Arabidopsis genome by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to large-scale sequencing and we find that it binds at the promoters of multiple genes. Enrichment analysis shows a strong preference for cis elements recognized by specific transcription factor families. In particular, we demonstrate that DELLA proteins are recruited by type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORS (ARR) to the promoters of cytokinin-regulated genes, where they act as transcriptional co-activators. The biological relevance of this mechanism is underpinned by the necessity of simultaneous presence of DELLAs and ARRs to restrict root meristem growth and to promote photomorphogenesis. PMID:26134422

  18. 78 FR 71022 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: Piero della Francesca...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Piero della Francesca: Personal...: Personal Encounters,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are...

  19. Genome Wide Binding Site Analysis Reveals Transcriptional Coactivation of Cytokinin-Responsive Genes by DELLA Proteins.

    PubMed

    Marín-de la Rosa, Nora; Pfeiffer, Anne; Hill, Kristine; Locascio, Antonella; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P; Miskolczi, Pal; Grønlund, Anne L; Wanchoo-Kohli, Aakriti; Thomas, Stephen G; Bennett, Malcolm J; Lohmann, Jan U; Blázquez, Miguel A; Alabadí, David

    2015-07-01

    The ability of plants to provide a plastic response to environmental cues relies on the connectivity between signaling pathways. DELLA proteins act as hubs that relay environmental information to the multiple transcriptional circuits that control growth and development through physical interaction with transcription factors from different families. We have analyzed the presence of one DELLA protein at the Arabidopsis genome by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to large-scale sequencing and we find that it binds at the promoters of multiple genes. Enrichment analysis shows a strong preference for cis elements recognized by specific transcription factor families. In particular, we demonstrate that DELLA proteins are recruited by type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORS (ARR) to the promoters of cytokinin-regulated genes, where they act as transcriptional co-activators. The biological relevance of this mechanism is underpinned by the necessity of simultaneous presence of DELLAs and ARRs to restrict root meristem growth and to promote photomorphogenesis. PMID:26134422

  20. DELLA proteins physically interact with CONSTANS to regulate flowering under long days in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Li, Ting; Xu, Peng-Bo; Li, Ling; Du, Sha-Sha; Lian, Hong-Li; Yang, Hong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    Proper timing of flowering is essential for reproduction of plants. Although it is well known that both light and gibberellin (GA) signaling play critical roles in promoting flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana, whether and how they are integrated to regulate flowering remain largely unknown. Here, we show through biochemical studies that DELLA proteins physically interact with CONSTANS (CO). Furthermore, the interaction of CO with NF-YB2 is inhibited by the DELLA protein, RGA. Our findings suggest that regulation of flowering by GA signaling in leaves under long days is mediated, at least in part, through repression of DELLA proteins on CO, providing a molecular link between DELLA proteins, key components in GA signaling pathway, and CO, a critical flowering activator in photoperiod signaling pathway. PMID:26801684

  1. The Conservation Intervention on the Porta della Mandorla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siano, S.; Giusti, A.; Pinna, D.; Porcinai, S.; Giamello, M.; Sabatini, G.; Salimbeni, R.

    We investigated the conservation problems of the Porta della Mandorla, a masterpiece of the early Florentine Renaissance. The aim of the work was the statement of practicable cleaning protocols based on laser ablation. To this goal, a thorough petrographic characterisation of the state of conservation was performed, which addressed a set of laser cleaning tests by Q-switching and short free running Nd:YAG lasers. The main optimisation problem was the yellow-orange appearance associated with laser ablation by Q-switching lasers. Following the explanation of such a cleaning result, two practicable solutions based on suitable pulse duration or wavelength selections were successfully demonstrated then different intervention protocols were proposed.

  2. ["Notte della Taranta": new competences of the Disaster Manager Nurse].

    PubMed

    Zinnari, Elena M; Germinal, Francesco; Natalia, Barbara; Brienza, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The disaster manager nurse is a new professional figure working in the field of rescue in environments struck by natural disasters, of land management, of contingency plans for the healthcare, of the setting up of Advanced Medical Posts and the management of events in which are foreseen a great influx of people. Analyzing the Advanced Medical Post set up during the "Notte della Taranta", a folk music festival that sees every years a large attendance, over 100.000 people we have predicted required human and logistic resources to health coverage of this event and to value criticality assessment of the scenario. A organized and precautionary response is basic to reduce consequences duty by the imbalance between required and available resources. PMID:25837477

  3. DELLA proteins modulate Arabidopsis defences induced in response to caterpillar herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Bede, Jacqueline C.

    2014-01-01

    Upon insect herbivory, many plant species change the direction of metabolic flux from growth into defence. Two key pathways modulating these processes are the gibberellin (GA)/DELLA pathway and the jasmonate pathway. In this study, the effect of caterpillar herbivory on plant-induced responses was compared between wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and quad-della mutants that have constitutively elevated GA responses. The labial saliva (LS) of caterpillars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is known to influence induced plant defence responses. To determine the role of this herbivore cue in determining metabolic shifts, plants were subject to herbivory by caterpillars with intact or impaired LS secretions. In both wild-type and quad-della plants, a jasmonate burst is an early response to caterpillar herbivory. Negative growth regulator DELLA proteins are required for the LS-mediated suppression of hormone levels. Jasmonate-dependent marker genes are induced in response to herbivory independently of LS, with the exception of AtPDF1.2 that showed LS-dependent expression in the quad-della mutant. Early expression of the salicylic acid (SA)-marker gene, AtPR1, was not affected by herbivory which also reflected SA hormone levels; however, this gene showed LS-dependent expression in the quad-della mutant. DELLA proteins may positively regulate glucosinolate levels and suppress laccase-like multicopper oxidase activity in response to herbivory. The present results show a link between DELLA proteins and early, induced plant defences in response to insect herbivory; in particular, these proteins are necessary for caterpillar LS-associated attenuation of defence hormones. PMID:24399173

  4. Arabidopsis DELLA Protein Degradation Is Controlled by a Type-One Protein Phosphatase, TOPP4

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Qianqian; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiaola; Yue, Jing; Huang, Yan; Xu, Xiufei; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

    2014-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of important phytohormones regulating a variety of physiological processes during normal plant growth and development. One of the major events during GA-mediated growth is the degradation of DELLA proteins, key negative regulators of GA signaling pathway. The stability of DELLA proteins is thought to be controlled by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Up to date, no phosphatase involved in this process has been identified. We have identified a dwarfed dominant-negative Arabidopsis mutant, named topp4-1. Reduced expression of TOPP4 using an artificial microRNA strategy also resulted in a dwarfed phenotype. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that TOPP4 regulates GA signal transduction mainly via promoting DELLA protein degradation. The severely dwarfed topp4-1 phenotypes were partially rescued by the DELLA deficient mutants rga-t2 and gai-t6, suggesting that the DELLA proteins RGA and GAI are required for the biological function of TOPP4. Both RGA and GAI were greatly accumulated in topp4-1 but significantly decreased in 35S-TOPP4 transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. Further analyses demonstrated that TOPP4 is able to directly bind and dephosphorylate RGA and GAI, confirming that the TOPP4-controlled phosphorylation status of DELLAs is associated with their stability. These studies provide direct evidence for a crucial role of protein dephosphorylation mediated by TOPP4 in the GA signaling pathway. PMID:25010794

  5. Arabidopsis DET1 represses photomorphogenesis in part by negatively regulating DELLA protein abundance in darkness.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunlun; Gao, Zhaoxu; He, Hang; Terzaghi, William; Fan, Liu-Min; Deng, Xing Wang; Chen, Haodong

    2015-04-01

    Arabidopsis De-etiolated 1 (DET1) is one of the key repressors that maintain the etiolated state of seedlings in darkness. The plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA) also participates in this process, and plants deficient in GA synthesis or signaling show a partially de-etiolated phenotype in darkness. However, how DET1 and the GA pathway work in concert in repressing photomorphogenesis remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the abundance of DELLA proteins in det1-1 was increased in comparison with that in the wild-type plants. Mutation in DET1 changed the sensitivity of hypocotyl elongation of mutant seedlings to GA and paclobutrazol (PAC), an inhibitor of GA synthesis. However, we did not find obvious differences between det1-1 and wild-type plants with regard to the bioactive GA content or the GA signaling upstream of DELLAs. Genetic data showed that removal of several DELLA proteins suppressed the det1-1 mutant phenotype more obviously than GA treatment, indicating that DET1 can regulate DELLA proteins via some other mechanisms. In addition, a large-scale transcriptomic analysis revealed that DET1 and DELLAs play antagonistic roles in regulating expression of photosynthetic and cell elongation-related genes in etiolated seedlings. Taken together, our results show that DET1 represses photomorphogenesis in darkness in part by reducing the abundance of DELLA proteins. PMID:25704163

  6. Biochemical Insights on Degradation of Arabidopsis DELLA Proteins Gained From a Cell-Free Assay System[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Zhu, Danmeng; Huang, Xi; Li, Shuang; Gong, Yinan; Yao, Qinfang; Fu, Xiangdong; Fan, Liu-Min; Deng, Xing Wang

    2009-01-01

    The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development. GA responses are triggered by the degradation of DELLA proteins, which function as repressors in GA signaling pathways. Recent studies in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa) have implied that the degradation of DELLA proteins occurred via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here, we developed an Arabidopsis cell-free system to recapitulate DELLA protein degradation in vitro. Using this cell-free system, we documented that Lys-29 of ubiquitin is the major site for ubiquitin chain formation to mediate DELLA protein degradation. We also confirmed the specific roles of GA receptors and multisubunit E3 ligase components in regulating DELLA protein degradation. In addition, blocking DELLA degradation with a PP1/PP2A phosphatase inhibitor in our cell-free assay suggested that degradation of DELLA proteins required protein Ser/Thr dephosphorylation activity. Furthermore, our data revealed that the LZ domain of Arabidopsis DELLA proteins is essential for both their stability and activity. Thus, our in vitro degradation system provides biochemical insights into the regulation of DELLA protein degradation. This in vitro assay system could be widely adapted for dissecting cellular signaling pathways in which regulated proteolysis is a key recurrent theme. PMID:19717618

  7. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    PubMed

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino. PMID:20513623

  8. The effects of DELLAs on growth change with developmental stage and brassinosteroid levels.

    PubMed

    Stewart Lilley, Jodi L; Gan, Yinbo; Graham, Ian A; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2013-10-01

    There are two stages in photomorphogenesis. First, seedlings detect light and open their cotyledons. Second, seedlings optimize their light environment by controlled elongation of the seedling stem or hypocotyl. In this study, we used time-lapse imaging to investigate the relationship between the brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) hormones across both stages of photomorphogenesis. During the transition between one stage and the other, growth promotion by BRs and GAs switched from an additive to a synergistic relationship. Molecular genetic analysis revealed unexpected roles for known participants in the GA pathway during this period. Members of the DELLA family could either repress or enhance BR growth responses, depending on developmental stage. At the transition point for seedling growth dynamics, the BR and GA pathways had opposite effects on DELLA protein levels. In contrast to GA-induced DELLA degradation, BR treatments increased the levels of REPRESSOR of ga1-3 (RGA) and mimicked the molecular effects of stabilizing DELLAs. In addition, DELLAs showed complex regulation of genes involved in BR biosynthesis, implicating them in BR homeostasis. Growth promotion by GA alone depended on the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family of master growth regulators. The effects of BR, including the synergistic effects with GA, were largely independent of PIFs. These results point to a multi-level, dynamic relationship between the BR and GA pathways. PMID:23834248

  9. DELLA proteins regulate expression of a subset of AM symbiosis-induced genes in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Floss, Daniela S; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Park, Hee-Jin; Harrison, Maria J

    2016-04-01

    The majority of the vascular flowering plants form symbiotic associations with fungi from the phylum Glomeromycota through which both partners gain access to nutrients, either mineral nutrients in the case of the plant, or carbon, in the case of the fungus. (1) The association develops in the roots and requires substantial remodeling of the root cortical cells where branched fungal hyphae, called arbuscules, are housed in a new membrane-bound apoplastic compartment. (2) Nutrient exchange between the symbionts occurs over this interface and its development and maintenance is critical for symbiosis. Previously, we showed that DELLA proteins, which are well known as repressors of gibberellic acid signaling, also regulate development of AM symbiosis and are necessary to enable arbuscule development. (3) Furthermore, constitutive overexpression of a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) is sufficient to induce transcripts of several AM symbiosis-induced genes, even in the absence of the fungal symbiont. (4) Here we further extend this approach and identify AM symbiosis genes that respond transcriptionally to constitutive expression of a dominant DELLA protein and also genes that do respond to this treatment. Additionally, we demonstrate that DELLAs interact with REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULE DEVELOPMENT 1 (RAD1) which further extends our knowledge of GRAS factor complexes that have the potential to regulate gene expression during AM symbiosis. PMID:26984507

  10. Relieving DELLA Repression of Stem Elongation and Flowering, Evidence for a Proteolysis Independent Mechanism for GA signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GA stimulates germination, stem elongation, and flowering by lifting DELLA protein repression of these responses via both proteolysis dependent and independent pathways. There are five members of the DELLA protein family in Arabidopsis with partially overlapping functions. GA biosynthesis lifts DELL...

  11. The Pea DELLA proteins LA and CRY are important regulators of gibberellin synthesis and root growth.

    PubMed

    Weston, Diana E; Elliott, Robert C; Lester, Diane R; Rameau, Catherine; Reid, James B; Murfet, Ian C; Ross, John J

    2008-05-01

    The theory that bioactive gibberellins (GAs) act as inhibitors of inhibitors of plant growth was based originally on the slender pea (Pisum sativum) mutant (genotype la cry-s), but the molecular nature of this mutant has remained obscure. Here we show that the genes LA and CRY encode DELLA proteins, previously characterized in other species (Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana] and several grasses) as repressors of growth, which are destabilized by GAs. Mutations la and cry-s encode nonfunctional proteins, accounting for the fact that la cry-s plants are extremely elongated, or slender. We use the la and cry-s mutations to show that in roots, DELLA proteins effectively promote the expression of GA synthesis genes, as well as inhibit elongation. We show also that one of the DELLA-regulated genes is a second member of the pea GA 3-oxidase family, and that this gene appears to play a major role in pea roots. PMID:18375599

  12. Electronic restoration of great works of art: color analysis and reconstruction of Piero della Francesca's frescoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Lillian F.

    1994-05-01

    A computer was used to examine the surface colors and compositions of Piero della Francesca's frescoes The Resurrection of Christ, St. Julien, and a section from the panel La morte di Adamo from the Leggenda della Vera Croce to electronically analyze Piero's palettes, repair cracks in his works, replace damaged areas, and identify sections in which earlier restorers changed the original work. Electronic restoration now serves as a road map to art restorers, as well as provides the public with a closer representation of works as the artist originally intended. The analysis also reveals surprising new insights into Piero della Francesca's The Resurrection of Christ, including the thorn-based structure of a symbolic tree, and resolves a historical controversy.

  13. Piero della Francesca's Sky in The Dream of Constantine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, V.

    2011-06-01

    The recent restoration of the frescoes by Piero della Francesca in the Church of San Francesco in Arezzo has made to appear on the background of the scene of Constantine's dream a number of stars. They are clearly painted with the intention to illustrate a sort of "natural" sky. In 2001 Anna Maria Maetzke recognized in a group of stars the constellation of the Ursa Minor, but so far no further study has been carried on to find any relation between the painted and the true sky. In this paper I show the existence of more constellations in the fresco, which are hardly detectable due to the mirror representation of the starry sky. Such a mirror image, as the Universe was seen from the outside, has a Greek origin and this kind of representation was introduced in Western Europe not only in celestial globes but also in star maps. This discovery leads to consider that Piero had at his disposal either a globe or a map which he reproduced on the fresco. My hypothesis is that a star map might be supplied to Piero by the astronomer Regiomontanus who was in Italy since 1461 following the Cardinal Bessarion in his journey from Wien to Rome. In 1463, Cardinal Bessarion was named papal legate to Venice and in July of the same year he leaved Rome together with Regiomontanus to reach Ferrara and Venice. The road to Venice crossed Umbria nearby Sansepolcro, Piero's birthplace not far from Arezzo. The trip took more than two weeks due to a stop before crossing the Apennines because the plague in Ferrara. Bessarion and Regiomontanus might have met Piero who was painting the cycle of frescoes in Arezzo and supplied him with a star map. Unfortunately, due to the lack of the horizon and any right line in the scene it is not possible to detect the latitude of the place corresponding to the painted sky.

  14. DELLAs function as coactivators of GAI-ASSOCIATED FACTOR1 in regulation of gibberellin homeostasis and signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Jutarou; Teramura, Hiroshi; Murakoshi, Satoru; Nasuno, Kei; Nishida, Naotaka; Ito, Takeshi; Yoshida, Michiteru; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Takahashi, Yohsuke

    2014-07-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are essential regulators of plant development, and DELLAs are negative regulators of GA signaling. The mechanism of GA-dependent transcription has been explained by DELLA-mediated titration of transcriptional activators and their release through the degradation of DELLAs in response to GA. However, the effect of GA on genome-wide expression is predominantly repression, suggesting the existence of unknown mechanisms of GA function. In this study, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana DELLA binding transcription factor, GAI-ASSOCIATED FACTOR1 (GAF1). GAF1 shows high homology to INDETERMINATE DOMAIN1 (IDD1)/ENHYDROUS. GA responsiveness was decreased in the double mutant gaf1 idd1, whereas it was enhanced in a GAF1 overexpressor. GAF1 binds to genes that are subject to GA feedback regulation. Furthermore, we found that GAF1 interacts with the corepressor TOPLESS RELATED (TPR) and that DELLAs and TPR act as coactivators and a corepressor of GAF1, respectively. GA converts the GAF1 complex from transcriptional activator to repressor via the degradation of DELLAs. These results indicate that DELLAs turn on or off two sets of GA-regulated genes via dual functions, namely titration and coactivation, providing a mechanism for the integrative regulation of plant growth and GA homeostasis. PMID:25035403

  15. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Olszewski, Neil E; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2016-01-15

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein-protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors-PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)-that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. PMID:26773002

  16. The DELLA Protein SLR1 Integrates and Amplifies Salicylic Acid- and Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Innate Immunity in Rice.

    PubMed

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Seifi, Hamed Soren; Filipe, Osvaldo; Haeck, Ashley; Huu, Son Nguyen; Demeestere, Kristof; Höfte, Monica

    2016-03-01

    Gibberellins are a class of tetracyclic plant hormones that are well known to promote plant growth by inducing the degradation of a class of nuclear growth-repressing proteins, called DELLAs. In recent years, GA and DELLAs are also increasingly implicated in plant responses to pathogen attack, although our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited, especially in monocotyledonous crop plants. Aiming to further decipher the molecular underpinnings of GA- and DELLA-modulated plant immunity, we studied the dynamics and impact of GA and DELLA during infection of the model crop rice (Oryza sativa) with four different pathogens exhibiting distinct lifestyles and infection strategies. Opposite to previous findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), our findings reveal a prominent role of the DELLA protein Slender Rice1 (SLR1) in the resistance toward (hemi)biotrophic but not necrotrophic rice pathogens. Moreover, contrary to the differential effect of DELLA on the archetypal defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in Arabidopsis, we demonstrate that the resistance-promoting effect of SLR1 is due at least in part to its ability to boost both SA- and JA-mediated rice defenses. In a reciprocal manner, we found JA and SA treatment to interfere with GA metabolism and stabilize SLR1. Together, these findings favor a model whereby SLR1 acts as a positive regulator of hemibiotroph resistance in rice by integrating and amplifying SA- and JA-dependent defense signaling. Our results highlight the differences in hormone defense networking between rice and Arabidopsis and underscore the importance of GA and DELLA in molding disease outcomes. PMID:26829979

  17. Nitric Oxide Regulates DELLA Content and PIF Expression to Promote Photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Juste, Jorge; León, José

    2011-01-01

    The transition from etiolated to green seedlings involves a shift from hypocotyl growth-promoting conditions to growth restraint. These changes occur through a complex light-driven process involving multiple and tightly coordinated hormonal signaling pathways. Nitric oxide (NO) has been lately characterized as a regulator of plant development interacting with hormone signaling. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) NO-deficient mutant hypocotyls are longer than those from wild-type seedlings under red light but not under blue or far-red light. Accordingly, exogenous treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside and mutant plants with increased endogenous NO levels resulted in reduced hypocotyl length. In addition to increased hypocotyl elongation, NO deficiency led to increased anthocyanin levels and reduced PHYB content under red light, all processes governed by phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs). NO-deficient plants accordingly showed an enhanced expression of PIF3, PIF1, and PIF4. Moreover, exogenous NO increased the levels of the gibberellin (GA)-regulated DELLA proteins and shortened hypocotyls, likely through the negative regulation of the GA Insensitive Dwarf1 (GID1)-Sleepy1 (SLY1) module. Consequently, NO-deficient seedlings displayed up-regulation of SLY1, defective DELLA accumulation, and altered GA sensitivity, thus resulting in defective deetiolation under red light. Accumulation of NO in wild-type seedlings undergoing red light-triggered deetiolation and elevated levels of NO in the GA-deficient ga1-3 mutant in darkness suggest a mutual NO-GA antagonism in controlling photomorphogenesis. PHYB-dependent NO production promotes photomorphogenesis by a GID1-GA-SLY1-mediated mechanism based on the coordinated repression of growth-promoting PIF genes and the increase in the content of DELLA proteins. PMID:21562334

  18. The altarpieces of Della Robbia atelier in Marche region: investigations on technology and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Barcaioni, S.; Bouquillon, A.; Padeletti, G.; Pallante, P.

    2013-12-01

    Dissemination of Della Robbia glazed terracotta in the Marche (Italy) region started from the third decade of the 16th century. Numerous altarpieces, some of which no longer exist, document this artistic production. The protagonists of this diffusion phase were two of Andrea Della Robbia's sons, Marco (Fra Mattia) and Francesco (Fra Ambrogio). This paper shows the results of the scientific investigations carried out on constitutive materials of different altarpieces located in South Marche belonging to the Fra Mattia's production: the Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, dated back to 1527-1530, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano; the Annunciation, dated back to 1520, placed in the church of S. Maria del Soccorso in Arcevia; the fragmentary Crowned Madonna and saints altarpiece, probably realized after 1531, today preserved in Civic Museum of Ripatransone. The first altarpiece was made in Montecassiano using two different assembling or production techniques: the external part of the lunette and the pillar strips are made of glazed polychrome terracotta, while the altar step and the internal part are an interesting and uncommon example of polychrome painted terracotta. The provenance of the glazed Arcevia altarpiece is not clear yet: some historians hypothesize a local manufacture of Fra Mattia and some others a Roman or Florentine production. The remaining parts of Ripatransone altarpiece are partially glazed and partially not coated perhaps because they were unfinished and not yet painted. Clay body samples collected from the above mentioned altarpieces were investigated using different analytical techniques (OM, XRD, XRF, PIXE) to point out differences in chemical and mineralogical composition and to determine if the altarpieces were made by using local raw clay materials or other clays from Tuscany or Campania as in the Della Robbia previous production. A comparison has also been made with literature data on the Della Robbia terracotta masterpieces. From the chemical point of view, the clay bodies show a good compositional homogeneity and result calcium and iron-rich according with the raw local materials. The presence of gehlenite, pyroxenes, and hematite and the incomplete decomposition of clay minerals indicate that firing for all different terracotta parts occurred in a thermal range between 800 and 950 °C, mostly in oxidizing conditions.

  19. TMV-Cg Coat Protein stabilizes DELLA proteins and in turn negatively modulates salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant viral infections disturb defense regulatory networks during tissue invasion. Emerging evidence demonstrates that a significant proportion of these alterations are mediated by hormone imbalances. Although the DELLA proteins have been reported to be central players in hormone cross-talk, their role in the modulation of hormone signaling during virus infections remains unknown. Results This work revealed that TMV-Cg coat protein (CgCP) suppresses the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway without altering defense hormone SA or jasmonic acid (JA) levels in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, it was observed that the expression of CgCP reduces plant growth and delays the timing of floral transition. Quantitative RT-qPCR analysis of DELLA target genes showed that CgCP alters relative expression of several target genes, indicating that the DELLA proteins mediate transcriptional changes produced by CgCP expression. Analyses by fluorescence confocal microscopy showed that CgCP stabilizes DELLA proteins accumulation in the presence of gibberellic acid (GA) and that the DELLA proteins are also stabilized during TMV-Cg virus infections. Moreover, DELLA proteins negatively modulated defense transcript profiles during TMV-Cg infection. As a result, TMV-Cg accumulation was significantly reduced in the quadruple-DELLA mutant Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type plants. Conclusions Taken together, these results demonstrate that CgCP negatively regulates the salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway by stabilizing the DELLA proteins during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection, suggesting that CgCP alters the stability of DELLAs as a mechanism of negative modulation of antiviral defense responses. PMID:25084837

  20. Lungo le vie di pellegrinaggio: la lezione astronomica di Gerberto a San Michele della Chiusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladino, Laura C.

    A pilgrim on the trails of the Earth: that's how Gerbertus appears to us in the years preceding his pontificate as well in those, brief and intense, in which he was Pope. An ardent pilgrim of faith moved at the same time by vast intellectual interests that allowed him to come into contact with the most important schools of the time, of any cultural tradition; a pilgrim full of love, willing to transmit the enormous heritage of faith and knowledge of which he was custodian. The presence of the illustrious Benedictine is not explicitly documented in the Abbey of San Michele della Chiusa, but the signs of its cultural and ideological influence are evident both in historical memory as in the artistical vestiges of the Sacra: we investigate here, this presence, authoritative, original and versatile, to outline another aspect, still little investigated, of the lesson of Gerbert, monk, scientist, teacher and pastor.

  1. La meridiana di Egnazio Danti nella Torre dei Venti in Vaticano: un'icona della riforma Gregoriana del calendario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    La Torre dei Venti domina l’angolo Sud Ovest del cortile della Pigna (nell'area dei Musei Vaticani), ed è inclusa negli ambienti dell'Archivio Segreto Vaticano. Non è aperta al pubblico, ma è universalmente nota per la fama che da oltre quattrocento anni la circonda, legata alle vicende della riforma Gregoriana del calendario. La meridiana tracciata da padre Egnazio Danti (1536-1586) nella torre dei Venti, fu visitata anche da Gregorio XIII, probabilmente il 21 marzo 1581 come suppone il padre Stein, per convincersi dell'anticipo ormai arrivato a dieci giorni dell'equinozio di primavera sulla data che il concilio di Nicea aveva fissato al 21 marzo per il computo pasquale. La ricognizione astrometrica del febbraio-marzo 2009 fatta dall'autore viene qui presentata.

  2. A Gibberellin-Mediated DELLA-NAC Signaling Cascade Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Debao; Wang, Shaogan; Zhang, Baocai; Shang-Guan, Keke; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Xiangling; Wu, Kun; Xu, Zuopeng; Fu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Yihua

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose, which can be converted into numerous industrial products, has important impacts on the global economy. It has long been known that cellulose synthesis in plants is tightly regulated by various phytohormones. However, the underlying mechanism of cellulose synthesis regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that in rice (Oryza sativa), gibberellin (GA) signals promote cellulose synthesis by relieving the interaction between SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor of GA signaling, and NACs, the top-layer transcription factors for secondary wall formation. Mutations in GA-related genes and physiological treatments altered the transcription of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE genes (CESAs) and the cellulose level. Multiple experiments demonstrated that transcription factors NAC29/31 and MYB61 are CESA regulators in rice; NAC29/31 directly regulates MYB61, which in turn activates CESA expression. This hierarchical regulation pathway is blocked by SLR1-NAC29/31 interactions. Based on the results of anatomical analysis and GA content examination in developing rice internodes, this signaling cascade was found to be modulated by varied endogenous GA levels and to be required for internode development. Genetic and gene expression analyses were further performed in Arabidopsis thaliana GA-related mutants. Altogether, our findings reveal a conserved mechanism by which GA regulates secondary wall cellulose synthesis in land plants and provide a strategy for manipulating cellulose production and plant growth. PMID:26002868

  3. Chromosomenindividualität or Entmischung? The debate between Paolo Della Valle and Edmund B. Wilson.

    PubMed

    Volpone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Italian cytologist Paolo Della Valle developed a theory of instable chromosomes (teoria dei cromosomi labili). He radically criticized the so-called Sutton-Boveri hypothesis (Martins and Martins, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 22:261-271, 1999), focusing on numerical constancy in the species and individuality. On the basis of bibliographical review and personal observations, he maintained that the chromosomes were neither stable bodies, nor permanent structures, but transitory cellular materials, resulting from the periodical rearrangement of the chromatin during the cell division. German and English-speaking biologists reacted. The paper shows some content of the argumentations used by Thomas H. Montgomery and especially Edmund B. Wilson. The discussion was characterized by the same data which is interpretedby different scholars in different ways. And the point is that no one of them had the decisive test to demonstrate his own point of view. Wilson simply invoked on his behalf a certain 'common sense', defending at least a 'high degree of constancy'. The debate waned along with the reception of Morgan's chromosome theory of heredity, but only the advent of molecular biology definitively stated the nature of chromosomes as permanent structures of the cell. PMID:26013197

  4. A CCaMK-CYCLOPS-DELLA Complex Activates Transcription of RAM1 to Regulate Arbuscule Branching.

    PubMed

    Pimprikar, Priya; Carbonnel, Samy; Paries, Michael; Katzer, Katja; Klingl, Verena; Bohmer, Monica J; Karl, Leonhard; Floss, Daniela S; Harrison, Maria J; Parniske, Martin; Gutjahr, Caroline

    2016-04-25

    Intracellular arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis between plants and glomeromycotan fungi leads to formation of highly branched fungal arbuscules that release mineral nutrients to the plant host. Their development is regulated in plants by a mechanistically unresolved interplay between symbiosis, nutrient, and hormone (gibberellin) signaling. Using a positional cloning strategy and a retrotransposon insertion line, we identify two novel alleles of Lotus japonicus REDUCED ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA1 (RAM1) encoding a GRAS protein. We confirm that RAM1 is a central regulator of arbuscule development: arbuscule branching is arrested in L. japonicus ram1 mutants, and ectopic expression of RAM1 activates genes critical for arbuscule development in the absence of fungal symbionts. Epistasis analysis places RAM1 downstream of CCaMK, CYCLOPS, and DELLA because ectopic expression of RAM1 restores arbuscule formation in cyclops mutants and in the presence of suppressive gibberellin. The corresponding proteins form a complex that activates RAM1 expression via binding of CYCLOPS to a cis element in the RAM1 promoter. We thus reveal a transcriptional cascade in arbuscule development that employs the promoter of RAM1 as integrator of symbiotic (transmitted via CCaMK and CYCLOPS) and hormonal (gibberellin) signals. PMID:27020747

  5. Large-Scale Identification of Gibberellin-Related Transcription Factors Defines Group VII ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORS as Functional DELLA Partners1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    la Rosa, Nora Marín-de; Sotillo, Berta; Miskolczi, Pal; Gibbs, Daniel J.; Vicente, Jorge; Carbonero, Pilar; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis; Holdsworth, Michael J.; Bhalerao, Rishikesh; Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    DELLA proteins are the master negative regulators in gibberellin (GA) signaling acting in the nucleus as transcriptional regulators. The current view of DELLA action indicates that their activity relies on the physical interaction with transcription factors (TFs). Therefore, the identification of TFs through which DELLAs regulate GA responses is key to understanding these responses from a mechanistic point of view. Here, we have determined the TF interactome of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) DELLA protein GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE and screened a collection of conditional TF overexpressors in search of those that alter GA sensitivity. As a result, we have found RELATED TO APETALA2.3, an ethylene-induced TF belonging to the group VII ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR of the APETALA2/ethylene responsive element binding protein superfamily, as a DELLA interactor with physiological relevance in the context of apical hook development. The combination of transactivation assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation indicates that the interaction with GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE impairs the activity of RELATED TO APETALA2.3 on the target promoters. This mechanism represents a unique node in the cross regulation between the GA and ethylene signaling pathways controlling differential growth during apical hook development. PMID:25118255

  6. The Book of the Sick of Santa Maria della Morte in Bologna and the Medical Organization of a Hospital in the Sixteenth-Century.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 a manuscript was rediscovered in the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio of Bologna, titled Libro degli infermi dell'Arciconfraternita di S. Maria della Morte. It is the record of incoming patients of one for the main hospitals of the city, devoted exclusively to the sick poor and not just to the poor, called Santa Maria della Morte, compiled by a young student assistant (astante) for the period 1558-1564. I publish here a transcription of a portion of this Libro pertaining to the year 1560. My introduction situates the manuscript within the context of the history of early modern Italian hospitals, describes the organization of the hospital of Santa Maria della Morte based on archival sources of the period, and finally highlights the connections between surgical and anatomical education and the internal organization of the hospital. PMID:27071302

  7. The Megalithic Complex of the ``Preta 'ru Mulacchio'' on the Monte della Stella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Ienna, D.

    2009-08-01

    The Monte della Stella is a 1131~m high mountain, belonging to the range separating the Alento Valley from the Tyrrhenian Sea, south of the city of Agropoli in Italy. At 1030~m over the sea-level, a large, isolated outcrop of the bedrock is present. This rock is well known to local people and called the ``Preta 'ru Mulacchio'', expression meaning in the local dialect ``The Bastard Child Rock''. The ``Preta'' is basically composed by three rocks that were originated along of natural reasons from a single block of arenite in its upper part and of a rough conglomerate in the lower one: between the three rocks, two galleries (thereafter F and G) were thus formed. However, it is easy to see that the ``Preta'' was deeply modified by human intervention: large stones were wedged in exact position between the three original blocks or positioned as a cover. We found that F gallery has an astronomical azimuth of 359 deg and G gallery of 240 deg. Inside the measurement precision (1 deg), the galleries are thus respectively oriented to the meridian and to the sunset of the winter solstice. Furthermore, modern folklore associated to the rock seems to remind very ancient fertility rites. From a statistical analysis of the alignments and an archaeological study of the complex, we conclude that ``Preta 'ru Mulacchio'' is most probably a monument, dated to an epoch presently unknown but possibly preceding the Greek colonization of Cilento, built in order to determine with a high precision the winter solstice because of cerimonial reasons, probably connected with fertility rites.

  8. Survey of facades based on thermal scanning: Palazzo della Ragione, Milan, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bison, Paolo G.; Dezzi Bardeschi, Marco; Grinzato, Ermanno G.; Kauppinen, Timo T.; Rosina, Elisabetta; Tucci, Grazia

    1996-03-01

    This paper compares experimental results obtained on ancient buildings, following the usual qualitative inspection with a procedure based on time-domain analysis. The aim of the project was to study relationships between characteristics of defects and thermal behavior of the surface, using thermal scanning in various conditions. The other topic was to prove generally the usage of solar radiation as a heating source in thermal scanning. The 'Palazzo della Ragione' in Milan is more than 700 years old. We gave our attention to the upper part of the building. The conditions and damages of facades have been studied also using knocking tests. Defects we are looking for are delamination of plaster on the brick wall. The southward facade has been monitored 6 times during 1993 - 1995, using thermography. In addition, the actual weather conditions during scanning were measured. The results were qualitatively analyzed. A lot of knowledge is needed for the qualitative interpretation of thermograms, because different kinds of defects and structure variation may be confused. Because of limiting factors, any clear correlation between the temperature changes and the detected damages of coating cannot be found based on the first approach. A new series of tests has been made in October 1995. Experiments have been carried out also at a laboratory on a segment of wall, including known defects at various depth. A numerical simulation of the temperature pattern and its time evolution, during the heating and cooling of the wall, was also performed. The dynamic test has been planned, based on the experience of these preliminary studies. Experimental and simulated data have been compared for laboratory and in situ dynamic tests.

  9. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa Ann; Bahr, Juergen F.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) currently provides a Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS) as crew quarters for one crewmember in the Laboratory Module. The Russian Segment provides permanent crew quarters (Kayutas) for two crewmembers in the Service Module. The TeSS provides limited electrical, communication, and ventilation functionality. A new permanent rack sized USOS ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) is being developed. Up to four CQs can be installed into the Node 2 element to increase the ISS crewmember size to six. The new CQs will provide private crewmember space with enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation reduction material, controllable airflow, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The rack sized CQ is a system with multiple crewmember restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crewmember to personalize their CQ workspace. Providing an acoustically quiet and visually isolated environment, while ensuring crewmember safety, is critical for obtaining crewmember rest and comfort to enable long term crewmember performance. The numerous human factor, engineering, and program considerations during the concept, design, and prototyping are outlined in the paper.

  10. The Xanthomonas campestris effector protein XopDXcc8004 triggers plant disease tolerance by targeting DELLA proteins.

    PubMed

    Tan, Leitao; Rong, Wei; Luo, Hongli; Chen, Yinhua; He, Chaozu

    2014-11-01

    Plants protect themselves from the harmful effects of pathogens by resistance and tolerance. Disease resistance, which eliminates pathogens, can be modulated by bacterial type III effectors. Little is known about whether disease tolerance, which sustains host fitness with a given pathogen burden, is regulated by effectors. Here, we examined the effects of the Xanthomonas effector protein XopDXcc8004 on plant disease defenses by constructing knockout and complemented Xanthomonas strains, and performing inoculation studies in radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radiculus XiaoJinZhong) and Arabidopsis plants. XopDXcc8004 suppresses disease symptoms without changing bacterial titers in infected leaves. In Arabidopsis, XopDXcc8004 delays the hormone gibberellin (GA)-mediated degradation of RGA (repressor of ga1-3), one of five DELLA proteins that repress GA signaling and promote plant tolerance under biotic and abiotic stresses. The ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif-containing region of XopDXcc8004 interacts with the DELLA domain of RGA and might interfere with the GA-induced binding of GID1, a GA receptor, to RGA. The EAR motif was found to be present in a number of plant transcriptional regulators. Thus, our data suggest that bacterial pathogens might have evolved effectors, which probably mimic host components, to initiate disease tolerance and enhance their survival. PMID:25040905

  11. Procera is a putative DELLA mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum): effects on the seed and vegetative plant.

    PubMed

    Bassel, George W; Mullen, Robert T; Bewley, J Derek

    2008-01-01

    The procera (pro) mutant of tomato exhibits a well-characterized constitutive gibberellic acid (GA) response phenotype. The tomato DELLA gene LeGAI in the pro mutant background contains a point mutation that results in an amino acid change in the conserved VHVID putative DNA-binding domain in LeGAI to VHEID. This same point mutation is in four different genetic backgrounds exhibiting the pro phenotype, suggesting that this mutation co-segregates with the pro phenotype. Complementation of the mutant with a constitutively expressed wild-type LeGAI gene sequence was not conclusive due to the infertility of transgenic plants. The pro mutation alters tomato branching architecture through differential suppression of axillary bud development, indicating a role for DELLA proteins in the regulation of plant structure. Isolated gib-1 pro double mutant embryo axes, which are unable to synthesize GA, germinate faster than their wild-type counterparts, and exert greater embryo growth potential. The pro mutation is therefore regulating GA responses within the tomato embryo. Transient expression of a LeGAI-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein in onion epidermis results in its location to the nucleus, and this protein is rapidly degraded by the proteasome in the presence of GA. PMID:18250077

  12. Dissemination of Educational Products Developed Under USOE Sponsorship. Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Educational Development, New York, NY.

    The National Center for Educational Communication (USOE) initiated with the Institute for Educational Development the concept of a conference which would bring the USOE-sponsored Research and Development Centers and Regional Educational Laboratories together with publishers and manufacturers who might assist them in developing their products and…

  13. DELLA Proteins Promote Anthocyanin Biosynthesis via Sequestering MYBL2 and JAZ Suppressors of the MYB/bHLH/WD40 Complex in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ye; Tan, Huijuan; Ma, Zhaoxue; Huang, Jirong

    2016-05-01

    Anthocyanin accumulation is recognized as a visible biomarker of plants that have suffered from environmental stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis remain unclear. Expression of anthocyanin-specific genes is regulated by the conserved MBW complex, which is composed of the MYB, bHLH, and WD40 subunits in higher plants. MBW activity is repressed by MYBL2 and the JAZ family proteins, which bind competitively to bHLH and MYB/bHLH, respectively. Here, we found that MYBL2 and JAZs mediate gibberellic acid-inhibited anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Competitive pull-down and dual-luciferase assays showed that DELLA proteins directly sequester MYBL2 and JAZ repressors, leading to the release of bHLH/MYB subunits and subsequently to the formation of active MBW complex, which then activates the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The JAZ-DELLA-MYBL2 module also plays an important role in abiotic stress-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, we found that the DELLA protein RGA accumulates upon plant exposure to abiotic stresses. Altogether, our data reveal that DELLA-promoted anthocyanin biosynthesis is mediated at least in part by MYBL2 and JAZ regulatory proteins, providing new insights into the coordinated regulation of plant growth and defense through metabolic pathway regulation. PMID:26854848

  14. The Montessori System of Education: An Examination of Characteristic Features Set Forth in Il Metodo Della Pedagogica Scientifica. Bulletin, 1912, No. 17. Whole Number 489

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anna Tolman

    1912-01-01

    The publication of "Il metodo della pedagogica scientifica," by Dr. Maria Montessori, docent in the University of Rome, giving a full account of the inception and development of the system of education of which she is the author and the simultaneous translation of the work into English and German are events so unusual as to challenge attention.…

  15. "I CAMMINI DELLA REGINA" - Open Source based tools for preserving and culturally exploring historical traffic routes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Colombo, Massimo; Antonovic, Milan; Cardoso, Mirko; Delucchi, Andrea; Gianocca, Giancarlo; Brovelli, Maria Antonia

    2015-04-01

    "I CAMMINI DELLA REGINA" (The Via Regina Paths) is an Interreg project funded within the transnational cooperation program between Italy and Switzerland 2007-2013. The aim of this project is the preservation and valorization of the cultural heritage linked to the walking historically paths crossing, connecting and serving the local territories. With the approach of leveraging the already existing tools, which generally consist of technical descriptions of the paths, the project uses the open source geospatial technologies to deploy innovative solutions which can fill some of the gaps in historical-cultural tourism offers. The Swiss part, and particularly the IST-SUPSI team, has been focusing its activities in the realization of two innovative solutions: a mobile application for the survey of historical paths and a storytelling system for immersive cultural exploration of the historical paths. The former, based on Android, allows to apply in a revised manner a consolidated and already successfully used methodology of survey focused on the conservation of the historical paths (Inventory of historical traffic routes in Switzerland). Up to now operators could rely only on hand work based on a combination of notes, pictures and GPS devices synthesized in manually drawn maps; this procedure is error prone and shows many problems both in data updating and extracting for elaborations. Thus it has been created an easy to use interface which allows to map, according to a newly developed spatially enabled data model, paths, morphological elements, and multimedia notes. When connected to the internet the application can send the data to a web service which, after applying linear referencing and further elaborating the data, makes them available using open standards. The storytelling system has been designed to provide users with cultural insights embedded in a multimedial and immersive geospatial portal. Whether the tourist is exploring physically or virtually the desired historical path, the system will provide notifications and immersive multimedia information that foster a new sight of the territory: award of the culture and history of the place thanks to attractive description of the geological, land use, historical and ethnographic contexts. The technologies used for these developments are: mongoDB, tornado, Android SDK, geoserver, bootstrap, OpenLayers, HTML5, CSS3, JQuery. The approach, methodologies and technical implementations will be discussed and presented.

  16. The flight performance of the Galileo orbiter USO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Krisher, T. P.; Asmar, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of radio metric data received by the DSN stations from the Galileo spacecraft using an Ultrastable Oscillator (USO) as a signal source. These results allow the health and performance of the Galileo USO to be evaluated, and are used to calibrate this Radio Science instrument and the data acquired for Radio Science experiments such as the Red-shift Observation, Solar Conjunction, and Jovian occultations. Estimates for the USO-referenced spacecraft-transmitted frequency and frequency stability were made for 82 data acquisition passes conducted between launch (October 1989) and November 1991. Analyses of the spacecraft-transmitted frequencies show that the USO is behaving as expected. The USO was powered off and then back on in August 1991 with no adverse effect on its performance. The frequency stabilities measured by Allan deviation are consistent with expected values due to thermal wideband noise and the USO itself at the appropriate time intervals. The Galileo USO appears to be healthy and functioning normally in a reasonable manner.

  17. Zoobotryon verticillatum Della Chiaje, 1822 (Bryozoa), a new occurrence in the archipelago of the Azores (North-Eastern Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Amat, Jaen Nieto; Tempera, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    The new occurrence of the bryozoan Zoobotryon verticillatum Della Chiaje, 1822 is herein recorded in multiple places throughout Azores archipelago. Where introduced, this species has caused important ecological and economical damage and therefore is regarded as invasive. In the Azores, no detrimental effects have yet been noted. The species is so far restricted to marinas (Horta, Faial Island; Vila Franca do Campo, São Miguel Island) and a natural coastal pool located near a secondary harbour (Lajes do Pico, Pico Island). A total of 29 colonies were counted during a specific survey conducted in August 2008 in the marina of Horta. The distribution of the species throughout the eastern and central island groups denotes a wide dispersion area and offers control or eradication measures a low probability of success together with the lack of harbour management practices that could effectively prevent the arrival, settlement and dispersal of non-native species transported by human-assisted means. PMID:19303606

  18. The Palazzo della Ragione in Padua: Representation and Communication of Art, Architecture, and Astrology of a Civic Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgherini, M.; Garbin, E.

    2011-06-01

    Eight centuries of the history of art and of Padua's scientific and technological culture deposited on the stones and frescoes of its Palace of Law ("Palazzo della Ragione") make this great work of urban architecture a part of the city's collective identity. This "palimpsest", legible only to a restricted circle of specialists, should be accessible to a vaster public interested in understanding this object symbol of local culture. The project planned for interactive exploration on the web is a series of digital models, employing tomographic-endoscopic visualizations and, in future, multi-resolution images. The various models devised allow the visitor to superimpose the Palace's current conditions on the various transformations undergone over the centuries. Similarly, comparisons can be made between the astrological fresco cycle with maps of the heavens, cosmological hypotheses, ancient and contemporary astrological treatises, and the related exchange of knowledge between the Orient and the Occident.

  19. Geophysic data interperetation of Passo della Morte landslide: Eastern Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppe', G.; Costa, G.; Marcato, G.; Forte, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Passo della Morte block-slide covers a relative large area in the Carnic Alps, along the left side of the Tagliamento River, between Forni di Sotto and Ampezzo (N-E of Italy). The high seismicity and the presence of the landslide increase the risk associated to the interest area. Moreover the large volume of material involved in the landslide (a few million of cubic meters), the presence of important infrastructure such as the road and two tunnels which cross the landslide, as well as the presence of the Tagliamento River that flow at the foot of the landslide, make the area very vulnerable. This study concerns with the western part of the Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD). It focuses on the potential instability of a rock slope (crossed by road tunnels) and its connection with the DSGSD activity. The main objectives of this study are: monitoring the rock mass movement, studying the seismic site effect and defining the stratigraphic and geological characteristics of involved materials. Two vibration sensors have been installed inside the potential landslide: a short-period seismometer and a piezoelectric transducer. The microseismic activity recorded by the sensors has been analyzed, with particular regard to periods characterized by rapid changes in recorded seismic signals, and then correlated with the precipitation trend to evaluate the existence of a possible correlation between these phenomena. The microseismic activity study has highlighted the existence of a close link between microseisms and acoustic emissions recorded respectively by the seismometer and by the piezoelectric transducer. In addition, the comparison with the rainfall pattern has shown a direct relationship between different rainfall events and the sharp increase of microseismic activity detected by the two instruments. The correlation is good, even if acoustic emissions appear to be more sensitive than microseisms to short duration and low intensity rainfall events. The seismic site effects and the directivity in seismic site response of the rock mass have been investigated through the use of Nakamura (1989) method. In particular have been estimated the resonance frequencies and the polarization directions of seismic energy in three selected sites. All sites have shown a clear evidence of polarization in the direction of N/NW-S/SE and E/NE-W/SW, compatible with the maximum slope inclination and with the limestone stratification direction outcropping in this area. In order to define the stratigraphic and geological characteristics of the materials involved, have been performed a GPR investigation and an active seismic survey. The first has been useful to identify vertical and horizontal variations of the lithotypes present, most associated with different degrees of rock fracturing and fluid content. The seismic investigation has permitted to identify a reflective layer and to determine the propagation velocity of compression and shear waves of the two layers found.

  20. Human impact and Holocene climatic change in the archaeological site 'Piani della Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelle, Teresa; Scarciglia, Fabio; La Russa, Mauro F.; Natali, Elena; Tinè, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    A pedoarchaeological study was carried out in the archaeological site "Piani della Corona", located on a wide terrace at 500 m a.s.l. along the southwestern coast of Calabria, in southern Italy. The archaeological excavations exhumed an extensive settlement related to old to medium Bronze Age phases and traces of late Neolithic human colonization. On the basis of archaeological finds the pedostratigraphic succession can be partly dated. It consists of soils with variable features and andic properties, which include yellowish-brown (in places more reddish), deep argillic (Bt) horizons with variable amounts of clay coatings in pores and dark brown infillings of soil material rich in organic matter, in places overlaid by thin, severely truncated, brown to dark brown, organic-mineral (A) horizons. These layers include late Neolithic ceramic artefacts (Diana style facies) and typical incineration burials found in biconical vases, that can be referred to 6500-5000 years BP. The prehistoric layers are widely overlaid and strongly superimposed by a paleosurface of the early to medium Bronze age. This surface is affected by many pole holes left by large rectangular, apsidal wooden huts (not preserved), ploughed furrows, excavated cisterns, ditches and trenches, often filled by organic-rich dark brown material. Also hearths with charcoal remains, burials, vases and other diagnostic ceramic fragments occur. The upper portion of the pedostratigraphic succession consists of thicker brown A horizons, that appear cyclically ploughed during historical times (archaeologically not well dated as a consequence of their reworking for agricultural practices), with abrupt irregular boundaries often entering the underlying horizons. Micromorphological observations confirmed the presence of clay coatings within pores of Bt horizons, showing that they represent relict features (i.e. related to inactive illuvial processes, at present), as often fragmented and with smooth-banded to grainy extinction patterns between crossed polars. In A horizons, characterized by granular to dominant isotropic matrix some reddish-yellow, subrounded pedorelicts exhibiting fragments of clay coatings, occur, probably derived from the underlying Bt horizons. The occurrence of clay coatings suggests (pedo)climatic conditions characterized by high moisture availability and some seasonal contrast, enhanced by a warm and humid climate corresponding to the Neolithic climatic optimum pro parte. This period of geomorphic stability promoted important soil development. These conditions are supported by: (i) less developed andic properties, estimated with the ICOMAND index (based on oxalate-extracted Al and Fe content) and FT-IR spectroscopy in argillic horizons, indicative of low amounts of short-range order minerals (SROM); (ii) more abundant phyllosilicate clays (mainly halloysite and at a minor extent chlorite, smectite and illite) detected by X-ray diffractometry. Andic properties appear more developed in A horizons, where abundant SROM are associated with minor phyllosilicates. This feature suggests the occurrence of a regime with prolonged and seasonally poorly-contrasted moisture availability, promoting SROM formation rather than phyllosilicate clays. The variability of andic properties, phyllosilicate formation and illuvial pedofeatures with depth suggests climatic changes probably occurred at the transition from the Neolithic climatic optimum to the upper Holocene, after a period characterized by severe land degradation during the Bronze age, testified by soil erosion and human impact. This phase was presumably coupled with deforestation and agricultural practices, highlighted by truncation of late prehistoric fertile A horizons, once developed at surface under particularly suited climatic conditions and vegetation cover, but nowadays not completely preserved in situ. The eroded material likely represents the organic-rich filling of soil macropores in the argillic horizons and more extensively of ploughing furrows and artificial excavations. Also some micromorphological features such as occasional broken, subhorizontal, fine-silty coatings and the above pedorelicts can be interpreted as possible traces of irrigation and subsequent ploughing practices, in agreement with field evidence.

  1. Unusual morphological features in a presumably Neolithic individual from Riparo della Rossa, Serra San Quirico (Ancona, Italy).

    PubMed

    D'Amore, G; Pacciani, E; Frederic, P; Caramella Crespi, V

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes human skeletal remains from Riparo della Rossa, a rock shelter in the Marche region (Central Italy). The remains consist of a cranial vault and a few non-articulated postcranial bones, possibly belonging to the same adult individual. As the cranial vault showed some morphological features that are unusual for a modern human (marked prominence of the supraorbital region, very prominent nasal bones and rather high thickness of the vault), an accurate anthropological analysis and quantification of the antiquity of the bones were required. The remains were dated with two different absolute dating methods, AMS (14)C and (235)U-(231)Pa non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry (NDGRS), which produced discordant results: the uncalibrated (14)C dating produced 5690 +/- 80 BP for the cranial vault and 6110 +/- 80 BP for the clavicle; the NDGRS dating produced 10,000 +/- 3000 BP for the cranial vault. The sex discriminant morphological characters on the skull are not unequivocal, though the masculine ones appear more evident. The aims of the present paper are: to provide a morphological and metric description of the remains; to interpret their unusual morphological features; to attempt to attribute them to male or female sex and to one of the possible prehistoric cultural groups, according to dating results (Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic or Neolithic). The attribution was obtained by a Bayesian procedure taking into account the reliability of the combined information of morphological/metric features and absolute dating results. The results suggest that the Riparo della Rossa remains are best attributed to a male individual of the Neolithic age. PMID:17241630

  2. Arabidopsis DELLA and JAZ proteins bind the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex to modulate gibberellin and jasmonate signaling synergy.

    PubMed

    Qi, Tiancong; Huang, Huang; Wu, Dewei; Yan, Jianbin; Qi, Yijun; Song, Susheng; Xie, Daoxin

    2014-03-01

    Integration of diverse environmental and endogenous signals to coordinately regulate growth, development, and defense is essential for plants to survive in their natural habitat. The hormonal signals gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA) antagonistically and synergistically regulate diverse aspects of plant growth, development, and defense. GA and JA synergistically induce initiation of trichomes, which assist seed dispersal and act as barriers to protect plants against insect attack, pathogen infection, excessive water loss, and UV irradiation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying such synergism between GA and JA signaling remains unclear. In this study, we revealed a mechanism for GA and JA signaling synergy and identified a signaling complex of the GA pathway in regulation of trichome initiation. Molecular, biochemical, and genetic evidence showed that the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex acts as a direct target of DELLAs in the GA pathway and that both DELLAs and JAZs interacted with the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex to mediate synergism between GA and JA signaling in regulating trichome development. GA and JA induce degradation of DELLAs and JASMONATE ZIM-domain proteins to coordinately activate the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex and synergistically and mutually dependently induce trichome initiation. This study provides deep insights into the molecular mechanisms for integration of different hormonal signals to synergistically regulate plant development. PMID:24659329

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Si; Chen, Juan; Li, Shu-Chao; Zeng, Xu; Meng, Zhi-Xia; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called "King Medicine". Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64%) sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis. PMID:26694378

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Si-Si; Chen, Juan; Li, Shu-Chao; Zeng, Xu; Meng, Zhi-Xia; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called “King Medicine”. Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64%) sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis. PMID:26694378

  5. DELLA Proteins and Their Interacting RING Finger Proteins Repress Gibberellin Responses by Binding to the Promoters of a Subset of Gibberellin-Responsive Genes in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeongmoo; Nguyen, Khoa Thi; Park, Eunae; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Choi, Giltsu

    2013-01-01

    DELLA proteins, consisting of GA INSENSITIVE, REPRESSOR OF GA1-3, RGA-LIKE1 (RGL1), RGL2, and RGL3, are central repressors of gibberellin (GA) responses, but their molecular functions are not fully understood. We isolated four DELLA-interacting RING domain proteins, previously designated as BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 INTERACTOR (BOI), BOI-RELATED GENE1 (BRG1), BRG2, and BRG3 (collectively referred to as BOIs). Single mutants of each BOI gene failed to significantly alter GA responses, but the boi quadruple mutant (boiQ) showed a higher seed germination frequency in the presence of paclobutrazol, precocious juvenile-to-adult phase transition, and early flowering, all of which are consistent with enhanced GA signaling. By contrast, BOI overexpression lines displayed phenotypes consistent with reduced GA signaling. Analysis of a gai-1 boiQ pentuple mutant further indicated that the GAI protein requires BOIs to inhibit a subset of GA responses. At the molecular level, BOIs did not significantly alter the stability of a DELLA protein. Instead, BOI and DELLA proteins are targeted to the promoters of a subset of GA-responsive genes and repress their expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the DELLA and BOI proteins inhibit GA responses by interacting with each other, binding to the same promoters of GA-responsive genes, and repressing these genes. PMID:23482857

  6. [Teoria della Mente e funzionamento sociale nella schizofrenia: correlazione con anomalie del linguaggio figurato, sintomatologia clinica e intelligenza generale].

