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Effect on fertility of human chorionic gonadotrophin and uterine lavage with oxytocin performed after mating in Arabian barren mares.  


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of hCG injected immediately after mating in Arabian barren mares treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin. Arabian barren mares (n=36) with PMIE were subjected to detailed clinical examinations including palpation per rectum, vaginoscopy, and cytological examination. After mating the 36 mares were randomly divided into four groups. The mares in group 1 (n=10) were immediately after breeding injected with hCG 3,000 IU IM. Uterine lavage with 1L of N-saline containing 4 million IU of crystalline penicillin and 4 g of streptomycin sulphate was performed 4h after breeding. Then mares received two injections of oxytocin 40 IU IM 2h apart after 6h of mating. Mares in group 2 (n=10) treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin as group 1. While mares in group 3 (n=10) received uterine lavage only. A control group (n=6) as group 4 did not received any treatment. The results of clinical examination indicated that 69.4% of PMIE mares were harboring severe endometritis and 30.6% with a moderate form of endometritis. Significant (P<0.01) increase in lymphocytes were founded in barren mares included in this study. Higher pregnancy rate (P<0.01) was founded in Arabian barren mares 80% injected with hCG immediately after breeding and uterine lavage and oxytocin. No significant difference was found in mares received uterine lavage and oxytocin and uterine lavage only. In a conclusion, administration of hCG immediately after mating and intrauterine lavage containing antibiotics performed 4h and two injections of oxytocin 40 IU IM 2h apart after 6h of mating had improved fertility of Arabian barren mares. PMID:17681436

Azawi, O I



Resection of uterine septum using gynaecoradiological techniques.  


This paper presents further refinements in our technique for the resection of uterine septum. Fourteen patients [infertility (n = 9) and recurrent miscarriages (n = 5)] underwent in-office resection of a uterine septum under fluoroscopic control. The main outcome measure was complete resection of uterine septum. Resections were carried out using either hysteroscopic scissors in combination with a specially designed uterine balloon catheter, or microlaparoscopy scissors in conjunction with a cervical cannula. In all patients the septum was successfully resected without any intra-operative complications. We conclude that ambulatory gynaecoradiological resection of uterine septa is a safe and simple procedure. It avoids utilization of expensive operating room time, general anaesthesia, and some complications associated with hysteroscopic resection, such as fluid retention and electrolyte imbalance. PMID:10325267

Karande, V C; Gleicher, N



Whole lung lavage with intermittent double lung ventilation. A modified technique for managing pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.  


Whole lung lavage is still the most effective treatment for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. We report a 21-year-old male diagnosed with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis by open lung biopsy and who underwent whole lung lavage with a modified technique. He showed significant improvement in clinical and functional parameters. The technique of intermittent double lung ventilation during lavage procedure keeps the oxygen saturation in acceptable limits in patients at risk for severe hypoxemia and allows the procedure to be completed in a single setting. PMID:15756373

Ahmed, Raees; Iqbal, Mobeen; Kashef, Sayed H; Almomatten, Mohammed I



A simpler technique for reduction of uterine septum.  


Hysteroscopic resection of the uterine septum is currently the accepted technique for dealing with this congenital uterine abnormality. Its advantages over the transabdominal approach are: it can be performed on an outpatient basis, it requires minimal recovery time, and it does not commit the patient to a subsequent cesarean section. This communication reports on a new transcervical approach that does not require the use of a hysteroscope. Thirty-four patients have now undergone resection of uterine septae using this technique. The results have been consistently good, requiring a short operative time and minimal instrumentation. We have experienced no complications. PMID:1936308

Valle, J A; Lifchez, A S; Moise, J



Innovation in Surfactant Therapy I: Surfactant Lavage and Surfactant Administration by Fluid Bolus Using Minimally Invasive Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovation in the field of exogenous surfactant therapy continues more than two decades after the drug became commercially available. One such innovation, lung lavage using dilute surfactant, has been investigated in both laboratory and clinical settings as a treatment for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Studies in animal models of MAS have affirmed that dilute surfactant lavage can remove meconium from

Peter A. Dargaville



Comparison of the cytobrush, cottonswab, and low-volume uterine flush techniques to evaluate endometrial cytology for diagnosing endometritis in chronically infertile mares.  


Endometritis is the most important cause of infertility in barren mares. The quick method of endometrial cytology (EC) has a relatively high reliability in diagnosing endometrial inflammation in the mare. For reliable cytological results, a collection technique that yields many well-preserved cells representative of a large uterine surface area without causing harm to the reproductive tract is required. The aim of the study was to compare three usually employed techniques for collection of endometrial and inflammatory cells (guarded cotton swab, uterine lavage, and cytobrush) in chronically infertile mares. Twenty Standardbred mares were used. In each mare, samples for EC were collected, first by a cotton swab (DGS), then by a cytobrush (CB), and finally by low volume flush (LVF). The slides were stained using the Diff Quick stain. The following parameters were assessed for each tested technique: background content of the slides; quality of the cells harvested; total cellularity; neutrophils; ratio PMN/uterine epithelial cells; inflammatory cells; vaginal epithelium cells. Categorical variables were compared using contingency tables and Pearson Chi-square tests, whereas continuous variables were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA); P<0.05 was considered significant. Samplings by DGS and CB resulted easy and quick to perform via a single operator in all cases. LVF was performed easily, but required the presence of 2-3 players and took more time. The background content of the slides prepared by DGS appeared proteinaceous, slides prepared by LVF appeared contaminated by red blood cells or debris, whereas slides prepared by CB appeared clear. All smears showed a good total cellularity. The CB yielded significantly more cells (P<0.0001) than DGS and LVF. The DGS produced significant more cells than LVF (P<0.0001). The DGS produced significantly more (P=0.003) intact cells than CB and LVF. Distorted cells were significantly (P=0.001) more frequent in smears by LVF. The CB harvested significantly (P=0.009) more fragmented cells. CB and LVF produced significantly (P<0.0001; P=0.02) more PMNs/HPF than DGS. In smears collected by LVF the proportion of PMNs/uterine epithelial cells was significantly (P=0.0062; P=0.0023) higher than in smears by CB and DGS. CB collected a significantly higher (P=0.0011) proportion of PMNs than DGS. Acute endometritis was diagnosed in 50% (10/20) of the mares by DGS cytological samples, 25% (5/20) by CB, and 75% (15/20) by LVF. Inflammatory cells other than PMN (lymphocytes, macrophages, eosinophils) were collected exclusively by CB method. Epithelial cells from the vagina were only detected in LVF slides. The agreement of the diagnosis of endometritis between the three techniques of collection and between the different criteria adopted to evaluate smears obtained with the same technique was poor (k?0.3). In conclusion, results show that cytobrush and flush specimens were superior in all parameters to cotton swab smears. Even though the cytobrush technique requires specialized equipment, sample collection by this method was easier, more consistent, and quicker than the lavage method, indicating that the brush would be the preferred collection method for use on field in the mare. More studies are needed to establish criteria for interpretation of inflammation in the mare on cytobrush samples. PMID:21855980

Cocchia, Natascia; Paciello, Orlando; Auletta, Luigi; Uccello, Valeria; Silvestro, Laura; Mallardo, Karina; Paraggio, Gerardo; Pasolini, Maria Pia



A new uterine suture technique to control PPH in congenitally malformed uterus during caesarean section.  


The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of simultaneous devascularisation and compression suture for the control of PPH in a congenitally malformed uterus during caesarean section while classic management failed. The technique adopted for devascularisation was ligation of uterine arteries bilaterally below the hysterotomy wound and for the compression of the uterine musculature, suture passing through and through the anterior and posterior wall above the hysterotomy wound closed to either side, tied anteriorly. The majority (75%) of the women were primigravida and mostly presented with malpresentation of the fetus. Mothers were in the age group of 19-24 years. Out of eight cases, four (50%) cases had a bicornuate uterus, two cases had unicornuate and two had a sub-septate uterus. This procedure was effective in 87.5% (7/8) of cases. In follow-up, normal puerperium, menstruation and pregnancy were observed. This procedure is a simple, effective and safe technique to control PPH in congenitally malformed uterus in the field of conservative surgical approaches. PMID:19603317

Halder, A



Bronchoalveolar lavage in silicosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we describe the chronic effects of inhaled silica, a potent macrophage toxin, on cells which could be lavaged\\u000a from the lung in man. Eight bronchoalveolar lavages were performed on patients with complicated silicosis, who had last been\\u000a exposed to silica 1 to 12 years prior to lavage. We compared the results with those from 10 lavaged control

M. R. Schuyler; H. R. Gaumer; R. P. Stankus; J. Kaimal; E. Hoffmann; J. E. Salvaggio




EPA Science Inventory

A new nasal lavage technique was used to compare the washout curves and total lavagable amounts (per kg body wt) of protein, ascorbate, glutathione and uric acid in guinea pigs, rats and mice. Washout curves were usually observed with sequential lavage volumes of saline of 1.0 ml...


Focused ultrasound treatment of uterine fibroid tumors: Safety and feasibility of a noninvasive thermoablative technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of focused ultrasound surgery with magnetic resonance imaging guidance for the noninvasive treatment of uterine leiomyomas. Study Design: Fifty-five women with clinically significant uterine leiomyomas were treated. Pain and complications were assessed prospectively, and posttreatment magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the treatment effects. Patients in

Elizabeth A. Stewart; Wladyslaw M. W. Gedroyc; Clare M. C. Tempany; Bradley J. Quade; Yael Inbar; Tilman Ehrenstein; Asher Shushan; Jonathan T. Hindley; Robert D. Goldin; Matthias David; Miri Sklair; Jaron Rabinovici



Focused ultrasound treatment of uterine fibroid tumors: Safety and feasibility of a noninvasive thermoablative technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of focused ultrasound surgery with magnetic resonance imaging guidance for the noninvasive treatment of uterine leiomyomas. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five women with clinically significant uterine leiomyomas were treated. Pain and com- plications were assessed prospectively, and posttreatment magnetic resonance imaging was used to mea- sure the treatment effects.

Elizabeth A. Stewart; Wladyslaw M. W. Gedroyc; Clare M. C. Tempany; Bradley J. Quade; Yael Inbar; Tilman Ehrenstein; Asher Shushan; Jonathan T. Hindley; Robert D. Goldin; Matthias David; Miri Sklair; Jaron Rabinovici


Uterine Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Uterine rupture may be defined as a disruption of the uterine muscle extending to and involving the uterine serosa or disruption\\u000a of the uterine muscle with extension to the bladder or broad ligament [1]. Uterine dehiscence is defined as disruption of\\u000a the uterine muscle with intact uterine serosa [1]. Uterine rupture is associated with severe maternal and perinatal morbidity\\u000a and

Sharon R. Sheehan; Deirdre J. Murphy


Positive end-expiratory pressure optimization with forced oscillation technique reduces ventilator induced lung injury: a controlled experimental study in pigs with saline lavage lung injury  

PubMed Central

Introduction Protocols using high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in combination with low tidal volumes have been shown to reduce mortality in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the optimal method for setting PEEP is yet to be defined. It has been shown that respiratory system reactance (Xrs), measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) at 5 Hz, may be used to identify the minimal PEEP level required to maintain lung recruitment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if using Xrs for setting PEEP would improve lung mechanics and reduce lung injury compared to an oxygenation-based approach. Methods 17 pigs, in which acute lung injury (ALI) was induced by saline lavage, were studied. Animals were randomized into two groups: in the first PEEP was titrated according to Xrs (FOT group), in the control group PEEP was set according to the ARDSNet protocol (ARDSNet group). The duration of the trial was 12 hours. In both groups recruitment maneuvers (RM) were performed every 2 hours, increasing PEEP to 20 cmH2O. In the FOT group PEEP was titrated by monitoring Xrs while PEEP was reduced from 20 cmH2O in steps of 2 cmH2O. PEEP was considered optimal at the step before which Xrs started to decrease. Ventilatory parameters, lung mechanics, blood gases and hemodynamic parameters were recorded hourly. Lung injury was evaluated by histopathological analysis. Results The PEEP levels set in the FOT group were significantly higher compared to those set in the ARDSNet group during the whole trial. These higher values of PEEP resulted in improved lung mechanics, reduced driving pressure, improved oxygenation, with a trend for higher PaCO2 and lower systemic and pulmonary pressure. After 12 hours of ventilation, histopathological analysis showed a significantly lower score of lung injury in the FOT group compared to the ARDSNet group. Conclusions In a lavage model of lung injury a PEEP optimization strategy based on maximizing Xrs attenuated the signs of ventilator induced lung injury. The respiratory system reactance measured by FOT could thus be an important component in a strategy for delivering protective ventilation to patients with ARDS/acute lung injury.



Gynaecoradiological uterine resection.  


We assessed the feasibility of performing uterine surgery under fluoroscopic control in an ambulatory setting that does not require operating room time and general anaesthesia. Four uterine septae were resected and two cases of Asherman's syndrome were treated using fluoroscopically guided scissors. All six surgical procedures were successfully completed. Gynaecoradiological uterine resection (GUR) procedures, utilizing fluoroscopy guided scissors, are promising new techniques, which may allow the successful performance of uterine surgery in a cost effective ambulatory setting with no requirement of general anaesthesia. PMID:8582984

Gleicher, N; Pratt, D; Levrant, S; Rao, R; Balin, M; Karande, V



Lung surfactant replacement in premature lambs with extracted lipids from bovine lung lavage: effects of dose, dispersion technique, and gestational age.  


Extracted bovine calf lung lipids (CLL) with minimal protein (approximately 1%) were instilled prior to ventilation in groups of premature lambs of average gestational ages of 127 and 133 days. Aqueous dispersions of CLL were prepared by two techniques prior to instillation: sonication in an ice bath (S) and mechanical vortexing at room temperature (V). A low surfactant dose (15 mg CLL/kg animal weight) and a high dose (100 mg/kg) were investigated for each dispersion technique. Following tracheal instillation of surfactant, lambs were ventilated with 100% oxygen for 2 h with umbilical circulation intact, and for up to an additional 10 h after separation. A clear improvement in blood oxygenation and lung compliance was found over controls for lambs given 15 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg CLL(V), and 100 mg/kg CLL(S). Lambs treated with 15 mg/kg CLL(S) failed to improve over controls. Experimental groups treated with equal doses of CLL(V) and CLL(S) had similar amounts of lung lavage phospholipid, with values progressively declining during ventilation. Analyses of in vitro surface properties showed that both vortexed and sonicated CLL dispersions adsorbed to equilibrium surface pressures of 45-47 dynes/cm in seconds at concentrations greater than or equal to 0.25 mg CLL/ml. Both dispersions also lowered surface tension to less than 1 dyne/cm under dynamic compression at 37 degrees C in 100% humidity, although CLL(V) showed some enhancement over CLL(S) in dynamic surface activity at low subphase concentration (0.5 mg/ml). Moreover, CLL(V) and CLL(S) differed markedly in their effects on pressure-volume mechanics in a surfactant-deficient excised rat lung model. Instilled CLL(V) dispersions improved excised lung pressure-volume mechanics at significantly lower concentrations than CLL(S) dispersions. PMID:3839302

Notter, R H; Egan, E A; Kwong, M S; Holm, B A; Shapiro, D L



Uterine Fibroids  


... is/are my uterine fibroid(s)? Does my uterine fibroid require treatment? Could I choose not to have the fibroid ... d like to spare my uterus. Is uterine fibroid embolization a good treatment option for me? Do uterine fibroids put me ...


[Principles and technique of magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) in the treatment of uterine fibroids].  


Uterine fibroids are a significant source of morbidity for women of reproductive age, and can result in substantial symptoms affecting their quality of life. Definitive treatment has traditionally been a myomectomy, but increasingly women are not prepared to undergo such an invasive procedure for a benign and usually self-limiting condition. Focused ultrasound ablation is one of the least invasive treatment options outside medical therapy and does not require an anesthetic.Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) ablation combines therapy delivered by an ultrasound transducer with imaging guidance for therapy and thermal feedback provided by magnetic resonance imaging. This paper provides an overview of the MRgFUS technique, including a brief description of the treatment system, guidelines for selection of patients and follow-up, and a comparison with other treatment techniques. PMID:21894231

Vázquez-Lamadrid, Jorge; Fernández-de Lara, Yeni; Carrasco-Choque, Analuz; Romero-Trejo, Cecilia; Cosme-Labarthe, Juan; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto


Uterine artery embolization for the treatment of symptomatic leiomyomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate uterine artery embolization as an emerging minimally invasive technique in the treatment of patients symptomatic from uterine leiomyomata. Methods: Twenty patients (ages 31–52 years) underwent uterine artery embolization with permanent polyvinyl alcohol particles. Patients were assessed by the same examiner for uterine size and symptomatology. A questionnaire was answered as well as interval ultrasonography to assess uterine

Amy E. Young; L. Russel Malinak; Andrew Harper; Merle H. Barth; George Soltes; Jet Brady




EPA Science Inventory

Background. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a relatively non-invasive technique used to obtain diagnostic samples from the lower airways of companion animals with respira¬tory disease. BAL is also commonly used in laboratory animals to assess pulmo¬nary changes after expos...


A Modification of the Uterine Artery Restriction Technique in the Guinea Pig Fetus Produces Asymmetrical Ultrasound Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsTo evaluate the use of diathermy ablation of branches of the uterine artery to produce growth restriction in the fetal guinea pig, and to compare this new approach with the more conventional use of uterine artery ligation. The development of growth restriction was documented by measuring fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) and the resistance index (RI) of the umbilical artery blood

A. J. Turner; B. J. Trudinger



New procedures for uterine prolapse.  


Traditionally, vaginal hysterectomy and Manchester repair were the surgical approaches to treating uterine prolapse; however, both are associated with a relatively high subsequent vaginal vault recurrence. Laparoscopic uterine suspension is a new way of maintaining uterine support. Many women are keen to keep their uterus for a variety of reasons, including maintaining reproductive capability and the belief that the uterus, cervix, or both, may play a part of their gender identity. Non-removal of the uterus may retain functional (e.g. bowel, bladder and sexual) benefits. Therefore, the concept of uterine preservation for pelvic-organ prolapse has been of interest to pelvic-floor surgeons for many decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the available evidence on treating uterine prolapse surgically. We describe techniques to support the vault during hysterectomy, and examine the evidence for uterine-sparing surgery. Comparative outcomes for vaginal, abdominal and laparoscopic routes will be made. PMID:23298608

Khunda, Azar; Vashisht, Arvind; Cutner, Alfred



Ultrastaging of lymph node in uterine cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lymph node status is an important prognostic factor and a criterion for adjuvant therapy in uterine cancers. While detection of micrometastases by ultrastaging techniques is correlated to prognosis in several other cancers, this remains a matter of debate for uterine cancers. The objective of this review on sentinel nodes (SN) in uterine cancers was to determine the contribution of

Corinne Bézu; Charles Coutant; Marcos Ballester; Jean-Guillaume Feron; Roman Rouzier; Serge Uzan; Emile Daraï



Proteomics of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and Sputum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and sputum, obtained through more or less noninvasive techniques, contain cells and many\\u000a soluble compounds from respiratory tract secretions and are, therefore, important sources for the study of the lung and its\\u000a pathologies. The protein composition of these physiological fluids faithfully reflects cellular and molecular changes induced\\u000a by lung disorders and are, to date, best investigated

Ruddy Wattiez; Olivier Michel; Paul Falmagne


Cellular and humoral components of bronchoalveolar lavage in the sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was used as a simple and well tolerated technique for segmental bronchoalveolar lavage and cytologic\\u000a study in unsedated, unanesthetized sheep. In 20 healthy animals, repeated results of analyses (three times every two weeks)\\u000a of selected humoral and cellular components of lung defense mechanisms are described. Yields of 1×107 free airway cells (FAC) per lavage were easily obtained with

M. Rola-Pleszczynski; P. Sirois; R. Bégin



Uterine Cancer  


... get uterine cancer. It is the fourth most common cancer in women in the United States and it is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic cancer. Inside Knowledge is an initiative that supports the Gynecologic Cancer ...


Uterine prolapse  


... cervix drops into the lower part of the vagina . Uterine prolapse is moderate when the cervix drops ... that the bladder and front wall of the vagina ( cystocele ), or rectum and back wall of the ...


Dysfunctional uterine bleeding.  

PubMed Central

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common, debilitating condition. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is the diagnosis given to women with abnormal uterine bleeding in whom no clear etiology can be identified. DUB has been observed in both ovulatory and anovulatory cycles. Medical treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral contraceptive pills, progestins, danazol (a synthetic androgen), GnRH agonists, and antifibrinolytic drugs. The drawback to medical therapy, in addition to side effects, is that the benefit lasts only while the patient takes the medication. Surgical options have concentrated mainly on endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, and it is unclear whether one is superior to the other in terms of long-term outcome and patient satisfaction. Newer and less invasive ablation techniques, such as thermal balloon ablation, offer more treatment alternatives.

Chen, B H; Giudice, L C



Uterine artery embolization for symptomatic uterine myomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the role of uterine artery embolization as treatment for symptomatic uterine myomas.Design: Medline literature review, cross-reference of published data, and review of selected meeting abstracts.Result(s): Results from clinical series have shown a consistent short-term reduction in uterine size, subjective improvement in uterine bleeding, and reduced pain following treatment. Posttreatment hospitalization and recovery tend to be shorter after

Bradley S Hurst; Daniel J Stackhouse; Michelle L Matthews; Paul B Marshburn



Fibroid treatment by transient uterine ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Since its introduction in 1995 as a treatment for uterine fibroids, uterine artery embolization has proven to be effective as an alternative to hysterectomy. Techniques for occluding these vessels include Gelfoam, Ivalon (PVA) particles, and coils. The success rate of these procedures is remarkable (>85%). Menorrhagia symptoms are generally relieved within 24 hours. The major roadblock to broad-based implementation

Fred Burbank; Greig Altieri; Mike Jones; Jill Uyeno



[Clinical value of bronchoalveolar lavage].  


Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a minimally invasive procedure used to characterize the status of the alveolar space. Standardization of the procedure and the analysis of samples taken is essential for their proper interpretation. In nonresolving or ventilator-associated pneumonia, BAL contributes to the detection of resistant pathogens and noninfectious etiologies. In immunocompromised hosts with radiological infiltrates, BAL should be performed early during work-up since outcome is significantly modified in this population group. In cases of interstitial lung disease, BAL can exclude infectious or neoplastic causes. Associated with a clinical and radiological evaluation, it provides valuables additional diagnostic information. PMID:23240296

Pasche, A; Braunschweig, R; Fitting, J-W; Nicod, L P



A worldwide review of the uses of the uterine compression suture techniques as alternative to hysterectomy in the management of severe post-partum haemorrhage.  


Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a worldwide problem. The historical background dates back to William Smelley's in the seventeenth century in his famous treaty of the theory and practice of midwifery in 1752. Changes in clinical factors and surgical expertise compel the modern day midwife and obstetrician to be vigilant in identifying risk factors and apply appropriate solution early. The recent confidential enquiry into maternal death (why mothers die (2000-2002)) identifies areas of substandard care. The rising caesarean section rate adds to the rising incidence of PPH. The reduction in junior doctor's hours may limit the pool of experienced obstetric surgeons available to manage severe PPH competently. There can be major complications following radical surgery for PPH. These include loss of fertility, other morbidity and even maternal death. The invention of the B-Lynch surgical technique for the conservative management of PPH was first performed and reported by a consultant obstetrician and gynaecological surgeon in Milton Keynes NHS Trust publishing the first series of cases in BJOG 1997. This has made a significant impact on the conservative surgical management of massive PPH. There are now over 1300 successful applications of this technique worldwide (CB-Lynch personal communication). Other similar or modified techniques such as Cho's Square Suture and Haymen's modification of the B-Lynch Suture Technique have been introduced adding to more available methods of conservative surgery. The current list of publications of successful application of the B-Lynch compression technique is encouraging and more outcome data can be reported by a letter or e-mail to Obstetricians and midwives both in developed and underdeveloped countries should seek training and attend fire drills in PPH control to avoid maternal morbidity and death. There should be special concentration on effective conservative surgery such as uterine compression techniques to avoid major morbidity and loss of fertility. PMID:15814393

El-Hamamy, E; B-Lynch, C



Uterine blood flow and uterine renin secretion  

PubMed Central

Experiments were carried out in pregnant nephrectomized rabbits to determine the relationship between uterine blood flow and uterine renin secretion. Uterine blood flow was measured by the percentage distribution of radioactive microspheres injected into the left ventricle which lodged in uterus and placenta, and cardiac output was measured by dye dilution. In 40 animals, 24 hr after nephrectomy, uterine blood flow was 4.7±0.4% of cardiac output and absolute flow 32.4±3 ml/100 g per min. Plasma renin activity (PRA) in uterine vein, 994±182 ng/100 ml per hr, was higher than in carotid artery, 832±143 (P < 0.025). With reduction of uterine blood flow from 4.7±0.5 to 1.95±0.3% of cardiac output and absolute flow from 30.8±4.6 to 8.8±2 ml/100 g per min, uterine vein PRA rose from 1434±234 to 4430±300 (P < 0.001), and carotid artery PRA from 1009±200 to 2300±350 (P < 0.01). Hemorrhagic hypotension caused uterine vein PRA to increase from 913±293 to 3638±1276 (P < 0.001) and carotid artery PRA from 774±252 to 1730±433 (P < 0.01). Uterine blood flow expressed as a percentage of cardiac output remained constant after hemorrhage, 5.5±0.9 and 6.3±0.8%, although absolute flow fell from 37±7.7 to 29±3.6 ml/100 g per min because of the large fall in cardiac output which occurred. Angiotensin, 10 ng/kg per min, caused no significant change in blood pressure or cardiac output but increased uterine blood flow from 4.1±0.6 to 8.4±1% (P < 0.005) of cardiac output with absolute flow increasing from 37.4±7 to 73.2±10 ml/100 g per min (P < 0.001). The increase in uterine blood flow during angiotensin was abolished by the prior administration of propranolol. Isoproterenol, 0.5 ?/min, increased uterine blood flow from 3.5±0.6 to 6.4±1.2% of cardiac output (P < 0.02) with absolute flow increasing from 25±5 to 51±12 ml/100 g per min (P < 0.05). Norepinephrine, 500 ng/min, caused no significant change in uterine blood flow. These findings suggest that uterine renin might be involved in regulating uterine blood flow, secretion being increased in response to a reduction in flow with the resultant rise in circulating or local angiotensin, through beta adrenergic stimulation, increasing uterine blood flow.

Ferris, Thomas F.; Stein, Jay H.; Kauffman, Jeffrey



A comparison of various linear and non-linear signal processing techniques to separate uterine EMG records of term and pre-term delivery groups.  


Various linear and non-linear signal-processing techniques were applied to three-channel uterine EMG records to separate term and pre-term deliveries. The linear techniques were root mean square value, peak and median frequency of the signal power spectrum and autocorrelation zero crossing; while the selected non-linear techniques were estimation of the maximal Lyapunov exponent, correlation dimension and calculating sample entropy. In total, 300 records were grouped into four groups according to the time of recording (before or after the 26th week of gestation) and according to the total length of gestation (term delivery records--pregnancy duration >or=37 weeks and pre-term delivery records--pregnancy duration <37 weeks). The following preprocessing band-pass Butterworth filters were tested: 0.08-4, 0.3-4, and 0.3-3 Hz. With the 0.3-3 Hz filter, the median frequency indicated a statistical difference between those term and pre-term delivery records recorded before the 26th week (p = 0.03), and between all term and all pre-term delivery records (p = 0.012). With the same filter, the sample entropy indicated statistical differences between those term and pre-term delivery records recorded before the 26th week (p = 0.035), and between all term and all pre-term delivery records (p = 0.011). Both techniques also showed noticeable differences between term delivery records recorded before and after the 26th week (p

Fele-Zorz, G; Kavsek, G; Novak-Antolic, Z; Jager, F



Uterine artery embolization - discharge  


Uterine fibroid embolization - discharge; UFE - discharge; UAE - discharge ... You had uterine artery embolization (UAE). UAE is a procedure to treat ... the blood supply of the fibroids was blocked. This caused ...


Human bronchoalveolar lavage cells and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human bronchoalveolar lavage cells from several different disease states were examined by the technique of zymosan-stimulated, luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Light production correlated well with polymorphonuclear leucocyte contamination of the alveolar macrophage suspension but not with lymphocyte contamination. Regression analysis indicated that human alveolar macrophages produce little if any luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Further investigation of metabolic activity, using measurements of superoxide release, oxygen

A J Williams; P J Cole



Anastomoses of the Ovarian and Uterine Arteries: A Potential Pitfall and Cause of Failure of Uterine Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Four women with symptomatic uterine fibroids were treated by uterine artery embolization (UAE). In all cases both uterine arteries were embolized via a single femoral puncture with polyvinyl alcohol using a selective catheter technique. In three cases, the ovarian artery was not visible on the initial angiogram before embolization, but appeared after the second uterine artery had been treated. In one case of clinical failure following UAE, a repeat angiogram demonstrated filling of the fibroids from the ovarian artery. Anastomoses between uterine and ovarian arteries may cause problems for radiologists performing UAE and are a potential cause of treatment failure.

Matson, Matthew [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London, SW17 OQT (United Kingdom); Nicholson, Anthony [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Belli, Anna-Maria [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London, SW17 OQT (United Kingdom)



Appraisal of gut lavage in the study of intestinal humoral immunity.  

PubMed Central

Direct investigation of intestinal humoral immunity requires collection of intestinal secretions or mucosal biopsy specimens, or both. A non-invasive technique of gut lavage, with a polyethyleneglycol electrolyte lavage solution as a means of collecting intestinal secretions for immunoglobulin and antibody studies, was evaluated. Fifty patients were studied--25 immunologically normal patients or volunteers, 15 patients with untreated coeliac disease, and 10 patients with active Crohn's disease. Protease inhibitors were added promptly to samples to prevent proteolysis of immunoglobulin content. Treated lavage samples were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin and antibody content. Studies of serial lavage specimens showed that early, faecally contaminated specimens contained negligible quantities of immunoglobulin, but once the specimens became clear a steady state was reached, with little variation in immunoglobulin content between serial specimens and with a uniform dilution (around 20%) of the ingested polyethyleneglycol. Gut lavage fluid IgA was predominantly secretory, comprising 92%, 81.6%, and 76.7% respectively of the total IgA gut lavage fluid content in the control, coeliac, and Crohn's groups. High values of total IgM and IgA and IgM antigliadin antibodies were detected in the coeliac group, and high values of IgG in the Crohn's disease group. This method of gut lavage is not only an effective bowel cleanser, but also a noninvasive means of obtaining intestinal secretions for the study of humoral immunity in gastrointestinal disease.

O'Mahony, S; Barton, J R; Crichton, S; Ferguson, A



Diet and uterine myomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the relation between selected dietary indicators and the risk of uterine myomas.Methods: We used data from a case-control study on risk factors for uterine myomas conducted in Italy between 1986 and 1997. Cases included 843 women with uterine myomas whose clinical diagnoses dated back no more than 2 years. Controls were 1557 women younger than age 55

Francesca Chiaffarino; Fabio Parazzini; Carlo La Vecchia; Liliane Chatenoud; Elisabetta Di Cintio; Silvia Marsico



Uncertainty concerning the 4-field box technique for Stage-IB2 carcinoma of the uterine cervix  

PubMed Central

Radiation Therapy (RT) plays a pivotal role in the curative approach for carcinoma of the cervix. Inspite of the emergence of various new conformal techniques in RT, conventional techniques still hold vital importance. Majority of the patients worldwide are treated with 2D-RT techniques. 2D-RT techniques have been proven to be non-inferior and simpler in comparison to 3D-RT in the context of carcinoma of the cervix. However, inadequate target volume coverage with improper portal design can preclude the chances of cure. We demonstrate the need for abolishing guesswork in terms of target volume determination through the example of a patient's sagittal magnetic resonance image showing a case of the retroverted uterus which would have been likely to be missed from the treatment portals if they were designed using definitions based on bony landmarks.

Thakur, Priyanka; Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Rastogi, Madhup; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Seam, Rajeev Kumar; Gupta, Manish



Uncertainty concerning the 4-field box technique for Stage-IB2 carcinoma of the uterine cervix.  


Radiation Therapy (RT) plays a pivotal role in the curative approach for carcinoma of the cervix. Inspite of the emergence of various new conformal techniques in RT, conventional techniques still hold vital importance. Majority of the patients worldwide are treated with 2D-RT techniques. 2D-RT techniques have been proven to be non-inferior and simpler in comparison to 3D-RT in the context of carcinoma of the cervix. However, inadequate target volume coverage with improper portal design can preclude the chances of cure. We demonstrate the need for abolishing guesswork in terms of target volume determination through the example of a patient's sagittal magnetic resonance image showing a case of the retroverted uterus which would have been likely to be missed from the treatment portals if they were designed using definitions based on bony landmarks. PMID:23531883

Thakur, Priyanka; Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Rastogi, Madhup; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Seam, Rajeev Kumar; Gupta, Manish



Colonoscopy following intraoperative lavage in the management of severe colonic bleeding.  

PubMed Central

Intraoperative lavage of the colon through a catheter inserted into the caecum provides a rapid means of cleansing the bowel of blood and clots to enable thorough colonoscopy in cases of severe colonic bleeding. This permits diagnosis of the site and cause of haemorrhage in those cases in which neither arteriography, conventional colonoscopy, nor laparotomy alone are helpful. Four cases are presented in which the technique of colonoscopy following intraoperative lavage allowed diagnosis and treatment in massive large bowel bleeding.

Campbell, W. B.; Rhodes, M.; Kettlewell, M. G.



Bronchoalveolar lavage in rheumatoid arthritis.  


Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on 70 RA patients, 28 without extra-articular manifestations, nine with pulmonary involvement, 13 with sicca-syndrome, 20 with other extra-articular manifestations such as renal involvement, cutaneous vasculitis and rheumatoid nodules. Fifteen patients without rheumatic or pulmonary disease served as the control group. Compared with the control group RA patients showed a statistically significant increase of lymphocytes, especially of activated (DR+)T(CD3+)-helper (CD4+) cells, resulting in a significantly diminished percentage of alveolar macrophages, B(CD21+)-lymphocytes, T-suppressor (CD8+) cells and an increased CD4/CD8 ratio. This cell distribution pattern was more pronounced in RA patients with lung involvement with significant differences to the other RA patients with regard to lymphocytes, DR positive cells and CD4 positive/DR positive cells. It is concluded that these results indicate an altered balance of immunocompetent cells not only in the joints but also in the lung. The changes are more distinct if local manifestations can be diagnosed clinically. PMID:8339125

Kolarz, G; Scherak, O; Popp, W; Ritschka, L; Thumb, N; Wottawa, A; Zwick, H



Bronchoalveolar lavage in the cat: cytological findings.  

PubMed Central

Cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from the lungs of specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats from birth to maturity and from adult conventional cats were enumerated and identified. The predominant cell type recovered was the pulmonary alveolar macrophage from all ages of both SPF and conventional cats. Other cell types included eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Lavage of conventional cats yielded significantly more eosinophils and neutrophils than were recovered from SPF cats.

McCarthy, G M; Quinn, P J



Uterine lymphatic drainage is unaffected from injection technique and operators: Identical sentinel node detection in two cases of endometrial cancer  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Sentinel node (SN) mapping with cervical injection of 99 m-technetium (99 mTc) albumin nanocolloid in early endometrial cancer has been shown to be feasible and data emerging from recent large series support the incorporation of SN mapping algorithm in endometrial cancer staging. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report two cases of SN mapping which demonstrated identical migration of both radioactive technetium and blue dye in the same patients that were re-injected because surgical intervention was postponed due to transitory cardiac contraindications. DISCUSSION As clearly demonstrated in cervical cancer, SN mapping through intracervical injection of both radioactive technetium and blue dye seems to be effective and easy to perform, providing good results in patients with endometrial cancer. Our report highlights the reproducibility of SN mapping that has been strongly confirmed in both patients, even if re-injections were performed by different operators. Preoperative SPECT/CT imaging seems to enhance accuracy in SN localization and also improves its intraoperative detection in early endometrial cancer. CONCLUSION The anatomically defined bilateral uterus drainage strongly confirms the reproducibility of SN mapping, that seems to be unaffected by after injection technique or operators.

Buda, Alessandro; Elisei, Federica; Dolci, Carlotta; Cuzzocrea, Marco; Milani, Rodolfo



Cyclophosphamide induced early biochemical changes in lung lavage fluid and alterations in lavage cell function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation evaluated the changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biochemical constituents and indices of bronchoalveolar lavage cell functions to detect early lung injury in rats following intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide (CP). Rats were exposed to a single intraperitoneal injection of CP (200 or 300 mg\\/kg body weight). Experimental and control rats were sacrificed at various time intervals (2,

N. Venkatesan; G. Chandrakasan



The Hormonal Control of Uterine Luminal Fluid Secretion and Absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secretion of uterine luminal fluid initially provides a transport and support medium for spermatozoa and unimplanted embryos,\\u000a while the absorption of uterine luminal fluid in early pregnancy results in the closure of the lumen and allows blastocysts\\u000a to establish intimate contact with the uterine epithelium. We have established an in vivo perfusion technique of the lumen\\u000a to study the

N. Salleh; D. L. Baines; R. J. Naftalin; S. R. Milligan



Uterine torsion in mares.  


Uterine torsion typically occurs during mid to late gestation and is estimated to cause 5% to 10% of all equine obstetric emergencies. Clinical signs include abdominal pain that may be mistaken for gastrointestinal distress, parturition, or abortion. Uterine torsion is an emergency for the mare and fetus, and early recognition and intervention are essential to optimizing the chance of survival. This article reviews the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of uterine torsion in mares. PMID:23532880

Yorke, Elizabeth H; Caldwell, Fred J; Johnson, Aime K



Characterization of uterine leukocyte infiltration in gilts after artificial insemination.  


The objective of this study was to characterize the uterine leukocyte influx after artificial insemination (AI). After detection of oestrus with a boar at intervals of 1.5 h, seventy-two gilts were randomly assigned to a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial arrangement. AI was performed with 100 ml extended semen containing 5 x 10(9) spermatozoa (semen; n = 36) or 100 ml VSP semen extender (extender; n = 36) at one of three times after detection of oestrus: 12, 24 or 36 h (n = 24/time). The uterus was lavaged at 6, 12, 18 or 24 h (n = 18/time) after AI to determine the total number of uterine leukocytes. In addition, uterine lavage was performed on nine untreated gilts immediately after the detection of oestrus to establish a baseline number of leukocytes. The leukocyte response in all samples consisted predominately (92-99%) of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs). The mean number of PMNs recovered from the uteri of gilts treated with semen was greater than in gilts treated with extender and in untreated gilts (P < 0.01). The greatest number of PMNs in semen-treated gilts was found 12 h after AI (P < 0.01), and this number was sustained for 24 h. In contrast, the number of uterine PMNs recovered from extender-treated gilts reached a peak at 6 h and had declined by 12 h after AI (P < 0.05). It was concluded that an extensive influx of PMNs into the uterus is a normal sequence to AI. The consequences and importance of semen-induced uterine leukocytosis needs further investigation. PMID:10070347

Rozeboom, K J; Troedsson, M H; Crabo, B G



Candidacidal factors in murine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  

PubMed Central

Respiratory secretions provide an efficient method for protecting the large surface area of the lower respiratory tract. To determine whether lung secretions contribute to antifungal defenses, we tested bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for fungicidal activity. Candida albicans (blastoconidia) was incubated in unconcentrated cell-free lavage fluid from Swiss Webster mice and then cultured quantitatively to measure residual viability. In control buffer the residual fractions of viable fungi were 1.03 +/- 0.12 at 60 min and 0.84 +/- 0.05 at 120 min, whereas the residual fractions in lavage fluid were 0.64 +/- 0.07 and 0.23 +/- 0.05, respectively (P less than 0.05 by t tests). This activity was trypsin sensitive and heat stable (56 degrees C) and did not require divalent cations. It did not sediment with the surfactant fraction of lung lavage fluid. Unconcentrated lavage fluid reduced the adherence of C. albicans to serum-coated glass tubes to 2.3 +/- 1.5% of that of control Candida suspensions (n = 5, P less than 0.05 by t test). It did not alter Candida ingestion or intracellular processing by alveolar macrophages. Lavage fluid also killed clinical isolates of Candida tropicalis and Torulopsis glabrata but did not kill Candida krusei or Candida parapsilosis. Lavage fluid was concentrated and passed through an acrylamide-agarose gel matrix. The chromatogram indicated that the candidacidal activity eluted in a peak with a molecular weight range of 29,000 to 40,000. After electrophoresis on 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, these fractions resolved into three bands. These were transferred to nitrocellulose and then eluted with Triton X-100; this procedure permitted the isolation of a single band of candidacidal activity with a molecular weight of 29,000. In summary, murine lavage fluid contains a heat-stable protein with direct antifungal activity. This soluble factor may contribute to lung defense processes by reducing fungal viability and adherence to tissue surfaces. Images

Nugent, K M; Fick, R B



Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE)  


... Regrowth also has been a problem with laser treatment of uterine fibroids. Risks Any procedure that involves placement of a catheter inside a ... of any of these events occurring during uterine fibroid embolization is less ... of infection requiring antibiotic treatment appears to be less than one in 1, ...


Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting symptom in the family practice setting. In women of childbearing age, a methodical history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation may enable the physician to rule out causes such as pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders, medications, iatro- genic causes, systemic conditions, and obvious genital tract pathology. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (anovulatory or ovulatory) is diagnosed by



Diagnosis and Nonsurgical Management of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

SciTech Connect

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an uncommon problem and traditional treatment by hysterectomy excludes the possibility of future pregnancy. Developments in interventional techniques make transcatheter embolization of the feeding vessel(s) a therapeutic alternative, potentially preserving the patient's fertility. We present a case of successful endovascular treatment of uterine AVM.

Rangarajan, R. D.; Moloney, J. C.; Anderson, H. J. [Eastbourne District General Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)], E-mail:



Uterine amulets and Greek uterine medicine.  


This article publishes for the first time a hematite uterine amulet in the author's possession. After a brief look at this amulet I offer a summary of previous scholarship on uterine amulets, and then focus on three specific aspects -the amulets' relation to Greek medical texts on gynecological topics; evidence for the use of perishable and non-perishable amulets by Greek women prior to the proliferation of the hematite examples in the Roman period (ca. II CE). I conclude with a discussion of the derivation and meaning of ororiouth, based on my correspondence with Dr. Roy Kotansky. PMID:11623421

Hanson, A E



Center for Uterine Fibroids  


The Center for Uterine Fibroids represents a longstanding collaboration between researchers at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Mayo Clinic. Join us in our collaboration to search for the causes of and treatments ...


Whole Lung Lavage of Nine Children with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: Experience in a Tertiary Lung Center  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease in children, characterized by intra-alveolar accumulation of large amounts of surfactant proteins, which severely reduce gas exchange. Whole lung lavage (WLL) is the preferred technique for the treatment of severe PAP. Case Presentation This report presents nine pediatric cases with advanced PAP who underwent WLL under general anesthesia during a 9 year period. One patient was treated with multiple unilateral WLL without employing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and eight cases were treated by simultaneous lavage of both lungs using partial CPB. Conclusion Our experience suggested that partial CPB was useful to support oxygenation during WLL in small children with severe PAP in whom lung separation and selective lavaging of each lung were impracticable.

Radpay, Badiozaman; Parsa, Tahereh; Dabir, Shideh; Boloursaz, Mohammadreza; Arbab, Ahmadreza; Tabatabaei, Seyyedahmad



Sampling the Airway: Improving the Predictive and Toxicological Value of Bronchoalveolar Lavage  

EPA Science Inventory

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a relatively simple technique to obtain biological material in the form of BAL fluid (BALF) from airways of humans and laboratory animals. Numerous predictive biomarkers of pulmonary injury and diseases can be detected in BALF which aid in diagnosi...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Progesterone suppresses uterine immune defenses and predisposes postpartum animals to nonspecific uterine infections. Progesterone can also suppress the synthesis of uterine eicosanoids. This effect of progesterone seems to be an important factor in the onset of uterine infections because eicosanoid...


Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid composition in alveolar proteinosis. Early changes after therapeutic lavage.  


In patients with idiopathic alveolar proteinosis, the alveoli are filled with materials rich in surfactant components, especially surfactant protein A (SP-A). The anomaly could be caused by either increased secretion, decreased clearance, or both. To clarify this point, we studied five patients who underwent therapeutic lavage and then were ventilated mechanically for 24 h. During the first 8 h of mechanical ventilation, a surfactant-depleted lung was lavaged at selected intervals, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed. We observed that, after lavage, various surfactant components accumulated in the airways with different time courses. We also observed that SP-A increased until the second hour and then dropped rapidly, suggesting the existence of an efficient mechanism of removal. These findings suggest that idiopathic alveolar proteinosis might be caused by a primary defect in a slow mechanism of removal or by the presence of factor(s) that interfere with the clearance of surfactant and that can be removed by lavage. It seems clear, however, that an increased secretion rate is unlikely to be the major cause of idiopathic alveolar proteinosis. PMID:8810625

Alberti, A; Luisetti, M; Braschi, A; Rodi, G; Iotti, G; Sella, D; Poletti, V; Benori, V; Baritussio, A



[Hysteroscopic resection of the uterine septum].  