    PubMed

    Piovan, Cristiano; Gava, Laura; Campeol, Mara

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Negli ultimi decenni gli studi hanno mostrato come la Teoria della Mente (ToM) non sia un processo unitario, ma un sistema che include aspetti cognitivi e affettivi. Nell'ambito dei domini che definiscono la social cognition, la ToM rappresenta il miglior predittore dello scarso funzionamento sociale nella schizofrenia. Lo scopo del presente lavoro è stato di esaminare la competenza di un gruppo di pazienti ambulatoriali affetti da schizofrenia in compiti di ToM, di riconoscimento di aspetti metaforici e idiomatici del linguaggio, in una prova di rispetto di regole conversazionali e di indagarne la relazione con il funzionamento sociale. Metodi. Sono stati reclutati 30 pazienti ambulatoriali con diagnosi di schizofrenia e 24 controlli sani. Sono stati somministrati il TIB per il calcolo del QI premorboso, la PANSS, il Theory of Mind Picture Sequencing Task, un test di comprensione di metafore e idiomi e un test conversazionale. Il funzionamento sociale è stato valutato con la PSP. Risultati. Non vi era differenza significativa tra i valori medi del QI premorboso del gruppo dei pazienti e dei controlli. Ai test di ToM e di competenza pragmatica, la differenza tra i gruppi è risultata altamente significativa, con i pazienti che hanno eseguito le prove in modo peggiore. È emersa una correlazione tra la comprensione di metafore e idiomi e le false credenze di secondo ordine. La PSP è risultata correlata con la PANSS e con la quota di ToM cognitiva, ma non con la ToM affettiva. Conclusioni. I risultati hanno mostrato che i soggetti affetti da schizofrenia, in condizione clinica di stabilizzazione, hanno evidenti difficoltà nelle prove di ToM e di comprensione del linguaggio figurato. Nel nostro modello teorico, la correlazione evidenziata tra la ToM cognitiva, i deficit pragmatici, lo stato clinico e il livello di funzionamento sociale suggerisce l'utilità di interventi riabilitativi di recupero delle funzioni metacognitive e delle abilità pragmatiche, al fine di ridurre la disabilità sociale nella schizofrenia. PMID:27030346

  7. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer air temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in northeastern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartin, S. V.; Heiri, O.; Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, P.; Tinner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). In Europe large areas north of 40°N were entirely covered by continental ice-sheets and widespread permafrost, with temperatures around 10-20°C lower than at present, whereas further south aridity and temperatures 7-10°C cooler than today occurred. Cool climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the LGM radically reduced forest extent and diversity in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. The Euganian Hills in northeastern Italy are supposed to be one of the northernmost refugia of thermophilous mixed oak forest species (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea) as well of some temperate mesophilous species (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) in Europe. In this study we present the first European chironomid-based quantitative temperature reconstruction for the LGM and address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of Quercetum mixtum species between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a lake on the border of the Euganean Hills in northeastern Italy, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial July air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Our results suggest that July air temperatures never fell below 10°C which are considered necessary for forest growth. In general, mild climatic conditions prevailed between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP with temperatures ranging from ca. 11°C to 15.7°C. The expansion of thermophilous trees such as Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea (Quercetum mixtum) between ca. 30'000-23'000 cal yr BP can most likely be explained by climate warming (ca. 14°C), conversely, the local contraction of these taxa between ca. 23'000-18'500 cal yr BP was possibly triggered by cooler summer air temperatures (ca. 13.4°C) and a significant moisture decline during the LGM.

  8. Solar eruptive filament studies at USO for the COMESEP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, N.; Crosby, N.; Veronig, A.; Robrrecht, E.; Vršnak, B.; Vennerstrom, S.; Malandraki, O.; Dalla, S.; Rodriguez, L.; Hesse, M.; Odstrcil, D.

    The Coronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles (COMESEP) project is developing tools for forecasting geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP) radiation storms. By analysis of historical solar and interplanetary data, complemented with the extensive data coverage of solar cycle 23, the key ingredients that lead to geomagnetic storms, SEP events and the factors that are responsible for false alarms are being identified. Based on the insights gained, and making use of algorithms for the automated detection of CMEs, forecasting tools for geomagnetic and SEP radiation storms will be developed and optimised. Validation and implementation of the developed tools into an operational Space Weather Alert system will be performed. COMESEP is a unique cross collaboration effort and bridges the gap between the SEP, CME and terrestrial effects scientific communities. The role of the Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO) in addressing some of the goals of this project are highlighted in this paper. In particular, USO is engaged in studying the CMEs associated with eruptive filaments. We describe the studies undertaken to understand space weather effects related to these CMEs.

  9. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  10. Measurements of Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) Allan Deviations in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, William M.; Wang, Rabi T.; Dunn, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have used data from the GRAIL mission to the Moon to make the first in-flight verification of ultra-stable oscillators (USOs) with Allan deviation below 10 13 for 1-to-100-second averaging times. USOs are flown in space to provide stable timing and/or navigation signals for a variety of different science and programmatic missions. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission is flying twin spacecraft, each with its own USO and with a Ka-band crosslink used to measure range fluctuations. Data from this crosslink can be combined in such a way as to give the relative time offsets of the two spacecrafts USOs and to calculate the Allan deviation to describe the USOs combined performance while orbiting the Moon. Researchers find the first direct in-space Allan deviations below 10(exp -13) for 1-to-100-second averaging times comparable to pre-launch data, and better than measurements from ground tracking of an X-band carrier coherent with the USO. Fluctuations in Earth s atmosphere limit measurement performance in direct-to-Earth links. Inflight USO performance verification was also performed for GRAIL s parent mission, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), using both Kband and Ka-band crosslinks.

  11. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Laura A.; Barreda, Jose L.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Russian Segment currently provides potable water dispensing capability for crewmember food and beverage rehydration. All ISS crewmembers rehydrate Russian and U.S. style food packages from this location. A new United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) is under development. This unit will provide additional potable water dispensing capability to support an onorbit crew of six. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to U.S. style food packages. It will receive iodinated water from the Fuel Cell Water Bus in the U.S. Laboratory element. The unit will provide potable-quality water, including active removal of biocidal iodine prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit will be able to supply up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity will allow three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. It will be the size of two stacked Shuttle Middeck lockers (approximately the size of two small suitcases) and integrated into a science payload rack in the U.S. Laboratory element. Providing potable-quality water at the proper temperature for food and beverage reconstitution is critical to maintaining crew health and well-being. The numerous engineering challenges as well as human factors and safety considerations during the concept, design, and prototyping are outlined in this paper.

  12. A DELLA gene, RhGAI1, is a direct target of EIN3 and mediates ethylene-regulated rose petal cell expansion via repressing the expression of RhCesA2.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Ma, Nan; Pei, Haixia; Chen, Jiwei; Li, Jing; Gao, Junping

    2013-11-01

    Ethylene plays an important role in organ growth. In Arabidopsis, ethylene can inhibit root elongation by stabilizing DELLA proteins. In previous work, it was found that ethylene suppressed cell expansion in rose petals, and five unisequences of DELLA genes are induced by ethylene. However, the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of DELLA genes by ethylene is still not clear. The results showed that the expression of RhGAI1 was induced in both ethylene-treated and ETR gene-silenced rose petals, and the promoter activity of RhGAI1 was strongly induced by RhEIN3-3 in Arabidopsis protoplasts. What is more, RhEIN3-3 could bind to the promoter of RhGAI1 directly in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Cell expansion was suppressed in RhGAI1-Δ17-overexpressed Arabidopsis petals and promoted in RhGAI1-silenced rose petals. Moreover, in RhGAI1-silenced petals, the expression of nine cell expansion-related genes was clearly changed, and RhGAI1 can bind to the promoter of RhCesA2 in an EMSA. These results suggested that RhGAI1 was regulated by ethylene at the transcriptional level, and RhGAI1 was a direct target of RhEIN3-3. Also, RhGAI1 was shown to be involved in cell expansion partially through regulating the expression of cell expansion-related genes. Furthermore, RhCesA2 was a direct target of RhGAI1. This work uncovers the transcriptional regulation of RhGAI1 by ethylene and provides a better understanding of how ethylene regulates petal expansion in roses. PMID:24014864

  13. Integrated approach based on non-invasive investigations for the structural diagnosis of monuments: the case of the San Francesco della Scarpa Church in Lecce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio; Leucci, Giovanni; Masini, Nicola; Persico, Raffaele; Quarta, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    The paper shows the results of a diagnostics survey, based on the ground penetrating radar (GPR), seismic tomography and microtremor horizontal-to-vertical ratio (HVSR) method, to understand the causes of some static instability problems affecting the Church of San Francesco della Scarpa in Lecce (Apulia region, Southern Italy). The prospecting falls within the more general framework of a diagnostic investigation campaign for the restoration of the monument. This study case points out the great effectiveness of the employed diagnostic methods, when used in an integrated way, for detecting cracks and inhomogeneities in the inner structure of masonry building elements [1-2]. With regard to GPR prospecting, in order to better evidence the micro-fracture, a new algorithm, based on a clutter removal technique, has been used. In particular, it removes various unwanted signals such as cross talk, initial ground reflection and antenna ringing. Moreover, seismic tomographies provided complementary information on the mediocre state of conservation of some load bearing structures of the church. Finally, HVSR method allowed to study the relationship between decay patterns, instability problems and seismic response of the monument. Reference [1] Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R., Soldovieri F. 2011. GPR and sonic tomography for structural restoration: the case of the cathedral of Tricarico, Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 8 (3), 76-92, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/8/3/S08. [2] Calia A., Leucci G., Masini N., Matera L., Persico R., Sileo M., 2012. Integrated prospecting in the Crypt of the Basilica of Saint Nicholas in Bari, Italy. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 9(3), 271-281, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/9/3/271.

  14. The Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) Natural Genetic Variation Rg1 and the DELLA Mutant Procera Control the Competence Necessary to Form Adventitious Roots and Shoots

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wide use of plant regeneration for biotechnological purposes, the signals that allow cells to become competent to assume different fates remain largely unknown. Here, it is demonstrated that the Regeneration1 (Rg1) allele, a natural genetic variation from the tomato wild relative Solanum peruvianum, increases the capacity to form both roots and shoots in vitro; and that the gibberellin constitutive mutant procera (pro) presented the opposite phenotype, reducing organogenesis on either root-inducing medium (RIM) or shoot-inducing medium (SIM). Mutants showing alterations in the formation of specific organs in vitro were the auxin low-sensitivity diageotropica (dgt), the lateral suppresser (ls), and the KNOX-overexpressing Mouse ears (Me). dgt failed to form roots on RIM, Me increased shoot formation on SIM, and the high capacity for in vitro shoot formation of ls contrasted with its recalcitrance to form axillary meristems. Interestingly, Rg1 rescued the in vitro organ formation capacity in proRg1 and dgtRg1 double mutants and the ex vitro low lateral shoot formation in pro and ls. Such epistatic interactions were also confirmed in gene expression and histological analyses conducted in the single and double mutants. Although Me phenocopied the high shoot formation of Rg1 on SIM, it failed to increase rooting on RIM and to rescue the non-branching phenotype of ls. Taken together, these results suggest REGENERATION1 and the DELLA mutant PROCERA as controlling a common competence to assume distinct cell fates, rather than the specific induction of adventitious roots or shoots, which is controlled by DIAGEOTROPICA and MOUSE EARS, respectively. PMID:22915742

  15. Relaxing USOS Solar Array Constraints for Russian Vehicle Undocking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menkin, Evgeny; Schrock, Mariusz; Schrock, Rita; Zaczek, Mariusz; Gomez, Susan; Lee, Roscoe; Bennet, George

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of Space Shuttle cargo delivery capability and the ten year life extension of the International Space Station (ISS) more emphasis is being put on preservation of the service life of ISS critical components. Current restrictions on the United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Solar Array (SA) positioning during Russian Vehicle (RV) departure from ISS nadir and zenith ports cause SA to be positioned in the plume field of Service Module thrusters and lead to degradation of SAs as well as potential damage to Sun tracking Beta Gimbal Assemblies (BGA). These restrictions are imposed because of the single fault tolerant RV Motion Control System (MCS), which does not meet ISS Safety requirements for catastrophic hazards and dictates 16 degree Solar Array Rotary Joint position, which ensures that ISS and RV relative motion post separation, does lead to collision. The purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology and the analysis that was performed to determine relative motion trajectories of the ISS and separating RV for nominal and contingency cases. Analysis was performed in three phases that included ISS free drift prior to Visiting Vehicle separation, ISS and Visiting Vehicle relative motion analysis and clearance analysis. First, the ISS free drift analysis determined the worst case attitude and attitude rate excursions prior to RV separation based on a series of different configurations and mass properties. Next, the relative motion analysis calculated the separation trajectories while varying the initial conditions, such as docking mechanism performance, Visiting Vehicle MCS failure, departure port location, ISS attitude and attitude rates at the time of separation, etc. The analysis employed both orbital mechanics and rigid body rotation calculations while accounting for various atmospheric conditions and gravity gradient effects. The resulting relative motion trajectories were then used to determine the worst case separation envelopes during the clearance analysis. Analytical models were developed individually for each stage and the results were used to build initial conditions for the following stages. In addition to the analysis approach, this paper also discusses the analysis results, showing worst case relative motion envelopes, the recommendations for ISS appendage positioning and the suggested approach for future analyses.

  16. Study on US/O3 mechanism in p-chlorophenol decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xian-wen; Xu, Xin-hua; Shi, Hui-xiang; Wang, Da-hui

    2005-01-01

    Study on the effects of sonolysis, ozonolysis and US/O3 system on the decomposition of p-chlorophenol in aqueous solutions indicated that in the cases of US/O3 system, individual ozonolysis and sonolysis, the decomposition rate of p-chlorophenol reached 78.78%, 56.20%, 2.79% after a 16-min reaction while its CODcr (chemical oxygen demand) removal rate was 97.02%, 62.17%, 3.67% after a 120-min reaction. The decomposition reaction of p-chlorophenol follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The enhancement factors of p-chlorophenol and its CODcr under US/O3 system reached 63% and 237% respectively. The main intermediates during the decomposition include catechol, hydroquinone, p-benzoquinone, phenol, fumaric acid, maleic acid, oxalic acid and formic acid. The decomposition mechanism of p-chlorophenol was also discussed. PMID:15909343

  17. Knockdown of a JmjC domain-containing gene JMJ524 confers altered gibberellin responses by transcriptional regulation of GRAS protein lacking the DELLA domain genes in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhua; Yu, Chuying; Wu, Hua; Luo, Zhidan; Ouyang, Bo; Cui, Long; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Plants integrate responses to independent hormonal and environmental signals to survive adversity. In particular, the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) regulates a variety of developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, the Jumonji-C (JmjC) domain-containing gene JMJ524 was characterized in tomato. JMJ524 responded to circadian rhythms and was upregulated by GA treatment. Knockdown of JMJ524 by RNAi caused a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype with shrunken leaves and shortened internodes. However, in these transgenic plants, higher levels of endogenous GAs were detected. A genome-wide gene expression analysis by RNA-seq indicated that the expression levels of two DELLA-like genes, SlGLD1 (‘GRAS protein Lacking the DELLA domain’) and SlGLD2, were increased in JMJ524-RNAi transgenic plants. Nevertheless, only the overexpression of SlGLD1 in tomato resulted in a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype, suggesting that SlGLD1 acts as a repressor of GA signalling. This study proposes that JMJ524 is required for stem elongation by altering GA responses, at least partially by regulating SlGLD1. PMID:25680796

  18. Application of some integrated non-invasive sensing techniqes for conservation and restoration of the Underground Church and frescoes of S. Maria della Palomba's Sanctuary, Matera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembo, Filiberto; Marino, Francesco P.; Ambrosecchia, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    Santa Maria della Palomba's Sanctuary was built in XV century on a pre-existing medioeval crypt, in a splendid landscape situation, on the front looking south of the ravine on which stands Matera, integrating in a wonderful way underground and sub divo building; in fairly following time one important cycle of frescoes renewed decoration of underground church. In the long run, felt the building into decay, structures and frescoes were flooded and damaged; so that from 1980 were executed important restoration works, realizing ventilation canals under the floor of hypogeic church, in which were incorporated heating pipes, joined to solar thermic panels, wanting to determine the thermo-hygrometric optimum conditions for conservation. Almost thirty years after, willing restorate the frescoes, it was necessary to caracterize completely and objectively physical existing conditions. So was used an integrated mix of some non-invasive sensing techniques: - internal and external high resolution Sanctuary's measurement, using laser scanner 3D, in WebGIS ambient, so as to specify, in particular, whether dimensional data of non accessible parts (thickness of rock-bank, morphology and way of lying down of fracture lines), whether consistence state of frescoes; - thermo-hygrometrical sensing of surfaces, using infrared thermography, during a time of two weeks, in correspondence of many storm, so that to establish the relation between eventual atmospherical conditions variations and changes in conditions of surfaces; - continuous sensing of condition of surfaces, by means of thermo-hygrometrical and temperature sounds; - continuous sensing of operating temperature, by means of a globothermometer; all these tools were linked in a net with a data logger, and informations were transmitted using Web to computer in the office of the Society responsible for the procedure. Remote sensing integrated system proved high liability, allowing many important functions : - to georefer all data concerning measurement and sensing; - to manage a great deal of information, very articulate, in an homogeneous way; - to rationally manage measurements done using laser scanner 3D, and to show them in an inter-active way or by means of base cartography with geometrical and stratigraphical drawings; - to perform in dynamic way, on algoritmic base, many duties of sighting, of questing, of analysing, of controlling and of verifying of data collected, so that you can get to all informations you need for designing restauration and management of monumental heritage.

  19. Performance Review of USOE's ESEA Title I Evaluation Technical Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The major focus of this review is on the performance of the United States Office of Education's (USOE) 10 Technical Assistance Centers (TACs). Information concerning the Technical Assistance Program, the Title I Evaluation and Reporting System (TIERS) and the methodology used for the review is also provided. Topics addressed include the selection

  20. Environmental and climatic conditions at a potential Glacial refugial site of tree species near the Southern Alpine glaciers. New insights from multiproxy sedimentary studies at Lago della Costa (Euganean Hills, Northeastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenrieder, Petra; Belis, Claudio A.; Hofstetter, Simone; Ammann, Brigitta; Ravazzi, Cesare; Tinner, Willy

    2009-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that refugia of thermophilous tree species were located in Northern Italy very close to the Alps, though, this hypothesis has yet to be tested thoroughly. In contrast to Central and Southern Italy with its relative wealth of data, only a few fragmentary records are currently available from Northern Italy for the last Glacial (Würm, Weichselian). Our new study site Lago della Costa lies adjacent to the catchment of the megafans of the Alpine forelands and the braided rivers of the Northeastern Po Plain that have so far inhibited the recovery of continuous Glacial and Late-Glacial records. We analyze pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal and ostracods to reconstruct the vegetation, fire and lake history for the period 33,000-16,000 cal. BP. We compare our data with Glacial records from Southern Europe to discuss similarities and dissimilarities between these potential refugial areas. A comparison with independent paleoclimatic proxies allows to assess potential linkages between environmental and climatic variability. New macrofossil and pollen data at Lago della Costa unambiguously document the local persistence of boreal tree taxa such as Larix decidua and Betula tree species around the study site during the last Glacial. The regular occurrence of pollen of temperate trees in the organic lake sediments (fine-detritus calcareous gyttja) suggests that temperate taxa such as Corylus avellana, Quercus deciduous, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica, most likely survived the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at favorable sites in the Euganean Hills. The percentage values of temperate trees are comparable with those from Southern Europe (e.g. Monticchio in Southern Italy). We conclude that the Euganean Hills were one of the northernmost refugial areas of temperate taxa in Europe. However, the relative and absolute abundances of pollen of temperate trees are highly variable. Pollen-inferred declines of temperate tree communities (e.g. Quercetum mixtum) and low ostracod-inferred water levels at Lago della Costa correspond to the cold Heinrich events H-2 (LGM; 23,000-19,000 cal. BP) and H-3 (around 28,000 cal. BP), as recorded in the marine sediments of the North Atlantic. Similar patterns of significant temperate tree population collapses during cold Heinrich events are recorded at southern Mediterranean sites (e.g. Monticchio and the Alboran Sea). These findings suggest close linkages between Northern Atlantic and South-Central European climates during the past Glacial.

  1. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  2. Evaluation of HACCP Plans of Food Industries: Case Study Conducted by the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the Local Health Authority of Foggia, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Panunzio, Michele F.; Antoniciello, Antonietta; Pisano, Alessandra; Rosa, Giovanna

    2007-01-01

    With respect to food safety, many works have studied the effectiveness of self-monitoring plans of food companies, designed using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) method. On the other hand, in-depth research has not been made concerning the adherence of the plans to HACCP standards. During our research, we evaluated 116 self-monitoring plans adopted by food companies located in the territory of the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Foggia, Italy. The general errors (terminology, philosophy and redundancy) and the specific errors (transversal plan, critical limits, hazard specificity, and lack of procedures) were standardized. Concerning the general errors, terminological errors pertain to half the plans examined, 47% include superfluous elements and 60% have repetitive subjects. With regards to the specific errors, 77% of the plans examined contained specific errors. The evaluation has pointed out the lack of comprehension of the HACCP system by the food companies and has allowed the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service), in its capacity as a control body, to intervene with the companies in order to improve designing HACCP plans. PMID:17911662

  3. Evaluation of HACCP plans of food industries: case study conducted by the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the local health authority of Foggia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Panunzio, Michele F; Antoniciello, Antonietta; Pisano, Alessandra; Rosa, Giovanna

    2007-09-01

    With respect to food safety, many works have studied the effectiveness of self-monitoring plans of food companies, designed using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) method. On the other hand, indepth research has not been made concerning the adherence of the plans to HACCP standards. During our research, we evaluated 116 self-monitoring plans adopted by food companies located in the territory of the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Foggia, Italy. The general errors (terminology, philosophy and redundancy) and the specific errors (transversal plan, critical limits, hazard specificity, and lack of procedures) were standardized. Concerning the general errors, terminological errors pertain to half the plans examined, 47% include superfluous elements and 60% have repetitive subjects. With regards to the specific errors, 77% of the plans examined contained specific errors. The evaluation has pointed out the lack of comprehension of the HACCP system by the food companies and has allowed the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service), in its capacity as a control body, to intervene with the companies in order to improve designing HACCP plans. PMID:17911662

  4. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters On-orbit vs Design Performance Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa Ann; Bahr, Juergen F.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) received the first two permanent ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) on Utility Logistics Flight Two (ULF2) in November 2008. Up to four CQs can be installed into the Node 2 element to increase the ISS crewmember size to six. The CQs provide private crewmember space with enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation reduction material, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The racksized CQ is a system with multiple crewmember restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crewmember to personalize their CQ workspace. The deployment and initial operational checkout during integration of the ISS CQ to the Node is described. Additionally, the comparison of on-orbit to original design performance is outlined for the following key operational parameters: interior acoustic performance, air flow rate, temperature rise, and crewmember feedback on provisioning and restraint layout.

  5. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality vs Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmembers food and drinking packages with one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. The USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) was delivered to ISS on ULF2, Shuttle Mission STS-126, and was subsequently activated in November 2008. The PWD activation on ISS is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six but nominally supplies only half the crew. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US style food packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Laboratory Fuel Cell Water Bus, which is fed from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity supports three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance has been acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there have been several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is outlined for the following key areas: microbiology, PWD to food package water leakage, no-dispense scenarios, under-dispense scenarios, and crewmember feedback on actual on-orbit use.

  6. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality Versus Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmember food and drinking packages. There is one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. Shuttle mission STS-126 delivered the USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) to ISS on ULF2; subsequent activation occurred on November 2008. The PWD is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six, but nominally supplies only half this crew size. The PWD design provides incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US food and beverage packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Water Recovery System (WRS) Fuel Cell Water Bus, which feeds from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 L of hot water (65 to 93 ?C) every 30 min. During a single meal, this quantity of water supports three to four crewmembers? food rehydration and beverages. The unit design has a functional life expectancy of 10 years, with replacement of limited life items, such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance is acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there were several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is discussed for the following key areas: 1) microbial contamination, 2) no-dispense and water leakage scenarios, and 3) under-dispense scenarios.

  7. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  8. Characterization of the procera Tomato Mutant Shows Novel Functions of the SlDELLA Protein in the Control of Flower Morphology, Cell Division and Expansion, and the Auxin-Signaling Pathway during Fruit-Set and Development1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Esther; Ruiz-Rivero, Omar; Peres, Lazaro Eustaquio Pereira; Atares, Alejandro; Garcia-Martinez, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    procera (pro) is a tall tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant carrying a point mutation in the GRAS region of the gene encoding SlDELLA, a repressor in the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. Consistent with the SlDELLA loss of function, pro plants display a GA-constitutive response phenotype, mimicking wild-type plants treated with GA3. The ovaries from both nonemasculated and emasculated pro flowers had very strong parthenocarpic capacity, associated with enhanced growth of preanthesis ovaries due to more and larger cells. pro parthenocarpy is facultative because seeded fruits were obtained by manual pollination. Most pro pistils had exserted stigmas, thus preventing self-pollination, similar to wild-type pistils treated with GA3 or auxins. However, Style2.1, a gene responsible for long styles in noncultivated tomato, may not control the enhanced style elongation of pro pistils, because its expression was not higher in pro styles and did not increase upon GA3 application. Interestingly, a high percentage of pro flowers had meristic alterations, with one additional petal, sepal, stamen, and carpel at each of the four whorls, respectively, thus unveiling a role of SlDELLA in flower organ development. Microarray analysis showed significant changes in the transcriptome of preanthesis pro ovaries compared with the wild type, indicating that the molecular mechanism underlying the parthenocarpic capacity of pro is complex and that it is mainly associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in GA and auxin pathways. Interestingly, it was found that GA activity modulates the expression of cell division and expansion genes and an auxin signaling gene (tomato AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7) during fruit-set. PMID:22942390

  9. One-way return-link Doppler navigation with the Tracking and Data Satellite System (TDRSS) - The ultrastable oscillator (USO) experiment on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. B.; Nemesure, M.; Teles, J.; Brown-Conwell, E. R.; Jackson, J. A.; Reamy, V. L.; Maher, M. J.; Elrod, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    The principal objectives of the USO experiment on the COBE spacecraft are defined, and results of space qualification studies for the COBE USO experiment are summarized. The principal objectives of the experiment are: (1) to determine flight performance of the USO coupled to the second-generation TDRSS transponder; (2) space qualify TDRSS noncoherent one-way return-link Doppler tracking; and (3) analyze algorithms for one-way navigation with real data. The three objectives of the experiment have been met in the first stage of the experiment analysis.

  10. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Ventilation and Acoustic Design Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) has four permanent rack sized ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) providing a private crewmember space. The CQ uses Node 2 cabin air for ventilation/thermal cooling, as opposed to conditioned ducted air from the ISS Temperature Humidity Control System or the ISS fluid cooling loop connections. Consequently, CQ can only increase the air flow rate to reduce the temperature delta between the cabin and the CQ interior. However, increasing airflow causes increased acoustic noise so efficient airflow distribution is an important design parameter. The CQ utilized a two fan push-pull configuration to ensure fresh air at the crewmember s head position and reduce acoustic exposure. The CQ interior needs to be below Noise Curve 40 (NC-40). The CQ ventilation ducts are open to the significantly louder Node 2 cabin aisle way which required significantly acoustic mitigation controls. The design implementation of the CQ ventilation system and acoustic mitigation are very inter-related and require consideration of crew comfort balanced with use of interior habitable volume, accommodation of fan failures, and possible crew uses that impact ventilation and acoustic performance. This paper illustrates the types of model analysis, assumptions, vehicle interactions, and trade-offs required for CQ ventilation and acoustics. Additionally, on-orbit ventilation system performance and initial crew feedback is presented. This approach is applicable to any private enclosed space that the crew will occupy.

  11. Actitudes de los candidatos y maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca del uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayuelo, Ezequiel

    Este estudio examino y comparo las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros de ciencias y los maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca de la utilizacion de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Tambien identifico y diferencio el uso que ellos dan a estas herramientas en las clases de ciencias. Este estudio presenta un diseno descriptivo exploratorio. Constituyeron la muestra trescientos diez sujetos que fueron candidatos a maestros de ciencias o maestros de ciencias en servicio. Para recoger los datos se construyo y valido un cuestionario de treinta y un itemes. Se utilizaron las pruebas estadisticas no parametricas Kruskal Wallis y Chi-cuadrado (test de homogeneidad) para establecer las diferencias entre las actitudes de los sujetos con relacion al uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Los hallazgos evidenciaron que son positivas y muy parecidas las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros y maestros en servicio hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas. No hubo diferencias entre los candidatos y maestros en servicio en terminos de las actitudes de confianza y empatia hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. En aspectos como el uso del banco de datos bibliografico Eric y el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en actividades educativas como explorar conceptos, conceptuar, aplicar lo aprendido y hacer asignaciones hubo diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre los candidatos y los maestros en servicio. Al comparar las frecuencias observadas con las esperadas hubo mas maestros en servicio y menos candidatos que indicaron usar el anterior banco de datos y las herramientas computadorizadas en las mencionadas actividades educativas.

  12. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  13. Modification of the International Space Station USOS to Support Installation and Activation of the Node 3 Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Williams, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program is nearing an assembly complete configuration with the addition of the final resource node module in early 2010. The Node 3 module will provide critical functionality in support of permanent long duration crews aboard ISS. The new module will permanently house the regenerative Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and will also provide important habitability functions such as waste management and exercise facilities. The ISS program has selected the Port side of the Node 1 "Unity" module as the permanent location for Node 3 which will necessitate architecture changes to provide the required interfaces. The USOS ECLSS fluid and ventilation systems, Internal Thermal Control Systems, and Avionics Systems require significant modifications in order to support Node 3 interfaces at the Node 1 Port location since it was not initially designed for that configuration. This paper outlines the design, development, certification, and implementation of these changes in support of ISS assembly complete.

  14. System of indexes and indicators for the quality evaluation of HACCP plans based on the results of the official controls conducted by the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the Local Health Authority of Foggia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Panunzio, Michele F; Antoniciello, Antonietta; Pisano, Alessandra

    2007-03-01

    Within the realm of evaluating self-monitoring plans, developed based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) method and adopted by food companies, little research has been done concerning the quality of the plans. The Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the Local Health Authority of Foggia, Italy, has conducted research with the aim to adopt a system of indexes and indicators for the qualitative evaluation of HACCP plans. The critical areas considered were the following: simplicity, specificity, feasibility and adherence. During the period from January 2004 to June 2005, the evaluation grid was used in examining 250 HACCP self-monitoring plans of food companies. For the analysis of the determining factor four groups were considered, with reference to HACCP self-monitoring plans designed: group 1 - with the aid of a qualified team; group 2 - with the aid of an unqualified team; group 3 - with the aid of an unqualified expert; group 4 - without the aid of an expert. The mean values of the measures elaborated decrease towards insufficiency moving from group 1 to group 4. In particular, collaboration by teams of unqualified experts brought about drafting unacceptable HACCP plans on the levels of specificity and adherence, with respect to the HACCP method. The method proposed of the analysis of the indexes and indicators beginning with an evaluation sheet can also help the individual company to better adjust contribution by internal or external professionals to the company. PMID:17431313

  15. System of Indexes and Indicators for the Quality Evaluation of HACCP Plans based on the Results of the Official Controls conducted by the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the Local Health Authority of Foggia, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Panunzio, Michele F.; Antoniciello, Antonietta; Pisano, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    Within the realm of evaluating self-monitoring plans, developed based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) method and adopted by food companies, little research has been done concerning the quality of the plans. The Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the Local Health Authority of Foggia, Italy, has conducted research with the aim to adopt a system of indexes and indicators for the qualitative evaluation of HACCP plans. The critical areas considered were the following: simplicity, specificity, feasibility and adherence. During the period from January 2004 to June 2005, the evaluation grid was used in examining 250 HACCP self-monitoring plans of food companies. For the analysis of the determining factor four groups were considered, with reference to HACCP self-monitoring plans designed: group 1 - with the aid of a qualified team; group 2 - with the aid of an unqualified team; group 3 - with the aid of an unqualified expert; group 4 – without the aid of an expert. The mean values of the measures elaborated decrease towards insufficiency moving from group 1 to group 4. In particular, collaboration by teams of unqualified experts brought about drafting unacceptable HACCP plans on the levels of specificity and adherence, with respect to the HACCP method. The method proposed of the analysis of the indexes and indicators beginning with an evaluation sheet can also help the individual company to better adjust contribution by internal or external professionals to the company. PMID:17431313

  16. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su modelizacion, y aplicacion en convertidores PWM, esta aun por estudiar y valorar. El primer Capitulo consiste en una breve introduccion al problema de la regulacion cruzada y la impedancia cruzada para posteriormente describir las tecnicas de post-regulacion actualmente mas empleadas, con especial atencion al post-regulador con transformador controlado. El Capitulo segundo trata del estudio de las caracteristicas estaticas del postregulador con transformador controlado. Partiendo de los estudios disponibles sobre el postregulador se plantean mejoras en su modo de actuacion y se discuten tres alternativas diferentes para controlar el transformador. Las dos primeras consisten en emplear un convertidor auxiliar Boost en sus dos modos de funcionamiento, continuo y discontinuo. La tercera consiste en controlar el transformador con una tension PWM directamente, sin filtrado. Finalmente se comprueba experimentalmente, para el estado estacionario, el funcionamiento del post-regulador para cada uno de los tres metodos de control. El Capitulo tercero trata de la dinamica de la salida controlada con el post-regulador cuando este emplea un convertidor auxiliar tipo Boost. Mediante la tecnica de promediado de variables de estado se propone el modelo de pequena senal, tanto para el modo continuo como para el modo discontinuo de funcionamiento del convertidor auxiliar. Los resultados mas significativos de esta seccion son las expresiones analiticas de las impedancias cruzadas y de la impedancia de la salida post-regulada. Como complemento al modelo de pequena senal se plantea un modelo de gran senal implementado sobre el simulador Pspice. Con este nuevo modelo se reproducen los resultados obtenidos con el modelo de pequena senal y ademas es posible simular los transitorios en las tensiones de salida ante cambios de carga. La modelizacion del convertidor cuando el transformador se controla con una tension PWM sin filtrar es el objetivo del Capitulo 4. En las secciones siguientes del Capitulo se plantea el correspondiente modelo de gran senal aplicado a un nuevo prototipo experimental, de mayor tension de entrada y mayores corrientes de salida. El final del Capitulo contrasta los resultados experimentales con los teoricos confirmando la utilidad del modelo de gran senal como una herramienta basica de diseno. Finalmente, en el Capitulo 5, se presentan las conclusiones y la valoracion de los diferentes estudios plateados a lo largo de la Tesis Doctoral.

  17. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    SciTech Connect

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  18. p115 is a general vesicular transport factor related to the yeast endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport factor Uso1p.

    PubMed Central

    Sapperstein, S K; Walter, D M; Grosvenor, A R; Heuser, J E; Waters, M G

    1995-01-01

    A recently discovered vesicular transport factor, termed p115, is required along with N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and soluble NSF attachment proteins for in vitro Golgi transport. p115 is a peripheral membrane protein found predominantly on the Golgi. Biochemical and electron microscopic analyses indicate that p115 is an elongated homodimer with two globular "heads" and an extended "tail" reminiscent of myosin II. We have cloned and sequenced cDNAs for bovine and rat p115. The predicted translation products are 90% identical, and each can be divided into three domains. The predicted 108-kDa bovine protein consists of an N-terminal 73-kDa globular domain followed by a 29-kDa coiled-coil dimerization domain, a linker segment of 4 kDa, and a highly acidic domain of 3 kDa. p115 is related to Uso1p, a protein required for endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi vesicular transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has a similar "head-coil-acid" domain structure. The p115 and Uso1p heads are similar in size, have approximately 25% sequence identity, and possess two highly homologous regions (62% and 60% identity over 34 and 53 residues, respectively). There is a third region of homology (50% identity over 28 residues) between the coiled-coil and acidic domains. Although the acidic nature of the p115 and Uso1p C termini is conserved, the primary sequence is not. We discuss these results in light of the proposed function of p115 in membrane targeting and/or fusion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7831323

  19. p115 is a general vesicular transport factor related to the yeast endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport factor Uso1p.

    PubMed

    Sapperstein, S K; Walter, D M; Grosvenor, A R; Heuser, J E; Waters, M G

    1995-01-17

    A recently discovered vesicular transport factor, termed p115, is required along with N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and soluble NSF attachment proteins for in vitro Golgi transport. p115 is a peripheral membrane protein found predominantly on the Golgi. Biochemical and electron microscopic analyses indicate that p115 is an elongated homodimer with two globular "heads" and an extended "tail" reminiscent of myosin II. We have cloned and sequenced cDNAs for bovine and rat p115. The predicted translation products are 90% identical, and each can be divided into three domains. The predicted 108-kDa bovine protein consists of an N-terminal 73-kDa globular domain followed by a 29-kDa coiled-coil dimerization domain, a linker segment of 4 kDa, and a highly acidic domain of 3 kDa. p115 is related to Uso1p, a protein required for endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi vesicular transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has a similar "head-coil-acid" domain structure. The p115 and Uso1p heads are similar in size, have approximately 25% sequence identity, and possess two highly homologous regions (62% and 60% identity over 34 and 53 residues, respectively). There is a third region of homology (50% identity over 28 residues) between the coiled-coil and acidic domains. Although the acidic nature of the p115 and Uso1p C termini is conserved, the primary sequence is not. We discuss these results in light of the proposed function of p115 in membrane targeting and/or fusion. PMID:7831323

  20. Algoritmi per il calcolo dell'epatta della Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    On the sides of the chair of St. Hyppolitus in the Vatican Libray there is a series of 112 epacts, used for calculating the date of Christian Easter valid for 112 years from 222 AD. The algorithm of octaëteris or 8 civil (julian) years=99 lunar months and a correction of three days each 16 years or one day each 5, 5, 6 years are discussed. Four complete solar cycles (28 years), after which the sequence of the day of the week are repeating, are included in 112 years as well as 7 groups of 16 years; 112 is the minimum common multiple between the double octaëteris (16 years) and the solar cycle (28).

  1. Misura dell'azimut della Piramide Cestia col Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    The Pyramid of Caius Cestius in Rome has been built in 330 days in 12 b.C. The instants when the Sun rays are grazing to the East face of the Pyramid have been observed in different days, writing a table of solar azimut and altitudes. Extrapolating for zero altitude, the azimut 201.8°±1.4° of the Pyramid is obtained; it corresponds to the azimut 204.27° of the Sun when the shadow of the lightning rod divides in two equal parts the North face.

  2. Opera in Kindergarten: "La Principessa della sacco di carta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeck, Ellen; Jones, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    When designing curriculum, the unique characteristics of young, gifted students must be carefully considered. Many have a highly defined sense of justice or fairness, a precocious ability to manipulate language or number systems, a need to see the connections between learning experiences, a heightened curiosity, and an ability to conceive a…

  3. Il volto della Luna da Plutarco a Newton. Storia di una teoria ellenistica della gravità

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, Alberto

    2013-03-01

    In his dialogue "De Facie quae in Orbe Lunae apparet", Plutarch includes a discussion on a non-Aristotelian theory of gravity. I describe how this theory could be developed during the Hellenistic period and its influence on the cosmological debate along the centuries until the beginning of modern science. (Text in Italian)

  4. Employment-generating projects for the energy and minerals sectors of Honduras. Proyectos generadores de empleos para los sectores energetico y minero de Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, J.A.

    1988-12-01

    A mission to Honduras invited by the Government of Honduras and sponsored by the Organization of American States addressed the generation of employment in various areas of interest to the country. The mission was made up of experts from numerous countries and international agencies. In the energy sector, the mission recommended consolidating the sector under a coordinating body; carrying out projects to promote reforestation, tree farms, and rational forest utilization; encouraging industrial energy conservation; developing alternative energy sources; and promoting rural electrification and expansion of the electrical grid. In the mining sector, the mission supported promotion and technical assistance for small gold-leaching and placer operations, the national mineral inventory, detailed exploration of promising sites, and the development of a mining school. 13 refs., 7 tabs.

  5. Usos de "quien" (Uses of "Quien").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veciana, R.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes the uses of "quien" as an interrogative and a relative pronoun with numerous examples from standard spoken Spanish. Emphasizes syntactic and contextual factors, as well as stylistic variations, and explains the contrast between "quien" and "que" as subjects of a relative clause. (MES)

  6. I termini di Cassini e Laplace della rifrazione atmosferica misurati alla Meridiana Clementina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    The measures of the atmospheric refraction terms of Cassini and Laplace are made at the Clementine Meridian Line of S. Maria degli Angeli in Rome by comparing the observed positions of the center of the Sun with the ones calculated without atmosphere. Three linear systems with the data of 21 Dec 2015; 18 Jan and 6 Feb 2016 give the refraction terms of tan(z) and tan3(z).

  7. [The activities of Santa Maria Della Scala through 1318 status and its frescoes].

    PubMed

    Pinault, Claire

    2002-01-01

    Siena's Hospital was created in the 10th or 11th century, and still owns a rich documentation of his history, stored at the city's state Archives the general organization of the Hospital in the 14th century is accurately described in the 1318 statue. Moreover, during the 15th century frescoes representing its activities were commissioned by the Hospital. They decorated the Pellegrinaio, the main room and the infirmary. The comparison of these two sources from different periods enables us to ask ourselves why the hospital felt compelled to issue what could appear as redundant illustration of the hospital activities. PMID:12749334

  8. Loss-of-function of DELLA protein SLN1 activates GA signaling in barley aleurone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gibberellic acid (GA) is a key phytohormone regulating seed germination and seedling growth. In cereal species, GA is synthesized in embyros and then translocated to aleurone tissues where it induces production of hydrolytic enzymes for mobolization of seed storage reserve. De-embyronated barley a...

  9. Gibberellin hormone signal perception: down-regulating DELLA repressors of plant growth and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gibberellin (GA) hormone signal is perceived by a receptor with homology to hormone sensitive lipases, GID1 (GA-INSENSITIVE DWARF1). This leads to GA-stimulated responses including stem elongation, seed germination, and the transition to flowering. GA-binding enables GID1 to interact with and ...

  10. Osservare le eclisse solari dal bordo della fascia di totalità

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Oliva, Pietro

    2006-06-01

    Observing Solar eclipses at the totality path limits allows to measure solar diameter variations and lunar ephemerides corrections with an accuracy of a few hundredths of arcsecond. After a review of secular variations of solar diameter, presenting the eclipses of Rome 1567, London 1715, and New York City 1925, we present the current research on this topic and the phenomena occurring on the edges of the totality path. For the forthcoming eclipses, the location of observers must be chosen after calculations of limits and simulations of bead appearances and timings. We present our example in Valoria La Buena (Spain) for the 3 October, 2005 eclipse. Small unfiltered refracting telescopes, equipped with projection screen are recommended for standard observations, in order to avoid artificial reduction in the observed solar diameter due to filtering effects. Preliminary data reductions on eclipses of 1995 India and 1998 Caribbean, and on 2004 Venus Transit are also presented.

  11. Per una pedagogia della comprensione interculturale (A Method for Teaching Intercultural Understanding).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Renzo

    1986-01-01

    Defines true bilingualism as biculturalism, explains what "understanding" another culture means, and describes how to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching methods for students from different cultures. Ideally, individuals learning a second language will acquire a "metacultural" consciousness that permits them to be comfortable in any cultural…

  12. Singing in "La Voce Della Luna" Italian Women's Choir in Melbourne, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane; Joseph, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Australia is a country of ongoing migration that embraces diversity, creative expression and cultural activity. Membership of community music groups by older people can enhance life quality, and may provide a space through which cultural and linguistic identity may be shared and celebrated. This qualitative phenomenological case study explores…

  13. Per una pedagogia della comprensione interculturale (A Method for Teaching Intercultural Understanding).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Renzo

    1986-01-01

    Defines true bilingualism as biculturalism, explains what "understanding" another culture means, and describes how to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching methods for students from different cultures. Ideally, individuals learning a second language will acquire a "metacultural" consciousness that permits them to be comfortable in any cultural

  14. Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

    2003-08-01

    Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao final, temos uma lista de linhas atômicas com mais de 24.000 linhas e uma lista molecular com as moléculas CN, CH, OH, NH, MgH, C2, TiO Gama, CO, FeH, adequadas ao estudo de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas.

  15. Attivita del Centro di Linguistica Applicata nel campo della lingua e della cultura italiana all'estero (Activities of the Italian Center for Applied Linguistics concerning Italian Language and Culture Abroad).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boriosi Katerinov, Maria Clotilde

    1979-01-01

    Outlines the activities of a recently created section of the Italian Center for Applied Linguistics (CILA), dealing with "Teaching Italian Abroad." Describes these activities as encompassing four areas: research, teaching methodology, consultation, teachers' training and bibliographical information. Lists statistical surveys, research papers, and…

  16. Attitudine Linguistica e Acquisizione della Competenza. Un Progetto di Ricerca (Linguistic Aptitude and Acquisition of Competence. A Research Project).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorace, Antonella

    1982-01-01

    Subjects were 45 Italians who were studying English as a second language. They were administered the Modern Language Aptitude Test and a cloze test and were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their language study. The researcher then analyzed the interrelationships among the subjects' linguistic aptitude, language study history, and level…

  17. L'Astronomia del Venerdí Santo, l'eclissi di Luna e l'ora della Sindone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    Dating the crucifixion on friday 3 April 33, when, at sunset a partially eclipsed Moon rised allows to interprete the speech of Saint Peter (Acts 2:20=Joel 3:4) on the day of Pentecost as including an account of this eclipse, as fulfillment of the Scriptures. Few minutes later the apparition of a third star of medium magnitude stated the beginning of the sabbatical rest: before that time Jesus has been buried, wrapped into the shroud. The observations of the equinoctial moonrise from the Mount of Olives on September 2013 are strongly in favour of the hypotehsis of possible observation of the lunar eclipse of 33 AD by Jewish people, as well as the sunrises observed from the Temple Institute terrace in Southern-East Jerusalem demonstrated that this eclipse could have been seen from Jerusalem. The depression of the horizon and the refraction allow to see Sun and Moon more than 1 degree below the geometrical horizon in the azimuthal direction ranging from 90 to 116, prologing to 16 minutes the duration of the partial lunar eclipse observed in 33AD. Texts of Matthew, Mark and Cyrillus of Jerusalem are also commented.

  18. L'influenza dell'attenzione, della memoria e della discriminazione fonetica nell'apprendimento della seconda lingua nella scuola elementare: Risultati di alcuni test (Influence of Attention, Memory, and Phonetic Discrimination in Second Language Learning in Elementary School: Results of Several Tests).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colonna-Preti, Paola; Taeschner, Traute

    1987-01-01

    Using a new method, 48 children in an elementary school in Rome, Italy, were taught a foreign language (26 English, 22 German) and tested after three years. The authors attempt to explain the variation in test results in terms of the students' attention, memory, and phonetic discrimination. (CFM)

  19. 78 FR 52601 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Visiting Masterpiece...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Francesca's Senigallia Madonna, an Italian Treasure, Stolen and Recovered'' and ``Piero della Francesca...: Piero della Francesca's Senigallia Madonna, An Italian Treasure, Stolen and Recovered'' at the Museum...

  20. Materials Data on USO6 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Adult Education Staff Development Bibliography; USOE Region 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Conferences and Institutes Div.

    The bibliography has been prepared to assist in the development of libraries in State departments of education and in institutions of higher education with new programs in adult education. The books, journals, and articles cited were obtained from the reading lists of courses in adult education conducted by more than 150 members of the Commission

  2. Esercitazioni Matematiche: Una Rivista Ad uso Degli Studenti Universitari.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micale, Biagio

    1992-01-01

    The history of the journal "Esercitazioni Matematiche" (1921-43) edited by the "Circolo Matematico di Catania" for university students is described. A selection of proposed problems with some of their solutions is reported. (Author)

  3. Usos de "quien" (Uses of "Quien" - Part 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veciana, R.

    1981-01-01

    Illustrates with numerous examples and analyses the various uses of "quien." Discusses alternation between "quien" and the groups "el cual"/"el que," variation in the verb agreement, the function of "quien" as an indefinite pronoun, as well as questions of stylistic preference and correctness. (MES)

  4. Lo Gnomone Clementino Astronomia Meridiana in Basilica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    Costruito per chiara volontà del papa 70 anni dopo il caso Galileo, lo Gnomone Clementino è un grande telescopio solare che non fa uso di lenti a 92 anni dall’invenzione del cannocchiale. Queste due caratteristiche basterebbero da sole a giustificare l’interesse verso questo strumento. L’astronomia meridiana è alla base dell’astrometria e dell’astrofisica moderna. Lo Gnomone Clementino sta oggi all’astronomia, come il veliero “Amerigo Vespucci” sta alla Marina Italiana. E’ possibile svolgere ogni genere di osservazione e studio su questo strumento, e dal 2002 vi tengo lezioni teorico-pratiche del corso di Storia dell’Astronomia e La Terra nel Sistema Solare della Sapienza, Università di Roma, Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia. Questo testo aggiunge alcuni tasselli alla ricerca storica sulla meridiana, appoggiandosi, com’è naturale, sulle spalle di giganti che mi hanno preceduto in questi studi. In particolare la misura dell’azimut della meridiana, ed il suo inquadramento tra gli strumenti simili ed alcuni studi di astrometria sui dati del 1701-1703 di Bianchini, che sono apparsi fin’ora soltanto su riviste specializzate ed in Inglese vengono qui proposti in Italiano e semplificati, per valorizzare sempre più questa straordinaria opera d’arte e di scienza.

  5. The "Convitti Scuola della Rinascita" (The Boarding Schools of Rebirth): An Innovative Pedagogy for Democracy in Post-War Italy (1945-1955)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneri, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    In 1945, Italian society was in crisis. Twenty years of fascism and the aerial bombing and military offensives of the Second World War had left the civilian population suffering and the nation in need of reinvention. In this difficult context, certain anti-fascist intellectuals devised the interesting pedagogical experiment of the 11 Convitti…

  6. Sull' Applicazione di Paradigmi della Linguistica alla Theoria dei Testi Letterari (On the Application of Linguistic Paradigms to Literary Text Theory).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasoli, Paolo

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes trends over the last century of analyzing literature (poetry and prose) through the aid of linguistic theory. The contributions and shortcomings of various schools (Structuralist, Danish, Formalist, Transformationalist, Generativist) to the evaluation of literature are briefly outlined. (LET)

  7. Guida Didattica per l'Insegnamento della Matematica. Livelli G, H = Mathematics Curriculum Guide for Italian-Speaking Students, Levels G and H. Working Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The curriculum guide is for levels G and H of the mathematics segment of Chicago's bilingual education program for limited-English-speaking native Italian-speaking students. It includes specific instructional objectives and worksheets for teaching the mathematical concepts of place value, whole numbers, rational numbers, measurement, geometry, and…

  8. Sintassi e tassonomia: Teoria della valenza e lessico-grammatica in tedesco e in italiano (Syntax and Taxonomy: Theory of Valence and Lexical Grammar in German and Italian).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Maria Teresa

    1986-01-01

    Briefly discusses the concepts of "subject,""complement,""transitivity," and "intransitivity," contrasts the classes of complements in German and Italian based on identical criteria of classification, justifies such a classification for complements, and suggests didactic implications for the theory of valence. (CFM)

  9. Mutual Phenomena between Galilean Satellites: PHEMU09 Campaign in Italy. (Italian Title: Occultazioni ed eclissi tra i satelliti medicei: i risultati della campagna PHEMU09 in Italia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, G.; Arena, C.; Barbieri, L.; Lopresti, C.; Lo Savio, E.; Marchini, A.; Masi, G.; Maulella, R.; Napoli, C.; Salvaggio, F.; Sbarufatti, G.; Sciuto, C.; Ruocco, N.; Ruisi, R.; Sofia, A.; Tontodonati, E.; Zambelli, R.

    2011-06-01

    Results of photometry of mutual phenomena between Galilean satellites are presented. The observations were performed in Italy during the international campaign PHEMU09.Relevant deviations (O-C) with respect to the expected central instants are present for many events. Taking into account the relative satellites’ longitudinal velocity, longitudinal discrepancies in km (and arcsec) are also computed. The discrepancies with respect to the expected flux drops during the occultations are apparently uncorrelated with the O-C on timing (and longitudinal deviations in km); moreover, for eclipses they seem greater than for occultations

  10. Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

  11. Modelizacion, simulacion y caracterizacion acustica de materiales para su uso en acustica arquitectonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julia Sanchis, Ernesto

    The global objective of this thesis consists on evaluating the viability of applying new sound absorbent materials that attempt, on one hand, to be an alternative to those materials classically used (as mineral wools) and, on the other hand, to offer a solution to one of the most important problems: the use of waste products of the textile industries by means of the recycled. For carrying out this study, some of the parameters that allow to characterize the acoustic behaviour of sound absorbent materials (such as the acoustic impedance, the acoustic absorption coefficient and the flow resistivity, among other) have been studied. Different experimental methods used to obtain these acoustic parameters have also been described. Among the methods presented in this work, the attention has been focused in those based on the acoustic impedance tube (Kundt tube). This technique presents advantages, for example, that only a small space in the laboratory is required as well as the samples of the testing materials are of small dimensions. The study has settled on three fundamental pillars: mathematical modelization, acoustic characterization of materials and numerical simulation. In the first place, after reviewing the main models and theories used in the acoustic evaluation of the porous and fibrous sound absorbent materials, a new mathematical model has been proposed and its validity is demonstrated for the type of studied materials. With regard to the acoustic characterization, diverse campaigns of measurements have been carried out with the purpose of obtaining the acoustic absorption coefficient and the flow resistivity of different type of materials. Finally, by means of a computer program based on the finite element method, the technique of the numerical simulation has been applied with the purpose of contrasting the obtained results experimentally, as well as for the evaluation of one of the most significant industrial applications from the acoustic point of view: the acoustic filters, that are devices designed to reduce the acoustic emission in a tube (as the expansion chambers in the exhaust pipes of the combustion engines). In a first phase of the study, it is observed that the obtained results agree with the experience and, in a second phase, a parametric study to evaluate the efficiency of this type of components is carried out. The numerical simulation presents the advantage of carrying out these studies without necessity of building the real models, with the saving in cost and time that this supposes. In this work, it has been sought to contribute to the knowledge of the acoustic behaviour of different type of materials and devices that are used to improve the acoustic isolation and acoustic conditioning.

  12. Executive Summary; Performance Review of USOE's ESEA Title I Evaluation Technical Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes the opinions, conclusions, and recommendations expressed by a review panel with regard to the performance of the United States Office of Education's 10 Technical Assistance Centers (TACs). Background information concerning the functions and major components of the TAC system and the methodology of the review is provided.

  13. Amplificadores en bandas para receptores de uso radioastronómicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bava, A. J.; Sanz, A. J.

    Está en curso de realización en el IAR un cabezal de receptor, en la frecuencia de 3.3 GHz. Este receptor, conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamientos actuales del IAR y con los futuros proyectos de procesamientos, permitirán las observaciones de las líneas de la molécula de CH, de gran interés astrofísico, y las observaciones en el continuo que complementarán las realizadas en 1420 MHz. En este trabajo, se presentan el diseño de los amplificadores de bajo ruido, que van a conformar las primeras etapas del receptor de 3.3 GHz. El desarrollo de los mismos se realizó teniendo en cuenta que la temperatura del sistema, según consideraciones observacionales, deberá ser de 60oK. Por tal motivo se realizó un diseño de bajo ruido utilizando como elemento activo un HEMT. Tanto los métodos de diseño, como el circuito final, fueron realizados y comprobados con programas de simulación, permitiendo de esta forma obtener el amplificador deseado.

  14. Pesticide Safety for Farmworkers = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para los Trabajadores del Campo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    A booklet for farmworkers and employers uses illustrations and simple text in English and Spanish to inform about the dangers, precautions, and use of pesticides. Topics covered include methods of pesticide absorption; signs/symptoms of pesticide poisoning; first aid; residues; appropriate work clothes; safe and unsafe pesticide practices; how to…

  15. THE ENGLISH PROGRAM OF THE USOE CURRICULUM STUDY AND DEMONSTRATION CENTER MATERIALS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    AFTER FIVE YEARS OF FEDERALLY-SUPPORTED CURRICULUM RESEARCH IN ENGLISH, 14 STUDY CENTERS AND FIVE DEMONSTRATION CENTERS ARE NOW MAKING THE RESULTS OF THEIR WORK AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC. THIS PAMPHLET LISTS TITLES OF REPORTS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS PREPARED BY THE FOLLOWING CENTERS--(1) CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY, (2) TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA…

  16. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  17. USOE SPONSORED RESEARCH ON READING. ERIC/CRIER READING REVIEW SERIES, VOLUME 1, BIBLIOGRAPHY 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAFFEY, JAMES L.

    A LISTING OF 143 IMPORTANT RESEARCH REPORTS COMPLETED ON READING AND CLOSELY RELATED TOPICS COVERING PRESCHOOL THROUGH COLLEGE AND ADULT YEARS IS PRESENTED. RELEVANT ISSUES OF "RESEARCH IN EDUCATION," THE "OFFICE OF EDUCATION RESEARCH REPORTS, 19656-65, RESUMES" (OE-12029, $1.75), AND "OFFICE OF EDUCATION RESEARCH REPORTS, 1956-65, INDEXES"

  18. [Recomendaciones sobre el uso de palivizumab: actualización 2015].

    PubMed

    Fernández Jonusas, Silvia; Albas Maubett, Deleys; Satragno, Daniela; Cattaino, Adriana; Martin Alonso, Margarita; Rubio, Cecilia; Nieto, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    This recommendation updates the Argentinean Pediatrics' Neonatal Committee (CEFEN) ones published in 2007. The respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequent agent for lower respiratory infection. Tiny premature, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and significant hemodynamic congenital heart disease babies are the most vulnerable populations. Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against respiratory syncytial virus used in the cold season. These recommendations are based on the scientific review of the literature published up to date. We reinforce the importance of general prevention measures like hand hygiene and family education among others. During the predominant season of respiratory syncytial virus in our country (April to September) a monthly dose of intramuscular 15 mg/kg of palivizumab is recommended. The safety and effectiveness has been proved as well as a reduction in the hospitalizations rates. In addition, epidemiological data of previous years are provided here. PMID:26914078

  19. ESTRATEGIAS PARA HACER EL MEJOR USO DE LA PROTEINA EN RACIONES PARA VACAS LECHERAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows utilize feed CP with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more N in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Optimizing microbial protein formation in the rumen is the most effective way...

  20. This We Believe. Region V, USOE Conference on Vocational Education. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Board of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, Madison.

    Developed as an EPDA (Educational Professions Development Act) inservice training activity, the conference discussed in this report was designed to primarily determine those basic beliefs, principles, and concepts of vocational education subscribed to by region V conference participants, and secondly to discuss the relationship of policymaking to…

  1. El Uso de Pronombres Personales en La Oralidad Mexicoamericana de Houston, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richarte, Itzel

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the +/- presence of Spanish subject personal pronouns ("yo," "el/ella," "nosotros/nosotras," and "ellos/ellas" ) in sociolinguistic interviews of 36 Mexican-Americans from Houston, Texas (16 of 2nd generation and 20 of 3rd generation), and 20 Mexicans (control group) from Heroica

  2. Nuevas Perspectivas en la Efficiencia del Uso Nirogeno en Vaca Lecheras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows utilize feed crude protein (CP) with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more nitrogen (N) in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Optimizing microbial protein formation in the rume...

  3. Welding Fundamentals. U.S.O.E. 17.23 16. Student's Manual [and] Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulgham, Wayne

    This two-part publication covers the fundamentals for the beginning welder. The student's manual includes many illustrations to acquaint the student with tools and materials used in the welding trade. The manual is self-contained and is written for use in all types of trade and industrial classes. The manual contains 10 lessons, each of which…

  4. El Uso de Pronombres Personales en La Oralidad Mexicoamericana de Houston, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richarte, Itzel

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the +/- presence of Spanish subject personal pronouns ("yo," "el/ella," "nosotros/nosotras," and "ellos/ellas" ) in sociolinguistic interviews of 36 Mexican-Americans from Houston, Texas (16 of 2nd generation and 20 of 3rd generation), and 20 Mexicans (control group) from Heroica…

  5. 78 FR 31840 - Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... making this rule effective less than 30 days after publication in the Federal Register. Delaying the... property and cause significant injury or death to mariners observing the air shows. In order to...

  6. Meningococco B: controllo di due focolai epidemici mediante vaccinazione

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Riassunto La problematica di un efficace approccio vaccinale nei confronti del Meningococco B (MenB) è stata superata identificando con la metodica della "reverse vaccinology" alcuni antigeni capaci di indurre una risposta verso la maggior parte dei ceppi di MenB circolanti nel mondo. Il nuovo vaccino MenB a 4 componenti (4CMenB) è stato autorizzato in Europa, Australia e Canada, ed è entrato nei calendari di immunizzazione pediatrica internazionali: Australia, Canada, UK. In Italia, le prime regioni che hanno raccomandato la vaccinazione contro il MenB sono state Basilicata e Puglia. La gestione di epidemie/focolai epidemici richiede la messa in atto di una risposta rapida da parte delle autorità sanitarie nei confronti di una emergenza sanitaria ad elevato impatto, anche emotivo, sulla popolazione, come recentemente dimostrato in due università americane. Alla dichiarazione di focolaio epidemico in atto, in entrambi i contesti si è attivata una procedura per l'uso del vaccino 4CMenB non ancora autorizzato negli USA. È stato così possibile organizzare gli interventi di profilassi attiva nei due campus universitari, adottando il primo impiego su larga scala del nuovo vaccino 4CMenB e conseguendo, in tempi relativamente brevi, elevati tassi di copertura vaccinale. A fronte di circa 14000 studenti immunizzati con almeno una dose, non è stata segnalata alcuna problematica di eventi avversi conseguenti all'immunizzazione; ad oggi non si sono verificati casi nei soggetti che hanno ricevuto il vaccino. Come conseguenza dei due focolai descritti, è oggi in corso la valutazione da parte dell'FDA per l'estensione dell'uso del vaccino 4CMenB negli Stati Uniti negli adolescenti e giovani adulti. PMID:25916017

  7. Dall'italo-austrliano all'italiano: apprendmento linguistico fra gli scolari della seconda generazione (From Italian-Australian to Italian: Language Acquisition among the Students of the Second Generation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of research to determine the success of the efforts currently being made in schools to teach pure Italian to the second generation of Italians in Australia in order to replace Italian Australian, a mixture of Italian dialects, Italian, and English. 33 references. (CFM)

  8. New ephemeris for the first Cepheid variable observed by Edwin P. Hubble in M31. (Italian Title: Nuova effemeride della prima Cefeide osservata da Edwin P. Hubble in M31)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campestrin, M.; Ceriani, S.; Colombo, M.; Ercole, L.; Favero, G.

    2011-08-01

    The first Cepheid discovered in M31 by E. P. Hubble around the end of 1923, has been re-observed with the 0.8 m Akiuz Mattei Telescope of Celado Observatory in order to update its photometric elements. They resulted: Max = JD 2455461.3 + 31.4d E, R max = 18.1, R min = 19.6, (B-V) = 0.7 (mean), (V-R) = 0.4 (mean). Based on a small sample of galactic Cepheids having known R magnitudes and parallaxes, the distance of M31 was estimated 780 kpc, or 2.5 Mly, accounting for the reddening.

  9. "Una Communita" Poco Nota della Communicazione non Verbale: Come Communicano il Direttore e l'Orchestra (A Little Known "Community" of Nonverbal Communication: How the Conductor and Orchestra Communicate).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardi, Magda Farago

    1992-01-01

    Examines how conductors and orchestras communicate. Communication is essentially nonverbal. Conductors use gestures, gaze, facial expression, nods and posture to deliver their message. Norbert Weiner's Cybernetic Theory of human communication is seen as a means of analyzing precisely how this musical communication takes place. (16 references) (LET)

  10. La teoria dell'attivita verbale nella fase attuale e il suo significato nell'insegnamento della lingua russa agli stranieri (The Theory of Verbal Activity in its Present Stage and its Significance in the Teaching of Russian to Foreigners)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leont'ev, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the evolution of thought in the field of psycholinguistics ("theory of verbal activity" in Russia) and discusses current research being done in the United States, Europe, and the Soviet Union. A valid method of teaching language cannot be developed without a theory of language acquisition. (Text is in Italian.) (CFM)

  11. Sintassi e Tassonomia: Teoria della valenza e lessico-grammatica in tedesco e in italiano (III) (Syntax and Taxonomy: Theory of Valence and Lexical Grammar in German and Italian, Part 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Maria Teresa

    1987-01-01

    In this article, the author concludes a three-part series in which she analyzes verb complements in German and Italian. Parts 1 and 2 of the series appear in volume 18, numbers 2 and 3, respectively. (CFM)

  12. Studiar L'inglese dalle elementari--Problema europeo: Una proposta nuova della pedagogia cibernetica (Beginning the Study of English in the Elementary School Grades--A European Problem: A New Proposal from Cibernetic Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiti-Batelli, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    Warns the European community of the dangers of accepting English as the international language and urges the adoption of Esperanto, a neutral language without its own cultural tradition, as the international lingua franca. (CFM)

  13. (seminario usos de la energia solar en la vivienda) solar energy applications for dwellings. Seminar 17-19 nov 80

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Contents include: National Ecoplan; National Urban Development Plan; The National Housing Program and the Use of Solar Systems and not Conventional Energies in Human Settlements; National Infrastructure for the Development of Solar Energy; Plans to Incorporate Solar Energy Systems into Mexican Communities; General Panorama of Solar Energy Projects Being Carried out in Mexico; and Recent Demonstration Projects in Mexico.

  14. L'Uso dei Materiali Video nei Test Linguistici (The Use of Video Materials in Language Tests).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diadori, Pierangela

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that a communicative language course must have communicative exams. It explains how to choose and use material to test students' listening comprehension and socio-cultural knowledge. Transcripts of a commercial, a talk show, a film, a TV news show, and a documentary are included accompanied by exercises. (CFM)

  15. Narrative Evaluation Report of USOE Title II-B Institute "Education for Librarianship in Urban Community Colleges".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Charles E.

    The U.S. Office of Education funded a 1973-74 institute at Indiana University (Bloomington) Library School in which 18 students participated in a master's degree program for community college librarians/learning resource center directors. The program is both described and evaluated in this report. Information is provided on program goals,…

  16. Errores fotométricos debido al uso del filtro anular de mediana en imágenes CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada, M.; Noel, N.

    El filtro anular de mediana tiene la importante propiedad de tener una escala claramente definida, lo que permite remover de una imagen CCD todos los objetos con tamaños menores a esta escala, independientemente de su morfología particular, y reemplazarlos por el correspondiente ``background" local. Este filtro es de gran utilidad para remover gradientes de fondo, ``fringing" y halos de objetos extendidos mediante el simple procedimiento de restar a la imagen original una imagen filtrada, repitiendo el proceso las veces que sea necesario. En este trabajo se presentan resultados sobre los errores que introduce este filtro en la fotometría de objetos con diferente relación S/N y su aplicación a imágenes con gradientes de fondo y ``fringing".

  17. Functional characterization and developmental expression profiling of gibberellin signalling components in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Hu, Jianhong; Rotman, Ariel; Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Lichter, Amnon; Sun, Tai-Ping; Or, Etti

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic (‘seedless’) table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine. PMID:25588745

  18. Geographical epidemiology of antibacterials in the preschool age

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Thematic maps allow a more rapid and immediate reading of the geographical differences in the distribution of data referred to a specific territory. The aim of this study was to show, for the first time, the application of some statistical and cartographic tools in the analysis of drug utilization in the pediatric population of an Italian region, and to assess the intra-regional difference in the antibiotic prescriptions. Methods To assess the type of geographic distribution of the prescriptions, the analyses were based on the standardized prevalence rate (z-score) calculated at the local health unit, health district, and municipality levels. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the correlation with hospitalization and the Moran’s I index was used to evaluate the existence of spatial autocorrelation. With the use of Getis-Ord’s G statistic, clusters of areas with high and low levels of prevalence were identified and mapped. The probability of receiving at least one prescription of antibacterials during the year for all the children included in the study was evaluated with a logistic regression model. Results With the use of the maps it was possible to see that the prescriptions were not correlated with the health status of the population, but with the tendency of the pediatrician to prescribe drugs. This was also confirmed by the logistic regression model constructed to estimate the probability of receiving at least one prescription of antibacterials considering, as independent variables: age, sex, prevalence of hospitalizations in the district of residence, prescriptive attitude of the pediatrician, sex of the pediatrician, pediatrician’s age group, and duration of the pediatrician’s contract with the local health unit (LHU). Conclusions The priority actions to rationalize the use of antibacterials in the preschool age should concentrate on the active participation of the pediatricians in permanent education activities. Moreover, the competent authorities should increasing their efforts to limit unnecessary prescriptions and increase appropriateness of prescribing. Riassunto Introduzione Le mappe tematiche consentono una più rapida ed immediata lettura delle differenze geografiche nella distribuzione di dati riferiti ad un territorio specifico. Lo scopo dello studio è mostrare, per la prima volta, l’applicazione di alcuni strumenti statistici e cartografici, nell’analisi dell’uso dei farmaci nella popolazione pediatrica di una regione italiana e valutare le differenze intra-regionali. Metodi Per valutare il tipo di distribuzione geografica delle prescrizioni, sono stati calcolati i tassi di prevalenza standardizzati (punteggi-z) a livello di ASL, Distretti Sanitari e Comuni. Per valutare la correlazione con le ospedalizzazioni è stato usato il coefficiente di correlazione di Pearson; per valutare l’esistenza di autocorrelazione spaziale è stato usato l’indice I di Moran. Tramite l’uso della statistica G di Getis-Ord sono stati identificati cluster di aree ad alto e basso livello di prevalenza. Infine con un modello di regressione logistica è stata stimata la probabilità di ricevere almeno una prescrizione nel corso dell’anno per tutti i pazienti inclusi nello studio. Risultati Con l’uso delle mappe è possibile vedere che le prescrizioni non sono correlate con lo stato di salute della popolazione, ma sono correlate con l’attitudine prescrittiva del pediatra. Questo è confermato anche dal modello di regressione logistica costruito per stimare la probabilità di ricevere almeno una prescrizione considerando come variabili indipendenti l’età, il sesso, la prevalenza di ricoveri nel distretto di residenza, l’attitudine prescrittiva del pediatra, la classe di età del pediatra e la durata della convenzione del pediatra con l’Azienda Sanitaria Locale (ASL). Conclusioni Gli interventi primari per razionalizzare l’uso degli antibiotici in età prescolare dovrebbero concentrarsi sulla partecipazione attiva dei pediatri in attività di educazione permanente. Inoltre il contenimento delle prescrizioni di ASL e Distretti dovrebbe prevedere un ulteriore controllo da parte delle autorità competenti in merito all’appropriatezza prescrittiva. PMID:23241437

  19. GA signalling and cross-talk with other signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lor, Vai S; Olszewski, Neil E

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones that regulate growth and development. DELLA proteins repress GA responses. GA binding to its receptor triggers a series of events that culminate in the destruction of DELLA proteins by the 26S proteasome, which removes the repression of GA signalling. DELLA proteins are transcription co-activators that induce the expression of genes which encode products that inhibit GA responses. In addition to repressing GA responses, DELLA proteins influence the activity of other signalling pathways and serve as a central hub from which other pathways influence GA signalling. In this role, DELLA proteins bind to and inhibit proteins, including transcription factors that act in the signalling pathways of other hormones and light. The binding of these proteins to DELLA proteins also inhibits DELLA activity. GA signalling is subject to homoeostatic regulation through GA-induced repression of GA biosynthesis gene expression, and increased production of the GA receptor and enzymes that catabolize bioactive GAs. This review also discusses the nature of mutant DELLA alleles that are used to produce high-yielding 'Green Revolution' cereal varieties, and highlights important gaps in our knowledge of GA signalling. PMID:26374886

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO F-BOX PROTEINS, SLEEPY1 AND SNEEZY IN GA SIGNALING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SNEEZY (SNE) is a homolog of SLEEPY1 (SLY1), encoding an F-box protein subunit of an SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in Arabidopsis. SLY1 plays a central role in destruction of DELLA negative family proteins via 26S proteasome pathway in GA signaling pathway. DELLA proteins consist of five memb...

  1. Gibberellin Perception by the Gibberellin Receptor and its Effector Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakoshima, Toshio; Murase, Kohji; Hirano, Yoshinori; Sun, Tai-Ping

    Gibberellins control a diverse range of growth and developmental processes in higher plants and have been widely utilized in the agricultural industry. By binding to a nuclear receptor GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1), gibberellins regulate gene expression by promoting degradation of the transcriptional regulator DELLA proteins. The precise manner in which GID1 discriminates and becomes activated by bioactive gibberellins for specific binding to DELLA proteins remains unclear. We present the crystal structure of a ternary complex of Arabidopsis thaliana GID1A, a bioactive gibberellin and the N-terminal DELLA domain of GAI. In this complex, GID1a occludes gibberellin in a deep binding pocket covered by its N-terminal helical switch region, which in turn interacts with the DELLA domain containing DELLA, VHYNP and LExLE motifs. Our results establish a structural model of a plant hormone receptor which is distinct from the hormone-perception mechanism and effector recognition of the known auxin receptors.

  2. The Arabidopsis F-box protein SLEEPY1 targets gibberellin signaling repressors for gibberellin-induced degradation.

    PubMed

    Dill, Alyssa; Thomas, Stephen G; Hu, Jianhong; Steber, Camille M; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2004-06-01

    The nuclear DELLA proteins are highly conserved repressors of hormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, GA derepresses its signaling pathway by inducing proteolysis of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA). SLEEPY1 (SLY1) encodes an F-box-containing protein, and the loss-of-function sly1 mutant has a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype and accumulates a high level of RGA. These findings suggested that SLY1 recruits RGA to the SCFSLY1 E3 ligase complex for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. In this report, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism of how SLY1 interacts with the DELLA proteins for controlling GA response. By yeast two-hybrid and in vitro pull-down assays, we demonstrated that SLY1 interacts directly with RGA and GA INSENSITIVE (GAI, a closely related DELLA protein) via their C-terminal GRAS domain. The rga and gai null mutations additively suppressed the recessive sly1 mutant phenotype, further supporting the model that SCFSLY1 targets both RGA and GAI for degradation. The N-terminal DELLA domain of RGA previously was shown to be essential for GA-induced degradation. However, we found that this DELLA domain is not required for protein-protein interaction with SLY1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), suggesting that its role is in a GA-triggered conformational change of the DELLA proteins. We also identified a novel gain-of-function sly1-d mutation that increased GA signaling by reducing the levels of the DELLA protein in plants. This effect of sly1-d appears to be caused by an enhanced interaction between sly1-d and the DELLA proteins. PMID:15155881

  3. El uso de las simulaciones educativas en la ensenanza de conceptos de ciencias y su importancia desde la perspectiva de los estudiantes candidatos a maestros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo Ramos, Edwin O.

    This research was aimed at establishing the differences, if any, between traditional direct teaching and constructive teaching through the use of computer simulations and their effect on pre-service teachers. It's also intended to gain feedback on the users of these simulations as providers of constructive teaching and learning experiences. The experimental framework used a quantitative method with a descriptive focus. The research was guided by two hypothesis and five inquiries. The data was obtained from a group composed of twenty-nine students from a private Metropolitan University in Puerto Rico and elementary school pre-service teachers. They were divided into two sub-groups: experimental and control. Two means were used to collect data: tests and surveys. Quantitative data was analyzed through test "t" for paired samples and the non-parametric Wilcoxon test. The results of the pre and post tests do not provide enough evidence to conclude that using the simulations as learning tools was more effective than traditional teaching. However, the quantitative results obtained were not enough to reject or dismiss the hypothesis Ho1. On the other hand, an overall positive attitude towards these simulations was obtained from the surveys. The importance of including hands-on activities in daily lesson planning was proven and well recognized among practice teachers. After participating and working with these simulations, the practice teachers expressed being convinced that they would definitely use them as teaching tools in the classroom. Due to these results, hypothesis Ho2 was rejected. Evidence also proved that practice teachers need further professional development to improve their skills in the application of these simulations in the classroom environment. The majority of these practice teachers showed concern about not being instructed on important aspects of the use of simulation as part of their college education curriculum towards becoming teachers.

  4. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  5. Pesticide Safety for Non-Certified Mixers, Loaders and Applicators = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para Mezcladores, Cargadores y Aplicadores no Certificados.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    Written in English and Spanish and completely illustrated, this manual provides basic safety information for pesticide workers. Mixers, loaders, and applicators work with pesticides at their greatest strength and have the highest risk of poisoning. Understanding the pesticide label is the first step to pesticide safety. The words…

  6. Uso de modelos mecânicos em curso informal de astronomia para deficientes visuais. Resgate de uma experiência

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, E. T., Jr.; Klafke, J. C.

    2003-08-01

    O presente trabalho propõe-se a resgatar uma experiência que teve lugar no Planetário de São Paulo nos anos 60. Em 1962, o Sr. Acácio, então com 37 anos, deficiente visual desde os 27, passou a assistir às aulas ministradas pelo Prof. Aristóteles Orsini aos integrantes do corpo de servidores do Planetário. O Sr. Acácio era o único deficiente da turma e, embora possuísse conhecimentos básicos e relativamente avançados de matemática, enfrentava dificuldades na compreensão e acompanhamento da exposição, como também em estudos posteriores. Com o intuito de auxiliá-lo na superação desses problemas, o Prof. Orsini solicitou a construção de modelos mecânicos que, através do sentido do tato, permitissem o acompanhamento das aulas e a transposição do modelo para o "constructo" mental. Essa prática mostrou-se tão eficaz que facilitou sobejamente o aprendizado da matéria pelo sujeito. O Sr. Acácio passou a integrar o corpo de professores do Planetário/Escola Municipal de Astrofísica, tendo ficado responsável pelo curso de "Introdução à Astronomia" por vários anos. Além disso, a experiência foi tão bem sucedida que alguns dos modelos tiveram seus elementos constitutivos pintados diferencialmente para serem utilizados em cursos regulares do Planetário, tornando-se parte integrante do conjunto de recursos didáticos da instituição. É pensando nessa eficácia, tanto em seu objetivo original permitir o aprendizado de um deficiente visual quanto no subsidiário recurso didático sistemático da instituição que decidimos resgatar essa experiência. Estribados nela, acreditamos ser extremamente produtivo, em termos educacionais, o aperfeiçoamento dos modelos originais, agora resgatados e restaurados, e a criação de outros que pudessem ser utilizados no ensino dessa ciência a deficientes visuais.

  7. Uso de Cebos para el Control de la Termita de Formosa, Coptotermes formosanus, en Zonas Arboladas en la Ciudad de Nuevo Orleáns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 220 underground termite stations were installed 1 meter away from the base of trees located in the median area of seven blocks of Esplanade Avenue, New Orleans, LA. Aspen wood was used to monitor termite populations. A nutritionally based bait matrix developed by United States Department ...

  8. Servicio de Informacion para la Orientacion Educativa. Guia para su Interpretacion y Uso. (Information Service for Educational Counseling. Guide for Its Interpretation and Use.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Hato Rey, PR. Puerto Rico Office.

    In 1974, the College Board in Puerto Rico initiated a program on educational counseling for high school-bound students. The program was designed to help students define their educational goals and career interests before entering the ninth grade where they would be required to make specific curriculum choices. The program calls for the…

  9. Charge It Right. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Uso Correcto de su Tarjeta de Credito. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Education para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module on managing a credit card is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to describe the costs and benefits of…

  10. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  11. Previniendo el Uso de Drogas entre Ninos y Adolescentes: Una Guia Basada en Investigaciones (Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.

    This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…

  12. Using Web-Based Activities to Promote Reading: An Exploratory Study with Teenagers (Uso de actividades en la red para promover la lectura: un estudio exploratorio con adolescentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rátiva Velandia, Marlén; Pedreros Torres, Andrés Leonardo; Núñez Alí, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    It is considered valuable to take advantage of web activities to improve and qualify the English teaching and learning processes, especially in the promotion of reading comprehension. In this article we share the process and results of a study that focused on some activities based on web materials that were designed and used with 10th grade…

  13. Uso de exámenes de detección como oportunidad para ayudar a fumadores a dejar el tabaco

    Cancer.gov

    El NCI ha publicado un anuncio de financiamiento para ayudar a estimular la investigación sobre métodos óptimos para dejar de fumar cigarrillos que se entreguen junto con los exámenes de detección.

  14. L'eliosismologia: onde sismiche per studiare l'interno del Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Negli ultimi cinquanta anni siamo stati testimoni di una straordinaria rivoluzione della conoscenza e comprensione della nostra stella grazie alla nascita dell'Eliosismologia, lo studio delle oscillazioni solari. Analogamente a ciò che accade nella Terra durante i terremoti, anche l'interno del Sole è pervaso continuamente da onde sismiche che provocano piccole oscillazioni, ovvero deformazioni della fotosfera. Le oscillazioni sono la manifestazione di diversi processi che avvengono all'interno della struttura del Sole e le frequenze sismiche dei modi osservati e misurati sulla superficie sono legate direttamente ai parametri fisici degli strati interni attraversati dalle onde sismiche. Lo studio delle oscillazioni rappresenta, quindi, l'unico metodo diretto per studiare la struttura e la dinamica interna del Sole. In questo articolo verranno illustrate le caratteristiche generali delle oscillazioni solari e verranno presentati i risultati importanti e i progressi notevoli raggiunti grazie all'Eliosismologia.

  15. La relatività debole. La fisica dello spazio e del tempo senza paradossi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleri, Franco

    2011-06-01

    Secondo Einstein e Poincaré la simultaneità di eventi che hanno luogo in punti diversi dello spazio può essere definita solo per convenzione. Dal punto di vista matematico si dimostra, quindi, che due diverse definizioni di simultaneità corrispondono a due diversi valori del coefficiente e1 della variabile spaziale x presente nelle trasformazioni di Lorentz. A partire da premesse normalmente accettate otterremo diverse dimostrazioni della necessità di reintrodurre il concetto di simultaneità assoluta. Le conseguenze cosmologiche della nuova struttura dello spazio e del tempo andranno contro la cosmologia del Big Bang. Inoltre, dopo questi risultati, il relativismo sopravviverà in una forma meno aspra ("relatività debole") perché risulter privo di quel campionario di paradossi portato dalla teoria della Relatività Speciale.

  16. La Segmentazione Grafica della Scrittura di una Storia Conosciuta. Uno Studio Descrittivo su 450 Testi di Bambini dai 6 agli 8 Anni (Graphic Segmentation of the Writing of a Familiar Story. A Descriptive Study of 450 Texts of Children from 6 to 8 Years Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontecorvo, Clotilde; Di Eduardo, Roberta

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how children in the early grades of elementary school divide words while writing. The subjects were 450 Italian children belonging either to upper-middle-class or lower-middle-class families who were asked to write the familiar story of "Little Red Riding Hood." (CFM)

  17. The GID1-Mediated Gibberellin Perception Mechanism Is Conserved in the Lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii but Not in the Bryophyte Physcomitrella patens[W

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Ko; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Asano, Kenji; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kojima, Mikiko; Katoh, Etsuko; Xiang, Hongyu; Tanahashi, Takako; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Banks, Jo Ann; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kitano, Hidemi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis thaliana, gibberellin (GA) signaling is mediated by GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) and DELLA proteins in collaboration with a GA-specific F-box protein. To explore when plants evolved the ability to perceive GA by the GID1/DELLA pathway, we examined these GA signaling components in the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii and the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. An in silico search identified several homologs of GID1, DELLA, and GID2, a GA-specific F-box protein in rice, in both species. Sm GID1a and Sm GID1b, GID1 proteins from S. moellendorffii, showed GA binding activity in vitro and interacted with DELLA proteins from S. moellendorffii in a GA-dependent manner in yeast. Introduction of constitutively expressed Sm GID1a, Sm G1D1b, and Sm GID2a transgenes rescued the dwarf phenotype of rice gid1 and gid2 mutants. Furthermore, treatment with GA4, a major GA in S. moellendorffii, caused downregulation of Sm GID1b, Sm GA20 oxidase, and Sm GA3 oxidase and degradation of the Sm DELLA1 protein. These results demonstrate that the homologs of GID1, DELLA, and GID2 work in a similar manner in S. moellendorffii and in flowering plants. Biochemical studies revealed that Sm GID1s have different GA binding properties from GID1s in flowering plants. No evidence was found for the functional conservation of these genes in P. patens, indicating that GID1/DELLA-mediated GA signaling, if present, differs from that in vascular plants. Our results suggest that GID1/DELLA-mediated GA signaling appeared after the divergence of vascular plants from the moss lineage. PMID:17965273

  18. Tissue-Specific Regulation of Gibberellin Signaling Fine-Tunes Arabidopsis Iron-Deficiency Responses.

    PubMed

    Wild, Michael; Davière, Jean-Michel; Regnault, Thomas; Sakvarelidze-Achard, Lali; Carrera, Esther; Lopez Diaz, Isabel; Cayrel, Anne; Dubeaux, Guillaume; Vert, Grégory; Achard, Patrick

    2016-04-18

    Iron is an essential element for most living organisms. Plants acquire iron from the rhizosphere and have evolved different biochemical and developmental responses to adapt to a low-iron environment. In Arabidopsis, FIT encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that activates the expression of iron-uptake genes in root epidermis upon iron deficiency. Here, we report that the gibberellin (GA)-signaling DELLA repressors contribute substantially in the adaptive responses to iron-deficient conditions. When iron availability decreases, DELLAs accumulate in the root meristem, thereby restraining root growth, while being progressively excluded from epidermal cells in the root differentiation zone. Such DELLA exclusion from the site of iron acquisition relieves FIT from DELLA-dependent inhibition and therefore promotes iron uptake. Consistent with this mechanism, expression of a non-GA-degradable DELLA mutant protein in root epidermis interferes with iron acquisition. Hence, spatial distribution of DELLAs in roots is essential to fine-tune the adaptive responses to iron availability. PMID:27093087

  19. [Food Addiction: definizione, misurazione e prevalenza in soggetti sani e in pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare].

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Vumbaca, Viviana; Innamorati, Marco; Contardi, Anna; Farina, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Il costrutto della "Food Addiction" (FA) è stato introdotto negli ultimi anni per meglio comprendere i pattern alimentari disfunzionali osservati nei pazienti obesi e in sovrappeso e nei pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare (DCA). Nonostante i numerosi parallelismi tra la dipendenza da sostanze e la FA, non c'è ancora accordo nel considerare la FA come un indipendente DCA né un concetto utile. L'obiettivo della presente rassegna è stato quello di riassumere i dati disponibili al fine di aumentare le conoscenze su: 1) definizione, misurazione e caratteristiche generali della FA; 2) prevalenza della FA in campioni clinici e non clinici. I dati disponibili suggeriscono che la FA sia un costrutto transnosografico presente in tutti i DCA, con una prevalenza più elevata nella bulimia nervosa. Nonostante il dibattito sull'autonomia della FA come DCA rimanga aperto, gli studi riportati suggeriscono che la comorbilità tra FA e DCA sia associata con peggiori outcome clinici, giustificando di conseguenza l'assessment e il trattamento della FA. PMID:27183510

  20. Gibberellins and abscisic acid signal crosstalk: living and developing under unfavorable conditions.

    PubMed

    Golldack, Dortje; Li, Chao; Mohan, Harikrishnan; Probst, Nina

    2013-07-01

    Plants adapt to adverse environments by integrating growth and development to environmentally activated cues. Within the adaptive signaling networks, plant hormones tightly control convergent developmental and stress adaptive processes and coordinate cellular responses to external and internal conditions. Recent studies have uncovered novel antagonizing roles of the plant hormones gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in integrating growth and development in plants with environmental signaling. According to current concepts, GRAS transcription factors of the DELLA and SCARECROW-LIKE (SCL) types have a key role as major growth regulators and have pivotal functions in modulating GA signaling. Significantly, current models emphasize a function of DELLA proteins as central regulators in GA homeostasis. DELLA proteins interact with the cellular GA receptor GID1 (GA-INSENSITIVE DWARF1) and degradation of DELLAs activates the function of GA. Supplementary to the prevailing view of a pivotal role of GRAS family transcriptional factors in plant growth regulation, recent work has suggested that the DELLA and SCL proteins integrate generic GA responses into ABA-controlled abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we review and discuss how GRAS type proteins influence plant development and versatile adaptation as hubs in GA and ABA triggered signaling pathways. PMID:23525744

  1. The ‘Green Revolution’ dwarfing genes play a role in disease resistance in Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Saville, R. J.; Gosman, N.; Burt, C. J.; Makepeace, J.; Steed, A.; Corbitt, M.; Chandler, E.; Brown, J. K. M.; Boulton, M. I.; Nicholson, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Green Revolution dwarfing genes, Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, encode mutant forms of DELLA proteins and are present in most modern wheat varieties. DELLA proteins have been implicated in the response to biotic stress in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Using defined wheat Rht near-isogenic lines and barley Sln1 gain of function (GoF) and loss of function (LoF) lines, the role of DELLA in response to biotic stress was investigated in pathosystems representing contrasting trophic styles (biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic). GoF mutant alleles in wheat and barley confer a resistance trade-off with increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens and increased resistance to necrotrophic pathogens whilst the converse was conferred by a LoF mutant allele. The polyploid nature of the wheat genome buffered the effect of single Rht GoF mutations relative to barley (diploid), particularly in respect of increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens. A role for DELLA in controlling cell death responses is proposed. Similar to Arabidopsis, a resistance trade-off to pathogens with contrasting pathogenic lifestyles has been identified in monocotyledonous cereal species. Appreciation of the pleiotropic role of DELLA in biotic stress responses in cereals has implications for plant breeding. PMID:22090435

  2. A molecular framework for light and gibberellin control of cell elongation.

    PubMed

    de Lucas, Miguel; Davière, Jean-Michel; Rodríguez-Falcón, Mariana; Pontin, Mariela; Iglesias-Pedraz, Juan Manuel; Lorrain, Séverine; Fankhauser, Christian; Blázquez, Miguel Angel; Titarenko, Elena; Prat, Salomé

    2008-01-24

    Cell elongation during seedling development is antagonistically regulated by light and gibberellins (GAs). Light induces photomorphogenesis, leading to inhibition of hypocotyl growth, whereas GAs promote etiolated growth, characterized by increased hypocotyl elongation. The mechanism underlying this antagonistic interaction remains unclear. Here we report on the central role of the Arabidopsis thaliana nuclear transcription factor PIF4 (encoded by PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4) in the positive control of genes mediating cell elongation and show that this factor is negatively regulated by the light photoreceptor phyB (ref. 4) and by DELLA proteins that have a key repressor function in GA signalling. Our results demonstrate that PIF4 is destabilized by phyB in the light and that DELLAs block PIF4 transcriptional activity by binding the DNA-recognition domain of this factor. We show that GAs abrogate such repression by promoting DELLA destabilization, and therefore cause a concomitant accumulation of free PIF4 in the nucleus. Consistent with this model, intermediate hypocotyl lengths were observed in transgenic plants over-accumulating both DELLAs and PIF4. Destabilization of this factor by phyB, together with its inactivation by DELLAs, constitutes a protein interaction framework that explains how plants integrate both light and GA signals to optimize growth and development in response to changing environments. PMID:18216857

  3. University Spin-Offs in Sweden: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowegren, Marie; Bengtsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    There have been few studies on the long-term performance of university spin-offs (USOs). This paper builds on previous empirical research into the performance of USOs and on the resource- based model of USOs. Several research issues are addressed including, in particular, the long-term performance of Swedish USOs, the distribution of the main…

  4. Bricklayer and Stonemason. U.S.O.E. 46.0102 D.O.T. 861.381, 861.781, 861.884. Student's Manual [and] Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, L. A., Jr.

    The student's manual in this two-part instructional kit is designed to help students in individualized courses in bricklaying and stone masonry to tie together classroom learning and on-the-job practice. The manual includes assignments, technical information, objectives that tell what the student is to learn from each assignment, and exercise

  5. Fashion Merchandising Module. An Advanced-Level Option for Distribution and Marketing. For the U.S.O.E. Occupational Cluster of 04.02 Apparel and Accessories Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clis, Pat; And Others

    This instructional module on fashion merchandising is designed as a guide for secondary education teachers who are helping twelfth grade students develop occupational competency for entry-level positions in fashion-related jobs. An introductory section covers module goals, career opportunities and employment demands, administrative considerations,…

  6. Needed Research on Psychological Processes. A Special Report of the USOE-Sponsored Grant Study: Critical Appraisal of Research in the Personality-Emotions-Motivation Domain. IBR Report No. 73-31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Donald W.

    This task group report is one of a series prepared by eminent psychologists who have served as consultants in the U.S.O.E.-sponsored grant study to conduct a Critical Appraisal of the Personality-Emotions-Motivation Domain. In order to achieve the goal of identifying important problems and areas for new research and methodological issues related…

  7. Needed Research on PEM Aspects of Child Development. A Special Report of the USOE-Sponsored Grant Study: Critical Appraisal of Research in the Personality-Emotions-Motivation Domain. IBR Report No. 73-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, William J.; And Others

    The task group report presented in this publication is one of a series prepared by eminent psychologists who have served as consultants in the U.S.O.E.-sponsored grant study to conduct a Critical Appraisal of the Personality-Emotions-Motivation Domain. In order to achieve the goal of identifying important problems and areas for new research and…

  8. Needed Research on Trait Structure, Multivariate Approach. A Special Report of the USOE-Sponsored Grant Study: Critical Appraisal of Research in the Personality-Emotions-Motivation Domain. IBR Report No. 73-21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Desmond S.; And Others

    The task group report presented in this publication is one of a series prepared by eminent psychologists who have served as consultants in the U.S.O.E.-sponsored grant study to conduct a Critical Appraisal of the Personality-Emotions-Motivation Domain. In order to achieve the goal of identifying important problems and areas for new research and…

  9. Understanding Beliefs, Teachers' Beliefs and Their Impact on the Use of Computer Technology (Hacia la compresión de las creencias, convicciones del educador y su impacto en el uso de la tecnología)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvis, Héctor Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    This theoretical review addresses the construct of beliefs in education and English as a foreign language, and their impact when integrating technology. A thorough definition and categorization of teachers' beliefs will be provided. In addition, studies conducted in various educational settings examining the effects of teachers' beliefs…

  10. Positive Prevention: Successful Approaches To Preventing Youthful Drug and Alcohol Use [and] La Prevencion Positiva: Metodos que han tenido exito en la prevencion del uso de drogas y alcohol entre la juventud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The United States has the highest rate of youthful drug abuse of any industrialized country in the world. There is a growing awareness that drug and alcohol use are closely connected to other problems such as teenage suicide, adolescent pregnancy, traffic fatalities, juvenile delinquency, poor school performance, runaways, and dropouts. Youthful…

  11. Bricklayer and Stonemason. U.S.O.E. 46.0102 D.O.T. 861.381, 861.781, 861.884. Student's Manual [and] Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, L. A., Jr.

    The student's manual in this two-part instructional kit is designed to help students in individualized courses in bricklaying and stone masonry to tie together classroom learning and on-the-job practice. The manual includes assignments, technical information, objectives that tell what the student is to learn from each assignment, and exercise…

  12. Needed Research on Stress and Anxiety. A Special Report of the USOE-Sponsored Grant Study: Critical Appraisal of Research in the Personality-Emotions-Motivation Domain. IBR Report No. 72-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, C.D.; And Others

    This series of papers on stress and anxiety is part of a larger project concerned with a critical appraisal of research needs in the areas of personality, emotion, and motivation. A group of behavioral scientists contributed their expertise in identifying critical variables, concepts, and processes relating to stress and anxiety. Rather than…

  13. Using Songs to Encourage Sixth Graders to Develop English Speaking Skills (Uso de canciones para motivar a los estudiantes de grado sexto a desarrollar habilidades orales en inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte Romero, Mónica Duarte; Tinjacá Bernal, Luz Mery; Carrero Olivares, Marilú

    2012-01-01

    This article contains the procedures and findings of an investigation carried out by a team of teachers with the purpose of motivating students to speak English. We observed students' lack confidence to talk and that they had little motivation toward learning English. Thus, we used songs as a main resource in conjunction with different kind…

  14. First Year University Students' Use of Formulaic Sequences in Oral and Written Descriptions (El uso de secuencias formulaicas de estudiantes de primer año en descripciones orales y escritas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Burgos, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The present article investigates the use of first year university students' formulaic sequences in written and oral texts in an English as a foreign language context. The corpus of the study consists of eight descriptive texts--four written and four oral--which were composed of four students of English Pedagogy at a university in Santiago,…

  15. Using the Dictionary for Improving Adolescents' Reading Comprehension of Short Scientific Texts (Uso del diccionario para mejorar la comprensión lectora de textos científicos cortos en inglés con adolescentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra Cortés, Ximena

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an innovative and action research project which focused on the use of the dictionary and the prior knowledge of Colombian high school students to improve their reading comprehension of short scientific texts. Data collection instruments included students' work gathered during two workshops, field notes, and a questionnaire.…

  16. When Students Say Far Too Much: Examining Gushing in the ELT Classroom (Cuando los alumnos dicen demasiado: análisis del uso excesivo de palabras en clases de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugford, Gerrard; Cuevas, Oscar Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    English foreign-language users often overuse words when faced with difficult situations. Called gushing, such excessive use of words is often legitimately employed by native speakers to express, for instance, gratitude and apologies when a simple "thank you" or "sorry" does not sufficiently convey an interlocutor's feelings.…

  17. The Use of Blogs in English Language Learning: A Study of Student Perceptions (El uso de bitácoras o "blogs" en el aprendizaje del idioma inglés: un estudio sobre las percepciones del estudiante)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Gurleen; Gupta, Deepti; Aggarwal, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present an investigation that focused on the students' perception of using Blogs as a means to supplement in-class language learning activities. Blogs are easy to manage and enable students to publish their work in a chronological manner. They help students to engage in online exchanges and promote learner autonomy. This…

  18. The Urban Complex in Cattolica, Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The Italian city of Cattolica has developed an urban complex, the Piazza della Repubblica, that offers a wide range of public services. In renovated facilities it provides a modern architectural setting based on the idea of a traditional town square. It houses a primary school, cultural center (including a library), and theater, and it is an…

  19. The Emergence of For-Profit E-learning Providers in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Ross

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Luca Botturi, winner of the 2008 Educational Communication and Technology (ECT) Foundation Robert deKeiffer International Fellowship Award. Dr. Botturi, an Italian originally from the suburbs of Milano, works at the Universita della Svizzera italiana (USI, also called the University of Lugano) in its New…

  20. 21 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - List of Authorities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Control Farmacéutico. For medicinal products for veterinary use: Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y...: Agence du Médicament. For veterinary medicinal products: Agence Nationale du Médicament Vétérinaire..., Dipartimento Farmaci e Farmacovigilanza. For medicinal products for veterinary use: Ministero della...

  1. 21 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - List of Authorities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Control Farmacéutico. For medicinal products for veterinary use: Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y...: Agence du Médicament. For veterinary medicinal products: Agence Nationale du Médicament Vétérinaire..., Dipartimento Farmaci e Farmacovigilanza. For medicinal products for veterinary use: Ministero della...

  2. Allocation of Attention and Effect of Practice on Persons with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oka, Kohei; Miura, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Persons with mild and moderate mental retardation and CA-matched persons without mental retardation performed a dual-task, "pencil-and-paper task" (Baddeley, Della Sala, Gray, Papagno, & Spinnler (1997). Testing central executive functioning with a pencil-and-paper test. In Rabbit (Ed.), Methodology of Frontal and Executive Function (pp. 61-80).…

  3. The non-gibberellic acid-responsive semi-dwarfing gene uzu affects Fusarium crown rot resistance in barley

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in Arabidopsis show that DELLA genes may differentially affect responses to biotrophic and necrophic pathogens. A recent report based on the study of DELLA-producing reduced height (Rht) genes in wheat and barley also hypothesized that DELLA genes likely increased susceptibility to necrotrophs but increased resistance to biotrophs. Results Effects of uzu, a non-GA (gibberellic acid)-responsive semi-dwarfing gene, on Fusarium crown rot (FCR) resistance in barley were investigated. Fifteen pairs of near isogenic lines for this gene were generated and assessed under two different temperature regimes. Similar to its impacts on plant height, the semi-dwarfing gene uzu also showed larger effects on FCR severity in the high temperature regime when compared with that in the low temperature regime. Conclusions Results from this study add to the growing evidence showing that the effects of plant height on Fusarium resistances are unlikely related to DELLA genes but due to direct or indirect effects of height difference per se. The interaction between these two characteristics highlights the importance of understanding relationships between resistance and other traits of agronomic importance as the value of a resistance gene could be compromised if it dramatically affects plant development and morphology. PMID:24418007

  4. Interdisciplinary Co-operation (Part II of "Language Learning: Individual Needs, Interdisciplinary Co-operation, Bi- and Multilingualism").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The following papers on interdisciplinary cooperation in second language instruction are included: (1) "Language Teaching: Possibilities for Interdisciplinary Co-operation," by James E. Alatis; (2) "L'insegnamento della letteratura italiana (The Teaching of Italian Literature)," by Ezio Raimondi; (3) "Objective Evaluation and Transparency," by…

  5. Romans 12 Motivational Gifts and College Professors: Implications for Job Satisfaction and Person-Job Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Jon C.; Winston, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    This study builds on earlier work by DellaVecchio and Winston (2004) and McPherson (2008). They addressed the seven motivational gifts Paul wrote about in Romans 12:3-8 as a means for addressing job satisfaction and person-job fit among college professors. Using a snowball sampling method, 89 college professors completed the online survey…

  6. An Imaginative Approach to Teaching Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca, Carmen Manuel; Carmona, Rodrigo Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    Mindful of the fact that one of the most important ingredients in learning to write in a foreign language is motivation, the authors have experimented in their classes with a wide range of exercises from a very useful source: Gianni Rodari's "Grammatico della Fantasia: lntroduzione all'arte di inventare storie" (Torino: Piccola Biblioteca Einandi,…

  7. Mutations in the F-box gene SNEEZY result in decreased arabidopsis GA signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported that the SLEEPY1 (SLY1) homolog, F-box gene SNEEZY/SLEEPY2 (SNE/SLY2), can partly replace SLY1 in gibberellin (GA) hormone signaling through interaction with DELLAs RGA and GAI. To determine whether SNE normally functions in GA signaling, we characterized the phenotypes of tw...

  8. Castelli, Benedetto (1578-1643)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mathematician, born in Brescia, Italy, Benedictine monk, professor at Padua. GALILEO's closest scientific collaborator, he defended, and edited Galileo, he helped his sunspot research, inventing the method of projection so as to view safely the Sun's image with a telescope. His book on hydraulics, Della Misura dell'Acque Correnti, or On the Measurement of Running Waters, founded modern hydrodynam...

  9. Allocation of Attention and Effect of Practice on Persons with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oka, Kohei; Miura, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Persons with mild and moderate mental retardation and CA-matched persons without mental retardation performed a dual-task, "pencil-and-paper task" (Baddeley, Della Sala, Gray, Papagno, & Spinnler (1997). Testing central executive functioning with a pencil-and-paper test. In Rabbit (Ed.), Methodology of Frontal and Executive Function (pp. 61-80).

  10. Genetic Characterization and Functional Analysis of the GID1 Gibberellin Receptors in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Jayne; Murase, Kohji; Rieu, Ivo; Zentella, Rodolfo; Zhang, Zhong-Lin; Powers, Stephen J.; Gong, Fan; Phillips, Andrew L.; Hedden, Peter; Sun, Tai-ping; Thomas, Stephen G.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the physiological function of three Arabidopsis thaliana homologs of the gibberellin (GA) receptor GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) by determining the developmental consequences of GID1 inactivation in insertion mutants. Although single mutants developed normally, gid1a gid1c and gid1a gid1b displayed reduced stem height and lower male fertility, respectively, indicating some functional specificity. The triple mutant displayed a dwarf phenotype more severe than that of the extreme GA-deficient mutant ga1-3. Flower formation occurred in long days but was delayed, with severe defects in floral organ development. The triple mutant did not respond to applied GA. All three GID1 homologs were expressed in most tissues throughout development but differed in expression level. GA treatment reduced transcript abundance for all three GID1 genes, suggesting feedback regulation. The DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) accumulated in the triple mutant, whose phenotype could be partially rescued by loss of RGA function. Yeast two-hybrid and in vitro pull-down assays confirmed that GA enhances the interaction between GID1 and DELLA proteins. In addition, the N-terminal sequence containing the DELLA domain is necessary for GID1 binding. Furthermore, yeast three-hybrid assays showed that the GA-GID1 complex promotes the interaction between RGA and the F-box protein SLY1, a component of the SCFSLY1 E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets the DELLA protein for degradation. PMID:17194763

  11. The Urban Complex in Cattolica, Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The Italian city of Cattolica has developed an urban complex, the Piazza della Repubblica, that offers a wide range of public services. In renovated facilities it provides a modern architectural setting based on the idea of a traditional town square. It houses a primary school, cultural center (including a library), and theater, and it is an

  12. UBIQUITIN BECOMES UBIQUITOUS IN GA SIGNALING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research in a wide range of plant species has converged on a story where the hormone gibberellin (GA) stimulates critical stages in plant growth and development by triggering the destruction of negative regulatory DELLA proteins. GA stimulates seed germination, stem elongation, transition to flower...

  13. The Emergence of For-Profit E-learning Providers in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Ross

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Luca Botturi, winner of the 2008 Educational Communication and Technology (ECT) Foundation Robert deKeiffer International Fellowship Award. Dr. Botturi, an Italian originally from the suburbs of Milano, works at the Universita della Svizzera italiana (USI, also called the University of Lugano) in its New

  14. Invitation to Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    In this anthology of readings, 28 scholars and educators consider the theoretical and practical forces that shape the concept of lifelong learning. After Ronald Gross's introduction, the first section begins its consideration of the Western tradition in adult learning with Plato's metaphor of the cave and includes Pico della Mirandola's essay on…

  15. 21 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - List of Authorities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Control Farmacéutico. For medicinal products for veterinary use: Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y...: Agence du Médicament. For veterinary medicinal products: Agence Nationale du Médicament Vétérinaire..., Dipartimento Farmaci e Farmacovigilanza. For medicinal products for veterinary use: Ministero della...

  16. 21 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - List of Authorities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Control Farmacéutico. For medicinal products for veterinary use: Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y...: Agence du Médicament. For veterinary medicinal products: Agence Nationale du Médicament Vétérinaire..., Dipartimento Farmaci e Farmacovigilanza. For medicinal products for veterinary use: Ministero della...

  17. 21 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - List of Authorities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Control Farmacéutico. For medicinal products for veterinary use: Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y...: Agence du Médicament. For veterinary medicinal products: Agence Nationale du Médicament Vétérinaire..., Dipartimento Farmaci e Farmacovigilanza. For medicinal products for veterinary use: Ministero della...

  18. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of rice aleurone cells: probing the existence of an alternative gibberellin receptor.

    PubMed

    Yano, Kenji; Aya, Koichiro; Hirano, Ko; Ordonio, Reynante Lacsamana; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    Current gibberellin (GA) research indicates that GA must be perceived in plant nuclei by its cognate receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1). Recognition of GA by GID1 relieves the repression mediated by the DELLA protein, a model known as the GID1-DELLA GA perception system. There have been reports of potential GA-binding proteins in the plasma membrane that perceive GA and induce α-amylase expression in cereal aleurone cells, which is mechanistically different from the GID1-DELLA system. Therefore, we examined the expression of the rice (Oryza sativa) α-amylase genes in rice mutants impaired in the GA receptor (gid1) and the DELLA repressor (slender rice1; slr1) and confirmed their lack of response to GA in gid1 mutants and constitutive expression in slr1 mutants. We also examined the expression of GA-regulated genes by genome-wide microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses and confirmed that all GA-regulated genes are modulated by the GID1-DELLA system. Furthermore, we studied the regulatory network involved in GA signaling by using a set of mutants defective in genes involved in GA perception and gene expression, namely gid1, slr1, gid2 (a GA-related F-box protein mutant), and gamyb (a GA-related trans-acting factor mutant). Almost all GA up-regulated genes were regulated by the four named GA-signaling components. On the other hand, GA down-regulated genes showed different expression patterns with respect to GID2 and GAMYB (e.g. a considerable number of genes are not controlled by GAMYB or GID2 and GAMYB). Based on these observations, we present a comprehensive discussion of the intricate network of GA-regulated genes in rice aleurone cells. PMID:25511432

  19. The Protocol Materials Movement: An Exemplar of Efforts To Wed Theory and Practice in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    The author defines protocol materials, discusses their development, then examines how the initiation of U.S. Office of Education (USOE) support modified the original definition. (The USOE Master Coordinate System is included as an appendix.) (JA)

  20. Health promotion and surveillance: the establishment of an IUHPE global working group.

    PubMed

    Campostrini, Stefano; McQueen, David V; Evans, Linnea

    2009-12-01

    Following a series of international meetings on behavioral monitoring and surveillance, in 2007 the Italian Ministry of Health (Ministerio della Salute) and the Institute for Health (Istituto Superiore della Sanit) hosted the 5(th) International Conference on Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance (BRFS) in Rome. A key focus of the conference was on how current surveillance systems could be applied to the field of health promotion, particularly in building the evidence base for health promotion practice. As a result of these discussions, the World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS), an IUHPE Global Working Group, was formed to work toward providing knowledge and expertise in surveillance as a tool for advancing health promotion. For those IUHPE members interested in participation, this article provides an overview on the strategic direction of WARFS and the newly formed sub-working groups. PMID:20028670

  1. [Pietro d'Abano and the astrological and scientific image in Padova during the XIV century: from Giotto to Carraresi].

    PubMed

    Mariani Canova, Giordana

    2008-01-01

    The paper intends to prove the incidence that scientific doctrines, mostly Pietro d'Abano's astrological and medical studies, had on Giotto's painting at the Cappella degli Scrovegni in Padova and his lost astrological cycle in the Sala della Ragione. It is emphasized how in no other painting of his, Giotto displayed as much intellectualism as in the Cappella degli Scrovegni. There we can note the importance of the physical representation of the sky and stars and figures' particular physiognomic characterization referable to Pietro d'Abano's theories presented in his astrological treatises and in his Compilation Phisionomiae. Even the ecceptional botanical realism displayed in the representation of plants can be probably referred to Pietro d'Abano's scientific teaching. An hypotetical reconstruction, according to Ptolomeus' theories and Pietro d'Abano's physiognomic, of Giotto's astrological cycle in the Sala della Ragione is also proposed. PMID:19831240

  2. Galileo's Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2003-05-01

    Most visitors to Florence, Italy, know about the Galleria dell'Accademia, housing Michelangelo's famous statue of David, or the Galleria degli Uffizi with the famous Medici collection. Few visitors know that only two blocks from the Uffizi on the Arno River is one of the world's finest museums featuring historic scientific instruments, the Museo di Storia della Scienza. In the February issue of TPT, Nickell states that the Museo di Storia della Scienza ``is perhaps the best museum on the history of science in the world.''1 This fact is likely true, and the museum is a must for physics teachers visiting Florence. It features a vast collection of authentic ``cutting-edge'' scientific instruments, including one of Galileo's lenses in a magnificent ebony and ivory frame. One of the tragedies is that this museum goes unmarked on many tourist maps and unmentioned in many guidebooks.

  3. The museum of unnatural form: a visual and tactile experience of fractals.

    PubMed

    Della-Bosca, D; Taylor, R P

    2009-01-01

    A remarkable computer technology is revolutionizing the world of design, allowing intricate patterns to be created with mathematical precision and then 'printed' as physical objects. Contour crafting is a fabrication process capable of assembling physical structures the sizes of houses, firing the imagination of a new generation of architects and artists (Khoshnevisat, 2008). Daniel Della-Bosca has jumped at this opportunity to create the 'Museum of Unnatural Form' at Griffith University. Della-Bosca's museum is populated with fractals sculptures - his own versions of nature's complex objects - that have been printed with the new technology. His sculptures bridge the historical divide in fractal studies between the abstract images of mathematics and the physical objects of Nature (Mandelbrot, 1982). Four of his fractal images will be featured on the cover of NDPLS in 2009. PMID:19061549

  4. [La scuola di psicoterapia post-razionalista oggi: ricerca e pratica clinica].

    PubMed

    De Pascale, Adele; Quiñones, Álvaro; Cimbolli, Paola

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. La scuola di psicoterapia post-razionalista (approccio cognitivista non classico) ha avuto inizio alla fine degli anni Ottanta con una serie di ipotesi coerenti e scientificamente attendibili. È una scuola che prende l'avvio dalla psicoterapia contemporanea e si sviluppa in aree differenti, offrendo un notevole contributo alla teoria e alla clinica della psicoterapia. Tale scuola ha avuto nel corso degli anni i suoi sviluppi, al pari di tutte le altre scuole di psicoterapia, come pure le stesse difficoltà e capacità di trovare soluzioni. In questo articolo, nostro scopo è quello di illustrare alcune tendenze che non presentano una coerenza epistemologica, teorica e metodologica e non consentono alcuna confutazione, cosa invece fondamentale nelle premesse della scuola iniziata da Vittorio Guidano. Infine, sottolineiamo come sia fondamentale oggi in psicoterapia applicare metodologie coerenti e posizioni concettuali basate sulla ricerca. PMID:27030344

  5. Efficacy of two iodine teat dips based on reduction of naturally occurring new intramammary infections.

    PubMed

    Foret, C J; Corbellini, C; Young, S; Janowicz, P

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of 2 teat dips, product 1 (Della Care with 5 to 8 ppm of free iodine, used as a positive control) and product 2 (New Della Care with 12 to 16 ppm of free iodine), was compared using a natural exposure trial on dairy cattle. The trial was based on National Mastitis Council guidelines and performed over 9 mo. Both teat dips contained 0.25% iodine. Product 2 reduced the infection rate 57.6% for major pathogens and 53.7% for minor pathogens, compared with the positive control. Product 2 gave highly significant reductions for Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Corynebacterium bovis. Teat skin, teat ends, and teat hyperkeratosis were evaluated during trial. No significant difference in teat condition was observed between these 2 products. PMID:15591409

  6. IL TRAPIANTO ORTOTOPICO DEL FEGATO

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2010-01-01

    E’ormai noto che esiste la possibilità rivoluzionaria di utilizzare il fegato per il trattamento della stadio terminale delle epatopatie. Nel gennaio 1980 si celebra il decimo anna di sopravvivenza con fegato trapiantato (la più lunga della letteratura) di un paziente da noi trattato. Si tratta di uno dei 12 malati sottoposti a trapianto e seguiti per più di 5 anni. La nota positiva di questa tipo di trattamento è rappresentata dall’eccellente tenore di vita che i pazienti conducono e dalla riabilitazione sociale e professionale. La nota negativa è data, invece, dal fatto che i buoni risultati non vengono raggiunti con regolarità e non possono essere previsti con esattezza. In questa breve rassegna considereremo la esperienza da noi fatta presso l’Università di Denver nel Colorado, mettendo in risalto le cause dell’elevata mortalità precoce e le prospettive future di questa mezzo terapeutico. PMID:21572898

  7. Long-distance transport of Gibberellic Acid Insensitive mRNA in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gibberellic Acid (GA) signal is governed by the GAI (Gibberellic Acid Insensitive) repressor, which is characterized by a highly conserved N-terminal DELLA domain. Deletion of the DELLA domain results in constitutive suppression of GA signaling. As the GAI transcript is transportable in phloem elements, a Δ-DELLA GAI (gai) transgenic stock plant can reduce the stature of a scion through transport of gai mRNA from the stock. However, little is known about the characteristics of a scion on a gai stock. Results Arabidopsis Δ-DELLA GAI (gai) was fused with a T7 epitope tag and expressed under the control of a companion cell-specific expression promoter, Commelina yellow mottle virus promoter (CoYMVp), to enhance transport in the phloem. The CoYMVp:Atgai-T7 (CgT) transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana exhibited a dwarf phenotype and lower sensitivity to GA enhancement of shoot stature. A wild-type (WT) scion on a CgT stock contained both Atgai-T7 mRNA and the translated product. Microarray analysis to clarify the effect of the CgT stock on the gene expression pattern in the scion clearly revealed that the WT scions on CgT stocks had fewer genes whose expression was altered in response to GA treatment. An apple rootstock variety, Malus prunifolia, integrating CoYMVp:Atgai moderately reduced the tree height of the apple cultivar scion. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Atgai mRNA can move from companion cells to sieve tubes and that the translated product remains at the sites to which it is transported, resulting in attenuation of GA responses by reducing the expression of many genes. The induction of semi-dwarfism in an apple cultivar on root stock harbouring Atgai suggests that long-distance transport of mRNA from grafts would be applicable to horticulture crops. PMID:24144190

  8. Introduzione al Laboratorio di Fisica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciullo, Giuseppe

    La Fisica (dal greco τὰ ϕυσικὰ: le cose naturali) si pone l'obiettivo di descrivere e prevedere il comportamento dei fenomeni naturali, nonché degli apparati e degli strumenti, che hanno reso e rendono la nostra vita più comoda ed efficiente. Tale obiettivo viene perseguito mediante un'attenta osservazione dei fenomeni, con una conseguente schematizzazione dell'osservazione, per fornire una conoscenza della realtà oggettiva, affidabile, verificabile e condivisibile.