An endoscopic alternative to the surgical treatment of uterine septum is presented. The hysteroscopic technique of septal division is described on the basis of 7 preliminary cases, with emphasis on the equipment used, the choice of the irrigation system, the problems encountered near the fundus uteri, where it is important to spare the myometrium, and the adjuvant treatments, notably in the post-operative period. Interventional hysteroscopy has a very low trans--and post-operative morbidity and seems to be a suitable procedure for the treatment of this type of uterine malformation. PMID:2522647

Mergui, J L; Salat-Baroux, J



Laparoscopic Uterine Artery Occlusion Combined with Myomectomy for Uterine Myomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to evaluate the clinical feasibility and mid- to long-term effects of laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before myomectomy in the treatment of uterine myomas. A total of 566 patients with uterine myoma were treated by laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before myomectomy from October 2001 through July 2007. Mean blood loss was 88.2 ± 52.7 mL (95% CI 82.7–93.8). The

Zhongping Cheng; Weihong Yang; Hong Dai; Liping Hu; Xiaoyan Qu; Le Kang



Uterine artery embolization for the treatment of uterine leiomyomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the results of the uterine artery embolization (UAE) for the treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods: Twenty-six patients with ultrasonographic diagnosis of uterine leiomyomata were submitted to UAE with polyvinyl alcohol particles. Imaging and clinical follow-up was performed before the procedure, at 3 months, and 1 year after. Results: All procedures but one were technically successful. Control of

M. L. Messina; N. Bozzini; H. W. Halbe; J. A. Pinotti



Uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine whether uterine artery embolization is safe and effective for treating uterine leiomyomata.Methods:We analyzed 200 consecutive patients (61 reported previously) undergoing uterine artery embolization for the treatment of uterine leiomyomata at a single institution. After treatment, follow-up data were obtained by written questionnaire mailed to the patients at intervals of 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months

James B Spies; Susan A Ascher; Antoinette R Roth; Joon Kim; Elliot B Levy; Jackeline Gomez-Jorge



Embolisation of uterine arteries or laparascopic uterine artery ligation as possible treatment of uterine leiomyoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMany women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomata wish to preserve their uterus. Novel organ- and fertility-preserving treatment options such as embolisation of uterine arteries or laparascopic uterine artery ligation have frequently been discussed as viable alternatives to myomectomy. This article strives to bring together the conclusions of major studies on novel organ-preserving treatment alternatives for uterine myoma.MethodsMinimally invasive organ-preserving laparascopic myomectomy

A. Stubner; B. Schauf; S. Duda; R. Kurek; C. Gall; C. Claussen; K. J. Neis; D. Wallwiener; B. Aydeniz



Uterine arteriovenous malformation.  


Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare condition, with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. Despite it being rare, it is a potentially life-threatening condition. This case report describes a 33-year-old woman who presented with secondary post-partum hemorrhage. Transabdominal ultrasound (US) of the pelvis showed increased vascularity with multidirectional flow of the uterus and a prominent vessel, located on the left lateral wall. She also had retained product of conception, which complicated the diagnosis. A uterine artery angiogram confirmed an AVM in the fundal region with an early draining vein. Embolisation of the AVM was performed successfully. PMID:23983582

Hashim, Hilwati; Nawawi, Ouzreiah



Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare condition, with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. Despite it being rare, it is a potentially life-threatening condition. This case report describes a 33-year-old woman who presented with secondary post-partum hemorrhage. Transabdominal ultrasound (US) of the pelvis showed increased vascularity with multidirectional flow of the uterus and a prominent vessel, located on the left lateral wall. She also had retained product of conception, which complicated the diagnosis. A uterine artery angiogram confirmed an AVM in the fundal region with an early draining vein. Embolisation of the AVM was performed successfully.

Hashim, Hilwati; Nawawi, Ouzreiah



Biomarkers in uterine leiomyoma.  


Biomarkers are biologic compounds that are easily accessible and reflect normal physiology or pathology. They are useful in a variety of clinical situations that involve detection of subclinical disease, risk stratification, preoperative planning, and monitoring treatment. A useful intervention needs to exist for a biomarker to be an effective tool. Many compounds have been investigated as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and surveillance of uterine leiomyomas. Most of these compounds demonstrate subtle differences among patients when leiomyomas are compared with controls. The compounds investigated lack the diagnostic accuracy necessary to add any benefit to the current available modalities used to diagnose and monitor uterine leiomyomas. PMID:23200685

Levy, Gary; Hill, Micah J; Plowden, Torie C; Catherino, William H; Armstrong, Alicia Y



Embolization of uterine fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first description of uterine artery embolization for the treatment of symptomatic fibroids of the uterus in 1994, this minimally invasive procedure has been increasingly performed in many Western countries. The method is characterized by a high technical success rate of about 85%, a highly significant relief of symptoms, and a very low rate of complications that make this

T. K. Helmberger; T. F. Jakobs; M. F. Reiser



Inflammatory and immune processes in the human lung in health and disease: evaluation by bronchoalveolar lavage.  

PubMed Central

Bronchoalveolar lavage is an invaluable means of accurately evaluating the inflammatory and immune processes of the human lung. Although lavage recovers only those cells and proteins present on the epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract, comparison with open lung biopsies shows that these constituents are representative of the inflammatory and immune systems of the alveolar structures. With the use of these techniques, sufficient materials are obtained from normal individuals to allow characterization of not only the types of cells and proteins present but their functions as well. Such observations have been useful in defining the inflammatory and immune capabilities of the normal lung and provide a basis for the study of lung disease. Lavage methods have been used to characterize inflammatory and immune processes of the lower respiratory tract in destructive, infectious, neoplastic, and interstitial disorders. From the data already acquired, it is apparent that bronchoalveolar lavage will yield major insights into the pathogenesis, staging, and therapy decisions involved in these disorders. (Am J Pathol 97:149--206, 1979). Images Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 3

Hunninghake, G. W.; Gadek, J. E.; Kawanami, O.; Ferrans, V. J.; Crystal, R. G.



Novel Image-Guided Management of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

SciTech Connect

The investigators present a novel image-guided embolization, not previously described, of a uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) resistant to endovascular management. The uterus was exposed surgically, and Histoacryl (Braun, Fulda, Germany) was injected directly into the nidus using ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopy. The patient had a successful full-term pregnancy after this procedure. This technique may be a useful alternative management strategy in patients with uterine AVM who fail traditional endovascular embolization and who still desire fertility.

Przybojewski, Stefan J., E-mail:; Sadler, David J. [University of Calgary, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Foothills Hospital (Canada)



Addition of Laparoscopic Uterine Nerve Ablation to Laparoscopic Bipolar Coagulation of Uterine Vessels for Women with Uterine Myomas and Dysmenorrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study ObjectiveTo assess the effectiveness of laparoscopic uterine nerve ablation (LUNA) in women with dysmenorrhea caused by uterine myomas treated by laparoscopic bipolar coagulation of uterine vessels (LBCUV).

Yuan-Kuei Yen; Wei-Min Liu; Chiou-Chung Yuan; Heung Tat Ng



Quantification of cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after allogeneic marrow transplantation by centrifugation culture.  

PubMed Central

A technique to quantify cytomegalovirus (CMV) by centrifugation culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from marrow transplant recipients was developed. This technique was used to assess the CMV response to antiviral treatment and the relationship between viral load, asymptomatic excretion versus symptomatic infection, and prognosis. Relative to tube cell culture, centrifugation culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was more sensitive than direct fluorescent-antibody staining. It was also a rapid, replicable method for detecting and measuring the amount of CMV. There was no significant difference between viral load at diagnosis and after 9 days of treatment with ganciclovir and intravenous immunoglobulin. Viral load was not predictive of outcome, and there was no difference in amount of virus between patients with asymptomatic CMV excretion and those with CMV pneumonia. The amount of CMV may not be as important as other factors (e.g., host immune response) in the pathogenesis of CMV pneumonia.

Slavin, M A; Gleaves, C A; Schoch, H G; Bowden, R A



Uterine arteriovenous malformation.  


Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a little known condition of which, to date, very few cases have been described. It has a very diverse symptomatology, even though in most cases, it is diagnosed during a severe and acute haemorrhagic event. Its treatment can vary from expectant management to hysterectomy; however, current evidence suggests that the embolisation of uterine arteries is the most effective approach, especially if fertility is to be preserved. We present a case report classified as AVM, with additional images that show the appearance of this pathology in a short span of time. This case has a number of peculiarities: unusual persistence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (?-HCG), asymptomatic patient, quick establishment of the lesion and its duration with unchanging characteristics and finally its spontaneous resolution without further consequences. This entity shows an aetiopathogenesis, that is, not well established or described. We discuss its physiopathology and aetiopathogenesis. PMID:23396842

Sellers, Francisco; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Moliner, Belen; Bernabeu, Rafael



Studies of bronchoalveolar lavage in sudden infant death syndrome: A clinical-pathological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Hungary was 0.3 per 1000 live births in 1992. We investigated bronchoalveolar\\u000a lavage (BAL) of eight infants with SIDS, using bacteriological, light and electron microscopic methods to collect data about\\u000a the role of respiratory inflammations in SIDS children and to determine the usefulness of the BAL technique. Findings are\\u000a discussed.

L. Imrei



Acquired Uterine Factors and Infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Uterine factor subfertility is defined as a structural or functional disorder of the uterus that results in reduced fertility.\\u000a Between one and two percent of in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures are recorded as being done for uterine factor in the\\u000a United States as reported by Wright et al. (MMWR Surveill Summ 57:1-23, 2008). Live birth rates for isolated uterine factor

Harry H. Hatasaka


Uterine necrosis following pelvic arterial embolization for post-partum hemorrhage: review of the literature.  


Uterine necrosis is one of the rarest complications following pelvic arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). With the increasing incidence of cesarean section and abnormal placental localization (placenta previa) or placental invasion (placenta accreta/increta/percreta), more and more cases of uterine necrosis after embolization are being diagnosed and reported. Pelvic computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy, and surgical management includes hysterectomy. We performed a Medline database query following the first description of uterine necrosis after pelvic embolization (between January 1985 and January 2013). Medical subheading search words were the following: "uterine necrosis"; "embolization"; "postpartum hemorrhage". Seventeen citations reporting at least one case of uterine necrosis after pelvic embolization for PPH were included, with a total of 19 cases. This literature review discusses the etiopathogenesis, clinical and therapeutic aspects of uterine necrosis following pelvic arterial embolization, and guidelines are detailed. The mean time interval between pelvic embolization and diagnosis of uterine necrosis was 21 days (range 9-730). The main symptoms of uterine necrosis were fever, abdominal pain, menorrhagia and leukorrhea. Surgical management included total hysterectomy (n=15, 78%) or subtotal hysterectomy (n=2, 10%) and partial cystectomy with excision of the necrotic portion in three cases of associated bladder necrosis (15%). Uterine necrosis was partial in four cases (21%). Regarding the pathophysiology, four factors may be involved in uterine necrosis: the size and nature of the embolizing agent, the presence of the anastomotic vascular system and the embolization technique itself with the use of free flow embolization. PMID:23932304

Poujade, Olivier; Ceccaldi, Pierre François; Davitian, Carine; Amate, Pascale; Chatel, Paul; Khater, Carine; Aflak, Nizar; Vilgrain, Valérie; Luton, Dominique



Uterine artery embolization for the treatment of uterine fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine leiomyomata are a frequent finding in a gynecologist’s practice. Until recently, options for management have been limited. A relatively new procedure is gaining popularity as another option for a select group of patients. The treatment of choice for definitive management remains hysterectomy. However, uterine artery embolization (UAE) can be considered in certain women. We discuss the indications, benefits, risks,

Kevin J. Stepp; James S. Newman; Linda D. Bradley



[Cytologic and biochemical component in 203 bronchoalveolar lavages. Reference values].  


The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is considered a basic technique as a diagnostic aid in Pneumology. However, one of the main problems faced by the clinician is the lack of standardization of the technique. This has been resolved through the drafting of international standards. The other problem is the lack of what might be called a "reference" BAL. In order to establish a reference BAL, we analyzed 203 BAL divided in two groups: a control group and a pathologic group, make up by extrinsic asthma, intrinsic asthma, pulmonary infections, diffuse interstitial pneumopathies, bronchopulmonary tumors and chronic bronchitis. We have studied both the cytologic and the biochemical component of the BAL. Among the biochemical markers, we have considered; carcinoembrionary antigen (CEA), tissular polypeptidic antigen (TPA), neuronal specific enolase (NSE), ferritin (FER), calcitonin (CT), ACTH, histamin (HIS) and prostaglandin (PGE2). In order to establish the reference values, we have used the modified Baye's theorema. The BAL that we obtained was the following: volume 20 ml, cells 35 x 10(5) cells/ml, macrophages 77%, lymphocytes 22%, neutrophils 4%, eosinophils 2%, CEA 14 ng/mg, TPA 84 U/g PT, NSE 5 ng/mg PT, FER 42 ng/mg PT, CT 15 pg/mg PT, ACTH 51 pg/mg PT, HIS 1.22 ng/mg PT, PGE2 35 pg/mg PT. PMID:7718715

Alvarez-Sala, R; Alvarez-Sala, J L; Prados, C; Callol, L; Laguna, R; Blasco, R; Villamor, J; Gómez de Terreros, F J



Postpartum uterine infection in cattle.  


Postpartum uterine infections results from uterine contamination with bacteria during parturition. The prevalence of uterine infections varies considerably among studies. Uterine infection implies adherence of pathogenic organisms to the mucosa, colonization or penetration of the epithelium, and/or release of bacterial toxins that lead to establishment of uterine disease. The development of uterine disease depends on the immune response of the cow, as well as the species and number (load or challenge) of bacteria. The postpartum uterus has a disrupted surface epithelium in contact with fluid and tissue debris that can support bacterial growth. A variety of species of bacteria, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes, can be isolated from the early postpartum uterus. Most of these are environmental contaminants that are gradually eliminated during the first 6 weeks postpartum. A normal postpartum cow resolves uterine infection by rapid involution of the uterus and cervix, discharge of uterine content, and mobilization of natural host defenses, including mucus, antibodies and phagocytic cells. Clinical signs of uterine infection vary with the virulence of the causative organisms and the presence of factors that predispose to the disease. The treatment of endometritis and metritis in bovine should be directed towards improving fertility. The antibiotic should be active against the main uterine pathogens and should maintain its activity in the environment of the uterus. Also, should not inhibit the normal defense mechanisms and should be well tolerated and not induce irritation in the endometrium. Effective use of hormones in uterine infection requires knowledge of both normal reproductive endocrinology and the therapeutic characteristics of available hormonal preparations. PMID:18280065

Azawi, O I



A Gastric Lavage Technique for Characterizing Diets of Sturgeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sacrificing sturgeons for diet analyses is not a feasible option because many sturgeon species are protected by laws or management plans that prohibit direct taking. Consequently, basic food habits data are limited for many populations of Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus and shortnose sturgeon A. brevirostrum. A safe and effective method for removing stomach contents from live sturgeons is needed to

Nancy Haley



Uterine artery embolization for the treatment of uterine fibroids.  


Uterine artery embolization can be regarded as a less invasive procedure for the treatment of fibroids compared with myomectomy, hysterectomy, and laparoscopic myolysis. The aim of this study was the evaluation of safety and efficacy of uterine artery embolization and of womens' opinion about this treatment. After gynecological examination sixty-nine premenopausal women underwent uterine artery embolization. All procedures but four were technically successful; three women underwent unilateral embolization because of vascular malformation and one of them had an allergic reaction to contrast medium. Of the 69 patients: 58 went home the day after embolization, and 11 within first week. The follow-up examinations after 3, 6 and 12 month showed a significant reduction of uterine and fibroid volume with significant improvement of bleeding. Therefore, according to this report, uterine artery embolization is a successful, minimal invasive treatment of myoma that preserves the uterus and requires shorter hospitalization and recovery times than surgery. PMID:15666613

Strini?, Tomislav; Vuli?, Marko; Bukovi?, Damir; Maskovi?, Josip; Hauptman, Dinko; Jelinci?, Zeljko



Bronchoalveolar lavage in liquid paraffin pneumonitis.  


We evaluated cells and lipids recovered in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from seven patients with liquid paraffin pneumonitis. For each patient, the BALF was whitish with oil droplets on the surface. Alveolar macrophages contained numerous, large vacuoles that did not react with May-Grunwald-Giemsa, Papanicolaou, or periodic acid-Schiff but were stained in black with Sudan B, orange with Sudan III and red with oil Red O. Liquid paraffin was identified on thin layer chromatography of BALF-extracted lipids as a very hydrophobic compound migrating on the solvent front as control liquid paraffin. This abnormal spot was definitely identified as liquid paraffin by infrared spectroscopy and gas liquid chromatography for the first patient. The number and percentage of AMs were largely decreased in the BALF of each patient, whereas the number of neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes was increased. These findings suggest that this cell-mediated inflammatory response plays a role in the development of interstitial fibrosis at late stages of liquid paraffin pneumonitis. PMID:1699708

Lauque, D; Dongay, G; Levade, T; Caratero, C; Carles, P



Induced sputum compared to bronchoalveolar lavage for evaluating patients with sarcoidosis and non-granulomatous interstitial lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broncholveolar lavage (BAL), an important tool for evaluating interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), has limited utility due to its invasiveness and the difficulty of performing it in clinically contraindicated patients. We compared BAL with the induced sputum (IS) technique to analyse cells and T lymphocytes in patients with sarcoidosis (SA) and non-granulomatous ILD (NG-ILD). Pulmonary function tests and BAL were performed

E. Fireman; I. Topilsky; J. Greif; Y. Lerman; Y. Schwarz; A. Man; M. Topilsky



Digital Subtraction Fluoroscopy to Enhance Visualization During Uterine Fibroid Embolization: A Technical Note  

SciTech Connect

We describe a simple but underutilized technique for improving visualization during transcatheter embolization using particulate agents. The technique is of distinct utility in uterine fibroid embolization, during which non-target embolization can be of particular clinical significance.

Andrews, Robert T. [Dotter Interventional Institute, Portland, OR, Oregon Health and Science University (United States)], E-mail:; Binkert, Christoph A. [Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, Department of Radiology (United States)



Lajjalu treatment of uterine prolapse  

PubMed Central

Mimosa pudica was found useful in cases of uterine prolapse with bleeding, consistent with my experience of working with the condition for more than 45 years, and treating hundreds of such cases of uterine prolapse. Hysterectomy has been avoided up to this date, and is not now expected to be recommended.

Shivanandaiah, T. M.; Indudhar, T. M.



Finding genes for uterine fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Uterine leiomyomata (fibroids) are the most common pelvic tumors in women, accounting for approximately one third of hysterectomies in the United States. Although little is known about their etiology, cytogenetic and epidemiologic evidence suggests a strong heritable component to fibroid development. To clarify further the role of genes in the pathogenesis of fibroids, the Center for Uterine Fibroids is

Karen Gross; Cynthia Morton; Elizabeth Stewart



Lajjalu treatment of uterine prolapse.  


Mimosa pudica was found useful in cases of uterine prolapse with bleeding, consistent with my experience of working with the condition for more than 45 years, and treating hundreds of such cases of uterine prolapse. Hysterectomy has been avoided up to this date, and is not now expected to be recommended. PMID:21836800

Shivanandaiah, T M; Indudhar, T M



Comparison of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Cells from Germfree and Conventional Lambs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of a germfree environment on the concentration and type of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells was determined. The purpose was to establish the basis for the increased susceptibility of newborn animals to infection. 4 references, 1 figure, 2 ...

D. D. Joel A. D. Chanana R. A. Weiss



Changes in nasal lavage fluid due to formaldehyde inhalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aim of the study was to characterize the nature of the formaldehyde-induced nasal response consisting in symptoms of rhinitis and changes in nasal lavage fluid. Eleven healthy subjects and nine patients with specific skin sensitization were provoked in a toxicological chamber with formaldehyde at a dose of 0.5 mg\\/m3 over 2 h. Nasal lavage was performed prior to

Konrad Pazdrak; Pawel Górski; Anna Krakowiak; Urszula Ruta



Camostate (FOY305) improves the therapeutic effect of peritoneal lavage on taurocholate induced pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of peritoneal lavage with the addition of camostate to the lavage fluid on the outcome of taurocholate pancreatitis in rats was studied. Camostate is a low molecular weight protease inhibitor which has been developed recently. Peritoneal lavage was performed for 12 hours and camostate was added to the lavage fluid in five concentrations. At 0.1 mg\\/ml the survival

U Leonhardt; F Seidensticker; M Fussek; F Stöckmann; W Creutzfeldt



Treatment of uterine fibroids by embolization—Advantages, disadvantages, and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumors of the female genital tract. Apart from vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy, which has been in use for more than 100 years, the more recently established techniques of laparoscopy and hysteroscopy provide two additional treatment approaches. In cases of symptomatic uterine fibroids, the most widely accepted alternative to surgery is the catheter-supported embolization

M. David; A. D. Ebert



Uterine Adenosarcoma with Sarcomatous Overgrowth versus Uterine Carcinosarcoma: Comparison of Treatment and Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Uterine adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth (ASSO) is a rare variant of uterine sarcoma first described in 1989. This clinicopathologic study was undertaken to compare the treatment and survival of uterine adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth to that of uterine carcinosarcomas.Methods. A review of uterine sarcomas diagnosed at Washington Hospital Center from January 1988 to December 1998 was performed. Records were

Thomas C. Krivak; Jeffrey D. Seidman; John W. McBroom; Paul J. MacKoul; Lwin M. Aye; G. Scott Rose




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Uterine health is often compromised in cattle by bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen after parturition, and pathogenic bacteria often persist causing uterine disease, which is a key cause of infertility in cattle. However, the definition or characterization of uterine disease frequently lac...


Identification and initial characterization of Pneumocystis carinii soluble antigens in rabbit serum and lung lavage.  


Lung lavage and serum samples from Azathioprin-treated (acute-phase infection) and untreated (non acute-phase infection) rabbits were used in the immunoblotting technique to look for Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) soluble antigens, using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against rabbit-derived Pc antigens and labeled with peroxidase. Analysis of the supernatant of lavage fluid after centrifugation to sediment intact organisms revealed components of approximately 80, 60-65, 55, 39 and 27 kDa in acute-phase samples. The components in the regions of 80, 60-65, 55 kDa and to a lesser extent 39 kDa were also present in non acute-phase lung lavage samples. In acute-phase serum samples, a major component of 80 kDa and minor components of about 65 and 39 kDa are detectable. The 80 and 65 kDa components are also detectable in some of the serum samples from the untreated rabbits. Immunofluorescent staining with FITC-conjugated affinity-purified antibodies to the 80, 60-65, 55, 39 or 27 kDa-components showed that they shared epitopes with both Pc cysts and trophozoites. The affinity-purified antibodies also cross-reacted in immunoblotting with several antigens in the Pc whole preparations. The putative Pc soluble antigens in serum and lung lavage were then isolated by affinity chromatography with polyclonal antibodies to Pc. Preliminary characterization of the column-extracted antigens revealed complete inactivation by trypsin whereas only the 55 and 80 kDa antigens bind to Concanavalin A. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that Pc soluble antigens are present even in non acute-phase samples and only the low-molecular weight antigens (39 and 27 kDa) seem specific for the acute-phase. These findings are consistent with previous investigations reported by others that development of Pc could occur in nonimmu-nosuppressed rabbits. PMID:23195548

Zibi, Y A; Sung, R T; Mojon, M; Hafid, J; Viscardi, P; Raberin, H



Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Occurring After Uterine Artery Embolization for Uterine Myoma  

SciTech Connect

This case report describes posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) occurring after uterine artery embolization (UAE) for uterine myoma. This is the first report of PRES occurring after uterine vascular radiologic intervention. The mechanism by which UAE induced PRES is unclear.

Suzuki, Satoshi, E-mail:; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kariya, Syuji; Komemushi, Atsushi; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Tokuda, Takanori [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kishimoto, Masanobu; Tomino, Atsutoshi [Kansai Medical University, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine (Japan); Fujioka, Masayuki [Dresden University of Technology, Stroke Center, Helios General Hospital (Germany); Kitazawa, Yasuhide [Kansai Medical University, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine (Japan); Sawada, Satoshi [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)



Radiological appearances of uterine fibroids  

PubMed Central

Uterine fibroids, also known as leiomyomas, are the commonest uterine neoplasms. Although benign, they can be associated with significant morbidity and are the commonest indication for hysterectomy. They are often discovered incidentally when performing imaging for other reasons. Usually first identified with USG, they can be further characterized with MRI. They are usually easily recognizable, but degenerate fibroids can have unusual appearances. In this article, we describe the appearances of typical and atypical uterine fibroids, unusual fibroid variants and fibroid mimics on different imaging modalities. Knowledge of the different appearances of fibroids on imaging is important as it enables prompt diagnosis and thereby guides treatment.

Sue, Wilde; Sarah, Scott-Barrett



Uterine arterial embolization: collagen analysis of endometrial\\/uterine biopsy pre and after procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate collagen of endometrial\\/uterine tissue before and after uterine arterial embolization\\u000a (UAE). Fifteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of uterine fibroids were included. Clinical diagnosis of uterine fibroids\\u000a had been confirmed by ultrasonography. Uterine arterial embolization procedure was performed with microsphere with 300–700-my\\u000a diameter. Selective catheterization of uterine arteries was carried through bilaterally

Cláudio Emílio Bonduki; Gilmar de Oliveira Dornelas; André Bernardo; Paulo Cezar Feldner Jr; Rodrigo Aquino Castro; Manuel de Jesus Simões; Marair Gracio Ferreira Sartori; Manoel João Batista Castello Girão



The effect of pulsed jet lavage in vertebroplasty on injection forces of PMMA bone cement: an animal study.  


Percutaneous vertebroplasty, comprising of the injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into vertebral bodies, is an efficient procedure to stabilize osteoporotic compression fractures as well as other weakening lesions. Besides fat embolism, cement leakage is considered to be one of the major and most severe complications during percutaneous vertebroplasty. The viscosity of the PMMA during injection plays a key role in this context. It was shown in vitro that the best way to lower the risk of cement leakage is to inject the cement at higher viscosity, which is requires high injection forces. Injection forces can be reduced by applying a newly developed lavage technique as it was shown in vitro using human cadaver vertebrae. The purpose of this study was to prove the in vitro results in an in vivo model. The investigation was incorporated in an animal study that was performed to evaluate the cardiovascular reaction on cement augmentation using the lavage technique. Injection forces were measured with instrumentation for 1 cc syringes, additionally acquiring plunger displacement. Averaged injection forces measured, ranged from 12 to 130 N and from 28 to 140 N for the lavage group and the control group, respectively. Normalized injection forces (by viscosity and injection speed) showed a trend to be lower for the lavage group in comparison to the control group (P = 0.073). In conclusion, the clinical relevance on the investigated lavage technique concerning lowering injection forces was only shown by trend in the performed animal study. However, it might well be that the effect is more pronounced for osteoporotic vertebral bodies. PMID:19568774

Boger, Andreas; Benneker, Lorin M; Krebs, Jörg; Boner, Vanessa; Heini, Paul F; Gisep, Armando



The effect of pulsed jet lavage in vertebroplasty on injection forces of PMMA bone cement: an animal study  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous vertebroplasty, comprising of the injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into vertebral bodies, is an efficient procedure to stabilize osteoporotic compression fractures as well as other weakening lesions. Besides fat embolism, cement leakage is considered to be one of the major and most severe complications during percutaneous vertebroplasty. The viscosity of the PMMA during injection plays a key role in this context. It was shown in vitro that the best way to lower the risk of cement leakage is to inject the cement at higher viscosity, which is requires high injection forces. Injection forces can be reduced by applying a newly developed lavage technique as it was shown in vitro using human cadaver vertebrae. The purpose of this study was to prove the in vitro results in an in vivo model. The investigation was incorporated in an animal study that was performed to evaluate the cardiovascular reaction on cement augmentation using the lavage technique. Injection forces were measured with instrumentation for 1 cc syringes, additionally acquiring plunger displacement. Averaged injection forces measured, ranged from 12 to 130 N and from 28 to 140 N for the lavage group and the control group, respectively. Normalized injection forces (by viscosity and injection speed) showed a trend to be lower for the lavage group in comparison to the control group (P = 0.073). In conclusion, the clinical relevance on the investigated lavage technique concerning lowering injection forces was only shown by trend in the performed animal study. However, it might well be that the effect is more pronounced for osteoporotic vertebral bodies.

Boger, Andreas; Benneker, Lorin M.; Krebs, Jorg; Heini, Paul F.; Gisep, Armando



Uterine Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials

Programs and Projects Uterine Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Ongoing Phase I/II Prevention Trials Funded and Monitored by the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG) Principal Investigator Funding Mechanism Title of Award


Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in cervical lavage specimens by a nonisotopic consensus PCR assay.  

PubMed Central

A gene amplification method that combines PCR with an enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) for quantitation of amplified DNA was developed for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV). Samples were amplified with consensus primers MY09 and MY11. Amplified DNA products were reacted in solution with type-specific nested RNA probes labelled with digoxigenin-11-UTP. Hybrids were captured on a microtiter plate coated with an antidigoxigenin antibody. Bound DNA-RNA hybrids were quantitated by the addition of an alkaline phosphatase-labelled monoclonal antibody directed against DNA-RNA hybrids and a fluorogenic substrate. The detection limit of PCR-EIA was six copies of HPV type 18 DNA in the original specimen. The assay was used to assess HPV infection of the uterine cervixes of 65 women referred to a colposcopy clinic. In 66 cervicovaginal lavage specimens, all 23 HPV strains detected by a standard isotopic PCR assay were also detected by the PCR-EIA (sensitivity, 100%; 95% confidence interval, 85.2 to 100%). Forty-two of the 43 samples that did not contain HPV types 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, and 45 were also negative by PCR-EIA, for a specificity of 97.7%. Low-level cross-reactivity was encountered between HPV types 18 and 45 as well as between types 33 and 58. PCR-EIA provides a convenient means of objectively measuring PCR-amplified HPV DNA from common genital HPV types.

Coutlee, F; Provencher, D; Voyer, H



Uterine fibroids: place and modalities of laparoscopic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only fibroids which give rise to symptoms resistant to properly conducted medical treatment and\\/or complicated myomas require surgical treatment. The possibility offered by the new surgical approaches enables myomectomies to be now carried out via laparoscopy. We report our technique of laparoscopic myomectomy performed since 1989. Monopolar coagulation is used for the uterine incision, after myomectomy, myometrium and serosa are

Jean-Bernard Dubuisson; Charles Chapron



Long peritoneal lavage decreases pancreatic sepsis in acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

Late infection of devitalized pancreatic and peripancreatic tissue has become the major cause of morbidity in severe acute pancreatitis. Previous experience found that peritoneal lavage for periods of 48 to 96 hours may reduce early systemic complications but did not decrease late pancreatic sepsis. A fortunate observation led to the present study of the influence of a longer period of lavage on late sepsis. Twenty-nine patients receiving primary nonoperative treatment for severe acute pancreatitis (three or more positive prognostic signs) were randomly assigned to short peritoneal lavage (SPL) for 2 days (15 patients) or to long peritoneal lavage (LPL) for 7 days (14 patients). Positive prognostic signs averaged 5 in both groups but the frequency of five or more signs was higher in LPL (71%) than in SPL (47%). Eleven patients in each group had early computed tomographic (CT) scans. Peripancreatic fluid collections were shown more commonly in LPL (82%) than in SPL (54%) patients. Longer lavage dramatically reduced the frequency of both pancreatic sepsis (22% LPL versus 40% SPL) and death from sepsis (0% LPL versus 20% SPL). Among patients with fluid collections on early CT scan, LPL led to a more marked reduction in both pancreatic sepsis (33% LPL versus 83% SPL) and death from sepsis (0% LPL versus 33% SPL). The differences were even more striking among 17 patients with five or more positive prognostic signs. In this group the incidence of pancreatic sepsis was 30% LPL versus 57% SPL and of death from sepsis 0% (LPL) versus 43% (SPL) (p = 0.05). In these patients, overall mortality was also reduced (20% LPL versus 43% SPL). When 20 patients treated by LPL were compared with 91 other patients with three or more positive prognostic signs who were treated without lavage or by lavage for periods of 2 to 4 days, the frequency of death from pancreatic sepsis was reduced from 13% to 5%. In those with five or more signs, the incidence of sepsis was reduced from 40% to 27% (p = 0.03) and of death for sepsis from 30% to 7% (p = 0.08). These findings indicate that lavage of the peritoneal cavity for 7 days may significantly reduce both the frequency and mortality rate of pancreatic sepsis in severe acute pancreatitis.

Ranson, J H; Berman, R S



Benefits of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for complicated sigmoid diverticulitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The traditional therapy for perforated sigmoid diverticulitis with peritonitis is emergency colectomy usually with colostomy.\\u000a We report laparoscopic exploration with peritoneal lavage as an alternative in seven patients who required emergency surgery\\u000a for diverticulitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Six patients presented with diffuse peritonitis and one with a failure of percutaneous therapy. All patients were explored\\u000a laparoscopically and the peritoneal cavity was lavaged with

Joanne Favuzza; John C. Friel; John J. Kelly; Richard Perugini; Timothy C. Counihan



Treatment of acute silicoproteinosis by whole-lung lavage.  


Acute silicoproteinosis is a rare disease that occurs following a heavy inhalational exposure to silica dusts. Clinically, it resembles pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP); silica exposure is thought to be a cause of secondary PAP. We describe a patient with biopsy-confirmed acute silicoproteinosis whose course was complicated by acute hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Without clinical improvement despite antibiotic and steroid treatment, the patient was scheduled for whole-lung lavage under general anesthesia. Anesthetic challenges included double-lumen tube placement and single-lung ventilation in a hypoxic patient, facilitating lung lavage, and protecting the contralateral lung from catastrophic spillage. PMID:23632425

Stafford, Marshall; Cappa, Anthony; Weyant, Michael; Lara, Abigail; Ellis, James; Weitzel, Nathaen S; Puskas, Ferenc



Analysis of lung injury in humans by bronchoalveolar lavage after exposure to 0. 60 ppm nitrogen dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Animal studies have shown the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage in investigating responses of the lung to inhaled toxins. To investigate low-level nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) inhalation in humans, 6 healthy, asymptomatic, non-smoking volunteers were exposed to air or 0.60 ppm NO/sub 2/ by double-blind randomization for 3 hours in a 45 m/sup 3/ environmental chamber. Subjects exercised for 10 minutes every 30 minutes on a bicycle ergometer at a workload sufficient to quadruple minute ventilation. Pulmonary function parameters including FVC, FEV/sub 1/, and airway resistance did not change during or after exposure to NO/sub 2/. 3 1/2 hours after exposure subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage. No differences in lavage return volume, total cell recovery, cell viability, or differential cell counts were observed after NO/sub 2/ exposure. Recovery of total protein (14.31 +/- 2.08 (SE) vs 14.72 +/- 1.73 mg) was unchanged. After NO/sub 2/ there was a modest but significant increase in total recovery of aryl sulfatase (964 +/- 188 vs 825 +/- 186 units, 0.01 < p < 0.02) suggesting possible cell injury. Other enzymes including lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase did not change. Their results indicate that bronchoalveolar lavage is a sensitive technique for evaluating early injury induced by inhaled toxicants in humans.

Smeglin, A.M.; Utell, M.J.; Finkelstein, J.; Mavis, R.; Roberts, N.J. Jr.; Morrow, P.E.



Diagnosis of uterine vein thrombosis on transvaginal ultrasound.  


Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a potentially serious medical disorder, which may result in pulmonary embolism and death. Compression ultrasound is the investigation modality of choice for the diagnosis of DVT of the lower limb. Diagnosis of proximal thrombosis involving the pelvic veins is difficult and is usually made only after the thrombus extends into the veins of the lower limb. We present six cases of incidental uterine vein thrombosis diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. Our aim is to describe the technique of the examination of pelvic veins and criteria that could be used to diagnose uterine vein thrombosis. We also highlight difficulties in the management of women diagnosed with asymptomatic uterine vein thrombi as there is little evidence to guide clinicians in choosing between different treatment options. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:23716379

Mavrelos, D; Cohen, H; Pateman, K; Hoo, W; Foo, X; Jurkovic, D



Bronchoalveolar lavage, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme, and /sup 67/Ga scanning in extrathoracic sarcoidosis  

SciTech Connect

Results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), 67Ga scanning, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) assay are compared in the assessment of pulmonary involvement in ten cases of extrathoracic sarcoidosis. Standard clinical, radiologic, and pulmonary function tests detected no pulmonary changes in these patients, but BAL demonstrated an increased alveolar lymphocytosis in eight of ten cases. SACE levels were increased in two cases, and the thoracic gallium uptake was normal in all cases. BAL appears to be the best technique for diagnosing latent pulmonary involvement in extrathoracic sarcoidosis.

Wallaert, B.; Ramon, P.; Fournier, E.; Tonnel, A.B.; Voisin, C.



Nematodes collected by gastric lavage from live American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis, in Florida.  


Stomach nematodes were collected from 151 live American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis, from 3 lakes (Apopka, Griffin, and Woodruff) in north-central Florida using a gastric lavage technique. Four species were identified: Dujardinascaris waltoni, Ortleppascaris antipini, Brevimulticaecum tenuicolle, and larvae of Contracaecum sp. Of these, D. waltoni was the most prevalent species in all 3 lakes and was more prevalent in Lake Apopka than in the other 2 lakes. This is the first record of Contracaecum larvae in the American alligator and the second record of O. antipini. PMID:19281296

Waddle, Amanda Rice; Kinsella, John M; Ross, J Perran; Rojas-Flores, Edith; Percival, H Franklin; Forrester, Donald J



Uterine Artery Embolization as Nonsurgical Treatment of Uterine Myomas  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate safety, efficacy or complications of uterine artery embolization (UAE). Patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids (n = 157) were treated by selective bilateral UAE using 350–500??m sized polyvinyl alcohol particles. Bilateral UAE was successful in 152 (96.8%) cases. Baseline measures of clinical symptoms and MRI taken before the procedure were compared to those taken 3, 6, and 12 months after embolotherapy. Also, complications and outcomes were analyzed after procedure. All patients had an uneventful recovery and were able to return to normal activity within two weeks of embolization. After the procedure, most patients experienced crampy pelvic pain, of variable intensity, which was well managed with the standard analgesia protocol. Five (3%) of participants had persisting amenorrhea after procedure. None reported any new gynecologic or medical problem during the follow-up period. There were no deaths and no major permanent injuries. Reductions in mean uterine volume were 61% (P < 0.01) and in dominant fibroid volume 66% (P?0.01). The follow-up showed significant improvement of bleeding. In conclusion, uterine artery embolization is a successful, minimal invasive treatment of uterine fibroids that preserves the uterus, had minimal complications, and requires short hospitalization and recovery.

Tomislav, Strinic; Josip, Maskovic; Liana, Cambi Sapunar; Marko, Vulic; Marko, Jukic; Ante, Radic; Dzenis, Jelcic; Leo, Grandic; Ivica, Stipic; Marijan, Tandara; Situm, Kristina



Gadolinium-Enhanced MR Imaging in the Evaluation of Uterine Fibroids Treated with Uterine Artery Embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE . The purpose of this study was to determine whether tumor volume reduc- tion can be predicted by the infarction rate of uterine fibroids as seen on gadolinium-enhanced MR images obtained immediately after uterine artery embolization. MATERIALS AND METHODS . In our study, 36 women with symptomatic uterine fi- broids successfully underwent uterine artery embolization. Unenhanced and enhanced MR

Tetsuya Katsumori; Kazuhiro Nakajima; Mitsukuni Tokuhiro


What Are the Symptoms of Uterine Fibroids?  


... it? How is it diagnosed? What are the treatments for it? Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of uterine fibroids? Page Content ?Uterine fibroids can cause uncomfortable or ...


Sublethal damage of Escherichia coli by lung lavage.  


Incubation of Escherichia coli (10(4)/ml) in cell-free rabbit lung lavage for 30 min at 37 degree C resulted in a 70% reduction in microbial counts on deoxycholate agar but no decrease on blood agar. This effect was not due to agglutination, and the order of exposure was important, i.e., activity was seen only if lavage incubation proceeded deoxycholate treatment. After high speed centrifugation of lung lavage (50,000 X g), activity remained in the supernatant and not in the surfactant pellet, Ultrafiltration of the supernatant (UM to filter) yielded an active ultrafiltrate and an inactive retent. Ultrafiltrate activity was unaffected by heating to 95 degrees C but could be removed by treatment with trypsin or bentonite. Sephadex G-15 fractionation of lyophilized ultrafiltrate yielded three active peptide peaks. Electron photomicrographs showed that incubation with the initial G-15 peak followed by deoxycholate resulted in the disappearance of intracellular material in about half the cells, a finding not seen with deoxycholate or peptide along, and EDTA reversed activity of the G-15 peptide and ultrafiltrate. Rabbit lung lavage contains a complex antimicrobial system that facilitates bile acid destruction of bacteria. PMID:7032375

Laforce, F M; Boose, D S



Nebulization of sodium nitroprusside in lung-lavaged newborn piglets.  


The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that nebulization of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside may selectively reduce pulmonary vascular resistance and improve oxygenation in lung-lavaged newborn piglets. Thirteen anesthetized piglets (1-3 d old) were subjected to repeated lung lavages and then randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: 1) an SNP group, which received SNP nebulization, and 2) a saline group, which received saline nebulization. Pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance increased significantly after lung lavage, whereas cardiac output decreased significantly in both groups. After SNP nebulization, pulmonary arterial pressure decreased from 32+/-1 to 17+/-1 mm Hg (p < 0.01) and PVR decreased from 255+/-20 to 172+/-15 mm Hg L(-1) min(-1) kg(-1) (p < 0.01). The arterial tension of oxygen concomitantly increased from 9.4+/-4.0 to 17.0+/-3.0 kPa (p < 0.01), and the arterial/alveolar ratio of oxygen tension increased from 0.11+/-0.01 to 0.22+/-0.03 (p < 0.01). Systemic hemodynamics were not modified significantly during nebulization of SNP. On the other hand, all variables were stable during nebulization of saline. These data suggest that SNP nebulization produces a selective pulmonary vasodilatation and improves oxygenation in lung-lavaged newborn piglets. PMID:10022599

Yu, X Q; Saugstad, O D



Gastric phytobezoars may be treated by nasogastric Coca Cola lavage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large gastric phytobezoars may occur in patients with gastric dysmotility disorders. Treatment options include dissolution with enzymes, endoscopic fragmentation with removal or aspiration, and surgery. We report our experience with nasogastric cola lavage therapy. Over an 8-year period, five consecutive patients were referred to our unit for endoscopic treatment of large gastric phytobezoars. They included one patient with lobectomy for

Spiros D. Ladas; Konstantinos Triantafyllou; Charalabos Tzathas; Pericles Tassios; Theodore Rokkas; Sotirios A. Raptis


Mast cell and histamine content of human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  

PubMed Central

Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 97 patients including control patients with bronchial carcinoma (24) and patients with sarcoidosis (20), cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (9), and asthma (4), and others. Cytocentrifuged slides were stained by two methods: May-Grünwald Giemsa and toluidine blue. In the last 32 subjects the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was separated into supernatant and cell pellet for the subsequent assay of the performed mast cell mediator, histamine. Comparison of the two methods of staining showed a bias towards toluidine blue. Controls had a differential mean (SE) mast cell count of 0.07% (0.01%). Higher counts were noted in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis--0.61% (0.15%) (p less than 0.001)--and in sarcoidosis--0.14% (0.02%) (p less than 0.05). There was a strong correlation between absolute mast cell counts and cell lysate histamine concentration (r = 0.78, p less than 0.001). Less strong, significant, correlations between supernatant histamine concentration and absolute mast cell counts (r = 0.48, p less than 0.01) or cell lysate histamine concentration (r = 0.72, p less than 0.01) were also found. Derived mean values of histamine per mast cell ranged from 3.7 to 10.9 picograms. The mean histamine content of lavage fluid supernatant as a percentage of the total lavage fluid histamine was 24.9% (3.3%). The possible clinical significance of these findings is discussed. Images

Agius, R M; Godfrey, R C; Holgate, S T




Microsoft Academic Search

Stomach lavaging was used to study the feeding habits of northern elephanr seals (Mirounga angustirostris) found on San hliguel Island, California, during the spring of 1984. Fifty-nine elephant seals were chemically immobilized with an intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride. Once immobilized, an animal's stomach was intubated, filled nith 3-4 liters of water to create a slurry of the undigested food

George A. Antonelis; Mark S. Lowry; Douglas P. DeMaster; Clifford H. Fiscus



Polyethylene glycol-surfactant for lavage lung injury in rats.  