  9. Fast computation of the inverse CMH model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Della Torre, Edward

    2001-12-01

    A fast computational method based on differential equation approach for inverse Della Torre, Oti, Kádár (DOK) model has been extended for the inverse Complete Moving Hysteresis (CMH) model. A cobweb technique for calculating the inverse CMH model is also presented. The two techniques differ from the point of view of flexibility, accuracy, and computation time. Simulation results of the inverse computation for both methods are presented.

  10. The thermal neutron time-of-flight spectrometer IN4C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicognani, G.; Mutka, H.; Sacchetti, F.

    2000-03-01

    The IN4C spectrometer has been constructed by ILL in collaboration with the Italian Istituto Nazionale Fisica della Materia, INFM. The instrument was designed in order to have a high counting rate and signal-to-noise ratio with optimised resolution performance. The main ingredients for attaining these objectives are the focusing optics, the efficient background suppression by the chopper system, and the large detector area. In our contribution we shall present the results on the first operational tests.

  11. Low Voltage Low Light Imager and Photodetector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Martin, Chris (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Highly efficient, low energy, low light level imagers and photodetectors are provided. In particular, a novel class of Della-Doped Electron Bombarded Array (DDEBA) photodetectors that will reduce the size, mass, power, complexity, and cost of conventional imaging systems while improving performance by using a thinned imager that is capable of detecting low-energy electrons, has high gain, and is of low noise.

  12. Elettrodinamica classica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, Kurt

    Nella scoperta della Relatività Ristretta l'Elettrodinamica, rappresentando una teoria relativistica per eccellenza, ha giocato un ruolo fondamentale. Il principio di relativit` a einsteiniana, che afferma che tutte le leggi della fisica devono avere la stessa forma in tutti i sistemi di riferimento inerziali, è emerso con forza da questa teoria ed è andato consolidandosi sempre di più, man mano che le nostre conoscenze del mondo microscopico sono diventate più complete: tutte le interazioni fondamentali rispettano infatti tale principio. Il modo più semplice ed elegante per implementarlo — difatti l'unico di un'utilità concreta — è rappresentato dal paradigma della covarianza a vista nell'ambito del calcolo tensoriale. Questo paradigma è stato applicato con successo a tutte le teorie di carattere fondamentale, come le teorie che descrivono le quattro interazioni fondamentali e le più speculative teorie di superstringa, e mantiene la sua piena efficacia anche in teoria quantistica. La nostra esposizione dell'Elettrodinamica classica si baserà dunque a ragione su questo paradigma.

  13. The first Italian Superconducting Fault Current Limiter: Results of the field testing experience after one year operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, L.; Bocchi, M.; Ascade, M.; Valzasina, A.; Rossi, V.; Ravetta, C.; Angeli, G.

    2014-05-01

    Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico S.p.A. (RSE) has been gaining a relevant experience in the simulation, design and installation of resistive-type Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) devices for more than five years in the framework of a R&D national project funded by the Ricerca di Sistema (RdS). The most recent outcome of this research activity is the installation of a resistive-type BSCCO-based 9 kV / 3.4 MVA SFCL device in a single feeder branch of the Medium Voltage (MV) distribution network managed by A2A Reti Elettriche S.p.A (A2A) in the Milano area. This installation represents the first SFCL successfully installed in Italy. In this paper, we report on the main outcomes after a more than 1-year long steady-state field testing activity. The design of an upgraded device to be installed in the same substation has already been initiated: the new SFCL will allow to protect four different feeders, therefore implying a device upgrade up to 15.6 MVA.

  14. Development, Testing and Installation of a Superconducting Fault Current Limiter for Medium Voltage Distribution Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Luciano; Bocchi, Marco; Ascade, Massimo; Valzasina, Angelo; Rossi, Valerio; Angeli, Giuliano; Ravetta, Cesare

    Since 2009 Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico (RSE S.p.A.) has been involved in the design of resistive-type Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) for MV applications to be installed in the A2A Reti Elettriche S.p.A distribution grid in the Milano area. The project started with simulations, design and testing activities for a singlephase device; in this paper we report on the successive step, which is concerned with developing, testing and installation at the hosting utility of the final three-phase SFCL prototype. The result of this research activity is a resistive-type 9 kV/3.4 MVA SFCL device, based on first generation (1G) BSCCO tapes, developed by RSE in the framework of a R&D national project. Owing to the positive test results of partial discharge, dielectric and shortcircuit results the three-phase SFCL device is being to be installed in the A2A distribution grid in the Milano area and it is going to be soon energized starting a one-year long field-testing activity.

  15. Physically-based quantitative analysis of soil erosion induced by heavy rainfall on steep slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Sala, Maria; Cuomo, Sabatino; Novità, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Heavy rainstorms cause either shallow landslides or soil superficial erosion in steep hillslopes covered by coarse unsaturated soils (Cascini et al., 2013), even over large areas (Cuomo and Della Sala, 2013a). The triggering stage of both phenomena is related to ground infiltration, runoff and overland flow (Cuomo and Della Sala, 2013), which are key processes to be investigated. In addition, the mobilization of solid particles deserves a proper physical-based modeling whether a quantitative estimation of solid particles discharge at the outlet of mountain basin is required. In this work, the approaches for soil superficial erosion analysis are firstly reviewed; then, a relevant case study of two medium-sized mountain basins, affected by flow-like phenomena with huge consequences (Cascini et al., 2009) is presented, which motivates a parametric numerical analysis with a physically-based model carried out for a wide class of soil properties and rainfall scenarios (Cuomo et al., 2013b). The achieved results outline that the peak discharge of water and solid particles driven by overland flow depends on rainfall intensity while volumetric solid concentration within the washout is related to the morphometric features of the whole mountain basin. Furthermore, soil suction is outlined as a key factor for the spatial-temporal evolution of infiltration and runoff in the basin, also affecting the discharge of water and solid particles at the outlet of the basin. Based on these insights, selected cases are analyzed aimed to provide a wide class of possible slope erosion scenarios. It is shown that, provided the same amount of cumulated rainfall, the sequence of high and low intensity rainfall events strongly affects the time-discharge at the outlet of the basin without significant variations of the maximum volumetric solid concentration. References Cascini, L., Cuomo, S., Ferlisi, S., Sorbino, G. (2009). Detection of mechanisms for destructive landslides in Campania region-southern Italy. Proc. of the first Italian Workshop on Landslides, 8-10 June 2009 Naples, Italy, vol 1. Studio Editoriale Doppiavoce, Naples, pp 43-51. Cascini, L., Sorbino, G., Cuomo, S., Ferlisi, S. (2013). Seasonal effects of rainfall on the shallow pyroclastic deposits of the Campania region (southern Italy). Landslides, 1-14, DOI: 10.1007/s10346-013-0395-3. Cuomo S., Della Sala M. (2013a). Spatially distributed analysis of shallow landslides and soil erosion induced by rainfall. (submitted to Natural Hazards). Cuomo, S., Della Sala, M. (2013b). Rainfall-induced infiltration, runoff and failure in steep unsaturated shallow soil deposits. Engineering Geology. 162, 118-127. Cuomo, S., Della Sala, M., Novità A. (2013). Physically-based modeling of soil erosion induced by rainfall on steep slopes. (submitted to Geomorphology).

  16. Using Case Study Methodology to Approach the Views of Teachers of English on Classroom Disciplinary Strategies (Uso de la metodología de estudio de casos para aproximarse a las concepciones de profesores de inglés sobre las estrategias disciplinarias en el aula)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Díaz Larenas, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aims at identifying the disciplinary strategies claimed to be used by a group of five secondary classroom teachers of English in public or semi-public schools in Chile. To conduct this research, a semi-structured interview was applied to participants. The data were analyzed using the principles of semantic content analysis…

  17. Analyzing the Effect of Technology-Based Intervention in Language Laboratory to Improve Listening Skills of First Year Engineering Students (El uso de la tecnología en el laboratorio de idiomas para el mejoramiento de las habilidades de escucha de estudiantes de ingeniería de primer año)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Madhumathi

    2013-01-01

    First year students pursuing engineering education face problems with their listening skills. Most of the Indian schools use a bilingual method for teaching subjects from primary school through high school. Nonetheless, students entering university education develop anxiety in listening to classroom lectures in English. This article reports an…

  18. Selective Use of the Mother Tongue to Enhance Students' English Learning Processes…Beyond the Same Assumptions (Uso selectivo de la lengua materna para mejorar el proceso de aprendizaje del inglés de los estudiantes…Más allá de las mismas suposiciones)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuartas Alvarez, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of an action-research project that examines enhancing students' English learning processes through the selective use of their mother tongues with the aim of overcoming their reluctant attitudes toward learning English in the classroom. This study involves forty ninth-graders from an all-girls public school in…

  19. Needed Research on the Emotions as Variables in Teaching, Learning, and the Development of Social Skills. A Special Report of the USOE-Sponsored Grant Study: Critical Apparisal of Research in the Personality-Emotions-Motivation Domain. IBR Report No. 73-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izard, Carroll E.; And Others

    This task group report is one of a series prepared by eminent psychologists who have served as consultants in the U.S.O.E.-sponsored grant study to conduct a Critical Appraisal of the Personality-Emotions-Motivation Domain. In order to achieve the goal of identifying important problems and areas for new research and methodological issues related…

  20. Using the EPOSTL for Dialogic Reflection in EFL Teacher Education (El Uso de EPOSTL para la Reflexión Dialógica en la Educación de los Docentes de Inglés como Lengua Extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schauber, Holli

    2015-01-01

    For many pre-service English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers and their mentors, the theory and practice driven European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages (EPOSTL) occupies a prominent and practical role in their preparation programs as a delivery system of core pedagogical skills and knowledge. Interest in the role that dialogical…

  1. Teaching Foreign Trade in English through the Modalities Based on Competences and Using Moodle (Enseñanza del régimen de comercio exterior a través de las modalidades centradas en el desarrollo de competencias y con el uso de Moodle)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa Díaz, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    With the new approach to guide the learning process of students with a model based on the development of competences, and in comparison with the traditional lecture-based learning, it is necessary to start working with the teaching modalities that help to achieve this objective. With that in mind, the aim of the study reported in this article was…

  2. Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico (Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora Pablo, Irasema; Lengeling, M. Martha; Rubio Zenil, Buenaventura; Crawford, Troy; Goodwin, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.…

  3. New Educational Environments Aimed at Developing Intercultural Understanding while Reinforcing the Use of English in Experience-Based Learning (Nuevos entornos educativos destinados a desarrollar la comprensión intercultural y a reforzar el uso del inglés mediante el aprendizaje basado en experiencias)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruguier, Leonard R.; Greathouse Amador, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    New learning environments with communication and information tools are increasingly accessible with technology playing a crucial role in expanding and reconceptualizing student learning experiences. This paper reviews the outcome of an innovative course offered by four universities in three countries: Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Course…

  4. A Micro-Ultrastable Oscillator (micro-US0) for Micro/Nano Sciencecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Syntonics LLC developed a prototype micro-Ultra Stable Oscillator (micro-USO) under a Space Base Technology Grant (NAGS-10395). Syntonics conducted the micro-USO Program in two phases. In Phase I, we developed a set of verified analytical models (including thermal, electrical, and control models) for a baseline USO, conducted a series of six technology studies, and built three approx.9OOg prototype units. These prototypes provided a tool for evaluating competing design topologies. In Phase II we prepared the conceptual design of a approx.100-15Og micro-USO.

  5. 32 CFR 253.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO DUTY WITH THE MILITARY... a statement to that effect to the Red Cross or the USO. If the DISCO is unable to make a favorable... apply. (f) Whenever any DoD Component or the Red Cross or the USO receives information indicating...

  6. 32 CFR 253.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO DUTY WITH THE MILITARY... a statement to that effect to the Red Cross or the USO. If the DISCO is unable to make a favorable... apply. (f) Whenever any DoD Component or the Red Cross or the USO receives information indicating...

  7. 32 CFR 253.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO DUTY WITH THE MILITARY... a statement to that effect to the Red Cross or the USO. If the DISCO is unable to make a favorable... apply. (f) Whenever any DoD Component or the Red Cross or the USO receives information indicating...

  8. 32 CFR 253.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO DUTY WITH THE MILITARY... a statement to that effect to the Red Cross or the USO. If the DISCO is unable to make a favorable... apply. (f) Whenever any DoD Component or the Red Cross or the USO receives information indicating...

  9. 32 CFR 253.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO DUTY WITH THE MILITARY... a statement to that effect to the Red Cross or the USO. If the DISCO is unable to make a favorable... apply. (f) Whenever any DoD Component or the Red Cross or the USO receives information indicating...

  10. Biopsia de ganglio linfático centinela

    Cancer.gov

    Describe el procedimiento de biopsia de ganglio linfático centinela, su uso para determinar la extensión, o estadio, del cáncer en el cuerpo, y los resultados de investigación sobre el uso de este tipo de biopsia en cáncer de seno y melanoma.

  11. The Federal Role in Funding Children's Television Programming. Volume 1: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Keith W.; And Others

    The United States Office of Education (USOE) policy in funding purposive television programing for children was investigated. Information and policy recommendations were gathered from existing sources in the general literature, USOE file materials, 10 single-topic commissioned papers, a 10-member advisory board, a Federal advisory group, and…

  12. A Study of Distance Learning Technology in Utah: A Statewide Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Stanley H. L.; And Others

    This report was commissioned by the Utah State Office of Education (USOE) to provide USOE with information about the potential applications of distance learning technology in schools. The study includes: (1) a statewide assessment of instructional, staff development, and administrative needs which may be met by distance learning technology; and…

  13. 7 CFR 1744.205 - Determinations and application of limitations described in § 1744.202.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a rural development investment for purposes of calculating the maximum investment ratio or the... preceding the date on which the borrower's maximum investment ratio and minimum total assets ratio are... accordance with the Uniform System of Accounts (USoA)(47 CFR part 32). References to specific USoA...

  14. Terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

  15. Recent developments in human biomonitoring: non-invasive assessment of target tissue dose and effects of pneumotoxic metals

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, A.; Corradi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Tobacco smoke and polluted environments substantially increase the lung burden of pneumotoxic chemicals, particularly pneumotoxic metallic elements. To achieve a better understanding of the early events between exposure to inhaled toxicants and the onset of adverse effects on the lung, the characterization of dose at the target organ would be extremely useful. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC), obtained by cooling exhaled air under conditions of spontaneous breathing, is a novel technique that could provide a non-invasive assessment of pulmonary pathobiology. Considering that EBC is water practically free of interfering solutes, it represents an ideal biological matrix for elemental characterization. Published data show that several toxic metals and trace elements are detectable in EBC, raising the possibility of using this medium to quantify the lung tissue dose of pneumotoxic substances. This novel approach may represent a significant advance over the analysis of alternative media (blood, serum, urine, hair), which are not as reliable (owing to interfering substances in the complex matrix) and reflect systemic rather than lung (target tissue) levels of both toxic metals and essential trace elements. Data obtained among workers occupationally exposed to either hard metals or chromium (VI) and in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are reviewed to show that – together with biomarkers of exposure – EBC also allows the simultaneous quantification of biomarkers of effect directly sampled from the epithelial lining fluid, thus providing novel insights on both kinetic and dynamic aspects of metal toxicology. Riassunto «Recenti sviluppi nel biomonitoraggio umano: valutazione non invasiva della dose a livello dell’organo bersaglio e degli effetti pneumotossici». L’esposizione cronica a fumo di tabacco ed ad altri inquinati ambientali determina un accumulo polmonare di sostanze pneumotossiche, soprattutto metalli. Allo scopo di ottenere una migliore comprensione dei meccanismi attraverso i quali i tossici inalati inducono un danno polmonare, la valutazione della dose a livello dell’organo bersaglio, in questo caso il polmone, potrebbe essere molto utile. Il condensato dell’aria espirata (CAE) è un fluido ottenuto raffreddando l’aria esalata durante la respirazione a volume corrente ed è una nuova tecnica che può fornire una valutazione della patobiologia polmonare. Il CAE è formato quasi completamente da acqua, quindi rappresenta una matrice biologica ideale per la determinazione d’elementi metallici. Dati presenti in letteratura dimostrano come nel CAE si possono dosare vari metalli tossici ed elementi di transizione, permettendo quindi di proporre questa matrice per la quantificazione della dose al bersaglio di sostanze pneumotossiche. La quantificazione della dose al bersaglio consente di avere informazioni aggiuntive rispetto a quelle ottenute con i tradizionali metodi di monitoraggio biologico in lavoratori esposti, che generalmente consentono di stimare la dose sistemica, ma non l’esposizione delle vie respiratorie ad inquinanti aerodispersi né la frazione trattenuta nel polmone, verosimilmente implicata nella patologia infiammatoria e degenerativa a livello polmonare. In questa breve rassegna sono discussi i dati ottenuti in lavoratori professionalmente esposti a metalli duri ed in fumatori con o senza bronco-pneumopatica cronica ostruttiva (BPCO), per mostrare come il CAE – oltre agli indicatori di esposizione – consente di valutare indicatori di effetto campionati direttamente dal film che riveste le vie respiratorie, fornendo quindi nuovi spunti per meglio comprendere sia gli aspetti cinetici che quelli dinamici della tossicologia dei metalli. PMID:17017350

  16. Endogenous diterpenes derived from ent-kaurene, a common gibberellin precursor, regulate protonema differentiation of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Horie, Keisuke; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Hanada, Atsushi; Nakashima, Tamotsu; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Mander, Lewis N; Yamane, Hisakazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of diterpene-type plant hormones biosynthesized from ent-kaurene via ent-kaurenoic acid. GAs are ubiquitously present in seed plants. The GA signal is perceived and transduced by the GID1 GA receptor/DELLA repressor pathway. The lycopod Selaginella moellendorffii biosynthesizes GA and has functional GID1-DELLA signaling components. In contrast, no GAs or functionally orthologous GID1-DELLA components have been found in the moss Physcomitrella patens. However, P. patens produces ent-kaurene, a common precursor for GAs, and possesses a functional ent-kaurene synthase, PpCPS/KS. To assess the biological role of ent-kaurene in P. patens, we generated a PpCPS/KS disruption mutant that does not accumulate ent-kaurene. Phenotypic analysis demonstrates that the mutant has a defect in the protonemal differentiation of the chloronemata to caulonemata. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis shows that P. patens produces ent-kaurenoic acid, an ent-kaurene metabolite in the GA biosynthesis pathway. The phenotypic defect of the disruptant was recovered by the application of ent-kaurene or ent-kaurenoic acid, suggesting that ent-kaurenoic acid, or a downstream metabolite, is involved in protonemal differentiation. Treatment with uniconazole, an inhibitor of ent-kaurene oxidase in GA biosynthesis, mimics the protonemal phenotypes of the PpCPS/KS mutant, which were also restored by ent-kaurenoic acid treatment. Interestingly, the GA(9) methyl ester, a fern antheridiogen, rescued the protonemal defect of the disruption mutant, while GA(3) and GA(4), both of which are active GAs in angiosperms, did not. Our results suggest that the moss P. patens utilizes a diterpene metabolite from ent-kaurene as an endogenous developmental regulator and provide insights into the evolution of GA functions in land plants. PMID:20488896

  17. Characterization of the Molecular Mechanism Underlying Gibberellin Perception Complex Formation in Rice[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Ko; Asano, Kenji; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Mayuko; Mori, Hitoshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1) is a repressor of gibberellin (GA) signaling in rice (Oryza sativa), and most of the GA-associated responses are induced upon SLR1 degradation. It is assumed that interaction between GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) and the N-terminal DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 triggers F-box protein GID2-mediated SLR1 degradation. We identified a semidominant dwarf mutant, Slr1-d4, which contains a mutation in the region encoding the C-terminal GRAS domain of SLR1 (SLR1G576V). The GA-dependent degradation of SLR1G576V was reduced in Slr1-d4, and compared with SLR1, SLR1G576V showed reduced interaction with GID1 and almost none with GID2 when tested in yeast cells. Surface plasmon resonance of GID1-SLR1 and GID1-SLR1G576V interactions revealed that the GRAS domain of SLR1 functions to stabilize the GID1-SLR1 interaction by reducing its dissociation rate and that the G576V substitution in SLR1 diminishes this stability. These results suggest that the stable interaction of GID1-SLR1 through the GRAS domain is essential for the recognition of SLR1 by GID2. We propose that when the DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 binds with GID1, it enables the GRAS domain of SLR1 to interact with GID1 and that the stable GID1-SLR1 complex is efficiently recognized by GID2. PMID:20716699

  18. Cotton WRKY1 mediates the plant defense-to-development transition during infection of cotton by Verticillium dahliae by activating JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; He, Xin; Luo, Xiangyin; Xu, Li; Liu, Linlin; Min, Ling; Jin, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-12-01

    Plants have evolved an elaborate signaling network to ensure an appropriate level of immune response to meet the differing demands of developmental processes. Previous research has demonstrated that DELLA proteins physically interact with JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 (JAZ1) and dynamically regulate the interaction of the gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA) signaling pathways. However, whether and how the JAZ1-DELLA regulatory node is regulated at the transcriptional level in plants under normal growth conditions or during pathogen infection is not known. Here, we demonstrate multiple functions of cotton (Gossypium barbadense) GbWRKY1 in the plant defense response and during development. Although GbWRKY1 expression is induced rapidly by methyl jasmonate and infection by Verticillium dahliae, our results show that GbWRKY1 is a negative regulator of the JA-mediated defense response and plant resistance to the pathogens Botrytis cinerea and V. dahliae. Under normal growth conditions, GbWRKY1-overexpressing lines displayed GA-associated phenotypes, including organ elongation and early flowering, coupled with the down-regulation of the putative targets of DELLA. We show that the GA-related phenotypes of GbWRKY1-overexpressing plants depend on the constitutive expression of Gossypium hirsutum GhJAZ1. We also show that GhJAZ1 can be transactivated by GbWRKY1 through TGAC core sequences, and the adjacent sequences of this binding site are essential for binding specificity and affinity to GbWRKY1, as revealed by dual-luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In summary, our data suggest that GbWRKY1 is a critical regulator mediating the plant defense-to-development transition during V. dahliae infection by activating JAZ1 expression. PMID:25301887

  19. ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR6 Acts as a Central Regulator of Leaf Growth under Water-Limiting Conditions in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Marieke; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Claeys, Hannes; Maleux, Katrien; Dhondt, Stijn; De Bodt, Stefanie; Vanden Bossche, Robin; De Milde, Liesbeth; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Matsui, Minami; Inzé, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Leaf growth is a complex developmental process that is continuously fine-tuned by the environment. Various abiotic stresses, including mild drought stress, have been shown to inhibit leaf growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the redundant Arabidopsis transcription factors ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR5 (ERF5) and ERF6 as master regulators that adapt leaf growth to environmental changes. ERF5 and ERF6 gene expression is induced very rapidly and specifically in actively growing leaves after sudden exposure to osmotic stress that mimics mild drought. Subsequently, enhanced ERF6 expression inhibits cell proliferation and leaf growth by a process involving gibberellin and DELLA signaling. Using an ERF6-inducible overexpression line, we demonstrate that the gibberellin-degrading enzyme GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE6 is transcriptionally induced by ERF6 and that, consequently, DELLA proteins are stabilized. As a result, ERF6 gain-of-function lines are dwarfed and hypersensitive to osmotic stress, while the growth of erf5erf6 loss-of-function mutants is less affected by stress. Besides its role in plant growth under stress, ERF6 also activates the expression of a plethora of osmotic stress-responsive genes, including the well-known stress tolerance genes STZ, MYB51, and WRKY33. Interestingly, activation of the stress tolerance genes by ERF6 occurs independently from the ERF6-mediated growth inhibition. Together, these data fit into a leaf growth regulatory model in which ERF5 and ERF6 form a missing link between the previously observed stress-induced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid accumulation and DELLA-mediated cell cycle exit and execute a dual role by regulating both stress tolerance and growth inhibition. PMID:23553636

  20. Cotton WRKY1 Mediates the Plant Defense-to-Development Transition during Infection of Cotton by Verticillium dahliae by Activating JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 Expression1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; He, Xin; Luo, Xiangyin; Xu, Li; Liu, Linlin; Min, Ling; Jin, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved an elaborate signaling network to ensure an appropriate level of immune response to meet the differing demands of developmental processes. Previous research has demonstrated that DELLA proteins physically interact with JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 (JAZ1) and dynamically regulate the interaction of the gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA) signaling pathways. However, whether and how the JAZ1-DELLA regulatory node is regulated at the transcriptional level in plants under normal growth conditions or during pathogen infection is not known. Here, we demonstrate multiple functions of cotton (Gossypium barbadense) GbWRKY1 in the plant defense response and during development. Although GbWRKY1 expression is induced rapidly by methyl jasmonate and infection by Verticillium dahliae, our results show that GbWRKY1 is a negative regulator of the JA-mediated defense response and plant resistance to the pathogens Botrytis cinerea and V. dahliae. Under normal growth conditions, GbWRKY1-overexpressing lines displayed GA-associated phenotypes, including organ elongation and early flowering, coupled with the down-regulation of the putative targets of DELLA. We show that the GA-related phenotypes of GbWRKY1-overexpressing plants depend on the constitutive expression of Gossypium hirsutum GhJAZ1. We also show that GhJAZ1 can be transactivated by GbWRKY1 through TGAC core sequences, and the adjacent sequences of this binding site are essential for binding specificity and affinity to GbWRKY1, as revealed by dual-luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In summary, our data suggest that GbWRKY1 is a critical regulator mediating the plant defense-to-development transition during V. dahliae infection by activating JAZ1 expression. PMID:25301887

  1. A GRAS-like gene of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) alters the gibberellin content and axillary meristem outgrowth in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Fambrini, M; Mariotti, L; Parlanti, S; Salvini, M; Pugliesi, C

    2015-11-01

    The GRAS proteins belong to a plant transcriptional regulator family that function in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite their important roles, in sunflower only one GRAS gene (HaDella1) with the DELLA domain has been reported. Here, we provide a functional characterisation of a GRAS-like gene from Helianthus annuus (Ha-GRASL) lacking the DELLA motif. The Ha-GRASL gene contains an intronless open reading frame of 1,743 bp encoding 580 amino acids. Conserved motifs in the GRAS domain are detected, including VHIID, PFYRE, SAW and two LHR motifs. Within the VHII motif, the P-H-N-D-Q-L residues are entirely maintained. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Ha-GRASL belongs to the SCARECROW LIKE4/7 (SCL4/7) subfamily of the GRAS consensus tree. Accumulation of Ha-GRASL mRNA at the adaxial boundaries from P6/P7 leaf primordia suggests a role of Ha-GRASL in the initiation of median and basal axillary meristems (AMs) of sunflower. When Ha-GRASL is over-expressed in Arabidopsis wild-type plants, the number of lateral bolts increases differently from untransformed plants. However, Ha-GRASL slightly affects the lateral suppressor (las-4-) mutation. Therefore, we hypothesise that Ha-GRASL and LAS are not functionally equivalent. The over-expression of Ha-GRASL reduces metabolic flow of gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis and this modification could be relevant in AM development. Phylogenetic analysis includes LAS and SCL4/7 in the same major clade, suggesting a more recent separation of these genes with respect to other GRAS members. We propose that some features of their ancestor, as well as AM initiation and outgrowth, are partially retained in both LAS and SCL4/7. PMID:26081041

  2. Ethylene Response Factor6 acts as a central regulator of leaf growth under water-limiting conditions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Marieke; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Claeys, Hannes; Maleux, Katrien; Dhondt, Stijn; De Bodt, Stefanie; Vanden Bossche, Robin; De Milde, Liesbeth; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Matsui, Minami; Inzé, Dirk

    2013-05-01

    Leaf growth is a complex developmental process that is continuously fine-tuned by the environment. Various abiotic stresses, including mild drought stress, have been shown to inhibit leaf growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the redundant Arabidopsis transcription factors ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR5 (ERF5) and ERF6 as master regulators that adapt leaf growth to environmental changes. ERF5 and ERF6 gene expression is induced very rapidly and specifically in actively growing leaves after sudden exposure to osmotic stress that mimics mild drought. Subsequently, enhanced ERF6 expression inhibits cell proliferation and leaf growth by a process involving gibberellin and DELLA signaling. Using an ERF6-inducible overexpression line, we demonstrate that the gibberellin-degrading enzyme GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE6 is transcriptionally induced by ERF6 and that, consequently, DELLA proteins are stabilized. As a result, ERF6 gain-of-function lines are dwarfed and hypersensitive to osmotic stress, while the growth of erf5erf6 loss-of-function mutants is less affected by stress. Besides its role in plant growth under stress, ERF6 also activates the expression of a plethora of osmotic stress-responsive genes, including the well-known stress tolerance genes STZ, MYB51, and WRKY33. Interestingly, activation of the stress tolerance genes by ERF6 occurs independently from the ERF6-mediated growth inhibition. Together, these data fit into a leaf growth regulatory model in which ERF5 and ERF6 form a missing link between the previously observed stress-induced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid accumulation and DELLA-mediated cell cycle exit and execute a dual role by regulating both stress tolerance and growth inhibition. PMID:23553636

  3. [Some remarks on Pazzini's book collection].

    PubMed

    Ascione, Valeria

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the private book collection owned by Adalberto Pazzini and kept in the Library of the Sezione di Storia della Medicina. Gathered from the 1930s to the 1970s, the collection allows a reconstruction of the 'state of the art' of medical history in this period in Italy. Books were sent and dedicated to Pazzini by colleagues, mostly active in Italy and in the Spanish-speaking countries; many of them deal with the history of medicine, but some also with medicine itself. PMID:17526289

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 1316 BVI images (Cantiello+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantiello, M.; Grado, A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Raimondo, G.; di, Rico G.; Limatola, L.; Brocato, E.; Della Valle, M.; Gilmozzi, R.

    2013-02-01

    This work is based on data of NGC1316 from the Very Large Telescope (VLT). We used B, V and I-band observations obtained with the FORS1 Imager at ESO's VLT in Paranal (Program 64.H-0624(A), P.I. M. Della Valle). The data reduction was carried out with the VST-Tube imaging pipeline. VST-Tube is a very versatile software for astronomical data analysis, tested against imaging data taken with different telescopes/detectors, adaptable to existing or future multi-CCD cameras (2 data files).

  5. "Miracolo dell'arte" Chi ha inventato il telescopio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodi, Francesca

    2006-02-01

    Who did invent the telescope? It seems a simple-answering question but this is untrue. The article recall the fundamental steps of the first phase in the telescope history between 16th and 17th century, from the first experiences with the lenses made by the Italian opticians to the Della Porta's theories, from the vicissitudes of the Dutch spectacle-makers to the spreading of the new instrument through the European squares. At last we meet the work of Galileo Galilei, the first man to use the telescope for scientific purposes, understanding all its potentialities.

  6. Thermal Quasi-Reflectography: a new imaging tool in art conservation.

    PubMed

    Daffara, Claudia; Ambrosini, Dario; Pezzati, Luca; Paoletti, Domenica

    2012-06-18

    In the artwork conservation field, non contact diagnostic and imaging methods are widely used and most welcomed. In this work a new imaging tool, called Thermal Quasi-Reflectography (TQR), is proposed and demonstrated. It is based on the recording, by suitable procedures, of reflected infrared radiation in the MWIR band (3-5 μm). The technique, simple to perform, can provide very interesting results in the analysis of the painting surfaces. TQR was demonstrated in situ on two famous artworks: the Zavattari's frescos in the Chapel of Theodelinda (Italy) and the masterpiece by Piero della Francesca "The Resurrection" (Italy). PMID:22714535

  7. Asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham correlation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, D. P.

    2007-07-15

    The density-functional correlation potential of a finite system is shown to asymptotically approach a nonzero constant along a nodal surface of the energetically highest occupied orbital and zero everywhere else. This nonuniform asymptotic form of the correlation potential exactly cancels the nonuniform asymptotic behavior of the exact exchange potential discussed by Della Sala and Goerling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 33003 (2002)]. The sum of the exchange and correlation potentials therefore asymptotically tends to -1/r everywhere, consistent with the asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham potential as analyzed by Almbladh and von Barth [Phys. Rev. B 31, 3231 (1985)].

  8. Asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham correlation potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, D. P.

    2007-07-01

    The density-functional correlation potential of a finite system is shown to asymptotically approach a nonzero constant along a nodal surface of the energetically highest occupied orbital and zero everywhere else. This nonuniform asymptotic form of the correlation potential exactly cancels the nonuniform asymptotic behavior of the exact exchange potential discussed by Della Sala and Görling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 33003 (2002)]. The sum of the exchange and correlation potentials therefore asymptotically tends to -1/r everywhere, consistent with the asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham potential as analyzed by Almbladh and von Barth [Phys. Rev. B 31, 3231 (1985)].

  9. [La sindrome metabolica in un campione italiano di pazienti psichiatrici: uno studio retrospettivo su soggetti trattati con antipsicotici].

    PubMed

    Santini, Ilaria; Stratta, Paolo; D'Onofrio, Simona; De Lauretis, Ida; Santarelli, Valeria; Pacitti, Francesca; Rossi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Introduzione. La sindrome metabolica (SM) è un tema di interesse centrale nell'ambito della salute mentale, visto l'aumentato rischio di comorbilità medica e di mortalità tra gli individui con patologia psichiatrica grave rispetto alla popolazione generale. Il presente studio trasversale è volto a stimare la prevalenza della SM in un campione di pazienti psichiatrici di nazionalità italiana, trattati con diversi tipi di antipsicotici. Metodi. I dati sono stati raccolti da cartelle cliniche di pazienti con psicosi affettive e non affettive, ricoverati consecutivamente presso il reparto psichiatrico dell'ospedale dell'Aquila, dal gennaio 2012 al luglio 2014. Il campione si riferisce a individui di entrambi i sessi e di età superiore ai 18 anni, in trattamento con uno o più antipsicotici. La diagnosi di SM è stata formulata in accordo ai criteri diagnostici del Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III). Risultati. Sono stati valutati 389 soggetti. Il 27,5% del campione risulta affetto da SM, prevalenza molto simile a quella riportata per la popolazione generale italiana che si attesta intorno al 26%. Allo stesso modo, i valori di BMI risultano essere molto simili tra queste due popolazioni, mentre, nel campione clinico, si registra un tasso di obesità più elevato. I tassi di prevalenza di SM nei sottocampioni di pazienti affetti da schizofrenia, disturbi bipolari e disturbi depressivi sono stati rispettivamente 30,6%, 36,4% e 36,8%. Fra i tre gruppi diagnostici non si evidenziano differenze significative nella prevalenza della SM, il diabete o la dislipidemia. Non emergono differenze significative nella prevalenza della SM né in relazione alla politerapia antipsicotica, né in relazione all'utilizzo di antipsicotici tipici o atipici. Nell'ambito del campione clinico, si registrano, tuttavia, tassi di obesità più elevata per i soggetti di sesso femminile, con una distribuzione del tipo "Tutto o nulla" (cioè maggiori tassi di obesità e normopeso, minori tassi di sovrappeso) rispetto alla popolazione generale. Conclusioni. I risultati del nostro studio potrebbero essere spiegati con l'interazione di più fattori quali il trattamento farmacologico, i lifestyle malattia correlati, il sesso e altre variabili (per es., predisposizione genetica) che concorrono a determinare problematiche metaboliche di diversa natura. PMID:27030348

  10. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    The inclusion of basic education teachers in the survey domain is a controversial issue and fully debated in the academy. The opportunity for a collective work that incorporated school teachers from a public school to a university's group of physics teaching at university allowed us to glimpse the redefinition of the function of a science teacher (a coauthor of this paper) by himself, such that now he includes research on the knowledge construction by students in his teacher practice. The formation of inter-institutional groups for action planning and research in these areas has proved productive for the task of knowledge construction to support educational processes in school, while the university enriches its collection of experiences critically validated, and can consider the results in teachers initial and continued education. The active participation of the teacher in a research group at the university led him to reflect on the possible didactical ways to be described, analyzed and communicated to other teachers. The construction of a pedagogy that took into account the mental models of students on the basic topics of astronomy, and the changes developed resulting from the lessons taught, led to far-reaching consequences on the pedagogy adopted by the teacher, who incorporates now a new vision of science and alternative forms to dialogue with students, essential components for a researcher in Science Education. La inclusión de los maestros de la escuela básica en el universo de la investigación es polémica y está en amplio debate en el mundo académico. La oportunidad de trabajo colectivo de los maestros de una escuela pública en Río de Janeiro con un grupo universitario de enseñanza de la física nos ha permitido vislumbrar la redefinición de la función de un maestro de ciencias (uno de los coautores de este documento) por él mismo, ahora para incluir la investigación sobre la construcción del conocimiento por los alumnos en su práctica como docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e continuada de professores. A participação ativa do professor num grupo de pesquisa na universidade o levou à reflexão sobre caminhos didáticos possíveis de serem descritos, analisados e comunicados a outros professores. A construção de uma pedagogia própria, levando em conta os modelos mentais dos alunos sobre temas básicos de Astronomia, e as mudanças promovidas a partir das aulas dadas, trouxeram amplas conseqüências sobre a pedagogia adotada pelo professor. Hoje a prática desse professor incorpora uma nova visão de ciência e formas alternativas de dialogar com os alunos, elementos indispensáveis a um pesquisador em Educação em Ciências.

  11. INFEZIONI VIRALI CONGENITE, PERINATALI E NEONATALI VIRAL INFECTIONS OF THE FETUS AND NEWBORN INFANT

    PubMed Central

    Tremolada, Sara; Delbue, Serena; Ferrante, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Riassunto Alcuni virus possono essere trasmessi verticalmente da madre a figlio in seguito allo sviluppo, da parte della madre, di un’infezione primaria, ricorrente o cronica. La trasmissione materno-fetale dei virus, che può avvenire in utero (infezione congenita), durante il travaglio del parto (infezione perinatale), oppure attraverso l’allattamento (infezione postnatale), può causare aborto spontaneo, morte fetale, ritardo di crescita intrauterino, anomalie congenite e patologie neonatali o postnatali di diversa entità. Alcuni fattori di rischio sembrano influenzare l’incidenza di trasmissione materno-fetale dei virus, come ad esempio la presenza di altre infezioni virali, la carica virale materna, il tipo di infezione (primaria o ricorrente), la durata della rottura delle membrane, la modalità con cui avviene il parto, le condizioni socio-economiche e l’allattamento. Oggi è possibile prevenire la trasmissione materno-fetale di molti virus grazie all’utilizzo di vaccini, immunizzazione passiva e farmaci antivirali. Il rischio di trasmissione delle infezioni perinatali e postnatali, inoltre, può essere diminuito evitando l’allattamento o ricorrendo ad un parto cesareo. PMID:19216201

  12. Calibrazioni a terra e prestazioni in volo di spettrometri ad immagine nel visibile e nel vicino infrarosso per l'esplorazione planetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filacchione, Gianrico

    2006-10-01

    Nel corso dell’ultimo decennio l’esplorazione planetaria ha potuto beneficiare dei dati prodotti dagli spettrometri ad immagine: grazie a questa nuova classe di strumenti, realizzati per l’osservazione in remoto di superfici ed atmosfere planetarie, è possibile acquisire dati iperspettrali con elevati poteri risolutivi spaziali e spettrali. Il principale vantaggio offerto dagli spettrometri ad immagine, rispetto alle camere ed agli spettrometri puntuali, è rappresentato dalla capacità di misurare, identificare e mappare le unità composizionali delle superfici planetarie; queste informazioni permettono di investigare sia l’evoluzione geochimica delle superfici sia la dinamica e la composizione delle atmosfere. Sebbene i primi spettrometri ad immagine siano stati francesi (Phobos/ISM, Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) e statunitensi (Galileo/NIMS, Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer), il nostro paese nel corso degli ultimi anni è stato in grado di proporre alla com unità spaziale internazionale degli strumenti dalle elevate prestazioni che sono stati infatti accettati come payload scientifici su diverse missioni interplanetarie: dai canali visibili di VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) su Cassini (Nasa, JPL, ESA, ASI) e di OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l’Eau, les Glacies et l’Activitè de Mars) su MarsExpress (ESA) ai due VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) su Rosetta (ESA) e VenusExpress (ESA) fino a VIR-MS (Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) su Dawn (Nasa). In questo momento inoltre altri due spettrometri sono in avanzata fase di studio: JIRAM (Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper) su Juno (missione New Discovery Nasa) e VIHI (Visible and Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) integrato nel payload italiano di remote sensing SIMBIO-SYS di BepiColombo (missione cornerstone ESA). La realizzazione di uno spettrometro ad immagini da utilizzare su una missione interplanetaria richiede un’accurata analisi in fase progettuale e realizzativa dei parametri e de lle prestazioni strumentali; in generale infatti non solo sarà necessario mantenere le dimensioni, il peso, i consumi elettrici ed il data-volume entro i requisiti disponibili del satellite ma anche ottimizzare i disegni ottici, meccanici ed elettronici al fine di ottenere le massime prestazioni possibili in funzione della natura del target osservato e dei parametri orbitali della missione. Questa tesi descrive i metodi utilizzati per caratterizzare il funzionamento di spettrometri ad immagine per l’esplorazione planetaria. L’attività svolta ha riguardato sia la misura in laboratorio dei parametri strumentali fondamentali sia l’analisi dei dati in volo su cui verificarne ed eventualmente correggerne la risposta. Il funzionamento degli strumenti e la metodologia di calibrazione vengono descritti nelle due parti principali e nelle appendici di questa tesi per gli esperimenti Cassini-VIMS-V e Rosetta-VIRTIS-M. La prima parte è dedicata all’esperimento VIMS-V sul satellite Cassini, il cui disegno ottico, originariamente proposto da Francis Reininger, verrà successivamente riutilizzato e perfezionato su VIRTIS-M (Reininger et al., 1994; Miller et al., 1996). Il capitolo 1 contiene una descrizione dei parametri ottici, strutturali, termici ed elettronici di VIMS-V mettendone in risalto gli aspetti più innovativi del progetto. Vengono inoltre descritti la collocazione dell’esperimento sul satellite Cassini, il coallineamento con gli altri strumenti di remote sensing, i possibili modi operativi ed il formato dei dati scientifici. Il capitolo 2 riguarda il processo di calibrazione ed analisi dei dati in volo di VIMS-V. La procedura eseguita per calibrare radiometricamente lo strumento utilizzando i dati della superficie della Luna e per stimare il flat-field mediante i dati dell’atmosfera di Venere viene dettagliatamente descritta assieme agli algoritmi utilizzati per la rimozione di diversi effetti strumentali (read-out noise e tilt spettrale); alcuni di questi effetti sono stati caratterizzati e dettagliamente misurati in laboratorio utilizzando il modello spare (flight) di VIMS-V. Parte del capitolo è dedicata alla verifica della procedura di calibrazione su diversi target aventi caratteristiche spettroradiometriche note. Questi algoritmi di processamento sono correntemente utilizzati dal team scientifico di VIMS per calibrare i dati del canale -VIS rilasciati ufficialmente alla comunità scientifica internazionale attraverso il Planetary Data System (PDS) della Nasa. La seconda parte riguarda l’esperimento VIRTIS-M sul satellite Rosetta. Il capitolo 3 contiene la descrizione dello strumento mettendo in risalto l’evoluzione dal precedente progetto VIMS-V ed i problemi tecnologici e costruttivi da questo derivanti. I diversi modi operativi, la sequenza di acquisizione e di processamento dei dati nell’elettronica principale sono ampiament e discussi. Viene inoltre evidenziata la collocazione dello spettrometro sul satellite Rosetta. Nel capitolo 4 viene descritta l’attività di calibrazione effettuata in Galileo Avionica (Campi Bisenzio, FI, Italia) ed allo IAS (Orsay, Francia) subito dopo l’integrazione di VIRTIS ed il conseguente processamento dei dati necessario per ricavare i principali parametri di funzionamento (calibrazioni spettrali e geometriche, flat-field, funzioni di trasferimento, lampade di calibrazione interne). Nel capitolo 5 l’accuratezza di queste grandezze è stata verificata su i primi dati in volo ottenuti da VIRTIS-M durante la fase di commissioning e di cruise del satellite (Terra, Luna e Saturno); queste osservazioni sono inoltre state utilizzate per migliorare e verificare alcuni aspetti della procedura di calibrazione che non erano stati sufficientemente definiti durante i test a terra. L’appendice A riguarda il formato PDS (Planetary Data System) utilizzato per l’archiviazione dei dati e degli housekeepings ingegnerisitici e scientifici delle osservazioni; nell’appendice B è contenuta la descrizione del modello radiometrico teorico di VIRTIS-M utilizzato per stimare il rapporto segnale/rumore; nelle appendici C e D sono infine contenute diverse Tabelle non incluse nel testo delle parti principali a causa della loro lunghezza.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins from moss, lycophyte and vascular plant lineages reveals that GRAS genes arose and underwent substantial diversification in the ancestral lineage common to bryophytes and vascular plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    GRAS genes are a large family of streptophyte specific transcription factors that function in a diverse set of physiological and developmental processes. GRAS proteins of the HAIRY MERISTEM (HAM) sub-family are required for maintenance of shoot and root indeterminacy. The transcriptional targets of HAM proteins and the signaling inputs regulating HAM activity are completely unknown. Understanding the relationship of HAM proteins to other members of the GRAS family may inform hypotheses relating to cellular level HAM functions. Here I report a phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins employing the complete set of known and probable GRAS proteins from the sequenced genomes of the flowering plants Arabidopsis and Rice, the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, and the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. HAM proteins are most closely related to DELLA proteins, key components of gibberellin perception. However, GRAS proteins diversified into a minimum of 12 discreet monophyletic lineages, including the HAM and DELLA subfamilies, prior to divergence of the moss and flowering plant lineages. Substantial diversification of GRAS proteins at so early a point in land plant evolution suggests that relative relatedness among GRAS protein sub-families may not substantially reflect shared protein function. PMID:21543899

  14. Comment on ``Asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham correlation potential''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holas, A.

    2008-02-01

    For finite systems that have the energetically highest-occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) with an asymptotic nodal surface, Joubert demonstrated recently [Phys. Rev. A 76, 012501 (2007)] strongly anisotropic behavior (in the asymptotic large- r region) of the exact correlation potential of density-functional theory. As is shown by us, this result is a direct and simple consequence of the strong anisotropy of the exact exchange potential obtained by Della Sala and Görling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 033003 (2002); Della Sala and GörlingJ. Chem. Phys. 116, 5374 (2002)] and the assumption about the asymptotic isotropy of the Kohn-Sham (KS) potential (based on the investigation of Almbladh and von Barth [Phys. Rev. B 31, 3231 (1985)] for atoms). Joubert’s result remains a hypothesis only, because the last assumption is in contradiction with the asymptotic strong anisotropy of the KS potential for systems with asymptotic nodal surface of the HOMO, demonstrated by Wu, Ayers, and Yang [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 2978 (2003)]. The correlation potential in the asymptotic region, stemming from their results, is given.

  15. The changes of GA level and signaling are involved in the regulation of mesocotyl elongation during blue light mediated de-etiolation in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sujuan; Xie, Xiuzhi; Yang, Songguang; Chen, Zhaoping; Wang, Xiaojing

    2012-04-01

    De-etiolation during seedling development is antagonistically regulated by blue light (BL) and gibberellins (GAs). The crosstalk between blue light (BL) and GA metabolism and signaling remains unclear. Using the mutant har1 which is specifically hypersensitive to BL in de-etiolation, the involvement possibility of the GA metabolism, GA signaling in the inhibition of mesocotyl elongation of the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. var. R111) seeding under BL was investigated. The inhibition of mesocotyl and cell elongation by BL was restored by application of exogenous GA(3) in har1. The endogenous GA(3) level correspondingly decreased in har1 mesocotyl especially from 1 to 4 h after BL irradiation. Putative genes of GA metabolism enzymes SbGA20ox, SbGA3ox and SbGA2ox were detected by Real-Time PCR and the results showed that one of the SbGA2ox homologs appeared significantly higher transcript level in har1 than in R111 at 2 h after BL irradiation. Putative homologous genes of DELLAs increased after BL irradiation and were higher in har1 among the three homologs. Remarkable increase of the DELLA expression was observed responding to exogenous paclobutrazol (PAC). Our research provided evidence in monocot sorghum, that the changes of a set of the GA metabolism and signaling genes might be involved in BL-induced inhibition of cell elongation. PMID:21805343

  16. Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, R. J.; Baoini, D.; Conway, S. J.; Dohm, J. M.; Kargel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars R.J. Soare(1), D. Baioni(2), S.J. Conway (3), J.M. Dohm(4)and J.S. Kargel (5)(1) Geography Department, Dawson College, Montreal, Canada H3Z 1A4 rsoare@dawsoncollege.qc.ca.(2) Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra,della Vita e Ambiente, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo", Campus SOGESTA, 61029 Urbino (PU) Italy. (3) Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, MK7 6AA. (4) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-, Japan.(5) Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA 85719.1.Introduction Metre to decametre-deep depressions that are rimless, relatively flat-floored, polygonised and scallop-shaped have been widely observed in Utopia Planitia (UP) [e.g. 1-5] and Malea Planum (MP) [6-8]. Although there is some debate about whether the depressions formed by means of sublimation or evaporation, it is commonly believed that the terrain in which the depressions occur is ice-rich.Moreover, most workers assume that this "ice-richness" is derived of a bi-hemispheric, latitudinally-dependent and atmospherically-precipitated mantle that is metres thick [2,4,6-10].

  17. Roles of gibberellin catabolism and signaling in growth and physiological response to drought and short-day photoperiods in Populus trees.

    PubMed

    Zawaski, Christine; Busov, Victor B

    2014-01-01

    Survival and productivity of perennial plants in temperate zones are dependent on robust responses to prolonged and seasonal cycles of unfavorable conditions. Here we report whole-genome microarray, expression, physiological, and transgenic evidence in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula Populus alba) showing that gibberellin (GA) catabolism and repressive signaling mediates shoot growth inhibition and physiological adaptation in response to drought and short-day (SD) induced bud dormancy. Both water deprivation and SDs elicited activation of a suite of poplar GA2ox and DELLA encoding genes. Poplar transgenics with up-regulated GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) and DELLA domain proteins showed hypersensitive growth inhibition in response to both drought and SDs. In addition, the transgenic plants displayed greater drought resistance as evidenced by increased pigment concentrations (chlorophyll and carotenoid) and reductions in electrolyte leakage (EL). Comparative transcriptome analysis using whole-genome microarray showed that the GA-deficiency and GA-insensitivity, SD-induced dormancy, and drought response in poplar share a common regulon of 684 differentially-expressed genes, which suggest GA metabolism and signaling plays a role in plant physiological adaptations in response to alterations in environmental factors. Our results demonstrate that GA catabolism and repressive signaling represents a major route for control of growth and physiological adaptation in response to immediate or imminent adverse conditions. PMID:24465967

  18. The Chromatin-Remodeling Factor PICKLE Integrates Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin Signaling during Skotomorphogenic Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Jing, Yanjun; Jiang, Zhimin; Lin, Rongcheng

    2014-06-10

    Plant cell elongation is controlled by endogenous hormones, including brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA), and by environmental factors, such as light/darkness. The molecular mechanisms underlying the convergence of these signals that govern cell growth remain largely unknown. We previously showed that the chromatin-remodeling factor PICKLE/ENHANCED PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (PKL/EPP1) represses photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we demonstrated that PKL physically interacted with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3) and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1), key components of the light and BR signaling pathways, respectively. Also, this interaction promoted the association of PKL with cell elongation-related genes. We found that PKL, PIF3, and BZR1 coregulate skotomorphogenesis by repressing the trimethylation of histone H3 Lys-27 (H3K27me3) on target promoters. Moreover, DELLA proteins interacted with PKL and attenuated its binding ability. Strikingly, brassinolide and GA3 inhibited H3K27me3 modification of histones associated with cell elongation-related loci in a BZR1- and DELLA-mediated manner, respectively. Our findings reveal that the PKL chromatin-remodeling factor acts as a critical node that integrates light/darkness, BR, and GA signals to epigenetically regulate plant growth and development. This work also provides a molecular framework by which hormone signals regulate histone modification in concert with light/dark environmental cues. PMID:24920333

  19. The LuNa project: experimental didactic modules exploiting portable setups to teach optics in primary and secondary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondani, Maria; Allevi, Alessia; Nardo, Luca; Favale, Fabrizio

    2014-07-01

    The "LuNa" (La natura della Luce nella luce della Natura - The nature of Light in the light of Nature) Project is devoted to the experimental teaching of optics in the different school grades. The basic idea of the Project is that the history of optics and the debate about the nature of light are a meaningful example of how science proceeds in the development of a physical model. Moreover optical phenomena can be presented at different levels of complexity in order to be accessible to students of different age. At the core of the Project are several portable setups that support experimental and partially interactive lectures covering all the aspects of optical phenomena, from geometrical optics to single-photon interference passing through atmospheric optics, spectroscopy, holography and theory of perception. When possible, the setups are realized with simple and easy to find materials so as to be reproducible by teachers and students. Of course, for the most complicated setups (interferometers and holography) research materials are used. Each module is calibrated to fit teachers' requirements either to be included in the curricula of their classes or to be used as an expansion of the optics program.

  20. Klamath Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 13 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Mountains Ecoregion covers approximately 47,791 km2 (18,452 mi2) of the Klamath and Siskiyou Mountains of northern California and southern Oregon (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion is flanked by the Coast Range Ecoregion to the west, the Southern and Central California Chaparral and Oak Woodlands Ecoregion to the south, the Cascades and the Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills Ecoregions to the east, and the Willamette Valley Ecoregion to the north. The mild Mediterranean climate of the ecoregion is characterized by hot, dry summers and wet winters; the amount of winter moisture varies within the ecoregion, decreasing from west to east. The Klamath–Siskiyou Mountains region is widely recognized as an important biodiversity hotspot (Whittaker, 1960; Kruckeberg, 1984; Wagner, 1997; DellaSala and others, 1999), containing more than 3,500 plant species, more than 200 of which are endemic (Sawyer, 2007). A biological assessment by DellaSala and others (1999) ranked the Klamath–Siskiyou Mountains region as the fifth richest coniferous forest in terms of species diversity. In addition, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature considers the region an area of notable botanical importance (Wagner, 1997). Twenty-nine different species of conifers can be found in the Klamath Mountains Ecoregion (Sawyer, 1996).

  1. Heaven and Earth - `Madonne col Bambino' and `Rustiques figulines'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouquillon, A.

    Analyses of the productions of della Robbia and Palissy, two masters of Renaissance ceramics in France and in Italy, have enlightened their contributions to the improvement of the glazed terracotta technique. Della Robbia used very homogeneous materials: marly clay for the bodies, and tin-opacified coloured glazes. The technique is here very robust and very mastered. Palissy used different types of clay with different colours and physical properties, associated with specific productions. So far, we have identified seven pastes. Concerning the glazes, he played with transparency and opacity, with lead glazes and with tin-opacified lead glazes. He added traditional colouring oxides as well as specific pigments (lead-tin yellow, haematite, etc.). The mixed-earth technique is specific to his palette. So, the materials used by both artists are completely different and illustrate their different philosophical approaches. To perform the different analyses, new methodologies have been developed: ICP/AES-MS, petrography and X-ray diffractometry for the bodies, PIXE and micro-PIXE, SEM coupled with EDS and Raman spectrometry for the glazes.

  2. Transgenic modification of gai or rg/1 causes dwarfing and alters gibberellins, root growth, and metabolite profiles in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Busov, V.; Meilan, R; Pearce, D; Rood, s; Ma, C; Strauss, S

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and other plants, gibberellin (GA)-regulated responses are mediated by proteins including GAI, RGA and RGL1-3 that contain a functional DELLA domain. Through transgenic modification, we found that DELLA-less versions of GAI (gai) and RGL1 (rgl1) in a Populus tree have profound, dominant effects on phenotype, producing pleiotropic changes in morphology and metabolic profiles. Shoots were dwarfed, likely via constitutive repression of GA-induced elongation, whereas root growth was promoted two- to threefold in vitro. Applied GA{sub 3} inhibited adventitious root production in wild-type poplar, but gai/rgl1 poplars were unaffected by the inhibition. The concentrations of bioactive GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 4} in leaves of gai- and rgl1-expressing plants increased 12- to 64-fold, while the C{sub 19} precursors of GA{sub 1} (GA{sub 53}, GA{sub 44} and GA{sub 19}) decreased three- to ninefold, consistent with feedback regulation of GA 20-oxidase in the transgenic plants. The transgenic modifications elicited significant metabolic changes. In roots, metabolic profiling suggested increased respiration as a possible mechanism of the increased root growth. In leaves, we found metabolite changes suggesting reduced carbon flux through the lignin biosynthetic pathway and a shift towards allocation of secondary storage and defense metabolites, including various phenols, phenolic glucosides, and phenolic acid conjugates.

  3. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari. PMID:27183512

  4. Probing and manipulating magnetization at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarth, Nitin

    2012-02-01

    Combining semiconductors with magnetism in hetero- and nano-structured geometries provides a powerful means of exploring the interplay between spin-dependent transport and nanoscale magnetism. We describe two recent studies in this context. First, we use spin-dependent transport in ferromagnetic semiconductor thin films to provide a new window into nanoscale magnetism [1]: here, we exploit the large anomalous Hall effect in a ferromagnetic semiconductor as a nanoscale probe of the reversible elastic behavior of magnetic domain walls and gain insight into regimes of domain wall behavior inaccessible to more conventional optical techniques. Next, we describe novel ways to create self-assembled hybrid semiconductor/ferromagnet core-shell nanowires [2] and show how magnetoresistance measurements in single nanowires, coupled with micromagnetic simulations, can provide detailed insights into the magnetization reversal process in nanoscale ferromagnets [3]. The work described here was carried out in collaboration with Andrew Balk, Jing Liang, Nicholas Dellas, Mark Nowakowski, David Rench, Mark Wilson, Roman Engel-Herbert, Suzanne Mohney, Peter Schiffer and David Awschalom. This work is supported by ONR, NSF and the NSF-MRSEC program.[4pt] [1] A. L. Balk et al., Phys. Rev.Lett. 107, 077205 (2011).[0pt] [2] N. J. Dellas et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 072505 (2010).[0pt] [3] J. Liang et al., in preparation.