Addition of ionic and nonionic water-soluble polymers to pulmonary surfactants in the presence of inactivating substances prevents surfactant inactivation in vitro and improves lung function in several models of lung injury. However, a recent report found opposite effects when surfactant plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to treat lung injury caused by saline lung lavage. Therefore, we examined the reasons why the polymer effect is less evident in the saline lung lavage lung injury model. We treated rats with lavage lung injury with a commercial lung surfactant extract derived from bovine lung (Survanta) with or without addition of PEG. Groups treated with Survanta + PEG had significantly higher static post mortem lung volumes than groups treated with Survanta. However, groups treated with Survanta + PEG had more tracheal fluid and no significant benefit in arterial oxygenation compared with the group treated with Survanta, despite our use of measures to reduce pulmonary edema. Measurements after intravascular injections of (125)I-labeled albumin confirmed that addition of PEG increased extravascular lung water and that this effect is mitigated by furosemide. We conclude that surfactant + PEG mixtures are less effective in lavage injury than in other forms of lung injury because of increased extravascular lung water. PMID:16183815

Dehority, Walter; Lu, Karen W; Clements, John; Goerke, Jon; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Allen, Lennell; Taeusch, H William



Use of an Intubating Stylet as a Guide to Complete Uterine Curettage Complicated by Uterine Perforation  

PubMed Central

Completion of uterine curettage may be challenging following uterine perforation even under sonographic and laparoscopic monitoring. This report illustrates the use of a flexible intubating stylet as a guide to place the suction curette into the uterine cavity when sonography and laparoscopy alone are not successful. Use of a malleable instrument such as an intubating stylet as a guide should be considered an option when insertion of the suction curette into the uterine cavity is complicated by anatomic variation and uterine perforation.

Baum, Jonathan D.; Sherlock, Douglas J.; Atkinson, Andrew L.



Uterine diseases in cattle after parturition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen is common in cattle after parturition, often leading to infection and uterine disease. Clinical disease can be diagnosed and scored by examination of the vaginal mucus, which reflects the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. Viruses may also cause uterine disease and bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is tropic for

I. Martin Sheldon; Erin J. Williams; Aleisha N. A. Miller; Deborah M. Nash; Shan Herath



Etiology, symptomatology, and diagnosis of uterine myomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the currently available literature regarding the biology, etiology, symptoms, and diagnosis of uterine myomas. Design: Literature review of 220 articles pertaining to uterine myomas. Result(s): Although uterine myomas presently are not well understood, many advances have been made in the un- derstanding of the hormonal factors, genetic factors, growth factors, and molecular biology of these benign tumors.

William H. Parker



Middle meatal vs antral lavage cultures in intensive care unit patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study goal was to compare endoscopically guided middle meatal cultures with cultures of antral lavage aspirate in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sinusitis. Methods: Prospective study of febrile ICU patients seen for sinusitis at a tertiary medical center. Results: Of 31 antral lavages performed in 18 patients, 19 lavages yielded purulent or mucopurulent aspirate. Endoscopically guided middle

Stilianos E. Kountakis; Ioannis G. Skoulas



Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Docetaxel, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Uterine Sarcoma That Has Been Removed By Surgery

Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Leiomyosarcoma



Surgical Management of Neurovascular Bundle in Uterine Fibroid Pseudocapsule  

PubMed Central

The uterine fibroid pseudocapsule is a fibro-neurovascular structure surrounding a leiomyoma, separating it from normal peripheral myometrium. The fibroid pseudocapsule is composed of a neurovascular network rich in neurofibers similar to the neurovascular bundle surrounding a prostate. The nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy has several intriguing parallels to myomectomy. It may serve either as a useful model in modern fibroid surgical removal, or it may accelerate our understanding of the role of the fibrovascular bundle and neurotransmitters in the healing and restoration of reproductive potential after intracapsular myomectomy. Surgical innovations, such as laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy applied to the intracapsular technique with magnification of the fibroid pseudocapsule surrounding a leiomyoma, originated from the radical prostatectomy method that highlighted a careful dissection of the neurovascular bundle to preserve sexual functioning after prostatectomy. Gentle uterine leiomyoma detachment from the pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle has allowed a reduction in uterine bleeding and uterine musculature trauma with sparing of the pseudocapsule neuropeptide fibers. This technique has had a favorable impact on functionality in reproduction and has improved fertility outcomes. Further research should determine the role of the myoma pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle in the formation, growth, and pathophysiological consequences of fibroids, including pain, infertility, and reproductive outcomes.

Malvasi, Antonio; Hurst, Brad S.; Tsin, Daniel A.; Davila, Fausto; Dominguez, Guillermo; Dell'edera, Domenico; Cavallotti, Carlo; Negro, Roberto; Gustapane, Sarah; Teigland, Chris M.; Mettler, Liselotte



Using an intravenous catheter to carry out abdominal lavage in the gerbil.  


Abdominal lavage is used in laboratory rodents for a variety of applications but carries an inherent risk of abdominal organ laceration; therefore, personnel carrying out this procedure must have considerable expertise. In this paper, the authors describe an improved method for delivering sterile media to and collecting peritoneal fluids from dark-clawed Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) that had been peritoneally infected with filarial nematode parasites (genus Brugia). To carry out this gravity-assisted technique, the authors used a catheter to introduce sterile media into the peritoneal cavity of each gerbil and then to passively drain peritoneal fluid and larval worms for collection. Average fluid recovery was consistently greater when using this gravity-assisted method than when using aspiration. Larval parasites were recovered by both methods. To recover large volumes of fluid using the standard method of abdominal lavage, personnel typically must euthanize rodents. This gravity-assisted technique allows researchers to collect large numbers of parasite larvae without euthanizing gerbils. PMID:20410898

Griffiths, Kathryn G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Michalski, Michelle L



Arthroscopic Lavage and Debridement for Osteoarthritis of the Knee  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this review was to determine the effectiveness and adverse effects of arthroscopic lavage and debridement, with or without lavage, in the treatment of symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, and to conduct an economic analysis if evidence for effectiveness can be established. Questions Asked Does arthroscopic lavage improve motor function and pain associated with OA of the knee? Does arthroscopic debridement improve motor function and pain associated with OA of the knee? If evidence for effectiveness can be established, what is the duration of effect? What are the adverse effects of these procedures? What are the economic considerations if evidence for effectiveness can be established? Clinical Need Osteoarthritis, the most common rheumatologic musculoskeletal disorder, affects about 10% of the Canadian adult population. Although the natural history of OA is not known, it is a degenerative condition that affects the bone cartilage in the joint. It can be diagnosed at earlier ages, particularly within the sports injuries population, though the prevalence of non-injury-related OA increases with increasing age and varies with gender, with women being twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with this condition. Thus, with an aging population, the impact of OA on the health care system is expected to be considerable. Treatments for OA of the knee include conservative or nonpharmacological therapy, like physiotherapy, weight management and exercise; and more generally, intra-articular injections, arthroscopic surgery and knee replacement surgery. Whereas knee replacement surgery is considered an end-of-line intervention, the less invasive surgical procedures of lavage or debridement may be recommended for earlier and more severe disease. Both arthroscopic lavage and debridement are generally indicated in patients with knee joint pain, with or without mechanical problems, that are refractory to medical therapy. The clinical utility of these procedures is unclear, hence, the assessment of their effectiveness in this review. Lavage and Debridement Arthroscopic lavage involves the visually guided introduction of saline solution into the knee joint and removal of fluid, with the intent of extracting any excess fluids and loose bodies that may be in the knee joint. Debridement, in comparison, may include the introduction of saline into the joint, in addition to the smoothening of bone surface without any further intervention (less invasive forms of debridement), or the addition of more invasive procedures such as abrasion, partial or full meniscectomy, synovectomy, or osteotomy (referred to as debridement in combination with meniscectomy or other procedures). The focus of this health technology assessment is on the effectiveness of lavage, and debridement (with or without meniscal tear resection). Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat followed its standard procedures and searched these electronic databases: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment. The keywords searched were: arthroscopy, debridement, lavage, wound irrigation, or curettage; arthritis, rheumatoid, osteoarthritis; osteoarthritis, knee; knee or knee joint. Time frame: Only 2 previous health technology assessments were identified, one of which was an update of the other, and included 3 of 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from the first report. Therefore, the search period for inclusion of studies in this assessment was January 1, 1995 to April 24, 2005. Excluded were: case reports, comments, editorials, and letters. Identified were 335 references, including previously published health technology assessments, and 5 articles located through a manual search of references from published articles and health technology assessments. These were examined against the criteria, as described below, which resulted in the in



Gut lavage IgG and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist:interleukin 1 beta ratio as markers of intestinal inflammation in children with inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Whole gut lavage is currently used as preparation before radiological or endoscopic examination of the large bowel. AIM: To validate the gut lavage technique for the assessment of mucosal inflammation, by measuring intestinal IgG and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) in the fluid obtained. PATIENTS: Sixteen children with Crohn's disease (CD), 14 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 22 age matched controls. METHODS: Isotonic, non-absorbable polyethylene glycol based lavage solution was given orally or by nasogastric tube. Clear fluid was collected, filtered, and treated with protease inhibitors. IgG, IL-1 beta and IL-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1-ra) were measured by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: In patients with UC and CD, IgG and IL-1 beta levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than in controls. A positive correlation (p < 0.05) was found with disease activity scores. IL-1-ra levels were not significantly different in UC and CD, when compared with controls, but the IL-1-ra:IL-1 beta ratio was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in patients with UC and CD, and negatively (p < 0.001) correlated with IgG levels in lavage fluid. CONCLUSIONS: Gut lavage fluid IgG and IL-1 beta levels and IL-1-ra:IL-1 beta ratio may provide objective discrimination between active and inactive disease in children with inflammatory bowel disease.

Troncone, R; Caputo, N; Campanozzi, A; Cucciardi, M; Esposito, V; Russo, R; De Vizia, B; Greco, L; Cucchiara, S



Uterine Artery Embolization for Fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine leiomyomata, commonly known as fibroids, are extremely common benign lesions of uterus, usually managed by surgical management when symptomatic. The surgical options include myomectomy or hysterectomy. However surgery is associated with significant morbidity in terms of increased blood loss, operating time, post-operative complications and longer hospital stay. Another alternative treatment is hormonal therapy using gonadotrophin- releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists

Thanikasalam K; Hebbar S


Pregnancy following uterine fibroid embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper seeks to evaluate the ability to deliver term pregnancies following uterine fibroid embolization, and to identify impediments to pregnancy in the embolization procedure. Study design: Four physicians performed embolization procedures at various facilities. Patients were asked if fertility was an issue prior to embolization. We measured follicle-stimulating hormone levels before and after embolization. Clinical follow-up, six months

B McLucas; S Goodwin; L Adler; A Rappaport; R Reed; R Perrella



Ultrastructural changes in bronchoalveolar lavage cells in sarcoidosis and comparison with the tissue granuloma.  

PubMed Central

The authors undertook this study to determine whether there were any morphologic changes in bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytes and macrophages in sarcoidosis and, in particular, to determine whether changes described previously in the mononuclear phagocytes of sarcoid granulomas were also evident in such cells obtained by lavage. Lavage cells from 28 sarcoidosis patients were studied by transmission electron microscopy and compared with lavage cells from 17 control subjects and with lung tissue granulomas from 5 sarcoidosis patients. Interactions between mononuclear phagocytes, especially subplasmalemmal linear densities, and between these cells and lymphocytes were observed in both the tissue granulomas and lavage specimens from sarcoidosis patients. Subplasmalemmal linear densities were never observed in control lavage specimens. Fully developed epitheloid cells were not identified in lavage specimens, but differences were nevertheless found between the lavage cells from sarcoidosis patients and control subjects: in particular, alveolar macrophages in sarcoidosis were larger and showed better developed pseudopodia, more marked polarity, less nuclear heterochromatin, and lysosomes that were larger and more numerous but less electron-dense than normal. Lymphocytes were also enlarged and contained more lysosomes. It is concluded that although there are only a few similarities between the cells of the granuloma and those obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage in sarcoidosis, there are noticeable differences between the lavage cells of sarcoidosis patients and control subjects. In sarcoidosis, a variable proportion (10-70%) of the lavage cells show morphologic features of "activation." Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 10 Figure 11

Danel, C.; Dewar, A.; Corrin, B.; Turner-Warwick, M.; Chretien, J.



Continuous postoperative lavage in the treatment of peritoneal sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of peritonitis after perforation or trauma to the colon continues to be an important one for colon and rectal\\u000a surgeons. Treatments vary, but mortality and morbidity have always been high. For these reasons, the usefulness of continuous\\u000a peritoneal lavage as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of peritonitis was examined. Twenty patients with gross peritoneal\\u000a contamination were treated with

William C. Jennings; C. Douglas Wood; James M. Guernsey



Detection of Human Herpesvirus7 DNA in Bronchoalveolar Lavage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) is a highly seroprevalent virus that, following primary infection, establishes latency or persistence in some tissues, including lung. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HHV-7 in the lower respiratory tract of hospitalized adult patients. Methods: The prevalence of HHV-7 DNA was determined by quantitative real-time PCR in 212 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)

Sara Astegiano; Cristina Costa; Maria Elena Terlizzi; Francesca Sidoti; Stefano Gambarino; Samantha Mantovani; Paolo Solidoro; Rossana Cavallo; Massimiliano Bergallo



Clinical approach for the classification of congenital uterine malformations.  


A more objective, accurate and non-invasive estimation of uterine morphology is nowadays feasible based on the use of modern imaging techniques. The validity of the current classification systems in effective categorization of the female genital malformations has been already challenged. A new clinical approach for the classification of uterine anomalies is proposed. Deviation from normal uterine anatomy is the basic characteristic used in analogy to the American Fertility Society classification. The embryological origin of the anomalies is used as a secondary parameter. Uterine anomalies are classified into the following classes: 0, normal uterus; I, dysmorphic uterus; II, septate uterus (absorption defect); III, dysfused uterus (fusion defect); IV, unilateral formed uterus (formation defect); V, aplastic or dysplastic uterus (formation defect); VI, for still unclassified cases. A subdivision of these main classes to further anatomical varieties with clinical significance is also presented. The new proposal has been designed taking into account the experience gained from the use of the currently available classification systems and intending to be as simple as possible, clear enough and accurate as well as open for further development. This proposal could be used as a starting point for a working group of experts in the field. PMID:22611348

Grimbizis, Grigoris F; Campo, Rudi



Uterine rupture during trial of labor: controversy of induction's methods.  


The rate of attempted vaginal birth after cesarean has decreased during the past 15 years. Most of the change since the mid 1990s is the result of increasing reports of uterine rupture during trial of labor, with the highest rates related to labor induction. Not all induction agents have the same magnitude of increased risk of uterine rupture, and there have been only a small number of randomized controlled trials of labor induction in women with previous cesarean delivery. Evaluation of the evidence on specific methods of induction reveals that the lowest rate of uterine rupture occurs with oxytocin at 1.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9%-1.5%) then dinoprostone at 2% (95% CI, 1.1%-3.5%), and the highest rate is with misoprostol, 6% (95% CI, 0.74%-51.4%). We review the incidence of uterine rupture during induction of labor after previous cesarean and examine the methods of induction and the safety of different techniques for cervical ripening, induction, and/or augmentation of labor in women with previous cesarean delivery. PMID:23151757

Ophir, Ella; Odeh, Marwan; Hirsch, Yael; Bornstein, Jacob



Bronchoalveolar lavage and gallium-67 lung scanning in the evaluation of asbestos-exposed individuals  

SciTech Connect

In this study, an attempt is made to evaluate certain parameters that might indicate the beginning of a certain fibrogenic activity in the lung parenchyma, even before such changes become visible on the chest x-ray. The hypothesis is that studies such as certain bronchoalveolar immunological characteristics and Gallium-67 lung scans may be more sensitive indicators of parenchymal lung damage in response to asbestos inhalation than conventional radiographic criteria. If so, then in those cases where the criteria for the diagnosis of asbestosis lack the presence of parenchymal changes, it would be unwise to deny the diagnosis unless further investigation, such as the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis and the Gallium-67 lung scan techniques, are made available. The most significant laboratory parameter for bronchoalveolar lavage, in this study, is that of Neutrophils (PMNs). All three asbestos-exposed groups showed no differences when compared with each other, while such differences were statistically significant when such groups were separately compared with the normal comparison group. A similar finding existed also when the Helper: suppressor T-Cell ratios were compared, and found to be higher in all the asbestos-exposed groups.

Al-Tawil, W.G.



Bronchoalveolar lavage total cell count in interstitial lung diseases--does it matter?  


Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a useful technique for differential diagnosis of various interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and is usually realized by analysis of the differential cell count. This study was conducted to estimate the value of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) total cell count (TCC) in the diagnosis of ILD. We analyzed 237 BAL samples from patients with ILD: sarcoidosis (SA), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), and smoking-related ILD (sr-ILD). The control group consisted of 30 healthy volunteers. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences in the BALF TCC between healthy controls and patients with SA, IPF, HP, COP, sr-ILD, and eosinophilic disorders (mean values 6.9 vs. 14.5, 22.5, 22.8, 20.7, 64.5, and 27.3?×?10(6), respectively). Logistic regression revealed a significant relation between the TCC and ILD diagnosis. We conclude that the TCC, as well as the value of total number of inflammatory cells, should be reported in the description of BAL. PMID:21882075

Domaga?a-Kulawik, Joanna; Skirecki, Tomasz; Maskey-Warzechowska, Marta; Grubek-Jaworska, Hanna; Chazan, Ryszarda



MR Reproducibility in the Assessment of Uterine Fibroids for Patients Scheduled for Uterine Artery Embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly applied in the evaluation of uterine fibroids. However, little is known about\\u000a the reproducibility of MRI in the assessment of uterine fibroids. This study evaluates the inter- and intraobserver variation\\u000a in the assessment of the uterine fibroids and concomitant adenomyosis in women scheduled for uterine artery embolization (UAE).\\u000a Forty patients (mean age: 44.5 years)

Nicole A. Volkers; Wouter J. K. Hehenkamp; Anje M. Spijkerboer; Albert D. Moolhuijzen; Erwin Birnie; Willem M. Ankum; Jim A. Reekers



Uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection.  


Feline endometrial adenocarcinomas are uncommon malignant neoplasms that have been poorly characterized to date. In this study, we describe a uterine adenocarcinoma in a Persian cat with feline leukemia virus infection. At the time of presentation, the cat, a female Persian chinchilla, was 2 years old. The cat underwent surgical ovariohystectomy. A cross-section of the uterine wall revealed a thickened uterine horn. The cat tested positive for feline leukemia virus as detected by polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological examination revealed uterine adenocarcinoma that had metastasized to the omentum, resulting in thickening and the formation of inflammatory lesions. Based on the histopathological findings, this case was diagnosed as a uterine adenocarcinoma with abdominal metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection. PMID:22232645

Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa; Kim, Okjin



Uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection  

PubMed Central

Feline endometrial adenocarcinomas are uncommon malignant neoplasms that have been poorly characterized to date. In this study, we describe a uterine adenocarcinoma in a Persian cat with feline leukemia virus infection. At the time of presentation, the cat, a female Persian chinchilla, was 2 years old. The cat underwent surgical ovariohystectomy. A cross-section of the uterine wall revealed a thickened uterine horn. The cat tested positive for feline leukemia virus as detected by polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological examination revealed uterine adenocarcinoma that had metastasized to the omentum, resulting in thickening and the formation of inflammatory lesions. Based on the histopathological findings, this case was diagnosed as a uterine adenocarcinoma with abdominal metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection.

Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa



Uterine artery embolization for adenomyosis without fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the potential usefulness of transcatheter uterine artery embolization as a treatment for symptomatic adenomyosis in patients without uterine fibroids.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Uterine artery embolization using polyvinyl alcohol particles sized 250–710 mm was performed in 43 patients (mean; 40.3 years, range; 31–52 years) with dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, or bulk-related symptoms (pelvic heaviness, urinary frequency) due to adenomyosis without fibroids.

M. D Kim; J. W Won; D. Y Lee; C.-S Ahn



Minimally invasive treatments of uterine fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis assesses clinical results and technical developments of two minimally invasive treatments for symptomatic uterine fibroids: uterine artery embolization (UAE) and magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU). \\u000a\\u000aPart I: Uterine artery embolization\\u000a\\u000aThe results of a survey on UAE practice in Europe are described. Respondents from 24 countries were included. Most centers had 5-10 years of experience with

M. J. Voogt



Robotically assisted laparoscopic microsurgical uterine horn anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and sterility issues with regard to the use of a robotic device to perform uterine horn anastomosis in a live porcine model.Design: Prospective animal study.Setting: Landrace-Yorkshire pigs in a conventional laboratory setting.Intervention(s): Six female pigs underwent laparoscopic bipolar electrocoagulation of the distal uterine horns. Two weeks later, the uterine horns were reanastomosed laparoscopically with

Harout Margossian; Antonio Garcia-Ruiz; Tommaso Falcone; Jeffrey M Goldberg; Marjan Attaran; Michel Gagner



Calcium signaling and uterine contractility.  


Changes in Ca(2+) signals within the myometrium have important functional consequences, as they determine contractility. We show that the basic phasic nature of uterine contractions, which is essential for successful labor, is critically dependent on Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels, and hence in turn, on membrane potential. Thus changes in ion channel expression around term will play an important role in governing uterine excitability and contractility. There remains uncertainty about which channels are present in human myometrium and the nature of the pacemaker mechanism that initiates the action potential. The sarcoplasmic reticulum may augment, to a small extent, the necessary increase in [Ca(2+)] for contraction when agonists stimulate the uterus, but its main role appears to be to control excitability, acting as a negative feedback mechanism to limit contractions. Myosin light chain kinase activity and phosphorylation of myosin are essential components in the pathway of uterine contraction, once Ca(2+) has been elevated. Modulation of myosin light chain phosphatase activity can also influence contractions, but the effects are small compared with those modulating myosin light chain kinase. Ca(2+)-sensitizing pathways may not be utilized much in modulating normal phasic uterine activity, and caution is needed in extrapolating from in vitro experiments to in vivo conditions, especially because there may be redundant pathways. There is a need to study appropriate physiologic preparations, but these are not always available (eg, preterm laboring myometrium) and to combine functional studies with modern molecular approaches, to advance our understanding to a new level, from which better therapeutics will be developed. PMID:12853086

Wray, Susan; Jones, K; Kupittayanant, S; Li, Y; Matthew, A; Monir-Bishty, E; Noble, K; Pierce, S J; Quenby, S; Shmygol, A V



[Mass screening for uterine cancer].  


Begun in the latter half of the sixties, mass screening for uterine cancer received a fresh impetus with the implementation in February of 1983 of the Health of the Aged Act. Under the latter law, a certain number of problems were also encountered, since autonomous municipalities were newly involved. This report is a description of the Pap test under the new screening system and methods of the uterine cancer mass screening approach or the screening system advanced by Japan Society of obstetrics & gynecology, committee on uterine cancer screening. It covers the primary screening, the secondary screening and detailed screening, their roles and manner in which they are implemented in terms of the local situation. Also, the points deserving the greatest care up through the detailed screening are presented. The importance in particular of the results of the Pap test at the stage of the primary screening, the histological findings, and the reliable transaction of the specimens therefrom, are emphasized. For the mass screening for uterine cancer to result in lower cancer mortality, it is necessary that there be at least 30% of the women aged 30 and over who reside in a given district submitting to the mass screening judging from the results garnered both at home and abroad. The measures needed to reach this goal are introduced. The steps conventionally employed to attain this objective of a higher proportion of women being examined, as well as the mass media propaganda, have their limits. The role of the committees for supervising administration of the screening must be amplified as a concrete means to implement the Health of the Aged Act; the role of the municipalities, which support this realization, must be stressed, the importance of administration policy in the form of periodical examinations, examinations focused on the women of certain ages and the plans for testing with due balance in responsibility between mobile and stationary facility examinations, must be upgraded. Communications with the local medical association and related organizations is also crucial. PMID:4073921

Tenjin, Y



Maternal Uterine Vascular Remodeling During Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms.

Osol, George; Mandala, Maurizio



Effect of bronchopulmonary lavage on lung retention and clearance of particulate material in hamsters.  

PubMed Central

Hamsters were exposed to an aerosol of fused aluminosilicate particles (FAP) labeled with 57Co. Three groups of animals were given bronchopulmonary lavage, beginning at either 1 week, 1 month, or 6 months after exposure. Each treated group was lavaged eight times over a period of 25 days. Each lavage involved 10 saline washes of the lungs. For each group, about 60-70% of the body content of 57Co at the start of lavage treatment was removed; nearly half of this was recovered in the first two lavages. A positive correlation was demonstrated between the macrophage content and 57Co activity of the washings. The subsequent fractional clearance rate of 57Co from lavaged animals was not significantly different from that in a group of untreated control animals.

Ellender, M; Hodgson, A; Wood, K L; Moody, J C



Evaluating the effect of intraoperative peritoneal lavage on bacterial culture in dogs with suspected septic peritonitis  

PubMed Central

This pilot study describes the effect of intraoperative peritoneal lavage (IOPL) on bacterial counts and outcome in clinical cases of septic peritonitis. Intraoperative samples were cultured before and after IOPL. Thirty-three dogs with presumed septic peritonitis on the basis of cytology were managed surgically during the study period. Positive pre-lavage bacterial cultures were found in 14 cases, 13 of which were a result of intestinal leakage. The post-lavage cultures showed fewer isolates in 9 cases and in 1 case became negative. The number of dogs with a decrease in the concentration of bacteria cultured from pre-lavage to post-lavage samples was not statistically significant. There was no significant effect of the change in pre- to post-lavage culture, single versus multiple types of bacteria, selection of an appropriate empiric antimicrobial on survival or the need for subsequent surgery.

Swayne, Seanna L.; Brisson, Brigitte; Weese, J. Scott; Sears, William



The Hazards of Gastric Lavage for Intentional Self-Poisoning in a Resource Poor Location  

PubMed Central

Objective: The 10-20% case fatality found with self-poisoning in the developing world differs markedly from the 0.5% found in the West. This may explain in part why the recent movement away from the use of gastric lavage in the West has not been followed in the developing world. After noting probable harm from gastric lavage in Sri Lanka, we performed an observational study to determine how lavage is routinely performed and the frequency of complications. Case series: Fourteen consecutive gastric lavages were observed in four hospitals. Lavage was given to patients unable or unwilling to undergo forced emesis, regardless of whether they gave consent or the time elapsed since ingestion. It was also given to patients who had taken non-lethal ingestions. The airway was rarely protected in patients with reduced consciousness, large volumes of fluid were given for each cycle (200 to more than 1000 ml), and monitoring was not used. Serious complications likely to be due to the lavage were observed including cardiac arrest and probable aspiration of fluid. Health care workers perceived lavage as being highly effective and often life-saving; there was peer and relative pressure to perform lavage in self-poisoned patients. Conclusions: Gastric lavage as performed for highly toxic poisons in a resource-poor location is hazardous. In the absence of evidence for patient benefit from lavage, (and in agreement with some local guidelines), we believe that lavage should be considered for few patients – in those who have recently taken a potentially fatal dose of a poison, and who either give their verbal consent for the procedure or are sedated and intubated. Ideally, a randomised controlled trial should be performed to determine the balance of risks and benefits of safely performed gastric lavage in this patient population.

Eddleston, Michael; Haggalla, Sapumal; Reginald, K; Sudarshan, K; Senthilkumaran, M; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Ariaratnam, Ariaranee; Sheriff, M H Rezvi; Warrell, David A; Buckley, Nick A



Use of an intubating stylet as a guide to complete uterine curettage complicated by uterine perforation.  


Completion of uterine curettage may be challenging following uterine perforation even under sonographic and laparoscopic monitoring. This report illustrates the use of a flexible intubating stylet as a guide to place the suction curette into the uterine cavity when sonography and laparoscopy alone are not successful. Use of a malleable instrument such as an intubating stylet as a guide should be considered an option when insertion of the suction curette into the uterine cavity is complicated by anatomic variation and uterine perforation. PMID:24078890

Baum, Jonathan D; Sherlock, Douglas J; Atkinson, Andrew L



Cardiopulmonary function and morphologic changes in beagle dogs after multiple lung lavages  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the long-term biomedical risks of multiple, massive saline lung lavage using dogs. Risks were assessed using clinical examinations of cardiopulmonary function, thoracic radiographs, auscultation of the chest, body temperature, and hematologic values. Thirty-six dogs given 10 lavages over a 49-day period had no gross lesions at time of necropsy 7 days after the last lavage. Six dogs, followed with clinical examinations after each of 10 lung lavages, had no detectable effects from the lavage except for elevated body temperature and bronchial breathing at 24 hr after some procedures. No gross lesions were found at sacrifice 28 days after the last lavage. The only histologic lesions found were those also found in unlavaged control dogs. Six dogs that were lavaged 10 or more times had normal pulmonary function values for 4 yr after the last lung lavage. No chronic sequelae were found in healthy beagle dogs given 10 or more lung lavages suggesting a minimal long-term risk associated with these procedures.

Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; Halliwell, W.H.; Slauson, D.O.



Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.




Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) represents a novel, minimally invasive method of treatment for uterine fibroids. It has been carried out at Maribor Teaching Hospital since 2001. The aim of our investigation was to appraise the eventual objective improvement following the procedure, and at the same time to establish how the patients experienced the procedure itself and how they estimated


Defining postpartum uterine disease in cattle.  


Uterine function is often compromised in cattle by bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen after parturition, and pathogenic bacteria often persist, causing uterine disease, a key cause of infertility in cattle. However, the definition or characterization of uterine disease frequently lacks precision or varies among research groups. The aim of the present paper was to provide clear clinical definitions of uterine disease that researchers could adopt. Puerperal metritis should be defined as an animal with an abnormally enlarged uterus and a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with signs of systemic illness (decreased milk yield, dullness or other signs of toxemia) and fever > 39.5 degrees C, within 21 days after parturition. Animals that are not systemically ill, but have an abnormally enlarged uterus and a purulent uterine discharge detectable in the vagina, within 21 days post partum, may be classified as having clinical metritis. Clinical endometritis is characterised by the presence of purulent (> 50% pus) uterine discharge detectable in the vagina 21 days or more after parturition, or mucuopurulent (approximately 50% pus, 50% mucus) discharge detectable in the vagina after 26 days post partum. In the absence of clinical endometritis, a cow with subclinical endometritis is defined by > 18% neutrophils in uterine cytology samples collected 21-33 days post partum, or > 10% neutrophils at 34-47 days. Pyometra is defined as the accumulation of purulent material within the uterine lumen in the presence of a persistent corpus luteum and a closed cervix. In conclusion, we have suggested definitions for common postpartum uterine diseases, which can be readily adopted by researchers and veterinarians. PMID:16226305

Sheldon, I Martin; Lewis, Gregory S; LeBlanc, Stephen; Gilbert, Robert O



Diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy and accessory techniques.  


We reviewed the most important diagnostic procedures implemented by means of flexible bronchoscopy, including bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing and biopsy, transbronchial lung biopsy and transbronchial needle aspiration. We reviewed the tools, techniques and potential complications of this examination. PMID:22317896

Dionísio, J



Relaxin mediates uterine artery compliance during pregnancy and increases uterine blood flow  

PubMed Central

Normal pregnancy involves dramatic remodeling of the uterine vasculature, with abnormal vascular adaptations contributing to pregnancy diseases such as preeclampsia. The peptide hormone relaxin is important for the renal and systemic hemodynamic adaptations to pregnancy, and has been shown to increase arterial compliance and outward hypertrophic remodeling. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that relaxin acts on its receptor, RXFP1, to mediate uterine artery compliance in late pregnancy and increase uterine blood flow velocity in rats. RXFP1 was predominantly localized to the tunica media vascular smooth muscle cells in the uterine artery, although receptors were also detected in endothelial cells. Highest expression of Rxfp1 in the uterine artery occurred in estrus and early pregnancy. Isolated uterine arteries from late pregnant rats treated with a monoclonal antibody against circulating relaxin (MCA1) had significantly increased vessel wall stiffness compared with controls, with no reduction in wall thickness. Chronic infusion of relaxin (4 ?g/h, osmotic minipump) for 5 d in nonpregnant rats significantly increased uterine artery blood flow velocity. Overall, these data demonstrate a functional role for relaxin in mediating uterine artery compliance in pregnant rats, which may be necessary to maintain adequate uterine blood flow to the uterus and placenta.—Vodstrcil, L. A., Tare, M., Novak, J., Dragomir, N., Ramirez, R. J., Wlodek, M. E., Conrad, K. P., Parry, L. J. Relaxin mediates uterine artery compliance during pregnancy and increases uterine blood flow.

Vodstrcil, Lenka A.; Tare, Marianne; Novak, Jacqueline; Dragomir, Nicoleta; Ramirez, Rolando J.; Wlodek, Mary E.; Conrad, Kirk P.; Parry, Laura J.



Abdominal wall desmoid tumor mimicking a subserosal uterine leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Desmoid tumors are cytologically bland fibrous neoplasms originating from musculoaponeurotic structures throughout the body. The cause of desmoid tumors is uncertain, but may be related to trauma or hormonal factors, or may have a genetic association. These tumors can be found in some young women during pregnancy or just after giving birth. We report herein a case of desmoid tumor on the inner aspect of the abdominal wall that mimicked a large subserosal uterine leiomyoma. Initial clinical examination of the patient suggested a large abdominal wall tumor, while the imaging techniques including transabdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging suggested a large subserosal uterine leiomyoma as the initial diagnosis. This case emphasizes the importance of clinical examination during the diagnostic process.

Al-Jefout, Moamar; Walid, Alabed; Esam, Abomayale; Amin, Alqaisi; Nather, Hawa; Sultan, Nawayse; Maysa, Khadra



Analysis of ferruginous bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage from foundry workers.  

PubMed Central

Classical ferruginous bodies in tissue samples are considered to be markers of past exposure to asbestos. Recent studies have shown that the presence of ferruginous bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid correlates with past exposure to asbestos and offers a more sensitive reference than occupational history. Lavage samples from five subjects who had worked in foundries were evaluated by light microscopy for the presence of ferruginous bodies and by transmission electron microscopy for both characterisation of the uncoated fibre burden and analysis of the cores of the ferruginous bodies. All samples at lower magnification (light microscopy (200 x)) contained ferruginous bodies that were externally consistent with asbestos bodies. At higher magnification (400 x), a separate population from this group could be identified by the presence of a thin black ribbon. Transmission electron microscopy of the core materials of ferruginous bodies and comparable uncoated particulates supported the reliability of higher magnification light microscopy for distinguishing most of those non-asbestos cores; however, a population of transparent non-asbestos cored ferruginous bodies were also shown to exist. Images

Dodson, R F; O'Sullivan, M; Corn, C J; Garcia, J G; Stocks, J M; Griffith, D E



Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Uterine Cervix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is an uncommon tumor occurring mostly in extremities of children and adolescents. This type of tumor located in the uterine cervix has not been reported previously. A case of pure alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma arising from the uterine cervix in a 45-year-old patient and having a very aggressive clinical course is described. The patient presented with rapidly progressive cervical tumor,

Janusz Emerich; El?bieta Senkus; Tomasz Konefka



I. Uterine fibroid embolization: Preprocedure assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing clinical experience with uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) has improved the ability of interventionalist radiologists to discern who is and who is not an appropriate candidate for this procedure. Initial evaluation should be directed at obtaining answers to the following key questions: (1) Does the patient have uterine fibroids that account for her symptoms and are they severe enough to

Suresh Vedantham; Keith M. Sterling; Scott C. Goodwin; James B. Spies; Richard Shlansky-Goldberg; Robert L. Worthington-Kirsch; Robert T. Andrews; David M. Hovsepian; Steven J. Smith; Howard B. Chrisman



Hypercalcemia: An Unusual Manifestation of Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

We present a case of hypercalcemia in a 79-year-old female likely secondary to uterine leiomyoma. To the best of our knowledge, hypercalcemia due to a benign tumor has only been described in five cases. Of these above five cases, uterine leiomyoma was thought to be the cause of hypercalcemia in three cases.

Garcha, Amarinder Singh; Gumaste, Purva; Cherian, Sujith; Khanna, Apurv



Evolutionary history of the uterine serpins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioinformatics analysis was conducted on the four members of the uterine serpin (US) family of serpins. Evolutionary analysis of the protein sequences and 86 homologous serpins by maximum parsimony and distance methods indicated that the uterine serpins pro- teins form a clade distinct from other serpins. Ancestral sequences were reconstructed through- out the evolutionary tree by parsimony. These suggested

Morgan R. Peltier; Lee C. Raley; David A. Liberles; Steven A. Benner; Peter J. Hansen



Acute Renal Failure after Uterine Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Renal failure is a potential complication of any endovascular procedure using iodinated contrast, including uterine artery embolization (UAE). In this report we present a case of acute renal failure (ARF) following UAE performed as a treatment for uterine fibroids. The likely causes of ARF in this patient are explored and the possible etiologies of renal failure in patients undergoing UAE are reviewed.

Rastogi, Sachin [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Wu, Yu-Hsin [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (United States); Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Stavropoulos, S. William [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)], E-mail:



Asbestosis: assessment by bronchoalveolar lavage and measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability.  


Thirty two patients with asbestosis were assessed by means of bronchoalveolar lavage (27 patients) and the half time clearance from lungs to blood (T1/2LB) of an inhaled aerosol of diethylenetriamine pentacetate (DTPA) labelled with technetium 99m (32 patients). T1/2LB was also measured in 20 non-smoking normal individuals and 17 smokers without a history of exposure to asbestos. Thirteen patients (46%) showed an increase in the percentage of neutrophils with or without an increase in the percentage of eosinophils and eight (29%) showed an increased percentage of lymphocytes. The number of neutrophils plus eosinophils expressed as a percentage of the total count was positively correlated with the length of the history of disease (r = 0.53, p less than 0.025) and greater percentages were associated with more severe impairment of lung function. Smokers had lower percentages of lymphocytes than non-smokers (p less than 0.002) and showed increased proportions of neutrophils and eosinophils more often than non-smokers (p less than 0.05). In 18 non-smokers with asbestosis the mean T1/2LB was 33.8 (range 10.0-62.0) minutes, significantly less than 57.2 (30.5-109) minutes in 20 non-smoking normal subjects (p less than 0.002). In non-smokers shorter T1/2LB correlated with a longer time since first exposure to asbestos (r = -0.65, p less than 0.005), longer duration of exposure (r = -0.70, p less than 0.001), and a shorter time since last exposure (r = 0.59, p less than 0.01). Shorter T1/2LB was also associated with increased inflammatory activity as shown by higher bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts (r = -0.53, p less than 0.025) and higher combined percentages of neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes (r = -0.47, p less than 0.05). The techniques of bronchoalveolar lavage and measurement of inhaled solute clearance may be useful in assessing inflammatory activity in asbestosis. PMID:4035617

Gellert, A R; Langford, J A; Winter, R J; Uthayakumar, S; Sinha, G; Rudd, R M



Asbestosis: assessment by bronchoalveolar lavage and measurement of pulmonary epithelial permeability.  

PubMed Central

Thirty two patients with asbestosis were assessed by means of bronchoalveolar lavage (27 patients) and the half time clearance from lungs to blood (T1/2LB) of an inhaled aerosol of diethylenetriamine pentacetate (DTPA) labelled with technetium 99m (32 patients). T1/2LB was also measured in 20 non-smoking normal individuals and 17 smokers without a history of exposure to asbestos. Thirteen patients (46%) showed an increase in the percentage of neutrophils with or without an increase in the percentage of eosinophils and eight (29%) showed an increased percentage of lymphocytes. The number of neutrophils plus eosinophils expressed as a percentage of the total count was positively correlated with the length of the history of disease (r = 0.53, p less than 0.025) and greater percentages were associated with more severe impairment of lung function. Smokers had lower percentages of lymphocytes than non-smokers (p less than 0.002) and showed increased proportions of neutrophils and eosinophils more often than non-smokers (p less than 0.05). In 18 non-smokers with asbestosis the mean T1/2LB was 33.8 (range 10.0-62.0) minutes, significantly less than 57.2 (30.5-109) minutes in 20 non-smoking normal subjects (p less than 0.002). In non-smokers shorter T1/2LB correlated with a longer time since first exposure to asbestos (r = -0.65, p less than 0.005), longer duration of exposure (r = -0.70, p less than 0.001), and a shorter time since last exposure (r = 0.59, p less than 0.01). Shorter T1/2LB was also associated with increased inflammatory activity as shown by higher bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts (r = -0.53, p less than 0.025) and higher combined percentages of neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes (r = -0.47, p less than 0.05). The techniques of bronchoalveolar lavage and measurement of inhaled solute clearance may be useful in assessing inflammatory activity in asbestosis.

Gellert, A R; Langford, J A; Winter, R J; Uthayakumar, S; Sinha, G; Rudd, R M



Hysteroscopic treatment of uterine septum.  


Authors report their 4 years experience in the treatment of uterine septum by hysteroscopic metroplasty. 35 patients underwent procedure; no complications occurred. Postoperative reproductive outcome was evaluated in 29 women with follow-up longer than 6 months. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to presence or absence of associated factors compromising fertility. Group A composed of 19 women in which uterine septum was the only cause of pregnancy wastage. Preoperatively they had 40 pregnancies all ending in spontaneous abortion. Postoperatively 15 (79%) patients conceived and 13 (68%) had a live baby. Totally they had 18 pregnancies, 2 (12%) ended in abortion, 1 in molar pregnancy, 1 in premature delivery, 11 delivered at term and 3 are currently beyond 20 weeks pregnant, for a live birth rate of 78%. Life table analysis showed an estimated pregnancy rate of 82% at 12 months, monthly fecundability was 0.13. Group B composed of 10 women in which other factors compromising fertility were present. Preoperatively only 5 experienced pregnancy. Totally they had 8 pregnancies 7 (86%) of which ended in abortions and one in extrauterine pregnancy. Postoperatively only 3 (30%) had pregnancy and all had a live baby. Totally they had 4 pregnancies, 1 ended in abortion and 3 at term for a live birth rate of 75%. Life table analysis showed an estimated pregnancy rate of 11% at 12 months, monthly fecundability rate was 0.01. Hysteroscopic metroplasty proved to be safe and effective for solving pregnancy wastage caused by uterine septum. If other factors compromising fertility were present metroplasty did not increase fecundability, but improved live birth rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2636810

Guarino, S; Incandela, S; Maneschi, M; Vegna, G; D'Anna, M R; Leone, S; Maneschi, F


Preoperative Uterine Artery Embolization (PUAE) Before Uterine Fibroid Myomectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the potential of uterine artery embolization to minimize blood loss and facilitate easier removal of fibroids during subsequent myomectomy. Methods. This retrospective study included 22 patients (median age 37 years), of whom at least 15 wished to preserve their fertility. They presented with at least one fibroid (mean diameter 85.6 mm) and had undergone preoperative uterine artery embolization (PUAE) with resorbable gelatin sponge. Results. No complication or technical failure of embolization was identified. Myomectomies were performed during laparoscopy (12 cases) and laparotomy (9 cases). One hysterectomy was performed. The following were noted: easier dissection of fibroids (mean 5.6 per patient, range 1-30); mean intervention time 113 min (range 25-210 min); almost bloodless surgery, with a mean peroperative blood loss of 90 ml (range 0-806 ml); mean hemoglobin pretherapeutically 12.3 g/dl (range 5.9-15.2 g/dl) and post-therapeutically 10.3 g/dl (range 5.6-13.3 g/dl), with no blood transfusion needed. Patients were discharged on day 4 on average and the mean sick leave was 1 month. Conclusion. Preoperative embolization is associated with minimal intraoperative blood loss. It does not increase the complication rate or impair operative dissection, and improves the chances of performing conservative surgery.

Dumousset, E.; Chabrot, P.; Rabischong, B.; Mazet, N.; Nasser, S.; Darcha, C.; Garcier, J.M.; Mage, G.; Boyer, L. [Services de Radiologie B et Gynecologie, hopital G. Montpied, CHU Clermont Ferrand (France)], E-mail:



[Prognostic factors uterine corpus cancer].  


The accumulated clinico-pathological dates and recent molecular biological studies have identified several prognostic factors for endometrial cancers. FIGO staging has taken into consideration of the tumor expansion and is the most important predictor in evaluating patient outcome. Characteristics of tumor biology, such as morphology of tumor and depth of invasion are also important prognostic considerations. Molecular markers indicating genetic/molecular events in cancer biology appear to be the 3rd predictors in estimating the prognosis. Finally, treatment of uterine corpus cancer can be directly related to prognosis. Postoperative chemotherapy is gradually taking precedence over irradiation in considering evidence-based medicine. PMID:17197744

Inoue, Masaki



Medico-economic approach to the management of uterine myomas: a 6-month cost-effectiveness study of pelvic embolization versus vaginal hysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Uterine artery embolization is a technique that has been recently proposed for the management of uterine myomas an alternative to vaginal hysterectomy. The results provided by the first published studies demonstrate a significant decrease in symptoms in 70–95% of cases. The aim of our study was to compare the cost-effectiveness ratios for pelvic embolization and vaginal hysterectomy looked at

Xavier J. L. Pourrat; Florence Fourquet; Fabrice Guerif; Nelly Viratelle; Denis Herbreteau; Henry Marret



Differential Proteomic Analysis of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Asthmatics following Segmental Antigen Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allergic asthma is characterized by persistent airway in- flammation and remodeling. Bronchoalveolar lavage con- ducted with fiberoptic bronchoscopy has been widely used for investigating the pathogenesis of asthma and other lung disorders. Identification of proteins in the bron- choalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and their expression changes at different stages of asthma could provide fur- ther insights into the complex molecular

Jiang Wu; Michiko Kobayashi; Eric A. Sousa; Wei Liu; Jie Cai; Samuel J. Goldman; Andrew J. Dorner; Steven J. Projan; Mani S. Kavuru; Yongchang Qiu; Mary Jane Thomassen



Pulsed saline lavage causing venous air embolism in a patient with Paget's disease.  


Pulsed saline lavage is used to prepare bony surfaces during joint replacement surgery. A patient is described in whom a venous air embolism occurred as a result of a combination of the increased vascularity of bone seen in Paget's disease and possible air entrainment in the lavage equipment. PMID:8777124

Sides, C A



A case of cyclophosphamide-induced interstitial pneumonitis diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage.  


A successfully treated case of cyclophosphamide pneumonitis, which developed during treatment for a leukemic phase of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is documented. Subtyping of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid easily excluded a possible diagnosis of pulmonary involvement of lymphoma. Bronchoalveolar lavage is a useful approach to determine the correct etiology of pneumonitis. PMID:1620983

Usui, Y; Aida, H; Kimula, Y; Miura, H; Aoyagi, Y; Nakayama, M; Takayama, S



Upper airway response in workers exposed to fuel oil ash: nasal lavage analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--Among other constituents, fuel oil ash contains vanadium pentoxide, a known respiratory irritant. Exposure to ambient vanadium pentoxide dust has been shown to produce irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. The usefulness of nasal lavage in detecting an inflammatory response to exposure to fuel oil ash among 37 boilermakers and utility workers was investigated. METHODS--A baseline lavage was performed

R Hauser; S Elreedy; J A Hoppin; D C Christiani



Rapid diagnosis of gram negative pneumonia by assay of endotoxin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia can be made by quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or of protected specimen brushings, though cultures require 24-48 hours to provide results. In 80% of cases aerobic Gram negative bacteria are the cause. METHODS: A rapid diagnostic method of assessing the endotoxin content of lavage fluid by Limulus assay is described. Forty samples

J Pugin; R Auckenthaler; O Delaspre; E van Gessel; P M Suter



Effectiveness of polyethylene glycol antegrade gut lavage bowel preparation for colonoscopy—timing is the key!  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Polyethylene glycol gut lavage is an effective bowel preparation for colonoscopy. The quality of the preparation is not uniform however, and most studies report a rate of suboptimal cleansing of 10 percent or more. One of the possible reasons for a poor preparation is the length of time between the lavage and the examination. The aim of this study

James M. Church



Prognostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage in sarcoidosis: the critical influence of disease presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable disagreement about the prognostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte measurements in patients with sarcoidosis. This study looks at the influence of the type of disease presentation and the time since onset of symptoms on lavage fluid lymphocyte profiles in 99 patients studied at the time of their initial diagnosis. Patients who had an acute inflammatory onset

K Ward; C OConnor; C Odlum; M X Fitzgerald



Changes in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Indices Associated with Radiographic Classification in Coal Miners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on symptomatic coal miners have shown that al- veolar macrophages, recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), release excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines. It has been proposed that these secre- tions may mediate cell injury and initiate the disease process. We hypothesized that acellular bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in- dices in coal miners chronically exposed



[B lynch suture for post partum heamorrhage due to uterine atony].  


Uterine atony and concomittant massive haemorrhage is one of the most dangerous complications of labour. Conventional, conservative treatment approach comprising of oxytocics such as oxytocin, methergin or prostaglandins may fail in some cases, mandating surgical techniques, including hysterectomy. B Lynch compression uterine suture may be a safe and effective method of treatment in post partum heamorrhage and in most of cases may replace more complicated techniques. In this article, together with referring the technical aspects of this procedure, we present a case of successful treatment. PMID:16736973

Pierzy?skii, Piotr; Urban, Remigiusz; Lauda?ski, Tadeusz; Urban, Jan



Uterine caliper and depth gauge  


A uterine caliper and sound consisting of an elongated body having outwardly biased resilient caliper wings and a spring-loaded slidable cervical stop. A slide on the body is operatively connected to the wings by a monofilament and operates with respect to a first scale on the body as a width indicator. A rod extending longitudinally on the body is connected to the cervical stop and cooperates with a second scale on the body as a depth indicator. The instrument can be positioned to measure the distance from the outer cervical ostium to the fundus, as read on said second scale. The wings may be allowed to open by moving the slide, and when the wings engage the utero-tubal junctions, the width may be read on said first scale. By adjustment of the caliper wings the instrument may be retracted until the resistance of the inner ostium of the cervix is felt, enabling the length of the cervical canal to be read directly by the position of the longitudinal indicator rod with respect to said second scale. The instrument may be employed to measure the width of the uterine cavity at any position between the inner ostium of the cervix and the fundus.

King, Loyd L. (Benton City, WA); Wheeler, Robert G. (Richland, WA); Fish, Thomas M. (Kennewick, WA)



Enrichment and characterization of dendritic cells from human bronchoalveolar lavages.  

PubMed Central

In the present study about 0.3% to 1.6% of human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells were identified as typical dendritic cells (DC), having an irregular outline, lobulated nucleus, and clear distinguishable acid phosphatase activity or EBM11 (anti-CD68) reactivity in a spot near the nucleus. After DC enrichment, using transient adherence to plastic, FcR-panning, and a density metrizamide gradient, a population containing 7-8% typical DC was obtained. This DC-enriched low density fraction, containing the highest percentages of DC, very strongly induced T cell proliferation in an allogeneic mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR), which was significantly higher than that induced by other partly (un)fractionated BAL cells. These data indicate that DC seem to be the major accessory cells in the BAL fluid, and therefore may be important in the regulation of T cell immune responses in the lung.

Havenith, C E; van Haarst, J M; Breedijk, A J; Betjes, M G; Hoogsteden, H C; Beelen, R H; Hoefsmit, E C



[Efficiency of saline contrast hysterosonography for evaluating the uterine cavity].  


Diagnostic hysteroscopy is the standard investigation performed in the case of abnormal vaginal blood loss. More recently there has been increasing interest for minimal invasive saline contrast hysterosonography (SCHS) as this technique is less painful and less expensive. SCHS is indicated in case of abnormal uterine bleeding (premenopausal and postmenopausal), bleeding while using tamoxifen, suspicion of a congenital uterine abnormality and Asherman's syndrome. As well as intracavity abnormalities (polyps and myomas) SCHS can also be used to evaluate the intramural extension of myomas, which is necessary to assess whether hysteroscopic resection is possible. The sensitivity and specificity of SCHS for demonstrating intracavity abnormalities (with a prevalence of 54%) are 94% (95%-CI; 91-97) and 89% (95%-CI: 85-94) respectively. The positive and negative predictive values are 91% (95%-CI: 87-95) and 92% (95%-CI: 89-97) respectively. SCHS has a short learning curve and can be performed in an outpatient setting. SCHS fails more frequently in postmenopausal women than premenopausal women (12.5% vs. 4.7%; p = 0.03). The chance of a non-conclusive SCHS is 7.6% and is higher if the uterine volume is greater than 600 cm3 (relative risk: 2.63; 95%-CI: 1.05-6.60) and if two or more myomas are present: (RR 2.65; 95%-CI: 1.16-6.10). SCHS is 2 to 9 times cheaper than diagnostic hysteroscopy. It can replace 84% of the diagnostic hysteroscopies. SCHS, in combination with endometrial sampling, whenever indicated, might be able to replace diagnostic hysteroscopy as gold standard in the evaluation of the uterine cavity. PMID:12942842

de Kroon, C D; Jansen, F W; Trimbos, J B



Protein kinase C and human uterine contractility.  


Abnormalities in uterine contractility are thought to contribute to several clinical problems, including preterm labor. A better understanding of the mechanisms controlling uterine activity would make it possible to propose more appropriate and effective management practices than those currently in use. Recent advances point to a role of the protein kinase C (PRKC) family in the regulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction at the end of pregnancy. In this review, we highlight recent work that explores the involvement of individual PRKC isoforms in cellular process, with an emphasis on the properties of PRKCZ isoform. PMID:17570155

Eude-Le Parco, Isabelle; Dallot, Emmanuelle; Breuiller-Fouché, Michelle



Multiple Cutaneous and Uterine Leiomyomatosis Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by leiomyomas of the skin and uterus. A small proportion of patients affected by multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis will develop renal cell carcinoma and this condition is known as hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma. Diagnosis usually occurs during histological analysis of a cutaneous biopsy. Management should involve a multidisciplinary team along with periodical radiological studies to closely monitor tumor size in the uterus and kidneys. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues are helpful in reducing the size of uterine fibroids.

McLeod, Michael; Torchia, Daniele; Romanelli, Paolo



Update on uterine artery embolization for symptomatic fibroid disease (uterine artery embolization)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcatheter embolization of the uterine arteries for symptomatic fibroid disease has become an increasingly important alternative\\u000a treatment. It is highly effective and well tolerated by most patients. Most notably, uterine artery embolization is associated\\u000a with a short recovery period and is uterine sparing. To ensure the best chance for a safe and successful procedure, Interventional\\u000a Radiologists should have familiarity with

Christopher S. Morris



CT-monitored percutaneous cryoablation of uterine fibroids after uterine artery embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the effects of percutaneous cryoablation on uterine fibroids using computed tomographic (CT) guidance after\\u000a uterine artery embolization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twelve patients who failed to respond to uterine artery embolization were treated using percutaneous cryoablation. All patients\\u000a had undergone previous uterine artery embolization an average of 1.2 years (0.7˜1.6 years) ago. Two cases had abnormal bleeding,\\u000a and the other 10 suffered

Zizhuo Zhao; Zhi Guo; Hong Ni; Fang Liu; Baoguo Li



Treatment of Uterine Artery Vasospasm with Transdermal Nitroglycerin Ointment During Uterine Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Uterine artery vasospasm can complicate uterine artery embolization (UAE) by prolonging procedure times or even causing treatment failure. Embolization must be delayed until the spasm improves and adequate antegrade flow in the vessel is restored. Vasospasm can also produce a 'false endpoint' to the procedure, where stasis of flow in the vessel is falsely attributed to successful embolization but is actually the result of vasospasm, leading to undertreatment or treatment failure. Traditional treatments for uterine artery vasospasm have included transcatheter intra-arterial vasodilators and catheter withdrawal from the vessel, both of which can yield mixed results. We report a case of uterine artery vasospasm during UAE successfully treated with transdermal nitroglycerine ointment.

Denison, Gregory L., E-mail:; Ha, Thuong Van; Keblinskas, Darius [The University of Chicago Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)



Microsatellite alterations in uterine leiomyomas.  


Recent studies have shown that microsatellites instability (MI) has a leading role in the development of different types of cancer: a high rate of di-tri or tetranucleotide repeats have been found in familial polyposis and in sporadic colorectal, gastric, breast and endometrial carcinomas. In the present study, we selected the DNA of 23 histological samples from patients with uterine leimyomas, aged between 24 and 65 years. The negative portion was divided from the pathological portion in the same sample of each patient. Each sample was analyzed for 7 microsatellites (D25123, Mfd39, 635. 636. Mfd67, D11S905, SCZD1 and DM) through double amplification with the PCR using external and internal primer couples. Seven of 23 samples analyzed on the denaturant gel of acrylamide (30.4%) were positive for microsatellite alterations. The recurrence of these alterations, which appear in our study, suggest their involvement in benign transformation of smooth muscle cells. PMID:9568101

French, D; Cermele, C; Lombardi, A M; Vecchione, A; Midulla, C; Del Nero, A; Vecchione, A


Intestinal Infarctus following Dilatation and Uterine Curettage  

PubMed Central

We present a case of intestinal infarctus through the vagina. This was a consequence of induced abortion done clandestinely. The main objective was to point out the surgical complications of uterine dilatation and curettage by means of this rare case.

Ngowe, N.M.; Atangana, R.; Eyenga, V.C.; Sosso, M.A.



Physiologic response and lung distribution of lavage versus bolus Exosurf in piglets with acute lung injury.  


Despite evidence of surfactant dysfunction in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), treatment with exogenous surfactant remains experimental. Uneven pulmonary distribution is one factor that may limit response. We investigated whether exogenous surfactant administered by lavage, consisting of a 35 ml/kg volume instilled by gravity and followed immediately by passive drainage (LAVAGE), would result in better lung distribution and physiologic response than with surfactant administered as a 5 ml/kg bolus (BOLUS). Exosurf, an artificial surfactant, was administered after acute lung injury induced by saline lung lavage in neonatal piglets. In the LAVAGE group (n= 9), 10.1 +/- 0.4 ml/kg of surfactant was retained, corresponding to a phospholipid dose of 136 +/- 5 mg/kg. In the BOLUS group (n = 9), the dose administered was 203 mg/kg phospholipid. Piglets in the LAVAGE group demonstrated greater improvement in pulmonary function, including PaO2, PaCO2, ventilation efficiency index, functional residual capacity (FRC), and pressure-volume curves than piglets in the BOLUS group. Some differences were found in lung distribution of surfactant. We conclude that Exosurf is more effective when administered by lavage in this lung injury model. We speculate that the lavage method of administration holds promise as an alternative method of surfactant administration in patients with ARDS. PMID:8665043

Balaraman, V; Sood, S L; Finn, K C; Hashiro, G; Uyehara, C F; Easa, D



Complications after uterine artery embolization for leiomyomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To determine the frequency and severity of complications that occur as a result of uterine artery embolization for leiomyomas.METHODS:As part of an ongoing study of outcome after uterine embolization, prospective data regarding complications that occurred in 400 consecutive patients were gathered. Each patient had a minimum of a 3-month interval from the procedure at the time of analysis. Each complication

James B Spies; Amy Spector; Antoinette R Roth; Chandra M Baker; Lauren Mauro; Kerry Murphy-Skrynarz



Arterial embolisation to treat uterine myomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemorrhage, probably related to hypervascularisation, is the commonest complication of uterine myomata and is difficult to treat. 16 patients, aged 34-48 years, with symptomatic uterine myomata, for which a major surgical procedure was planned after failure of medical treatment, were treated by selective free-flow arterial embolisation of the myomata with Ivalon particles. With a mean follow-up of 20 months (range

J. H. Ravina; N. Ciraru-Vigneron; J. M. Bouret; D. Herbreteau; E. Houdart; A. Aymard; J. J. Merland



Therapeutic hypothermia for severe cerebral air embolism complicating pleural lavage for empyema.  


Cerebral air embolism during pleural lavage is a rare, but potentially fatal complication. We present a case of severe cerebral air embolism that developed during pleural lavage for empyema and was successfully treated by therapeutic hypothermia. A 77-year old male patient with empyema developed severe cerebral air embolism during pleural lavage via a chest tube. Cranial computed tomography and cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed many small bubbles and widespread infarction in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery. The patient received therapeutic hypothermia maintained at 33°C for 24 h and could leave the hospital without delayed sequelae. PMID:23575752

Inoue, Seiya; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Yota; Tangoku, Akira



Comparative immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of uterine and extrauterine leiomyosarcomas.  


Histologic criteria defining malignancy in smooth muscle tumors are currently site specific. This study was undertaken to determine whether, in leiomyosarcomas (LMS) occurring in different anatomic locations, there were differences in patterns of expression of molecules that have been demonstrated to be associated with biologically aggressive behavior in malignant neoplasms, and also to determine their diagnostic utility. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were selected from 16 extrauterine leiomyosarcomas (EULMS), 14 cases of uterine leiomyosarcomas (ULMS) and from five cases each of uterine and extrauterine leiomyomas (LM). Utilizing immunohistochemical (ABC) techniques with antigen retrieval, we assessed serial sections of each tumor for immunoreactivity with Glut1, CD44s, bcl2, cyclin D1, and estrogen receptor. Molecular genotyping for detecting k-ras-2 point mutation, p53 gene loss, and mdm2 gene amplification was performed on microdissected tumor samples from the same histologic sections. All of the uterine and extrauterine LM were diffusely positive for CD44s, bcl2, and cyclin D1, and uniformly negative for Glut1. In contrast, 50% of the ULMS and 25% of EULMS were Glutl positive. Moreover, Glut1 positivity closely correlated with aggressive biologic behavior reflected by distant metastatic spread. Eighty-percent of LM and 70% of the ULMS were estrogen receptor positive, whereas only one retroperitoneal tumor had focal weak positivity. Over 80% of the extrauterine and 50% of the uterine sarcomas showed absence of CD44s immunoreactivity. Percentage of cyclin D1 immunoreactivity was independent of tumor grade and inversely proportional to the percent of bcl2 positivity. An LMS of the male breast contained k-ras-2 exon 1 point mutation (codon 12 aspartate substitution of glycine). P53 allelic imbalance was present in 29% of ULMS and 57% EULMS. Mdm2 amplification was present in three of six EULMS but not in ULMS. In addition to clinical staging, Glut1 positivity together with patterns of immunoreactivity of CD44 and bcl2 may be helpful in identifying aggressive smooth muscle tumors of the uterus and some EULMS. The presence of estrogen receptor staining may be helpful in identifying uterine versus nonuterine LMS. Although sample numbers are too small for definite conclusions, this study suggests that there are differences in glucose transport, expression of adhesion molecules, and estrogen receptors in ULMS and EULMS, which in part may be due to the estrogen dependency of the ULMS. P53 mutations and mdm2 amplifications appear to be more frequent in EULMS. PMID:10574596

Rao, U N; Finkelstein, S D; Jones, M W




PubMed Central

Purpose Lavage of the ductal systems of the breast provides fluid (DLF) containing hormones and products of hormone actions that may represent more accurately the composition of the breast than samples collected from blood or urine. The present study was undertaken to assess the presence of potential cancer biomarkers, their variation among individuals at high risk for breast cancer, and differences associated with menopause and tamoxifen treatment. Methods Seventy seven tamoxifen-eligible subjects with a 5-year breast cancer risk estimate (Gail > 1.6%)(N = 53) or recently diagnosed breast cancer (N = 24) were offered tamoxifen therapy; those not accepting tamoxifen were under observation only. After six months, all subjects underwent ductal lavage (DL) in an unaffected breast. Estradiol (E2), estrone sulfate, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, progesterone, cathepsin D and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in DLF by immunoassays. Data were expressed as the mass of analyte per mg of protein in DLF and normalized by natural log transformation. Results With the exception of DHEA, none of the analytes measured were significantly lower in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. The mean loge concentration difference in estradiol was 10.9%. Tamoxifen treatment for 6 months did not result in a significantly greater concentration of E2 or in any of the other analytes in DLF of pre- or postmenopausal women. The between-duct variance of the concentration of free steroids within the same breast averaged 51% less than that between subjects, and was similar to that of non-diffusible proteins. Conclusions The maintenance of estradiol concentrations in the breast after menopause demonstrates the importance of local biosynthesis. The fact that DLF E2 does not reflect the high serum concentrations of E2 during tamoxifen treatment indicates that breast concentrations of estradiol may be under feedback control. Unlike studies of low risk populations, progesterone concentrations were not significantly less in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. The similarity in variance of free steroids and protein analytes between ducts of a breast indicates little transfer of steroids between lobules.

Chatterton, Robert T.; Parker, Noah P.; Habe-Evans, Mito; Bryk, Michele; Scholtens, Denise M.; Khan, Seema A.



Screening method using selected reaction monitoring for targeted proteomics studies of nasal lavage fluid.  


Proteomic-based studies of nasal lavage fluid (NLF) may identify molecular pathways associated with disease pathology and new biomarker candidates of upper airway diseases. However, most studies have used rather tedious untargeted MS techniques. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a sensitive and specific technique that can be used with high throughput. In this study, we developed a semiquantitative SRM-based method targeting 244 NLF proteins. The protein set was identified through a literature study in combination with untargeted LC-MS/MS analyses of trypsin-digested NLF samples. The SRM assays were designed using MS/MS data either downloaded from a proteomic data repository or experimentally obtained. Each protein is represented by one to five peptides, resulting in 708 SRM assays. Three to four transitions per assay were used to ensure analyte specificity. The majority (69%) of the assays showed good within-day precision (coefficient of variation ? 20%). The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing four samples prepared with varying amounts of four proteins. Peptide and protein ratios were in good agreement with expected ratios. In conclusion, a high throughput screening method for relative quantification of 244 NLF proteins was developed. The method should be of general use in any proteomic study of the upper airways. PMID:23214469

Mörtstedt, Harriet; Kåredal, Monica H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H



Computer analysis of the early diastolic notch in doppler sonograms of the uterine arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a set of processing and analysis techniques for automated identification and quantification of the early diastolic notch (EDN), a feature of Doppler sonograms from the uterine arteries which has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. Examples covering different sonogram types are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and reproducibility of the

T. Loupas; D. A. Ellwood; R. W. Gill; S. Bruce; R. A. Fay



Bacteriological colonisation of uterine cavity: role of tailed intrauterine contraceptive device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) are thought to cause pelvic inflammatory disease by allowing vaginal bacteria to pass into the uterus along the tail of the device. In this study the uterine cavities of 22 women using an IUCD were examined by a multiple biopsy technique. All five uteruses with a tailless IUCD were sterile but 15 out of 17 with

R A Sparks; B G Purrier; P J Watt; M Elstein



Ultra-Minilaparotomy Myomectomy: A Minimally Invasive Surgical Approach for the Treatment of Large Uterine Myomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In recent years, a growing number of more conservative methods for the treatment of uterine myomas has been reported. However, only a small number of techniques is used for the treatment of large myomas. Aims: In the present retrospective study, we report our experience with a group of patients who consecutively underwent ultra-minilaparotomy myomectomy for single or multiple large

Andrea Ciavattini; Dimitrios Tsiroglou; Pietro Litta; Helga Frizzo; Andrea Luigi Tranquilli



Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) assessment of superselective uterine fibroid embolization (SUFE): Preliminary experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe use of superselective uterine fibroid embolization (SUFE) requires imaging techniques that can be used to verify the success of the procedure. The purpose of our study was to analyze the potential value of pre- and post-treatment contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for assessing the outcome of SUFE and for posttreatment follow-up.

L. M. Sconfienza; F. Lacelli; N. Gandolfo; P. Gazzo; N. Perrone; G. Serafini



Radiation therapy alone in the treatment of carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a 20-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis is reported on the results of irradiation alone in the treatment of 970 patients with histologically proven invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The development of the radiation therapy techniques, survival, pelvic tumor control, and major sequelae of therapy are described in detail. The tumor-free 5-year survival rate was 100% in 29 patients with stage IA, 85%

Carlos A. Perez; H. Marvin Camel; Robert R. Kuske; Ming-Shian Kao; Andrew Galakatos; Mary Ann Hederman; William E. Powers



Prehysterectomy embolisation of uterine arteries for large uterine fibroids—a report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hysterectomy for large uterine fibroids can prove to be a technically difficult procedure. The irregular shape of the uterus filling the pelvis may make access to the pedicles difficult. The larger the size of the uterus, the greater the risk of significant blood loss and trauma to the surrounding structures. Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) has been in use since 1991

Uday Khopkar; Roger M. Williams; Peter Torrie



Uterine contractions evaluated on cine MR imaging in patients with uterine leiomyomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Submucosal leiomyoma is one of the most recognized causes of infertility and habitual abortion. The purpose of this study is to evaluate uterine peristalsis, a cycle-related inherent contractility of uterus probably responsible for sperm transport and conservation of pregnancy, in patients with uterine leiomyomas using cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and methods: Study population consisted of 26 female

Mizuki Nishino; Kaori Togashi; Asako Nakai; Katsumi Hayakawa; Shotarou Kanao; Kazuhiro Iwasaku; Shingo Fujii



Pregnancy Following Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Patients with Uterine Fibroid or Adenomyosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy. Methods: Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20–40 years. The data were collected through review

Man Deuk Kim; Nahk Keun Kim; Hee Jin Kim; Mee Hwa Lee



Isolation of an antibacterial peptide from human lung lavage fluid.  


The contribution of extracellular secretions to the antibacterial defenses of the lungs remains poorly defined. Recent studies have demonstrated that mouse and rabbit bronchoalveolar washings contain a low-molecular-weight peptide that has antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. In this study we investigated whether a similar peptide could be identified in human secretions. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from normal volunteers and patients with interstitial lung disease or pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Cellular material and surfactant lipids were removed from the fluid by sequential centrifugations, and the supernatant was fractionated by exclusion filtration to isolate peptides with a molecular weight less than 10,000. Gel filtration chromatography separated the ultrafiltrate into several peaks, the first of which had antibacterial activity against E. coli. This material was further separated into several hydrophilic peaks by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RPHPLC). All samples had similar RPHPLC graphs. Material from the third RPHPLC peak produced an antibacterial effect similar to that produced by the rabbit and mouse peptide. PMID:3923130

Ellison, R T; Boose, D; LaForce, F M



Functional age-dependent changes in bronchoalveolar lavage rat cells.  


Alveolar macrophages (AM) are located at the first line of non-specific defense against inhaled antigens in the lower respiratory tract and therefore represent the major effector cell in antimicrobial defense. Since children under 2 years are known to manifest increased susceptibility to lung infections we used a rat model to study functional capacities of the AM during different stages of development We analyzed several steps of the phagocytic process (adherence, chemotaxis and ingestion) as well as two different mechanisms of cytotoxicity [antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cytotoxicity triggered by immune complex (ICC)] and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) secretion. We used young (4-6 weeks old), intermediate (16-25 weeks old) and adult (36-45 weeks old) rats. Adherence and phagocytic capacities of AM were lower in young rats compared to intermediate and adult animals. Chemotaxis towards the C5a complement component was low in the first two months of life, then it increased in the intermediate group and fell again in adults. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from young rats did not produce detectable TNF-alpha levels even when stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). When we studied two different cytotoxic mechanisms we found that ICC markedly declines from youth to adulthood while ADCC showed a steady increase from youth to adulthood. In conclusion, our data show differences that may help to explain in part the enhanced susceptibility to pulmonary infections found in young children. PMID:15579258

Goldman, A; Rubin, C; Gomez, S; Palermo, M S; Tasat, D R



Leukotriene A4 hydrolase in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  

PubMed Central

We examined cell-free human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for enzymes of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. BALF was obtained from six patients who were active smokers and six nonsmokers. Enzymatic activity in cell-free BALF was assessed by specific assays for leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase, 5-lipoxygenase, and LTC4 synthase using HPLC. Only LTA4 hydrolase enzymatic activity was found. This activity ranged from 101 to 667 when expressed as picomoles of LTB4 produced per milliliter BALF. Enzymatic activity in smokers vs nonsmokers was 484 +/- 120 vs 129 +/- 32 pmol LTB4/ml BALF (mean +/- SD, P < 0.0001). There were no leukotrienes found in BALF before assay. Immunoblot analysis revealed an immunoreactive band at a relative molecular mass of 69,000 D in all samples, consistent with LTA4 hydrolase, but no evidence of 5-lipoxygenase. BALF had greater LTA4 hydrolase activity per milligram of protein than neutrophil cytosol, epithelial cell cytosol, plasma, or serum. The synthesis of LTB4 was significantly increased when neutrophils were stimulated in BALF. These data indicate the selective presence of LTA4 hydrolase in BALF which is significantly increased in smokers. This enzyme in BALF may contribute to the inflammatory response in tobacco-related lung disease. Images

Munafo, D A; Shindo, K; Baker, J R; Bigby, T D



Lymphocyte subpopulations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in asbestos workers.  


We examined peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid lymphocyte subpopulations in 29 asbestos workers, 10 with and 19 without clinical or radiologic evidence of asbestosis. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations were also measured in 13 control subjects. The mean OKT4:OKT8 (T-helper/inducer:T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocyte) ratio in BAL fluid in the 29 asbestos workers was 0.96 (range, not detected to 3.33), significantly less than 1.76 (1.33 to 2.67) in peripheral blood (p less than 0.001). There were no significant differences in OKT4:OKT8 ratios in peripheral blood between the 10 patients with asbestosis, the 19 asbestos workers without asbestosis, and the 13 normal control subjects or in the OKT4:OKT8 ratios in BAL fluid between patients with asbestosis and asbestos workers without asbestosis. In the group as a whole, 83% of those who had suffered more than 5 yr of exposure to asbestos showed OKT4:OKT8 ratios less than 1.2, whereas in those who had suffered fewer than 5 yr of exposure, 80% showed ratios greater than 1.2 (p less than 0.02). No other relationships between OKT4:OKT8 ratios and clinical, radiographic, or physiologic variables were observed. PMID:3840341

Gellert, A R; Macey, M G; Uthayakumar, S; Newland, A C; Rudd, R M



Bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary shadowing.  


Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed during fibreoptic bronchoscopy in 79 patients with undiagnosed diffuse radiographic pulmonary shadowing and in 20 control subjects undergoing investigation for respiratory symptoms not associated with diffuse radiographic shadowing. The highest percentages of cells other than macrophages found in BAL fluid from the controls were 11% for lymphocytes and a total of 10% for neutrophils and eosinophils. 72 (91%) of the patients with diffuse shadowing had higher percentages of one or more of these inflammatory cell types than were found in any of the controls. Patients with increased lymphocytes differed in their eventual diagnosis from those without increase lymphocytes but with increases in other inflammatory cells (P less than 0.001). The use of BAL cell profiles as an aid to diagnosis in certain situations is illustrated by calculation of predictive values using Bayes' theorem. BAL has diagnostic value in the investigation of diffuse pulmonary shadowing if the cell profile is considered in conjunction with other information. PMID:6691908

Studdy, P R; Rudd, R M; Gellert, A R; Uthayakumar, S; Sinha, G; Geddes, D M



Characterization of the Phosphoproteome in Human Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid  

PubMed Central

Global-scale examination of protein phosphorylation in human biological fluids by phosphoproteomics approaches is an emerging area of research with potential for significant contributions towards discovery of novel biomarkers. In this pilot work, we analyzed the phosphoproteome in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) from nondiseased subjects. The main objectives were to assess the feasibility to probe phosphorylated proteins in human BAL and to obtain the initial catalog of BAL phosphoproteins, including protein identities and exact description of their phosphorylation sites. We used a gel-free bioanalytical workflow that included whole-proteome digestion of depleted BAL proteins, enrichment of phosphopeptides by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC), LC-MS/MS analyses with a linear ion trap mass spectrometer, and searches of a protein sequence database to generate a panel of BAL phosphoproteins and their sites of phosphorylation. Based on sequence-diagnostic MS/MS fragmentation patterns, we identified a collection of 36 phosphopeptides that contained 26 different phosphorylation sites. These phosphopeptides mapped to 21 phosphoproteins including, for example, vimentin, plastin-2, ferritin heavy chain, kininogen-1, and others. The characterized phosphoproteins have diverse characteristics in terms of cellular origin and biological function. To the best of our knowledge, results of this study represent the first description of the human BAL phosphoproteome.

Giorgianni, Francesco; Mileo, Valentina; Desiderio, Dominic M.; Catinella, Silvia; Beranova-Giorgianni, Sarka



Bronchoalveolar lavage cell profile in methotrexate induced pneumonitis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Pneumonitis is a rare but potentially life threatening side effect of methotrexate treatment for rheumatoid arthritis which needs to be distinguished from interstitial lung disease due to rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: To examine the value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in diagnosing methotrexate pneumonitis, the BAL cell profile of four patients with methotrexate pneumonitis was compared with findings in 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate without clinical or radiological evidence of lung disease and eight patients with interstitial lung disease secondary to rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate. RESULTS: Methotrexate pneumonitis was associated with an increase in the lymphocytes in the BAL fluid to 33-68% of total BAL cells. BAL lymphocytosis was also found in five patients in each of the two control groups. The four patients with methotrexate pneumonitis had a disproportionate increase in CD4+ cells to 72-84% of total lymphocytes and in the CD4/CD8 ratio to 17.0, 6.6, 8.7, and 4.0, respectively, figures which exceeded those of the two control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Methotrexate pneumonitis was associated with lymphocytic alveolitis with a preferential increase in CD4+ cells. This pattern differs from that in interstitial lung disease due to rheumatoid arthritis and may therefore assist in making an early diagnosis of methotrexate pneumonitis. ???

Schnabel, A.; Richter, C.; Bauerfeind, S.; Gross, W. L.



Bronchoalveolar lavage in rheumatoid arthritis and secondary Sjögren's syndrome.  


Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed to investigate pulmonary involvement in 39 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in 7 patients with RA and secondary Sjögren's syndrome, and compared to 12 healthy controls. Lymphocytosis (more than 15%) was seen in 25, and more than 3% neutrophil granulocytes in 8 of 39 patients with RA. Lymphocytosis and/or neutrophil granulocytosis was seen in both seropositive and seronegative patients irrespective of clinical or radiologic findings. Patients with RA with or without secondary Sjögren's syndrome had increased DR+ lymphocytes in BAL compared with peripheral blood. In 7 patients with secondary Sjögren's syndrome an increased helper/suppressor cell index (OKT4+/OKT8+: 7.65 +/- 2.10) and increased natural killer cells (OKNK+: 27.3 +/- 5.5%) were found, as compared to 39 other patients with RA (OKT4+/OKT8+: 2.16 +/- 0.33, p less than 0.05; OKNK+: 14.5 +/- 2.3%, p less than 0.05). These BAL data are further evidence of frequent subclinical interstitial pulmonary involvement in RA with differences in the active autoimmune process from those in secondary Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:2122139

Popp, W; Ritschka, L; Scherak, O; Braun, O; Kolarz, G; Rauscher, H; Zwick, H



Human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B genotyping from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens.  


The genes encoding glycoprotein complexes of human cytomegalovirus are often polymorphic; in particular, glycoprotein B (gB), which is essential for both in vivo and in vitro replication, is encoded by the highly polymorphic gene UL55. In this study, the distribution of gB genotypes was investigated in 44 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from adult patients positive for human cytomegalovirus DNA by a multiplex nested fast PCR able to amplify 5 gB genotypes (gB1-gB5). The distribution of gB genotypes was as follows: 12 (27.3%) gB1, 11 (25%) gB2, 9 (20.4%) gB3, 4 (9.1%) gB4, 0 gB5, and 8 (18.2%) mixed genotypes. No difference in prevalence was found in relation to clinical features, including immunological status, non-transplant or transplant condition, and type of transplanted organ, or in follow-up specimens; while gB4 and gB3 were shown to be significantly more prevalent in patients with respiratory insufficiency, and gB4 and gB2 in those with pneumonia. The prevalence of gB genotypes in the lower respiratory tract was similar to that previously reported using other specimen types and patients, with gB1 found to be the most prevalent. The association of gB genotypes with specific clinical features should be further investigated. PMID:21491978

Bergallo, Massimiliano; Costa, Cristina; Gambarino, Stefano; Tornicelli, Alessandra; Astegiano, Sara; Terlizzi, Maria Elena; Solidoro, Paolo; Cavallo, Rossana



Characterization of the phosphoproteome in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  


Global-scale examination of protein phosphorylation in human biological fluids by phosphoproteomics approaches is an emerging area of research with potential for significant contributions towards discovery of novel biomarkers. In this pilot work, we analyzed the phosphoproteome in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) from nondiseased subjects. The main objectives were to assess the feasibility to probe phosphorylated proteins in human BAL and to obtain the initial catalog of BAL phosphoproteins, including protein identities and exact description of their phosphorylation sites. We used a gel-free bioanalytical workflow that included whole-proteome digestion of depleted BAL proteins, enrichment of phosphopeptides by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC), LC-MS/MS analyses with a linear ion trap mass spectrometer, and searches of a protein sequence database to generate a panel of BAL phosphoproteins and their sites of phosphorylation. Based on sequence-diagnostic MS/MS fragmentation patterns, we identified a collection of 36 phosphopeptides that contained 26 different phosphorylation sites. These phosphopeptides mapped to 21 phosphoproteins including, for example, vimentin, plastin-2, ferritin heavy chain, kininogen-1, and others. The characterized phosphoproteins have diverse characteristics in terms of cellular origin and biological function. To the best of our knowledge, results of this study represent the first description of the human BAL phosphoproteome. PMID:22997577

Giorgianni, Francesco; Mileo, Valentina; Desiderio, Dominic M; Catinella, Silvia; Beranova-Giorgianni, Sarka



Adenomyomectomy, curettage, and then uterine artery pseudoaneurysm occupying the entire uterine cavity.  


Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm can occur after cesarean section or traumatic delivery, usually manifesting as postpartum hemorrhage. Pregnant women after adenomyomectomy sometimes suffer some adverse events, among which uterine rupture has been widely acknowledged. We describe a post-abortive woman who had uterine artery pseudoaneurysm occupying the entire uterine cavity. She underwent adenomyomectomy and became pregnant. She experienced a missed abortion and underwent evacuation and curettage, which caused bleeding. Several days later, ultrasound revealed an intrauterine mass with marked blood flow. Angiography revealed the un-ruptured left uterine artery pseudoaneurysm, with arterial embolization stopping the flow within the pseudoaneurysm. Adenomyomectomy with subsequent curettage was considered to have caused the pseudoaneurysm. We must be cautious that pseudoaneurysm may occur in post-abortive women after adenomyomectomy. PMID:23551573

Matsubara, Shigeki; Usui, Rie; Sato, Tomomi; Kuwata, Tomoyuki; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Nakata, Manabu



Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of Uterine Leiomyoma and Leiomyosarcoma by Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine leiomyomata are among the most common of human neoplasms and are associated with abnormal uterine bleeding, infertility, and abdominal pain. Uterine leiomyosarcomata are presumed to be the malignant counterpart to uterine leiomyomata and are very rare. Transformation of uterine leiomyoma (ULM) into uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is yet to be conclusively confirmed, and each type of tumor may represent a

Brynn Levy; Tanmoy Mukherjee; Kurt Hirschhorn



Asbestosis occurring after brief inhalational exposure: usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage in diagnosis.  

PubMed Central

A case of clinically and radiologically typical asbestosis manifesting in a 55 year old man occurred 36 years after a brief exposure period of less than one year. A transbronchial lung biopsy was performed but the samples were considered non-diagnostic. The diagnosis was supported by the use of bronchoalveolar lavage to obtain alveolar samples and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x ray analysis of fibres found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid which showed a predominance of amosite. Images

Barbers, R G; Abraham, J L



Effects of a calmodulin inhibitor on bleomycin-induced lung inflammation in hamsters. Biochemical, morphometric, and bronchoalveolar lavage data.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is accompanied by elevated levels of calcium and calmodulin, which are important in the regulation of many biologic processes. The authors have further extended these observations and assessed the effect of a calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine, on bleomycin-induced lung damage with biochemical, morphometric, and bronchoalveolar lavage techniques. The cumulative mortality due to bleomycin was not significantly reduced in animals receiving trifluoperazine. Trifluoperazine had no apparent effect on lung levels of collagen and DNA elevated by bleomycin. However, morphometric studies showed that the volume density of the lesion, the volume of amorphous material and interstitial inflammation, and the number of monocytes within lesions were less in the lungs of bleomycin-treated hamsters receiving trifluoperazine daily. When compared with hamsters treated with bleomycin alone, animals treated with both bleomycin and trifluoperazine had significantly fewer lymphocytes in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The data suggest that trifluoperazine reduced the acute inflammation which accompanies bleomycin pneumotoxicity but did not affect the subsequent development of pulmonary fibrosis. It has been postulated that the observed antiinflammatory action of trifluoperazine may be due to inhibition of calmodulin-dependent leukocyte functions.

Nakashima, J. M.; Hyde, D. M.; Giri, S. N.



Myocytes, myometrium, and uterine contractions.  


The pregnant uterus is unique because of the dramatic functional changes that occur in the peripartum period. To promote the concept that we have a relatively poor understanding of the physiology of parturition, we will posit 10 facts that are so obvious and so clearly accepted as facts that they probably are not even facts at all. (1) The laboring uterus undergoes peristalsis to dilate the cervix, deliver the fetus, and expel the placenta. (2) The human uterus is composed of longitudinal and circular layers of smooth muscle. (3) The functional cells of the uterus are the myocytes, which are a homogeneous cell type responsible for the generation of contraction forces, passage of action potentials, and control of contractility. (4) The phasic contractions of the uterus are typical for visceral smooth muscle. (5) The primary, and perhaps only, role of gap junctions is to allow passage of action potentials through the tissue. (6) Action potential propagation as the mechanism for global communication (over many centimeters throughout the uterus) is sufficient to recruit all regions and all myocytes of the uterus. (7) Slow waves pace the contractions of human myometrium. (8) Calcium-activated potassium channels are responsible for repolarization of the membrane potential that terminates each contraction. (9) Chloride channels are not important in uterine electrophysiology. (10) With enough computing power, it would be straightforward to build a closed model of human labor, given our current understanding of the components of myometrium. This manuscript discusses each point to stimulate questions for future investigation. PMID:17442780

Young, Roger C



Comparison of reduced volume versus four-liter electrolyte lavage solutions for colon cleansing.  


In an attempt to improve patient tolerance for colon cleaning, a reduced-volume regimen with a 2-liter electrolyte lavage solution plus 20 mg of oral bisacodyl was compared with the standard 4-liter lavage for efficacy and safety. Three hundred patients were prospectively randomized into two study groups. One group of 150 patients was given four tablets of 5 mg bisacodyl at 12:00 PM the day before their colonoscopy, followed by 2 liters of electrolyte lavage by mouth at 6:00 PM the evening before their colonoscopy. Another group of 150 patients were given 4 liters of electrolyte lavage at 6:00 PM the evening before their colonoscopy. All patients were on a clear liquid diet the day before their colonoscopy. No enema was given in either groups. The bowel cleanliness was accessed by one colonoscopist. One registered nurse accessed the comfort of patient. In the 2-liter group, only one (0.6%) patient could not finish the laxative. Colon cleanliness was 80 per cent to 100 per cent, with an average of 95.9 per cent. In the 4-liter group, 11 (7.3%) patients could not finish the laxative preparation. Colon cleanliness was 78 per cent to 100 per cent, with an average of 95.3 per cent. The study that found the 2-liter electrolyte lavage solution with four tablets of bisacodyl can achieve equally good results in bowel preparation and favorable acceptance by patients compared with the 4-liter lavage. PMID:17058733

Ker, Tim S



What's New in Uterine Sarcoma Research and Treatment?  


... Next Topic Additional resources for uterine sarcoma What`s new in uterine sarcoma research and treatment? Molecular pathology ... the chromosomes leads to the formation of a new gene, called JAZF1/JJAZ. This gene may cause ...


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of dysplastic, papillomavirus-positive cervicovaginal lavage specimens.  


To assess the utility of a new, rapid, economical procedure that may prove valuable in cervical screening, Fourier transform infrared (ir) spectroscopy was performed on 25 cervicovaginal lavage specimens from women referred for colposcopy on the basis of a cytological abnormality detected on their Pap smear and whose lavage specimen was positive for human papillomavirus. Of the 18 classed as CIN I or less by histopathology, 11 showed band frequencies that deviated only slightly from spectra that characterize normal cervical cells and 3 of 5 "atypia" specimens had spectra identical to normal. Two of 3 classed as CIN II had spectra only slightly more abnormal to these 11. In the case of 2 graded as CIN I, several bands were similarly altered in the direction of the pattern seen for 4 CIN III specimens. A further CIN I sample gave a spectrum that was even further shifted toward the latter and the remaining CIN I sample had a pattern that matched the 4 CIN IIIs. The most obvious change in each of the CIN IIIs was an additional peak at 972 cm-1 and this has been suggested as a key indicator for malignancy. One of the 3 CIN IIs had this peak. Other characteristic spectral changes were seen as well in the CIN III samples. High-risk HPV18 was present in 3 of the CIN III samples, as well as in one specimen classed as atypia, but having an abnormal ir spectrum. Low-risk HPV 6 or 11 was seen along in samples with a normal or slightly abnormal ir spectrum, but never in those that showed an ir pattern that was abnormal. The current study has therefore shown complete concordance between ir spectral findings and histopathology result in the case of CIN III specimens, but less precise matching for other grades of CIN. The spectral differences revealed by ir spectroscopy are likely to characterize molecular abnormalities in cervical cells during progression to cancer and may therefore have potential in assisting with clinical decision making. More studies will, however, be required to establish the place of this technique in cervical screening. PMID:7896193

Morris, B J; Lee, C; Nightingale, B N; Molodysky, E; Morris, L J; Appio, R; Sternhell, S; Cardona, M; Mackerras, D; Irwig, L M



Evolutionary history of the uterine serpins.  