  5. Roles of Gibberellin Catabolism and Signaling in Growth and Physiological Response to Drought and Short-Day Photoperiods in Populus Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zawaski, Christine; Busov, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    Survival and productivity of perennial plants in temperate zones are dependent on robust responses to prolonged and seasonal cycles of unfavorable conditions. Here we report whole-genome microarray, expression, physiological, and transgenic evidence in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) showing that gibberellin (GA) catabolism and repressive signaling mediates shoot growth inhibition and physiological adaptation in response to drought and short-day (SD) induced bud dormancy. Both water deprivation and SDs elicited activation of a suite of poplar GA2ox and DELLA encoding genes. Poplar transgenics with up-regulated GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) and DELLA domain proteins showed hypersensitive growth inhibition in response to both drought and SDs. In addition, the transgenic plants displayed greater drought resistance as evidenced by increased pigment concentrations (chlorophyll and carotenoid) and reductions in electrolyte leakage (EL). Comparative transcriptome analysis using whole-genome microarray showed that the GA-deficiency and GA-insensitivity, SD-induced dormancy, and drought response in poplar share a common regulon of 684 differentially-expressed genes, which suggest GA metabolism and signaling plays a role in plant physiological adaptations in response to alterations in environmental factors. Our results demonstrate that GA catabolism and repressive signaling represents a major route for control of growth and physiological adaptation in response to immediate or imminent adverse conditions. PMID:24465967

  6. How do the media affect public perception of climate change and geohazards? An Italian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquaré, Federico A.; Oppizzi, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    This paper uses a combination of a qualitative approach and a quantitative, software-based approach to explore the Italian print media construction of climate change and geohazards between 2007 and 2010. We have broken down our analysis in two sections: the first one deals with the coverage of climate change; the second one focuses on the media representation of hydrogeological hazards and extreme events in Italy. Our software-based, qualitative and quantitative analysis of 1253 storylines from two major Italian broadsheets (the La Repubblica and the Corriere della Sera) has enabled us to assess the presence of typical journalistic frames such as conflict and dramatization, as well as newly-introduced ones such as "prevention vs damages", and "weather vs climate". Our results show that the two newspapers appear to have different "agendas" that might have different impacts on their own readerships: the La Repubblica has been on the forefront of forging a broad public consensus on the need for actions aimed at tackling climate change, whereas the Corriere della Sera has gradually built a journalistic agenda aimed at minimizing the urgency of the climate change problem. As regards the media's representation of hydrogeological hazards, we have confirmed what assessed by previous research, i.e. that Italian journalists still prefer to focus on damages rather than prevention; on a better note, the tendency of the Italian press to confuse weather with climate, blaming climate change for extreme rainfalls causing landslides and floods, has decreased in the last four years.

  7. Comparison of signaling interactions determining annual and perennial plant growth in response to low temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wingler, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature inhibits plant growth despite the fact that considerable rates of photosynthetic activity can be maintained. Instead of lower rates of photosynthesis, active inhibition of cell division and expansion is primarily responsible for reduced growth. This results in sink limitation and enables plants to accumulate carbohydrates that act as compatible solutes or are stored throughout the winter to enable re-growth in spring. Regulation of growth in response to temperature therefore requires coordination with carbon metabolism, e.g., via the signaling metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate. The phytohormones gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA) play an important role in regulating growth in response to temperature. Growth restriction at low temperature is mainly mediated by DELLA proteins, whose degradation is promoted by GA. For annual plants, it has been shown that the GA/DELLA pathway interacts with JA signaling and C-repeat binding factor dependent cold acclimation, but these interactions have not been explored in detail for perennials. Growth regulation in response to seasonal factors is, however, particularly important in perennials, especially at high latitudes. In autumn, growth cessation in trees is caused by shortening of the daylength in interaction with phytohormone signaling. In perennial grasses seasonal differences in the sensitivity to GA may enable enhanced growth in spring. This review provides an overview of the signaling interactions that determine plant growth at low temperature and highlights gaps in our knowledge, especially concerning the seasonality of signaling responses in perennial plants. PMID:25628637

  8. Spreading and autoecology of the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in the lagoons of the north-western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfriso, A.; Wolf, M. A.; Maistro, S.; Sciuto, K.; Moro, I.

    2012-12-01

    Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, an invasive Rhodophyta recently recorded in the Po Delta lagoons (May 2008), was also found in the Venice lagoon in March 2009 and successively in Pialassa della Baiona (Emilia-Romagna Region) in May 2009. The species has colonized the eutrophic and confined areas of Venice by pleustophytic tangled populations (5-15 kg fwt m-2), replacing the allochthonous species whereas it is absent in the areas characterized by low nutrient availability and high water exchange. In contrast, in the Po Delta lagoons and in Pialassa della Baiona it is present everywhere, also with high water renewal, because of the eutrophication caused by the Po river and the industrial area of Ravenna. This study presents the autoecology and distribution of G. vermiculophylla in the above environments, according to their different eutrophication status, showing its relationship with physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in water column, pore-water, surface sediments and particulate matter collected by traps in a station of the Venice lagoon (Teneri) sampled monthly during one year. Furthermore, we give new information on its morphology and the high dimorphism between female and male gametophytes and tetrasporophytes.

  9. Amarone: a modern wine coming from an ancient production technology.

    PubMed

    Paronetto, Lanfranco; Dellaglio, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Amarone wine is a renowned dry red wine produced in Valpolicella (Verona, Northern Italy). It is made from local grapes varieties (Corvina, Rondinella, and Molinara) that are slowly dried under natural conditions during the fall into winter. After the postharvest drying, carried out for several weeks in dedicated lofts called fruttaio, the grapes are vinified: crushed, given prefermentative cold maceration, undergo alcoholic fermentation on the skins, malolactic fermentation, and finally maturation. The partially dried grapes are traditionally crushed during the second half of January to February. Because cellar conditions are unfavorable for either alcohol or malolactic fermentation, selected microbial cultures (yeasts and malolactic bacteria) are often necessary to correctly manage fermentation. The progress of both fermentation processes needs constant surveillance. During maturation conducted in vessels or wooden containers (tonneau in durmast oak), clarification and stabilization lead to improvements in quality. Product specifications require that Amarone not be bottled before the wine has been aged for 2years (Anonymous (2010). Disciplinare di produzione dei vini a denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita "Amarone della Valpolicella". Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana. Serie generale n. 84. April 12). Amarone achieved its DOCG (Controlled and Guaranteed Denomination) status in 2010. PMID:21867898

  10. 32 CFR 253.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSIGNMENT OF AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO DUTY WITH THE... Department of Defense and the Red Cross and USO for all matters relating to the policy and...

  11. 32 CFR 253.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSIGNMENT OF AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO DUTY WITH THE... Department of Defense and the Red Cross and USO for all matters relating to the policy and...

  12. 32 CFR 253.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO DUTY WITH THE MILITARY... Red Cross or the USO who is subject to assignment for overseas duty with the Military Services....

  13. 32 CFR 253.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSIGNMENT OF AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO DUTY WITH THE... Department of Defense and the Red Cross and USO for all matters relating to the policy and...

  14. 32 CFR 253.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS ASSIGNMENT OF AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO... temporary or part-time employment with the Red Cross or the USO. Policy and procedures...

  15. 32 CFR 253.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS ASSIGNMENT OF AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO... temporary or part-time employment with the Red Cross or the USO. Policy and procedures...

  16. 32 CFR 253.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS ASSIGNMENT OF AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO... temporary or part-time employment with the Red Cross or the USO. Policy and procedures...

  17. 32 CFR 253.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO DUTY WITH THE MILITARY... Red Cross or the USO who is subject to assignment for overseas duty with the Military Services....

  18. 32 CFR 253.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO DUTY WITH THE MILITARY... Red Cross or the USO who is subject to assignment for overseas duty with the Military Services....

  19. 32 CFR 253.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO DUTY WITH THE MILITARY... Red Cross or the USO who is subject to assignment for overseas duty with the Military Services....

  20. 32 CFR 253.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS ASSIGNMENT OF AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO... temporary or part-time employment with the Red Cross or the USO. Policy and procedures...

  1. 32 CFR 253.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS ASSIGNMENT OF AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS AND UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, INC., EMPLOYEES TO... temporary or part-time employment with the Red Cross or the USO. Policy and procedures...

  2. Explore medicamentos | Smokefree Espaol

    Cancer.gov

    Aprenda sobre los medicamentos que lo ayudarn a dejar de fumar, incluso el tratamiento de reemplazo de la nicotina. El uso de estos medicamentos puede duplicar sus probabilidades de dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  3. Explore medicamentos | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Aprenda sobre los medicamentos que lo ayudarán a dejar de fumar, incluso el tratamiento de reemplazo de la nicotina. El uso de estos medicamentos puede duplicar sus probabilidades de dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  4. Tone based command system for reception of very weak signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokulic, Robert Steven (Inventor); Jensen, James Robert (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    This disclosure presents a communication receiver system for spacecraft that includes an open loop receiver adapted to receive a communication signal. An ultrastable oscillator (USO) and a tone detector are connected to the open loop receiver. The open loop receiver translates the communication signal to an intermediate frequency signal using a highly stable reference frequency from the USO. The tone detector extracts commands from the communication signal by evaluating the difference between tones of the communication signal.

  5. Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

  6. Savanna chimpanzees use tools to harvest the underground storage organs of plants

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Aguilar, R. Adriana; Moore, Jim; Pickering, Travis Rayne

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that plant underground storage organs (USOs) played key roles in the initial hominin colonization of savanna habitats, the development of the distinctive skull and tooth morphology of the genus Australopithecus, and the evolution of the genus Homo by serving as “fallback foods” exploited during periods of food shortage. These hypotheses have been tested mostly by morphological, isotopic, and microwear analyses of hominin bones and teeth. Archaeological evidence of USO digging technology is equivocal. Until now relevant data from studies of chimpanzees, useful in behavioral models of early hominins because of their phylogenetic proximity and anatomical similarities, have been lacking. Here we report on the first evidence of chimpanzees using tools to dig for USOs, suggesting that exploitation of such resources was within the cognitive and technological reach of the earliest hominins. Consistent with scenarios of hominin adaptation to savannas, these data come from Ugalla (Tanzania), one of the driest, most open and seasonal chimpanzee habitats. USOs are, however, exploited during the rainy season, well after the period of most likely food shortage, contradicting the specific prediction of fallback food hypotheses. The discovery that savanna chimpanzees use tools to obtain USOs contradicts yet another claim of human uniqueness and provides a model for the study of variables influencing USO use among early hominins. PMID:18032604

  7. Germination of photoblastic lettuce seeds is regulated via the control of endogenous physiologically active gibberellin content, rather than of gibberellin responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Yoshiaki; Katsumata, Takumi; Kitamura, Jun; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Asami, Tadao; Nakaminami, Kentaro; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Inoue, Yasunori; Toyomasu, Tomonobu

    2008-01-01

    Phytochrome regulates lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) seed germination via the control of the endogenous level of bioactive gibberellin (GA). In addition to the previously identified LsGA20ox1, LsGA20ox2, LsGA3ox1, LsGA3ox2, LsGA2ox1, and LsGA2ox2, five cDNAs were isolated from lettuce seeds: LsCPS, LsKS, LsKO1, LsKO2, and LsKAO. Using an Escherichia coli expression system and functional assays, it is shown that LsCPS and LsKS encode ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase and ent-kaurene synthase, respectively. Using a Pichia pastoris system, it was found that LsKO1 and LsKO2 encode ent-kaurene oxidases and LsKAO encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase. A comprehensive expression analysis of GA metabolism genes using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction suggested that transcripts of LsGA3ox1 and LsGA3ox2, both of which encode GA 3-oxidase for GA activation, were primarily expressed in the hypocotyl end of lettuce seeds, were expressed at much lower levels than the other genes tested, and were potently up-regulated by phytochrome. Furthermore, LsDELLA1 and LsDELLA2 cDNAs that encode DELLA proteins, which act as negative regulators in the GA signalling pathway, were isolated from lettuce seeds. The transcript levels of these two genes were little affected by light. Lettuce seeds in which de novo GA biosynthesis was suppressed responded almost identically to exogenously applied GA, irrespective of the light conditions, suggesting that GA responsiveness is not significantly affected by light in lettuce seeds. It is proposed that lettuce seed germination is regulated mainly via the control of the endogenous content of bioactive GA, rather than the control of GA responsiveness. PMID:18653696

  8. E3 SUMO ligase AtSIZ1 positively regulates SLY1-mediated GA signalling and plant development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Il; Park, Bong Soo; Kim, Do Youn; Yeu, Song Yion; Song, Sang Ik; Song, Jong Tae; Seo, Hak Soo

    2015-07-15

    Gibberellins affect various plant development processes including germination, cell division and elongation, and flowering. A large number of studies have been carried out to address the molecular mechanisms that mediate gibberellin signalling effects on plant growth. However, such studies have been limited to DELLA protein degradation; the regulatory mechanisms controlling how the stability and function of SLEEPY1 (SLY1), a protein that interacts with target DELLA proteins as components of the Skp, Cullin, F-box (SCF)(SLY1) complex, are modulated at the post-translational level have not been addressed. In the present study, we show that the E3 SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) ligase AtSIZ1 regulates gibberellic acid signalling in Arabidopsis species by sumoylating SLY1. SLY1 was less abundant in siz1-2 mutants than in wild-type plants, but the DELLA protein repressor of ga1-3 (RGA) was more abundant in siz1-2 mutants than in wild-type plants. SLY1 also accumulated to a high level in the SUMO protease mutant esd4. Transgenic sly1-13 mutants over-expressing SLY1 were phenotypically similar to wild-type plants; however, sly1-13 plants over-expressing a mutated mSLY1 protein (K122R, a mutation at the sumoylation site) retained the mutant dwarfing phenotype. Over-expression of SLY1 in sly1-13 mutants resulted in a return of RGA levels to wild-type levels, but RGA accumulated to high levels in mutants over-expressing mSLY1. RGA was clearly detected in Arabidopsis co-expressing AtSIZ1 and mSLY1, but not in plants co-expressing AtSIZ1 and SLY1. In addition, sumoylated SLY1 interacted with RGA and SLY1 sumoylation was significantly increased by GA. Taken together, our results indicate that, in Arabidopsis, AtSIZ1 positively controls GA signalling through SLY1 sumoylation. PMID:26008766

  9. Germination of photoblastic lettuce seeds is regulated via the control of endogenous physiologically active gibberellin content, rather than of gibberellin responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Yoshiaki; Katsumata, Takumi; Kitamura, Jun; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Asami, Tadao; Nakaminami, Kentaro; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Inoue, Yasunori; Toyomasu, Tomonobu

    2008-01-01

    Phytochrome regulates lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) seed germination via the control of the endogenous level of bioactive gibberellin (GA). In addition to the previously identified LsGA20ox1, LsGA20ox2, LsGA3ox1, LsGA3ox2, LsGA2ox1, and LsGA2ox2, five cDNAs were isolated from lettuce seeds: LsCPS, LsKS, LsKO1, LsKO2, and LsKAO. Using an Escherichia coli expression system and functional assays, it is shown that LsCPS and LsKS encode ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase and ent-kaurene synthase, respectively. Using a Pichia pastoris system, it was found that LsKO1 and LsKO2 encode ent-kaurene oxidases and LsKAO encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase. A comprehensive expression analysis of GA metabolism genes using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction suggested that transcripts of LsGA3ox1 and LsGA3ox2, both of which encode GA 3-oxidase for GA activation, were primarily expressed in the hypocotyl end of lettuce seeds, were expressed at much lower levels than the other genes tested, and were potently up-regulated by phytochrome. Furthermore, LsDELLA1 and LsDELLA2 cDNAs that encode DELLA proteins, which act as negative regulators in the GA signalling pathway, were isolated from lettuce seeds. The transcript levels of these two genes were little affected by light. Lettuce seeds in which de novo GA biosynthesis was suppressed responded almost identically to exogenously applied GA, irrespective of the light conditions, suggesting that GA responsiveness is not significantly affected by light in lettuce seeds. It is proposed that lettuce seed germination is regulated mainly via the control of the endogenous content of bioactive GA, rather than the control of GA responsiveness. PMID:18653696

  10. A geographically weighted regression model for geothermal potential assessment in mediterranean cultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arpa, S.; Zaccarelli, N.; Bruno, D. E.; Leucci, G.; Uricchio, V. F.; Zurlini, G.

    2012-04-01

    Geothermal heat can be used directly in many applications (agro-industrial processes, sanitary hot water production, heating/cooling systems, etc.). These applications respond to energetic and environmental sustainability criteria, ensuring substantial energy savings with low environmental impacts. In particular, in Mediterranean cultural landscapes the exploitation of geothermal energy offers a valuable alternative compared to other exploitation systems more land-consuming and visual-impact. However, low enthalpy geothermal energy applications at regional scale, require careful design and planning to fully exploit benefits and reduce drawbacks. We propose a first example of application of a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) for the modeling of geothermal potential in the Apulia Region (South Italy) by integrating hydrological (e.g. depth to water table, water speed and temperature), geological-geotechnical (e.g. lithology, thermal conductivity) parameters and land-use indicators. The GWR model can effectively cope with data quality, spatial anisotropy, lack of stationarity and presence of discontinuities in the underlying data maps. The geothermal potential assessment required a good knowledge of the space-time variation of the numerous parameters related to the status of geothermal resource, a contextual analysis of spatial and environmental features, as well as the presence and nature of regulations or infrastructures constraints. We create an ad hoc geodatabase within ArcGIS 10 collecting relevant data and performing a quality assessment. Cross-validation shows high level of consistency of the spatial local models, as well as error maps can depict areas of lower reliability. Based on low enthalpy geothermal potential map created, a first zoning of the study area is proposed, considering four level of possible exploitation. Such zoning is linked and refined by the actual legal constraints acting at regional or province level as enforced by the regional plan for the protection of the landscape ("Piano Urbanistico Territoriale Tematico Paesaggio"), the regional plan for the protection of water and groundwater ("Piano di Tutela delle Acque"), the regional plan of hydrogeological risk ("Piano di Assetto Idrogeologico") and the province level master-plan for the development ("Piano Territoriale di Coordinamento Provinciale"). We believe our results can be a substantial contribution for the ongoing regional debate on the exploitation of geothermal potential as well as an important knowledge base for the integration of such topic in the new regional energetic and environmental plan ("Piano Energetico Ambientale Regionale").

  11. [The Guido Casini Fund].

    PubMed

    Bettini Prosperi, M

    1998-01-01

    The Parasitology Institute of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" keeps documents from the Societa per gli Studi della Malaria, from the Istituto Superiore di Malariologia Ettore Marchiafava and from the Ente Regionale per la Lotta Antianofelica in Sardegna (Erlaas). The papers arrived in the private Archive of Guido Casini, malariologist and secretary of the Istituto Marchiafava, who involved himself in many activities performed by those Bureaux and who recently gave the documentary sources as a donation to the Parasitology Institute. The intervention of reorganization and inventory of the Guido Casini Fund is in its final phase; it will allow to reconstruct the institutional events of these Bureaux and to point out their important sanitary, scientific and political contribution in Italy and abroad. PMID:11623695

  12. Reservoirs performances under climate variability: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardi, A.; Mautone, M.; de Luca, C.

    2014-09-01

    A case study, the Piano della Rocca dam (southern Italy) is discussed here in order to quantify the system performances under climate variability conditions. Different climate scenarios have been stochastically generated according to the tendencies in precipitation and air temperature observed during recent decades for the studied area. Climate variables have then been filtered through an ARMA model to generate, at the monthly scale, time series of reservoir inflow volumes. Controlled release has been computed considering the reservoir is operated following the standard linear operating policy (SLOP) and reservoir performances have been assessed through the calculation of reliability, resilience and vulnerability indices (Hashimoto et al. 1982), comparing current and future scenarios of climate variability. The proposed approach can be suggested as a valuable tool to mitigate the effects of moderate to severe and persistent droughts periods, through the allocation of new water resources or the planning of appropriate operational rules.

  13. Some New Reflections on Mr. Palomar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, O.

    2009-08-01

    The character Mr. Palomar, the alter-ego of the Italian author Italo Calvino, appeared for the first time in 1975 on the pages of the ``Il Corriere della Sera'', and then more or less regularly till its debut as a book in 1983. Through illuminating thoughts and reflections based on observations, for instance, of sea waves, Mr. Palomar discovers that they induce a peaceful and inspirational state of mind that prevents coronary and mental illnesses, and also holds the key to capturing the complexity of the world reducing it into its most elementary mechanisms. In this contribution I will survey some of Mr. Palomar's thoughts while he observes the sky and speculate on others that he might have explored if he shared our contemporary knowledge of the cosmos. I will also discuss the thoughts of other authors on how, cosmological thinking affects the human condition.

  14. The PRISMA hyperspectral imaging spectrometer: detectors and front-end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerini, Massimo; Mancini, Mauro; Fossati, Enrico; Battazza, Fabrizio; Formaro, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Two detectors, SWIR and VNIR, and relevant front-end electronics were developed in the frame of the PRISMA(Precursore Iperspettrale della Missione Applicativa) project, an hyperspectral instrument for the earth observation. The two detectors were of the MCT type and, in particular, the VNIR was realized by Sofradir by using the CZT(Cadmium Zinc Telluride substrate of the PV diodes) substrate removal to obtain the sensitivity in the visible spectral range. The use of the same ROIC permitted to design an unique front-end electronics. Two test campaigns were carried out: by Sofradir, only on the detectors, and by Selex ES, by using the PRISMA flight electronics. This latter tests demonstrated that was possible to obtain the same detector performance, with respect of those ones obtained by a ground setup, with a flight hardware in terms of noise, linearity and thermal stability.

  15. Resilient and Corrosion-proof Rolling Element Bearings Made from Ni-ti Alloys for Aerospace Mechanism Applications and the Ultimate Space Technology Development Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station provides a unique microgravity laboratory environment for research. The ISS also serves as an effective platform for the development of technologies and engineered solutions related to living and working in space. The space environment also challenges our capabilities related to lubrication and tribology. In this seminar, Dr. DellaCorte will review the basics of space mechanism tribology and the challenges of providing good lubrication and long-life in the harsh space environment. He will also discuss recent tribological challenges associated with the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) bearings and life support hardware that must operate under severe conditions that are literally out of this world. Each tribology challenge is unique and their solutions often result in new technologies that benefit the tribology community everywhere, even back on Earth

  16. The Chimenti controversy.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2003-01-01

    Jacopo Chimenti (c 1551-1640), an artist from Empoli, made two sketches of a young man holding a compass and a plumb line. When these were seen, mounted next to one another, by Alexander Crum Brown in 1859, he combined them by overconvergence and described the stereoscopic depth he saw. Brown's informal observation was conveyed to David Brewster, who suggested that the drawings were produced for a stereoscope, possibly made by Giovanni Battista della Porta. There followed a bitter debate about the supposed stereoscopic effects that could be seen when the pictures combined. Brewster's claims were finally dispelled when precise measurements were made of the drawings: some parts were stereoscopic and others were pseudoscopic. Brewster's attempts to wrest the invention of the stereoscope from Wheatstone were unsuccessful. PMID:12696664

  17. Aspherical dust dynamics code for GIADA experiment in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovski, Stavro; Zakharov, Vladimir; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Lucarelli, Francesca; Crifo, Jean-Francois; Rotundi, Alessandra; Fulle, Marco

    2014-05-01

    In 2014, the ESA ROSETTA probe is on its way to face its main scientific objectives by encountering and landing on comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko. One of the in-situ instrument on board ROSETTA is GIADA (Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator)[1], which will measure individual dust grain mass, number density and velocity in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus. Based on the state-of-the-art 3D+t dust coma model [3,4] we developed a 3D+t aspherical dust dynamical code Giaspheria (GIADA aspherical dust analyzer) which treats aspherical dust motion to support the scientific objectives of GIADA. We report the latest improvements in Giaspheria[5,6,7] and the distinctions in the dust dynamics of spherical and aspherical grains using gas solutions for a spherical nucleus not yet data-calibrated. We consider motion of homogeneous, isothermal polygonal convex bodies (close to ellipsoid of revolution with different aspect ratios of axes), moving under influence of three forces: aerodynamic , gravitational and torque. We use the gas distribution (density, velocity, temperature) for a spherical nucleus discussed in [4,8]. We estimate the aerodynamic force from expressions for free molecular interactions and postulate the distribution function of ejection velocity and the distribution function of initial orientation on the surface of the nucleus. We show the dust distribution of aspherical grains at three different heliocentric distances (3AU, 2AU and 1.3 AU) by means of GIPSI simulated GIADA measurements during these stages of the mission. As an input for GIPSI simulations we use the dust and velocity distributions prevised by Giaspheria computations. Acknowledgements: This research has been supported by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) (Ref: n. I/032/05/0) [1] Della Corte V. et al, (2014), Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation (in press). [2] Colangeli, L., et al., Space Science Reviews, Volume 128, Numbers 1-4, 803-821, 2007 [3] Zakharov, V.V., Rodionov A.V., Crifo J.-F., Fulle M., EPSC-DPS , p. 126, 2011 [4] Crifo, J.-F., Loukianov, G.A., Rodionov, A. V., and Zakharov, V. V., Icarus 176, pp. 192-219, 2005 [5] Ivanovski, S. L., Zakharov, V.V., Crifo J.-F., Della Corte V., Rotundi A., EPSC-DPS, p.1371, 2011 [6] Ivanovski, S. L., Zakharov, V.V., Crifo J.-F., Della Corte V., Rotundi A., Vol 7, EPSC2012-592, 2012 [7] Ivanovski, S. L., Zakharov, V.V., Crifo J.-F., Della Corte V., Rotundi A., Vol. 15, EGU2013-11417, 2013 [8] Crifo, J-F., Lukianov,G.A., Rodionov,A.V., Khanlarov,G.O. ,Zakharov,V.V. Icarus Vol.156, 249-268, 2002 [9] Zakharov,V.V., Rodionov, A. V., Lukianov,G.A., Crifo, J-F.,Icarus Vol. 201, I1, p.358-380, 2009

  18. [A preliminary investigation on the occurrence of protozoa in swimming pools in Italy].

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, L; Briancesco, R; Magini, V; Orsini, M; Romano-Spica, V

    2004-01-01

    In Italy controls on the hygienic quality of swimming pools are fixed by the Accordo tra il Ministero della Salute, le regioni e le province autonome di Trento e di Bolzano, come into force in 2003. In the present study swimming pools were investigated from the microbiological point of view on the basis of the new legislation. Contemporaneously, for the first time in Italy, analytical controls on the occurrence of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia were performed with both techniques of immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction. Results evidenced a good water quality when the bacterial parameters stated by law were considered. However in some swimming pools, the protozoa were also recovered. Factors affecting the use of molecular techniques on the analysis of environmental samples are also put into evidence. PMID:15697000

  19. "Galileo's Machine": Late Notes on Free Fall, Projectile Motion, and the Force of Percussion (ca. 1638-1639)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvia, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    My paper focuses upon the problem of determining the nature, establishing the proportionality, and measuring the intensity of the force of percussion of a projected or falling body, as treated in the Sixth Day of Galileo's Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno a due nuove scienze (1638). This fragment was written around 1638-1639 as part of two additional Days of the Discorsi, which Galileo never finished and remained unpublished until 1718. Galileo's last works on percussion show a significant step towards a generalization of his own views on uniform and accelerated motion that will later lead to the Newtonian principle of inertia. The experiment with two equal weights hanging on a pulley, performed in Arcetri during the same period, is compared with the Paduan 1604-1608 experience of the "water balance." Both account for more than three decades of inquiries into what Galileo called forza della percossa, which marked the transition from preclassical to classical mechanics.

  20. Using the Stereotype Content Model to examine group depictions in Fascism: An Archival Approach

    PubMed Central

    Durante, Federica; Volpato, Chiara; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    The Stereotype Content Model (SCM) suggests potentially universal intergroup depictions. If universal, they should apply across history in archival data. Bridging this gap, we examined social groups descriptions during Italy’s Fascist era. In Study 1, articles published in a Fascist magazine— La Difesa della Razza —were content analyzed, and results submitted to correspondence analysis. Admiration prejudice depicted ingroups; envious and contemptuous prejudices depicted specific outgroups, generally in line with SCM predictions. No paternalistic prejudice appeared; historical reasons might explain this finding. Results also fit the recently developed BIAS Map of behavioral consequences. In Study 2, ninety-six undergraduates rated the content-analysis traits on warmth and competence, without knowing their origin. They corroborated SCM’s interpretations of the archival data. PMID:24403646

  1. The Actinobacterial Colonization of Etruscan Paintings

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70′s when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches. PMID:23486535

  2. The actinobacterial colonization of Etruscan paintings.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70's when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches. PMID:23486535

  3. Philosophers and physicians on the scientific validity of Latin physiognomy, 1200-1500.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The article surveys and contextualizes the main arguments among philosophers and academic physicians surrounding the status of physiognomy as a valid science from the thirteenth to the early sixteenth centuries. It suggests that despite constant doubts, learned Latin physiognomy in the later Middle Ages was recognized by natural philosophers (William of Spain, Jean Buridan, William of Mirica) and academic physicians (Rolandus Scriptor, Michele Savonarola, Bartolomeo della Rocca [Cocles]) as a body of knowledge rooted in a sound theoretical basis. Physiognomy was characterized by stability and certainty. As a demonstrative science it was expected to provide rational explanation for every bodily sign. In this respect, learned physiognomy in the Middle Ages was dramatically different from its classical sources, from Islamic and possibly from early-modern physiognomy as well. PMID:18175464

  4. Resilient and Corrosion-Proof Rolling Element Bearings Made from Superelastic Ni-Ti Alloys for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical components (bearings, gears, mechanisms) typically utilize hardened construction materials to minimize wear and attain long life. In such components, loaded contact points (e.g., meshing gear teeth, bearing balls-raceway contacts) experience high contact stresses. The combination of high hardness and high elastic modulus often leads to damaging contact stress and denting, particularly during transient overload events such as shock impacts that occur during the launching of space vehicles or the landing of aircraft. In this webinar, Dr. DellaCorte will introduce the results of a research project that employs a superelastic alloy, Ni-Ti for rolling element bearing applications. Bearings and components made from such alloys can alleviate many problems encountered in advanced aerospace applications and may solve many terrestrial applications as well

  5. The Agony of Choice: How Plants Balance Growth and Survival under Water-Limiting Conditions1

    PubMed Central

    Claeys, Hannes; Inzé, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    When confronted with water limitation, plants actively reprogram their metabolism and growth. Recently, it has become clear that growing tissues show specific and highly dynamic responses to drought, which differ from the well-studied responses in mature tissues. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in understanding shoot growth regulation in water-limiting conditions. Of special interest is the balance between maintained growth and competitiveness on the one hand and ensured survival on the other hand. A number of master regulators controlling this balance have been identified, such as DELLAs and APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR-type transcription factors. The possibilities of engineering or breeding crops that maintain growth in periods of mild drought, while still being able to activate protective tolerance mechanisms, are discussed. PMID:23766368

  6. Nitric oxide: an emerging regulator of cell elongation during primary root growth.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marcos, María; Sanz, Luis; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2012-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly inducible molecule and overaccumulated during stress responses, such as drought, cold and pathogen infection. Several key developmental processes within a plant life cycle have been reported to be signaled by this gaseous molecule, and among them seed germination, de-etiolation, gravitropic response or root growth are well-characterized. The importance of NO as a plant growth and stress regulator is emerging considerably, despite the current knowledge about its signaling pathway is still limited. Therefore, the identification and characterization at the molecular level of NO targets is essential to get a deeper insight into this pathway. Here we characterize the effect of NO on root development in Arabidopsis and found that NO application reduces cell lengths in differentiation zone. Additionally, the contribution of the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway to the NO root-related phenotypes, mainly through DELLA repressors, is also depicted. PMID:22353861

  7. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Mohammad R. Bolouri; den Ende, Wim Van

    2013-01-01

    Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin and jasmonate signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS, invertases, and trehalose-6-phosphate) might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of “sweet immunity,” modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration. PMID:23420760

  8. Romantic attachment and subtypes/dimensions of jealousy.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Consoli, Giorgio; Albanese, Francesco; Laquidara, Emanuela; Baroni, Stefano; Catena Dell'osso, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored the possible relationship between romantic attachment and jealousy in 100 healthy subjects. The romantic attachment and jealousy were evaluated by means of, respectively, the "Experiences in Close Relationships" questionnaire (ECR), and the "Questionario della Gelosia" (QUEGE). The ECR anxiety scale was related to all QUEGE dimensions, while the ECR avoidance scale to three. Individuals with the preoccupied attachment style showed higher scores than secure subjects on the obsessionality, interpersonal sensitivity and fear of loss dimensions. Fearful-avoidant individuals had higher score than secure subjects on the fear of loss dimension only, while dismissing individuals had lower scores on the self-esteem dimension.These findings suggest that romantic attachment and jealousy are intertwined. PMID:20835357

  9. PREFACE: Young Researcher Meeting in Rome 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Fabio; Cattani, Giordano; Mazzaferro, Luca; Migliaccio, Marina; Pietrobon, Davide; Ricci Pacifici, Daniel; Stellato, Francesco; Veneziani, Marcella

    2012-10-01

    Conference logo At its third edition, the Young Researcher Meeting in Rome (YRMR) proves to be a growing event in the Italian scientific panorama. The high-quality content of the abstracts submitted to the scientific committee resulted in an exciting conference, held, for the second time, at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata' on 20 January 2012. A busy schedule covered a large variety of cutting-edge science topics: fundamental interactions, particle physics, cosmology, astrophysics, condensed matter and biomedical physics. The broad range of the subjects discussed is the distinctive feature of the YRMR, a meeting aimed at enhancing the synergy among complementary branches of science by stimulating a fruitful exchange between theoretical, experimental and computational physics. Promoting collaborations between PhD students, postdoctoral fellows and young researchers creates a solid scientific network with an open-minded approach to discovery. In this volume, we collect the contributions that have been presented both in the form of talks and of posters. YRMR Organising and Editorial Committee Fabio Agostini (fabio.agostini@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Giordano Cattani (giordano.cattani@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' INFN sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Luca Mazzaferro (luca.mazzaferro@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' INFN sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Marina Migliaccio (migliaccio@ifca.unican.es) Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Edificio Juan Jorda, Avenida de los Castros, E-39005 Santander, Cantabria Spain Davide Pietrobon (davide.pietrobon@jpl.nasa.gov) Jet Propulsion Laboratory - California Institute of Technology 4800 Oak Grove Drive 169-237 91109 Pasadena, CA USA Daniel Ricci Pacifici (Daniel.Ricci.Pacifici@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' INFN sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Francesco Stellato (francesco.stellato@cfel.de) Center for Free Electron Laser science c/o DESY 22607 Hamburg Germany Marcella Veneziani (marcella.veneziani@caltech.edu) California Institute of Technology 1200 California Blvd, Pasadena, 91125, CA USA Institution logos Acknowledgments The organizers of the 3rd Young Researcher Meeting in Rome would like to thank all the scientists who participated in the meeting. We thank the Science Faculty of the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata' for hosting the conference. The 'Tor Vergata' Division of the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) and the Department of Physics of the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata' who have sponsored the event, covering the organization costs and allowing for travel grants to the speakers. We are grateful to Professor Francesco Fucito, Professor Piergiorgio Picozza, Professor Rinaldo Santonico, Dr Jose Francisco Morales and Ms Francesca Luna for their valuable support.

  10. SAMOA Solar and Atmospheric Measurements and Observations Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, C.

    SAMOA is a grid portal developed at the INAF-OAR to share and analyze the solar and atmospheric data provided by the three institutes affiliated to the CVS - Centro per lo studio della Variabilità del Sole. At present, SAMOA includes about 1 TB of data from the geographically distributed archives and consists present and past full-disk solar observations at several spectral bands provided by the INAF-OAR, ionospheric and geomagnetic measurements obtained by the INGV and University of Rome 'Tor Vergata'. Data are all included in a unique virtual environment where several pre-analysis tools are also provided. Realized through open source web languages, SAMOA is an example of Service-Oriented-Architecture tool for virtual organizations devoted to share solar and atmospheric resources.

  11. How Do We See Art: An Eye-Tracker Study

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Pedreira, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We describe the pattern of fixations of subjects looking at figurative and abstract paintings from different artists (Molina, Mondrian, Rembrandt, della Francesca) and at modified versions in which different aspects of these art pieces were altered with simple digital manipulations. We show that the fixations of the subjects followed some general common principles (e.g., being attracted to saliency regions) but with a large variability for the figurative paintings, according to the subject’s personal appreciation and knowledge. In particular, we found different gazing patterns depending on whether the subject saw the original or the modified version of the painting first. We conclude that the study of gazing patterns obtained by using the eye-tracker technology gives a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art. PMID:21941476

  12. Reclamation and agricultural reuse of wastewater: the experience of the Cagliari sewage treatment plant (Sardinia, Italy).

    PubMed

    Botti, P; Virdis, A; Solinas, G; Buscarinu, P; Ferralis, M; Marras, G; Spanu, P; Vacca, S

    2009-01-01

    In Sardinia, as in many other Mediterranean regions, recurrent droughts and climate change have dramatically reduced available water resources. As a result of this critical situation, in 1995 the Italian Government declared a state of emergency and drew up a program for financial support by the State and local authorities with the aim of reducing this serious deficit. One of the actions focused on reclaiming and reusing the effluent from the sewage treatment plant of Cagliari. This article reports on the multidisciplinary preliminary study performed by the Ente Acque della Sardegna (ENAS) to evaluate the suitability of reusing Is Arenas effluent for irrigation and on the operation of the tertiary treatment plant. PMID:19151487

  13. Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana seed dormancy and germination by 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Anuja; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Gilday, Alison D.; Penfield, Steven D.; Graham, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the oxylipin 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) acts along with abscisic acid to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanistic details of this synergistic interaction remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that OPDA acts through the germination inhibition effects of abscisic acid, the abscisic acid-sensing ABI5 protein, and the gibberellin-sensing RGL2 DELLA protein. We further demonstrate that OPDA also acts through another dormancy-promoting factor, MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT). Both abscisic acid and MFT positively feed back into the OPDA pathway by promoting its accumulation. These results confirm the central role of OPDA in regulating seed dormancy and germination in A. thaliana and underline the complexity of interactions between OPDA and other dormancy-promoting factors such as abscisic acid, RGL2, and MFT. PMID:26873978

  14. Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana seed dormancy and germination by 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid.

    PubMed

    Dave, Anuja; Vaistij, Fabián E; Gilday, Alison D; Penfield, Steven D; Graham, Ian A

    2016-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that the oxylipin 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) acts along with abscisic acid to regulate seed germination inArabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanistic details of this synergistic interaction remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that OPDA acts through the germination inhibition effects of abscisic acid, the abscisic acid-sensing ABI5 protein, and the gibberellin-sensing RGL2 DELLA protein. We further demonstrate that OPDA also acts through another dormancy-promoting factor, MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT). Both abscisic acid and MFT positively feed back into the OPDA pathway by promoting its accumulation. These results confirm the central role of OPDA in regulating seed dormancy and germination inA. thalianaand underline the complexity of interactions between OPDA and other dormancy-promoting factors such as abscisic acid, RGL2, and MFT. PMID:26873978

  15. Romantic Attachment and Subtypes/Dimensions of Jealousy

    PubMed Central

    Marazziti, Donatella; Consoli, Giorgio; Albanese, Francesco; Laquidara, Emanuela; Baroni, Stefano; Catena Dell’Osso, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored the possible relationship between romantic attachment and jealousy in 100 healthy subjects. The romantic attachment and jealousy were evaluated by means of, respectively, the “Experiences in Close Relationships” questionnaire (ECR), and the “Questionario della Gelosia” (QUEGE). The ECR anxiety scale was related to all QUEGE dimensions, while the ECR avoidance scale to three. Individuals with the preoccupied attachment style showed higher scores than secure subjects on the obsessionality, interpersonal sensitivity and fear of loss dimensions. Fearful-avoidant individuals had higher score than secure subjects on the fear of loss dimension only, while dismissing individuals had lower scores on the self-esteem dimension. These findings suggest that romantic attachment and jealousy are intertwined. PMID:20835357

  16. Using the Stereotype Content Model to examine group depictions in Fascism: An Archival Approach.

    PubMed

    Durante, Federica; Volpato, Chiara; Fiske, Susan T

    2010-04-01

    The Stereotype Content Model (SCM) suggests potentially universal intergroup depictions. If universal, they should apply across history in archival data. Bridging this gap, we examined social groups descriptions during Italy's Fascist era. In Study 1, articles published in a Fascist magazine- La Difesa della Razza -were content analyzed, and results submitted to correspondence analysis. Admiration prejudice depicted ingroups; envious and contemptuous prejudices depicted specific outgroups, generally in line with SCM predictions. No paternalistic prejudice appeared; historical reasons might explain this finding. Results also fit the recently developed BIAS Map of behavioral consequences. In Study 2, ninety-six undergraduates rated the content-analysis traits on warmth and competence, without knowing their origin. They corroborated SCM's interpretations of the archival data. PMID:24403646

  17. Image restoration of the office of the Vice President

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    1994-09-01

    The techniques of digital computer image processing have been employed to investigate the characteristics of paintings by the Italian master, Raphael. In particular spectral histograms have been generated for several of his paintings for individual areas such as hair, face, and garments. It was found that the palette employed by the artist does exhibit regularities. Similarly, spatial frequency histograms of like areas of his different paintings also show certain uniformities. Thus, the first steps have been taken in developing a `fingerprint' for the chromatic tonality and impasta characteristic of this artist's hand. Such information may be of use in trying to attribute controversial paintings where historical data are lacking and chemical data are ambiguous. This trial `fingerprint' has been applied to an unattributed Italian painting known as the `Madonna della Divino Amore.' Although the match to the `Raphael fingerprint' is not perfect it does offer sufficient encouragement to suggest that further investigations into the nature of its materials and its history are warranted.

  18. Endotoxin-like activity associated with Lyme disease Borrelia.

    PubMed

    Fumarola, D; Munno, I; Marcuccio, C; Miragliotta, G

    1986-12-01

    The newly recognized spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease, has been examined for endotoxin-like activities as measured by the standard Farmacopea Ufficiale della Republica Italiana rabbit fever test and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. The suspension of heat-killed microorganism caused a febrile response at a dose of 1 X 10(8) bacteria pro kilo. Similar results were obtained in the Limulus assay where the heat-killed spirochetes stimulated formation of solid clot until the concentration of 1 X 10(5) per ml. Both in pyrogen test and in Limulus assay heat-killed Escherichia coli exhibited a higher degree of potency. These results show that LD-Borrelia possess endotoxin-like activities which could help in understanding the pathogenesis of the clinical symptomatology of the disease. PMID:3577476

  19. Safeguarding saproxylic fungal biodiversity in Apennine beech forest priority habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Oriana; Lunghini, Dario; Pecoraro, Lorenzo; Sabatini, Francesco Maria; Persiani, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    The FAGUS LIFE Project (LIFE11/NAT/IT/135) targets two European priority habitats, i.e. Habitat 9210* Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex, and Habitat 9220* Apennine beech forests with Abies alba, within two National Parks: Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni; Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga. The current limited distribution of the target habitats is also due to the impact of human activities on forest systems, such as harvesting and grazing. The FAGUS project aims at developing and testing management strategies able to integrate the conservation of priority forest habitats (9210* and 9220*) and the sustainable use of forest resources. In order to assess the responses to different management treatments the BACI monitoring design (Before-After, Control-Intervention) has been applied on forest structure and diversity of focus taxa before and after experimental harvesting treatments. Conventional management of Apennine beech forests impacts a wealth of taxonomic groups, such as saproxylic beetles and fungi, which are threatened throughout Europe by the lack of deadwood and of senescing trees, and by the homogeneous structure of managed forests. Deadwood has been denoted as the most important manageable habitat for biodiversity in forests not only for supporting a wide diversity of organisms, but also for playing a prominent role in several ecological processes, creating the basis for the cycling of photosynthetic energy, carbon, and nutrients stored in woody material. Especially fungi can be regarded as key group for understanding and managing biodiversity associated with decaying wood. The before-intervention field sampling was carried out in Autumn 2013 in 33 monitoring plots across the two national Parks. The occurrence at plot level of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota sporocarps was surveyed. All standing and downed deadwood with a minimum diameter of 10 cm was sampled for sporocarps larger than 1 mm, and information on decay class and fungal morphogroups was recorded. Our results confirm Apennine beech forests as important repositories of saproxylic fungal diversity. We identified species of high scientific concern, in both National Parks. The most represented genus is Mycena with six and five species in the sampling units of "Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga" and "Cilento,Vallo di Diano and Alburni" national Parks respectively. Within the "Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park" the area of Incodara is of special interest due to the occurrence of the species Ossicaulis lignatilis, which is among the 21 identified indicator species for assessing conservation value of beech forests in Europe. A consistent group of Ascomycota species, including Biscogniauxia nummularia, Bisporella citrina, Diatrype disciformis, Kretzschmaria deusta, Nemania serpens, and Xylaria hypoxylon, was tightly associated with coarse woody debris in "Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park" plots. The decay stage seemed to exert a major influence on both species richness and their spatial patterns, with coarse woody debris in the intermediate to late stages of decay being the richest in species. (471 words)

  20. Did Ptolemy understand the moon illusion?

    PubMed

    Ross, H E; Ross, G M

    1976-01-01

    Ptolemy is often wrongly credited with an explanation of the moon illusion based on the size-distance invariance principle. This paper elucidates the two Ptolemaic accounts: one in the Almagest, based on atmospheric refraction, and the other in the Optics, based on the difficulty of looking upwards. It is the latter passage which has been thought to refer to size-distance invariance, but it is more probable that it refers to the idea that the visual rays are diminished by the force of gravity (i.e. that the retinal image is reduced in size). Alhazen was probably the first author to explain the illusion by the size-distance invariance principle, and Roger Bacon the first to explain the enlarged apparent distance of the horizon by the presence of intervening objects. Della Porta was the first to credit Ptolemy with these explanations, and this mistake was repeated by many subsequent authors. PMID:794813

  1. Neutrons and music: Imaging investigation of ancient wind musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festa, G.; Tardino, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Mannes, D. C.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Andreani, C.

    2014-10-01

    A set of seven musical instruments and two instruments cares from the 'Fondo Antico della Biblioteca del Sacro Convento' in Assisi, Italy, were investigated through neutron and X-ray imaging techniques. Historical and scientific interests around ancient musical instruments motivate an intense research effort for their characterization using non-destructive and non-invasive techniques. X-ray and neutron tomography/radiography were applied to the study of composite material samples containing wood, hide and metals. The study was carried out at the NEUTRA beamline, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). Results of the measurements provided new information on the composite and multi-scale structure, such as: the internal structure of the samples, position of added materials like metals, wood fiber displays, deformations, presence of adhesives and their spatial distribution and novel insight about construction methods to guide the instruments' restoration process.

  2. Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ferrare, Richard

    2012-12-14

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level.

  3. Expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis seedlings with altered auxin status is regulated at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Sponsel, Valerie M

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) affect many biological processes including germination, stem growth, transition to flowering, and fruit development. The location, timing, and level of bioactive GA are finely tuned to ensure that optimal growth and development occur. The balance between GA biosynthesis and deactivation is controlled by external factors such as light and by internal factors that include auxin. The role of auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs) and auxins on GA homeostasis in intact light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings was investigated. Two ATIs, 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid (NPA) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) caused elevated expression of the GA biosynthetic enzyme AtGA20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in shoot but not in root tissues, and only at certain developmental stages. It was investigated whether enhanced AtGA20ox1 gene expression was a consequence of altered flow through the GA biosynthetic pathway, or was due to impaired GA signalling that can lead to enhanced AtGA20ox1 expression and accumulation of a DELLA protein, Repressor of ga1-3 (RGA). Both ATIs promoted accumulation of GFP-fused RGA in shoots and roots, and this increase was counteracted by the application of GA(4). These results suggest that in ATI-treated seedlings the impediment to DELLA protein degradation may be a deficiency of bioactive GA at sites of GA response. It is proposed that the four different levels of AtGA20ox1 regulation observed here are imposed in a strict hierarchy: spatial (organ-, tissue-, cell-specific) > developmental > metabolic > auxin regulation. Thus results show that, in intact auxin- and auxin transport inhibitor-treated light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, three other levels of regulation supersede the effects of auxin on AtGA20ox1. PMID:18440929

  4. Expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in Arabidopsis seedlings with altered auxin status is regulated at multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Sponsel, Valerie M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) affect many biological processes including germination, stem growth, transition to flowering, and fruit development. The location, timing, and level of bioactive GA are finely tuned to ensure that optimal growth and development occur. The balance between GA biosynthesis and deactivation is controlled by external factors such as light and by internal factors that include auxin. The role of auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs) and auxins on GA homeostasis in intact light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings was investigated. Two ATIs, 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid (NPA) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) caused elevated expression of the GA biosynthetic enzyme AtGA20-oxidase1 (AtGA20ox1) in shoot but not in root tissues, and only at certain developmental stages. It was investigated whether enhanced AtGA20ox1 gene expression was a consequence of altered flow through the GA biosynthetic pathway, or was due to impaired GA signalling that can lead to enhanced AtGA20ox1 expression and accumulation of a DELLA protein, Repressor of ga1-3 (RGA). Both ATIs promoted accumulation of GFP-fused RGA in shoots and roots, and this increase was counteracted by the application of GA4. These results suggest that in ATI-treated seedlings the impediment to DELLA protein degradation may be a deficiency of bioactive GA at sites of GA response. It is proposed that the four different levels of AtGA20ox1 regulation observed here are imposed in a strict hierarchy: spatial (organ-, tissue-, cell-specific) > developmental > metabolic > auxin regulation. Thus results show that, in intact auxin- and auxin transport inhibitor-treated light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, three other levels of regulation supersede the effects of auxin on AtGA20ox1. PMID:18440929

  5. The EEE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbrescia, M.; An, S.; Antolini, R.; Badala, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Blanco, F.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Chiri, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Coccia, E.; de Pasquale, S.; di Giovanni, A.; d'Incecco, M.; Fabbri, F.L.; Frolov, V.; Garbini, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Imponente, G.; Kim, J.; La Rocca, P.; Librizzi, F.; Maggiora, A.; Menghetti, H.; Miozzi, S.; Moro, R.; Panareo, M.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Romano, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Sbarra, C.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; WIlliams, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyenski, R.

    The EEE (/Extreme Energy Event/) Project is an experiment for the study of very high-energy extensive air showers, actually starting in Italy. It is based on the detection of the shower muon component by means of a network of tracking detectors, installed in Italian High Schools. The Project, supported by the Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi” has been conceived by its leader Professor Antonino Zichichi. In its first phase the detector telescopes will be installed in 21 High Schools in 7 piloting cities all over Italy. The network will soon be heavily upgraded by increasing the number of High Schools and cities. The single tracking telescope is composed by 3 large (~ 2 m2 ) Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), realized with float glass electrodes. The use of particle detectors based on such MRPCs will allow to determine with a very high accuracy the direction of the axis of cosmic ray showers initiated by primaries of ultra-high energy, together with a high temporal resolution. The first MRPC telescope, installed in the Liceo Scientifico “B.Touschek” in Grottaferrata near the LNF-INFN site (nearby Rome), is successfully running. By the end of year 2007, the installation of the other telescopes will open the way for the first search of high-energy cosmic rays distant coincidences. In the future, serving many High Schools scattered all over the Italian territory, the EEE Project will also allow to investigate coincidences between multiple primaries producing distant showers. Here we present the experimental apparatus and its tasks.