A bioinformatics analysis was conducted on the four members of the uterine serpin (US) family of serpins. Evolutionary analysis of the protein sequences and 86 homologous serpins by maximum parsimony and distance methods indicated that the uterine serpins proteins form a clade distinct from other serpins. Ancestral sequences were reconstructed throughout the evolutionary tree by parsimony. These suggested that some branches suffered a high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations, suggesting episodes of adaptive evolution within the serpin family. Analysis of the sequences by neutral evolutionary distance methods suggested that the uterine serpins diverged from other serpins prior to the divergence of the mammals from other vertebrates. The porcine uterine serpins are paralogs that diverged from a single common ancestor within the Sus genus after pigs separated from other artiodactyls. The uterine serpins contain several protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites. These sites may be important for the lymphocyte-inhibitory activity of OvUS if, like other basic proteins, OvUS can cross the cell membrane of an activated lymphocyte. Internalized OvUS could serve as an alternative target to protein kinases important for the mitogenic response to antigens. PMID:10931499

Peltier, M R; Raley, L C; Liberles, D A; Benner, S A; Hansen, P J



Molecular identification of bacteria in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis.  


Culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is the gold standard for detection of pathogens in the lower airways in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, current culture results do not explain all clinical observations in CF, including negative culture results during pulmonary exacerbation and inflammation in the absence of pathogens. We hypothesize that organisms not routinely identified by culture occur in the CF airway and may contribute to disease. To test this hypothesis we used a culture-independent molecular approach, based on use of rRNA sequence analysis, to assess the bacterial composition of BALF from children with CF and disease controls (DC). Specimens from 42 subjects (28 CF) were examined, and approximately 6,600 total clones were screened to identify 121 species of bacteria. In general, a single rRNA type dominated clone libraries from CF specimens, but not DC. Thirteen CF subjects contained bacteria that are not routinely assessed by culture. In four CF subjects, candidate pathogens were identified and include the anaerobe Prevotella denticola, a Lysobacter sp., and members of the Rickettsiales. The presumptive pathogens Tropheryma whipplei and Granulicatella elegans were identified in cases from the DC group. The presence of unexpected bacteria in CF may explain inflammation without documented pathogens and consequent failure to respond to standard treatment. These results show that molecular techniques provide a broader perspective on airway bacteria than do routine clinical cultures and thus can identify targets for further clinical evaluation. PMID:18077362

Harris, J Kirk; De Groote, Mary Ann; Sagel, Scott D; Zemanick, Edith T; Kapsner, Robert; Penvari, Churee; Kaess, Heidi; Deterding, Robin R; Accurso, Frank J; Pace, Norman R



Cellular profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in Turkish miners  

PubMed Central

Pneumoconiosis is still a health problem in Turkey and has a relatively high incidence. Retired underground miners were investigated to document alveolitis, and to observe the difference in the cellular profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with or without pneumoconiosis. Twenty nine retired male miners and 17 controls, eight non-smokers (four male, four female) and nine smokers (six male, three female), without any dust exposure were evaluated. According to the International Labor Office 1980 classification system, the miners were allocated to three subgroups: eight without pneumoconiosis, 11 with simple pneumoconiosis, and 10 with progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Spirometric tests and arterial blood gases analysis were done and fibreoptic bronchoscopy and BAL were performed in all subjects. The study and the control subjects were comparable in respect to age, smoking habits, except the non-smoker controls, and the duration of dust exposure, except the controls. The amount of recovered BAL fluid was lower in all miners compared with the non-smoker controls (p<0.05). The amount of recovered BAL fluid and the total cell count correlated significantly (r = 0.48, p<0.01). The percentage of lymphocytes in the BAL fluid of miners without pneumoconiosis and with PMF (p<0.05) and that of simple pneumoconiosis (p<0.01) was significantly lower compared with the non-smoker controls. Alveolitis was not a representative feature of Turkish subjects with an occupational history of underground mining, and BAL fluid cellular profile did not seem to be different in miners with or without pneumoconiosis.

Kayacan, O; Beder, S; Karnak, D



Sulfuric acid aerosol exposure in humans assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that exposure to acidic aerosols may affect human health. Brief exposures to acidic aerosols alter mucociliary clearance and increase airway responsiveness, but effects on host defense mechanisms at the alveolar level have not been studied in humans. Twelve healthy, nonsmoking volunteers between 20 and 39 yr of age were exposed for 2 h to aerosols of approximately 1,000 micrograms/m3 sulfuric acid (H2SO4) or sodium chloride (NaCl (control)), with intermittent exercise, in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Each subject received both exposures, separated by at least 2 wk. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 18 h after exposure in order to detect evidence of an inflammatory response, changes in alveolar cell subpopulations, or changes in alveolar macrophage (AM) function, which is important in host defense. When compared with NaCl, exposure to H2SO4 did not increase polymorphonuclear leukocytes in BAL fluid. The percentage of T lymphocytes decreased in association with H2SO4 exposure, but the difference was not statistically significant (14.9% after NaCl, 11.5% after H2SO4; p = 0.14). Antibody-mediated cytotoxicity of AM increased in association with H2SO4 exposure (percent lysis 19.1 after NaCl, 23.6 after H2SO4; p = 0.16). No significant change was seen in release of superoxide anion or inactivation of influenza virus in vitro. Brief exposures to H2SO4 aerosol at 1,000 micrograms/m3 do not cause an influx of inflammatory cells into the alveolar space, and no evidence was found for alteration in antimicrobial defense 18 h after exposure.

Frampton, M.W.; Voter, K.Z.; Morrow, P.E.; Roberts, N.J. Jr.; Culp, D.J.; Cox, C.; Utell, M.J. (Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY (United States))



Influence of puerperal uterine infection on uterine involution and postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows.  


This article presents the results of a clinical trial designed to study the effect of puerperal uterine infection on uterine involution and on ovarian activity in dairy cows, monitored twice weekly from parturition until the sixth week postpartum (wpp). Infection significantly retarded uterine involution assessed by the uterine body diameter and a score of intrauterine fluid volume (IUFV). By the sixth wpp, cows with normal puerperium (controls) and cows that showed mild puerperal endometritis had similar uterine body diameter and IUFV, indicating spontaneous recovery within the postpartum voluntary waiting period. However, in cows with severe puerperal endometritis, although uterine body diameter had regressed to pregravid size, IUFV remained significantly higher than in control and mild endometritis cows, indicating that chronic endometritis was established. The IUFV score was positively and significantly correlated with uterine swab bacterial growth density and allowed diagnosis of endometritis after the third wpp. Cows with mild or severe endometritis had a significantly higher prevalence and persistence of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Actinomyces pyogenes, Gram-negative anaerobes - GNA) than controls. Actinomyces pyogenes was associated to GNA in 74% of isolations. Ovarian activity measured by ultrasound scanning of the ovaries and plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations was more abnormal (prolonged anoestrus, prolonged luteal phases and ovarian cysts) in cows with severe endometritis than in controls. PMID:11882243

Mateus, L; da Costa, L Lopes; Bernardo, F; Silva, J Robalo



Steroidal regulation of uterine resistance to bacterial infection in livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum uterine infections reduce reproductive efficiency and have significant animal welfare and economic consequences. Postpartum uterine infections are classified as nonspecific, but Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli are usually associated with them in cattle and sheep. Pyometra is the most common type of uterine infection in dairy cattle, and it is detected almost exclusively in cows with active corpora lutea.

Gregory S Lewis



Risk Factors for Uterine Fibroids Among Women Undergoing Tubal Sterilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine leiomyomas are reported to be the most common benign gynecologic tumors affecting premenopausal women, and they are often associated with considerable morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for uterine fibroids among women undergoing tubal sterilization. Cases comprised women aged 17-44 years whose uterine fibroids were first visualized at the time of tubal sterilization (1978-1979

Chao-Ru Chen; Germaine M. Buck; Norman G. Courey; Kimberly M. Perez; Jean Wactawski-Wende



A randomized placebo-controlled trial of arthroscopic lavage versus lavage plus intra-articular corticosteroids in the management of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the efficacy of intra-articular steroid injections following arthroscopy and joint lavage in symptomatic OA of the knee. Methods. Seventy-seven patients with OA of the knee were randomized to receive either 120 mg methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) or placebo following arthros- copy. Clinical assessments included severity of pain on movement and at rest, stiffness, the presence of joint effusions,

M. D. Smith; M. Wetherall; T. Darby; A. Esterman; J. Slavotinek; P. Roberts-Thomson; M. Coleman; M. J. Ahern



Uterine transplantation--a real possibility? The Indianapolis consensus.  


A group of experts gathered in Indianapolis in December 2011 to address lingering concerns related to uterus transplantation (UTn). They represent a multi-national group of four research teams who have worked for over 15 years on bringing UTn to reality for patients. Presented here are a set of parameters that must be considered in order for UTn to become an acceptable procedure in the human setting. UTn has been proposed as a potential solution to absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI). Causes of AUFI include congenital uterine factors (i.e. absence or malformation) or acquired uterine factors (e.g. hysterectomy for uncontrollable hemorrhage) rendering a woman 'unconditionally infertile'. Current estimates are that in the USA, up to 7 million women with AUFI may be appropriate candidates for UTn. As a result of a first human attempt in 2000, investigators have responded with a plethora of publications demonstrating successful UTn attempts, including pregnancies, in various autogeneic, syngeneic and allogeneic animal models. Before UTn can become an accepted procedure, it must satisfy defined criteria for any surgical innovation, i.e. research background, field strength and institutional stability. Equally important, UTn must satisfy accepted bioethical principles (respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice) and their application (informed consent, appropriate assessment of risk and benefit and fair selection of individuals). Furthermore, we believe that a defined number of transplants should not be exceeded worldwide without a successful term delivery, to minimize proceeding in futility using current techniques. Even if UTns were to become relatively common, the following research objectives should be continuously pursued: (i) additional pregnancies in a variety of large animal/primate models (to search for unanticipated consequences), (ii) continuous assessment of women diagnosed with AUFI regarding UTn, (iii) continuous assessment using 'borrowed' psychological tools from transplant centers, adoption agencies and assisted reproductive technology centers with potential recipients and (iv) continuous careful ethical reflection, assessment and approval. PMID:23202992

Del Priore, Giuseppe; Saso, Srdjan; Meslin, Eric M; Tzakis, Andreas; Brännström, Mats; Clarke, Alex; Vianna, Rodrigo; Sawyer, Renata; Smith, J Richard



Use of Cyclosporine in Uterine Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Uterine transplantation has been proposed as a possible solution to absolute uterine factor infertility untreatable by any other option. Since the first human attempt in 2000, various teams have tried to clarify which immunosuppressant would be most suitable for protecting the allogeneic uterine graft while posing a minimal risk to the fetus. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant widely used by transplant recipients. It is currently being tested as a potential immunosuppressant to be used during UTn. Its effect on the mother and fetus and its influence upon the graft during pregnancy have been of major concern. We review the role of CsA in UTn and its effect on pregnant transplant recipients and their offspring.

Saso, Srdjan; Logan, Karl; Abdallah, Yazan; Louis, Louay S.; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. Richard; Del Priore, Giuseppe



[Diagnostic usefulness of uterine artery Doppler].  


Doppler waves present hemodynamic state of vascular bed. This method is used in a diagnostic of pathological states in pregnancy. Basing on the observation of curve shape of uterine artery blood flow, we may conclude about its vascular resistance, wall tension and amount of blood. Several studies confirmed the opportunity of the use of Doppler uterine artery in a diagnosis and prognosis of complicated pregnancies. The incidence of notch in uterine artery blood flow was observed in pregnancies with incomplete trophoblast invasion and inadequate placentation. Many studies confirmed that bilateral notch might be associated with increased likelihood of different pregnancy complications, particularly pregnancy--induced hypertension (PIH) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The results of the most recent trials include the possibility of the use Ut-PI in a distinguishing of abnormal biochemical, prenatal tests in chromosomal aberrations and different pathological states in pregnancy such as preeclampsia and fetal hypotrophy. PMID:23437707

Karwasik-Kajszczarek, Katarzyna; Kondracka, Adrianna; Dymanowska-Dyjak, Izabela; Krzyzanowski, Arkadiusz; Kwa?niewska, Anna



Primary malignant lymphoma of the uterine cervix.  


Primary malignant lymphoma of the female genital tract is an extremely rare clinical entity. We report a case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the uterine cervix. An 85-year-old woman presented with abnormal genital bleeding. A colposcopic examination revealed a mass in the uterine cervix. No other lesions were detected by the whole-body CT, gallium scintigraphy and bone marrow examination. The histological examination and immunohistochemical staining of the cervical biopsy material confirmed a diagnosis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the uterine cervix, clinical stage 1E (according to the Ann Arbor Staging Classification for Lymphomas). The patient was treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine (oncovin) and prednisone. Her family refused surgery and involved field irradiation. She was in good condition but after 5 months she expired due to myocardial infarction. PMID:23008373

Binesh, Fariba; Karimi zarchi, Mojgan; Vahedian, Hasanali; Rajabzadeh, Yavar



Uterine Prolapse: From Antiquity to Today  

PubMed Central

Uterine prolapse is a condition that has likely affected women for all of time as it is documented in the oldest medical literature. By looking at the watershed moments in its recorded history we are able to appreciate the evolution of urogynecology and to gain perspective on the challenges faced by today's female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgeons in their attempts to treat uterine and vaginal vault prolapse. “He who cannot render an account to himself of at least three thousand years of time, will always grope in the darkness of inexperience” —Goethe, Translation of Panebaker

Downing, Keith T.



Laparoscopic blockage of uterine artery and myomectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of laparoscopic coagulation or blockage of the uterine arteries and myomectomy\\u000a in treating symptomatic myomas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 142 women with symptomatic fibroids warranting surgical treatment and wanting to retain their uteri were treated\\u000a by laparoscopic coagulation or blocking of the uterine arteries and myomectomy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Most of the 142 patients

Z. Liang; H. Xu; Y. Chen; Y. Li; Q. Zhang



Role of vaginal sonography and hysterosonography in the endoscopic treatment of uterine myomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the various imaging techniques used to evaluate uterine leiomyomas preoperatively and to propose a classification system for intramural and subserosal leiomyomas that may better serve the endoscopist in surgical treatment.Design: A MEDLINE search of the available literature was performed.Conclusion(s): Selective use of the various imaging techniques is required based on the clinical

Leeber S Cohen; Rafael F Valle



Thermal Balloon Endometrial Ablation for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thermal balloon endometrial ablation (TBEA) for dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). Background: Condition and Target Population Abnormal uterine bleeding is defined as an increase in the frequency of menstruation, duration of flow or amount of blood loss. (1) DUB is a diagnosis of exclusion when there is no pelvic pathology or underlying medical cause for the increased bleeding. (1) It is characterized by heavy prolonged flow with or without breakthrough bleeding. It may occur as frequent, irregular, or unpredictable bleeding; lengthy menstrual periods; bleeding between periods; or a heavy flow during periods. Menorrhagia, cyclical HMB over several consecutive cycles during the reproductive years, is the most frequent form of DUB. The incidence of DUB has not been reported in the literature. For Ontario, an expert estimated that about 15% to 20% of women over 30 years have DUB. The prevalence increases with age and peaks just before menopause. (1) Using 2001 Ontario census-based population estimates, there are about 2 million women between the ages of 30 and 49 years; therefore, of these, about 290,965 to 387,953 may have DUB. The Technology Being Reviewed: Thermal Balloon Endometrial Ablation Since the 1990s, second-generation endometrial ablation (EA) techniques developed, the aim to provide simpler, quicker, and more effective treatment options for menorrhagia compared with first-generation EA techniques and hysterectomy. (2) Compared with first-generation techniques these depend less on the people operating them and more on the actual devices to ensure safety and efficacy. TBEA relies on the transfer of heat from heated liquid within a balloon that is inserted into the uterus. (2) It does not require a hysteroscope for direct visualization of the uterus and can be performed under local anesthesia. In order to use TBEA, patients with DUB cannot have a long (>10–12 cm) or irregularly shaped uterine cavity, because the balloon must be in direct contact with the uterine wall to cause ablation. For Ontario, an expert estimated that about 70% of patients with DUB considered for EA would have a uterus suitable for TBEA based on these criteria. If 70% of Ontario women between 30 and 49 years of age with DUB have a uterus suitable for TBEA, then about 203,675 to 271,567 women may be eligible. However, some of these women will be successfully treated by drugs or will want amenorrhea (the cessation of their periods) and therefore choose to have a hysterectomy. Review Strategy The standard Medical Advisory Secretariat search strategy was used to locate international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles published from January 1996 to June 2004. A Cochrane systematic review from 2004 was identified that examined the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of TBEA for heavy menstrual bleeding. (2) Another literature search was done to update information from the systematic review. Summary of Findings A 2004 systematic review of the literature by Garside et al. (2) in the United Kingdom, found that overall, there were few significant differences between outcomes for first-generation techniques and TBEA. The outcomes were bleeding, postoperative complications, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and repeat surgery rates. Significant differences were reported most often by one study by Pellicano et al., (3) but this was a level 2 study with methodological weaknesses. Furthermore, according to Garside et al., there was considerable clinical and methodological heterogeneity among the studies in the systematic review. Therefore, a quantitative synthesis using meta-analysis was not done. In Garfield and colleagues’ review: TBEA had significantly shorter operating and theatre times (P < .05, < .01, and .0001). TBEA had fewer intraoperative adverse effects (e.g., reported rates of uterine perforation with RB ablation: from 1% to 5%; TBEA: 0%; rates of cervical laceratio



Arthroscopic techniques for cartilage repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint injuries are a major concern for horses used in athletic and recreational sports. Spontaneous cartilage repair diminishes as horses reach maturity, and surgical measures have been developed to bolster these meager intrinsic responses. Local debridement, joint lavage, and marrow stimulation techniques provide improved symptomatic therapy that may last several years. Subchondral drilling (forage) has largely been superseded by microfracture

Alan J. Nixon



Conventional reanastomosis versus laser welding of rat uterine horns.  


In this study we compared conventional surgical techniques with those of low-power CO2 lasers (output 140 mW; spot size 0.4 mm) used to weld transected rat uterine horns. On one side a microanastomosis was made by standard surgical technique of 8-0 nylon; the other side was "welded" either after doing the anastomosis with 8-0 sutures or without any anastomotic sutures. Histologic sections obtained from rats' uteri treated with conventional and laser surgery showed that on the laser-treated sutured side there was less necrosis and inflammatory and giant cells. The animals that underwent laser welding without suturing had no necrosis, suppuration, or granulation; giant cells were not present. We conclude that in the tissue from the laser-treated animals, when compared with conventional and laser-with-suture surgery, histologic features indicate healing process by primary intention via an aseptic noninflammatory reaction. PMID:3555074

Shapiro, A G; Carter, M; Ahmed, A; Sielszak, M W



Bronchoalveolar lavage via a modified stomach tube in intubated patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and diffuse pneumonia.  

PubMed Central

A simple non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage method was used in 30 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome undergoing assisted ventilation for respiratory failure. A modified Argyle Levin stomach tube was passed via the endotracheal tube and lavage performed. The lavage was well tolerated and performed quickly and easily, required little training, and had a high degree of sensitivity (73%--a diagnosis in 22 of the 30 cases). Images

Minutoli, R; Eden, E; Brachfeld, C



Comparison of reduced volume versus four liters sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solutions for colonoscopy colon cleansing  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:In an attempt to improve patient tolerance for colonoscopy cleansing, a reduced volume lavage regimen with 2 L sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solution (SF-ELS, NuLYTELY, Braintree Laboratories, Braintree, MA) plus 20 mg p.o. bisacodyl (Half Lytely, Braintree Laboratories) was compared with standard 4 L SF-ELS lavage for safety and efficacy.METHODS:At two centers, 200 patients undergoing colonoscopy for routine indications were randomized

Jack A. DiPalma; Bruce G. Wolff; Alan Meagher; Mark v B. Cleveland



Epidemiological features of uterine rupture in West Africa (MOMA Study).  


The aim of the study was (1) to assess the incidence of uterine rupture in West Africa; (2) to identify its risk factors there; (3) to assess their predictiveness. The study (MOMA study) was prospective and population based. Data on a large cohort of pregnant women were collected. Univariable and multivariable analysis was used including stepwise logistic regression. We identified 25 cases of clinically symptomatic uterine rupture in a population of 20 326 pregnant women giving an incidence rate of 1.2 uterine ruptures per 1000 deliveries. Five variables were significantly associated with uterine rupture (in both the univariable and multivariable analyses): uterine scars, malpresentation, limping, cephalopelvic disproportion and high parity (>or=7). In conclusion, the incidence of uterine rupture is high in West Africa, even in large cities where essential obstetric care is available and despite the low prevalence of uterine scars. A uterine scar multiplies the risk of uterine rupture by 11. Uterine rupture cannot be predicted from currently known risk factors, including uterine scars. The high case fatality rate (33.3%) and the associated perinatal mortality (52%) bear witness to the absence or inadequacy of health facilities in providing essential obstetric care and to the poor quality of maternal health care, even in major cities. PMID:12060311

Ould El Joud, Dahada; Prual, Alain; Vangeenderhuysen, Charles; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène



Steroid Hormones and Uterine Vascular Adaptation to Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy is a physiological state that involves a significant decrease in uterine vascular tone and an increase in uterine blood flow, which is mediated in part by steroid hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of these hormones in the regulation of uterine artery contractility through signaling pathways specific to the endothelium and the vascular smooth muscle. Alterations in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity, nitric oxide production, and expression of enzymes involved in PGI2 production contribute to the uterine artery endothelium-specific responses. Steroid hormones also have an effect on calcium-activated potassium channel activity, PKC signaling pathway and myogenic tone, and alterations in pharmacomechanical coupling in the uterine artery smooth muscle. This review addresses current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which steroid hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol modulate uterine artery contractility to alter uterine blood flow during pregnancy with an emphasis on the pregnant ewe model.

Chang, Katherine; Zhang, Lubo



Uterine transplantation research: laboratory protocols for clinical application.  


The aim of this review is to summarize the state-of the-art methods that are used in clinical organ transplantation today, as well as the major findings of recent experimental uterus transplantation (UTx) research regarding organ donation/retrieval, ischemic preservation, surgical techniques for anastomosis, immunosuppression and pregnancy. Absolute uterine factor infertility lacks treatment despite the major developments in infertility treatment and assisted reproduction. Concerning uterine factor infertile patients, genetic motherhood is only possible through gestational surrogacy. The latter can pose medical, ethical and legal concerns such as lack of control of life habits during surrogate pregnancy, economic motives for women to become surrogate mothers, medical/psychological pregnancy-related risks of the surrogate mother and uncertainties regarding the mother definition. Thus, surrogacy is non-approved in large parts of the world. Recent advances in the field of solid organ transplantation and experimental UTx provide a favourable and safe background in a scenario in which a human clinical UTx trial can take place. Protocols based on animal research over the last decade are described with a view to providing a scientifically guided approach to human UTx as an experimental procedure in the future. PMID:21900333

Díaz-García, C; Johannesson, L; Enskog, A; Tzakis, A; Olausson, M; Brännström, M



Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid findings in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has recently been incriminated as an aetiological agent in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This study was performed to determine the cellularity and lymphocyte phenotypes of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in patients with chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: BAL fluid and lavage lymphocyte subsets from 13 patients (10 men) with active chronic hepatitis C, diagnosed by sustained elevated serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and typical histological findings in the liver, were analysed. Lavage findings in these patients were compared with those from 13 healthy volunteers (eight men) as controls. RESULTS: There was no difference in total cell counts in lavage fluid between the two groups. Lavage lymphocyte and eosinophil numbers were increased in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Surface marker analysis of the lymphocyte populations showed increases in CD2, CD3, CD4, and HLA-DR. CD4/CD8 ratios were not different. CONCLUSIONS: The numbers of lymphocytes and eosinophils in BAL fluid are increased in patients with chronic hepatitis C. These findings suggest that HCV infection may trigger alveolitis.

Kubo, K; Yamaguchi, S; Fujimoto, K; Hanaoka, M; Hayasaka, M; Honda, T; Sodeyama, T; Kiyosawa, K



Surface-tension measurements of pulmonary lavage from ozone-exposed rats  

SciTech Connect

Ozone, an important component of photochemical air pollution, has been shown to cause morphological and functional changes in the lung after acute, high-level exposure in controlled animal studies. Previous exposures of rats to 0.8 ppm ozone for 18 h showed trends toward decreased lung volumes, as well as modifications in phospholipid composition of lung lavage fluid. These results suggested that exposure to ozone may have diminished the ability of surfactant to reduce surface tension. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if changes in the surface tension of lavaged pulmonary surfactant occur with ozone exposure. The lavage fluid from rats exposed to ozone at 0.8 ppm for 18 h had a 360% increase in protein and a 30% increase in lipid phosphorus content. Lung lavage samples from ozone-exposed rats were more potent in reducing surface tension as measured on a Wilhelmy plate balance. This difference was evident whether determined with half the total lavage or with equivalent microgram amounts of lipid phosphorus. It is concluded that at this dose and duration of ozone exposure, contrary to our hypothesis, surface-tension-lowering ability of surfactant increases and therefore does not appear to be a contributory factor in the previously observed changes in pulmonary function.

Nachtman, J.P.; Hajratwala, B.R.; Moon, H.L.; Gross, K.B.; Wright, E.S.



Towards improving uterine electrical activity modeling and electrohysterography: ultrasonic quantification of uterine movements during labor.  


The electrohysterogram is a potential new tool for diagnosing preterm labor. Parameters from the electrohysterogram may be influenced by uterine movement. An observational study was performed quantifying uterine movement during labor as a step towards improving electrohysterogram analysis for predicting preterm labor. The uterine wall was continuously tracked by ultrasound imaging during first stage of labor while an accelerometer recorded external abdominal accelerations in six women. A cyclic cranial-caudal movement of the uterine wall, caused by maternal respiration, was observed. This is reported and quantified for the first time. Average frequency, amplitude, and peak speed were 0.27 ± 0.07 Hz, 0.68 ± 0.84 cm, and 1.04 ± 1.20 cm/s, respectively. The accelerometer signal correlated with uterine movement and therefore can possibly provide a reference for removing movement-induced artifacts. There is a need to model and measure the effect of uterine movement on the electrohysterogram parameters and make measurements more robust to movement artifacts. PMID:24117329

de Lau, Hinke; Rabotti, Chiara; Haazen, Nicole; Oei, S Guid; Mischi, Massimo



Human Uterine NK cells Interact with Uterine Macrophages via NKG2D upon stimulation with PAMPs  

PubMed Central

Problem The initiation of an immune response often involves the cooperation of various innate immune cells. In the human endometrium, uterine NK cells and uterine macrophages are present in significant numbers and in close proximity, yet how they cooperatively respond to infectious challenge is poorly understood. Method of study Primary autologous uterine NK cells and macrophages were co-cultured to determine functional interactions after stimulation with PAMPs. Results After stimulation by polyI:C, human uNK cells interact with autologous uterine macrophages and produce IFN-? in an NKG2D-dependent manner. Stimulated primary uterine macrophages upregulated the expression of MHC Class I Chain-related protein A (MICA), but expression of the cognate receptor NKG2D remained unchanged on uNK cells, even in the presence of cytokines. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the NKG2D-MICA interaction is an important molecular mechanism that is involved in the innate immune response to microbial signals in the human uterine endometrium.

Basu, Satarupa; Eriksson, Mikael; Pioli, Patricia A.; Conejo-Garcia, Jose; Mselle, Teddy F.; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Wira, Charles R.; Sentman, Charles L.



MR-guided focused ultrasound for the treatment of uterine fibroids.  


Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) ablation of uterine fibroids provides a minimally invasive outpatient technique for targeting and treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a guidance platform that has high temporal and spatial resolution for guiding, as well as thermal monitoring of the procedure. The high-intensity focused ultrasound provides a mechanism for delivering large amounts of energy directly into the fibroid without causing detrimental effects to the nontarget tissues. Early and intermediate follow-up of patients treated with MRgFUS provided promising results on the efficacy of the technique for providing symptom relief to patients. As more long-term follow-up data are published, the efficacy of this technique can be compared to more invasive surgical and minimally invasive catheter treatments. PMID:22453202

Hesley, Gina K; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Woodrum, David A



Heparin-like activity in uterine fluid.  

PubMed Central

Uterine fluid was collected from a group of normal patients and a group of patients with menorrhagia. Heparin-like activity was detected in 34 out of 38 samples using an anti-Xa heparin assay. The heparin-like activity in uterine fluid was inhibited by adding the heparin antagonist hexadimethrine bromide to the assay. Concentrations of fibrinogen-fibrin degradation products (FDPs) were measured in five samples of uterine fluid. FDPs in the concentration detected had no effect on the anti-Xa assay. Heparin-like activity was higher in the group with menorrhagia, although the differences were not significant. Heparin-like activity increased throughout the menstrual cycle and decreased during menstruation, suggesting a possible cyclical variation in activity. There was no correlation between mast cell numbers in the endometrium and myometrium and heparin-like activity in uterine fluid and no correlation between the numbers and the stage in the menstrual cycle. In a few patients with intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) heparin-like activity was increased.

Foley, M E; Griffin, B D; Zuzel, M; Aparicio, S R; Bradbury, K; Bird, C C; Clayton, J K; Jenkins, D M; Scott, J S; Rajah, S M; McNichol, G P



Excessive uterine activity accompanying induced labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the incidence and timing of excessive uterine activity accompanying induction of labor with misoprostol using different routes (oral or vaginal) and forms (intact tablet or crushed) and to compare these with dinoprostone gel, oxytocin, and spontaneous labor.Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 519 women at term who had labor induced and 86 women at term in spontaneous

Joan M. G Crane; David C Young; Kimberly D Butt; Kelly A Bennett; Donna Hutchens



Interstitial laser photocoagulation of uterine leimyoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are common benign tumors which may cause heavy or painful periods, may present as a pelvic mass and are associated with infertility. Local excision of symptomatic lesions can be difficult and hazardous, and the alternative is hysterectomy. We are investigating interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) as a less invasive alternative. Initial experiments were undertaken on 40 fibroids after

A. D. Gordon; Giovanni A. Buonaccorsi; Bipin L. Patel; J. A. Broadbent; Wendy Thurrell; S. G. Bown



[Puerperal uterine inversion: about two cases].  


Two cases of third- and second-degree acute puerperal uterine inversions that required surgical management after manual attempts failed are reported. The diagnosis was obvious in the first case but the second inversion was misdiagnosed as a myoma, which led to severe morbidity, linked with the hemorrhage. PMID:15123120

Jerbi, M; Iraqui, Y; Jacob, D; Truc, J-B



Intestinal Infarctus following Dilatation and Uterine Curettage.  


We present a case of intestinal infarctus through the vagina. This was a consequence of induced abortion done clandestinely. The main objective was to point out the surgical complications of uterine dilatation and curettage by means of this rare case. PMID:21490851

Ngowe, N M; Atangana, R; Eyenga, V C; Sosso, M A



Diagnosis and Treatment of Uterine Septum  


We assessed the efficacy of different methods of diagnosing and correcting uterine septa in 80 women. Hysterosalpingography revealed a uterine malformation, but failed to specify its character, and ultrasound scan was performed to screen the malformations. In 74 women hysteroscopy combined with laparoscopy was performed to define the malformation, and estimate the volume of uterine cavity and extent of septum. Preoperatively the patients received danazol or decapeptyl depot; a few cases were performed in the early follicular phase. Forty-six uterine septa were managed by laparoscopic-controlled resectoscopy. The distending medium was polyglukin or 2.7% sorbitol and 0.54% mannitol. Operating time ranged from 10 to 60 minutes (average 30 min). There was no significant blood loss. Postoperative hospital stay was 1 to 3 days. Twenty-five patients underwent hysteroscopy with curettage 2 to 4 months later, and filmy synechiae were found in four (16%). Histology and electron microscopic examination of endometrial tissue revealed its complete restoration. Of 29 women followed for 3 to 17 months, 12 (41.4%) conceived and 9 had a full-term infant. In this series, resectoscopy was atraumatic, operating time was short, blood loss was insignificant, and hospital stay was brief. PMID:9074072

Adamian; Kulakov; Kiselev; Zurabiana; Khashukoeva; Sorour



Three-dimensional sonohysterography for examination of the uterine cavity in women with abnormal uterine bleeding: Preliminary findings  

PubMed Central

Introduction To compare the diagnostic values of three-dimensional sonohysterography (3DSH), transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS), and 2-dimensional sonohysterography (2DSH) in the work-up of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), in particular the ability of each method to identify intracavitary lesions arising from the endometrium or uterine wall. Materials and methods 24 patients referred for AUB underwent TVUS followed by 2-D and 3-D HS in the same session. Three-dimensional data were acquired with a free-hand technique during maximal distention of the uterus. Within 10 days of the sonographic session, each patient underwent hysteroscopy, which was considered the reference standard. For each of the 3 imaging methods, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy. Results Hysteroscopy demonstrated the presence of an intrauterine lesion in 21/24 patients (87.5%). In 3/24 patients hysteroscopy was negative. For TVUS, 2DSH, and 3DSH, sensitivity was 76% (16/21), 90% (19/21), 100% (21/21), respectively; specificity was 100% (3/3), 100% (19/19), 100% (21/21); PPV was 100%, 100%, 100%; NPV was 37%, 60%, 100%; accuracy was 76%, 90%, 100%. Conclusions 3DSH is more sensitive that 2DSH or TVUS in the detection of intrauterine lesions. If these preliminary results are confirmed in larger studies, 3DSH could be proposed as a valuable alternative to diagnostic hysteroscopy.

Sconfienza, L.M.; Lacelli, F.; Caldiera, V.; Perrone, N.; Piscopo, F.; Gandolfo, N.; Serafini, G.



Role of bronchoalveolar lavage in the evaluation of interstitial pneumonitis in recipients of bone marrow transplants.  

PubMed Central

Forty episodes of pneumonitis in 30 recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants were investigated by fibreoptic bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage. A positive diagnosis was made in 32 episodes of pneumonitis (24 patients), giving a diagnostic yield of 80%. In 31 of these the diagnosis was made within 24 hours of bronchoscopy and this enabled the appropriate treatment to be instituted early. Eighteen patients recovered from their primary infection, although two died subsequently of respiratory failure due to postpneumonic lung destruction. Ten patients later developed a second episode of pneumonitis and a diagnosis was made in nine of these. Only three survived a second episode. Bronchoalveolar lavage was well tolerated by all patients and there was no morbidity or mortality that could be directly attributed to the procedure. Bronchoalveolar lavage is a safe and valuable early diagnostic procedure for the investigation of pulmonary complications in patients who have received bone marrow transplants.

Milburn, H J; Prentice, H G; du Bois, R M



[Significance of bronchoalveolar lavage in demonstrating previous exposure to asbestos].  


A study was made via a clinical approach in the absence of environmental data with the aim of demonstrating a possible past exposure to asbestos in a working population that had never been examined before nor had ever undergone any specific health checks. It was deemed useful to compare this working population with a control population not exposed to asbestos. The population under study consisted of 126 employees of a single (thermonuclear) department of a metal engineering industry who reported having used asbestos as insulation material in all heat processes up to the beginning of the 1980's. Pleural plaques were observed in 13 workers that were also confirmed by high resolution TC (HRTC) except in one case. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Clinica del Lavoro of Milan for non-asbestos related diseases in whom a fibrobronchoscopy with broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnostic purposes. In each group asbestos bodies were counted in the BAL liquid using a method with a detection limit of 0.1 bodies/ml. The asbestos bodies detected in the alveolar liquid of subjects in the control group were between a maximum of 0.25 and a minimum of 0 bodies/ml of liquid (mean = 0.03; SD = 0.64) whereas in the sample of subjects from the population under study who underwent BAL the results gave a concentration of asbestos bodies in the BAL liquid between a maximum of 9.0 and a minimum of 0.15 bodies/ml of liquid (mean = 2.38; SD = 2.72). In order to obtain a statistically significant difference between the control population, which was certainly not exposed, and the sample of subjects undergoing BAL from the population for which an occupational exposure was assumed, we applied the non-parametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for independent samples in view of the asymmetric distribution of the values of asbestos body concentration in the alveolar liquid: the result was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) between the two populations. We also calculated the total asbestos bodies recovered in the BAL liquid of subjects from both populations. In the control group total asbestos bodies were between a maximum of 15 and a minimum of 0 (mean = 1.8; SD = 3.9) while in the group under study the concentration of total asbestos bodies recovered in BAL liquid was between a maximum of 990 and a minimum of 12.7 (mean = 206.5; SD = 270). The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was also applied to these data, the result of which was that the difference in exposure between the two populations was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Concluding, the study demonstrates the importance of asbestos body count in BAL liquid as an objective indicator of past occupational exposure to asbestos, thus providing documented proof that overcomes any doubts arising from case history and any lack of environmental data that could prove exposure. PMID:11515149

Rivolta, G; Prandi, E; Sogliani, M; Picchi, O


A quantitative study of rat uterine sympathetic innervation during pregnancy and post partum.  


In mammals, pregnancy induces a transient and extensive degeneration of uterine sympathetic innervation. We used the models of unilateral oviduct ligation and in oculo myometrium transplant in pregnant rats to address the role of stretching forces and/or hormone milieu in the loss of sympathetic innervation. The sympathetic fibres of the uterine horn and in oculo myometrial transplants were quantified on tissue sections processed by the glyoxylic acid technique. In normal pregnant rats, the density of uterine horn innervation was significantly reduced at late pregnancy and recovery took place during post partum. The empty horn of pregnant rats showed no significant changes in density of myometrial innervation during pregnancy or post partum. In oculo myometrial transplants were organotypically reinnervated in virgin animals. When the transplants were exposed to gestational hormonal milieu, few or no fibres were observed to the end of pregnancy; however, a significant increase at post partum was observed. Results showed that both the effects of stretching and the hormone milieu derived from the fetus-placenta complex play a role as inductors of changes on sympathetic myometrial innervation during pregnancy and support the idea that immature muscular uterine fibres are more susceptible to the effects of pregnancy than those originating from adult animals. PMID:16836959

Chávez-Genaro, R; Lombide, P; Anesetti, G



Use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device for the symptomatic treatment of uterine myomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) for the treatment of patients with uterine myomas with increased bleeding by measuring total uterine volume and by determining patient clinical improvement, uterine artery flow velocity, and hemoglobin levels. Study design: Ten patients with a complaint of increased uterine bleeding associated with the presence of uterine myomas were assessed

J. C. Rosa e Silva; A. C. J. S. Rosa e Silva; F. J. C. Reis; L. A. Manetta; R. A. Ferriani; A. A. Nogueira



Morphometry of in situ and lavaged pulmonary alveolar macrophages from control and ozone-exposed rats  

SciTech Connect

Effects of ambient levels of ozone on cell size and compartments were determined morphometrically for both in situ and lavaged pulmonary alveolar macrophages from rats exposed to filtered air or to filtered air with 0.60 ppm ozone. The ozone exposure was 8 hr/day for 3 days. Significant exposure-related compartmental volume density changes of in situ centriacinar macrophages were: decreased endoplasm (p less than 0.01); increased lysosome-like structures (p less than 0.01); decreased primary lysosomes (p less than 0.01); increased small and large secondary lysosomes (p less than 0.001); and decreased phagosomes/autophagosomes (p less than 0.05). In lavaged macrophages, the only significant exposure-related change was an increase in the density of large secondary lysosomes (p less than 0.01). Mean profile areas of in situ centriacinar macrophages from control and exposed rats were 86.94 micrometers/sup 2/ and 112.04 micrometers/sup 2/, respectively. The average mean cell volume V and mean caliper diameter D of macrophages lavaged from control rats were 1128.45 micrometers/sup 3/ and 12.92 micrometers, respectively, whereas those from exposed rats were 1583.08 micrometers/sup 3/ and 14.46 micrometers, respectively. Exposure-related increases in cell size were seen in both in situ and lavaged macrophages, but more significant differences in cell compartments were seen in the in situ centriacinar macrophages. Morphometry of pulmonary alveolar macrophages after ambient levels of ozone indicated increased uptake, storage, or both rather than cell damage. Comparison of in situ centriacinar and lavaged macrophages from both control and exposed rats revealed significant differences in their volume fractions of nucleus, cytoplasm, ectoplasm, mitochondria, lysosome-like structures, lipid droplets, vacuoles, and phagosome/autophagosomes. These differences between centriacinar and lavaged macrophages indicate different cell populations are sampled by these two methods.

Lum, H.; Tyler, W.S.; Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.



Voltage-Clamp Studies on Uterine Smooth Muscle  

PubMed Central

These studies have developed and tested an experimental approach to the study of membrane ionic conductance mechanisms in strips of uterine smooth muscle. The experimental and theoretical basis for applying the double sucrose-gap technique is described along with the limitations of this system. Nonpropagating membrane action potentials were produced in response to depolarizing current pulses under current-clamp conditions. The stepwise change of membrane potential under voltage-clamp conditions resulted in a family of ionic currents with voltage- and time-dependent characteristics. In sodium-free solution the peak transient current decreased and its equilibrium potential shifted along the voltage axis toward a more negative internal potential. These studies indicate a sodium-dependent, regenerative excitation mechanism.

Anderson, Nels C.



Uterine microRNA signature and consequence of their dysregulation in uterine disorders  

PubMed Central

MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as key post-transcriptional regulator and through this mechanism control many normal developmental and physiological processes. Conversely, aberrant expression of some miRNAs has been correlated with various disorders, more specifically, development and progression of malignancy. Endometrium is a dynamic tissue which undergoes extensive cyclic changes in preparation for embryo implantation during reproductive years, as well as changes that occur following menopause, and establishment of benign and malignant uterine disorders. These processes are highly regulated by ovarian steroids and locally expressed genes in response to steroid hormone receptor-mediated signaling and include genes related to inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, cell-cycle progression, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling. Here we present an overview of our current understanding of uterine miRNA biogenesis and highlights their potential regulatory functions in cellular processes relevant to normal uterine physiological and pathological disorders such as endometriosis, dysfunctional uterine bleeding and endometrial cancer. Understanding the expression, regulation and functional aspects of miRNAs in uterine environment under normal and various disorders may lead to their potential utilization as diagnostic as well as therapeutic tool.

Chegini, Nasser



Uterine-specific p53 deficiency confers premature uterine senescence and promotes preterm birth in mice  

PubMed Central

Many signaling pathways that contribute to tumorigenesis are also functional in pregnancy, although they are dysregulated in the former and tightly regulated in the latter. Transformation-related protein 53 (Trp53), which encodes p53, is a tumor suppressor gene whose mutation is strongly associated with cancer. However, its role in normal physiological processes, including female reproduction, is poorly understood. Mice that have a constitutive deletion of Trp53 exhibit widespread development of carcinogenesis at early reproductive ages, compromised spermatogenesis, and fetal exencephaly, rendering them less amenable to studying the role of p53 in reproduction. To overcome this obstacle, we generated mice that harbor a conditional deletion of uterine Trp53 and examined pregnancy outcome in females with this genotype. These mice had normal ovulation, fertilization, and implantation; however, postimplantation uterine decidual cells showed terminal differentiation and senescence-associated growth restriction with increased levels of phosphorylated Akt and p21, factors that are both known to participate in these processes in other systems. Strikingly, uterine deletion of Trp53 increased the incidence of preterm birth, a condition that was corrected by oral administration of the selective COX2 inhibitor celecoxib. We further generated evidence to suggest that deletion of uterine Trp53 induces preterm birth through a COX2/PGF synthase/PGF2? pathway. Taken together, our observations underscore what we believe to be a new critical role of uterine p53 in parturition.

Hirota, Yasushi; Daikoku, Takiko; Tranguch, Susanne; Xie, Huirong; Bradshaw, Heather B.; Dey, Sudhansu K.