  6. Arabidopsis miR171-targeted scarecrow-like proteins bind to GT cis-elements and mediate gibberellin-regulated chlorophyll biosynthesis under light conditions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhaoxue; Hu, Xupeng; Cai, Wenjuan; Huang, Weihua; Zhou, Xin; Luo, Qian; Yang, Hongquan; Wang, Jiawei; Huang, Jirong

    2014-08-01

    An extraordinarily precise regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis is essential for plant growth and development. However, our knowledge on the complex regulatory mechanisms of chlorophyll biosynthesis is very limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that miR171-targeted scarecrow-like proteins (SCL6/22/27) negatively regulate chlorophyll biosynthesis via an unknown mechanism. Here we showed that SCLs inhibit the expression of the key gene encoding protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) in light-grown plants, but have no significant effect on protochlorophyllide biosynthesis in etiolated seedlings. Histochemical analysis of β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in transgenic plants expressing pSCL27::rSCL27-GUS revealed that SCL27-GUS accumulates at high levels and suppresses chlorophyll biosynthesis at the leaf basal proliferation region during leaf development. Transient gene expression assays showed that the promoter activity of PORC is indeed regulated by SCL27. Consistently, chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR assays showed that SCL27 binds to the promoter region of PORC in vivo. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that SCL27 is directly interacted with G(A/G)(A/T)AA(A/T)GT cis-elements of the PORC promoter. Furthermore, genetic analysis showed that gibberellin (GA)-regulated chlorophyll biosynthesis is mediated, at least in part, by SCLs. We demonstrated that SCL27 interacts with DELLA proteins in vitro and in vivo by yeast-two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analysis and found that their interaction reduces the binding activity of SCL27 to the PORC promoter. Additionally, we showed that SCL27 activates MIR171 gene expression, forming a feedback regulatory loop. Taken together, our data suggest that the miR171-SCL module is critical for mediating GA-DELLA signaling in the coordinate regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and leaf growth in light. PMID:25101599

  7. Loss of Arabidopsis thaliana Seed Dormancy is Associated with Increased Accumulation of the GID1 GA Hormone Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hauvermale, Amber L; Tuttle, Keiko M; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Seo, Mitsunori; Steber, Camille M

    2015-09-01

    Dormancy prevents seeds from germinating under favorable conditions until they have experienced dormancy-breaking conditions, such as after-ripening through a period of dry storage or cold imbibition. Abscisic acid (ABA) hormone signaling establishes and maintains seed dormancy, whereas gibberellin (GA) signaling stimulates germination. ABA levels decrease and GA levels increase with after-ripening and cold stratification. However, increasing GA sensitivity may also be critical to dormancy loss since increasing seed GA levels are detectable only with long periods of after-ripening and imbibition. After-ripening and cold stratification act additively to enhance GA hormone sensitivity in ga1-3 seeds that cannot synthesize GA. Since the overexpression of the GA receptor GID1 (GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1) enhanced this dormancy loss, and because gid1a gid1b gid1c triple mutants show decreased germination, the effects of dormancy-breaking treatments on GID1 mRNA and protein accumulation were examined. Partial after-ripening resulted in increased GID1b, but not GID1a or GID1c mRNA levels. Cold imbibition stimulated the accumulation of all three GID1 transcripts, but resulted in no increase in GA sensitivity during ga1-3 seed germination unless seeds were also partially after-ripened. This is probably because after-ripening was needed to enhance GID1 protein accumulation, independently of transcript abundance. The rise in GID1b transcript with after-ripening was not associated with decreased ABA levels, suggesting there is ABA-independent GID1b regulation by after-ripening and the 26S proteasome. GA and the DELLA RGL2 repressor of GA responses differentially regulated the three GID1 transcripts. Moreover, DELLA RGL2 appeared to switch between positive and negative regulation of GID1 expression in response to dormancy-breaking treatments. PMID:26136598

  8. The Arabidopsis C2H2 Zinc Finger INDETERMINATE DOMAIN1/ENHYDROUS Promotes the Transition to Germination by Regulating Light and Hormonal Signaling during Seed Maturation[W

    PubMed Central

    Feurtado, J. Allan; Huang, Daiqing; Wicki-Stordeur, Leigh; Hemstock, Laura E.; Potentier, Mireille S.; Tsang, Edward W.T.; Cutler, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    Seed development ends with a maturation phase that imparts desiccation tolerance, nutrient reserves, and dormancy degree. Here, we report the functional analysis of an Arabidopsis thaliana C2H2 zinc finger protein INDETERMINATE DOMAIN1 (IDD1)/ENHYDROUS (ENY). Ectopic expression of IDD1/ENY (2x35S:ENY) disrupted seed development, delaying endosperm depletion and testa senescence, resulting in an abbreviated maturation program. Consequently, mature 2x35S:ENY seeds had increased endosperm-specific fatty acids, starch retention, and defective mucilage extrusion. Using RAB18 promoter ENY lines (RAB18:ENY) to confine expression to maturation, when native ENY expression increased and peaked, resulted in mature seed with lower abscisic acid (ABA) content and decreased germination sensitivity to applied ABA. Furthermore, results of far-red and red light treatments of 2x35S:ENY and RAB18:ENY germinating seeds, and of artificial microRNA knockdown lines, suggest that ENY acts to promote germination. After using RAB18:ENY seedlings to induce ENY during ABA application, key genes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism and signaling were differentially regulated in a manner suggesting negative feedback regulation. Furthermore, GA treatment resulted in a skotomorphogenic-like phenotype in light-grown 2x35S:ENY and RAB18:ENY seedlings. The physical interaction of ENY with DELLAs and an ENY-triggered accumulation of DELLA transcripts during maturation support the conclusion that ENY mediates GA effects to balance ABA-promoted maturation during late seed development. PMID:21571950

  9. Arabidopsis miR171-Targeted Scarecrow-Like Proteins Bind to GT cis-Elements and Mediate Gibberellin-Regulated Chlorophyll Biosynthesis under Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhaoxue; Hu, Xupeng; Cai, Wenjuan; Huang, Weihua; Zhou, Xin; Luo, Qian; Yang, Hongquan; Wang, Jiawei; Huang, Jirong

    2014-01-01

    An extraordinarily precise regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis is essential for plant growth and development. However, our knowledge on the complex regulatory mechanisms of chlorophyll biosynthesis is very limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that miR171-targeted scarecrow-like proteins (SCL6/22/27) negatively regulate chlorophyll biosynthesis via an unknown mechanism. Here we showed that SCLs inhibit the expression of the key gene encoding protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) in light-grown plants, but have no significant effect on protochlorophyllide biosynthesis in etiolated seedlings. Histochemical analysis of β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in transgenic plants expressing pSCL27::rSCL27-GUS revealed that SCL27-GUS accumulates at high levels and suppresses chlorophyll biosynthesis at the leaf basal proliferation region during leaf development. Transient gene expression assays showed that the promoter activity of PORC is indeed regulated by SCL27. Consistently, chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR assays showed that SCL27 binds to the promoter region of PORC in vivo. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that SCL27 is directly interacted with G(A/G)(A/T)AA(A/T)GT cis-elements of the PORC promoter. Furthermore, genetic analysis showed that gibberellin (GA)-regulated chlorophyll biosynthesis is mediated, at least in part, by SCLs. We demonstrated that SCL27 interacts with DELLA proteins in vitro and in vivo by yeast-two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analysis and found that their interaction reduces the binding activity of SCL27 to the PORC promoter. Additionally, we showed that SCL27 activates MIR171 gene expression, forming a feedback regulatory loop. Taken together, our data suggest that the miR171-SCL module is critical for mediating GA-DELLA signaling in the coordinate regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and leaf growth in light. PMID:25101599

  10. Functional Analysis of SPINDLY in Gibberellin Signaling in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Silverstone, Aron L.; Tseng, Tong-Seung; Swain, Stephen M.; Dill, Alyssa; Jeong, Sun Yong; Olszewski, Neil E.; Sun, Tai-ping

    2007-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SPINDLY (SPY) protein negatively regulates the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. SPY is an O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) with a protein-protein interaction domain consisting of 10 tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR). OGTs add a GlcNAc monosaccharide to serine/threonine residues of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. Determination of the molecular defects in 14 new spy alleles reveals that these mutations cluster in three TPRs and the C-terminal catalytic region. Phenotypic characterization of 12 spy alleles indicates that TPRs 6, 8, and 9 and the catalytic domain are crucial for GA-regulated stem elongation, floral induction, and fertility. TPRs 8 and 9 and the catalytic region are also important for modulating trichome morphology and inflorescence phyllotaxy. Consistent with a role for SPY in embryo development, several alleles affect seedling cotyledon number. These results suggest that three of the TPRs and the OGT activity in SPY are required for its function in GA signal transduction. We also examined the effect of spy mutations on another negative regulator of GA signaling, REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA). The DELLA motif in RGA is essential for GA-induced proteolysis of RGA, and deletion of this motif (as in rga-?17) causes a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype. Here, we demonstrate that spy partially suppresses the rga-?17 phenotype but does not reduce rga-?17 or RGA protein levels or alter RGA nuclear localization. We propose that SPY may function as a negative regulator of GA response by increasing the activity of RGA, and presumably other DELLA proteins, by GlcNAc modification. PMID:17142481

  11. BR-dependent phosphorylation modulates PIF4 transcriptional activity and shapes diurnal hypocotyl growth

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo-García, Stella; de Lucas, Miguel; Martínez, Cristina; Espinosa-Ruiz, Ana; Davière, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Signaling by the hormones brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) is critical to normal plant growth and development and is required for hypocotyl elongation in response to dark and elevated temperatures. Active BR signaling is essential for GA promotion of hypocotyl growth and suppresses the dwarf phenotype of GA mutants. Cross-talk between these hormones occurs downstream from the DELLAs, as GA-induced destabilization of these GA signaling repressors is not affected by BRs. Here we show that the light-regulated PIF4 (phytochrome-interacting factor 4) factor is a phosphorylation target of the BR signaling kinase BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2), which marks this transcriptional regulator for proteasome degradation. Expression of a mutated PIF41A protein lacking a conserved BIN2 phosphorylation consensus causes a severe elongated phenotype and strongly up-regulated expression of the gene targets. However, PIF41A is not able to suppress the dwarf phenotype of the bin2-1 mutant with constitutive activation of this kinase. PIFs were shown to be required for the constitutive BR response of bes1-D and bzr1-1D mutants, these factors acting in an interdependent manner to promote cell elongation. Here, we show that bes1-D seedlings are still repressed by the inhibitor BRZ in the light and that expression of the nonphosphorylatable PIF41A protein makes this mutant fully insensitive to brassinazole (BRZ). PIF41A is preferentially stabilized at dawn, coinciding with the diurnal time of maximal growth. These results uncover a main role of BRs in antagonizing light signaling by inhibiting BIN2-mediated destabilization of the PIF4 factor. This regulation plays a prevalent role in timing hypocotyl elongation to late night, before light activation of phytochrome B (PHYB) and accumulation of DELLAs restricts PIF4 transcriptional activity. PMID:25085420

  12. On the space monitoring of the Sassi and Murgia Park (Matera UNESCO site) using LANDSAT time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, Antonio; Nole, Gabriele; Manzi, Teresa; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    This paper is focused on the preliminary results obtained in the framework of the Great relevance project " Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and Argentina: Earth Observation and pilot projects funded by the Ministero degli Affari Esteri e della Cooperazione Internazionale --MAE, 17/04/2014, Prot. nr. 0090692, 2014-2016. A temporal series (1999-2011) of the LANDSAT TM data was used to carried out investigation in the Murgia Park enclosed in the Matera UNESCO site . The PCA was adopted to enhance regions of localized change in multi-temporal data sets (Lasaponara 2006). Both naturally vegetated areas (forest, shrub-land, herbaceous cover) and agricultural lands have been investigated in order to extract the most prominent natural and/or man induced alterations affecting soil and vegetation cover. Results from PCA were compared with independent data sets and field survey to evaluate the reliability of the obtained maps of the ongoing land degradation phenomenon. Such analyses can provide valuable information for an operational monitoring of the status of vegetation which is an indicator of the degree of stress namely any disturbance that adversely influences plants in response to natural hazards and/or anthropogenic activities. Our findings suggest that the Landsat TM time series can provide valuable information for environmental management policies involving biodiversity preservation and rational exploitation of natural and agricultural resources. Acknowledgement This research was performed within the framework of the Great relevance project " Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and Argentina: Earth Observation and pilot projects funded by the Ministero degli Affari Esteri e della Cooperazione Internazionale --MAE, 17/04/2014, Prot. nr. 0090692, 2014-2016

  13. Hyphal Branching during Arbuscule Development Requires Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhiza11[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Jin; Floss, Daniela S.; Levesque-Tremblay, Veronique; Bravo, Armando

    2015-01-01

    During arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, arbuscule development in the root cortical cell and simultaneous deposition of the plant periarbuscular membrane generate the interface for symbiotic nutrient exchange. The transcriptional changes that accompany arbuscule development are extensive and well documented. By contrast, the transcriptional regulators that control these programs are largely unknown. Here, we provide a detailed characterization of an insertion allele of Medicago truncatula Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhiza1 (RAM1), ram1-3, which reveals that RAM1 is not necessary to enable hyphopodium formation or hyphal entry into the root but is essential to support arbuscule branching. In ram1-3, arbuscules consist only of the arbuscule trunk and in some cases, a few initial thick hyphal branches. ram1-3 is also insensitive to phosphate-mediated regulation of the symbiosis. Transcript analysis of ram1-3 and ectopic expression of RAM1 indicate that RAM1 regulates expression of EXO70I and Stunted Arbuscule, two genes whose loss of function impacts arbuscule branching. Furthermore, RAM1 regulates expression of a transcription factor Required for Arbuscule Development (RAD1). RAD1 is also required for arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, and rad1 mutants show reduced colonization. RAM1 itself is induced in colonized root cortical cells, and expression of RAM1 and RAD1 is modulated by DELLAs. Thus, the data suggest that DELLAs regulate arbuscule development through modulation of RAM1 and RAD1 and that the precise transcriptional control essential to place proteins in the periarbuscular membrane is controlled, at least in part, by RAM1. PMID:26511916

  14. A numerical technique for two-way radio occultations by oblate axisymmetric atmospheres with zonal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinder, P. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Marouf, E. A.; French, R. G.; Anabtawi, A.; Barbinis, E.; Kliore, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    The Ultra Stable Oscillator aboard the Cassini spacecraft failed in late 2011, which means that all radio occultations after that date have to be done in two-way mode, using a ground-based signal transmitted to the spacecraft as the frequency reference. Here we present the numerical technique we use to analyze the data from the two-way atmospheric radio occultations of both Saturn and Titan that have occurred since the Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) failure, along with the theoretical reasons behind this technique. Since our two-way technique is based upon our earlier one-way technique which used the USO as the frequency reference, we also present our one-way technique which we used for Saturn occultations prior to the loss of the USO.

  15. Sensitivity of Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) Mission Navigation Accuracy to Major Error Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Corwin; Long, Anne; Car[emter. Russell

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four satellites flying in formation in highly elliptical orbits about the Earth, with a primary objective of studying magnetic reconnection. The baseline navigation concept is independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements referenced to an Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) with accelerometer measurements included during maneuvers. MMS state estimation is performed onboard each spacecraft using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS), which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the sensitivity of MMS navigation performance to two major error sources: USO clock errors and thrust acceleration knowledge errors.

  16. Synthesis of Research Related to Policy for Education in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.

    Until recently other countries (Australia, Great Britain, the Scandinavian countries) have been well ahead of the United States in development of rural education policy, In 1969 and again in 1977 the U.S. Office of Education (USOE) produced task force reports with recommendations for rural education. The 1969 recommendations were very specific and…

  17. Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2003 (Interamerican Review of Adult Education, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Alfonso Rangel, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This journal offers a collection of Spanish-language articles, including: "Educacion a Distancia y Uso de las Tecnologias: Experiencias Desafios y Oportunidades Educativas para Jovenes y Adultos" (Ma. Mercedes Ruiz); "Volver a a Educacion Fundamental? Notas para una Arquelogia de los Mandatos Fundacionales del CREFAL" (Jorge Rivas Diaz); "Una…

  18. "LiveUSB Mediated Education": A Method to Facilitate Computer Supported Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrote, Ramon; Pettersson, Tomas; Christie, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the authors analyse the design and implementation of a course about learning management systems (LMS). The course was first given in Cuba and then in Guatemala and Peru, within the project USo+I: "Universidad, Sociedad e Innovacion, Mejora de la pertinencia de la educacion en las ingenierias de Latinoamerica" financed by the European…

  19. Chicano Education and the National Institute of Education. Report of a Planning Conference for the NIE Planning Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Juan; And Others

    In July 1972, Mexican American educators attended a meeting in San Francisco, California, called by the National Institute of Education (NIE) Planning Unit. Purpose of the meeting was to inform these Chicano educators about plans for the new Federal agency, which was created in parallel with the U.S. Office of Education (USOE) and took over the…

  20. COMPARISONS OF THREE METHODS OF READING INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRY, EDWARD

    THE RESULTS OF THE CONTINUATION OF USOE PROJECT 2745 WHICH EVALUATED THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS TAUGHT BY THE INITIAL TEACHING ALPHABET (ITA), THE DIACRITICAL MARKING SYSTEM (DMS), AND A TYPICAL BASAL READING SERIES (TO) ARE REPORTED. A NEW SET OF DMS MATERIALS WAS DEVELOPED AND USED IN SEVEN FIRST GRADES. THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF THESE…

  1. Elementary Resource Booklet: Vol V: CEI Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Susquehanna Intermediate Unit 16, Lewisburg, PA.

    The resource booklet contains information on 130 different careers written for elementary students at a third grade reading level. The order of arrangement is by the 15 USOE occupational clusters. One illustrated page is devoted to each career, and each includes a brief job description; a list of the skills, aptitudes, and preferences required by

  2. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, A SUGGESTED 2-YEAR POST HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KNOEBEL, ROBERT M.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE IS TO HELP ADMINISTRATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS PLAN, DEVELOP, AND EVALUATE PROGRAMS. BOTH THE BASIC MATERIALS, BY AN INDIVIDUAL FOR THE CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, AND THE INFORMATION ON FACILITIES AND COST, BY AN INDIVIDUAL, WERE PREPARED PURSUANT TO U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION (USOE)…

  3. Career Education--Feminine Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Elizabeth J.

    The author, chief, Curriculum Development Branch, Division of Research and Demonstration, Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education, USOE, offers several specific steps which need to be taken in order to improve career education for women: (1) from preschool on, females should be encouraged to pursue their own intellectual interests; (2) employed

  4. Indirect Costs SEA-LEA Workshop. Report of Workshop Conducted by Upper Midwest Regional Interstate Project. (Chicago, Illinois, January 17-18, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Robb L., Comp.

    The Policy Committee of the Upper Midwest Regional Interstate Project saw a need to inform the State Education Agencies (SEAs) concerning the implications of federal program indirect costs. The Indirect Cost Workshop was established to develop communication concerning the problems between the United States Office of Education (USOE), SEAs, and…

  5. Estudio de NIH señala relación de la TC en la infancia con leucemia y cáncer de cerebro más tarde

    Cancer.gov

    Niños y adultos jóvenes a quienes se les hicieron exploraciones muchas veces con tomografía computarizada (TC), una herramienta de diagnóstico de uso frecuente, tienen un riesgo ligeramente mayor de padecer leucemia y tumores cerebrales en la década poste

  6. The Educational Significance of the Future. A Report Prepared for Sidney P. Marland, Jr., U.S. Commissioner of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Harold G.

    This is the final report of a USOE study to determine the educational significance of the future. Chapter I summarizes the study and makes recommendations. Chapter II is designed to provide an "action picture" of futures planning insofar as it could be caught in motion during 1971-1972. Chapter III discusses policy research with a bearing on

  7. 77 FR 6160 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ..., 2011), 76 FR 79748 (December 22, 2011) (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposal The proposed rule... Change Regarding Strike Price Intervals for SLV and USO Options February 1, 2012. I. Introduction On...\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change regarding strike price intervals for options on...

  8. HIGHWAY ENGINEERING AIDE, A SUGGESTED TRAINING PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARNOLD, WALTER M.; AND OTHERS

    TO AID ADMINISTRATORS, SUPERVISORS, TEACHER TRAINEES, AND TEACHERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION OF A POSTSECONDARY COURSE, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED PURSUANT TO A U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION (USOE) CONTRACT BY THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. THE CONTENT COVERS -- (1) ORIENTATION AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS, (2) TECHNICAL MATHEMATICS, (3)…

  9. A Study of Library Cooperatives, Networks and Demonstration Projects. Final Report. Volume I: Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Ruth; And Others

    This study evaluates the impact and effectiveness of the Library Research and Demonstration Program of the Higher Education Act (HEA II-B), and Title III, Interlibrary Cooperation, of the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA III), USOE administered grant programs to aid in developing and improving library and information services. It…

  10. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer como la náusea y el vómito.

  11. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer, como la náusea y el vómito.

  12. 75 FR 32826 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ...,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 20, 2010, NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc. (``Phlx'' or ``Exchange.... \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the..., SBUX, SIRI, SKF, SLV, SMH, SNDK, SPY, T, TZA, UAUA, UNG, USO, UYG, VZ, WYNN, X and XLF...

  13. A Study of Late Funding of Elementary and Secondary Education Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Washington, DC.

    This publication presents findings of a nationwide study of the impact of late or uncertain funding on elementary secondary educational programs funded by the U.S. Office of Education (USOE). Emphasis of the report is on detailed documentation of the problems created by current funding flow patterns to state and local education agencies. In phase…

  14. A Study of Library Cooperatives, Networks and Demonstration Projects. Final Report. Volume I: Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Ruth; And Others

    This study evaluates the impact and effectiveness of the Library Research and Demonstration Program of the Higher Education Act (HEA II-B), and Title III, Interlibrary Cooperation, of the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA III), USOE administered grant programs to aid in developing and improving library and information services. It

  15. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  16. TESL Reporter, Vol. 5, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack, Alice C., Ed.

    This issue of "TESL Reporter" presents a summary of U.S.O.E. Project HE-084 by Gerald Dykstra; a sample listening comprehension exercise; a linear diagram of the English noun phrase designed for English as a Second Language students, developed by Alice C. Pack; an article on Japanese groups in summer session; and an article by Betty Crethar on…

  17. Entrenamiento con el traje espacial - Duration: 2 minutes, 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Después de 10 paseos espaciales, el astronauta de la NASA Michael López- Alegría sabe bastante de trajes espaciales. En este video, López Alegría comparte su experiencia acerca del uso y el entrena...

  18. Program Budget Manual: A Guide for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Administrative Support.

    This manual outlines an improved school budget and accounting system developed by the U.S. Office of Education (USOE). Instead of the usual line items, the new system lists accounts by program. This change will help the citizen and the school administrator see how much programs cost and where the educational dollar is being spent. Chapters focus…

  19. Cigarrillos electrónicos | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Seguramente ha oído a personas hablar del uso de los cigarrillos electrónicos como una manera de dejar de fumar. Si esta pensando en usar un cigarrillo electrónico, aquí hay tres cosas que debe de saber.

  20. A Cooperative School-College Master's Degree Program for Training Guidance-Instruction Specialists. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Mary T.

    This project was designed to prepare teachers to exert leadership as change agents in the development of elementary school educational programs containing components suggested by Phase I projects of the USOE model Elementary Teacher Education Project. These components include 1) individualized learning with emphasis on large group and small group…

  1. Evaluation of the Field Test of Project Information Packages: Volume II--Recommendations for Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Donald P.; And Others

    This report, the second of three volumes, presents recommendations for revisions to the USOE Project Information Packages (PIPs). Field tests were made to determine experimentally whether the six prototype PIPs were effective mechanisms for replicating the six exemplary projects and what modifications, if any, they required. The primary focus of…

  2. Research and Development Center in Educational Stimulation. Quarterly Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Research and Development Center in Educational Stimulation.

    Activities in this quarter centered around the opening of an experimental school in Clayton County, the incorporation of some National Advisory Panel recommendations (as outlined in EA 002 781), the preparation for a USOE site team visit (EA 002 811), and the preparation of the Program Plan and Budget Request. The center's position is based on the…

  3. "LiveUSB Mediated Education": A Method to Facilitate Computer Supported Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrote, Ramon; Pettersson, Tomas; Christie, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the authors analyse the design and implementation of a course about learning management systems (LMS). The course was first given in Cuba and then in Guatemala and Peru, within the project USo+I: "Universidad, Sociedad e Innovacion, Mejora de la pertinencia de la educacion en las ingenierias de Latinoamerica" financed by the European

  4. 76 FR 79748 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Regarding Strike Price Intervals for SLV and USO Options December 16, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934...

  5. U-shaped osteotomy in management of paranasal deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Alfaro, F; García, E; Martí, C; Porta, A

    2006-12-01

    When paranasal deficiencies are not accompanied by occlusal alterations, mobilization of the maxilla via Le Fort I osteotomy may not be justified. In this preliminary, report for the first time is presented a U-shaped osteotomy (USO) that mobilizes anteriorly and/or superiorly the maxillary bone surrounding the pirifom aperture. Advantages and indications of this new procedure are discussed. PMID:17097268

  6. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  7. The Employment Outlook for Social Science Majors in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Eva C.

    This assessment of the future job market for social science graduates is made both generically and separately for certain disciplines. The definition of the social sciences follows the USOE definition and includes: anthropology, archeology, economics, history, geography, political science, sociology, criminology, international relations, urban…

  8. Hoja informativa del alcohol y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que resume la comprobación de la relación entre el consumo de alcohol y el riesgo de varios cánceres. Incluye información de los factores que afectan el riesgo de cánceres asociados con el alcohol, como son los genes y el uso de tabaco.

  9. Comprehensive Career Education Models: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ. Research Corp., NY. Educational Policy Research Center.

    The U.S. Office of Education (USOE) has developed the Comprehensive Career Education Models in response to certain perceived social problems. There is an enormous distance, however, between the perception of a social problem and the formulation of a policy or program. In this paper, social problems are examined from a different perspective than

  10. Multi-scale electromagnetic imaging of the Monte Aquila Fault (Agri Valley, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, Alessandro; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Romano, Gerardo; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Siniscalchi, Agata

    2010-05-01

    The Agri Valley is a NW-SE trending intermontane basin formed during the Quaternary times along the axial zone of the Southern Apennines thrust belt chain. This basin is about 30 Km long and 12 Km wide and is filled by Quaternary continental deposits, which cover down-thrown pre-Quaternary rocks of the Apennines chain. The Agri Valley was hit by the M 7.0, 1857 Basilicata earthquake (Branno et al., 1985), whose macroseismic field covered a wide sector of the Southern Apennines chain. The latest indications of Late Quaternary faulting processes in Agri Valley were reported in Maschio et al., (2005), which documented a unknown NE-dipping normal fault thanks to the finding of small-scale morphological features of recent tectonic activity. The identified structure was termed Monte Aquila Fault (MAF) and corresponds to the southern strand of the NW-SE trending Monti della Maddalena Fault System (Maschio et al., 2005; Burrato and Valensise, 2007). The NE-dipping MAF consists of a main northern segment, about 10 Km long, and two smaller segments with cumulate length of ~10 Km, thus bringing the total length to ~20 Km. The three segments are arranged in a right-stepping en-echelon pattern and are characterized by subtle geomorphic features. In order to provide more detailed and accurate information about the MAF, a strategy based on the application of complementary investigation tools was employed. In particular, multi-scale electromagnetic investigation, including Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Magnetotelluric (MT) methods, was used to image the MAF from near-surface to several hundred metres depth. Large-scale MT investigation proved to be useful in detecting the MAF location down to several hundred meters depth, but it didn't show any shallow evidence about MAF. Conversely, ERT and GPR surveys evidenced signatures of normal-faulting activity at shallow depth (e.g., back-tilting of the bedrock, colluvial wedges, etc.). In conclusion, taking into account all the above inferences, we think that suitable multi-scale electromagnetic approach has proved to be affective for MAF detection, giving valuable data to the seismic hazard assessment of the region. References Branno A., E.G.I. Esposito, A. Maturano, S. Porfido and V. Rinaldis (1985): Studio, su base macrosismica, del terremoto della Basilicata del 16 dicembre 1857. Bollettino della Societ dei Naturalisti di Napoli, 1985, 92, 249-338. Maschio L., L. Ferranti and P. Burrato (2005): Active extension in Val d'Agri area, Southern Apennines, Italy: implications for the geometry of the seismogenic belt. Geophys. J. Int., 162 (2), 591-609, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02597.x. Burrato P., and G. Valensise (2007): Rise and fall of a hypothesized seismic gap: source complexity in the 16 December 1857, Southern Italy earthquake (Mw 7.0). Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 98 (1), 139-148, doi: 10.1785/0120070094.

  11. Deep seated gravitational slope deformations and large landslides: implications on landslide hazard of urban areas and coastal erosion phenomena of Mount Poro headland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerricchio, A.; Simeone, V.

    2012-04-01

    Deep seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) characterize the north west and south side of Mount Poro headland, mid Calabria, south Italy, as reported by Guerrichio (2000). This work investigates the DSGSD of Mount Poro headland, in particular the gravitational collapses, occurring between the coast and the western flank of the headland up to an elevation of about 500-600 m AMSL. These collapses seem to be inconsistent with the local lithotypes, made by the substratum of granitic complex of Polia-Copanello. In particular, Ietto and Calcaterra (1988) identified DSGSDs in the area of Zaccanopoli. They assumed these phenomena on the edge between post-uplift gravitative tectonics and deep seated gravitational deformations that were referred to morphologies sub-parallel to the banks of two important local rivers. The local geology comprises severely fractured and sometimes cataclastic granitic rocks. These show deep sub-vertical fracture, bow-shaped and oriented along the direction NNE-SSW in the upstream areas, at an elevation between 500 and 600 m AMSL. For those areas on the right side of the headland, fractures are oriented along NE-SW, N-S and NW-SE, while on the left side of the headland fractures are oriented W-E and NW-SE. In the upstream areas, there are frequent depressed and stretched stripes of land, which are crossed by fractures, which affect granitic masses for a difference of elevation ranging between few tens of meters and one hundred meters. Similar differences of elevation can also be observed either inside the DSGSDs, and the large landslides, like that located immediately upstream Dropia town, where for instance a one hundred meters concave scarp shows. Inside the DSGSDs and inside the topping Pleistocenic deposits, there are frequent twofold terraces, which can be hardly dated. In fact, no fossils are present, and then it is possible to assume their age just on a geomorphologic base. The entire area involved by the DSGSD is few tens of square kilometers. Its movement towards NW produced a typical coastline, with a strong progradation towards NW and W from Punta della Tonnara to Parghelia and up to Fiumara della Ruffa (WSW of Tropea). The DSGSD involves the granitic bedrock as well as the transgressive Tortonian deposits, made by sands with the presence of Clypeasters, which are topped by arenaceous banks, for a total depth of 150 m. DSGSDs involving granitic rocks were probably due to more deformable lithotypes, like biotite schists, which work as substratum of granitic rocks at a not very deep depth, like in other areas of Calabria. Finally, the slow sliding towards N and NW of the landslide shapes the coast like a bow, thus causing strong erosion phenomena of the coastline. Ietto A & Calcaterra D. (1988). Deformazioni gravitative profonde e tettonica presso Tropea (M.te Poro, Calabria)", Memorie della Societa Geologica Italiana, 41, pp. 911-915, Rome, Italy. Guerricchio A. (2000). La fragilità del territorio dell'Italia centro-meridionale desumibile da immagini da satellite. X Congr. Naz. dei Geologi. International Conference: Il Territorio fragile; I, 443-482, Rome, Italy.

  12. Analysis of shallow landslides and soil erosion induced by rainfall over large areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, Sabatino; Della Sala, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Due to heavy rainstorms, steep hillslopes may be affected by either shallow landslides or soil superficial erosion (Acharya et al., 2011), which originate different flow-like mass movements in adjacent or overlapping source areas (Cascini et al., 2013). Triggering analysis (Cascini et al., 2011) is a relevant issue for hazard assessment that is, in turn, the first step of risk analysis procedures (Fell et al., 2008). Nevertheless, the available approaches separately consider shallow landslides and soil erosion. Specifically, quantitative models for landslides triggering analysis allow simulating the physical processes leading to failure such as pore water pressure increase and soil shear mobilization and provide estimates of the amount of material potentially involved; however, success of quantitative methods must be carefully evaluated in complex geological setting as recently outlined (Sorbino et al., 2010) and further applications to real case histories are straightforward. On the other hand, a wide range of models exist for soil erosion analysis, which differ in terms of complexity, processes considered and data required for the model calibration and practical applications; in particular, quantitative models can estimate the source areas and the amount of eroded soil through empirical relationships or mathematical equations describing the main physical processes governing soil erosion (Merritt et al., 2003). In this work a spatially distributed analysis is proposed for testing the potentialities of two available models to respectively investigate the spatial occurrence of first-time shallow landslides and superficial soil erosion repeatedly occurring in a large test area of the Southern Italy. Both analyses take into account the seasonal variation of soil suction, rainfall characteristics and soil cover use (Cuomo and Della Sala, 2013). The achieved results show that the source areas of shallow landslides strongly depend on rainfall intensity and duration and soil initial suction. On the other hand, the source areas for erosion phenomena depend on rainfall characteristics and soil cover, with simulated eroded areas larger in autumn season. In addition, for a past event, the simulated source areas of shallow landslides are smaller than those observed in the field while the simulated eroded areas with thickness greater than 5 cm are comparable with the in-situ evidences if the analysis takes into account high rainfall intensity and a spatially variable soil cover use, thus providing a consistent interpretation of the event. References Acharya, G., Cochrane, T., Davies, T., Bowman, E. (2011). Quantifying and modeling postfailure sediment yields from laboratory-scale soil erosion and shallow landslide experiments with silty loess. Geomorphology 129, 49-58. Cascini L., Cuomo S., Della Sala M. (2011). Spatial and temporal occurrence of rainfall-induced shallow landslides of flow type: A case of Sarno-Quindici, Italy. Geomorphology, 126(1-2), 148-158. Cascini, L., Sorbino, G., Cuomo, S., Ferlisi, S. (2013). Seasonal effects of rainfall on the shallow pyroclastic deposits of the Campania region (southern Italy). Landslides, 1-14, DOI: 10.1007/s10346-013-0395-3. Cuomo S., Della Sala M. (2013). Spatially distributed analysis of shallow landslides and soil erosion induced by rainfall. (submitted to Natural Hazards). Fell, R., Corominas J., Bonnard, C., Cascini, L., Leroi E., Savage, W.Z., on behalf of the JTC-1 Joint Technical Committee on Landslides and Engineered Slopes (2008). Guidelines for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk zoning for land use planning. Engineering Geolology, 102(3-4):85-98. Merritt, W.S., Latcher, R.A., Jakeman, A.J. (2003). A review of erosion and sediment transport models. Environmental Modelling and Software 18, 761- 799. Sorbino G., Sica C., Cascini L. (2010). Susceptibility analysis of shallow landslides source areas using physically based models. Natural Hazards, 53(2), 313-332.

  13. Physically-based failure analysis of shallow layered soil deposits over large areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, Sabatino; Castorino, Giuseppe Claudio; Iervolino, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, the analysis of slope stability conditions over large areas has become popular among scientists and practitioners (Cascini et al., 2011; Cuomo and Della Sala, 2013). This is due to the availability of new computational tools (Baum et al., 2002; Godt et al., 2008; Baum and Godt, 2012; Salciarini et al., 2012) - implemented in GIS (Geographic Information System) platforms - which allow taking into account the major hydraulic and mechanical issues related to slope failure, even for unsaturated soils, as well as the spatial variability of both topography and soil properties. However, the effectiveness (Sorbino et al., 2010) of the above methods it is still controversial for landslides forecasting especially depending on the accuracy of DTM (Digital Terrain Model) and for the chance that distinct triggering mechanisms may occur over large area. Among the major uncertainties, layering of soil deposits is of primary importance due to soil layer conductivity contrast and differences in shear strength. This work deals with the hazard analysis of shallow landslides over large areas, considering two distinct schematizations of soil stratigraphy, i.e. homogeneous or layered. To this purpose, the physically-based model TRIGRS (Baum et al., 2002) is firstly used, then extended to the case of layered deposit: specifically, a unique set of hydraulic properties is assumed while distinct soil unit weight and shear strength are considered for each soil layer. Both models are applied to a significant study area of Southern Italy, about 4 km2 large, where shallow deposits of air-fall volcanic (pyroclastic) soils have been affected by several landslides, causing victims, damages and economic losses. The achieved results highlight that soil volume globally mobilized over the study area highly depends on local stratigraphy of shallow deposits. This relates to the depth of critical slip surface which rarely corresponds to the bedrock contact where cohesionless coarse materials lie on deeper soil layers with small effective cohesion. It is also shown that, due to a more realistic assessment of soil stratigraphy, the success of the model may increase when performing a back-analysis of a recent real event. References Baum, R. L., W. Z. Savage, and J. W. Godt (2002), TRIGRS-A Fortran program for transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based regional slope-stability analysis. U.S. Geological Survey, Open-file report 02-424, 35 p. Baum, R.L., Godt, J.W. (2012) Assessment of shallow landslide potential using 1-D and 3-D slope stability analysis Landslides and Engineered Slopes: Protecting Society through Improved Understanding - Eberhardt et al. (eds) 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-62123-6, 1667-1672. Cascini L., Cuomo S., Della Sala M. (2011). Spatial and temporal occurrence of rainfall-induced shallow landslides of flow type: A case of Sarno-Quindici, Italy. Geomorphology, 126(1-2), 148-158. Cuomo S., Della Sala M. (2013). Spatially distributed analysis of shallow landslides and soil erosion induced by rainfall. (submitted to Natural Hazards). Godt, J.W., Baum, R.L., Savage, W.Z., Salciarini, D., Schulz, W.H., Harp, E.L. (2008). Transient deterministic shallow landslide modeling: requirements for susceptibility and hazard assessments in a GIS framework. Engineering Geology 102, 214-226. Salciarini, D., Tamagnini, C., Conversini, P., Rapinesi, S. (2012). Spatially distributed rainfall thresholds for the initiation of shallow landslides. Natural Hazards 61, 229-245. Sorbino G., Sica C., Cascini L. (2010). Susceptibility analysis of shallow landslides source areas using physically based models. Natural Hazards, 53(2), 313-332.

  14. Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Distal Radius Malunion

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Robin N.; Leversedge, Fraser J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malunion is a common complication of distal radius fractures. Ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) may be an effective treatment for distal radius malunion when appropriate indications are observed. Methods The use of USO for treatment of distal radius fracture malunion is described for older patients (typically patients >50 years) with dorsal or volar tilt less than 20 degrees and no carpal malalignment or intercarpal or distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) arthritis. Description of Technique Preoperative radiographs are examined to ensure there are no contraindications to ulnar shortening osteotomy. The neutral posteroanterior (PA) radiograph is used to measure ulnar variance and to estimate the amount of ulnar shortening required. An ulnar, mid-sagittal incision is used and the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve is preserved. An USO-specific plating system with cutting jig is used to create parallel oblique osteotomies to facilitate shortening. Intraoperative fluoroscopy and clinical range of motion are checked to ensure adequate shortening and congruous reduction of the ulnar head within the sigmoid notch. Results Previous outcomes evaluation of USO has demonstrated improvement in functional activities, including average flexion-extension and pronosupination motions, and patient reported outcomes. Conclusion The concept and technique of USO are reviewed for the treatment of distal radius malunion when specific indications are observed. Careful attention to detail related to surgical indications and to surgical technique typically will improve range of motion, pain scores, and patient-reported outcomes and will reduce the inherent risks of the procedure, such as ulnar nonunion or the symptoms related to unrecognized joint arthritis. Level of Evidence: Level IV PMID:25097811

  15. Historical hydrology and database on flood events (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Basso, Alessia; Gentile, Francesco; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    Historical data about floods represent an important tool for the comprehension of the hydrological processes, the estimation of hazard scenarios as a basis for Civil Protection purposes, as a basis of the rational land use management, especially in karstic areas, where time series of river flows are not available and the river drainage is rare. The research shows the importance of the improvement of existing flood database with an historical approach, finalized to collect past or historical floods event, in order to better assess the occurrence trend of floods, in the case for the Apulian region (south Italy). The main source of records of flood events for Apulia was the AVI (the acronym means Italian damaged areas) database, an existing Italian database that collects data concerning damaging floods from 1918 to 1996. The database was expanded consulting newspapers, publications, and technical reports from 1996 to 2006. In order to expand the temporal range further data were collected searching in the archives of regional libraries. About 700 useful news from 17 different local newspapers were found from 1876 to 1951. From a critical analysis of the 700 news collected since 1876 to 1952 only 437 were useful for the implementation of the Apulia database. The screening of these news showed the occurrence of about 122 flood events in the entire region. The district of Bari, the regional main town, represents the area in which the great number of events occurred; the historical analysis confirms this area as flood-prone. There is an overlapping period (from 1918 to 1952) between old AVI database and new historical dataset obtained by newspapers. With regard to this period, the historical research has highlighted new flood events not reported in the existing AVI database and it also allowed to add more details to the events already recorded. This study shows that the database is a dynamic instrument, which allows a continuous implementation of data, even in real time. More details on previous results of this research activity were recently published (Polemio, 2010; Basso et al., 2012; Lonigro et al., 2013) References Basso A., Lonigro T. and Polemio M. (2012) "The improvement of historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in the case of Apulia (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 21: 379-380; Lonigro T., Basso A. and Polemio M. (2013) "Historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in Apulia region (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 24: 196-198; Polemio M. (2010) "Historical floods and a recent extreme rainfall event in the Murgia karstic environment (Southern Italy)". Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 54(2): 195-219.

  16. [Prevention in the building sites of the District of Sondrio].

    PubMed

    Pellei, B; Pattarin, R

    2006-01-01

    Building is one of the most important activities inside the local productive reality; the PSAL Service has therefore had to face the sector intervention prearranging a specific methodology, which would aim at involving all the people in charge of roles and authority in this field, finding out a way that, starting from the epidemiological evaluation of accidents, would become positive making the shared preventive standards, into which the watch activity, the training of the employers, workers and professionals, the effective involvement of public contract giving stations would be concentrated, well-grounded. The first results of such an important engagement are ripening: there are still some mortal accidents but as far as the other cases are concerned we point out that all the points on which the watch activity has been concentrated (fall of people and of gravel from high points, contact with working elements of the installations, etc.) are constantly decreasing. The estimation of the risk priority has been carried out under mandate from the Procura della Repubblica resulting in the establishment of a table in which all the main working conditions with a high risk of people and gravel fall from high points, transformed into a special Criminal Investigation Department Directive on the cases on which to concentrate the intervention and in the presence of which to distrain upon/to operate sequestration. The involvement of various people in charge of prevention in the yard has occurred during the District Commission of Coordination ex art. 27 DLgs626/94 (ex article 27 Law626/94) which, thanks to a proper Building Working Team, has divided the above mentioned Directive of the Procura della Repubblica into guidelines addressed to each component and consequently into the training of the categories involved. Therefore, a guideline for the building constructors has been produced in 2000; such guideline has been adapted to professionals in 2001; a series of enterprises concerning capillary agreement with the Local administration in order to point out the essential problems regarding prevention inside the administrative procedures concerning the management of the public contracts in the field of security are being carried out since 2002. PMID:16711128

  17. Astrochronology of the Mediterranean Early and Middle Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüsing, Silja Katherine; Hilgen, Frederik; Krijgsman, Wout; Turco, Elena

    2013-04-01

    An accurate high-resolution astronomical time scale is of crucial importance in Earth Sciences. It allows not only to reconstruct astronomical climate forcing but also to precisely date geological events, to determine rates of changes, and to discriminate between cause and effect related to fundamental processes controlling Earth's history. The accuracy, precision and resolution of the geological time scale for the Neogene have improved considerably over the last decades, thanks to the combination of an integrated stratigraphic approach and astronomical tuning, which resulted in the "Astronomically Tuned Neogene Time Scale" (ATNTS2004, ATNTS2012). The most recent ATNTS2012 (Gradstein et al. 2012) includes direct astronomical ages for chron boundaries back to ~15 Ma based on the tuning of marine successions from the Mediterranean. Reversal ages for the interval between 15 and 23 Ma were calculated from a seafloor-spreading-rate history model in combination with limited astronomical control. Completing the Neogene time scale should be exclusively based on deep marine sections. The most suitable section in the Mediterranean is the Monte dei Corvi-La Vedova-Spiaggia della Scalaccia composite section near Ancona in Italy as an integrated stratigraphy and astronomical tuning has been established for the Late to Middle Miocene interval (Hüsing et al. 2007, 2009, 2010, Mourik et al. 2010, Turco et al. 2011). The resultant astronomically tuned reversal ages have already been incorporated into the GTS (Gradstein et al. 2012). The section has now been further extended into the Early Miocene along the cliffs near Ancona (Spiaggia della Scalaccia composite section). We will present our high-resolution integrated stratigraphy including cyclostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, colour and elemental proxy records. The sedimentary cycle pattern is very complex in this interval, and we thus use the detailed colour and elemental proxy records to achieve a match with an astronomical target curve, which is different to the nominal astronomical solution. The astronomical tuning in turn provides accurate numerical ages for reversal boundaries, which, we suggest, should replace the existing ages in the ATNTS2012.

  18. PRESTIGRIS: an operational system for water resources and droughts management on Tuscany, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Lorenzo; Caparrini, Francesca; Castelli, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    In the last years the problems of water management faced by local administration due to the growing demand of the territory and to the changes in terms of availability became more and more important. Also in view of problems issued by the Climate Change, it is necessary to have the availability of information about the present and the future state of the water resources on the territory, both in terms of stress of the water bodies and of trends in the near-future. In this respect, an adequate management and planning of the water resources can make use of meteorological seasonal forecasts (one-three month) for the assessment of the primary sources of fresh water in a given region. The PRESTIGRIS project (PREvisioni STagionali Idrologiche per la Gestione della Risorsa Idrica e della Siccità - hydrologic seasonal forecasts for water resources and droughts management), implemented at the University of Florence in collaboration with Eumechanos Environmental Engineering and LaMMa (Laboratorio di Monitoraggio e Modellistica ambientale, Laboratory for Environmental Monitoring and Modeling), is aimed to provide hydrological seasonal forecasts on the territory of the Tuscany Region, Central Italy, basing on the seasonal meteorological forecasts available at different Weather Services (NOAA, IRI, etc.). The PRESTIGRIS system is based on a stochastic disaggregation of the monthly seasonal forecasts of minimum and maximum air temperature at the ground and of the total rainfall height. Through an analysis based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) techniques, the forecasts are disaggregated in daily maps at a spatial resolution (500 m) compatible with a complete hydrological balance simulation, performed on the entire Tuscany region (about 22000 km2) by the distributed hydrological model MOBIDIC (MOdello di BIlancio Distribuito e Continuo), developed at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of the University of Florence. Given a single seasonal forecast, the system performs an ensemble of 50 hydrological simulations. Basing on the results of the simulations, significant quantiles of the main variables of interest (soil saturation, discharge flows in the stream network, evapotranspiration) are mapped on the territory. The results of the simulations for the year 2003, in particular during the severe drought occurred during the summer, are shown as an example of the capabilities of the system.

  19. Active Tectonics and Ground Failure Hazards In The Crati Graben (northern Calabria, Southern Italy): The Bisignano-rogliano Fault System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, G.; Tansi, C.

    In the study area, located on eastern boundary of the Crati valley (Northern Calabria), a regional normal fault system, oriented N-S, developed from the area of Bisignano to Rogliano (Cosenza province). Thanks to the activity of this tectonic structure, the horst of the Sila Massif, on the east, mainly constituted by igneous-metamorphic rocks belonging to the Palaeozoic "chain", was upthrown with respect to the graben of the R. Crati, on the west, filled by clastic Plio-Quaternary sediments. The above mentioned tectonic structure is made of a complex of synthetic normal step faults, downthrow- ing toward W, generally oriented between N and NNE. Moreover, an antithetic fault, oriented NNW and developed between the village of Paterno Calabro and Cosenza, can be referred to the same tectonic structure. On the whole, the Bisignano-Rogliano tectonic structure extends for about 50 km, with a mean width of ca. 10 km. In the same area, several villages are to be found (besides the above mentioned: Mangone, Aprigliano, Spezzano della Sila, S. Pietro in Guarano and Rose) and notable roads, such as the Highway "A3", the State Roads SS.270 and SS.107. Historic investigations pointed out that, in the same area, numerous catastrophic earthquakes originated, char- acterised by MCS intensities greater than X, which had a significant role in hamper- ing the socio-economic development of the area. Furthermore, several seismic shocks (Magnitude 4-5) have recently been recorded, with epicentres located in the same area of study: these latter events allowed a detailed characterisation of the instrumental seismic activity. The recentmost of them, felt by the population within a large ter- ritory, have been recorded between October and December 2001: in particular, these epicentres have been localised along a segment (oriented NNE) of the considered fault system, in the area between Rogliano and Spezzano della Sila. Morpho-neotectonics and structural investigations have been performed in the study area, by means of field surveying and interpretation of air-photographs. The obtained morpho-structural map, together with the above mentioned seismologic data, constitute an indispensable tool for seismic hazard evaluations in the Bisignano-Rogliano fault zone.

  20. The Lido as Venice's refuse tip: Dalmatian sheep and the 1819 elephant.

    PubMed

    Giormani, Virgilio

    2004-01-01

    The Lido of Venice is an island twelve kilometers long and between a hundred and one thousand meters wide. The citizans of Venice and many turists can't imagine today, what Lido was some centuries ago Initially totally sandy, it was fertilized by means of a continuous supply of Venice's garbage (the "scoasse"). In addition to the "scoasse", damaged foodstuffs and the waste of the vegetable market were also sent to the Lido. Other fertilisers originated from the dung of the cattle and sheep arriving by ship from Dalmatia, which were landed on the Lido, where they could pasture before slaughter to regain weight lost during their voyage. The sheep dung, especially, was important for the proto-industrial production of saltpetre, a material of the greatest strategic importance, like uranium at the present time. Saltpetre is the most important component of gun powder, which was the only explosive known up to the second half of 19th century. There were plans to establish an "artificial nitriary" in the Lido, making use of the garbage and of the animal waste. In all probability, the most bulky item ever buried in the Lido is the corpse of an enraged elephant, which escaped from its cage on the Riva degli Schiavoni where it was performing during the 1819 carnival, and was killed by a cannon shot in a church where it took refuge. The original title of the paper, published in Italian is: V. Giormani, II Lido di Venezia "scoassera" della città. I montoni dalmati e l'elefante del 1819, in Atti del III Convegno nazionale di storia della medicina veterinaria, Lastra a Signa (Firenze), 23-24 settembre 2000, a cura di Alba Veggetti, Brescia, 2001, pp. 333-339. Other information has been added in order to facilitate non-italians readers and articles appearing after the publication of the Proceedings of the Third National Congress for the History of Veterinary Medicine, Lastra a Signa, (Florence), Italy, have also been used. I am deeply grateful to Mrs. Mary Moors for the translation from Italian and for editorial assistance in the production of this article. PMID:15307245

  1. [Psicopatologia, fattori psicosociali e obesità].

    PubMed

    Pinna, Federica; Sardu, Claudia; Orrù, Walter; Velluzzi, Fernanda; Loviselli, Andrea; Contu, Paolo; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopi. Gli obiettivi di questo studio sono stati la valutazione dell'associazione tra obesità, variabili socio-demografiche e psicopatologiche in un campione clinico di pazienti afferenti a un centro per la diagnosi e il trattamento dell'obesità, confrontati con un campione omogeneo di controllo costituito da soggetti di peso normale. Metodi. Nel contesto di un progetto di ricerca riguardante obesità e psicopatologia, è stata applicata una regressione logistica multivariata per esaminare l'associazione tra obesità e variabili demografiche e cliniche relative a un campione consecutivo di 293 pazienti obesi (48 maschi, 245 femmine, età media: 45,41±13,55, indice di massa corporea [BMI] 35,6±6,2), confrontato con un gruppo di controllo omogeneo appaiato di 293 soggetti non obesi (48 maschi, 245 femmine, età media 45,66±13,86, BMI medio 21,8±2,06). Tutti i soggetti sono stati valutati mediante un'intervista clinica strutturata, la Structured Clinical Interview per la diagnosi di asse I del DSM-IV (SCID-I) e per l'asse II DSM-IV (SCID-II). Risultati. L'analisi statistica multivariata ha dimostrato che lo status di casalinga e la presenza "lifetime" di disturbi di asse I e II e in generale della presenza di una qualsiasi diagnosi psichiatrica, e, in particolare, delle diagnosi di disturbo depressivo, d'ansia, del comportamento alimentare e di alcuni disturbi di personalità, sono associate in modo significativo a una maggiore probabilità di essere in sovrappeso oppure obesi. Le probabilità di essere sovrappeso/obesi si modificano in rapporto alle diverse combinazioni di fattori di rischio, aumentando da un valore di 32,3% per un individuo non esposto ad alcun fattore di rischio, a un valore di 86,7% per i soggetti esposti a tutti i fattori di rischio considerati. Conclusioni. La presenza di una diagnosi di asse I e/o II e lo stato di casalinga è indipendentemente associata a un maggiore rischio di sovrappeso/obesità. L'interazione di questi fattori aumenta questo rischio. Pur tenendo conto dei limiti dovuti alla natura trasversale dello studio, questi risultati sono collegati a implicazioni importanti sia ai fini della prevenzione sia del trattamento dell'obesità. PMID:27030347

  2. [The Origin of Scientific Notions in the Circle of the Roman Accademiadella Virt¾ around 1550].

    PubMed

    Kulawik, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    The Origin of Scientific Notions in the Circle of the Roman Accademia della Virtù around 1550. Between c. 1537 and 1555 a group of humanists, clerics, architects and philologists known as the so-called Accademia della Virtù got together in Rome to work on a program which was formulated in a letter by the Sienese humanist Claudio Tolomei in 1542 and published in 1547. Starting out with the intention to understand the only surviving antique book on architecture and architectural theory - Vitruvius' De architectura libri decem - the program describes a series of 24 books, eleven containing the classical text and its translation with commentaries, 13 books systematically illustrating and documenting all known and available material remains from Roman antiquity. This program for a scientific classical archaeology in a modern sense was not only intended to serve the intellectual curiosity of some humanist antiquarians but to help architects and their patrons to develop a new architecture of the same high quality as the idealized Roman examples. To achieve this practical as well as theoretical goal it was obviously necessary to re-create the antique vocabulary of architecture and its rules as well as to unify the contemporary usage of notions and norms in a canon. The first results of this project seem to be the In decem Libros M. Vitruvii Pollionis de Architectura Annotationes by Guillaume Philandrier (Rome, 1544) - up to this day a very valuable explanation of ambiguous parts in the Vitruvian text. Until the 1980s, it was believed that this book was the only outcome of the ambitious project; but then two codices of drawings after antique reliefs were identified as preparations for one of the other 23 volumes - and, because of their systematic approach, regarded as the 'first systematic archaeological book'. Now it seems that there are some other corpora of manuscripts and drawings documenting antique artifacts that should be regarded as results of the Accademia's work, too, showing antique buildings, inscriptions and coins. Other results of the unfinished project may be the theoretical and practical works of the two most influencial architects of the sixteenth century: Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola and Andrea Palladio. PMID:26140626

  3. Sedimentological and micromorphological investigation on the fill of the Bronze age wooden pool at Noceto La Torretta (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerboni, Andrea; Cremaschi, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    A recent excavation at Noceto La Torretta (Parma, northern Italy) revealed an exceptional archaeological structure, composed of a wooden pool, quadrangular in shape, about 12 x 6 m, up to 4 m deep. Since the beginning the pool appears as an unicum in the Prehistory of Europe (Bernabò Brea and Cremaschi, 2009); furthermore, it represents an important naturalistic and environmental archive and the sedimentary infilling undergone to sedimentological and micromorphological analyses. The Noceto La Torretta site is placed on the hydrographic left side of the Taro river, on the northernmost fringe of the Pleistocene Apennine terraces. On the basis of pottery type it is possible to attribute the structure to the Terramare culture (beginning of the advanced phase of the Middle Bronze Age, second half of XV century a.C.). Six radiocarbon dates are available up to now, and, once calibrated, they put the building and activity of the wooden pool between 1420 and 1320 cal. years BP. On the basis of sedimentological and micromorphological analyses (Cremaschi et al., 2009) the stratigraphic sequence could be divided into four groups of units. A) Upper deposits, silty and sandy sediments deposited by colluviation in shallow water, interlayered by charcoal and diatom rich layers. B) Organic deposits, formed in deeper and anoxic water. C) Gyttja in a sandy-silty matrix; three main facies are present: pair of organic and inorganic laminae (O/I), poorly laminated gyttja, anoxic and clastic layers. D) basal deposits. Considering the short time of the deposition inside the pool and the recurrent sedimentary facies, a seasonal control in sedimentation should be inferred. The gyttja-rich laminae should indicate the summer season, with intense biological activity inside and outside the pool, promoting a strong production of organics, while the anoxic and clastic layers are possibly related to the winter season (without production of organic matter). Finally, the O/I laminae represent the rain seasons (spring/autumn), marked by intense sheet-erosion of the banks of the pool. References Bernabò Brea, M., Cremaschi, M., 2009. La vasca di Noceto La Torretta. Acqua e civiltà nell'età del Bronzo. Università degli Studi di Milano e Skirà, Milano. Cremaschi, M., Ferrari, P., Salvioni, M., Zerboni, A., 2009. Il riempimento della vasca e della fossa. In: Bernabò Brea M., Cremaschi M. (Eds.), La vasca di Noceto La Torretta. Acqua e civiltà nell'età del Bronzo. Università degli Studi di Milano e Skirà, Milano, pp. 112-120.

  4. Last Glacial Maximum Dated by Means of 10Be in the Maritime Alps (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, D. E.; Spagnolo, M.; Federici, P.; Pappalardo, M.; Ribolini, A.; Cyr, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    Relatively few exposure dates of LGM moraines boulders are available for the European Alps, and none on the southern flank. Ponte Murato (PM) is a frontal moraine at 860 m asl in the Gesso Basin (Maritime Alps, SW European Alps). The PM moraine dams the 157 km2 Gesso della Barra Valley and it represents the lowermost frontal moraine of the entire Gesso Valley, near the outlet of the valley in the Po Plain. Its ELA, determined from the paleo- shape of the supposed Gesso della Barra glacier, is 1746 m asl. Tetti Bandito (TB) is a small and badly preserved glacial deposit, tentatively attributed to a lateral-frontal moraine, that is positioned 5 km downvalley from the PM deposit at 800 m asl. There are no other glacial deposits downvalley from the TB moraine in the Gesso Basin or farther NE in the piedmont region of the upper Po Plain. Boulders sampled on the PM and on the TB moraine crests gave a 10Be cosmogenic age of respectively 16300 ± 880 ka (average value) and 18798 ± 973 ka. This result constrains the PM frontal moraine within the LGM interval but also suggests that the maximum expansion of the Gesso Basin glacier was more downvalley at some point during the last glaciation. If the TB is a lateral-frontal moraine as supposed, the two TB and PM moraines would represent the outer and inner moraine crests of the same LGM stadial, with the outer moraine much less pronounced than the inner moraine, similarly to the maximalstand and the hochstand described in the Eastern Alps (Van Husen, 1997). Within this perspective, the PM and TB dates are consistent with a European Alps LGM corresponding to MIS 2 (Ivy-Ochs et al., 2004). This study of the Maritime Alps moraines is also in agreement with the Upper Würm climatic theory (Florineth and Schlüchter, 2000) of a stronger influence of the W and SW incoming humid airflows in the European Alps, differently from the nearby Vosges and Pyrenees mountain chains where more dry conditions were probably responsible for a very little glacial expansion during MIS 2 (Seret et al., 1990; Garcia-Ruiz et al., 2003).

  5. Atmospheric CO2 uptake throughout bio-enhanced brucite-water reaction at Montecastelli serpentinites (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedini, Federica; Boschi, Chiara; Ménez, Benedicte; Perchiazzi, Natale; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    In the last several years, interactions between microorganisms and minerals have intrigued and catched the interest of the scientific community. Montecastelli serpentinites (Tuscany, Italy) are characterized by CO2-mineral carbonation, an important process which leads to spontaneous formation of carbonate phases uptaking atmospheric CO2. In the studied areas carbonate precipitates, mainly hydrated Mg-carbonates, are present in form of crusts, coating and spherules on exposed rock surfaces, and filling rock fractures. Petrographic and mineralogical observations revealed that Tuscan brucite-rich serpentinites hosts preserve their original chemical compositions with typical mesh-textured serpentine (± brucite) after olivine, magnetite-rich mesh rims and relicts of primary spinel. Representative hydrated carbonate samples have been collected in three different areas and analyzed to investigate the role of biological activity and its influence in the serpentine-hydrated Mg-carbonates reaction. The different types of whitish precipitates have been selected under binocular microscope for XRD analyses performed at the Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra (University of Pisa, Italy): their mineralogical composition consists of mainly hydromagnesite and variable amount of other metastable carbonate phases (i.e. nesquehonite, manasseite, pyroaurite, brugnatellite and aragonite). Moreover, the crystallinity analysis of whitish crust and spherules have been carried out by detailed and quantitative XRD analyses to testify a possible biologically controlled growth, inasmuch as the crystal structure of biominerals could be affected by many lattice defects (i.e. dislocations, twinning, etc.) and this observation cause low crystallinity of the mineral. The presence of microbial cells and relicts of organic matter has already been detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) combined with Raman spectromicroscopy in a previous study (Bedini et al., 2013). The presence of active microbial communities in or at the serpentinites surface could promote and/or enhance the key reaction through which serpentine, reacting with the carbon dioxide, becomes hydrated Mg-carbonates. This novel study aims to provide a contribution to the identification of the biominerals that could be a valid proof between CO2-mineral sequestration and microbial activity interactions. This innovative research is designed to provide a plan in future at industrial scale to reduce and capture the greenhouse gas content by Earth's atmosphere, thanks to the precipitation of carbonate biominerals. Keywords: serpentinite, carbonation, biominerals. Bedini F., Boschi C., Ménez B., Perchiazzi N., Natali C., Zanchetta G. (2013) Interaction between Geosphere and Biosphere in CO2-mineral sequestration environment. FIST GEOITALIA 2013- XI Forum di Scienze della Terra (Pisa, Italy).

  6. Volumic visual perception: principally novel concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1996-01-01

    The general concept of volumic view (VV) as a universal property of space is introduced. VV exists in every point of the universe where electromagnetic (EM) waves can reach and a point or a quasi-point receiver (detector) of EM waves can be placed. Classification of receivers is given for the first time. They are classified into three main categories: biological, man-made non-biological, and mathematically specified hypothetical receivers. The principally novel concept of volumic perception is introduced. It differs chiefly from the traditional concept which traces back to Euclid and pre-Euclidean times and much later to Leonardo da Vinci and Giovanni Battista della Porta's discoveries and practical stereoscopy as introduced by C. Wheatstone. The basic idea of novel concept is that humans and animals acquire volumic visual data flows in series rather than in parallel. In this case the brain is free from extremely sophisticated real time parallel processing of two volumic visual data flows in order to combine them. Such procedure seems hardly probable even for humans who are unable to combine two primitive static stereoscopic images in one quicker than in a few seconds. Some people are unable to perform this procedure at all.

  7. Strigolactones stimulate internode elongation independently of gibberellins.

    PubMed

    de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Ligerot, Yasmine; Dun, Elizabeth A; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Ross, John J; Beveridge, Christine A; Rameau, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    Strigolactone (SL) mutants in diverse species show reduced stature in addition to their extensive branching. Here, we show that this dwarfism in pea (Pisum sativum) is not attributable to the strong branching of the mutants. The continuous supply of the synthetic SL GR24 via the root system using hydroponics can restore internode length of the SL-deficient rms1 mutant but not of the SL-response rms4 mutant, indicating that SLs stimulate internode elongation via RMS4. Cytological analysis of internode epidermal cells indicates that SLs control cell number but not cell length, suggesting that SL may affect stem elongation by stimulating cell division. Consequently, SLs can repress (in axillary buds) or promote (in the stem) cell division in a tissue-dependent manner. Because gibberellins (GAs) increase internode length by affecting both cell division and cell length, we tested if SLs stimulate internode elongation by affecting GA metabolism or signaling. Genetic analyses using SL-deficient and GA-deficient or DELLA-deficient double mutants, together with molecular and physiological approaches, suggest that SLs act independently from GAs to stimulate internode elongation. PMID:23943865

  8. Ice clouds optical properties in the Far Infrared from the ECOWAR-COBRA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Rolando; Tosi, Ennio

    ECOWAR-COBRA (Earth COoling by WAter vapouR emission -Campagna di Osservazioni della Banda Rotazionale del vapor d'Acqua) field campaign took place in Italy from 3 to 17 March 2007 with the main goal of studying the scarcely sensed atmospheric emission occurring beyond 17 microns. Instrumentation involved in the campaign included two different Fourier Transforms Spectrometers (FTS) : REFIR-PAD (at Testa Grigia Station, 3500 m a.s.l.) and FTIR-ABB (at Cervinia Station, 1990 m a.s.l.). In this work cloudy sky data have been ana-lyzed. A cloud properties retrieval methodology (RT-RET), based on high spectral resolution measurements in the atmospheric window (800-1000 cm-1), is applied to both FTS sensors. Cloud properties determined from the infrared retrievals are compared with those obtained from Raman lidar taken by the BASIL Lidar system that was operating at Cervinia station. Cloud microphysical and optical properties retrieved by RT-RET are used to perform forward simulations over the entire FTSs measurements spectral interval. Results are compared to FTS data to test the ability of single scattering ice crystals models to reproduce cloudy sky radiances in the Far Infra-Red (FIR) part of the spectrum. New methods to retrieve cloud optical and microphysical properties exploiting high spectral resolution FIR measurements are also investigated.