Characterization of copper corrosion products originated in simulated uterine fluids and on packaged intrauterine devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the characterization of corrosion products originated after 1 and 12 weeks' immersion of copper specimens in simulated uterine fluids at pH 6.3 and 8.0 and at 37 °C temperature. The experimental techniques used were X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray. The compounds found were calcite (CaCO3), calcium phosphate, cuprite (Cu2O) and copper hydroxide

J. M. Bastidas; N. Mora; E. Cano; J. L. Polo



Initial Experience of Uterine Fibroid Embolization Using Porous Gelatin Sponge Particles  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the safety and effectiveness of uterine artery embolization (UAE) using porous gelatin particle (PGP; Gelpart; Asuterasu, Tokyo, Japan) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Twenty-five consecutive premenopausal women underwent UAE with PGP. The angiographic end point of embolization was near stasis of the ascending uterine artery. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained before and after the procedure. Complications were assessed. The outcomes of technique, infarction rates of all fibroid tissue after UAE with contrast-enhanced MRI, change in symptoms and quality of life using serial Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL) questionnaires, and additional interventions were evaluated. Bilateral UAE was successfully performed in all patients. Enhanced MRI 1 week after UAE showed that 100% infarction of all fibroid tissue was achieved in 65% (15 of 23) of patients; 90-99% infarction was achieved in 35% (8 of 23) of patients. Mean follow-up was 12 months (range 1-20). Symptom and QOL scores at baseline were 47.2 and 61.7, respectively. Both scores significantly improved to 26.3 (P < 0.001) and 82.4 (P < 0.001) at 4 months and to 20.4 (P < 0.001) and 77.6 (P < 0.001) at 1 year, respectively. No additional gynecologic interventions were performed in any patient. There were no major complications. Minor complications occurred in two patients. UAE using PGP is a safe and effective procedure and shows that outcomes after UAE, as measured with enhanced MRI and UFS-QOL questionnaires, seem comparable with those of UAE using other embolic agents. PGP is a promising embolic agent used for UAE to treat symptomatic uterine fibroids. Further comparative study between PGP and other established embolic agents is required.

Katsumori, Tetsuya, E-mail:; Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Oda, Minori; Kotani, Tomoya [Saiseikai Shiga Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)



Interaction of intact porcine spermatozoa with epithelial cells and neutrophilic granulocytes during uterine passage.  


New insemination techniques allow a tremendous sperm reduction for successful artificial insemination (AI) if highly diluted semen is deposited in the tip of the uterine horn and close to the utero-tubal junction. High sperm losses are known to occur during uterine passage and it was the general question whether specific binding mechanisms are involved. Upon arrival in the uterus, spermatozoa are confronted with mainly two different cell types: uterine epithelial cells (UEC) and neutrophilic granulocytes (polymorphonuclear neutrophil, PMN). As cell-sperm interactions can hardly be observed in vivo, an ex vivo system was established to study the interaction between spermatozoa and the UEC. Uterine segments (10 cm) from freshly slaughtered synchronized juvenile gilts were inseminated for 60 min at 38 degrees C. Thereafter spermatozoa were recovered, counted flow cytometrically and examined for changes in viability and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Significantly less spermatozoa with a functioning MMP and intact plasma membranes could be retrieved (55 +/- 7%), while the number of damaged spermatozoa hardly changed (93 +/- 12%), indicating retention of viable sperm cells in the uterine lumen. The interactions between porcine PMN and spermatozoa (motile, immotile, membrane-damaged) were studied in coincubation assays in vitro. The binding of membrane-damaged sperm cells to PMN was virtually non-existent (3 +/- 2%). Viable and motile spermatozoa attached to PMN without being phagocytosed within 60 min (45 +/- 3%), whereas binding to sodium fluoride (NaF)-immobilized spermatozoa was reduced to 20 +/- 2%. The binding of viable sperm to PMN is most likely not lectin-dependent; although both viable cell types were shown to express a broad range of different lectin-binding sugar residues, none of the lectins tested was able to selectively block PMN-sperm binding significantly. The results of the study suggest that viable spermatozoa are already subject to selective processes within the uterus before further selection is initiated at the utero-tubal junction and in the oviductal isthmus. PMID:17986175

Taylor, U; Rath, D; Zerbe, H; Schuberth, H J



Uterine artery Doppler and prediction of preeclampsia.  


Identifying patients at risk for preeclampsia would allow an increase in perinatal surveillance and possibly decrease the inherent maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality associated with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia. First and second trimester uterine artery Doppler velocimetry is a sensitive screening tool for the detection of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) requiring delivery before 34 weeks. The performance of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry as a screening test depends on the prevalence of the adverse outcome in the studied population and whether the adverse outcomes are assessed individually or collectively as a group. Future research in this area should focus on identification of additional markers that may be incorporated into a prediction model for early identification of patients at risk for adverse outcomes. PMID:21048456

Lovgren, Todd R; Dugoff, Lorraine; Galan, Henry L



Vesicourethral Function after Surgery for Uterine Cancer: Predictive Value of Postoperative Maximum Urethral Closure Pressure on Residual Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a urodynamic technique, vesicourethral function was evaluated in 30 patients who had undergone surgery for uterine cancer. In all 28 patients treated with radical hysterectomy, detrusor function was damaged irrespective of the use of the Cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA), whereas, in 2 patients treated with semiradical hysterectomy, the function was preserved. Vesicourethral functions 3 weeks after the operation

Hiroaki Shiina; Shoji Ehara; Tomoyuki Ishibe



Effects of raloxifene treatment on uterine leiomyomas in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effects of raloxifene administration on uterine and uterine leiomyoma sizes in postmenopausal women.Design: Prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.Setting: Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics, and Pathophysiology of Human Reproduction, University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy.Patient(s): Seventy spontaneous postmenopausal women affected by uterine leiomyomas.Intervention(s): Twelve cycles (of 28 days each) of treatment with raloxifene (60 mg daily per

Stefano Palomba; Annalidia Sammartino; Costantino Di Carlo; Pietro Affinito; Fulvio Zullo; Carmine Nappi



Uterine activty and plasma progesterone levels in pregnant goats.  


Uterine activity was recorded during the last few weeks of pregnacy in goats, and related to changes in plasma progesterone concentration. In six of the 14 pregnancies, there was little activity until immediately pre-partum, but the remainder showed a progressive increase in uterine motility, particularly during the last seven days of pregnancy. There was a significant correlation between increased uterine activity and decline of peripheral plasma progesterone levels. PMID:841203

Jones, D E; Kinfton, A



Non-Gestational Uterine Choriocarcinoma in a Postmenopausal Woman  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: Gestational trophoblastic disease occurs rarely in postmenopausal women. Case Report: We report on a 65-year-old woman with uterine choriocarcinoma developing 16 years after menopause and 25 years after her last pregnancy. She was found to have a uterine tumor on laparotomy after presenting with uterine bleeding and abdominal pain. Histopathological examination demonstrated malignant syncytiotrophoblastic and cytotrophoblastic cells with extensive

Ramazan Yildiz; Mustafa Benekli; Nalan Akyurek; Ugur Coskun; Ali O. Kaya; Banu Ozturk; Emel Yaman; Suleyman Buyukberber



Heterotopic uterine transplantation by vascular anastomosis in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of heterotopic uterine transplantation was developed in the mouse as a model system for studies of uterine function and transplant immunology of the uterus. The model involved transplantation of the right uterine horn and the cervix by vascular anastomosis to a donor animal with the intact native uterus remaining in situ. F1-hybrids of inbred C57BL\\/6CBA\\/ca (B6 CBAF1) mice

R Racho El-Akouri; G Kurlberg; G Dindelegan; J Mölne; A Wallin; M Brännström



PEP19 overexpression in human uterine leiomyoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although uterine leiomyomas represent one of the most common neoplasms in adult women, their pathogenesis remains poorly understood. A cDNA microarray analysis was performed to search for candidate genes expressed to a greater degree in leio- myoma compared with matched myometrium. A total of 15 candidate genes was obtained; neuron-specific protein PEP-19 (Purkinje cell protein 4; PCP 4) exhibited a

Takanobu Kanamori; Kenji Takakura; Masaki Mandai; Masatoshi Kariya; Ken Fukuhara; Takashi Kusakari; Chika Momma; Hiroaki Shime; Haruhiko Yagi; Mitsunaga Konishi; Ayako Suzuki; Noriomi Matsumura; Kanako Nanbu; Jun Fujita; Shingo Fujii



Uterine artery embolization for symptomatic fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to introduce uterine artery embolization (UAE) as an effective and safe treatment option in patients with symptomatic fibroids. Methods: Sixty-one patients underwent UAE with a 3- and 12-month follow-up. Results: The procedure was well tolerated in all patients with the following symptoms improving: heavy bleeding [90% (95% CI 80.21%; 95.4%)]; dysmenorrhea [median ?4

A. Prollius; C. de Vries; E. Loggenberg; M. Nel; A. du Plessis; D. J. Van Rensburg; P. H. Wessels



Do uterine fibroids affect IVF outcomes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of myomectomy on implantation and pregnancy rates prior to assisted reproduction treatments is controversial. This study was designed to assess clinical outcomes of IVF cycles in women with uterine fibroids. A retrospective single-centre assessment of clinical outcomes of IVF\\/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments in infertile women in a 4-year span was carried out. All patients underwent detailed transvaginal

Antonella Vimercati; Marco Scioscia; Filomenamila Lorusso; Anna Franca Laera; Giuseppina Lamanna; Alfredo Coluccia; Stefano Bettocchi; Luigi Selvaggi; Raffaella Depalo



Necrotising granulomas of the uterine corpus.  

PubMed Central

Necrotising granulomatous inflammation of the uterine corpus associated with transcervical laser ablation of the endometrium occurred in four patients. The abnormalities seen, including extensive necrosis and hyalinisation with foreign body giant cells containing black foreign material, and eosinophilic homogenisation around blood vessels, were due to the effects of tissue fulguration. The presence of black foreign material in loosely organised histiocytes should alert the pathologist even in the absence of clinical information; stains for organisms are negative. Images

Akosa, A B; Boret, F



Yield of bronchoalveolar lavage in ventilated and non-ventilated children after bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to retrospectively evaluate the yield of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in a single-institution series of children after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and to compare the yield of BAL between the ventilated and nonventilated patients. We reviewed charts of 52 consecutive children after BMT who underwent BAL. Thirty patients (41 BALs) were nonventilated (group 1) and 33 patients

J Ben-Ari; I Yaniv; E Nahum; J Stein; Z Samra; T Schonfeld



Increased Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid CD1c Expressing Dendritic Cells in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic inflammation is implicated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) pathogenesis and is associated with persistent activation of immune responses. These are largely controlled by dendritic cells (DCs). Although large numbers of DCs infiltrate the lungs of patients with IPF, there are no similar reports in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Objectives: We aimed to investigate DC populations in BALF of

M. Tsoumakidou; K. P. Karagiannis; I. Bouloukaki; S. Zakynthinos; N. Tzanakis; N. M. Siafakas



Fibronectin in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Lung Cancer: Tumor or Inflammatory Marker?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the potential value of the level of fibronectin (FN) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as a lung tumor marker. Method: We compare the results of determinations in the tumor-bearing and tumor-free lungs of 38 patients with lung cancer, in 19 patients with benign lung diseases and in 13 healthy control subjects. FN was determined in BALF

M. J. Cremades; R. Menéndez; V. Rubio; J. Sanchis



Ductal Lavage for Detection of Cellular Atypia in Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Breast cancer originates in breast epithelium and is associated with progressive molecular and morpho- logic changes.Women with atypical breast ductal epithelial cells have an increased relative risk of breast cancer.In this study, ductal lavage, a new procedure for collecting ductal cells with a microcatheter, was compared with nipple aspi- ration with regard to safety, tolerability, and the ability to

William C. Dooley; Britt-Marie Ljung; Umberto Veronesi; Massimiliano Cazzaniga; Richard M. Elledge; Joyce A. O'Shaughnessy; Henry M. Kuerer; David T. Hung; Seema A. Khan; Rogsbert F. Phillips; Patricia A. Ganz; David M. Euhus; Bruce G. Haffty; Bonnie L. King; Mark C. Kelley; Maxine M. Anderson; Paul J. Schmit; Ramona R. Clark; Frederic C. Kass; Benjamin O. Anderson; Susan L. Troyan; Raquel D. Arias; John N. Quiring; Susan M. Love; David L. Page; Eileen B. King



Evidence of Lymphocyte Alveolitis by Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Thalassemic Patients with Pulmonary Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary dysfunction represents one of the least studied complications in thalassemic patients. Probably, it is due to the absence of pulmonary symptoms. There are few works in the literature, and contradictory results have been published. The aim of this study was to define the spirometric pattern and the possible causes of lung impairment by testing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with pathological

A. Filosa; V. Esposito; I. Meoli; I. Baron; L. Romano



Detection of CMV Pneumonitis after Lung Transplantation Using PCR of DNA from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is known as a common pathogen causing infections after lung transplantation. Rapid diagnosis of CMV infection is important for the initiation of a specific treatment. Objective: Evaluation of methods for the rapid diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis. Methods: The detection rates of CMV DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and bronchial brushes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), of viral

Burkhard Bewig; Thyra Caroline Haacke; Andreas Tiroke; Andreas Bastian; Heidi Böttcher; Stefan W. Hirt; P. Rautenberg; Axel Haverich



Effect of Segmental Bronchoalveolar Lavage on Quantitative Computed Tomography of the Lung  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives With employment of both multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and endobronchial procedures in multi-center studies, effects of timing of endobronchial procedures on quantitative imaging (Q-MDCT) metrics is a question of increasing importance. Materials and Methods Six subjects were studied via MDCT at baseline, immediately following and at 4hrs and 24hrs post-BAL (right middle lobe (RML) and lingula). Through quantitative image analysis, non-air, or ‘tissue’ volume (TV) in each lung and lobe was recorded. Change in TV from baseline was used to infer retention and re-distribution of lavage fluid. Results Bronchoscopist reported unrecovered BAL volume correlated well with Q-MDCT for whole lung measures, but less well with individual lobes indicating redistribution. TV in all lobes except the RLL differed significantly (p<.05) from baseline immediately post lavage. At 24hrs, all lobes except the LLL (small 1% mean difference at 24hrs.) returned to baseline. Conclusions These findings suggest fluid movement, effecting Q-MDCT metrics, between lobes and between lungs before eventual resolution, and preclude protocols involving the lavage of one lung and imaging of the other to avoid interactions. We demonstrate that Q-MDCT is sensitive to lavage fluid retention and re-distribution, and endobronchial procedures should not precede Q-MDCT imaging by less than 24hrs.

Gabe, Luke M; Baker, Kimberly M; van Beek, Edwin JR; Hunninghake, Gary W; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Hoffman, Eric A



Gram stain of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the usefulness of the Gram stain in the early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), we performed 146 protected specimen brushings (PSB) and bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) in I 18 patients suspected of having nosocomial pneumonia. Gram stain and counts of infected cells were performed in all samples from BAL fluid. A final diagnosis of pneumonia was established in 51

B. Allaouchiche; H. Jaumain; D. Chassard; P. Bouletreau


Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) is one of the well known fungi used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment asthma and bronchial and lung inflammation. In this study, effects of C. sinensis methanolic extracts on bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) cells proliferation, inflammatory cytokines production, and genes expression were evaluated. The proliferative response of BALF cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was determined by

Yuh-Chi Kuo; Wei-Jern Tsai; Jir-Yenn Wang; Shi-Chung Chang; Ching-Yuang Lin; Ming-Shi Shiao



IL5 production by bronchoalveolar lavage and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in asthma and atopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence to suggest a key role for interleukin-5 (IL-5) in the regulation of airway eosinophilia in asthma. We compared the capac- ity for IL-5 production in atopic asthmatic, nonatopic asthmatic, atopic nonasth- matic and normal subjects, and evaluated the usefulness of peripheral blood cells for reflecting airway cell reactivity. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and peripheral blood mononuclear

C. Tang; J. M. Rolland; C. Ward; B. Quan; E. H. Walters



Development and optimization of quantitative PCR for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains challenging. Culture and histopathological examination of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid are useful but have suboptimal sensitivity and in the case of culture may require several days for fungal growth to be evident. Detection of Aspergillus DNA in BAL fluid by quantitative PCR (qPCR) offers the potential for earlier diagnosis and higher

Prasanna D Khot; Daisy L Ko; Robert C Hackman; David N Fredricks



The Effect of Repeated Ozone Exposures on Inflammatory Markers in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and Mucosal Biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular and biochemi- cal events associated with repeated exposures to ozone. Twenty- three healthy subjects underwent single exposures to 200 ppb ozone and to filtered air (FA), as well as repeated exposures to 200 ppb ozone on 4 consecutive days, each for 4 h of intermittent ex- ercise. Bronchoalveolar lavage was




Bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum and exhaled clinically relevant inflammatory markers: values in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), induced sputum and exhaled breath markers (exhaled nitric oxide and exhaled breath condensate) can each provide biological insights into the pathogenesis of respiratory disorders. Some of their biomarkers are also employed in the clinical management of patients with various respiratory diseases. In the clinical context, however, defining normal values and cut-off points is crucial. The aim of

B. Balbi; P. Pignatti; M. Corradi; P. Baiardi; L. Bianchi; G. Brunettie; A. Radaeli; G. Moscato; A. Mutti; A. Spanevello; M. Malerba



Dexamethasone Alters Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Proteome in a Mouse Asthma Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Glucocorticoid is the most effective anti-inflammatory agent for asthma. The spectrum of protein targets that can be regulated by glucocorticoid in asthma is not fully understood. The present study tried to identify novel protein targets of dexamethasone in allergic airway inflammation by analyzing the proteome of mouse bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Methods: BALB\\/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin

Jing Zhao; Lai Han Yeong; W. S. Fred Wong



Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluids of Pigs by PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation we developed a method for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs by PCR with a primer pair flanking a DNA fragment of 853 bp specific for M. hyopneumoniae. Several methods were tested to eliminate the amplification inhibitors present in BALFs. The best results were obtained by the extraction of the



Immune Cells in Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Peripheral Lung Cancer – Analysis of 140 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Changes in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell profile may reflect immunologic reactions of the lung in pulmonary malignancies. Objective: Our aim was to analyse the BALF cell profile in peripheral lung cancer. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of BALF samples containing tumor cells from patients with confirmed peripheral lung cancer (140 cases). Routine analysis and lymphocyte

Josune Guzman; Ulrich Costabel



Effect of intrabronchially instilled amosite on lavagable lung and pleural cells.  

PubMed Central

Rats were instilled intrabronchially with 1 mg UICC amosite suspended in 0.2 mL of filtered saline; control animals received the saline instillation only. Five animals from each group were killed on various days after instillation, up to day 128/129. Total retrieved cell counts and differential cell analysis were performed from lung and pleural lavages. In particular, the appearance of peroxidase-positive macrophages (PPM) as indicators of newly arrived macrophages was investigated. Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and PPMs in lung lavages increased in number 24 hr after amosite instillation and remained at increased levels until day 62. Alveolar macrophage numbers were significantly decreased after amosite instillation. There was only a very transient increase of PPMs and PMNs in the saline group. The number of PPMs in pleural lavage fluid was already increased 24 hr after amosite instillation. The pleural PPM increase was sustained throughout the study. No pleural reaction was seen in the saline instilled group. The inflammatory reactions indicated by the composition of the lavaged cells of the lung represent the in vivo toxicity of intrabronchially instilled amosite. The stimulus for recruitment of PMNs and PPMs is different, since no PMN response was detected in the pleural space. It is suggested that the response of the pleural PPMs is caused by the early arrival of fibers at the pleural sites, which results in the recruitment of PPMs to this space by an unknown mechanism.

Oberdoerster, G; Ferin, J; Marcello, N L; Meinhold, S H



Long-term durable benefit after whole lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole lung lavage (WLL) is still the gold-standard therapy for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). The few studies on the duration of the effect of WLL, belonging to a rather remote period, show significant but transient benefits. In 21 patients with idiopathic PAP, the duration of any benefit and, in 16 of them, the time course of lung function improvement (at

M. Beccaria; M. Luisetti; G. Rodi; A. Corsico; M. C. Zoia; S. Colato; P. Pochetti; A. Braschi; E. Pozzi; I. Cerveri



Diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage in patients with opportunistic and nonopportunistic bacterial pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In 29 patients with community-acquired pneumonia, 24 patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia and 35 patients with pneumonia in the immunocompromised host the diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with quantitative bacterial and fungal cultures was studied; 32 patients with noninfectious pulmonary diseases and 14 healthy volunteers served as controls. An infectious etiology could be established in 81% of the pneumonia

K. Dalhoff; J. Braun; R. Lipp; K.-J. Wießmann; H. Hollandt; R. Marre



[Management of severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: how to perform whole-lung lavage safely].  


Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is an uncommon respiratory disorder which is characterised by an intraalveolar accumulation of lipoproteins. A 35-year-old patient (smoker and THC consumption) presented with a PAP and severe respiratory (type I) failure. In addition, the patient had pleuropneumonia. Repeated whole-lung lavage (WLL) is the treatment of choice. The procedure is presented in detail. PMID:21437860

Wittke, R; Wolf, R; Reinken, T; Müller, E; Ewig, S



Detection of Mimivirus in Bronchoalveolar Lavage of Ventilated and Nonventilated Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: We investigated the prevalence of Mimivirus in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from ventilated versus nonventilated patients. Methods: The occurrence of Mimivirus DNA was evaluated by two previously developed real-time PCR assays in 69 BAL specimens: 30 from patients on mechanical ventilation for at least 48 h and 39 from nonventilated patients from different clinical settings, including lung transplant recipients.

Cristina Costa; Massimiliano Bergallo; Sara Astegiano; Maria Elena Terlizzi; Francesca Sidoti; Paolo Solidoro; Rossana Cavallo



Obesity is Associated with Atypia in Breast Ductal Lavage of Women with Proliferative Breast Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Benign proliferative breast disease without atypia slightly increases breast cancer risk but there are currently few clinical options for breast cancer prevention in this group of women. Methods We conducted a pilot study of women with a past diagnosis of proliferative breast disease with a goal to determine if the characteristics of cells obtained by breast ductal lavage were related to nutritional factors. Results There were 57 women who enrolled. A total of 39 women yielded nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) samples and 36 underwent breast ductal lavage. Five of the lavage samples were acellular and 28 had at least 200 cells. Surprisingly, atypia was present in 11 women. Presence of atypia was associated with slight changes in morphometric features of the epithelial cells such as measures of circularity) as obtained by image analysis, but the only variable significantly different in women with atypia (versus no atypia) was a higher mean body mass index. Body mass index also was significantly correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the nipple aspirate fluid, indicating that obesity might have a pro-inflammatory effect on the breast that can contribute to increased rates of atypia. Conclusions Although the clinical significance of atypia in breast ductal lavage is uncertain, these results support further work on prevention of obesity as a strategy for reducing breast cancer risk.

Djuric, Zora; Edwards, Ann; Madan, Shashi; Darga, Linda; Ren, Jianwei; Koletsky, Mathew; Heilbrun, Lance K.



Uterine anomaly and recurrent pregnancy loss.  


Women with recurrent pregnancy loss have a 3.2 to 6.9% likelihood of having a major uterine anomaly and a 1.0 to 16.9% chance of having an arcuate uterus. Bicornuate and septate uterine have a negative impact on reproductive outcomes and are associated with subsequent euploid miscarriage. The impact of an arcuate uterus on pregnancy outcome remains unclear. There are no definitive criteria to distinguish among the arcuate, septate, and bicornuate uteri. The American Fertility Society classification of Müllerian anomalies is the most common standardized classification of uterine anomalies. According to estimates, 65 to 85% of patients with bicornuate or septate uteri have a successful pregnancy outcome after metroplasty. However, 59.5% of the patients with such anomalies have a successful subsequent pregnancy without surgery, with a cumulative live birthrate of 78.0%. There is no case-control study to compare live birthrates in women who had surgery compared with those who did not. Strict criteria to distinguish between the bicornuate and septate uterus should be established. Further study is needed to confirm the benefits of metroplasty. PMID:22161464

Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi; Ozaki, Yasuhiko; Katano, Kinue; Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Mizutani, Eita



[Stepwise uterine devascularization in postpartum hemorrhages].  


The authors reported the results from a retrospective investigation of 10121 deliveries for a three-year period (1981-1983) as well as from a prospective study of 6239 child-births during a three-year period after a 20-year-long time lag, i.e., in 2000-2002. The cases with early post-partum hemorrhages (EPH) and with accomplished laparotomy were examined. The causes for EPH, the obstetric therapeutic measures and manipulations prior to the laparotomy as well as the surgical interventions after opening the abdomen were considered. The authors emphasized that 20 years ago three uteri only could be "saved" by means of ligation of the uterine vessels. A hysterectomy was carried out in 21 cases with massive EPH after the laparotomy. After two decades the situation changed dramatically. The hysterectomies amounted to only 22.22% of the cases (n = 4) while in the rest females (n = 14) the copying of the massive hemorrhages was performed by means either of stepwise ligation of the uterine vessels, or of ligation of the hypogastric ones in 3 cases with additional vaginal lacerations. It was outlined that mother's mortality rate was zero during these two periods. The conclusion has been drawn that the ligation of the uterine vessels represents an alternative to the hysterectomy when copying the EPH and preserves the child-bearing functions of some females because of the subsequent vascular recanalization. PMID:15168647

Tsvetkov, Ts; Kozovski, G; Tsvetkov, K; Petkova, U; Minkov, R



[Non-invasive thermoablation of symptomatic uterine fibroids with magnetic resonance-guided high-energy ultrasound].  


Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumors in postmenopausal women which can cause severe symptoms and considerably reduce the quality of life. Patients are requesting minimally invasive, organ-saving therapies increasingly more often and magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound is a promising new technology which even surpasses these requirements as it is a totally non-invasive approach. The possibility of real-time temperature mapping allows a safe and precise thermal ablation of uterine fibroids. The rate of adverse events is low and safety and efficiency have been proven in several clinical studies. Further studies will have to be carried out to demonstrate long-term success and comparability to the established therapies and clarify if focused ultrasound is a safe treatment for women with the desire for future pregnancy. The MR-guided focused ultrasound technique is an effective and gentle treatment for uterine fibroids and holds a great potential for further indications. PMID:21660621

Eckey, T; Neumann, A; Bohlmann, M K; Barkhausen, J; Hunold, P



Uterine artery Doppler flow studies in obstetric practice  

PubMed Central

In women who develop preeclampsia there is a pathological increase in placental vascular resistance should be detectable by abnormal Dopplerf low studies of the maternal uterine vessels. In women considered at low risk with abnormal early pregnancy uterine artery Doppler studies are needed. Until such time as these are available, routine uterine artery Doppler screening of women considered at low risk is not recommended. Uterine artery Doppler screening of high-risk women appears to identify those at substantially increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and interventions that might improve clinical outcomes. Abnormal testing in these women could potentially lead to increased surveillance and interventions that might improve clinical outcomes.

Giordano, Rosalba; Cacciatore, Alessandra; Romano, Mattea; La Rosa, Beatrice; Fonti, Ilenia; Vigna, Roberto



Rare delivery complication caused by an undiagnosed uterine septum.  


The role of a uterine septum, and thus, metroplasty in an infertile woman is a debatable issue. A rare complication of fetal malpresentation and impaction in the uterine cavity due to undiagnosed uterine septum in a 24-year-old primigravida who conceived after 3 years of primary infertility is reported. This case highlights that uterine anomalies should be looked for in patients with infertility and reproductive failures, and should be corrected before conception by metroplasty in order to improve reproductive outcome. PMID:10099765

Banerjee, N; Kriplani, A; Takkar, D



A systematic review of the methods used to assess race and racial disparities in uterine fibroid research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Black women are reported to have a higher prevalence of uterine fibroids, and a threefold higher incidence rate and relative risk for clinical uterine fibroid development as compared to women of other races. Uterine fibroid research has reported that black women experience greater uterine fibroid morbidity and disproportionate uterine fibroid disease burden. With increased interest in understanding uterine fibroid

Nicole A Streeter



MR Reproducibility in the Assessment of Uterine Fibroids for Patients Scheduled for Uterine Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly applied in the evaluation of uterine fibroids. However, little is known about the reproducibility of MRI in the assessment of uterine fibroids. This study evaluates the inter- and intraobserver variation in the assessment of the uterine fibroids and concomitant adenomyosis in women scheduled for uterine artery embolization (UAE). Forty patients (mean age: 44.5 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids who were scheduled for UAE underwent T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted MRI. To study inter- and intraobserver agreement 40 MR images were evaluated independently by two observers and reevaluated by both observers 4 months later. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was calculated using Cohen's {kappa} statistic and intraclass correlation coefficient for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Inter-observer agreement for uterine volumes ({kappa} = 0.99, p < 0.0001), dominant fibroid volumes ({kappa} = 0.98, p {<=} 0.0001), and number of fibroids ({kappa} = 0.88; CI, 0.77-0.93; p < 0.0001) was excellent. For the T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted signal intensity of the dominant fibroid there was good agreement between the observers (87%; 95% CI, 71.9%-95.6%) and the intraobserver agreement was good for observer A (95%; 95% CI, 83.1%-99.4%) and moderate for observer B ({kappa} = 0.47). The interobserver agreement with respect to the presence of adenomyosis was good ({kappa} = 0.73, p < 0.0001), while both intraobserver agreements were fair to moderate (observer A, {kappa} = 0.55, p = 0.0003; and observer B, {kappa} = 0.66, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, MRI criteria used for the selection of suitable UAE patients show good inter- and intraobserver reproducibility.

Volkers, Nicole A. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)], E-mail:; Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K. [Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands); Spijkerboer, Anje M. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Moolhuijzen, Albert D. [Waterland Hospital, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Birnie, Erwin [Amsterdam, and Erasmus Medical Centre, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Academic Medical Centre, Department of Public Health Epidemiology (Netherlands); Ankum, Willem M. [Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands); Reekers, Jim A. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)



Relation between immunocytological features of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and clinical indices in sarcoidosis.  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to determine whether cell populations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid represent a reflection of disease activity in sarcoidosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells were obtained from 22 patients with sarcoidosis and from 10 normal control subjects and investigated by immunocytological methods. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was used to determine the relative proportions of phenotypically distinct subsets of macrophages and lymphocytes in the patients with sarcoidosis and to correlate them with clinical indices, such as disease duration, serum angiotensin converting enzyme, the chest radiograph, and results of pulmonary function tests. Patients with sarcoidosis had a higher percentage than the normal subjects of macrophage like cells expressing RFD1 (a class II associated antigen preferentially expressed by dendritic cells), an epithelioid cell antigen (RFD9), and a circulating monocyte antigen (UCHMI). The increase in RFD1+ cells appeared to be due to detection of antigen by this antibody on cells that were also expressing phenotypic markers of classical tissue macrophages (RFD7). The lymphocytes in lavage fluid from patients with sarcoidosis were characterised by increased expression of activation markers, such as interleukin-2 receptors (anti-Tac+), HLA-DR (RFDR+), and "blast" forms (expressing above normal concentrations of CD7 antigen). This was associated with increased proportions of the CD4+ (helper-inducer) T cell subset. Patients with sarcoidosis whose clinical indices suggested activity showed an increased number of macrophages coexpressing RFD1 and RFD7 antigens, of macrophages expressing UCHM1 and lymphocytes expressing activation markers. The expression of these markers was also increased on lavage cells from patients with radiographic evidence of widespread disease (chest radiographic stage II and III), but there was no relation with disease duration, pulmonary function, or serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity. Immunocytological analysis of lavage cells offers a probe for studying the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis and may be of value in monitoring disease activity.

Ainslie, G M; Poulter, L W; du Bois, R M



The effects of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on uterine vascular impedance and uterine artery mechanics  

PubMed Central

Objectives Uterine vascular resistance (UVR) is the ratio of systemic mean arterial pressure to mean uterine blood flow and is sensitive to changes in small arteries and arterioles. However, it provides little or no insight into changes in large, conduit arteries. Fluctuations in estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels during the ovarian cycle are thought to cause uterine resistance artery vasodilation; the effects on large arteries are unknown. Herein, our objective was to use the uterine vascular impedance, which is sensitive to changes in small and large arteries, to determine the effects of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on the entire uterine vasculature. Study Design Uterine vascular perfusion pressure and flow rate were recorded simultaneously on anesthetized sheep in the nonpregnant (NP) luteal (NP-L, n=6) and follicular (NP-F, n=7) phases and in late gestation pregnant (CP, n=10) sheep. Impedance and metrics of impedance (input impedance Z0, index of wave reflection RW, characteristic impedance ZC) were calculated. E2 and P4 levels were measured from jugular vein blood samples. Finally, from pressure-diameter tests post-mortem, large uterine artery circumferential elastic modulus (ECirc) was measured. Significant differences were evaluated by two-way ANOVA or Student’s t-test. Results As expected, E2:P4 was higher in the NP-F group compared to the NP-L group (p<0.05). Also as expected, UVR and Z0 decreased in the follicular phase compared to the luteal (p<0.05), but RW, ZC, and ECirc were unaltered. Pregnancy not only substantially decreased UVR (and Z0) (p<0.00001) but also decreased ZC (p<0.001), RW (p<0.0001), ECirc (p<0.01), and pulse wave velocity (p<0.0001). Conclusions The E2:P4 ratio mediates resistance artery vasodilatation in nonpregnant states, but has no effect on conduit artery size or stiffness. In contrast, pregnancy causes dramatic vasodilation and remodeling, including substantial reductions in conduit artery stiffness and increases in conduit artery size, which affect pulsatile uterine hemodynamics.

Sprague, Benjamin J.; Phernetton, Terrance M.; Magness, Ronald R.; Chesler, Naomi C.



The bacteriological culture of equine uterine contents, in-vitro sensitivity of organisms isolated and interpretation.  


A total of 19 pathogenic bacterial species was isolated from uterine swabs of 498 out of 1539 mares over 4 years. The swabs were taken by 5 veterinary clinicians using 2 different techniques. Bacterial contamination during swabbing was minimized by scrupulous attention to cleansing of the external genitalia and the perineal area, and in the handling of the culture specimen. The most prevalent organisms isolated were beta-haemolytic streptococcus (39%), Escherichia coli (27%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7%). Interpretation of microbiological findings correlated well with clinical findings when number of organisms isolated and endometrial cytology were considered. The use of a bacterial transport medium combined with sophisticated culture methods reflects a more accurate picture of the uterine microflora than can be obtained by previous techniques. Streptococci isolated were uniformly sensitive to penicillins. The sensitivity of E. coli and K. pneumoniae towards chloramphenicol, gentamicin and polymyxin was nearly 100%. The selection of an appropriate antibacterial agent depends upon sensitivity, pharmacological action, genital tract status and cost. This study shows that a Gram stain of uterine cytology can be used to diagnose quickly and select an appropriate antibiotic for treatment prior to culture results if sufficient numbers of organisms are present. PMID:383986

Shin, S J; Lein, D H; Aronson, A L; Nusbaum, S R



Uterine angiomyolipoma with metastasis in a woman with tuberous sclerosis: a case report.  


Extrarenal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) have been reported at various anatomical sites such as the liver, spleen, abdominal wall, retroperitoneum, oral cavity, penis, spermatic cord, skin, and lung but are infrequently described in gynecological regions. However, only a few cases of extrarenal AML in the uterus have been reported. The authors describe a case of uterine AML in a 41-year-old woman with evidence of tuberous sclerosis. Initial diagnosis concluded with myoma based on the interpretation of imaging and other pathological parameters. However, after successful laparoscopic surgical staging, AML was diagnosed. To date, the feasibility of laparoscopic surgical diagnosis and the risks associated with this technique have not been reported. The authors briefly review the implementation of laparoscopic surgical staging to diagnose uterine AML. PMID:24020143

Lee, S J; Yoo, J Y; Yoo, S H; Seo, Y H; Yoon, J H



Uterine artery embolization for the treatment of uterine fibroids: An outpatient procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our objectives were to establish an outpatient program for uterine artery embolization of fibroids and to monitor the following: percentage of patients who required immediate hospitalization or admission within 2 weeks, outcomes in terms of the degree of ultrasound regression of the fibroids, patient satisfaction, reduction of pressure symptoms, and reduction of bleeding. Study Design: Patients were screened by

Arnold Klein; Martin L. Schwartz



Interrelationships among conceptus size, uterine protein secretion, fetal erythropoiesis, and uterine capacity1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelationships among d-11 con- ceptus size, d-105 placental weight, placental efficiency (the ability of the placenta to support fetal growth and development), fetal erythropoiesis, and uterine capacity were examined in ¹?? Meishan, ¹?? White crossbred gilts that were unilaterally ovariohysterectomized at 90 to 100 d of age. In Exp. 1, gilts were mated after at least one normal estrous

J. L. Vallet; H. G. Klemcke; R. K. Christenson


Effect of exposure to swine dust on levels of IL-8 in airway lavage fluid  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Inhalation of swine dust causes airway inflammation with influx of inflammatory cells, predominantly neutrophils, into the lungs. A study was undertaken to determine whether or not exposure to swine dust induces release of interleukin 8 (IL-8) into upper and lower airways and how this possible release is related to cellular influx. A further aim was to study the relationship between the inflammatory response and swine dust exposure. METHODS: Thirty one healthy, non- smoking, previously unexposed subjects were exposed to swine dust during three hours work in a swine house. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed two weeks before and 24 hours after the exposure (n = 16). Nasal lavage and acoustic rhinometry were carried out 1-2 hours before and seven hours after the start of the exposure (n = 31). Exposure measurements were performed with personal sampling equipment. RESULTS: The exposure led to 19-fold and 70-fold increases in the neutrophil concentrations in nasal lavage and BAL fluid, respectively (p < 0.001). In BAL, fluid macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils increased significantly. The IL-8 levels in BAL fluid increased from < 31.3 ng/l to 63 (43-109) ng/l (median (25-75th percentile), p < 0.001), and in nasal lavage fluid the concentrations increased from 144 (97- 227) ng/l to 1064 (864-1437) ng/l (p < 0.001). IL-8 levels showed a significant correlation with the increase in neutrophils in the nasal lavage fluid but not in the BAL fluid. Acoustic rhinometry demonstrated significant swelling of the nasal mucosa. The air concentration of inhalable dust was 23.3 (20.0-29.3) mg/m3, endotoxin 1.3 (1.1-1.4) micrograms/m3, and muramic acid 0.99 (0.78-2.1) microgram/m3. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration of IL-8 increases in BAL fluid and nasal lavage fluid following exposure to swine dust and may be one of the chemoattractants contributing to the recruitment of neutrophils to the nasal cavity and the alveolar space. ???

Larsson, B. M.; Palmberg, L.; Malmberg, P. O.; Larsson, K.



Uterine Fibroid EmbolizationSonographic Findings Pre and Postembolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine artery embolization is emerging as a primary treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids. This procedure is performed electively but occasionally is performed emergently in the setting of life-threatening hemorrhage. Most interventional radiologists performing this procedure use ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preprocedure evaluation and follow-up. Two case studies report the sonographic and color flow Doppler findings before, immediately

Jyotsna Vitale; Domenic Zambuto



Review of the conservative surgical treatment of uterine fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional surgical treatment for women with symptomatic uterine fibroids is a hysterectomy. Hysterectomy guarantees the removal of all uterine fibroids without a risk of recurrence. It also guarantees the cure of symptoms such as menorrhagia and pressure effects and has been shown to be associated with a high degree of patient satisfaction and improved quality of life scores. However,

Dilip Visvanathan; Stephen G. Bown; Alfred S. Cutner



Uterine Artery Embolisation for Treatment of Fibroids: Experience in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve women with symptomatic fibroids were treated with transcatheter uterine artery embolisation with the use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles. For the nine women who were due for follow-up, reduction in uterine volume and dominant fibroid size were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. All the nine women had normal luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels before the

C Y V Chiu; W K Wong; H L J Mak; C S S Chan; C H P Kwok; C H S Chan; M K Chan



Review of Readmissions Due to Complications from Uterine Fibroid Embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To determine the frequency, nature and outcome of complications resulting in readmission to hospital following uterine artery embolization (UAE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical notes and available imaging of 42 consecutive patients who had undergone elective uterine artery embolization for the treatment of fibroid disease was performed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was

H Mehta; C Sandhu; M Matson; A.-M Belli



Uterine Artery Embolization for Ureteric Obstruction Secondary to Fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case series examines the safety and efficacy of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the treatment of obstructive nephropathy caused by large fibroids. Between 2004 and 2007, 10 patients referred with symptomatic uterine fibroids that were found to be causing either unilateral (7 patients) or bilateral (3 patients) hydronephrosis were treated by UAE. Presenting complaints included menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, bulk symptoms,

Saeed Mirsadraee; David Tuite; Anthony Nicholson



Idiopathic prolapse of 1 uterine horn in a yearling filly  

PubMed Central

Abstract A yearling filly was presented for protrusion of a mass at the vulvar margins. A diagnosis of prolapse of the right uterine horn was made after vaginoscopy, transrectal palpation, and ultrasonography. It was confirmed later by biopsy of the tissue. Recovery was uneventful after easy replacement of the uterine horn.



Uterine anomalies and in vitro fertilization: what are the results?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the influence of uterine anomalies on the implantation rates after embryo transfer. Study design: A retrospective, multicentric study. This study compare patients presenting a uterine anomaly (septate uterus, unicornuate, pseudonicornuate, bicornuate uterus) having attempted FIVETE between 1987 and 1992 with the normal population treated by IVF, as well as with FIVNAT results. Results: Thirty-eight patients were part

N. Lavergne; J. Aristizabal; V. Zarka; R. Erny; B. Hedon



Clinical implications of uterine malformations and hysteroscopic treatment results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine malformations consist of a group of miscellaneous congenital anomalies of the female genital system. Their mean prevalence in the general population and in the population of fertile women is ~4.3%, in infertile patients ~3.5% and in patients with recurrent pregnancy losses ~13%. Septate uterus is the commonest uterine anomaly with a mean incidence of ~35% followed by bicornuate uterus

Grigoris F. Grimbizis; Michel Camus; Basil C. Tarlatzis; John N. Bontis; Paul Devroey


The costo-uterine muscle of the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costo-uterine muscle provides a skeletal attachment to the longitudinal myometrial layer of the uterine horn. In this study we investigated the possibility that the muscle is responsive to sex steroid hormones. In rats of 4 weeks of age, injected with oestradiol for 5 days, the cross-sectional area of nucleated muscle cell profiles was significantly increased. A significant increase in

R. Guglielmone; A. Vercelli



The effect of uterine rupture on fetal heart rate patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high success rate of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) and its low association with complications has led to VBACs being attempted at all types of facilities, including birth centers. It must be kept in mind that unpredictable uterine rupture can occur and that uterine rupture necessitates emergency intervention. The only reported predictable feature of fetal heart rate patterns

Cydney Afriat Menihan



Hysteroscopy and transvaginal ultrasonography in postmenopausal women with uterine bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of hysteroscopy and transvaginal ultrasonography (TU), based on a histopathological report from endometrial specimens, in diagnosing endometrial pathology in menopausal women with uterine bleeding. Methods: Four-hundred and nineteen postmenopausal women with uterine bleeding underwent TU, hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy. Hysteroscopic and sonographic findings have been evaluated on the basis of the final diagnosis established by

G Garuti; I Sambruni; F Cellani; D Garzia; P Alleva; M Luerti



Mechanism of LHRH Analogue Action in Uterine Fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogues have been found to reduce the size of uterine fibroids. Further studies are required to determine their exact mechanism of action. However, they are known to induce hypo-oestrogenism, which leads to reduction in uterine arterial blood flow, one mechanism by which reduction of fibroid size is thought to occur.Copyright © 1989 S. Karger AG, Basel

Robert W. Shaw



Spontaneous uterine rupture during pregnancy after treatment of Asherman's syndrome.  


The treatment of Asherman's syndrome is often complicated by uterine perforation during hysteroscopic correction. We describe the first reported case of spontaneous uterine rupture with resultant hemorrhage during pregnancy after surgical treatment of Asherman's syndrome. This complication mandates close monitoring of these patients during pregnancy. PMID:2729381

Deaton, J L; Maier, D; Andreoli, J



A Prospective Study of Hypertension and Risk of Uterine Leiomyomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although uterine leiomyomata (also known as fibroids or myomas) affect the reproductive health and well-being of approximately 25% of premenopausal women, risk factors are poorly understood. Elevated diastolic blood pressure may increase fibroid risk through uterine smooth muscle injury, not unlike atherosclerosis. The authors prospectively examined the relation between diastolic blood pressure and incidence of clinically detected leiomyomata. The sample

Renee Boynton-Jarrett; Janet Rich-Edwards; Susan Malspeis; Stacey A. Missmer; Rosalind Wright


Early Pregnancy Uninterrupted by Laparoscopic Bipolar Coagulation of Uterine Vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laparoscopic bipolar coagulation of uterine vessels (LBCUV) is reported to treat clinically symptomatic myomas that caused severe menorrhagia, but the viability of pregnancy after operation is unknown. A woman with clinically diagnosed uterine myomas, possibly with adenomyosis, had unexpected early pregnancy diagnosed at the time of LBCUV. The procedure resulted in improvement of menorrhagia to normal menstruation and reductions in

Yi-Jen Chen; Peng-Hui Wang; Chiou-Chung Yuan; Yi-Cheng Wu; Wei-Min Liu



Effect of Chorionic Villus Sampling on Uterine Artery Doppler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the potential effect of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) on placental perfusion by examining the change in uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) between the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective screening study for pregnancy complications which included measurement of uterine artery PI at 11+0 to

Asma Khalil; Ranjit Akolekar; Argyro Syngelaki; Jose-Maria Perez Penco; Kypros H. Nicolaides



Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging for Evaluation of Uterine Blood Flow in Cynomolgus Macaque  

PubMed Central

Background Uterine blood flow is an important factor in uterine viability, but the number of blood vessels required to maintain viability is uncertain. In this study, indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging was used to examine uterine hemodynamics and vessels associated with uterine blood flow in cynomolgus macaque. Methods The uterus of a female cynomolgus macaque was cut from the vaginal canal to mimic a situation during trachelectomy or uterine transplantation surgery in which uterine perfusion is maintained only with uterine and ovarian vessels. Intraoperative uterine hemodynamics was observed using ICG fluorescence imaging under conditions in which various nutrient vessels were selected by clamping of blood vessels. A time-intensity curve was plotted using imaging analysis software to measure the Tmax of uterine perfusion for selected blood vessel patterns. Open surgery was performed with the uterus receiving nutritional support only from uterine vessels on one side. The size of the uterus after surgery was monitored using transabdominal ultrasonography. Results The resulting time-intensity curves displayed the average intensity in the regions of the uterine corpus and uterine cervix, and in the entire uterus. Analyses of the uterine hemodynamics in the cynomolgus macaque showed that uterine vessels were significantly related to uterine perfusion (P?=?0.008), whereas ovarian vessels did not have a significant relationship (P?=?0.588). When uterine vessels were clamped, ovarian vessels prolonged the time needed to reach perfusion maximum. Postoperative transabdominal ultrasonography showed that the size of the uterus was not changed 2 months after surgery, with recovery of periodic menstruation. The cynomolgus macaque has got pregnant with favorable fetus well-being. Conclusion Uterine vessels may be responsible for uterine blood flow, and even one uterine vessel may be sufficient to maintain uterine viability in cynomolgus macaque. Our results show that ICG fluorescence imaging is useful for evaluation of uterine blood flow since this method allows real-time observation of uterine hemodynamics.

Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Lin, Li-Yu; Tsuji, Kosuke; Yanokura, Megumi; Hara, Hisako; Araki, Jun; Iida, Takuya; Abe, Takayuki; Kouyama, Keisuke; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke



CDB-2914 for Uterine Leiomyomata Treatment  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether 3-month administration of CDB-2914, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, reduces leiomyoma size and symptoms. METHODS Premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomata were randomly assigned to CDB-2914 at 10 mg (T1) or 20 mg (T2) daily or to placebo (PLC) for 3 cycles or 90–102 days if no menses occurred. The primary outcome was leiomyoma volume change determined by magnetic resonance imaging at study entry and within 2 weeks of hysterectomy. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of amenorrhea, change in hemoglobin and hematocrit, ovulation inhibition, and quality-of-life assessment. RESULTS Twenty-two patients were allocated, and 18 completed the trial. Age and body mass index were similar among groups. Leiomyoma volume was significantly reduced with CDB-2914 administration (PLC 6%; CDB-2914 ?29%; P=.01), decreasing 36% and 21% in the T1 and T2 groups, respectively. During treatment, hemoglobin was unchanged, and the median estradiol was greater than 50 pg/mL in all groups. CDB-2914 eliminated menstrual bleeding and inhibited ovulation (% ovulatory cycles: CDB-2914, 20%; PLC, 83%; P=.001). CDB-2914 improved the concern scores of the uterine leiomyoma symptom quality-of-life subscale (P=.04). One CDB-2914 woman developed endometrial cystic hyperplasia without evidence of atypia. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION Compared with PLC, CDB-2914 significantly reduced leiomyoma volume after three cycles, or 90–102 days. CDB-2914 treatment resulted in improvements in the concern subscale of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom Quality of Life assessment. In this small study, CDB-2914 was well-tolerated without serious adverse events. Thus, there may be a role for CDB-2914 in the treatment of leiomyomata.

Levens, Eric D.; Potlog-Nahari, Clariss; Armstrong, Alicia Y.; Wesley, Robert; Premkumar, Ahalya; Blithe, Diana L.; Blocker, Wendy; Nieman, Lynnette K.



[Metal foreign body in uterine cavity].  


The case of a 38-year old patient is examined, who had inserted a metal object (ballpoint pen mounting) into her uterine cavity. The patient had experienced very irregular (every 30-40 days) and abnormally light menstruation lasting 5-6 days from her very 1st menstruation at the age of 17. Upon realising the abnormal state of her menstruation, the patient inserted the metal object into the cavity with the intent of widening the opening. The object was removed by physicians after dialation of the cervical canal. PMID:5013907

Gli?ski, S



Uterine Rotation: A Cause of Intestinal Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Intestinal obstruction is an uncommon surgical emergency during pregnancy that affects seriously the prognosis of gestation. The underlying cause can be identified in the majority of cases and usually consists of adhesions secondary to previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, followed in order of frequency by intestinal volvuli. In recent years there have been no reports in which the gravid uterus has been the cause of intestinal obstruction. We report the case of a woman in week 33 + 4 of pregnancy who developed extrinsic compression of the colon secondary to uterine rotation and pelvic impaction of the head of the fetus.

Gonzalez-Mesa, Ernesto; Narbona, Isidoro; Cohen, Isaac; Villegas, Emilia; Cuenca, Celia



Uterine leiomyosarcoma: diagnosis, treatment, and nursing management.  


Uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare form of sarcoma with limited treatment options and a high potential for distant recurrence. At the time of diagnosis, swift action should be taken to initiate treatment. Options for treatment include surgical debulking and disease staging, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy. The purpose of this article is to review the disease epidemiology, presentation at diagnosis, surgical staging, and prognosis. Treatment options and the role of targeted therapies are discussed in addition to the various nursing implications associated with management of the disease. PMID:22641318

Smith, Tareai; McLaughlin, Patricia



Uterine Artery Embolization in the Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroid Tumors (EMMY Trial): Periprocedural Results and Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is an emerging treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroid tumors. This study was performed to evaluate the periprocedural results of the UAE procedure and identify risk factors for technical failure, fever after UAE, pain, and other complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of a multicenter, randomized trial to compare UAE versus hysterectomy in patients with symptomatic

Nicole A. Volkers; Wouter J. K. Hehenkamp; Erwin Birnie; Cees de Vries; Cor Holt; Willem M. Ankum; Jim A. Reekers



Ozone inhalation in rats: effects on alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes in lavage and plasma  

SciTech Connect

Ozone is found in urban and rural atmospheres and is produced from a variety of natural and man-made sources. Animal studies conducted at typical ambient levels result in reproducible morphological, biochemical and functional effects. Ozone damages type I epithelial cells, induces proliferation of type II cells and produces inflammation of the terminal bronchiolar-alveolar duct region. Ozone increases lung oxygen utilization and increases glutathione metabolism. Ozone increases airway resistance. The authors measured lactic dehydrogenase (LD) isoenzymes to ascertain the tissue giving rise to the increased LD activity in lavage. They also assayed acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase activities, and protein levels since these parameters were increased in rat lung lavage after particulate exposure. They determined white cell differential and red cell morphology parameters because previous investigators reported that ozone increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio.

Nachtman, J.P.; Moon, H.L.; Miles, R.C.



Effect of zinc and phosphate on an antibacterial peptide isolated from lung lavage.  

PubMed Central

Incubation of Escherichia coli (10(4) organisms per ml) in cell-free rabbit lung lavage for 30 min at 37 degrees C resulted in a 70% reduction in colony counts on deoxycholate agar. A low-molecular-weight peptide (about 3,400 daltons), with zinc as a cofactor, was responsible for this activity. The peptide was isolated by Sephadex G-15 separation of lyophilized rabbit lung lavage which had been centrifuged to remove macrophages and suspended phospholipids and passed through a 10,000-dalton (pore size) membrane filter. Peptide activity against E. coli was inhibited by phosphate buffer but not by borate, Tris, or barbital buffer. Bacteria incubated in phosphate buffer and then washed in saline were resistant to peptide activity. Antibacterial activity was also inhibited when peptide-exposed bacteria were incubated in phosphate buffer before deoxycholate treatment. 32P-radiolabeled E. coli cells lost about 20% of their radiolabel after 15 min of incubation with peptide.

LaForce, F M; Boose, D S



Humoral immune responses within the lung of bone marrow transplant recipients studied by bronchoalveolar lavage.  

PubMed Central

We investigated 20 bone marrow transplant recipients with pneumonitis using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to assess the humoral immune response in the lung. We measured the levels of total IgG, IgM and IgA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum, and albumin measurements were used to correct for simple diffusion of immunoglobulins from serum into the lung. We found evidence for the local production of immunoglobulins G, M and A in 15 patients. This was independent of the cause of the pneumonitis. We also found that, although seven patients who recovered from their pulmonary problem had evidence of considerable local production of immunoglobulin, eight patients who died were also producing immunoglobulins in the lung. Death due to pneumonitis in BMT recipients cannot, therefore, be ascribed to a failure of the local humoral immune response.

Milburn, H J; Grundy, J E; du Bois, R M; Prentice, H G; Griffiths, P D



Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subpopulations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after repeated ozone exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

As known from studies in animal and human subjects, ozone can exert effects on the immune response including allergic sensitisation\\u000a and allergen responsiveness. The objective of the present study was to assess the changes in lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar\\u000a lavage fluid (BALF) after single and repeated ozone exposures. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent single exposures to\\u000a 200?ppb ozone or filtered air

O. Holz; M. Böttcher; P. Timm; S. Koschyk; G. Abel; G. Gercken; H. Magnussen; R. A. Jörres



Evaluation of exposure to man-made vitreous fibers by nasal lavage.  


The objectives of this study were to develop a biomonitoring method for the assessment of exposure to man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF), to examine the level of exposure to MMVF in the prefabricated house industry, and to study nasal inflammatory reactions and respiratory symptoms associated with MMVF among workers. Nasal lavage was performed on workers from two factories, and concentrations of MMVF were measured by electron microscopy. Cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma) were also assayed and inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, and macrophages) were counted microscopically. Concentrations of airborne fibers (longer than 5 microm) were measured for comparison. Moreover, the exposure to MMVF and the related symptoms were studied with a structured questionnaire. In nasal lavage samples, the mean concentration of MMVF (length >1.5 microm) was 3260 f/ mL in Factory 1, 1680 f/mL in Factory 2, and below 500 f/mL in the control group. About 52% of the retained fibers were longer than 100 microm. The group-specific mean concentrations of MMVF in nasal lavage samples correlated with production rates and airborne fiber levels in both plants. The airborne concentrations of MMVF both in the breathing zone and fixed-point samples were low (below 0.1 f/cm(3)). No significant differences in the biological response (inflammatory cells, cytokines) were found between the groups exposed and the control group. The workers complained of some irritation of the skin, eyes, and upper respiratory tract, which could be reduced by appropriate protective equipment. It is concluded that nasal lavage can be used as a biomonitoring method in the assessment of MMVF exposure. PMID:15204882

Paananen, Hanna; Holopainen, Mikko; Kalliokoski, Pentti; Kangas, Juhani; Kotilainen, Mia; Pennanen, Sirpa; Savolainen, Heikki; Tossavainen, Antti; Luoto, Kirsi



Analysis of Trace and Major Elements in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Mycoplasma Bronchopneumonia in Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of direct determination of trace and major element\\u000a concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from Holstein calves with Mycoplasma bronchopneumonia (n?=?21) and healthy controls (n?=?20). The samples were obtained during bronchoscopy using a standard examination method. A total of 18 elements (aluminum,\\u000a bromine, calcium, chlorine, chromium, copper, iron,

Kazuyuki Suzuki; Hidetoshi Higuchi; Hidetomo Iwano; Jeffrey Lakritz; Kouichiro Sera; Masateru Koiwa; Kiyoshi Taguchi


Increased soluble CD14 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of stable lung transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophages, neutrophils and infection have been implicated in the genesis of the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post lung transplantation. sCD14 is a soluble form of a shed-cell surface protein. It is capable of promoting cytokine-induced inflammation and it9s presence in clinically stable lung transplant recipients (LTR) might be important as an early marker of BOS. Bronchalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood

C. Ward; E. H. Walters; L. Zheng; H. Whitford; T. J. Williams; G. I. Snell



Degradation of Annexin I in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annexin I is a 36 kilodalton (kD) calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein which may have anti- inflammatory properties. Previous investigations which sampled lower respiratory tract epithelial lining fluid (ELF) via bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) have demonstrated that annexin I can be degraded in in- flammatory lung disease. We analyzed BAL fluid from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) to determine the effects of lung

Francis H. C. Tsao; Keith C. Meyer; Xiaoming Chen; Nancy S. Rosenthal; Junpei Hu



The diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia using non-bronchoscopic, non-directed lung lavages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: (1)To assess the diagnostic utility of quantitative cultures of non-bronchoscopic lung lavage (NBL) in ventilator-associated\\u000a pneumonia and evaluate the role of the Bacterial Index; (2) To assess the predictive value of NBL surveillance quantitative\\u000a cultures in ventilated patients; (3) To evaluate the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) system in ventilated patients.?Design: A prospective comparison of NBL with bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar

P. G. Flanagan; G. P. Findlay; J. T. Magee; A. A. Ionescu; R. A. Barnes; M. N. Smithies



Changes in pulmonary mechanics after fiberoptic bronchoalveolar lavage in mechanically ventilated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We prospectively assessed the impact of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) on respiratory mechanics in critically ill, mechanically\\u000a ventilated patients. Study design: Mechanically ventilated patients underwent BAL of one lung segment using 5 ? 20 ml of sterile, physiologic saline with a\\u000a temperature of 25–28 ?C. The fractional inspired oxygen was increased to 1.0, but ventilator settings were otherwise left\\u000a unchanged.

U. Klein; W. Karzai; P. Zimmermann; U. Hannemann; U. Koschel; J. X. Brunner; H. Remde



Nonfibrous Mineralogical Analysis of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Blast-Furnace Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steelworkers are exposed to many pollutants, and they are at risk for developing lung cancer. We demonstrated previously that steelworkers may be subject to an occult exposure to amphiboles in the plant environment. In the current study, we further analyzed bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of steelworkers by measuring intramacrophagic trace-metal content and nonfibrous mineral particles, using the particle-induced x-ray emission method

Jean-Louis Corhay; Thierry Bury; Jean-Paul Delavignette; Farhad Baharloo; Maurice Radermecker; Pierre Hereng; André-Mathieu Fransolet; Georges Weber; Ivan Roelandts



Uterine Artery Embolisation for Symptomatic Fibroids in a Tertiary Hospital in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Transcatheter uterine artery embolisation (UAE) for the treatment of symptom- atic uterine enlargement due to fibroids has been performed in several overseas centres with promising results. We report our experience with UAE in Singapore General Hospital. Materials and Methods: Twenty women with symptomatic uterine fibroids who declined surgery were treated by transcatheter UAE. The uterine arteries were selectively catheterised

P Chandra Mohan


Lavage of Leukotriene B4 Induces Lung Generation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-A and Neutrophil Diapedesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In experimental models of acute respiratory failure, leukotriene (LT) B sub 4 is generated in the lungs, followed by a 2 to 3 hour delay before there is substantial neutrophil (PMN) accumulation and increased permeability. This study tests whether lavage ...

G. Goldman R. Welbourn L. Kobzik C. R. Valeri D. Shepro



Hyaluronate in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a new marker in sarcoidosis reflecting pulmonary disease.  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronate (hyaluronic acid) was not detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from smoking or nonsmoking healthy volunteers but was present in fluid from 23 patients with sarcoidosis; the mean concentration was 16 micrograms/1 returned fluid (range less than or equal to 5-430) or, expressed in relation to the amount of albumin recovered, 0.22 micrograms/mg albumin (range less than or equal to 0.05-3.6). The serum hyaluronate concentrations in the patients with sarcoidosis were normal. There was a significant inverse correlation between vital lung capacity and hyaluronate concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (p less than 0.001), and patients with abnormal lung volumes had hyaluronate concentrations that were on average six times higher than those in patients with normal vital capacity. Duration of disease, pulmonary radiological findings, and markers for macrophage activation (angiotensin converting enzyme) and lymphocyte activation (beta 2 microglobulin) were not correlated with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid hyaluronate. It was concluded that in sarcoidosis release of hyaluronate into the airways is related to lung volume and therefore to the course of the disease. Increased synthesis of hyaluronate in lung parenchyma may reflect activation of fibroblasts, and measurements of hyaluronate may have clinical value for prognosis and treatment.

Hallgren, R; Eklund, A; Engstrom-Laurent, A; Schmekel, B



Nonfibrous mineralogical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from blast-furnace workers.  


Steelworkers are exposed to many pollutants, and they are at risk for developing lung cancer. We demonstrated previously that steelworkers may be subject to an occult exposure to amphiboles in the plant environment. In the current study, we further analyzed bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of steelworkers by measuring intramacrophagic trace-metal content and nonfibrous mineral particles, using the particle-induced x-ray emission method and electron microscopy, respectively. Forty-seven blast-furnace workers and 45 healthy white-collar workers volunteered for this study. Significantly increased levels of iron, titanium, zinc, and bromine were found in the steelworkers, and levels of lead, chromium, arsenic, and strontium tended to increase in the macrophages and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the steelworkers. Nonfibrous particles, including illite, kaolinite, talc, chlorite, amorphous silica, quartz, iron (compounds), and titanium hydroxide, were found in both groups, but the particle number per ml bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (particularly iron hydroxides and silicates) was more pronounced in blast-furnace workers. These elements and particles may act synergistically with other occupational carcinogens and cigarette smoke, the result of which may be an increased incidence of lung cancer in the ironsteel industry. PMID:7677432

Corhay, J L; Bury, T; Delavignette, J P; Baharloo, F; Radermecker, M; Hereng, P; Fransolet, A M; Weber, G; Roelandts, I


[News and perspectives in uterine fibroids radiotherapy].  


Uterine artery embolization (UAE) represents radiological treatment of uterine fibroids. It is highly effective and safe mainly in premenopausal patients with symptomatic fibroids and represents an alternative to hysterectomy in a group of women not suitable for minimally invasive surgical treatment (LAVH) and women desiring uterus sparing therapy. The future of UAE lies in optimal selection of patients based on volume-shrinkage prediction and fertility outcome. The second group is represented by methods based on direct fibroid tissue destruction using specific energy under MRI or UZ guidance. The common aim of these two groups is the volume shrinkage as well as the symptomatic relief. The second group is represented by radiofrequency ablation, focused ultrasound surgery, interstitial laser ablation and cryotherapy. Based on their non-surgical, percutaneous approach these can be classified as minimally-invasive methods. The second group of methods is suitable only for patients with the absence of any desire for child bearing due to the absence of their long-term outcome data. PMID:19408851

Kubínová, K; Mára, M; Horák, P; Kríz, R; Masková, J; Kuzel, D



Upper airway response in workers exposed to fuel oil ash: nasal lavage analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--Among other constituents, fuel oil ash contains vanadium pentoxide, a known respiratory irritant. Exposure to ambient vanadium pentoxide dust has been shown to produce irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. The usefulness of nasal lavage in detecting an inflammatory response to exposure to fuel oil ash among 37 boilermakers and utility workers was investigated. METHODS--A baseline lavage was performed on the morning of the first day back to work after an average of 114 days away from work (range 36 hours to 1737 days). A lavage was performed after exposure on the morning three days after the baseline lavage. Exposure to respirable particulate matter of diameter < or = 10 microns (PM10) and respirable vanadium dust were estimated with daily work diaries and a personal sampling device for respirable particulates. These estimates were made for each subject on each workday during the three days between lavages. For each subject, the adjusted change in polymorphonuclear cells was calculated by dividing the change in polymorphonuclear cell counts by the average of the counts before and after exposure. The association between the adjusted polymorphonuclear cell counts and exposure was assessed with multiple linear regression, adjusted for age and current smoking. RESULTS--Personal sampling (one to 10 hour time weighted average) showed a range of PM10 concentrations of 50 to 4510 micrograms/m3, and respirable vanadium dust concentration of 0.10 to 139 micrograms/m3. In smokers the adjusted polymorphonuclear cell count was not significantly different from zero (-0.1%, P > 0.5), but in nonsmokers it was significantly greater than zero (+50%, P < 0.05). In both non-smokers and smokers, there was considerable variability in adjusted polymorphonuclear cell counts and a dose-response relation between these adjusted cell counts and either PM10 or respirable vanadium dust exposure could not be found. CONCLUSION--A significant increase in polymorphonuclear cells in non-smokers but not smokers was found. This suggests that in non-smokers, exposure to fuel oil ash is associated with upper airway inflammation manifested as increased polymorphonuclear cell counts. The lack of an increase in polymorphonuclear cells in smokers may reflect either a diminished inflammatory response or may indicate that smoking masks the effect of exposure to fuel oil ash.

Hauser, R; Elreedy, S; Hoppin, J A; Christiani, D C



Uterine arteriovenous fistula treated with repetitive transcatheter embolization: case report.  


Uterine arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare entity, but may lead to life-threatening hemorrhage. Although transcatheter embolization, surgical ligation, or hysterectomy would be considered for treatment of uterine AVF, there is poor knowledge as to how gynecologists can manage the uterine AVF with multiple large inflow arteries. Herein we report a uterine AVF successfully treated using multiple-step transcatheter embolization. The patient, a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman with a history of dilation and curettage, had intermittent massive uterine bleeding. Radiologic imaging revealed the presence of a large vasculature mass. The mass occupied the entire pelvis, and the source of hemorrhage was identified as an accompanying AVF. We thought that surgical intervention was contraindicated because of the potential risk of uncontrollable intraoperative bleeding. Multiple-step transcatheter embolization was performed, with complete resolution of the AVF. Thereafter, the patient had no further uterine bleeding. Multiple-step transcatheter embolization might be the most beneficial and efficient treatment option for a uterine AVF with multiple large inflow arteries. PMID:23084687

Hasegawa, Akiko; Sasaki, Hiroki; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Osuga, Yutaka; Yano, Tetsu; Usman, Salmyah M; Akahane, Masaaki; Kozuma, Shiro; Taketani, Yuji


A rare case of uterine leiomyosarcoma metastasis to the duodenum.  


Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is an uncommon malignant tumor that accounts for less than one-third of uterine sarcomas and approximately 1% of uterine malignancies. Cases of local and distant ULMS metastasis have been widely reported, especially to the lungs. There have been very few cases, however, of ULMS metastasis to the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract published in the peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a case of biopsy-proven ULMS metastasis to the first part of the duodenum, representing the third reported case of its kind. Theories regarding presentation, treatment, clinical course, and outcome of patients with ULMS metastasis to the duodenum are presented. PMID:22128409

Patel, Jitendra K; Cervellione, Kelly L; Sulh, Muhammad; Patel, Avani A; Gintautas, Jonas



Uterine arteriovenous malformation with sudden heavy vaginal hemmorhage.  


Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is a common presentation in the emergency department and has a wide differential. Most presentations of DUB are in hemodynamically stable patients and can be evaluated as an outpatient. Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is one presentation that can result in a life-threatening medical emergency with unexpected sudden and massive vaginal bleeding. We describe a case of a 24-year-old female with sudden heavy vaginal bleeding requiring a blood transfusion, ultrasound evidence of uterine AVM, and a treatment method of expectant management using an intrauterine device in an attempt to preserve fertility. PMID:24106528

Selby, Sarah T; Haughey, Marianne



Spontaneous Uterine Rupture of an Unscarred Uterus before Labour  

PubMed Central

Uterine rupture is a public health problem in developing countries. When it is spontaneous, it occurs most often during labor in a context of scarred uterus. Uterine rupture during pregnancy is a rare situation. The diagnosis is not always obvious and morbidity and maternal and fetal mortality is still high. We report a case of spontaneous uterine rupture during pregnancy at 35 weeks of an unscarred uterus before labour. This is an exceptional case that we observe for the first time in our unit.

Gueye, Mamour; Mbaye, Magatte; Ndiaye-Gueye, Mame Diarra; Kane-Gueye, Serigne Modou; Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Niang, Mouhamadou Mansour; Diaw, Hannegret; Moreau, Jean Charles



[Subsequent pregnancy following uterine artery embolization for interstitial pregnancy].  


Subsequent pregnancy following an interstitial pregnancy is rare. The risk of uterine rupture may be increased in this situation. Uterine selective embolization has been proposed as an effective treatment. However, no further pregnancy has ever been described after this method of management. We are reporting a case of subsequent pregnancy following interstitial pregnancy managed by embolization. The pregnancy was uneventful. A healthy male infant was delivered by C-section. This case supports the hypothesis that selective embolization for interstitial pregnancy may respect fertility. However, as actual risk of uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies remains unknown, a C-section is advised. PMID:16979367

Deruelle, P; Closset, E; Lions, C; Lucot, J-P



Uterine C-Kit positive low grade stromal sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Uterine C-Kit positive stromal tumors are rare, however, there are a few cases reported in literature. A 58-year-old post menopausal lady presented with bleeding per vaginum. An abdominal examination revealed an enlarged uterus. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a large myomatous uterus, with a probable subserosal intramural and intracavitary myoma or cervical myoma in the presence of a solitary large aortocaval node, with multiple bone lesions. The biopsy taken from the uterine mass had revealed, a low-grade uterine sarcoma, which was positive for CD117. This case is presented for its rarity and management dilemma.

Martin, Jovitha; Ramesh, Anita; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Lalitha, D



Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation with Sudden Heavy Vaginal Hemmorhage  

PubMed Central

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is a common presentation in the emergency department and has a wide differential. Most presentations of DUB are in hemodynamically stable patients and can be evaluated as an outpatient. Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is one presentation that can result in a life-threatening medical emergency with unexpected sudden and massive vaginal bleeding. We describe a case of a 24-year-old female with sudden heavy vaginal bleeding requiring a blood transfusion, ultrasound evidence of uterine AVM, and a treatment method of expectant management using an intrauterine device in an attempt to preserve fertility.

Selby, Sarah T.; Haughey, Marianne



Conservative Management of Placenta Previa-Accreta by Prophylactic Uterine Arteries Ligation and Uterine Tamponade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Placenta previa-accreta is associated with severe hemorrhage occurring while separating the placenta during cesarean delivery and hysterectomy is considered the treatment of choice. Conservative management has recently been proposed. Case: A 26-year-old woman had pregnancy complicated by placenta previa with suspected accreta. During elective cesarean section a prophylactic double bilateral ligation of uterine arteries was performed before removal of

Sergio Ferrazzani; Lorenzo Guariglia; Stefania Triunfo; Leonardo Caforio; Alessandro Caruso



Quantitative PIXE analysis of human uterine myoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty-two samples, taken from eight pathological proved uterine myoma patients, were embedded in paraffin and cut into slices of identical thickness (4.0 ?m). After deparaffinization, washing and drying, the slices of myomal tissue and their neighboring myometrial tissue were bombarded by 2.0 MeV proton beams from a 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The induced characteristic X-rays were then detected and analyzed using a HPGe detector system. The absolute concentrations of trace elements contained in tumors and normal tissues of human myomal uterus were determined, in reference to a known concentration of doped yttrium. Significant correlations between the concentration of elements, both in tumors and in normal tissues, were found.

Yeh, S. C.; Chu, T. C.; Lin, H. J.; Hsu, C. C.



Mechanical homeostasis is altered in uterine leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Objective Uterine leiomyoma produce an extracellular matrix (ECM) that is abnormal in its volume, content, and structure. Alterations in ECM can modify mechanical stress on cells, leading to activation of Rho-dependent signaling. Here we sought to determine whether the altered ECM produced by leiomyoma was accompanied by an altered state of mechanical homeostasis. Study Design Measurement of the mechanical response in paired leiomyoma and myometrium, immunogold, confocal microscopy, and immunohistochemical analyses. Results Leiomyoma were significantly stiffer than matched myometrium. The increased stiffness was associated with a moderate increase in total sulfated glycosaminoglycan content and a slight increase in hydroxyproline. Levels of the Rho-GEF, AKAP13, were increased and subcellular localization was altered in leiomyoma. Phosphorylation of p38MAPK was greater in leiomyoma extracts. Conclusions Leiomyoma cells are exposed to increased mechanical stress and show structural and biochemical features consistent with activation of solid-state signaling. The altered state of stress may contribute to growth of leiomyoma.

ROGERS, Rebecca; NORIAN, John; ABU-ASAB, Mones; CHRISTMAN, Gregory; MALIK, Minnie; CHEN, Faye; KORECKI, Casey; IATRIDIS, James; CATHERINO, William H.; TUAN, Rocky S; LEPPERT, Phyllis; SEGARS, James H.



Molecular events in uterine cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding the molecular events which occur in the development of uterine cervical cancer, with particular reference to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODOLOGY: Bibliographic searches of Medline and the ISI citation databases using appropriate keywords, including the following: papillomavirus, cervix, pathology, cyclin, chromosome, heterozygosity, telomerase, smoking, hormones, HLA, immune response, HIV, HSV, EBV. CONCLUSIONS: It has become clear that most cervical neoplasia, whether intraepithelial or invasive, is attributable in part to HPV infection. However, HPV infection alone is not sufficient, and, in a small proportion of cases, may not be necessary for malignant transformation. There is increasing evidence that HPV gene products interfere with cell cycle control leading to secondary accumulation of small and large scale genetic abnormalities. This may explain the association of viral persistence with lesion progression but, in many patients, secondary factors, such as smoking and immune response, are clearly important. However, the mechanisms involved in the interaction between HPV and host factors are poorly understood. ???

Southern, S. A.; Herrington, C. S.



Thermal conductivity of uterine tissue in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermotherapy of the uterus has emerged as an alternative to hysterectomy in the treatment of menorrhagia, from whence it follows that the thermal properties of uterine tissue have become of importance. This study presents measurements of the thermal conductivity and the water content of uterine tissue in vitro. A steady-state thermal conductivity apparatus, based on the comparison of test samples with a material with known thermal conductivity, is described. Measurements were conducted on tissue samples from eleven patients, directly after hysterectomy. Samples with and without endometrium, as well as coagulated samples, were examined. The thermal conductivity of myometrial tissue was found to be and the corresponding water content was % . Measurements on samples with both endometrium and myometrium showed similar thermal conductivity (, ) and water content (%, ). It was also indicated that coagulation causes dehydration, resulting in a lower thermal conductivity.

Olsrud, Johan; Friberg, Britt; Ahlgren, Mats; Persson, Bertil R. R.



Cardiovascular changes after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep: the effect of bone marrow removal using pulsed jet-lavage.  


Clinically, the displacement of intravertebral fat into the circulation during vertebroplasty is reported to lead to problems in elderly patients and can represent a serious complication, especially when multiple levels have to be treated. An in vitro study has shown the feasibility of removing intravertebral fat by pulsed jet-lavage prior to vertebroplasty, potentially reducing the embolization of bone marrow fat from the vertebral bodies and alleviating the cardiovascular changes elicited by pulmonary fat embolism. In this in vivo study, percutaneous vertebroplasty using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was performed in three lumbar vertebrae of 11 sheep. In six sheep (lavage group), pulsed jet-lavage was performed prior to injection of PMMA compared to the control group of five sheep receiving only PMMA vertebroplasty. Invasive recording of blood pressures was performed continuously until 60 min after the last injection. Cardiac output and arterial blood gas parameters were measured at selected time points. Post mortem, the injected cement volume was measured using CT and lung biopsies were processed for assessment of intravascular fat. Pulsed jet-lavage was feasible in the in vivo setting. In the control group, the injection of PMMA resulted in pulmonary fat embolism and a sudden and significant increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented any cardiovascular changes and significantly reduced the severity of bone marrow fat embolization. Even though significantly more cement had been injected into the lavaged vertebral bodies, significantly fewer intravascular fat emboli were identified in the lung tissue. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented the cardiovascular complications after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep and alleviated the severity of pulmonary fat embolism. PMID:20725752

Benneker, Lorin M; Krebs, Jörg; Boner, Vanessa; Boger, Andreas; Hoerstrup, Simon; Heini, Paul F; Gisep, Armando



Cardiovascular changes after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep: the effect of bone marrow removal using pulsed jet-lavage  

PubMed Central

Clinically, the displacement of intravertebral fat into the circulation during vertebroplasty is reported to lead to problems in elderly patients and can represent a serious complication, especially when multiple levels have to be treated. An in vitro study has shown the feasibility of removing intravertebral fat by pulsed jet-lavage prior to vertebroplasty, potentially reducing the embolization of bone marrow fat from the vertebral bodies and alleviating the cardiovascular changes elicited by pulmonary fat embolism. In this in vivo study, percutaneous vertebroplasty using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was performed in three lumbar vertebrae of 11 sheep. In six sheep (lavage group), pulsed jet-lavage was performed prior to injection of PMMA compared to the control group of five sheep receiving only PMMA vertebroplasty. Invasive recording of blood pressures was performed continuously until 60 min after the last injection. Cardiac output and arterial blood gas parameters were measured at selected time points. Post mortem, the injected cement volume was measured using CT and lung biopsies were processed for assessment of intravascular fat. Pulsed jet-lavage was feasible in the in vivo setting. In the control group, the injection of PMMA resulted in pulmonary fat embolism and a sudden and significant increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented any cardiovascular changes and significantly reduced the severity of bone marrow fat embolization. Even though significantly more cement had been injected into the lavaged vertebral bodies, significantly fewer intravascular fat emboli were identified in the lung tissue. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented the cardiovascular complications after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep and alleviated the severity of pulmonary fat embolism.

Benneker, Lorin M.; Krebs, Jorg; Boner, Vanessa; Boger, Andreas; Hoerstrup, Simon; Heini, Paul F.



Uterine compression sutures for postpartum hemorrhage: an overview.  


In 1997, B-Lynch pioneered the use of uterine compression sutures for postpartum hemorrhage. Since then, some researchers, including ourselves, have devised various uterine compression sutures. High-level evidence has not been demonstrated as to whether compression sutures achieve better and safer hemostasis for postpartum hemorrhage than other methods, and, if they do, whether one suture is more efficient and safer than another. However, generally speaking, uterine compression sutures have achieved hemostasis while preserving fertility in many women and thus their efficacy and safety have been time-tested. Each suture has both merits and drawbacks: obstetricians must be aware of the fundamental characteristics of various sutures. In this review, we summarize the technical procedures, efficacy, safety and complications of various uterine compression sutures. We add our own experiences and opinions where necessary. PMID:23330882

Matsubara, Shigeki; Yano, Hitoshi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Kuwata, Tomoyuki; Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Mitsuaki



A rare case of uterine adenomyosis in a Siamese cat  

PubMed Central

A 12-year-old, female Siamese cat with a long-term history of megestrol acetate treatment for suppression of estrus was presented with vomiting and abdominal pain. Uterine adenomyosis was diagnosed after an ovariohysterectomy.

Bulman-Fleming, Julie



Current status of surrogacy in Japan and uterine transplantation research.  


Recent advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) have made it possible to circumvent many causes of male and female infertility. The right to have a child by ART has been respected for infertile couples. However, there are currently no legal regulations concerning ART in Japan, and this has resulted in social and ethical problems. Surrogacy involves particularly complex medical, ethical, social, and legal issues, and is frequently focused on as a major social concern. Uterine transplantation (UTx) is a potential alternative for young women with uterine factor infertility due to hysterectomy for treatment of a malignant uterine tumor or massive blood loss after delivery, or because of a congenital disease such as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster syndrome. UTx has been examined in experimental animals as a basis for establishment of fecundity for young women with uterine factor infertility. In this review, we focus on surrogacy in Japan and UTx research, and discuss the current status and concerns in this field. PMID:21632170

Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Iida, Takuya; Yoshimura, Yasunori



Treatment of early uterine sarcomas: disentangling adjuvant modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine sarcomas are a rare group of neoplasms with aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis. They are classified into four main histological subtypes in order of decreasing incidence: carcinosarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, endometrial stromal sarcomas and \\

Flora Zagouri; Athanasios-Meletios Dimopoulos; Stelios Fotiou; Vassilios Kouloulias; Christos A Papadimitriou



Human uterine leiomyoma-derived fibroblasts stimulate uterine leiomyoma cell proliferation and collagen type I production, and activate RTKs and TGF beta receptor signaling in coculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are benign smooth muscle tumors that often contain an excessive extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present study, we investigated the interactions between human uterine leiomyoma (UtLM) cells and uterine leiomyoma-derived fibroblasts (FB), and their importance in cell growth and ECM protein production using a coculture system. RESULTS: We found enhanced cell proliferation, and elevated levels of

Alicia B Moore; Linda Yu; Carol D Swartz; Xaiolin Zheng; Lu Wang; Lysandra Castro; Grace E Kissling; David K Walmer; Stanley J Robboy; Darlene Dixon



Steroidal regulation of uterine resistance to bacterial infection in livestock  

PubMed Central

Postpartum uterine infections reduce reproductive efficiency and have significant animal welfare and economic consequences. Postpartum uterine infections are classified as nonspecific, but Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli are usually associated with them in cattle and sheep. Pyometra is the most common type of uterine infection in dairy cattle, and it is detected almost exclusively in cows with active corpora lutea. Luteal progesterone typically down-regulates uterine immune functions and prevents the uterus from resisting infections. Progesterone also can down-regulate uterine eicosanoid synthesis. This seems to be a critical event in the onset of uterine infections, because eicosanoids can up-regulate immune cell functions in vitro. In addition, exogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha and enhances immune functions in vivo. Thus, one may hypothesize that eicosanoids can override the negative effects of progesterone and that the up-regulatory effects of exogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha allow the uterus to resolve an infection, regardless of progesterone concentrations. Based on the results of studies to test that hypothesis, cows, sheep, and pigs in various physiological statuses are resistant to intrauterine infusions of Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli, unless progesterone concentrations are increased. In sheep and pigs, exogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates uterine production of prostaglandin F2 alpha and allows the uterus to resolve Arcanobacterium pyogenes-Escherichia coli-induced infections, even when progesterone is maintained at luteal phase concentrations before and after treatment. Prostaglandin F2 alpha is a proinflammatory molecule that stimulates the production of various proinflammatory cytokines, and it may enhance uterine production of leukotriene B4. Proinflammatory cytokines and leukotriene B4 enhance phagocytosis and lymphocyte functions. Even though there are clear associations among prostaglandin F2 alpha, leukotriene B4, proinflammatory cytokines, phagocytosis, and lymphocyte functions, the mechanism of action of exogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha in overriding the down-regulatory effects of progesterone and resolving uterine infections has not been elucidated. Defining this mechanism should yield new prevention and treatment strategies for uterine infections that do not rely on antibiotic and antimicrobial compounds.

Lewis, Gregory S



Pre–Uterine Artery Embolization MRI: Beyond Fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine leiomyomata, or fibroids, although benign, cause debilitating symptoms in many women. Symptoms are often nonspecific\\u000a and may be the presenting complaint in a number of other conditions. Furthermore, because the presence of fibroids may be\\u000a coincident with other symptomatic conditions that result in similar complaints, there may be diagnostic difficulty and consequent\\u000a difficulty in planning therapeutic strategy. Uterine artery

Petra L. WilliamsJacky; Jacky M. Coote; Anthony F. Watkinson


Uterine Artery Embolization for Ureteric Obstruction Secondary to Fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case series examines the safety and efficacy of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the treatment of obstructive nephropathy\\u000a caused by large fibroids. Between 2004 and 2007, 10 patients referred with symptomatic uterine fibroids that were found to\\u000a be causing either unilateral (7 patients) or bilateral (3 patients) hydronephrosis were treated by UAE. Presenting complaints\\u000a included menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, bulk symptoms,

Saeed Mirsadraee; David Tuite; Anthony Nicholson



Misdiagnosed Uterine Rupture of an Advanced Cornual Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Cornual pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with potential severe consequences if uterine rupture occurs with following massive intraabdominal bleeding. We report a case of a misdiagnosed ruptured cornual pregnancy occurring at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound examination and computer tomography revealed no sign of abnormal pregnancy. The correct diagnosis was first made at emergency laparotomy. Uterine rupture should be considered in pregnant women presenting with abdominal pain and haemodynamic instability.

Sant, Christian Linus Hastrup; Andersen, Poul Erik




Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Zamzam water is unique in its natural characteristics as zamzam water has a strong anti-inflammatory and it caused downregulation of genes after induction of colon tumor in rate, we test this hypothesis on human by studying the cell lines from uterine fibro-chondrosarcoma. Material and methods: Uterine fibrochondrosarcoma cell line were incubated with zamzam water 20 c.c. for one week

Ali Farid Mohammed Ali; Ermilando Cosemi; Sayed Kamel; Sana Mohammed; Maged Elhefnawy; Laila Farid; Samer Shaker


Quality Improvement Guidelines for Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Leiomyomata  

SciTech Connect

Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is assuming an important role in the treatment of women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomata worldwide. The following guidelines, which have been jointly published with the Society of Interventional Radiology in the Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, are intended to ensure the safe practice of UAE by identifying the elements of appropriate patient selection, anticipated outcomes, and recognition of possible complications and their timely address.

Hovsepian, David M. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)], E-mail:; Siskin, Gary P. [Albany Medical College, Department of Vascular Radiology (United States); Bonn, Joseph [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United States)] (and others)



Endoscopic OCT for imaging of uterine body and cervix pathologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in gynecology are presented. We have studied mucosa of uterus, uterine cervix and vagina in vivo. Images of healthy endometrium in different stages of menstrual cycle have been recorded. For uterine cervix not only OCT data of normal state but some kids of pathology have been analyzed. Capability of OCT to identify alterations of mucosa makes this method promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

Shakhova, Natalia; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman; Sergeev, Alexander M.



Antepartum uterine relaxation with nitroglycerin at Caesarean delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this case report, NTG provided sufficient uterine relaxation to allow difficult twin extraction at Caesarean delivery.\\u000a Administration of NTG in this situation was controversial, and if it had not been effective, time may have been lost before\\u000a general anaesthesia could have been induced. Nitroglycerin merits further evaluation as an antepartum uterine relaxant, but\\u000a the initial experience is encouraging.

David C. Mayer



Clinical significance of cytogenetic abnormalities in uterine myomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of uterine myomas with cytogenetic rearrangements.Design: Comparative study of myomas with normal and abnormal karyotype.Setting: University hospital.Patients: Premenopausal, GnRH-agonist (GnRH-a) treated and menopausal patients.Interventions: Myomectomy or hysterectomy.Main Outcome Measures: Karyotype analysis and clinical characteristics.Results: Clonal abnormalities occurred in 29% of uterine myomas but were not related to the age of the patient or, in

Ivo Brosens; Jan Deprest; Paola Dal Cin; Herman Van den Berghe



Large uterine myoma with erythropoietin messenger RNA and erythrocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome (erythrocytosis associated with a uterine myoma) has multiple proposed etiologies, one of which is altered erythropoietin production.Case: A 28-year-old woman, gravida 0, para 0, presented with a solitary, degenerated uterine myoma that was 34–36 weeks’ gestational size and erythrocytosis. After GnRH agonist treatment and myomectomy, the tumor was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Specific erythropoietin

Takafumi Kohama; Kazunori Shinohara; Masahiro Takahura; Masaki Inoue



Downregulation of the Integrin ?v Signaling Pathway in Uterine Leiomyomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate alterations of integrin ?v, survival and apoptosis signaling pathways in uterine leiomyomas. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study of 50 women with uterine leiomyomas that had been pathologically confirmed, specimens were obtained laparoscopically from 2007 to 2009. The expressions of integrin ?v signaling pathways (Ras\\/Raf\\/ERK1\\/2, Akt and cleaved caspase-3), surface microstructures by surface electron microscopy and

Feng-Chou Tsai; Wei-Min Liu; Man-Hui Pai; Ming-Shium Hsieh; Jui-Yu Lin; Chih-Ming Chou



Tissue doses from radiotherapy of cancer of the uterine cervix  

SciTech Connect

For use in an epidemiologic study of subsequent tumors, absorbed doses from brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy were measured and calculated for various tissues of patients treated for cancer of the uterine cervix. External beams included orthovoltage x rays (1.9 and 3.0 mm Cu half-value layer), cobalt-60 gamma rays, 2 MV x rays, and 25 MV x rays. The brachytherapy sources were encapsulated radium. Measurements were made in an Alderson anthropomorphic phantom and a water phantom; calculations were made using a Monte Carlo technique or standard radiotherapy methods. Depending upon stage of disease and radiation energy, the absorbed doses (cGy) from typical treatment regimes to tissues of interest were: ovaries, 1400--5200; stomach, 130--320; kidneys, 120--310; pancreas, 100--260; lungs, 22--48; breasts, 19--52; thyroid, 6--17; salivary glands, 4--11; brain, 2--7, and total active bone marrow, 320--1100. The lower values of each range were for stage I of the disease.