  9. Transcriptome Profiling Reveals the Regulatory Mechanism Underlying Pollination Dependent and Parthenocarpic Fruit Set Mainly Mediated by Auxin and Gibberellin

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ning; Deng, Wei; Hu, Guojian; Hu, Nan; Li, Zhengguo

    2015-01-01

    Background Fruit set is a key process for crop production in tomato which occurs after successful pollination and fertilization naturally. However, parthenocarpic fruit development can be uncoupled from fertilization triggered by exogenous auxin or gibberellins (GAs). Global transcriptome knowledge during fruit initiation would help to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which these two hormones regulate pollination-dependent and -independent fruit set. Principal Findings In this work, digital gene expression tag profiling (DGE) technology was applied to compare the transcriptomes from pollinated and 2, 4-D/GA3-treated ovaries. Activation of carbohydrate metabolism, cell division and expansion as well as the down-regulation of MADS-box is a comprehensive regulatory pathway during pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set. The signaling cascades of auxin and GA are significantly modulated. The feedback regulations of Aux/IAAs and DELLA genes which functioned to fine-tune auxin and GA response respectively play fundamental roles in triggering fruit initiation. In addition, auxin regulates GA synthesis via up-regulation of GA20ox1 and down-regulation of KNOX. Accordingly, the effect of auxin on fruit set is mediated by GA via ARF2 and IAA9 down-regulation, suggesting that both pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set depend on the crosstalk between auxin and GA. Significance This study characterizes the transcriptomic features of ovary development and more importantly unravels the integral roles of auxin and GA on pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set. PMID:25909657

  10. Shade Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Jorge J.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light environment experienced by plants, generating signals that are perceived by phytochromes and cryptochromes. These signals cause large changes in plant body form and function, including enhanced growth of the hypocotyl and petioles, a more erect position of the leaves and early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, these so-called shade-avoidance responses tend to reduce the degree of current or future shade by neighbors. Shade light signals increase the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5 proteins, promote the synthesis and redirection of auxin, favor the degradation of DELLA proteins and increase the expression of auxin, gibberellins and brassinosteroid-promoted genes, among other events downstream the photoreceptors. Selectively disrupting these events by genetic or pharmacological approaches affects shade-avoidance responses with an intensity that depends on the developmental context and the environment. Shade-avoidance responses provide a model to investigate the signaling networks used by plants to take advantage of the cues provided by the environment to adjust to the challenges imposed by the environment itself. PMID:22582029

  11. Urine albumin excretion, within normal range, reflects increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vyssoulis, Gregory; Karpanou, Eva; Spanos, Pangiotis; Kyvelou, Stella-Maria; Adamopoulos, Dionysios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2010-08-01

    Microalbuminuria is a prognostic marker of cardiovascular disease and is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). For this purpose, the authors examined the relationship of low grade albuminuria to MetS, using 4 current definitions and a MetS score. They studied 6650 consecutive, nondiabetic, hypertensive patients with normal microalbumin excretion. MetS was defined by Adult Treatment Panel III, American Heart Association, World Heart Organization, International Diabetes Federation criteria, and MetS Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Streptochinasi nell'Infarcto Miocardico (GISSI) score. Urine microalbumin concentration was measured after a 24-hour urine collection by immunonephelometry. By all definitions, hypertensive patients with MetS had higher microalbumin levels. Significantly higher microalbumin levels were observed as the number of metabolic components rose. After adjustment for systolic blood pressure, the strength of this association was reduced to a nonsignificant level. Microalbumin levels, within normal range, are increased in patients with MetS, irrespective of the definition criteria. PMID:20695936

  12. The documentation and reintegration of a lost past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balletti, C.; Brussa, N.; Gottardi, C.; Guerra, F.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes how new digital methodologies can be used within the field of Cultural Heritage, not only with the aim of documenting the actual state of an architecture but to review the past transformations it has undergone, conserving and representing these histories as well. Over the last few years, the methodologies of acquisition and integrated representation for 3D patrimony documentation have developed and consolidated considerably: the possibilities of the digital realm can augment the understanding and the valorisation of a monument. The specific case offered in the present paper, the Scuola Vecchia della Misericordia in Venice, is a significant example. It suggests not only the theme of the "no longer existing" regarding its façade, which has undergone evident modifications, but also the recontextualization of a number of decorative elements, such as the bas-reliefs which once marked the entrance and are today conserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The described experience shows how integrated methodology, from high resolution laser scanning and photogrammetric survey to 3d modelling, can develop a reliably virtual diachronical reconstruction from different sources of an historical building. Geomatic tools combined with computer graphics provide a better understanding of building history through the use historical documents, playing a paramount role in preserving and valorizing the cultural and environmental heritage.

  13. Cross-Sectional Drawing Techniques And The Artist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, William A.

    1980-07-01

    Although Democritus, a Greek pholosopher of the fifth century B.C. described the use of cross-sections in analyzing a solid form, this method was not extensively developed in art until the Renaissance. The earliest treatise documenting the integration of the cross-section and linear perspective is Piero della Francesca's De prospective pingendi (c. 1480), in which a drawing of the human head is mathematically conceived and plotted by means of cross-section contours. Piero's method anticipates contemporary biostereometric techniques and current theories of visual perception. Outside of theoretical treatises the complete cross-section rarely occurs in art, though certain pictorial elements such as the religious halo can be interpreted as cross-sections. The chan-ging representation of the halo in art of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods parallels the development of the artist's concepts and techniques for representing form and space. During the Renaissance and Baroque periods the widespread use of contour hatching, a drawing technique based on the cross-section, indicates that the cross-section concept has played a greater role in pictorial representation than has generally been recognized.

  14. Cement Allergy: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Gamez, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to educate nurses about the possibility of patients having an allergic reaction to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Although rare, an allergic reaction to PMMA or the bone cement used to adhere the metal components of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to the bone can cause aseptic loosening of a TKA ( S. A. Edwards & J. Gardiner, 2007). The prevalence of PMMA allergies in the population has not been reported in the literature; therefore, no high-level research studies on the subject are available ( K. Kaplan, C. Della Valle, K. Haines, & J. D. Zuckerman, 2002). A case study and literature review was used to construct this article. The patient, L.W., a 61-year-old, white woman, is a nail technician with a history of right knee pain, stiffness, soreness, and a decreased range of motion for one and a half years following a TKA. The complications from a PMMA allergy could be avoided by adding one or two questions to the patient's history and physical form. A complete history could also do away with the need for additional testing and increased medical expenses for the patient and the healthcare system as a whole. PMID:26213878

  15. Analytical damped-oscillator models for unsteady atmospheric boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, Mostafa; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2015-11-01

    Geophysical flows are dynamical systems that are evolving nonlinearly with time. Non-stationary shear and buoyancy forces are the main sources that drive the unsteadiness of such flows. However, due to their inherent complexity, most previous studies focused on steady-state conditions. In these boundary layers, the pressure gradient, buoyancy, Coriolis, and friction forces interact. The mean PDEs governing the unsteady version of the problem, which emerges when these forces are not in equilibrium, are solvable only for a limited set of forcing variability modes, and the resulting solutions are intricate and difficult to interpret. Here we derive a simpler physical model that reduces the governing RANS equations into a first-order ODE with non-constant coefficients. The origin of the non-stationarity of turbulence can be buoyant stabilization/destabilization and/or unsteady pressure gradient. The reduced model is straightforward and solvable for arbitrary turbulent viscosity variability, and it captures LES results for linearly variable buoyancy and pressure gradient pretty well. The suggested model is thus general and will be useful for elucidating some features of the diurnal cycle, for short-term wind forecast, and in meteorological applications. NSF-PDM under AGS-10266362. Simulations performed at NCAR, and Della server at Princeton University. Cooperative Institute for Climate Science, NOAA-Princeton University under NA08OAR4320752.

  16. Large-eddy simulations of mean and turbulence dynamics in unsteady Ekman boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, Mostafa; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2015-11-01

    Unsteady geostrophic forcing in the atmosphere or ocean not only influences the mean wind, but also affects the turbulent statistics. In order to see when turbulence is in quasi-equilibrium with the mean, one needs to understand how the turbulence decays or develops, and how do the turbulent production, transport and dissipation respond to changes in the imposed forcing. This helps us understand the underlying dynamics of the unsteady boundary layers and develop better turbulence closures for weather/climate models and engineering applications. The present study focuses on the unsteady Ekman boundary layer where pressure gradient, Coriolis, and friction forces interact but are not necessarily in equilibrium. Several cases are simulated using LES to examine how the turbulence and resolved TKE budget terms are modulated by the variability of the mean pressure gradient. We also examine the influence of the forcing variability time-scale on the turbulence equilibrium and TKE budget. It is shown that when the forcing time-scale is in the order of the turbulence characteristic time-scale, the turbulence is no longer in quasi-equilibrium due to highly nonlinear mean-turbulence interactions and hence the conventional log-law and turbulence closures are no longer valid. NSF-PDM under AGS-10266362. Simulations performed at NCAR, and Della server at Princeton University. Cooperative Institute for Climate Science, NOAA-Princeton University under NA08OAR4320752.

  17. [Prevention of mediterranean anemia in Latium: Ida Bianco archives].

    PubMed

    Falchetti, Mario; Lupi, Ramona; Ottini, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Mediterranean anemia or beta-thalassemia is a hereditary syndrome characterized by a severe defect in haemoglobin production and an altered morphology of red blood cells. Homozygous condition for beta-thalassemia is characterized by short survival. Heterozygous condition is clinically found in adolescence and is characterized by a less aggressive phenotype. Ida Bianco, with her husband Ezio Silvestroni, has conducted a long struggle for beta-thalassemia prevention in Italy. They were the first to draw up an accurate map of the distribution of thalassemia in Italy and to conceive and implement a campaign against this genetic disease by the development of annual screening on at-school teenagers and pre-marriage prevention. Here we focused on the analysis of Ida Bianco's archives concerning screenings conducted on middle-schools in the Latium by the "Centro Studi della Microcitemia" of Rome from 1975 up to today. The results of the thirty-years prevention work in the Latium will be described. PMID:17526287

  18. Digital Single-Cell Analysis of Plant Organ Development Using 3DCellAtlas[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D.; Stamm, Petra; Strauss, Soeren; Topham, Alexander T.; Tsagris, Michail; Wood, Andrew T.A.; Smith, Richard S.; Bassel, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse molecular networks underlying plant growth and development are rapidly being uncovered. Integrating these data into the spatial and temporal context of dynamic organ growth remains a technical challenge. We developed 3DCellAtlas, an integrative computational pipeline that semiautomatically identifies cell types and quantifies both 3D cellular anisotropy and reporter abundance at single-cell resolution across whole plant organs. Cell identification is no less than 97.8% accurate and does not require transgenic lineage markers or reference atlases. Cell positions within organs are defined using an internal indexing system generating cellular level organ atlases where data from multiple samples can be integrated. Using this approach, we quantified the organ-wide cell-type-specific 3D cellular anisotropy driving Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl elongation. The impact ethylene has on hypocotyl 3D cell anisotropy identified the preferential growth of endodermis in response to this hormone. The spatiotemporal dynamics of the endogenous DELLA protein RGA, expansin gene EXPA3, and cell expansion was quantified within distinct cell types of Arabidopsis roots. A significant regulatory relationship between RGA, EXPA3, and growth was present in the epidermis and endodermis. The use of single-cell analyses of plant development enables the dynamics of diverse regulatory networks to be integrated with 3D organ growth. PMID:25901089

  19. Time-dependent estimators for on-line monitoring of full-scale structures under ambient excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbiati, Giuseppe; Ceravolo, Rosario; Surace, Cecilia

    2015-08-01

    The study described in this paper revisits the concept of instantaneous identification of system parameters based on time-frequency representations. In order to overcome the distortion caused by the time-frequency analysis window, optimal bias-compensated estimators are introduced. In particular, bias-compensated estimators are conceived specifically to provide on-line estimates for time-varying linear parameters such as instantaneous frequency and damping. With respect to previous studies, which relied on the concept of optimal time-frequency representation, the novel procedure corrects on-line estimates provided by standard representations. Afterwards, a practical application to a full-scale structure is presented. The church of "Madonnina della Neve" in Savigliano (Cuneo province, Italy) is a masonry building that exhibits defects in the connections between structural parts and visible cracks in lateral masonry walls. As a consequence, the global behaviour observed on this structure demonstrates significant flexibility in both the longitudinal and transversal directions. Recently cracks have worsened due to vibrations induced by traffic and heavy vehicles. Proposed bias-compensated estimators were used to analyse the unusual time-varying behaviour of the masonry structure, as observed from the response measured during the transit of vehicles and trucks.

  20. Verification at the protein level of the PIF4-mediated external coincidence model for the temperature-adaptive photoperiodic control of plant growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yamashino, Takafumi; Nomoto, Yuji; Lorrain, Séverine; Miyachi, Miki; Ito, Shogo; Nakamichi, Norihito; Fankhauser, Christian; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2013-03-01

    Plant circadian clock controls a wide variety of physiological and developmental events, which include the short-days (SDs)-specific promotion of the elongation of hypocotyls during de-etiolation and also the elongation of petioles during vegetative growth. In A. thaliana, the PIF4 gene encoding a phytochrome-interacting basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor plays crucial roles in this photoperiodic control of plant growth. According to the proposed external coincidence model, the PIF4 gene is transcribed precociously at the end of night specifically in SDs, under which conditions the protein product is stably accumulated, while PIF4 is expressed exclusively during the daytime in long days (LDs), under which conditions the protein product is degraded by the light-activated phyB and also the residual proteins are inactivated by the DELLA family of proteins. A number of previous reports provided solid evidence to support this coincidence model mainly at the transcriptional level of the PIF 4 and PIF4-traget genes. Nevertheless, the diurnal oscillation profiles of PIF4 proteins, which were postulated to be dependent on photoperiod and ambient temperature, have not yet been demonstrated. Here we present such crucial evidence on PIF4 protein level to further support the external coincidence model underlying the temperature-adaptive photoperiodic control of plant growth in A. thaliana. PMID:23299336

  1. [Mass communication during the "H1N1 flu"].

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, E; Martino, G; Balli, M; Puggelli, F; Tiscione, E; Bonaccorsi, G; Bonanni, P

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays communication plays a key role in healthcare, especially when a detailed risk analysis is important for correct information, as in the case of the H1N1 flu virus A. Through our study we have analyzed how the event "H1N1 flu" was addressed by the media, considering the period April 2009-June 2010. We collected the information from "Il Corriere della Sera", "La Repubblica" and "City", in addition to an online site for general information such as "TGCOM". The analyzed peak of daily news was seen a few weeks before the pandemic peak; in addition, after the peak of the pandemic, the interest of the press has completely collapsed, and eventually disappeared altogether. The media can influence the thought and consequentially how the recipients act, leading to a misperception of risk ('risk') and danger ('hazard'). Moreover the institutions and health professionals are not always able to communicate effectively to meet the needs for correct information. It is desirable in the future a greater degree of collaboration between media and authorities to have a clearer simpler and less misleading communication in the health field, helping recipients to act properly. PMID:22755497

  2. The role of gibberellin signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Colebrook, Ellen H; Thomas, Stephen G; Phillips, Andrew L; Hedden, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Plant hormones are small molecules that regulate plant growth and development, as well as responses to changing environmental conditions. By modifying the production, distribution or signal transduction of these hormones, plants are able to regulate and coordinate both growth and/or stress tolerance to promote survival or escape from environmental stress. A central role for the gibberellin (GA) class of growth hormones in the response to abiotic stress is becoming increasingly evident. Reduction of GA levels and signalling has been shown to contribute to plant growth restriction on exposure to several stresses, including cold, salt and osmotic stress. Conversely, increased GA biosynthesis and signalling promote growth in plant escape responses to shading and submergence. In several cases, GA signalling has also been linked to stress tolerance. The transcriptional regulation of GA metabolism appears to be a major point of regulation of the GA pathway, while emerging evidence for interaction of the GA-signalling molecule DELLA with components of the signalling pathway for the stress hormone jasmonic acid suggests additional mechanisms by which GA signalling may integrate multiple hormone signalling pathways in the response to stress. Here, we review the evidence for the role of GA in these processes, and the regulation of the GA signalling pathway on exposure to abiotic stress. The potential mechanisms by which GA signalling modulates stress tolerance are also discussed. PMID:24353205

  3. Mathematical Physics in Italy in the XIX Century: The Theory of Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capecchi, Danilo

    In the second half of the nineteenth century there was in Italy an important group of mathematicians who focused their attention on mathematical physics. The most prominent of them were Enrico Betti, Eugenio Beltrami, Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro and some others (Vito Volterra, Carlo Somigliana and Tullio Levi Civita) whose activity persevered for many years in the twentieth century. In this article, I will write about the contribution of this group to the theory of elasticity. The best representative writing on continuum mechanics and elasticity as theories of mathematical physics is presented in the book Teoria della elasticità by Enrico Betti. The book is interesting not only for the particular results found but also for its structure which became paradigmatic for the development of subsequent texts on elasticity, not only those in Italian. Betti's interest was concentrated on the mathematical aspects of a physical theory. Physical principles are not discussed; they are only exposed in the most formal way possible. The objective is to arrive, without discussing epistemological or empirical problems, at the formulation and solution of differential equations that rule elasticity, as had become classic in the emerging mathematical physics. Beltrami wrote no complete books on elasticity; however, his contribution to this field was perhaps more original than that of Betti. A similar consideration holds true for Volterra and Somigliana.

  4. Characterization of gibberellin-signalling elements during plum fruit ontogeny defines the essentiality of gibberellin in fruit development.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Islam; Sherif, Sherif; El Kayal, Walid; Mahboob, Abdullah; Abubaker, Kamal; Ravindran, Pratibha; Jyothi-Prakash, Pavithra A; Kumar, Prakash P; Jayasankar, Subramanian

    2014-03-01

    Fruit growth is a coordinated, complex interaction of cell division, differentiation and expansion. Gibberellin (GA) involvement in the reproductive events is an important aspect of GA effects. Perennial fruit-trees such as plum (Prunus salicina L.) have distinct features that are economically important and provide opportunities to dissect specific GA mechanisms. Currently, very little is known on the molecular mechanism(s) mediating GA effects on fruit development. Determination of bioactive GA content during plum fruit ontogeny revealed that GA1 and GA4 are critical for fruit growth and development. Further, characterization of several genes involved in GA-signalling showed that their transcriptional regulation are generally GA-dependent, confirming their involvement in GA-signalling. Based on these results, a model is presented elucidating how the potential association between GA and other hormones may contribute to fruit development. PslGID1 proteins structure, Y2H and BiFC assays indicated that plum GA-receptors can form a complex with AtDELLA-repressors in a GA-dependent manner. Moreover, phenotypical-, molecular- and GA-analyses of various Arabidopsis backgrounds ectopically expressing PslGID1 sequences provide evidence on their role as active GA-signalling components that mediate GA-responsiveness. Our findings support the critical contribution of GA alone or in association with other hormones in mediating plum fruit growth and development. PMID:24142379

  5. [Suicide and malpractice].

    PubMed

    Catanesi, Roberto; Carabellese, Felice

    2011-01-01

    Some recent statements on the subject of psychiatrists' responsibility for suicide committed by patients have provoked lively discussions about the welfare duties of public psychiatric services, causing a widespread climate of alarm among medical institutions. The discussion is primarily about the extent of the psychiatrist's "posizione della garanzia", in particular the duty of protection and surveillance in relation to the risk of self-destructive behavior, referring to convictions not only in TSO cases but also in cases of voluntary hospitalization and valid consensus on treatment. The subject of suicide inevitably reminds us of the predictability of self-destructive behavior and, above all, of its prevention. The authors compare data from scientific literature on this subject - the organizational model of territorial psychiatry - with the principles ordered by the convictions, in particular the request for "ulterior and more rigorous protective rules", thus highlighting their complicated synthesis. In the authors' opinion, a possible literal interpretation of the legal indications would risk a profound change in the quality of the relationship between psychiatrist and patient. The authors, striving to adopt the psychiatrists' point of view, want to finally provide some operational advice with the objective to delimit good practice according to a medico-legal view. PMID:21572467

  6. Exact and approximate exchange potentials investigated in terms of their matrix elements with the Kohn-Sham orbitals

    SciTech Connect

    Holas, A.; Cinal, M.

    2005-09-15

    Three approximate exchange potentials of high accuracy v{sub x}{sup Y}(r), Y=A,B,C, for the density-functional theory applications are obtained by replacing the matrix elements of the exact potential between the Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals with such elements of the Fock exchange operator (within the virtual-occupied subset only) in three representations found for any local potential. A common identity is the base of these representations. The potential v{sub x}{sup C} happens to be the same as that derived by Harbola and Sahni, and v{sub x}{sup A} as that derived by Gritsenko and Baerends, and Della Sala and Goerling. The potentials obtained can be expressed in terms of occupied KS orbitals only. At large r, their asymptotic form -1/r is the same as that of the exact potential. The high quality of these three approximations is demonstrated by direct comparison with the exact potential and using various consistency tests. A common root established for the three approximations could be helpful in finding new and better approximations via modification of identities employed in the present investigation.

  7. OsNAC2 encoding a NAC transcription factor that affects plant height through mediating the gibberellic acid pathway in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Lu, Songchong; Wang, Yaofeng; Zhang, Xuan; Lv, Bo; Luo, Liqiong; Xi, Dandan; Shen, Jiabin; Ma, Hong; Ming, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Plant height and flowering time are key agronomic traits affecting yield in rice (Oryza sativa). In this study, we investigated the functions in rice growth and development of OsNAC2, encoding a NAC transcription factor in rice. Transgenic plants that constitutively expressed OsNAC2 had shorter internodes, shorter spikelets, and were more insensitive to gibberellic acid (GA(3)). In addition, the levels of GAs decreased in OsNAC2 overexpression plants, compared with the wild-type. Moreover, flowering was delayed for approximately 5 days in transgenic lines. The transcription of Hd3a, a flowering-time related gene, was suppressed in transgenic lines. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing OsNAC2 were also more insensitive to GA(3). The expression levels of GA biosynthetic genes OsKO2 and OsKAO were repressed. The expression of OsSLRL, encoding a repressor in the GA signal pathway, and OsEATB, which encodes a repressor of GA biosynthesis, were both enhanced. Western blotting indicated that DELLA also accumulated at the protein level. Dual-luciferase reporter analyses, yeast one-hybrid assays and ChIP-qPCR suggested that OsNAC2 directly interacted with the promoter of OsEATB and OsKO2. Taken together, we proposed that OsNAC2 is a negative regulator of the plant height and flowering time, which acts by directly regulating key genes of the GA pathway in rice. PMID:25754802

  8. Role of the phytochrome and cryptochrome signaling pathways in hypocotyl phototropism.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida-Mayama, Tomoko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Hanada, Atsushi; Uehara, Yukiko; Asami, Tadao; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2010-05-01

    Unilateral blue-light irradiation activates phototropin (phot) photoreceptors, resulting in asymmetric distribution of the phytohormone auxin and induction of a phototropic response in higher plants. Other photoreceptors, including phytochrome (phy) and cryptochrome (cry), have been proposed as modulators of phototropic responses. We show here that either phy or cry is required for hypocotyl phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana under high fluence rates of blue light, and that constitutive expression of ROOT PHOTOTROPISM 2 (RPT2) and treatment with the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol partially and independently complement the non-phototropic hypocotyl phenotype of the phyA cry1 cry2 mutant under high fluence rates of blue light. Our results indicate that induction of RPT2 and reduction in the GA are crucial for hypocotyl phototropic regulation by phy and cry. We also show that GA suppresses hypocotyl bending via destabilization of DELLA transcriptional regulators under darkness, but does not suppress the phototropic response in the presence of either phyA or cryptochromes, suggesting that these photoreceptors control not only the GA content but also the GA sensing and/or signaling that affects hypocotyl phototropism. The metabolic and signaling regulation of not only auxin but also GA by photoreceptors therefore appears to determine the hypocotyl growth pattern, including phototropic and gravitropic responses and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, for adaptation to various light environments. PMID:20202166

  9. Illuminated behaviour: phytochrome as a key regulator of light foraging and plant anti-herbivore defence.

    PubMed

    Ballar, Carlos L

    2009-06-01

    In many ecological scenarios, the success of an individual plant is defined by the behavioural decisions that it makes when confronted with the risks of competition with other plants, and biomass losses to insect herbivores. These decisions involve expression of shade avoidance responses and induced chemical defences. Because these responses are costly, they frequently engender resource allocation dilemmas. In this review, I discuss the mechanisms that trigger adaptive responses to competitors and herbivores, highlighting the role of phytochromes as central organizers of the overall resource allocation strategy of plants. Phytochromes sense the reduction in the red to far-red (R : FR) ratio of sunlight caused by the proximity of other plants. Shade-intolerant plants respond to low R : FR ratios with shade avoidance behaviours and reduced investment in defence. Pfr depletion leads to increased stability of growth-promoting phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs), and results in the production of auxins and gibberellins, degradation of DELLA proteins, which are repressors of PIFs, and reduced sensitivity to jasmonates. Thus, phytochrome appears to fulfil its organizational role by regulating the relative strength of the signalling circuits controlled by growth-related and defence-related hormones. I point out cases of signalling redundancy and discuss the significance of recent work on hormone signalling for our understanding of the mechanisms that control adaptive plant behaviour. PMID:19220784

  10. Alternative derivation of an exchange-only density-functional optimized effective potential

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, D. P.

    2007-10-15

    An alternative derivation of the exchange-only density-functional optimized effective potential equation is given. It is shown that the localized Hartree-Fock-common energy denominator Green's function approximation (LHF-CEDA) for the density-functional exchange potential proposed independently by Della Sala and Goerling [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 5718 (2001)] and Gritsenko and Baerends [Phys. Rev. A 64, 42506 (2001)] can be derived as an approximation to the OEP exchange potential in a similar way that the KLI approximation [Phys. Rev. A 45, 5453 (1992)] was derived. An exact expression for the correction term to the LHF-CEDA approximation can thus be found. The correction term can be expressed in terms of the first-order perturbation-theory many-electron wave function shift when the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian is subjected to a perturbation equal to the difference between the density-functional exchange potential and the Hartree-Fock nonlocal potential, expressed in terms of the Kohn-Sham orbitals. An explicit calculation shows that the density weighted mean of the correction term is zero, confirming that the LHF-CEDA approximation can be interpreted as a mean-field approximation. The corrected LHF-CEDA equation and the optimized effective potential equation are shown to be identical, with information distributed differently between terms in the equations. For a finite system the correction term falls off at least as fast as 1/r{sup 4} for large r.

  11. Control of cotton fibre elongation by a homeodomain transcription factor GhHOX3

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Chun-Min; Shangguan, Xiao-Xia; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Xiu-Fang; Chao, Lu-men; Yang, Chang-Qing; Wang, Ling-Jian; Zhu, Hua-Yu; Zeng, Yan-Da; Guo, Wang-Zhen; Zhou, Bao-Liang; Hu, Guan-Jing; Guan, Xue-Ying; Chen, Z. Jeffrey; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2014-01-01

    Cotton fibres are unusually long, single-celled epidermal seed trichomes and a model for plant cell growth, but little is known about the regulation of fibre cell elongation. Here we report that a homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factor, GhHOX3, controls cotton fibre elongation. GhHOX3 genes are localized to the 12th homoeologous chromosome set of allotetraploid cotton cultivars, associated with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fibre length. Silencing of GhHOX3 greatly reduces (>80%) fibre length, whereas its overexpression leads to longer fibre. Combined transcriptomic and biochemical analyses identify target genes of GhHOX3 that also contain the L1-box cis-element, including two cell wall loosening protein genes GhRDL1 and GhEXPA1. GhHOX3 interacts with GhHD1, another homeodomain protein, resulting in enhanced transcriptional activity, and with cotton DELLA, GhSLR1, repressor of the growth hormone gibberellin (GA). GhSLR1 interferes with the GhHOX3–GhHD1 interaction and represses target gene transcription. Our results uncover a novel mechanism whereby a homeodomain protein transduces GA signal to promote fibre cell elongation. PMID:25413731

  12. Progress in the hyperspectral payload for PRISMA programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meini, Marco; Battazza, Fabrizio; Formaro, Roberto; Bini, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    The PRISMA (PRecursore IperSpettrale della Missione Applicativa) Programme is an ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana) hyperspectral mission for Earth observation based on a mono-payload single satellite: an Italian Consortium is in charge to realize the mission; Selex ES has the full responsibility of the hyperspectral payload composed by a high spectral resolution spectrometer optically integrated with a medium resolution panchromatic camera. The optical design permits to cover the wavelength range from 400 to 2500 nm and it is based on high transmittance optical assemblies, including a reflective common telescope in Three-Mirror Anastigmat (TMA) configuration, a single slit aperture, a panchromatic camera (700-900 nm) and a spectrometer having two channels (VNIR and SWIR), each one using an suitable prism configuration and spectrally separated by a beam splitter, conceived to minimize the number of optical elements. High performance MCT-based detectors represent the core of the instrument. To provide the required data quality for the entire mission lifetime (5 years), an accurate and stable calibration unit (radiometric and spectral) is integrated, for the in-flight instrument calibration. The thermal design has been based on a passive cooling system: a double stage radiator, suitable oriented and protected from unwanted heat fluxes, high performance heat pipes and an operational heaters network represent the solution adopted to achieve the required thermal stability.

  13. "SeismoSAT" project results in connecting seismic data centres via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Rauch, Markus; Živčić, Mladen; Steiner, Rudolf; Bertoni, Michele; Delazer, Heimo

    2016-04-01

    Since 2002 the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are collecting, analysing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time. Up to now the data exchange between the seismic data centres relied on internet: this however was not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since internet reliability is poor. For this reason, in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (Italy) joined OGS, ZAMG and ARSO in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria project "SeismoSAT" (Progetto SeismoSAT, 2014) aimed in connecting the seismic data centres in real time via satellite. As already presented in the past, the general technical schema of the project has been outlined, data bandwidths and monthly volumes required have been quantified, the common satellite provider has been selected and the hardware has been purchased and installed. Right before the end of its financial period, the SeismoSAT project proved to be successful guaranteeing data connection stability between the involved data centres during an internet outage.

  14. [On Academics and Academicians. Historical sketch].

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    First Academies originated in Italy at the beginnings of the Renaissance. Their works were of encyclopedic extent. Regarding to scientific academies, the first was the "Accademia dei Lincei" founded in Rome on August 17, 1603, due to the initiative of four young men; three naturalists and a physician. Later, several distiguished scientists were admitted, such as Giambattista della Porta, inventor of the dark chamber (1610) and Galileo Galilei (1611). This Academy sponsored the publication of a compendium of Francisco Hernández manuscripts, prepared by the Italian physician Antonio Nardo Recchi. Many years later, other scientific academies arose, such as the "Accademia del Cimento", established in 1657 in Florence and inspired by Galilean thought. In 1662, the "Royal Society" of London, was formally recognized, following Bacon's empirical line, and in 1666 the "Académie Royale des Sciences" was created in Paris, which followed the mechanicist orientation of Descartes. These scientific societies aspired to become centers of information and exchange ideas. Therefore, the "Philosophical Transactions" in London and the "Journal des Savants" in Paris began to be published in 1665. Both publications often included medical articles and notes. Regarding New Spain, the worthy "Academia médico-quirúrgica" of Puebla, mentioned since 1802, must be considered. In independent Mexico, two successive medical academies were established that paved the way for our National Academy of Medicine (1864). This society, since its birth, has been publishing the "Gaceta Médica de México", dean of the Mexican medical journals. PMID:12872422

  15. Natural radionuclides in the rocks of the Valle del Cervo Pluton in Piedmont.

    PubMed

    Sesana, Lucia; Fumagalli, Marco; Carnevale, Mauro; Polla, Giancarla; Facchini, Ugo; Colombo, Annita; Tunesi, Annalisa; De Capitani, Luisa; Rusconi, Rosella

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of the gamma radiation in Valle del Cervo Pluton was performed by determining U and Th contents in the main rock types cropping out over the entire area and pertaining to the granitic complex, syenitic complex and monzonitic complex. In particular, syenitic rocks were largely used as building and ornamental materials (e.g. Sienite della Balma). All the samples are fresh and do not present joints or fractures filled with U minerals. In the crushed samples the activity of uranium varies from 346 to 764 Bq/kg. Concentration of thorium varies from 202 to 478 Bq/kg. For all the analysed rocks uranium activity is higher than thorium one. The lowest value of radioactive concentration is referred to rocks of the granitic complex. The most active rocks are syenites. The data confirm the high activities of Valle del Cervo rock types, strongly connected with high K content of the source magma (geochemical signature); on the contrary, the activity seems to be not related to the location of the samples. PMID:16410293

  16. A note on the meaning of mixture viscosity using the classical continuum theories of mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we provide a brief review of the basic equations for the flow of two linearly viscous fluids using the mixture theory equations given in Atkin and Craine [R.J. Atkin, R.E. Craine, Continuum theories of mixtures: applications, J. Inst. Math. Appl. 17 (1976) 153; R.J. Atkin, R.E. Craine, Continuum theories of mixtures: basic theory and historical development, Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 29 (1976) 290]. We then look at certain principles (or more accurately assumptions) due to Truesdell [C. Truesdell, Sulle basi della thermomeccanica, Rand Lincei, Series 8 22 (1957) 33–38, and 158–166] and Adkins [J.E. Adkins, Non-linear diffusion, 1. Diffusion and flow of mixtures of fluids, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A 255 (1963) 607–633; J.E. Adkins, Non-linear diffusion, 2. Constitutive equations for mixtures of isotropic fluids, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A 255 (1963) 635–648] and show that if the ‘assumption of the limiting cases’ of Adkins is to hold, then a very specific structure on the material properties of the two fluids has to be imposed. This new hypothesis provides one such condition for this requirement. An attempt is made to derive a relationship for the mixture viscosity using these ideas.

  17. The effect of mepiquat chloride on elongation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) internode is associated with low concentration of gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Mu, Chun; Du, Mingwei; Chen, Yin; Tian, Xiaoli; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-08-01

    The growth regulator mepiquat chloride (MC) is globally used in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) canopy manipulation to avoid excess growth and yield loss. However, little information is available as to whether the modification of plant architecture by MC is related to alterations in gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism and signaling. Here, the role of GA metabolism and signaling was investigated in cotton seedlings treated with MC. The MC significantly decreased endogenous GA3 and GA4 levels in the elongating internode, which inhibited cell elongation by downregulating GhEXP and GhXTH2, and then reducing plant height. Biosynthetic and metabolic genes of GA were markedly suppressed within 2-10d of MC treatment, which also downregulated the expression of DELLA-like genes. A remarkable feedback regulation was observed at the early stage of MC treatment when GA biosynthetic and metabolic genes expression was evidently upregulated. Mepiquat chloride action was controlled by temporal translocation and spatial accumulation which regulated GA biosynthesis and signal expression for maintaining GA homeostasis. The results suggested that MC application could reduce endogenous GA levels in cotton through controlled GA biosynthetic and metabolic genes expression, which might inhibit cell elongation, thereby shortening the internode and reducing plant height. PMID:25017155

  18. Arabidopsis Floral Initiator SKB1 Confers High Salt Tolerance by Regulating Transcription and Pre-mRNA Splicing through Altering Histone H4R3 and Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein LSM4 Methylation[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaoliang; Zhang, Shupei; Zhang, Ya; Wang, Xin; Li, Dan; Li, Qiuling; Yue, Minghui; Li, Qun; Zhang, Yu-e; Xu, Yunyuan; Xue, Yongbiao; Chong, Kang; Bao, Shilai

    2011-01-01

    Plants adapt their growth and development in response to perceived salt stress. Although DELLA-dependent growth restraint is thought to be an integration of the plants response to salt stress, little is known about how histone modification confers salt stress and, in turn, affects development. Here, we report that floral initiator Shk1 kinase binding protein1 (SKB1) and histone4 arginine3 (H4R3) symmetric dimethylation (H4R3sme2) integrate responses to plant developmental progress and salt stress. Mutation of SKB1 results in salt hypersensitivity, late flowering, and growth retardation. SKB1 associates with chromatin and thereby increases the H4R3sme2 level to suppress the transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and a number of stress-responsive genes. During salt stress, the H4R3sme2 level is reduced, as a consequence of SKB1 disassociating from chromatin to induce the expression of FLC and the stress-responsive genes but increasing the methylation of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein Sm-like4 (LSM4). Splicing defects are observed in the skb1 and lsm4 mutants, which are sensitive to salt. We propose that SKB1 mediates plant development and the salt response by altering the methylation status of H4R3sme2 and LSM4 and linking transcription to pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:21258002

  19. [Trehala, a meeting point between zoology, botany, chemistry, and biochemistry].

    PubMed

    Tillequin, François

    2009-07-01

    Trehala is a crude drug consisting of the pupal chambers formed by insects belonging to the genus Larinus that live on several Echinops species of the Middle-East. This sweet cocoon is locally used as human food and also for the treatment of cough and various pulmonary diseases. It first appeared in Western Europe in the collection of drugs from the Ottoman Empire displayed by François Della Sudda during the International Exhibition held in Paris in 1855. On the basis of this sample Nicolas Guibourt (1790-1867) gave, in 1858, the first full scientific description of the drug, its origin, and Larinus nidificans as the main insect species responsible for its formation. Marcellin Berthelot (1827-1907) isolated in the same year the sugar trehalose from the drug and gave a full account of its physical and chemical properties. In 1876, Müntz established that trehalose was identical with mycose isolated from Claviceps purpurea by Mitscherlich. PMID:20027793

  20. [The Vatican and the Roman physicians: debates on corpuscular theories].

    PubMed

    Donato, Maria Pia

    2003-01-01

    The essay aims at addressing the debates on corpuscular theories in Rome within the context of the political and religious tensions of the late 17th century. Documents in the archives of the "Congregazione per la Dottrina della Fede" allow us to outline the changing attitudes of the Church of Rome towards atomistic philosophy and to highlight the factional clashes within Roman institutions on the issue. These dynamics gave way to the Congresso Medico Romano of G. Brasavola and G.M. Lancisi, an academy which soon became the promoting agent of an eclectic corpuscular medicine. The Holy Office put the success of the "moderns" into question in 1690, after Alexander VIII had come to the throne. The attach was part of a general repression of atomism (also in Naples and Florence) but also of quietism and freethinking. Despite the crisis, the "moderns" were able to bind their corpuscularism to a strictly defined epistemological model. In the frame of the contemporary biomedical sciences, questions on the ultimate nature of atoms could be abandoned without dismissing the corpuscular theory and practice of medicine. PMID:14606476

  1. Nuclear factor Y-mediated H3K27me3 demethylation of the SOC1 locus orchestrates flowering responses of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xingliang; Zhou, Jiannan; Liu, Chang; Liu, Lu; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a conserved heterotrimeric transcription factor complex that binds to the CCAAT motifs within the promoter region of many genes. In plants, a large number of genes code for variants of each NF-YA, B or C subunit that can assemble in a combinatorial fashion. Here, we report the discovery of an Arabidopsis NF-Y complex that exerts epigenetic control over flowering time by integrating environmental and developmental signals. We show that NF-Y interacts with CONSTANS in the photoperiod pathway and DELLAs in the gibberellin pathway, to directly regulate the transcription of SOC1, a major floral pathway integrator. This NF-Y complex binds to a unique cis-element within the SOC1 promoter to modulate trimethylated H3K27 levels, partly through a H3K27 demethylase REF6. Our findings establish NF-Y complexes as critical mediators of epigenetic marks that regulate the response to environmental or intrinsic signals in plants. PMID:25105952

  2. Arabidopsis bZIP16 Transcription Factor Integrates Light and Hormone Signaling Pathways to Regulate Early Seedling Development[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang; Wu, Shu-Hsing

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptomic adjustment plays an important role in Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination and deetiolation in response to environmental light signals. The G-box cis-element is commonly present in promoters of genes that respond positively or negatively to the light signal. In pursuing additional transcriptional regulators that modulate light-mediated transcriptome changes, we identified bZIP16, a basic region/Leu zipper motif transcription factor, by G-box DNA affinity chromatography. We confirmed that bZIP16 has G-box–specific binding activity. Analysis of bzip16 mutants revealed that bZIP16 is a negative regulator in light-mediated inhibition of cell elongation but a positive regulator in light-regulated seed germination. Transcriptome analysis supported that bZIP16 is primarily a transcriptional repressor regulating light-, gibberellic acid (GA)–, and abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that bZIP16 could directly target ABA-responsive genes and RGA-LIKE2, a DELLA gene in the GA signaling pathway. bZIP16 could also indirectly repress the expression of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3-LIKE5, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein coordinating hormone responses during seed germination. By repressing the expression of these genes, bZIP16 functions to promote seed germination and hypocotyl elongation during the early stages of Arabidopsis seedling development. PMID:23104829

  3. ZmGRF, a GA regulatory factor from maize, promotes flowering and plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miaoyun; Lu, Yunming; Yang, Hongmei; He, Jingcheng; Hu, Zhiqiu; Hu, Xiaolong; Luan, Mingda; Zhang, Lan; Fan, Yunliu; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors that act as positive regulators of gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic genes in plants are not well understood. A nuclear-localized basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ZmGRF, was isolated from maize. The core DNA sequence motif recognized for binding by ZmGRF was CCANNTGGC. ZmGRF overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants promoted flowering, stem elongation, and cell expansion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ZmGRF bound directly to the cis-element CCANNTGGC in the promoter of the Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase (AtKO1) gene and promoted AtKO1 expression. GA4 content increased by 372-567% in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmGRF compared to wild-type control plants. The GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 gene, which encodes a GA receptor, was also upregulated and the growth-repressing DELLA protein gene GA INSENSITIVE was downregulated. Our results showed ZmGRF functioned through the GA-signaling pathway. PMID:25477078

  4. Antimatter, clockwork orange, laser divestment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    2005-06-01

    In 1972 Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi sponsored a program to holographically record the images of Venetian sculptural treasures for archival purposes. At Laboratorio San Gregorio, where the initial holography took place, G. Musumeci and K. Hempel suggested an experiment to determine whether the concentrated beam from the ruby holographic laser could ablate black-patina crusts from decaying marble. Initial success of a laser-divestment test on a Palazzo Ducale capital launched a search for funding to enable a full-scale laser-conservation demonstration. Later, at a Caltech reunion one of the author's physics professors (Carl Anderson, the discoverer of mu mesons and the positron), noting the prominence of the Venice Film Festival suggested our approaching the motion picture industry. Many years earlier Anderson's Caltech classmate, Frank Capra, had supported the research that led to the discovery of cosmic-ray-generated antimatter on Pikes Peak. (After Caltech, Capra had become a director at Columbia Studios.) Anderson's chance comment led to an introduction to producer Jack Warner at a festival screening of his "A Clockwork Orange" in Asolo. He and his friends contributed US$5000 toward the laser conservation of a marble relief of "The Last Supper" in the Porta della Carta of Venice. This work was conducted in 1980 under the direction of Arch. G. Calcagno. In 1981 it was found that the granite veneer or the newly completed Warner Center Tower had been stained during transit from the quarry. The Venice laser successfully restored the veneer, thereby returning the Warner Brothers' favor.

  5. "Good Vibrations": A workshop on oscillations and normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Sara; Carpineti, Marina; Giliberti, Marco; Rigon, Enrico; Stellato, Marco; Tamborini, Marina

    2016-05-01

    We describe some theatrical strategies adopted in a two hour workshop in order to show some meaningful experiments and the underlying useful ideas to describe a secondary school path on oscillations, that develops from harmonic motion to normal modes of oscillations, and makes extensive use of video analysis, data logging, slow motions and applet simulations. Theatre is an extremely useful tool to stimulate motivation starting from positive emotions. That is the reason why the theatrical approach to the presentation of physical themes has been explored by the group "Lo spettacolo della Fisica" (http://spettacolo.fisica.unimi.it) of the Physics Department of University of Milano for the last ten years (Carpineti et al., JCOM, 10 (2011) 1; Nuovo Cimento B, 121 (2006) 901) and has been inserted also in the European FP7 Project TEMI (Teaching Enquiry with Mysteries Incorporated, see http://teachingmysteries.eu/en) which involves 13 different partners coming from 11 European countries, among which the Italian (Milan) group. According to the TEMI guidelines, this workshop has a written script based on emotionally engaging activities of presenting mysteries to be solved while participants have been involved in nice experiments following the developed path.

  6. Transfer, composition and technological characterization of the lactic acid bacterial populations of the wooden vats used to produce traditional stretched cheeses.

    PubMed

    Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Gaglio, Raimondo; Macaluso, Giusi; Francesca, Nicola; Randazzo, Walter; Cardamone, Cinzia; Di Grigoli, Antonino; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2015-12-01

    The biofilms of 12 wooden vats used for the production of the traditional stretched cheeses Caciocavallo Palermitano and PDO Vastedda della valle del Belìce were investigated. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were never detected. Total coliforms were at low numbers with Escherichia coli found only in three vats. Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) were below the enumeration limit, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominated the surfaces of all vats. In general, the dominance was showed by coccus LAB. Enterococci were estimated at high numbers, but usually between 1 and 2 Log cycles lower than other LAB. LAB populations were investigated at species and strain level and for their technological properties relevant in cheese production. Eighty-five strains were analysed by a polyphasic genetic approach and allotted into 16 species within the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus. Enterococcus faecium was found in all wooden vats and the species most frequently isolated were Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici and Streptococcus thermophilus. The study of the quantitative data on acidification rate, autolysis kinetics, diacetyl production, antibacterial compound generation and proteolysis by cluster and principal component analysis led to the identification of some strains with promising dairy characteristics. Interestingly, a consistent percentage of LAB was bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) producer. Thus, the microbial biofilms of the wooden vats analysed in this study might contribute actively to the stability of the final cheeses. PMID:26338114

  7. The MAGIC-5 CAD for nodule detection in low dose and thin slice lung CTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerello, Piergiorgio; MAGIC-5 Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in developed countries. Only 10-15% of all men and women diagnosed with lung cancer live 5 years after the diagnosis. However, the 5-year survival rate for patients diagnosed in the early asymptomatic stage of the disease can reach 70%. Early-stage lung cancers can be diagnosed by detecting non-calcified small pulmonary nodules with computed tomography (CT). Computer-aided detection (CAD) could support radiologists in the analysis of the large amount of noisy images generated in screening programs, where low-dose and thin-slice settings are used. The MAGIC-5 project, funded by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN, Italy) and Ministero dell'Università e della Ricerca (MUR, Italy), developed a multi-method approach based on three CAD algorithms to be used in parallel with a merging of their results: the Channeler Ant Model (CAM), based on Virtual Ant Colonies, the Dot-Enhancement/Pleura Surface Normals/VBNA (DE-PSN-VBNA), and the Region Growing Volume Plateau (RGVP). Preliminary results show quite good performances, to be improved with the refining of the single algorithm and the added value of the results merging.

  8. Participation versus education: the GISSI story and beyond.

    PubMed

    Tavazzi, Luigi; Maggioni, Aldo P; Tognoni, Gianni

    2004-08-01

    Approximately 20 years ago, the Italian cardiology community realized the scientific importance and the potential impact on clinical practice of the new concept of evidence-based medicine and launched (without funds) a national megatrial, the Gruppo Italiano por lo Studio della Streptochinasi nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI) study. In the following 20 years, 4 GISSI trials have been carried out, and a fifth is underway. The conceptual process that followed this experience shaped the role of the medico-scientific society that sponsored these trials as an active player in research, with the public health as the common target. This process of getting together was founded on the basic principle that active participation can be much more effective and rewarding than education (a passive process). Accordingly, further studies were undertaken dealing with clinical epidemiology, observational outcome research introduced complementarily to develop lines of clinical investigation along 2 mainstreams: ischemic heart disease and heart failure. The original decision to directly sponsor countrywide research projects in critical and relevant areas of care had broader implications not only for the role of scientific societies, but more generally for the nurture of independent research, which is today widely recognized to be at risk. The articulation among experimental, observational, and evaluative protocols in which all caring physicians are allowed to be producers and authors and not simply users of knowledge can favor a cultural continuity that minimizes the risk of parallelisms and gaps between research and care. PMID:15308991

  9. Orbital-dependent second-order scaled-opposite-spin correlation functionals in the optimized effective potential method

    SciTech Connect

    Grabowski, Ireneusz Śmiga, Szymon; Buksztel, Adam; Fabiano, Eduardo; Teale, Andrew M.; Sala, Fabio Della

    2014-07-14

    The performance of correlated optimized effective potential (OEP) functionals based on the spin-resolved second-order correlation energy is analysed. The relative importance of singly- and doubly- excited contributions as well as the effect of scaling the same- and opposite- spin components is investigated in detail comparing OEP results with Kohn–Sham (KS) quantities determined via an inversion procedure using accurate ab initio electronic densities. Special attention is dedicated in particular to the recently proposed scaled-opposite–spin OEP functional [I. Grabowski, E. Fabiano, and F. Della Sala, Phys. Rev. B 87, 075103 (2013)] which is the most advantageous from a computational point of view. We find that for high accuracy, a careful, system dependent, selection of the scaling coefficient is required. We analyse several size-extensive approaches for this selection. Finally, we find that a composite approach, named OEP2-SOSh, based on a post-SCF rescaling of the correlation energy can yield high accuracy for many properties, being comparable with the most accurate OEP procedures previously reported in the literature but at substantially reduced computational effort.

  10. Grips and ties: agency, uncertainty, and the problem of suffering in North Karelia.

    PubMed

    Honkasalo, Marja-Liisa

    2009-03-01

    In medical anthropological research, the question of suffering has been a topic of salient interest mostly from two theoretical viewpoints: those of endurance and of agency. The concept "suffering" derives its origins from two etymological roots, those of suffering-souffrance-sofferanza and of misery-misère-miseria. According to the first approach, that of "endurance" and founded largely on Judeo-Christian theology, suffering is regarded as an existential experience at the borders of human meaning making. The question then is: how to endure, how to suffer? The latter view, that of "agency," follows the Enlightenment, and later the Marxist view on mundane suffering, misery, and the modern question of how to avoid or diminish it. This article follows the lines of the second approach, but my aim is also to try to build a theoretical bridge between the two. I ask whether agency would be understood as a culturally shared and interpreted modes of enduring, and if so, which conceptual definition of agency applies in this context? I theorize the relationship between suffering and agency using Ernesto de Martino's notion la crisi della presenza. In line with Pierre Bourdieu, I think that in people's lives, there may be sufferings in a plural form, as a variety of sufferings. The article is based on a one-year long fieldwork in Finnish North Karelia. PMID:19449712

  11. Laser fiber source implemented with a resonator Sagnac for fiber optic acoustic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval-Romero, G. E.; Pinzón-Escobar, E. F.

    2013-11-01

    Two innovative laser scanning prototypes have been developed at ENEA for diagnostics of large surfaces relevant to monumental cultural heritage. The first, based on amplitude modulation technique in the visible, is a trichromatic (Red /Green /Blue) imaging topologic radar (RGB-ITR) specialized to collect high resolution 3D models. After proper color calibration, it allows for hyper-realistic rendering of colored features on painted surfaces and for precise localization of irregularities. The second is a line scanning system, working either in reflectance or laser induced fluorescence mode, capable of fast 2D monochromatic images acquisition on up to 90 different spectral channels in the visible/UV range, which was developed to investigate the presence of different substances onto the painted surface. Data collected during former field campaigns on frescos by means each scanning system will be reported and discussed extracting information of interest to conservators by means of specific data processing methodologies and respective software tools. Recent results relevant to paints of the Assumption on slate and canvas by Scipione Pulzone named "il Gaetano" collected in two churches in Rome (San Silvestro al Quirinale, Bandini chapel; Santa Caterina dei Funari, Solano della Vetera Chapel) from the late XVI century are presented in order to demonstrate the increased diagnostic capabilities coming from data integration. From combination of reflectance data from both instruments, the first true remote differential colorimetry has been implemented, giving a chance to test the color quality in the future from the archived images.

  12. High resolution laser remote imaging innovative tools for preservation of painted surfaces: information from reflectance and fluorescence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantoni, R.; Ferri de Collibus, M.; Francucci, M.; Fornetti, G.; Guarneri, M.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fiorani, L.; Palucci, A.; Spizzichino, V.

    2013-11-01

    Two innovative laser scanning prototypes have been developed at ENEA for diagnostics of large surfaces relevant to monumental cultural heritage. The first, based on amplitude modulation technique in the visible, is a trichromatic (Red /Green /Blue) imaging topologic radar (RGB-ITR) specialized to collect high resolution 3D models. After proper color calibration, it allows for hyper-realistic rendering of colored features on painted surfaces and for precise localization of irregularities. The second is a line scanning system, working either in reflectance or laser induced fluorescence mode, capable of fast 2D monochromatic images acquisition on up to 90 different spectral channels in the visible/UV range, which was developed to investigate the presence of different substances onto the painted surface. Data collected during former field campaigns on frescos by means each scanning system will be reported and discussed extracting information of interest to conservators by means of specific data processing methodologies and respective software tools. Recent results relevant to paints of the Assumption on slate and canvas by Scipione Pulzone named "il Gaetano" collected in two churches in Rome (San Silvestro al Quirinale, Bandini chapel; Santa Caterina dei Funari, Solano della Vetera Chapel) from the late XVI century are presented in order to demonstrate the increased diagnostic capabilities coming from data integration. From combination of reflectance data from both instruments, the first true remote differential colorimetry has been implemented, giving a chance to test the color quality in the future from the archived images.

  13. Strigolactones Stimulate Internode Elongation Independently of Gibberellins1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Ligerot, Yasmine; Dun, Elizabeth A.; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Ross, John J.; Beveridge, Christine A.; Rameau, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactone (SL) mutants in diverse species show reduced stature in addition to their extensive branching. Here, we show that this dwarfism in pea (Pisum sativum) is not attributable to the strong branching of the mutants. The continuous supply of the synthetic SL GR24 via the root system using hydroponics can restore internode length of the SL-deficient rms1 mutant but not of the SL-response rms4 mutant, indicating that SLs stimulate internode elongation via RMS4. Cytological analysis of internode epidermal cells indicates that SLs control cell number but not cell length, suggesting that SL may affect stem elongation by stimulating cell division. Consequently, SLs can repress (in axillary buds) or promote (in the stem) cell division in a tissue-dependent manner. Because gibberellins (GAs) increase internode length by affecting both cell division and cell length, we tested if SLs stimulate internode elongation by affecting GA metabolism or signaling. Genetic analyses using SL-deficient and GA-deficient or DELLA-deficient double mutants, together with molecular and physiological approaches, suggest that SLs act independently from GAs to stimulate internode elongation. PMID:23943865

  14. The Interreg IV Italia-Austria "SeismoSAT" Project: connecting Seismic Data Centers via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Rauch, Markus; Zivcic, Mladen; Steiner, Rudolf; Fabris, Paolo; Bertoni, Michele

    2013-04-01

    Since 2002 the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - OGS in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenija) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area. At the moment the data exchange between the seismic data centers relies on internet: this however is not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since internet reliability is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (Italy) joined OGS, ZAMG and ARSO in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria Project "SeismoSAT" aimed in connecting the seismic data centers in real time via satellite. The general schema of the project, including first data bandwith estimates and a possible architecture will be illustrated.

  15. [Archives, photographies, maps for malary in Latina Province].

    PubMed

    Mosillo, E

    1998-01-01

    After an historical introduction about ancient institutional regime of present Littoria/Latina province (until 1870 organized in Naples kingdom and Papal States), this essay is going to a swift analysis of marshes who reigned all over the land from the periphery of Rome to Fondi, when transient sheperds and woodmen were the only human beings of marshy land. So teachers for that unlettered people came into these lands, and so physicians came to fight against malary, first symbiotic enemy of man. So drainages were tried from Roman's epoch to Medieval and Illuministic one. We'll see Popes, feudal ladies and at last drainage trusts, all working to improve human life before the birth of Latina province. New cities and towns were born just during these trials; after the experiences of Angelo Celli, Italian Red Cross and Istituto per il risanamento antimalarico della regione pontina, many laws looked to medical aid for workers in malaric zones (exactly specified in topographic maps). In 1934 the Comitato provinciale antimalarico was introduced all over italian territory with the R.D.n. 1265. PMID:11623699

  16. Role of the masonry in paintings during a seismic event analyzed by infrared vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, F.; Sfarra, S.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Ambrosini, D.; Maldague, X. P. V.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, pulsed phase thermography (PPT), principal component thermography (PCT), and partial least squares thermography (PLST) techniques were applied in order to detect the masonry texture, as well as to map the subsurface damages formed beneath three different mural paintings. The latter were inspected after the 2009 earthquake, i.e., the seismic event that devastated L'Aquila City (Italy) and its surroundings. The mural supports explored by infrared thermography (IRT) are constituted by a single leaf, and the sides of the inspected paintings are confined by marble frames or by buried horizontal and vertical structures. Hence, the analyzed objects can be considered as monolithic structures. IRT can help to understand the masonry morphology, e.g. if there exist structural continuity between the arriccio layer (the first coat of plaster) and the support. In the present case, the heating phase was provided by lamps or propane gas and feature detection was enhanced by advanced signal processing. A comparison among the results is presented. Two of the three objects analyzed, painted by the art masters Serbucci and Avicola, are preserved inside Santa Maria della Croce di Roio Church in Roio Poggio (L'Aquila, Italy); they were executed on two masonries built in different periods. The last one was realized in Montorio al Vomano (Teramo, Italy) on the internal cloister of the Zoccolanti's Church (undated). The villages are separated by 50 km as the crow flies. Finally, near-infrared reflectography (NIRR) technique was also used to investigate the condition of the painting layer.

  17. Through the doors of perception to function in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Marcel; Hause, Bettina; Krajinski, Franziska; Küster, Helge

    2014-12-01

    The formation of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is initiated by the bidirectional exchange of diffusible molecules. While strigolactone hormones, secreted from plant roots,stimulate hyphal branching and fungal metabolism, fungal short-chain chitin oligomers as well assulfated and nonsulfated lipochitooligosaccharides (s/nsMyc-LCOs) elicit pre-symbiosis responses in the host. Fungal LCO signals are structurally related to rhizobial Nod-factor LCOs. Genome-wide expression studies demonstrated that defined sets of genes were induced by Nod-, sMyc- and nsMyc-LCOs, indicating LCO-specific perception in the pre-symbiosis phase. During hyphopodium formation and the subsequent root colonization, cross-talk between plant roots and AM fungi also involves phytohormones. Notably, gibberellins control arbuscule formation via DELLA proteins, which themselves serve as positive regulators of arbuscule formation. The establishment of arbuscules is accompanied by a substantial transcriptional and post-transcriptional reprogramming of host roots, ultimately defining the unique protein composition of arbuscule-containing cells. Based on cellular expression profiles, key check points of AM development as well as candidate genes encoding transcriptional regulators and regulatory microRNAs were identified. Detailed functional analyses of promoters specified short motifs sufficient for cell-autonomous gene regulation in cells harboring arbuscules, and suggested simultaneous, multi-level regulation of the mycorrhizal phosphate uptake pathway by integrating AM symbiosis and phosphate starvation response signaling. PMID:25414918

  18. Coping Mechanisms for Crop Plants in Drought-prone Environments

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Drought is a major limitation to plant productivity. Various options are available for increasing water availability and sustaining growth of crop plants in drought-prone environments. Scope After a general introduction to the problems of water availability, this review focuses on a critical evaluation of recent progress in unravelling mechanisms for modifying plant growth responses to drought. Conclusions Investigations of key regulatory mechanisms integrating plant growth responses to water deficits at the whole-organism, cellular and genomic levels continue to provide novel and exiting research findings. For example, recent reports contradict the widespread conception that root-derived abscisic acid is necessarily involved in signalling for stomatal and shoot-growth responses to soil water deficits. The findings bring into question the theoretical basis for alternate-side root-irrigation techniques. Similarly, recent reports indicate that increased ABA production or increased aquaporin expression did not lead to improved drought resistance. Other reports have concerned key genes and proteins involved in regulation of flowering (FT), vegetative growth (DELLA), leaf senescence (IPT) and desiccation tolerance (LEA). Introgression of such genes, with suitable promoters, can greatly impact on whole-plant responses to drought. Further developments could facilitate the introduction by breeders of new crop varieties with growth physiologies tailored to improved field performance under drought. Parallel efforts to encourage the introduction of supplementary irrigation with water made available by improved conservation measures and by sea- or brackish-water desalination, will probably provide comprehensive solutions to coping with drought-prone environments. PMID:18252764

  19. Independent Qualification of the CIAU Tool Based on the Uncertainty Estimate in the Prediction of Angra 1 NPP Inadvertent Load Rejection Transient

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, Ronaldo C.; Alvim, Antonio Carlos M.

    2002-07-01

    The Code with - the capability of - Internal Assessment of Uncertainty (CIAU) is a tool proposed by the 'Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione (DIMNP)' of the University of Pisa. Other Institutions including the nuclear regulatory body from Brazil, 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear', contributed to the development of the tool. The CIAU aims at providing the currently available Relap5/Mod3.2 system code with the integrated capability of performing not only relevant transient calculations but also the related estimates of uncertainty bands. The Uncertainty Methodology based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE) is used to characterize the uncertainty in the prediction of system code calculations for light water reactors and is internally coupled with the above system code. Following an overview of the CIAU development, the present paper deals with the independent qualification of the tool. The qualification test is performed by estimating the uncertainty bands that should envelope the prediction of the Angra 1 NPP transient RES-11. 99 originated by an inadvertent complete load rejection that caused the reactor scram when the unit was operating at 99% of nominal power. The current limitation of the 'error' database, implemented into the CIAU prevented a final demonstration of the qualification. However, all the steps for the qualification process are demonstrated. (authors)

  20. Overexpression of a gibberellin inactivation gene alters seed development, KNOX gene expression, and plant development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Davinder Pal; Filardo, Fiona F; Storey, Richard; Jermakow, Angelica M; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Swain, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the role of gibberellins (GAs) in plant development by expression of the pea GA 2-oxidase2 (PsGA2ox2) cDNA, which encodes a GA inactivating enzyme, under the control of the MEDEA (MEA) promoter. Expression of MEA:PsGA2ox2 in Arabidopsis caused seed abortion, demonstrating that active GAs in the endosperm are essential for normal seed development. MEA:PsGA2ox2 plants had reduced ovule number per ovary and exhibited defects in phyllotaxy and leaf morphology which were partly suppressed by GA treatment. The leaf architecture and phyllotaxy defects of MEA:PsGA2ox2 plants were also restored by sly1-d which reduces DELLA protein stability to increase GA response. MEA:PsGA2ox2 seedlings had increased expression of the KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) genes, BP, KNAT2 and KNAT6, which are known to control plant architecture. The expression of KNOX genes is also altered in wild-type plants treated with GA. These results support the conclusion that GAs can suppress the effects of elevated KNOX gene expression, and raise the possibility that localized changes in GA levels caused by PsGA2ox2 alter the expression of KNOX genes to modify plant architecture. PMID:19825007

  1. Evolutionary conservation of plant gibberellin signalling pathway components

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbussche, Filip; Fierro, Ana C; Wiedemann, Gertrud; Reski, Ralf; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Background: Gibberellins (GA) are plant hormones that can regulate germination, elongation growth, and sex determination. They ubiquitously occur in seed plants. The discovery of gibberellin receptors, together with advances in understanding the function of key components of GA signalling in Arabidopsis and rice, reveal a fairly short GA signal transduction route. The pathway essentially consists of GID1 gibberellin receptors that interact with F-box proteins, which in turn regulate degradation of downstream DELLA proteins, suppressors of GA-controlled responses. Results: Arabidopsis sequences of the gibberellin signalling compounds were used to screen databases from a variety of plants, including protists, for homologues, providing indications for the degree of conservation of the pathway. The pathway as such appears completely absent in protists, the moss Physcomitrella patens shares only a limited homology with the Arabidopsis proteins, thus lacking essential characteristics of the classical GA signalling pathway, while the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii contains a possible ortholog for each component. The occurrence of classical GA responses can as yet not be linked with the presence of homologues of the signalling pathway. Alignments and display in neighbour joining trees of the GA signalling components confirm the close relationship of gymnosperms, monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, as suggested from previous studies. Conclusion: Homologues of the GA-signalling pathway were mainly found in vascular plants. The GA signalling system may have its evolutionary molecular onset in Physcomitrella patens, where GAs at higher concentrations affect gravitropism and elongation growth. PMID:18047669

  2. Quantifying Depth of Injection of Hyaluronic Acid in the Dermis: Data from Clinical, Laboratory, and Ultrasound Settings.

    PubMed

    Micheels, Patrick; Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier; Vincent, Anne Grand; Portnova, Natalia; Diana, Marva Safa

    2016-04-01

    Although manufacturers' instructions for use of dermal fillers ordinarily direct injection in the superficial, mid or deep dermis, or, in some cases, the hypodermis (subcutis), the precise depth of injection may not always be for injectors. In this article, investigators report findings gathered from histopathology, ultrasound, "live" one on one training injections, as well as application of a mathematical formula for depth calculation of the various layers within the dermis. Areas of particular interest are the superficial reticular dermis and the mid dermis. Following the depth measurements detailed by Della Volpe et al in 2012, investigators compare and contrast their own depth findings of the various layers, arriving at the conclusion that the depth of the dermis is not as deep as had been previously assumed. The investigators also develop an argument for the appropriate angles of injection for placement of dermal filler into the various layers, demonstrating that the heretofore widely used angles of 30˚ and 45˚ are far more acute than required.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(4):483-490. PMID:27050704

  3. Hormonal networks involved in apical hook development in darkness and their response to light

    PubMed Central

    Mazzella, Maria A.; Casal, Jorge J.; Muschietti, Jorge P.; Fox, Ana R.

    2013-01-01

    In darkness, the dicot seedlings produce an apical hook as result of differential cell division and extension at opposite sides of the hypocotyl. This hook protects the apical meristem from mechanical damage during seedling emergence from the soil. In darkness, gibberellins act via the DELLA-PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs) pathway, and ethylene acts via the EIN3/EIL1 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3 like 1)-HLS1 (HOOKLESS 1) pathway to control the asymmetric accumulation of auxin required for apical hook formation and maintenance. These core pathways form a network with multiple points of connection. Light perception by phytochromes and cryptochromes reduces the activity of PIFs and (COP1) CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1—both required for hook formation in darkness—, lowers the levels of gibberellins, and triggers hook opening as a component of the switch between heterotrophic and photoautotrophic development. Apical hook opening is thus a suitable model to study the convergence of endogenous and exogenous signals on the control of cell division and cell growth. PMID:24616725

  4. Management of bleeding and of invasive procedures in patients with platelet disorders and/or thrombocytopenia: Guidelines of the Italian Society for Haemostasis and Thrombosis (SISET).

    PubMed

    Tosetto, A; Balduini, C L; Cattaneo, M; De Candia, E; Mariani, G; Molinari, A C; Rossi, E; Siragusa, S

    2009-11-01

    The optimal management of bleeding or its prophylaxis in patients with disorders of platelet count or function is controversial. The bleeding diathesis of these patients is usually mild to moderate: therefore, transfusion of platelet concentrates may be inappropriate, as potential adverse effects might outweigh its benefit. The availability of several anti-hemorrhagic drugs further compounds this problem, mainly because the efficacy/suitability of the various treatment options in different clinical manifestations is not well defined. In these guidelines, promoted by the Italian Society for Studies on Haemostasis and Thrombosis (Società Italiana per lo Studio dell'Emostasi e della Trombosi [SISET]), we aim at offering the best available evidence to help the physicians involved in the management of patients with disorders of platelet count or function. Literature review and appraisal of available evidence are discussed for different clinical settings and for different available treatments, including platelet concentrates (PC), recombinant activated factor VII, desmopressin, antifibrinolytics, aprotinin and local hemostatic agents. PMID:19631969

  5. The chemist, that madman! How children perceive science.

    PubMed

    Luraschi, Michela; Rezzonico, Riccardo; Pellegri, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    He is grown-up, not young, often bald, strictly male, often a chemist, wearing odd clothes and working on mysterious things, conducting projects which sometimes help save the world, sometimes harm our natural environment. He lives and works - often into the small hours - in a grey laboratory, alone, no colleagues, utterly isolated from the outside world. His 'space' looks like a laboratory equipped with test tubes, with reactive substances but also magic portions; mostly a windowless space, and any windows there are have iron bars. This is how, broadly speaking, and stereotypically, children see scientists. Chemistry and biology are the two most popular branches. Only rarely do we associate these images - which appear to be a simple figment of a child's imagination - to the problem of staff shortages in the 'MINT' sectors in Switzerland and to the shortfall in the number of women scientists. Nonetheless, some of the ideas presented in this article suggest that a child's outlook on science, fairly deep-rooted from as early as 9 or 10 years of age (and surprisingly unchanged by the time these kids reach secondary school) may have an impact on their future career choices. L'ideatorio, at Universit della Svizzera italiana, is committed to counteracting this distorted view, in particular by creating particular spaces where children can meet science - not a 'crazy', but a normal and also female, science. In these spaces, chemistry is not synonymous with bad smells and pollution, but with benefits and discovery. PMID:23394232

  6. Isolation of Enterobacter aerogenes carrying blaTEM-1 and blaKPC-3 genes recovered from a hospital Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Pignanelli, Salvatore; Vollaro, Adriana; Esposito, Matilde; Iula, Vita Dora; Roscetto, Emanuela; Soriano, Amata Amy; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2016-06-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes has recently emerged as an important hospital pathogen. In this study, we showed the emergence of E. aerogenes isolates carrying the blaKPC gene in patients colonized by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Two multiresistant E. aerogenes isolates were recovered from bronchial aspirates of two patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit at the "Santa Maria della Scaletta" Hospital, Imola. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed the high resistance to carbapenems and double-disk synergy test confirmed the phenotype of KPC and AmpC production. Other investigation revealed that ESBL and blaKPC genes were carried on the conjugative pKpQIL plasmid. This is a relevant report in Italy that describes a nosocomial infection due to the production of KPC beta-lactamases by an E. aerogenes isolate in patients previously colonized by K. pneumoniae carbapenem-resistant. In conclusion, it's necessary a continuous monitoring of multidrug-resistant strains for the detection of any KPC-producing bacteria that could expand the circulation of carbapenem-resistant pathogens. PMID:27004836

  7. Potential oil yield, fatty acid composition, and oxidation stability of the hempseed oil from four Cannabis sativa L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, Carla; Decorti, Deborah; Natolino, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The cultivation of four industrial hemp cultivars (Felina 32, Chamaeleon, Uso31, and Finola) was investigated for oil production in the north-east of Italy along two years. The oils of all cultivars resulted in rich amount of linoleic acid (ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (ω-3). Felina 32 and Chamaeleon oils exhibited the highest amount of linoleic acid (59%) and α-linolenic acid (18%). Finola and Uso31 oils resulted in the richest of γ-linolenic acid (5-6%). All hempseed oils presented high oxidation stability and an acceptable initial quality. It is suggested that these oils can be used to produce EFA dietary supplements high in ω-6 and ω-3 of vegetal origin. PMID:24552275

  8. DESAFÍOS ÉTICOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CON ANIMALES, MANIPULACIÓN GENÉTICA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    En la investigación con animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en el uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y requisito previo para ensayos en humanos como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos son: no representar exactamente la condición humana como modelos, realizar pruebas de toxicidad con grave daño para los animales, alterar su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas, riesgos de la introducción de organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano, impone al ser humano la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, al estar trabajando con seres vivientes y sentientes. PMID:23338641

  9. 2-Pyridone and 3-oxo-1,2,6-thiadiazine-1,1-dioxide derivatives: a new class of hydrogen bond equivalents of uracil.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Shun-ichi; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Taira, Kazunari

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen bond complex stability between adenine (A) and hydrogen bond equivalents of uracil: 2-pyridone derivatives (U(X2O)X) and 3-oxo-1,2,6-thiadiazine-1,1-dioxide derivatives (U(SO2)X) was studied, and as the result, the hydrogen bond energy of U(X2O)X-A and a complex of UX(SO2)X-A, was about 1.5 kcal/mol more stable than that of the corresponding adenine-uracil derivatives complex, respectively. The energy difference between the imide tautomer and enol tautomer was smaller than those of uracil derivatives. U(SO2)F can form a stable complex with A, and its imide tautomer is stable. PMID:14635725

  10. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  11. Ultra-Stable Oscillators for Probe Radio Science Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami

    2012-01-01

    An Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) is: A frequency reference, and A clock It is stable, small, and sensitive. It is a science and an art form. It is flown on spacecraft/probes. It]is utilized at ground stations alone or as a cleanup loop. It eliminates lock-up time on uplink for occultation egress & effect of media on uplink signal. It has enabled significant planetary science investigations.

  12. Nueva opción de tratamiento para mujeres jóvenes con cáncer de seno sensible a las hormonas

    Cancer.gov

    Un fármaco usado para el tratamiento del cáncer de seno (mama), conocido como exemestano, es más eficaz que tamoxifeno, un fármaco preventivo de uso común para el cáncer de seno, en la prevención de la recidiva del cáncer de seno en mujeres jóvenes que ta

  13. 76 FR 13011 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on February 25, 2011, the Chicago Board Options... change from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory..., SPXU, SPY, SSO, SYMC, TBT, T, TLT, TNA,TSM, TWM, TXN, TZA, UCO, USO, UWM, UYG, VALE, VWO, VXX, VZ,...

  14. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Failures and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within in the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings and potential remediation techniques will also be discussed.

  15. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be discussed.

  16. El análisis de un estudio clínico indica que una combinación de fármacos puede ser de gran eficacia

    Cancer.gov

    El uso de un tratamiento farmacológico combinado para el cáncer de ovario recidivante mostró mejorías significativas, según se informó el día de hoy en el congreso anual de la Sociedad Americana de Oncología Clínica (ASCO). La combinación farmacológica se

  17. Ponte en onda: prende la energía limpia, (Spanish) Get Current

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-01

    Cambiar a tecnologías de energía limpia significa que fortalecemos la economía y protegemos al medio ambiente. Este libreto de actividades educativas para todas las edades promueve el uso consciente de la energía, con datos de distintas formas de energía aplicables y una variedad de rompecabezas y crucigramas en temas energéticos.

  18. Time-Transfer System for Two Orbiting Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, William; Wu, Seen-Chong; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Dunn, Charles; Romans, Larry

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the time-transfer system of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), in which information on the distribution of Earth mass is extracted from position and time measurements for two spacecraft about 200 km apart in a circular, nearly polar orbit. Each spacecraft carriers a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, a K/Ka-band ranging (KBR) instrument, and an ultra-stable oscillator (USO) that serves as a clock for the GPS and KBR units. The long-term errors of the USOs are cancelled by use of a technique, called dual-one-way phase measurements, in which the phases of the KBR signals from spacecraft A as measured at spacecraft B are added to the phases of the KBR signals from spacecraft B as measured at spacecraft A. GPS data are used to synchronize time between the USOs to within approximately 150 ps as needed to enable the dual-one-way phase measurements: For each spacecraft, the GPS data are used to solve for orbital positions, and the difference between the onboard clocks and a ground clock every 5 minutes. The relative clock rate between the spacecraft is then determined from the difference between the two solutions.

  19. Ultrasonicated-ozone modification of exfoliated graphite for stable aqueous graphitic nanoplatelet dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rider, A. N.; An, Q.; Thostenson, E. T.; Brack, N.

    2014-12-01

    A novel ultrasonicated-ozonolysis (USO) processing method has been applied to commercially available exfoliated graphite (EG) with the aim of producing stable aqueous graphitic nanoplatelet (GNP) dispersions that are suitable for ink-jet printing and electrophoretic deposition. The processing has been compared to other low energy and environmentally friendly electrochemical exfoliation (EE) techniques. The results show USO can be used to prepare highly stable aqueous dispersions from both low and high surface area EG. The level of oxygen functionalization can be easily controlled with processing time as can the dispersion concentration. The degree of disorder in the GNP structure is similar to existing EE methods but offers higher yields without the need to remove any chemicals post-processing. Ink-jet printing onto heated quartz substrates produced films which reached electrical conductivities of 1400 s m-1 after annealing. The films printed from USO-processed EGs had higher conductivity and significantly reduced thickness as compared to films printed from aqueous dispersions of reduced graphene oxide.

  20. United States Control Module Guidance, Navigation, and Control Subsystem Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, M. E.; Bartlow, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    Should the Russian Space Agency (RSA) not participate in the International Space Station (ISS) program, then the United States (U.S.) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) may choose to execute the ISS mission. However, in order to do this, NASA must build two new space vehicles, which must perform the functions that the Russian vehicles and hardware were to perform. These functions include periodic ISS orbit reboost, initial ISS attitude control, and U.S. On-Orbit Segment (USOS) control Moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum desaturation. The two new NASA vehicles that must perform these functions are called the U.S. control module (USCM) and the U.S. resupply module. This paper presents a design concept for the USCM GN&C subsystem, which must play a major role in ISS orbit reboost and initial attitude control, plus USOS CMG momentum desaturation. The proposed concept is structured similar to the USOS GN&C subsystem, by design. It is very robust, in that it allows the USCM to assume a variety of vehicle attitudes and stay power-positive. It has a storage/safe mode that places the USCM in a gravity-gradient orientation and keeps it there for extended periods of time without consuming a great deal of propellant. Simulation results are presented and discussed that show the soundness of the design approach. An equipment list is included that gives detailed information on the baselined GN&C components.

  1. Motivational and Skills Training HIV/STI Sexual Risk Reduction Groups for Men

    PubMed Central

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Tross, Susan; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Song, Yong S.; Harrer, Judy M.; Lalos, Genise; Berns, Sara B.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a motivational and skills training HIV/AIDS group intervention designed for men in substance abuse treatment was evaluated. Men in methadone maintenance (n=288) or outpatient psychosocial treatment (n=302) completed assessments at baseline, 2 weeks, 3- and 6-months post intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to attend either “Real Men Are Safe” (REMAS; five sessions containing information, motivational exercises and skills training), or HIV education (HIV-Ed; one session containing HIV prevention information). REMAS participants engaged in significantly fewer unprotected vaginal and anal sexual intercourse occasions (USO) during the 90 days prior to the 3- and 6-month follow-ups than HIV-Ed participants. Completing REMAS resulted in an even stronger effect: completers reduced their number of USO by 21% from baseline to 6-month follow-up. In contrast, HIV-Ed completers increased the number of USO by 2%. A motivational and skills training HIV prevention intervention designed for men was associated with greater sexual risk reduction over standard HIV education. Substance abuse treatment programs can therefore help reduce sexual risk among their clientele by providing a more intensive intervention than what is traditionally provided. PMID:19150206

  2. Operational Limitations of the High Rate Frame Multiplexer (HRFM) Onboard the International Space Station(ISS)-and How These Limitations Affect Payload Developers (PDs) and International Partners (IPs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, Charles D.; McElyea, Richard M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The data system onboard the United States Operating Segment (USOS) of the ISS is currently used to capture, route, record and downlink high-rate science data from experiments inside the US Lab. Once NASDA's Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) and ESA's Attached Pressurized Module (APM) are launched - in the 2004 to 2005 timeframe - data from these facilities will also be routed to the ground using the USOS data system. A critical component of the USOS data system is the High Rate Frame Multiplexer (HRFM). The HRFM combines multiple data/video inputs and combines them into one data stream. This Ku-band data stream is then routed through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) system to the ground. The Data Management Coordinator (DMC) - located at the Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Center (POC) - is responsible for commanding and controlling the HRFM. The HRFM can multiplex a maximum of eight digital data sources and four digital video sources. Thus far, this limitation has not been constraining to operations. However, once the JEM and APM are integrated, the HRFM limitations will become a major constraint to science operations onboard. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the limitations of the HRFM and to explain how these limitations can be successfully managed. With this information, Payload Developers and International Partners will be able to more effectively utilize the data systems onboard the ISS. Ultimately, more science data can be captured and downlinked to Flight Controllers and Scientists on the ground.

  3. Magma evolution in the Ellittico volcano sequence outcropping at Serra Giannicola Grande, Mt. Etna, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofolini, R.; de Rosa, R.; Ferlito, C.; Tripodo, M.

    2003-04-01

    The volcanic sequence examined here outcrops at Serra Giannicola Grande, along the south-western wall of the Valle del Bove (Mt. Etna Volcano), at an elevation between 2230 and 2700 m (Cristofolini et al., 2002). It is referred to the activity of the Ellittico volcanic complex (Ferlito &Cristofolini, 1989), and unconformably lies over on an erosional surface of the Cuvigghiuni synthem (Calvari et al., 1994). Petrological and geochimical investigations on lava flows, showed that: -The analyzed rocks have a Na-alkaline affinity and cover a compositional range from hawaiites to benmoreites and trachytes. -The common mineral association (pl+cpx+ol+mt) of Etnean lavas is present, both as phenocrysts and in groundmass; kaersutite as phenocryst phase isalso present in some of the samples. -The least differentiated lava flows, interbedded with volcanoclastic deposits in the middle part of the sequence, exhibit the widest compositional heterogeneity; they are referable to the existence of distinct magma batches, characterized by differing ascent rates and/or other processes, such as crustal contamination, occurring at shallow levels. It is noteworthy that mafic lavas differ in their contents of K (and Rb) and follow distinct trends of evolution. This suggests that magmas from at least two different sources were feeding the activity of the volcano. -The presence of the most differentiated lavas in the upper part of the sequence, is consistent with the presence of shallow reservoirs during the last stages of the Ellittico activity, where magmas could evolve due to crystal fractionation. The MELTS petrological code (Ghiorso &Sack, 1995) was used in order to quantify the evolution of the different magmas; this program simulates fractionation and assimilation processes in silicate melts under various physical and compositional conditions, and gives as a result compositions of residual liquids and of fractionated solid phases and their amounts. References Calvari, S., Groppelli, G. &Pasquarè, G. (1994): Preliminary geological data on the south-western wall of the Valle del Bove, Mt. Etna, Sicily. Acta Vulcanologica, 5, 15-30. Cristofolini, R., Corsaro, R.A., &Ferlito, C. (1991): Variazioni petrochimiche nella successione etnea: un riesame in base a nuovi dati da campioni di superficie e sondaggi. Acta Vulcanologica, 1, 25-37. Cristofolini, R.; De Rosa; Ferlito, C.; Iacquinta, G. &Tripodo, M. (2001): Abstract: Influenza di un ambiente glaciale o periglaciale sul comportamento eruttivo del centro dell'Ellittico (Distretto vulcanico etneo). FIST- Geoitalia 2001, 712-713. Cristofolini, R.; De Rosa; Ferlito, C.; &Tripodo, M. (2002): Abstract: Variazioni petrografiche e geochimiche della sequenza vulcanica affiorante nell’area della Serra Giannicola Grande (Distretto Vulcanico Etneo). Plinius, 28, 126-127. Ferlito, C. &Cristofolini, R. (1989): Geologia dell’area sommitale dell’Etna. Boll. Acc. Gioenia Sci. Nat., Catania, 335, 357-380. Ghiorso, M. S. &Sack, R. O. (1995): Chemical mass transfer in magmatic processes, IV. A revised and internally consistent thermodynamic model for the interpolation and extrapolation of liquid-solid equilibria in magmatic system at elevated temperatures and pressures. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 119, 197-212.

  4. The ISTIMES project: a new integrated system for monitoring critical transport infrastructures interested by natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proto, Monica; Massimo, Bavusi; Francesco, Soldovieri

    2010-05-01

    The research project "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing" (ISTIMES), was approved in the 7th Framework Programme, in the Joint Call ICT and Security and started on 1st July 2009. The purpose of ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an ICT-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring in order to achieve the critical transport infrastructures more reliable and safe. The transportation sector's components are susceptible to the consequences of natural disasters and can also be attractive as terrorist targets. The sector's size, its physically dispersed and decentralized nature, the many public and private entities involved in its operations, the critical importance of cost considerations, and the inherent requirement of convenient accessibility to its services by all users - make the transportation particularly vulnerable to security and safety threats. As well known, the surface transportation system consists of interconnected infrastructures including highways, transit systems, railroads, airports, waterways, pipelines and ports, and the vehicles, aircraft, and vessels that operate along these networks. Thus, interdependencies exist between transportation and nearly every other sector of the economy and the effective operation of this system is essential to the European economic productivity; therefore, transportation sector protection is of paramount importance since threats to it may impact other industries that rely on it. The system exploits an open network architecture that can accommodate a wide range of sensors, static and mobile, and can be easily scaled up to allow the integration of additional sensors and interfacing with other networks. It relies on heterogeneous state-of-the-art electromagnetic sensors, enabling a self-organizing, self-healing, ad-hoc networking of terrestrial sensors, supported by specific satellite measurements. The integration of electromagnetic technologies with new ICT information and telecommunications systems enables remotely controlled monitoring and surveillance and real time data imaging of the critical transport infrastructures. Thus, the proposal will concern also with the development of tools for handling, analysing and processing large data volume (Information Fusion) and then providing information and performing behaviour prediction in a quick, easy and intuitive way (Situation Awareness). The proposal is based on several independent non-invasive imaging technologies based on electromagnetic sensing. Sensor cross validation, synergy and new data fusion and correlation schemes will permit a multi-method, multi-resolution and multi-scale electromagnetic detection and monitoring of surface and subsurface changes of the infrastructure. According to GMES and European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI) initiatives, the system will adopt open architectures and will make efforts to achieve full interoperability. The system will be tested on two very challenging test beds such as: a highway-bridge and a railway tunnel. The system will be based on clear end-user requirements, coming from representative end-users and technological choices will be based on a long term cost-benefit analysis. Then, a dissemination plan was included into the project to encourage a wide range of public institutions and private companies to evaluate and adopt our approach for real-time control and distributed monitoring also in the more general framework of critical and civil infrastructure management and protection. Finally, an exploitation plan will develop for the commercialization of any derived technology, software, or monitoring concepts. ISTIMES project is carried out by an international partnership formed by nine partners coming from seven countries: Tecnologie per le Osservazioni della Terra (TeRN), Elsag Datamat (ED) and Dipartimento della Protezione Civile (DPC) from Italy, Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs-und Forschungsanstalt (EMPA) from Switzerland, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées (LCPC) from France, Lund University (ULUND) from Sweden, Tel Aviv University (TAU) from Israel, Territorial Data Elaboration (TDE) from Romania and Norsk Elektro Optikk (NEO) from Norway.

  5. Reconstruction of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaris, Chiara; Cimolino, Aurelie; Cucchi, Franco; Deana, Alberto; Treu, Francesco; Zini, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The constantly increasing of water demand for human consumptions has necessitated a reconstruction of the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties as well isotopic features of the aquifers of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain (FP). The DiSGAM and DICA have been engaged by the Hydraulic Survey of the FVG Region in order to coordinate an integrated study finalized to the FP confined and unconfined aquifer geometries reconstruction and to provide guide-lines for water rational exploitation (Agreement D.G.R. n. 1827 dd. 27.07.2007). The Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain, located in the northeastern sector of Italy, hosts well developed Plio-Quaternary unconfined and confined alluvial aquifers. The main surface drainage of the Plain is the Tagliamento River. The regional hydrogeological situation is characterized in the north by an extensive alluvial unconfined aquifer mostly contained in carbonate gravels. This area extends from the Pre-Alps to the resurgence belt. The resurgence belt is 2 to 8 km wide and 80 kilometres long. In this area the water table intersects the topographic surface forming numerous plain springs and rivers. The resurgence belt sets a geohydrological boundary between the Upper and Lower Friulian Plain. In this strip the unconfined aquifer changes into a multi-layered confined that reach a thickness of up to 500 m with a progressive increase in a westward direction towards the Adriatic Sea. In order to define underground aquifer relations and patterns, more than 1800 stratigraphic columns have been collected from different public departments water well database. Well logs have been georeferred, missing elevations calculated by regional DTM, possible correspondences controlled and datasets updated. In order to better correlate spatial data, an unique implemented lithostratigraphy legend has been created from present different ones; it is composed of: Lithological Entries (relating lithology and granulometric features; permeability linked different values are also attributed) and Description Notes (including accessory precious information as, for example, fractured, carsified, shell or plants rich intervals turned out to be useful in depositional setting definition and wells spatial correlation). Wells data have been iteratively analyzed and hydrostratigraphy sequences have been interpreted according to the conceptual model relating to layered shallow and deep confined aquifers (Martelli et al., 2007; Cucchi et al. 2008); where present, A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-L-M aquifers' top and bottom, other than interposed aquitards, have been well picked. Top and bottom maps have been elaborated initially through triangulation, then from grids calculated by different algorithm methods (krigging, inverse distance, ecc), other countouring parameters (polynomial enhancement, declustering, logaritmic gridding, high fidelity, smooth grid) and poligon filterings. Maps should further improve with upcoming wells data. Hydraulically connected areas have been identified in cross correlating sections; permeability domains, different texture features and heteropic interdigited layers have been highlighted. Extent outlines of main hydro-stratigraphic units have been reconstructed; top surfaces and thicknesses values have been mapped. All these studies are useful for reconstructing the availability groundwater resource and to evaluate the sustainable exploitation of the resources (water quantities). References Cucchi F., Franceschini G., Zini L. (2008): Hydrogeochemical investigations and groundwater provinces of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain aquifers, northeastern Italy. Environmental Geology 55 pp. 985-999. Martelli G., Granati C. (2007): Valutazione della ricarica del sistema acquifero della bassa pianura friulana. Giornale di Geologia Applicata, 5: 89-114.

  6. A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas.

    PubMed

    Gardini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    A taxonomic revision and a key to the species of the subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) Beier, 1930 from Italy, Corsica and the Swiss Canton of Ticino are provided. The species are arranged in two species-groups (tetrachelatus group and fuscimanus group) on the basis of the shape of pedipalpal hand and of the type of dentition of the fixed and movable chelal fingers. The following new species are described: i) in the tetrachelatus group: Chthonius (E.) altamurae n. sp. (♀, loc. typ.: Apulia, Bari Prov., Altamura, Grotta Lamalunga 1295 Pu/BA), C. (E.) elymus n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Sicily, Trapani Prov., Custonaci, Abisso del Purgatorio 8064 Si/TP), Chthonius (E.) messapicus n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Apulia, Brindisi Prov., San Pietro Vernotico, Cerano); ii) in the fuscimanus group: C. (E.) aeneae n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Genoa Prov., Sestri Levante, Punta Manara), C. (E.) etruscus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Tuscany, Grosseto Prov., Semproniano, Grotta di Montecchio 254 To/GR), C. (E.) gallii n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Savona Prov., Bergeggi), C. (E.) intemelius n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Imperia Prov., Apricale, Mt Cianela), C. (E.) latellai n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Latium, Latina Prov., Bassiano, Grotta di Fiume Coperto 1361 La/LT), C. (E.) ligur n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Imperia Prov., near Baiardo), C. (E.) magrinii n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Latium, Frosinone Prov., San Giovanni Incarico, Grotta sulla strada per il Santuario della Madonna della Guardia n. c. La/FR), C. (E.) monguzzii n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Lombardia, Brescia Prov., Sulzano, Oricina de la Pofa del Giardì 438 Lo/BS), C. (E.) sulphureus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Marche, Ancona Prov., Genga, Grotta di Frasassi 1 Ma/AN), C. (E.) tyrrhenicus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Genoa Prov., Genoa, Quinto al Mare, Mt Moro). The following new synonymies are proposed: Chthonius (E.) bauneensis Callaini, 1983 is a junior subjective synonym of C. (E.) berninii Callaini, 1983 (n. syn.), C. (E.) aegatensis Callaini, 1989 is a junior subjective synonym of C. (E.) berninii Callaini, 1983 (n. syn.), Chthonius (E.) maltensis Mahnert, 1975 is a junior subjective synonym of Chthonius (E.) concii Beier, 1953 (n. syn.), Chthonius (E.) bartolii Gardini, 1976 is a junior subjective synonym of Chthonius (E.) concii Beier, 1953 (n. syn.), Chthonius (E.) elbanus Beier, 1963 is a junior subjective synonym of Chthonius (E.) nanus Beier, 1953 (n. syn.), Chthonius (E.) cavicola Gardini, 1990 is a junior subjective synonym of Chthonius (E.) troglophilus Beier, 1930 (n. syn.). Thirty-nine species of Ephippiochthonius are known at present from the above-mentioned areas, of which one is presumably endemic to Sicily, four to Sardinia and four to Corsica. C. (E.) gibbus Beier, 1953 is excluded from the Ital-ian fauna and C. (E.) vachoni Heurtault-Rossi, 1963 is newly recorded from Italy. Chthonius (E.) poeninus Mahnert, 1979 is transferred to the subgenus Globochthonius Beier, 1931. PMID:25333090

  7. PREFACE: Young Researcher Meeting, Trieste 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, F.; Antolini, C.; Aversa, R.; Cattani, G.; Martinelli, M.; Mazzaferro, L.; Migliaccio, M.; Paci, F.; Pietrobon, D.; Ricci Pacifici, D.; Stellato, F.; Veneziani, M.

    2013-12-01

    YRM logo The Young Researcher Meeting (www.yrmr.it) has been a rapidly growing event for the last few years. Together with other initiatives which have emerged in several research areas, the young researcher meeting marks the awareness and the desire of PhD students, postdoctoral fellows and young researchers to play a major role in scientific progress. Devoted to the discussion and the interchange of new developments and ideas in physics, the meeting is primarily aimed at graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, who are encouraged to present their work in an informal atmosphere. One of the main purposes of the conference is to create an international network of young researchers, both experimentalists and theorists, and fruitful collaborations across the different branches of physics. Born in Rome in 2009, after three editions that strengthened it, the Young Researcher Meeting 2013 was held in Trieste. Propelled by the past success, the fourth meeting was a two-day conference on 3-4June. It was sponsored by the International School for Advanced Studies - SISSA - and the University of Padova, thus acquiring an even further international drive. In this volume, we collect some of the contributions that were presented at the conference. They cover topics in astrophysics and cosmology, particle and theoretical physics, soft and condensed matter, biophysics and medical physics. YRM Organising and Editorial Committee Fabio Agostini (fabio.agostini@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma, Italy Claudia Antolini (claudia.antolini@sissa.it) SISSA - Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy Rossella Aversa (raversa@sissa.it) SISSA - Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy Giordano Cattani (giordano.cattani@gmail.com) Matteo Martinelli (mmartin@sissa.it) SISSA - Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy Luca Mazzaferro (luca.mazzaferro@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma, Italy Marina Migliaccio (mm858@ast.cam.ac.uk) Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology Madingley Road, CB3 0HA Cambridge, United Kingdom Francesco Paci (fpaci@sissa.it) SISSA - Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy Davide Pietrobon (davide.pietrobon@jpl.nasa.gov) California Institute of Technology - Jet Propulsion Laboratory 4800 Oak Grove Drive 169-237 91109 Pasadena, CA, USA Daniel Ricci Pacifici (Daniel.Ricci.Pacifici@pd.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Padova INFN, Sezione di Padova Via Marzolo 8, 35131, Padova, Italy Francesco Stellato (francesco.stellato@cfel.de) Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY Notkestrase 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany Marcella Veneziani (marcella@ipac.caltech.edu) Infrared Processing and Analysis Center California Institute of Technology 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA SISSA logoPadua logo Acknowledgments The organizers of the 4th Young Researcher Meeting, held in Trieste, would like to thank all the scientists who participated in the meeting. We thank the International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) for hosting the conference, covering the organization costs and allowing some travel grants for the speakers. We are greateful to Professor Guido Martinelli, director of SISSA, for his valuable support and advice. The publication of the proceedings of the conference is sponsored by the Padova university project CPDA119349 (P I Professor Marco Matone). The event was broadcast live by OggiScienza (http://oggiscienza.wordpress.com).

  8. Reduction of Gibberellin by Low Temperature Disrupts Pollen Development in Rice1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Tadashi; Oda, Susumu; Tsunaga, Yuta; Shomura, Hikaru; Kawagishi-Kobayashi, Makiko; Aya, Koichiro; Saeki, Kenichi; Endo, Takashi; Nagano, Kuniaki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Masao; Matsuoka, Makoto; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Microsporogenesis in rice (Oryza sativa) plants is susceptible to moderate low temperature (LT; approximately 19°C) that disrupts pollen development and causes severe reductions in grain yields. Although considerable research has been invested in the study of cool-temperature injury, a full understanding of the molecular mechanism has not been achieved. Here, we show that endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins (GAs) GA4 and GA7, and expression levels of the GA biosynthesis genes GA20ox3 and GA3ox1, decrease in the developing anthers by exposure to LT. By contrast, the levels of precursor GA12 were higher in response to LT. In addition, the expression of the dehydration-responsive element-binding protein DREB2B and SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1)/DELLA was up-regulated in response to LT. Mutants involved in GA biosynthetic and response pathways were hypersensitive to LT stress, including the semidwarf mutants sd1 and d35, the gain-of-function mutant slr1-d, and gibberellin insensitive dwarf1. The reduction in the number of sporogenous cells and the abnormal enlargement of tapetal cells occurred most severely in the GA-insensitive mutant. Application of exogenous GA significantly reversed the male sterility caused by LT, and simultaneous application of exogenous GA with sucrose substantially improved the extent of normal pollen development. Modern rice varieties carrying the sd1 mutation are widely cultivated, and the sd1 mutation is considered one of the greatest achievements of the Green Revolution. The protective strategy achieved by our work may help sustain steady yields of rice under global climate change. PMID:24569847

  9. First results on GlioLab/GlioSat Precursors Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelletti, Chantal; Notarangelo, Angelo; Demoss, Darrin; Carella, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Since 2009 GAUSS group is involved in a joint collaboration with Morehead State University (MSU) Space Science Center and IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza (CSS) research labs with the aim to design a biomedical project in order to investigate if the combined effects of microgravity conditions and ionizing radiation increase or decrease the survival rate of cancer cells. The biological sample consists of Glioblastoma cancer cell line ANGM-CSS. Glioblastoma is a kind of cancer that can be treated after surgery only by radiotherapy using ionizing radiation. This treatment, anyway, results in a very low survival rate. This project uses different university space platforms: a CubeLab, named GlioLab, on board the International Space Station and the university microsatellite UniSat-5 designed by GAUSS. In addition a GlioLab/GlioSat precursor experiment has already flown two times with the Space Shuttle during the missions STS-134 and STS-135. The phase 0 or the precursor of GlioLab uses a COTS system, named Liquid Mixing Apparatus (LMA), to board the biological samples inside the Space Shuttle for thirty day . The LMA allows to board liquids inside a vial but is not equipped with environment control system. After landing the samples were investigated by researchers at CSS in Italy and at MSU in Kentucky. This paper deals with the experimental set up and the results obtained during the STS-134 and STS-135 missions and with the new evidences on the behavior of this kind of cancer. In particular the results obtained on the DNA analysis give a confirmation of the original idea of GLioLab/Gliosat project justifying the development of the two systems.

  10. First hydroacoustic evidence of marine, active fluid vents in the Naples Bay continental shelf (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, Salvatore; Genovese, Simona; Sacchi, Marco; Barra, Marco; Rumolo, Paola; Tamburrino, Stella; Mazzola, Salvatore; Basilone, Gualtiero; Placenti, Francesco; Aronica, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of a multidisciplinary research aimed at the detection and mapping of Active Fluid Vents (AFVs) at the seafloor of the Naples Bay, Italy. This segment of the Campania continental margin is characterised by severe Quaternary extension and intense volcanism at Ischia and Procida islands, the Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complexes. High resolution hydroacoustic profilers were used to identify and localize fluid emission from the seafloor. ROV direct observation showed that each emission centre is generally composed by the coalescence of several emitting points. CTD probes showed that there are no significant gradients in temperature profiles. The results of this study include the detection and mapping of 54 fluid emission points all located in the - 71/- 158 m depth range, and spatially distributed into four main clusters. Three of the described clusters are located along the margin of a complex, toe-shaped seafloor morphology southwest of the Somma-Vesuvius, representing the shallow expression of partly buried, coalesced depositional features (namely, two flank collapses and one pyroclastic flow) associated with the Late Pleistocene activity of the volcano. The fourth AFV cluster was detected at the morphological - high, located about 8 km south of Naples (Banco della Montagna), represented by a field of volcaniclastic diapirs composed of massive pumiceous deposits originated from the Campi Flegrei intruding rising through the latest Quaternary-Holocene marine deposits. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AFV in this area could be genetically linked to the interaction between volcanic related seafloor morphologies and the main, NE striking faults present in the area, i.e. the Magnaghi-Sebeto line and the Vesuvian fault.

  11. Molecular Spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanvito, Stefano

    2010-03-01

    In organic molecules and molecular solids the weak spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions result in extremely long spin-lifetimes reaching up to the second mark. However the same are characterized by a generally poor mobility, so that the spin-diffusion lengths are rather short. These peculiar characteristics position organic molecules in a unique space within Spintronics and one should envision applications where the spins are manipulated close to where they are injected [1]. In this contribution I will review the current state of the art of the theory of spin-transport and manipulation in organic molecules. I will start the discussion by presenting a new mechanism, the electrostatic spin crossover effect, for manipulating electrically the magnetic state of a molecules without calling for current-driven spin-transfer torques [2]. This is based on the fact that the different spin states of a molecule Stark-shift differently and it is mostly effective when inversion symmetry is broken. Then I will move to discuss the consequences of such an effect on the transport properties of a molecule presenting two magnetic centers and demonstrate that there exist a critical voltage at which the current becomes temperature-independent [3]. Finally I will present results for spin-transport in Mn12 and demonstrate that the magnetic state of the molecule can be read electrically with a single I-V read-out obtained by using non-magnetic electrodes [4]. [4pt] [1] G. Szulczewski, S. Sanvito and J.M.D. Coey, Nature Materials 8, 693 (2009).[0pt] [2] N. Baadji, M. Piacenza, T. Tugsuz, F. Della Sala, G. Maruccio and S. Sanvito, Nature Materials 8, 813 (2009).[0pt] [3] S.K. Shukla and S. Sanvito, Phys. Rev. B, in press; also at arXiv:0905.1607.[0pt] [4] C.D. Pemmaraju, I. Rungger and S. Sanvito, Phys. Rev. B 80, 104422 (2009).

  12. Assessment of groundwater recharge in an ash-fall mantled karst aquifer of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, F.; Nimmo, J. R.; De Vita, P.; Allocca, V.

    2014-12-01

    In southern Italy, Mesozoic carbonate formations, covered by ash-fall pyroclastic soils, are large karst aquifers and major groundwater resources. For these aquifers, even though Allocca et al., 2014 estimated a mean annual groundwater recharge coefficient at regional scale, a more complete understanding of the recharge processes at small spatio-temporal scale is a primary scientific target. In this paper, we study groundwater recharge processes in the Acqua della Madonna test site (Allocca et al., 2008) through the integrated analysis of piezometric levels, rainfall, soil moisture and air temperature data. These were gathered with hourly frequency by a monitoring station in 2008. We applied the Episodic Master Recharge method (Nimmo et al., 2014) to identify episodes of recharge and estimate the Recharge to Precipitation Ratio (RPR) at both the individual-episode and annual time scales. For different episodes of recharge observed, RPR ranges from 97% to 37%, with an annual mean around 73%. This result has been confirmed by a soil water balance and the application of the Thornthwaite-Mather method to estimate actual evapotranspiration. Even though it seems higher than RPRs typical of some parts of the world, it is very close to the mean annual groundwater recharge coefficient estimated at the regional scale for the karst aquifers of southern Italy. In addition, the RPR is affected at the daily scale by both antecedent soil moisture and rainfall intensity, as demonstrated by a statistically significant multiple linear regression among such hydrological variables. In particular, the recharge magnitude is great for low storm intensity and high antecedent soil moisture value. The results advance the comprehension of groundwater recharge processes in karst aquifers, and the sensitivity of RPR to antecedent soil moisture and rainfall intensity facilitates the prediction of the influence of climate and precipitation regime change on the groundwater recharge process.

  13. Physico-chemical surface properties of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Altan; Berberoglu, Halil

    2013-12-01

    This study reports a comprehensive set of experimentally measured physico-chemical surface properties of 12 different microalgae including fresh and seawater species of green algae, diatoms and cyanobacteria. The surface free energy and its components including the acid-base (AB), van der Waals (LW), electron donor/acceptor parameters were quantified based on contact angle measurements along with the Lifshitz-van der Waals acid-base approach using the probe liquid surface tension parameters proposed by van Oss et al. as well as by Della Volpe and Siboni. Moreover, the zeta and surface potentials of all species were determined using electrophoretic mobility measurements along with using Smoluchowski's model. Finally, the free energy of cohesion of the microalgae was also determined based on the calculated surface energy properties. The results showed that the electron donor parameter correlated well with the free energy of cohesion in all groups of microalgae. Moreover, species known to form colonies and exhibit benthic cultures had distinctly hydrophobic surfaces compared to microalgae prefering planktonic growth. These results indicate the importance of surface hydrophobicity for causing biofouiling or flocculation of cultures. Finally, the zeta potentials did not show a distinctive trend with the types of microalgae but the surface potentials were markedly larger for the salt water species. The reported methods and data are expected to provide critical information for researchers and technology developers concerned with cell to cell and cell to substrata interactions of microalgae in algal biomass cultivation and harvesting, biofouling of membranes and surfaces, as well as cell-surface interactions in photosynthetic microbial fuel cell technologies. PMID:24001448

  14. "SeismoSAT" project state of the art: connecting seismic data centres via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Rauch, Markus; Zivcic, Mladen; Steiner, Rudolf; Bertoni, Michele

    2014-05-01

    Since 2002 the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area. At the moment the data exchange between the seismic data centres relies on internet: this however is not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since internet reliability is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (Italy) joined OGS, ZAMG and ARSO in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria project "SeismoSAT" aimed in connecting the seismic data centres in real time via satellite. As it will be illustrated, the general technical schema of the project has been approved, data bandwidths and monthly volumes required have been quantified, the common satellite provider has been selected, the hardware has been purchased and installed, and the all SeismoSAT project is in testing phase.

  15. DUSTER: collection of meteoric CaO and carbon smoke particles in the upper stratosphere .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Corte, V.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Rotundi, A.; Ferrari, M.; Palumbo, P.

    Nanometer- to micrometer-size particles present in the upper stratosphere are a mixture of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial origins. They can be extraterrestrial particles condensed after meteor ablation. Meteoric dust in bolides is occasionally deposited into the lower stratosphere around 20 km altitude. Nanometer CaO and pure carbon smoke particles were collected at 38 km altitude in the upper stratosphere in the Arctic during June 2008 using DUSTER (Dust in the Upper Stratosphere Tracking Experiment and Retrieval), a balloon-borne instrument for the non-destructive collection of solid particles between 200 nm to 40 microns. We report the collection of micron sized CaCO_3 (calcite) grains. Their morphologies show evidence of melting and condensation after vaporization suggest at temperatures of approximately 3500 K. The formation environment of the collected grains was probably a dense dust cloud formed by the disintegration of a carbonaceous meteoroid during deceleration in the Earth� atmosphere. For the first time, DUSTER collected meteor ablation products that were presumably associated with the disintegration of a bolide crossing the Earth's atmosphere. The collected mostly CaO and pure carbon nanoparticles from the debris cloud of a fireball, included: 1) intact fragments; 2) quenched melted grains; and 3) vapor phase condensation products. The DUSTER project was funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), PRIN2008/MIUR (Ministero dell'Istruzione dell'Universitá e della Ricerca), PNRA 2013(Piano Nazionale Ricerca Antartide). CNES graciously provided this flight opportunity. We thank E. Zona and S. Inarta at the Laboratorio di Fisica Cosmica INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte-Universitá di Napoli Parthenope. F.J.M.R. was supported by grant NNX07AI39G from the NASA Cosmochemistry Program. We thank three anonymous reviewers who assisted us in introducing our new instrument.

  16. "SeismoSAT" project results in connecting seismic data centres via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Rauch, Markus; Živčić, Mladen; Steiner, Rudolf; Bertoni, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Since 2002 the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Udine (Italy), the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Vienna (Austria), and the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Ljubljana (Slovenia) are using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data in real time, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". The data exchange has proved to be effective and very useful in case of seismic events near the borders between Italy, Austria and Slovenia, where the poor single national seismic networks coverage precluded a correct localization, while the usage of common data from the integrated networks improves considerably the overall reliability of real time seismic monitoring of the area. Up to now the data exchange between the seismic data centres relied on internet: this however was not an ideal condition for civil protection purposes, since internet reliability is poor. For this reason in 2012 the Protezione Civile della Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in Bolzano (Italy) joined OGS, ZAMG and ARSO in the Interreg IV Italia-Austria project "SeismoSAT" aimed in connecting the seismic data centres in real time via satellite. As already presented in the past, the general technical schema of the project has been approved, data bandwidths and monthly volumes required have been quantified, the common satellite provider has been selected and the hardware has been purchased and installed. We will here illustrate the SeismoSAT project final tests and results.

  17. Flowering of the Grass Lolium perenne. Effects of Vernalization and Long Days on Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Signaling1

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, Colleen P.; Blundell, Cheryl A.; King, Rod W.

    2005-01-01

    Almost 50 years ago, it was shown that gibberellin (GA) applications caused flowering in species normally responding to cold (vernalization) and long day (LD). The implication that GAs are involved with vernalization and LD responses is examined here with the grass Lolium perenne. This species has an obligatory requirement for exposure to both vernalization and LD for its flowering (inflorescence initiation). Specific effects of vernalization or LD on GA synthesis, content, and action have been documented using four treatment pairs: nonvernalized or vernalized plants exposed to short days (SDs) or LDs. Irrespective of vernalization status, exposure to two LDs increased expression of L. perenne GA 20-oxidase-1 (LpGA20ox1), a critical GA biosynthetic gene, with endogenous GAs increasing by up to 5-fold in leaf and shoot. In parallel, LD led to degradation of a DELLA protein, SLENDER (within 48 h of LD or within 2 h of GA application). There was no effect on GA catabolism or abscisic acid content. Loss of SLENDER, which is a repressor of GA signaling, confirms the physiological relevance of increased GA content in LD. For flowering, applied GA replaced the need for LD but not that for vernalization. Thus, GAs may be an LD, leaf-sourced hormonal signal for flowering of L. perenne. By contrast, vernalization had little impact on GA or SLENDER levels or on SLENDER degradation following GA application. Thus, although vernalization and GA are both required for flowering of L. perenne, GA signaling is independent of vernalization that apparently impacts on unrelated processes. PMID:15980191

  18. Detection of Lyme Disease and Q Fever Agents in Wild Rodents in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Pascucci, Ilaria; Di Domenico, Marco; Dall'Acqua, Francesca; Sozio, Giulia; Cammà, Cesare

    2015-07-01

    The maintenance of tick-borne disease agents in the environment strictly depends on the relationship between tick vectors and their hosts, which act as reservoirs for these pathogens. A pilot study aimed to investigate wild rodents as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was carried out in an area of Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park (Abruzzi Region, central Italy), a wide protected area where, despite sporadic reports of infection in humans and animals, eco-epidemiological data on these diseases are still not available. Rodents were trapped and released at the capture site after the collection of feeding ticks and blood samples. In all, 172 ticks were collected; the most frequent species was Ixodes acuminatus (53%). Out of 88 tick pools, 11 resulted positive for C. burnetii and 13 for B. burgdorferi s.l.; the Borrelia afzelii genospecies was identified in one Ixodes ricinus tick collected from one Apodemus sp. rodent. Out of 143 blood samples, seven Apodemus spp. and five Myodes glareolus were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. and two Apodemus spp. were positive for C. burnetii. All samples (ticks and blood) were negative for F. tularensis and A. phagocytophilum. This is the first report of B. burgdorferi s.l. in the environment for Abruzzi Region. Data on the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. are similar to that observed in other Mediterranean countries. The present work is also the first report of C. burnetii in wild rodents in Italy. C. burnetii infection has been largely investigated in Italy in ruminant farms by serology and molecular methods, but information on ecology and on the wild cycle are still lacking. Further studies including genotyping should be performed and species-specific differences between wild rodent reservoirs of Q fever and Lyme disease agents should be investigated. PMID:26134933

  19. SHINE Transcription Factors Act Redundantly to Pattern the Archetypal Surface of Arabidopsis Flower Organs

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jian Xin; Malitsky, Sergey; De Oliveira, Sheron; Branigan, Caroline; Franke, Rochus B.; Schreiber, Lukas; Aharoni, Asaph

    2011-01-01

    Floral organs display tremendous variation in their exterior that is essential for organogenesis and the interaction with the environment. This diversity in surface characteristics is largely dependent on the composition and structure of their coating cuticular layer. To date, mechanisms of flower organ initiation and identity have been studied extensively, while little is known regarding the regulation of flower organs surface formation, cuticle composition, and its developmental significance. Using a synthetic microRNA approach to simultaneously silence the three SHINE (SHN) clade members, we revealed that these transcription factors act redundantly to shape the surface and morphology of Arabidopsis flowers. It appears that SHNs regulate floral organs' epidermal cell elongation and decoration with nanoridges, particularly in petals. Reduced activity of SHN transcription factors results in floral organs' fusion and earlier abscission that is accompanied by a decrease in cutin load and modified cell wall properties. SHN transcription factors possess target genes within four cutin- and suberin-associated protein families including, CYP86A cytochrome P450s, fatty acyl-CoA reductases, GSDL-motif lipases, and BODYGUARD1-like proteins. The results suggest that alongside controlling cuticular lipids metabolism, SHNs act to modify the epidermis cell wall through altering pectin metabolism and structural proteins. We also provide evidence that surface formation in petals and other floral organs during their growth and elongation or in abscission and dehiscence through SHNs is partially mediated by gibberellin and the DELLA signaling cascade. This study therefore demonstrates the need for a defined composition and structure of the cuticle and cell wall in order to form the archetypal features of floral organs surfaces and control their cell-to-cell separation processes. Furthermore, it will promote future investigation into the relation between the regulation of organ surface patterning and the broader control of flower development and biological functions. PMID:21637781

  20. ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX25 Uncovers a Role for Gibberellins in Seed Longevity1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Bueso, Eduardo; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Campos, Francisco; Brunaud, Veronique; Martínez, Liliam; Sayas, Enric; Ballester, Patricia; Yenush, Lynne; Serrano, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Seed longevity is crucial for agriculture and plant genetic diversity, but it is limited by cellular damage during storage. Seeds are protected against aging by cellular defenses and by structures such as the seed coat. We have screened an activation-tagging mutant collection of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and selected four dominant mutants with improved seed longevity (isl1-1D to isl4-1D) under both natural and accelerated aging conditions. In the isl1-1D mutant, characterized in this work, overexpression of the transcription factor ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX25 (ATHB25; At5g65410) increases the expression of GIBBERELLIC ACID3-OXIDASE2, encoding a gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic enzyme, and the levels of GA1 and GA4 are higher (3.2- and 1.4-fold, respectively) in the mutant than in the wild type. The morphological and seed longevity phenotypes of the athb25-1D mutant were recapitulated in transgenic plants with moderate (4- to 6-fold) overexpression of ATHB25. Simultaneous knockdown of ATHB25, ATHB22, and ATHB31 expression decreases seed longevity, as does loss of ATHB25 and ATHB22 function in a double mutant line. Seeds from wild-type plants treated with GA and from a quintuple DELLA mutant (with constitutive GA signaling) are more tolerant to aging, providing additional evidence for a role of GA in seed longevity. A correlation was observed in several genotypes between seed longevity and mucilage formation at the seed surface, suggesting that GA may act by reinforcing the seed coat. This mechanism was supported by the observation of a maternal effect in reciprocal crosses between the wild type and the athb25-1D mutant. PMID:24335333