Stovall, M.; Smith, S.A. (Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (US)); Rosenstein, M. (Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, Public Health Service, Rockville, Maryland 20857)



Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Sulfur Mustard Exposed Lung Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor isoform consisting of 165 amino acids (VEGF165) in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Mustard Exposed Patients. Methods Bronchoscopy with Bronchoalveolar Lavage was performed on sulphur mustard exposed patients. A total of 39 patients with documented exposure to Sulfur Mustard during the Iran-Iraq war participated in this study, of which 38 patients were males and one patient was female. Results The mean±SD age of patients was 41 ± 6.6 years. The mean time after exposure to sulfur mustard was 19 ±1.7 years. Eighteen patients had concomitant war injuries but they were not related to the respiratory system. While Twenty-two patients had a history of submassive persistent hemoptysis. There was no case with massive hemoptysis. Most of the patients had small airway obstruction (FEV1/FVC% = 78.14 ± 9.76 and FEV1% =82.79±18.23). Twenty-three patients had significant air trapping in the chest. High Resolution Computed Tomography was compatible with BOS. VEGF165 concentrations in BALF were 36.87 ± 34.68 pg/ml. When corrected to total protein of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) it was 0.76 ± 0.70 pg/mg. BALF of VEGF did not correlate with hemoptysis or air trapping in chest HRCT. Thus, there was also no correlation between level of VEGF165 in BALF and any of PFT indexes (FVC, FEV1, MMEF or PEF). Conclusions Although VEGF is one of the cytokines which has an important role in chronic pulmonary disorders, it seems that it has no essential role in the severity of Mustard Lung Disease.

Karami, Ali; Ghanei, Mostafa; Alaeddini, Farshid; Soltanpour, Mohammad Javad; Yassini, Mobin; Harandi, Ali Amini



Secondary malignancies of the uterine cervix: a potential diagnostic pitfall.  


The occurrence of a secondary malignancy in the uterine cervix is a very rare event. In the vast majority of cases, this secondary involvement concerns direct spread of a uterine malignancy to the cervix. However, cancer of the ovary, breast, stomach, gallbladder, pancreas and lung has been reported to metastasize to the uterine cervix by hematogenous route. In this context, secondary lesions of the uterine cervix, in particular those of non-epithelial and extra-genital origin, are sufficiently rare to be overlooked, which might result in inappropriate diagnosis with disappointing consequences in terms of treatment planning. We report a single-institution consecutive series of 144 cases of secondary malignancy of the uterine cervix, emphasizing the morphological and immunohistochemical criteria required to arrive at a correct final diagnosis. Secondary malignancies of the uterine cervix have a protean appearance and can present with a wide spectrum of symptoms. Almost invariably metastases to the cervix signal devastating spread to many different organs. Histopathology, as well as immunohistochemical features and close collaboration between clinicians and pathologists, is essential to arrive at a correct final diagnosis. PMID:23748795

Zannoni, Gian Franco; Vellone, Valerio Gaetano; Petrillo, Marco; Fadda, Guido; Rossi, Esther Diana; Scambia, Giovanni; Carbone, Arnaldo



Prevention and treatment of uterine bleeding in hematologic malignancy.  


The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic review on prevention and treatment of uterine bleeding in the setting of hematologic malignancy. We performed MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane searches with the terms uterine bleeding, uterine hemorrhage, hematologic malignancy. All identified literature sources were included in the review. The identified literature is largely comprised of case series and pilot studies. No evidence-based protocols for gynecologists and hematologists are available. The majority of the identified literature centers on menstrual suppression with GnRH agonists in hematologic malignancy, although no randomized trials could be identified. Review of the identified literature suggests that medical prevention with GnRH agonist therapy is highly effective for prevention of uterine bleeding in hematologic malignancy. With respect to treatment of acute uterine bleeding in the setting of hematologic malignancy, medical therapy can be used and is successful in the majority of patients, according to the identified studies. Surgical treatment should be used expeditiously if medical treatment options fail to control acute bleeding. Empiric prevention and treatment algorithms for the discussed clinical settings are proposed. More research is necessary on the topic, with the goal to develop evidence-based guidelines for gynecology and hematology-oncology care providers. Close cooperation between the specialties may improve morbidity and mortality associated with uterine bleeding in hematological malignancy in the future. PMID:17467142

Quaas, Alexander M; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S



The electrical conductivity of in vivo human uterine fibroids.  


The purpose of this study was to determine the value of electrical conductivity that can be used for numerical modelling in vivo radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatments of human uterine fibroids. No experimental electrical conductivity data have previously been reported for human uterine fibroids. In this study electrical data (voltage) from selected in vivo clinical procedures on human uterine fibroids were used to numerically model the treatments. Measured versus calculated power dissipation profiles were compared to determine uterine fibroid electrical conductivity. Numerical simulations were conducted utilising a wide range of values for tissue thermal conductivity, heat capacity and blood perfusion coefficient. The simulations demonstrated that power dissipation was insensitive to the exact values of these parameters for the simulated geometry, treatment duration, and power level. Consequently, it was possible to determine tissue electrical conductivity without precise knowledge of the values for these parameters. Results of this study showed that an electrical conductivity for uterine fibroids of 0.305?S/m at 37°C and a temperature coefficient of 0.2%/°C can be used for modelling Radio Frequency Ablation of human uterine fibroids at a frequency of 460?kHz for temperatures from 37°C to 100°C. PMID:21501027

DeLonzor, Russ; Spero, Richard K; Williams, Joseph J



The Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation.  


Absolute uterine factor infertility (UFI) refers to the refractory causes of female infertility stemming from the anatomical or physiological inability of a uterus to sustain gestation. Today, uterine factor infertility affects 3-5% of the population. Traditionally, although surrogacy and adoption have been the only viable options for females affected by this condition, the uterine transplant is currently under investigation as a potential medical alternative for women who desire to go through the experience of pregnancy. Although animal models have shown promising results, human transplantation cases have only been described in case reports and a successful transplant leading to gestation is yet to occur in humans. Notwithstanding the intricate medical and scientific complexities that a uterine transplant places on the medical minds of our time, ethical questions on this matter pose a similar, if not greater, challenge. In light of these facts, this article attempts to present the ethical issues in the context of experimentation and standard practice which surround this controversial and potentially paradigm-altering procedure; and given these, introduces "The Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation", a set of proposed criteria required for a woman to be ethically considered a candidate for uterine transplantation. PMID:22356169

Lefkowitz, Ariel; Edwards, Marcel; Balayla, Jacques



Lysosomal enzyme activity and fibroblast stimulation of lavage from guinea pigs exposed to silica dust.  

PubMed Central

Guinea pigs were exposed to silica dust for 3 weeks and examined up to 1 year thereafter. The activity of several lysosomal enzymes in lung lavage fluid (LLF) increased from 8 weeks after cessation of exposure whereas the level in aveolar macrophages decreased. Collagen synthesis in fibroblast cultures exposed to LLF was also increased except at 24 weeks after exposure. The results indicate that 8 weeks and later after cessation of exposure to silica dust there are cellular changes in the lung which can be related to the exposure, although typical silicotic lesions were not observed till 1 year after the exposure.

Sjostrand, M.; Rylander, R.



[Use of phytostimolin vaginal cream and lavage in cervical dystrophy after DTC of the cervix].  


The study evaluated the efficacy and tolerance of the active components of "phytostimolin" cream and vaginal lavage, Triticum Vulgare and Ether glycoethylen-mono-phenolic, in 40 patients suffering from dystrophic cervico-vaginal pathologies (group 1), and in 20 patients following DTC of the portio due to ectropion (group 2). The study was double blind. An overall efficacy of 70% was observed in group 1 and 90% in group 2. The results obtained, the absence of side effects, and the good level of tolerance confirm the value of the above components in the pathology in question. PMID:2057103

Bottino, G; Menna, C; Miradoli, P; Rosa, M O; Denzio, G



[Diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage in assessing the efficacy of the treatment of idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis].  


A study of the results of repeated diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage in 27 patients with idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (IFA) has shown that the investigation of cellular composition of the bronchoalveolar content (BAC) made it possible to specify IFA activity and its therapy-related change. Normalization or a decrease below 6% of the neutrophil content in BAC was typical of achieving low activity and remission of disease. A relatively high count of neutrophils in BAC (over 10%) during therapy was observed in preserved significant IFA activity resistant to drug therapy. PMID:3247657

Gerasin, V A; Zhuravlev, A V; Novikova, L N; Palamarchuk, G F



Enzymes in lung lavage fluid after inhalation exposure to silica dust  

SciTech Connect

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lysosomal enzyme activity were measured in lung lavage fluid of guinea pigs exposed for 3 weeks to different concentrations of silica dust. Eight weeks and later after cessation of exposure, the amounts of N-acetyl-..beta..-D-glucosaminidase, cathepsin S, acid phosphatase, and LDH were increased. It is suggested that this increase indicates cell damage to alveolar macrophages, and that the enzyme changes are of relevance to determine the risk for pulmonary fibrosis caused by airborne substances. 10 references.

Sjoestrand, M.; Rylander, R.



Evaluation of Referenceless Thermometry in MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery of Uterine Fibroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: A recently described method to produce MRI-based temperature images from individual phase maps (referenceless thermometry) was tested in images acquired during MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery of uterine fibroids. Methods: Temperature measurements, noise in unheated areas, and thermal dose contours from 100 sonications as measured by the referenceless method were compared to images constructed with the standard phase-difference technique. Results: The agreement between temperature measurements was good, with 92% having a difference from the phase difference method less than or equal to 3°C. Conclusions: The referenceless method appears to be adequate for temperature monitoring of MRI-guided focused ultrasound in fibroids.

McDannold, Nathan; Tempany, Clare; Jolesz, Ferenc; Hynynen, Kullervo



Thermal ablation of uterine fibroids using MR-guided focused ultrasound-a truly non-invasive treatment modality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine fibroids are a significant source of morbidity for women of reproductive age. Definitive treatment has traditionally\\u000a been a hysterectomy, but increasingly women are not prepared to undergo such an invasive procedure for a benign and usually\\u000a self-limiting condition. Although a number of minimally invasive techniques are now available, focused ultrasound has a considerable\\u000a advantage over them as it is

Alexander Chapman; Gail ter Haar



Bronchoalveolar lavage of cranial and caudal lung regions in selected normal calves: cellular, microbiological, immunoglobulin, serological and histological variables.  

PubMed Central

Of a group of 30 clinically normal male Holstein calves two to eight weeks of age, six two week old and six four week old calves met various radiographical and clinicopathological criteria for normality. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy on cranial and caudal lung regions in all 30 calves and samples analyzed for free cells, microorganisms, and immunoglobulins. Lateral chest radiographs and lung biopsies were also conducted on each calf. Calves were euthanized and necropsied ten days after bronchoalveolar lavage was conducted. Reported in this paper are results from the 12 normal calves. Microorganisms were present in small numbers in the lower respiratory tract of some normal calves. There were no differences in the above parameters between cranial and caudal lobes. There were statistically significant changes in bronchoalveolar lavage cell proportions with age although there were no detectable differences in clinical signs. Four week old calves had a lower percentage of macrophages and a higher percentage of epithelial cells than two week old animals (p less than 0.05). There was also a trend toward an increased percentage of neutrophils in older calves but this was not significant (p greater than 0.05). Total bronchoalveolar lavage protein also appeared to increase with age (p less than 0.05). In both groups a higher proportion of IgG2 in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to serum was found, suggesting the presence of a local selective transfer mechanism into respiratory secretions. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4.

Pringle, J K; Viel, L; Shewen, P E; Willoughby, R A; Martin, S W; Valli, V E



National survey of the surgical management of subfertility associated with uterine fibroids which do not distort the uterine cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine fibroids which do not distort the uterine cavity are associated with otherwise unexplained subfertility. There is\\u000a currently no consensus as to their surgical management. Surgical intervention is left to the discretion of the treating gynaecologist.\\u000a An anonymous postal questionnaire was sent to gynaecologists in the UK with an interest in subfertility to survey current\\u000a clinical practice. At total of

G. Ahmad; J. M. N. Duffy; Y. Mohammed; A. J. S. Watson



Sexuality and Body Image After Uterine Artery Embolization and Hysterectomy in the Treatment of Uterine Fibroids: A Randomized Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effect of uterine artery embolization (UAE) on sexual functioning and body image is investigated in a randomized\\u000a comparison to hysterectomy for symptomatic uterine fibroids. The EMbolization versus hysterectoMY (EMMY) trial is a randomized\\u000a controlled study, conducted at 28 Dutch hospitals. Patients were allocated hysterectomy (n = 89) or UAE (n = 88). Two validated questionnaires (the

Wouter J. K. Hehenkamp; Nicole A. Volkers; Wouter Bartholomeus; Sjoerd de Blok; Erwin Birnie; Jim A. Reekers; Willem M. Ankum



Pleural lavage with distilled water during surgery for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  


This study aimed to investigate cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines, and to apply pleural lavage with distilled water to surgery for ESCC. Three human ESCC cell lines, TE5, TE9 and KYSE170 were exposed to distilled water, and morphological changes in ESCC cells were closely observed under a differential interference contrast microscope connected to a high-speed digital video camera. Further, serial cell volume changes after hypotonic shock were measured using a high-resolution flow cytometer. To investigate the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock on ESCC cells, re-incubation of ESCC cells was performed after hypotonic shock. Additionally, the effects of 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB), a Cl- channel blocker, during hypotonic shock were analyzed. Video recordings by high-speed digital camera demonstrated that hypotonic shock with distilled water induced cell swelling followed by cell rupture. Measurements of cell volume changes using a high-resolution flow cytometer indicated that severe hypotonicity with distilled water increased broken fragments of ESCC cells within 5 min. Re-incubation experiments demonstrated cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock on ESCC cells. Treatment of cells with NPPB increased cell volumes by the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease, which is observed during hypotonic shock, and enhanced cytocidal effects. These findings demonstrated the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock on ESCC cells, and clearly support the efficacy of pleural lavage with distilled water during surgery for ESCC. PMID:21567108

Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Komatsu, Shuhei; Iitaka, Daisuke; Tsujiura, Masahiro; Morimura, Ryo; Takeshita, Hiroki; Nagata, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Nakahari, Takashi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Otsuji, Eigo



Varespladib inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 in bronchoalveolar lavage of different types of neonatal lung injury.  


Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), which links surfactant catabolism and lung inflammation, is associated with lung stiffness, surfactant dysfunction, and degree of respiratory support in acute respiratory distress syndrome and in some forms of neonatal lung injury. Varespladib potently inhibits sPLA2 in animal models. The authors investigate varespladib ex vivo efficacy in different forms of neonatal lung injury. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from 40 neonates affected by hyaline membrane disease, infections, or meconium aspiration and divided in 4 aliquots added with increasing varespladib or saline. sPLA2 activity, proteins, and albumin were measured. Dilution was corrected with the urea ratio. Varespladib was also tested in vitro against pancreatic sPLA2 mixed with different albumin concentration. Varespladib was able to inhibit sPLA2 in the types of neonatal lung injury investigated. sPLA2 activity was reduced in hyaline membrane disease (P < .0001), infections (P = .003), and meconium aspiration (P = .04) using 40 µM varespladib; 10 µM was able to lower enzyme activity (P = .001), with an IC(50) of 87 µM. An inverse relationship existed between protein level and activity reduction (r = 0.5; P = .029). The activity reduction/protein ratio tended to be higher in hyaline membrane disease. Varespladib efficacy was higher in vitro than in lavage fluids obtained from neonates (P < .001). PMID:21602519

De Luca, Daniele; Minucci, Angelo; Trias, Joaquim; Tripodi, Domenico; Conti, Giorgio; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore



Comparison of 14 Molecular Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid.  


We compared 14 molecular assays for their ability to detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples. Three approaches were followed. First, by using DNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG, we determined the detection limits of the assays using routine molecular methods. Second, in order to determine the analytical sensitivities of the assays, we added one of four M. tuberculosis isolates with various numbers of the insertion sequence IS6110 to N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NALC)-NaOH-treated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples in dilutions of 1:10 to 1:10,000,000. Third, intertest variabilities were measured and defined by the standard deviations for the quantitation cycle (Cq) values of three positive test results per dilution per assay. The 14 assays tested had similar analytical sensitivities, except for GeneXpert, which had an analytical sensitivity that was 10- to 100-fold lower than that of the other assays. The MP MTB/NTM test and the in-house TaqMan-10 revealed the best performances for the detection limit and had the highest analytical sensitivities. Most of the tests performed well regarding detection limit and analytical sensitivity for the detection of the M. tuberculosis complex in serial dilutions, and the differences were small. The MP MTB/NTM and the in-house TaqMan-10 assays revealed the best, and GeneXpert the worst, overall performances. PMID:23966510

Akkerman, Onno W; van der Werf, Tjip S; de Boer, Maria; de Beer, Jessica L; Rahim, Zeaur; Rossen, John W A; van Soolingen, Dick; Kerstjens, Huib A M; van der Zanden, Adri G M



Analysis of trace and major elements in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of Mycoplasma bronchopneumonia in calves.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of direct determination of trace and major element concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from Holstein calves with Mycoplasma bronchopneumonia (n?=?21) and healthy controls (n?=?20). The samples were obtained during bronchoscopy using a standard examination method. A total of 18 elements (aluminum, bromine, calcium, chlorine, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorous, sulfur, silicon, strontium, titanium, and zinc) were detected by particle-induced X-ray emission. The average bromine, iron, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorous concentrations were higher in calves with bronchopneumonia than in controls (p?lavage fluid is a promising diagnostic tool for Mycoplasma bronchopneumonia. PMID:21870151

Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Sera, Kouichiro; Koiwa, Masateru; Taguchi, Kiyoshi



Pancreatic resection versus peritoneal lavage in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. A prospective randomized trial.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-one patients with acute fulminant alcoholic pancreatitis were randomly allocated to either pancreatic resection group (11 patients) or nonoperative peritoneal lavage group (10 patients). Only patients under 50 years were included in the study to minimize the role of other severe disease. These patients represented the most severe cases of acute pancreatitis at our Department, constituting only 2% of all patients with acute pancreatitis during this period. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and on signs indicating severely impaired systemic organ functions. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), which showed contrast enhancement below 30 Hounsfield units. In the operated cases, the diagnosis of necrotizing pancreatitis was verified histologically. All patients with conservative treatment had dark brown fluid at peritoneal puncture. There was a difference (nonsignificant) in mortality (3/11 and 1/10, respectively), complication rate, or in the need of reoperations between the groups. Nonoperative peritoneal lavage was followed with shorter treatment at the intensive care unit (16.2 versus 25.9 days, respectively). The hospital stay also was significantly shorter in the nonoperative group (44.3 versus 56.1 days). The results indicate that intensive conservative treatment is justified as an initial therapy even in the most severe cases of acute pancreatitis.

Schroder, T; Sainio, V; Kivisaari, L; Puolakkainen, P; Kivilaakso, E; Lempinen, M



Pancreatic resection versus peritoneal lavage in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. A prospective randomized trial.  


Twenty-one patients with acute fulminant alcoholic pancreatitis were randomly allocated to either pancreatic resection group (11 patients) or nonoperative peritoneal lavage group (10 patients). Only patients under 50 years were included in the study to minimize the role of other severe disease. These patients represented the most severe cases of acute pancreatitis at our Department, constituting only 2% of all patients with acute pancreatitis during this period. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and on signs indicating severely impaired systemic organ functions. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), which showed contrast enhancement below 30 Hounsfield units. In the operated cases, the diagnosis of necrotizing pancreatitis was verified histologically. All patients with conservative treatment had dark brown fluid at peritoneal puncture. There was a difference (nonsignificant) in mortality (3/11 and 1/10, respectively), complication rate, or in the need of reoperations between the groups. Nonoperative peritoneal lavage was followed with shorter treatment at the intensive care unit (16.2 versus 25.9 days, respectively). The hospital stay also was significantly shorter in the nonoperative group (44.3 versus 56.1 days). The results indicate that intensive conservative treatment is justified as an initial therapy even in the most severe cases of acute pancreatitis. PMID:1741645

Schröder, T; Sainio, V; Kivisaari, L; Puolakkainen, P; Kivilaakso, E; Lempinen, M



Effect of zinc and phosphate on an antibacterial peptide isolated from lung lavage.  


Incubation of Escherichia coli (10(4) organisms per ml) in cell-free rabbit lung lavage for 30 min at 37 degrees C resulted in a 70% reduction in colony counts on deoxycholate agar. A low-molecular-weight peptide (about 3,400 daltons), with zinc as a cofactor, was responsible for this activity. The peptide was isolated by Sephadex G-15 separation of lyophilized rabbit lung lavage which had been centrifuged to remove macrophages and suspended phospholipids and passed through a 10,000-dalton (pore size) membrane filter. Peptide activity against E. coli was inhibited by phosphate buffer but not by borate, Tris, or barbital buffer. Bacteria incubated in phosphate buffer and then washed in saline were resistant to peptide activity. Antibacterial activity was also inhibited when peptide-exposed bacteria were incubated in phosphate buffer before deoxycholate treatment. 32P-radiolabeled E. coli cells lost about 20% of their radiolabel after 15 min of incubation with peptide. PMID:6469356

LaForce, F M; Boose, D S



Long term effects of alumina on components of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rats.  

PubMed Central

Significant differences in several components of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL fluid) have previously been reported in aluminium potroom workers compared with controls. The present paper describes the long term effects in rats of one time exposure to potroom aluminium oxide without fluorides (primary alumina (PA)) or with adsorbed fluorides (secondary alumina (SA)) on components of BAL fluid. Alumina dust (40 mg) suspended in saline was instilled intratracheally; controls received saline. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed one, four, and 12 months after exposure. The number of cells in BAL fluid was increased significantly (p < 0.05) by SA but not PA. The increase was mainly macrophages, but the concentrations of neutrophils also increased about 10-fold one and 12 months after exposure. Although albumin and hyaluronan concentrations did not differ from those of controls, fibronectin concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) increased one year after exposure both in PA exposed and SA exposed rats. The results indicate that SA, possibly because of adhered fluorides, induces early changes in alveolar cell populations including persistent neutrophilia. These cellular changes may have a destructive effect. The late pronounced increase of fibronectin in both PA and SA exposed rats indicates a delayed effect of alumina on the extracellular matrix.

Tornling, G; Blaschke, E; Eklund, A



Long term effects of alumina on components of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rats.  


Significant differences in several components of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL fluid) have previously been reported in aluminium potroom workers compared with controls. The present paper describes the long term effects in rats of one time exposure to potroom aluminium oxide without fluorides (primary alumina (PA)) or with adsorbed fluorides (secondary alumina (SA)) on components of BAL fluid. Alumina dust (40 mg) suspended in saline was instilled intratracheally; controls received saline. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed one, four, and 12 months after exposure. The number of cells in BAL fluid was increased significantly (p < 0.05) by SA but not PA. The increase was mainly macrophages, but the concentrations of neutrophils also increased about 10-fold one and 12 months after exposure. Although albumin and hyaluronan concentrations did not differ from those of controls, fibronectin concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) increased one year after exposure both in PA exposed and SA exposed rats. The results indicate that SA, possibly because of adhered fluorides, induces early changes in alveolar cell populations including persistent neutrophilia. These cellular changes may have a destructive effect. The late pronounced increase of fibronectin in both PA and SA exposed rats indicates a delayed effect of alumina on the extracellular matrix. PMID:8435350

Tornling, G; Blaschke, E; Eklund, A



Expression of surface antigens distinguishing "naive" and previously activated lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  

PubMed Central

Studies in animals suggest that the initial activation of unprimed ("naive") T lymphocytes by inhaled antigens may occur outside the lung with later recruitment to the lung. If this is true all lymphocytes present in the lung should show evidence of prior activation. To test this hypothesis for lymphocytes present on the alveolar surface, the expression of surface antigens, which distinguish unprimed from previously activated cells (CD45RA, CD29, Leu-8), were measured on T lymphocytes recovered from blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from normal subjects and patients with sarcoidosis. Few T lymphocytes from the lavage fluid of normal subjects and patients with sarcoidosis expressed the Leu 8+ or CD45RAbright phenotype expected for "naive" cells; more cells had the CD29dull phenotype expected for "naive" cells, though five of eight subjects had under 2% of such cells. These findings support the conclusion that the only T lymphocytes present on the surface of the respiratory tract are those recognising antigens that have been previously encountered by the individual. Further studies are required to determine whether "naive" T lymphocytes are present in other lung compartments.

Dominique, S; Bouchonnet, F; Smiejan, J M; Hance, A J



Association of bronchoalveolar lavage yield with chest computed tomography findings and symptoms in immunocompromised patients  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Fiber-optic bronchoscopy (FOB) with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a common procedure performed in immunocompromised patients with undiagnosed pulmonary pathology. Identifying patients with the highest potential diagnostic yield may help to avoid morbidity in patients unlikely to benefit from the procedure. We sought to determine which patient factors, specifically chest computed tomography (CT) findings, affected diagnostic yield of BAL. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of immunocompromised patients who underwent FOB with BAL from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2011 at an academic medical center was performed. The lung lobe lavaged, characteristics of pulmonary infiltrate on radiograph, patient symptoms, and diagnostic yield were collected. A positive diagnostic yield was defined as a positive microbiological culture, finding on cytopathologic staining, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, alveolar eosinophilia or a positive immunologic or nucleic acid assay. RESULTS: The overall diagnostic yield was 52.6%. Infiltrates that were predominantly reticular or nodular by CT had a lower diagnostic yield than predominantly consolidated, ground-glass, or tree-in-bud infiltrates (36.5% vs. 61.2%, P = 0.0058). The diagnostic yield was significantly improved in patients with both fever and chest symptoms compared to patients without symptoms (61.3% vs. 29.6%, P = 0.0066). CONCLUSION: CT findings of reticular and nodular infiltrates portend a worse diagnostic yield from BAL than those that are alveolar in nature. Symptomatic patients are more likely to have diagnostic FOB with BAL than asymptomatic patients.

Brownback, Kyle R.; Simpson, Steven Q.



Acoustic rhinometry and lavage biomarkers in relation to some building characteristics in Swedish schools.  


It has been suggested that certain building factors can be associated with specific exposures, such as dampness, chemical emissions and dust. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between some selected building factors, on the one hand, and signs of inflammation or obstruction in the upper airways on the other. Acoustic rhinometry and nasal lavage were used in a field study among 234 school personnel in 12 randomly selected schools (participation rate 84%). Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), lysozyme, albumin and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were analyzed in the lavage fluid. Building related factors selected for the study were: roof inclination, fundament, building construction, signs of water damage, floor material, building age, ceiling height, bookcases and plants in the classroom. Control was made for potential confounders. The results indicate a pattern of nasal responses: less patent noses and an inflammatory biomarker response could be related to flat roof and a concrete slab fundament, factors that are known risk factors for water leakage, building dampness and possibly microbial growth. A reduced nasal patency without an inflammatory biomarker response was related to factors associated with plasticizers and dust. Positive effects were observed for plants in the classroom and in older buildings. PMID:11235228

Wålinder, R; Norbäck, D; Wieslander, G; Smedje, G; Erwall, C; Venge, P



Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers.  

PubMed Central

Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 15 brake lining (BL) workers exposed only to chrysotile have been determined and compared with those from 44 asbestos cement (AC) workers extensively exposed to amphiboles. The mean AB concentrations (263 +/- 802 and 842 +/- 2086 AB/ml respectively) for those groups did not differ significantly but were much higher than those found in control groups. Analytical electron microscopy of asbestos body cores showed that in the BL group 95.6% were chrysotile fibres whereas in the AC group amphiboles accounted for 93.1%. The size characteristics of the central fibres differed for chrysotile and amphibole AB, the former being shorter and thinner. Examination of repeated bronchoalveolar lavage samples showed that the mechanisms of clearance of chrysotile fibres do not affect AB concentration for at least 10 months after cessation of exposure. It thus appears that routine counting of ABs in BAL allows the assessment of current or recent occupational exposures to asbestos. Exposures to chrysotile lead to AB concentrations comparable with those encountered in exposures to amphiboles. Images

Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P; Strauss, P; Yernault, J C



Uterine Fibroid Embolisation for Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: A Survey of Clinical Practice in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To assess current uterine fibroid embolisation (UFE) practice in European countries and determine the clinical environment\\u000a for UFE in different hospitals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and Methods  In May 2009, an invitation for an online survey was sent by e-mail to all members of the Cardiovascular and Interventional\\u000a Radiologic Society of Europe, representing a total number of 1,250 different candidate European treatment centres. The

Marianne J. VoogtMark; Mark J. Arntz; Paul N. M. Lohle; Willem P. Th. M. Mali; Leo E. H. Lampmann




PubMed Central

Introduction: The rate of attempted vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery has decreased, while the success rate of such births increased. Advances in surgical techniques, the development of anesthesiology services, particularly endotracheal anesthesia, very quality postoperative care with cardiovascular, respiratory and biochemical resuscitation, significantly reduce maternal mortality and morbidity after cesarean section. Progress and development of neonatal services, and intensive care of newborns is enabled and a high survival of newborn infants. Complications after cesarean section were reduced, and the introduction of prophylaxis and therapy of powerful antibiotics, as well as materials for sewing drastically reduce all forms of puerperal infection. Goal: Goal was to establish a measurement value of the parameters that are evaluated by ultrasound. Material and methods: Each of the measured parameters was scored. The sum of points is shown in tables. Based on the sum of points was done an estimate of the scar on the uterus after previous caesarian section and make the decision whether to complete delivery naturally or repeat cesarean section. We conducted a prospective study of 108 pregnant women. Analyzed were: shape scar thickness (thickening), continuity, border scar out, echoing the structure of the lower uterine segment and scar volume Results: The study showed that scar thickness of 3.5 mm or more, the homogeneity of the scar, scar triangular shape, qualitatively richer perfusion, and scar volume verified by 3D technique up to10 cm are attributes of the quality of the scar. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results we conclude that ultrasound evaluation of the quality of the scar has practical application in the decision on the mode of delivery in women who had previously given birth by Caesarean section.

Basic, Ejub; Basic-Cetkovic, Vesna; Kozaric, Hadzo; Rama, Admir



Lipoprotein macroaggregates in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease: comparison with idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis.  

PubMed Central

Lipoprotein macroaggregates were present in cytocentrifuge preparations of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from four patients with diffuse lung diseases other than idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis. In three patients the primary diagnosis was cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and in one sarcoidosis. We confirmed the presence of large multilamellar aggregates of lipoprotein by ultrastructural examination in patients with both interstitial lung disease and idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis. The small lamellar bodies and amorphous debris found in idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis were rare in the patients with interstitial lung disease. The lavage fluid from patient with interstitial lung disease did not show the substantial alterations in phospholipid composition that were seen in lavage fluid in idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis. These ultrastructural and biochemical features may help to distinguish idiopathic from other causes of alveolar lipoproteinosis, particularly at an early stage, when differential diagnosis may be difficult. Images

Haslam, P L; Hughes, D A; Dewar, A; Pantin, C F



Primary screening for high risk HPV by home obtained cervicovaginal lavage is an alternative screening tool for unscreened women  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: Self sampling is considered an adjuvant tool to facilitate the participation of women in cervical cancer screening programmes. This study aimed to evaluate whether cervicovaginal lavage could be an alternative for the cervical smear in cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and to assess the acceptance of the self sampling device by women. Methods: Fifty six women with abnormal cervical cytology (very mild dyskaryosis or worse) and 15 women with normal cervical cytology obtained a self collected cervicovaginal lavage at home and filled in a questionnaire on the use of the device. At the colposcopy clinic the gynaecologist performed the same procedure followed by a cervical smear for cytology and HPV DNA testing. Results: The self sampling device was acceptable to 88% of the women. The concordance between the cytology results in the smear and the lavage by the doctor and the patient was 54% and 41%, respectively (? = 0.28 and 0.14). The concordance between high risk HPV detection in the smear and the lavage by the doctor and the patient was 93% and 78%, respectively (? = 0.82 and 0.53). Ninety one per cent of the women with high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) had a high risk HPV positive test in the smear, compared with 91% and 81% in the lavages taken by the doctor and the patient, respectively. Conclusions: HPV DNA testing by home obtained samples is useful as a screening tool for cervical cancer, whereas cervical cytology by self sampling is not. Although the sensitivity for high grade CIN by high risk HPV testing in the lavage by the patient is not significantly lower than that in the cervical smear, self sampling for HPV DNA is a feasible alternative method in women who decline to participate in population based cervical cancer screening programmes. However, participation in the screening programme remains the best option.

Nobbenhuis, M A E; Helmerhorst, T J M; van den Brule, A J C; Rozendaal, L; Jaspars, L H; Voorhorst, F J; Verheijen, R H M; Meijer, C J L M



A Mouse Model of Uterine Leiomyosarcoma  

PubMed Central

We are using an approach that is based on the cre/loxP recombination process and involves a binary system of Cre-producing and Cre-responding transgenic mice to achieve ubiquitous or tissue-specific expression of oncoproteins. To develop mouse models of tumorigenesis, Cre-producers are mated with responder animals carrying a dormant oncogene targeted into the 3? untranslated region of the locus encoding cytoplasmic ?-actin (actin cassette). Production of oncoprotein from a bicistronic message is accomplished in bitransgenic progeny by Cre-mediated excision of a segment flanked by loxP sites that is located upstream from the oncogenic sequence. Widespread Cre-dependent activation and expression of an actin-cassette transgene encoding the T antigens of the SV40 early region (SVER) commencing in embryos was compatible with normal development and did not impair viability. However, at ?3 months of age, all female animals developed massive uterine leiomyosarcomas, whereas practically all males exhibited enormously enlarged seminal vesicles because of pronounced hyperplasia of the smooth muscle layers. In addition, because of smooth muscle hyperproliferation, marked dilation of the gallbladder was observed in mice of both sexes. To begin exploring aberrant signaling events in the SVER-triggered tumorigenic pathways, we analyzed the expression profile of leiomyosarcomas by DNA microarray analysis.

Politi, Katerina; Szabolcs, Matthias; Fisher, Peter; Kljuic, Ana; Ludwig, Thomas; Efstratiadis, Argiris



Leukemia following radiotherapy for uterine bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Mortality due to leukemia among 4483 women treated with radiation to control uterine bleeding between 1925 and 1965 was twice as high as expected based on U.S. population rates (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4 to 2.8). Women were followed for an average of 26.4 years. Relative risk was highest 2 to 5 years after treatment (SMR = 8.1) and among women over 55 years at irradiation (SMR = 5.8). The usual method of treatment was intrauterine radium. Average radiation dose to active bone marrow was estimated on the basis of original radiotherapy records (median, 53 cGy). A linear dose-response model provided an adequate fit to the data. The average excess relative risk was 1.9% per cGy (95% CI: 0.8 to 3.2), and the average absolute risk was 2.6 excess leukemia deaths per million women per year per cGy (95% CI: 0.9 to 4.8). Chronic myeloid leukemia predominated during the first 15 years following exposure, whereas acute leukemias and chronic lymphatic leukemia were most common thereafter. The radiation doses experienced during treatment of benign gynecologic disease appear to result in greater leukemia risk per cGy average marrow dose than the considerably higher doses used to treat malignant disease, perhaps because of a decreased likelihood of killing potentially leukemic cells.

Inskip, P.D.; Monson, R.R.; Wagoner, J.K.; Stovall, M.; Davis, F.G.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Boice, J.D. Jr. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (USA))



Light delivery schemes for uterine photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of photodynamic therapy in the removal of the endometrial layer of the uterus provides the possibility of a rapid and effective treatment of menorrhagia avoiding the difficulties and complications of conventional methods. A treatment is proposed in which topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid to the inner surface of the uterus is followed by illumination at 630 nm. The surface layer would in this way be rendered necrotic to slough off over subsequent days. The removal of the entire endometrium must be achieved in order to prevent the return of the original condition, which demands that a therapeutic dose of both light and photosensitizer must be achieved throughout the depth of the tissue. This work presents a method of light delivery suitable for intra-uterine PDT along with in vitro optical phantom and ex vivo tissue measurements that aid in the characterization of the light field prior to treatment. These measurements allow the prediction of a treatment time suitable for the delivery of an effective light dose.

Stringer, Mark R.; Hudson, Emma J.; Dunkley, Colin P.; Boyce, Jeanetta C.; Gannon, Michael J.; Smith, Michael A.



Uterine NK cells in murine pregnancy.  


Murine uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are transient, short-lived, terminally differentiated lymphocytes found in decidualized endometrium. Cells expressing natural killer cell surface markers are present in uteri of infant mice. Terminal uNK cell differentiation coincides with mesometrial decidual development subsequent to blastocyst implantation and begins about gestation day 5. uNK cells proliferate rapidly and, within 3 days, senescent uNK cells appear in normal implantation sites. Mid-gestation, senescent cells become dominant and uNK cell numbers decline until term when remaining cells are shed with the placenta. Transplantable uNK cell progenitors occur outside the uterus, suggesting that blood cell homing augments any in-utero progenitors. Early in healthy pregnancies, uNK cells produce cytokines and angiogenic molecules. Their lytic capacity in normal gestation and in pregnancy failure is incompletely defined. A significant shift recently occurred in thinking about major uNK cell functions. Activated uNK cells are now considered critical for appropriate endometrial angiogenesis in early implantation site development and in non-gestational endometrium. Because analogous cells appear in the endometria of women during each menstrual cycle and become abundant in early pregnancy, studies involving experimental pregnancy termination in genetically manipulated mice continue to have great importance for understanding regulation at the human maternal-fetal interface. PMID:18284876

Bilinski, M J; Thorne, J G; Oh, M J; Leonard, S; Murrant, C; Tayade, C; Croy, B A



Responses to subchronic inhalation of low concentrations of diesel exhaust and hardwood smoke measured in rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  


Air pollution exposure is associated with adverse health effects, but the causal components and mechanisms are unclear. We compared effects of daily exposure for 6 mo to diesel exhaust (DE) or hardwood smoke (HWS) at 4 concentrations between 30 and 1000 microg/(3) of total particulate matter, or filtered air, in male and female rats. Lung lavage fluid was assayed for toxicity indicators, cytokines, and glutathione. Statistical analyses included pairwise comparisons with control and exposure-related trends, modeled using techniques that facilitated evaluation of nonlinear exposure effects. Lactate dehydrogenase increased with exposure concentration in DE-exposed females, but in other groups, low exposure concentrations caused increases while higher concentrations had less effect. Total protein in the HWS-exposed males and females followed similar patterns. Alkaline phosphatase increased in DE-exposed females, but decreased in HWS-exposed males and females. Beta-Glucuronidase decreased in HWS- and DE-exposed males, but HWS-exposed females showed decreases at low exposure concentrations and weak increases at higher exposure concentrations. Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 decreased in HWS-exposed males and females and DE-exposed females. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels decreased in DE-exposed females and males, but HWS-exposed males showed small increases. DE did not affect total glutathione in either gender, but HWS decreased glutathione in females, while in males, increases at low exposure concentrations but not at higher exposure levels were observed. Thus, these two combustion emissions differentially affect lung responses, with gender affecting response patterns. Furthermore, effects may be nonmonotonic functions of exposure levels, with maximal responses in environmentally or occupationally relevant exposure ranges. PMID:16087572

Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D; Seilkop, Steven K; Mauderly, Joe L



Saline infusion sonohysterography versus hysteroscopy for uterine cavity evaluation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The most frequent procedures performed on women with abnormal uterine bleeding are 2D and 3D ultrasound. The most common accepted approach for the management of abnormal uterine bleeding is 2D TV scan followed by therapeutic hysteroscopy. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess whether 3D saline infusion sonohysterography (3D SIS) could replace diagnostic hysteroscopy (DH) for the diagnosis of endometrial pathology, in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective study in the ultrasound department of the Women's Specialized Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to February 2010. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 0One hundred and one patients with abnormal uterine bleeding, suspected to have endometrial abnormality by 2D and 3D transvaginal scan, were prospectively studied. Of these, 55 patients had undergone both 3D SIS and DH, followed by verification of results with histopathology. RESULTS: Upon comparison of 3D SIS and DH individually with histopathology, specificity and sensitivity for 3D SIS were 67% and 100%, respectively, and for hysteroscopy 67% and 98%, respectively. In addition, the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 98% and 100%, respectively, for 3D SIS, while for DH they were 98% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSION: 3D SIS is a safe alternative to hysteroscopy. However, larger randomized controlled trials should be conducted to ascertain the validity and reliability of this advantageous, less-invasive procedure, for women with abnormal uterine bleeding, who require evaluation of the endometrial cavity.

Khan, Faryal; Jamaat, Sadia; Al-Jaroudi, Dania



Surgical Management of Uterine Fibroids at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the influence of age and parity on the surgical management of uterine fibroids, clinical presentation, presence of pelvic adhesions, cadre of surgeons, and postoperative complications at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. Methods. A retrospective analysis of 105 cases of uterine fibroids that were managed between 1st January 2003 and 31st December 2007. Results. The period prevalence of uterine fibroids was 24.7% of all major gynecological operations. The mean age was 35.8 ± 7.6 and mean parity 4.7 ± 2.8. Abdominal hysterectomy accounted for 58.1% of the cases and myomectomy 41.9%. The odd of using abdominal hysterectomy was about twice that of myomectomy. Pelvic adhesions were found in 67.6% of the cases. Menorrhagia (86.7%) was the commonest symptom, while post operative anemia and pyrexia showed significant association with myomectomy. There was no maternal mortality. Conclusion. Surgical operations for uterine fibroids are safe and common kind of gynecological operations at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Uterine fibroid is associated more with high parity and dominance of abdominal hysterectomy over myomectomy, because early girl marriage is common in our community.

Omole-Ohonsi, Abiodun; Belga, Francis



Increased Serum Oxidative Stress Markers in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Background Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common gynaecological benign tumors in premenopausal women. Evidences support the role of oxidative stress in the development of uterine leiomyoma. We have analysed oxidative stress markers (thiols, advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites) in preoperative sera from women with histologically proven uterine leiomyoma. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a laboratory study in a tertiary-care university hospital. Fifty-nine women with histologically proven uterine leiomyoma and ninety-two leiomyoma-free control women have been enrolled in this study. Complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity was performed in each patient. Preoperative serum samples were obtained from all study participants to assay serum thiols, AOPP, protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites. Concentrations of serum protein carbonyl groups and AOPP were higher in leiomyoma patients than in the control group (p=0.005 and p<0.001, respectively). By contrast, serum thiol levels were lower in leiomyoma patients (p<0.001). We found positive correlations between serum AOPP concentrations and total fibroids weight (r=0.339; p=0.028), serum AOPP and serum protein carbonyls with duration of infertility (r=0.762; p=0.006 and r=0.683; p=0.021, respectively). Conclusions/Significance This study, for the first time, reveals a significant increase of protein oxidative stress status and reduced antioxidant capacity in sera from women with uterine leiomyoma.

Santulli, Pietro; Borghese, Bruno; Lemarechal, Herve; Leconte, Mahaut; Millischer, Anne-Elodie; Batteux, Frederic



A case of uterine endometrial carcinoma 15 months post-partum.  


A case of uterine endometrial carcinoma 15 months post-partum, who did have none of typical risk factors of uterine endometrial carcinoma, is presented. The occurrence of post-partum uterine endometrial carcinoma is extremely rare condition probably due to anti-carcinogenic effects of progesterone. Progesterone refractory cells in the uterine endometrium, which could be an origin of the endometrial carcinoma, might have existed. PMID:11152326

Ishioka, S; Sagae, S; Saito, T; Sugimura, M; Akutagawa, N; Nishimura, M; Ezaka, Y; Kudo, R



Embolization of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations Associated with Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease  

SciTech Connect

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of vaginal bleeding and miscarriage. We report two cases of uterine AVMs in patients with a history of complex congenital heart disease, an association that has not been previously described. Both patients were treated by selective uterine artery embolization, a minimally invasive therapy that has revolutionized the management of uterine AVMs, thus offering an alternative to conventional hysterectomy.

Wijesekera, N. T., E-mail:; Padley, S. P.; Kazmi, F.; Davies, C. L.; McCall, J. M. [Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)



Comparison of long-term outcomes of myomectomy and uterine artery embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To compare long-term outcomes of uterine artery embolization and abdominal myomectomy in patients with symptomatic uterine myomas.METHODS:At a single institution in an 18-month time, 59 patients had bilateral uterine artery embolization and 38 patients had abdominal myomectomy to treat symptomatic uterine myomas. We reviewed medical records and surveyed patients 3 or more years after their procedures to assess how many

Michael S Broder; Scott Goodwin; Gary Chen; Linda J Tang; Mary M Costantino; Michael H Nguyen; Tugce N Yegul; Heike Erberich



Placenta Accreta Causing Uterine Rupture in Second Trimester of Pregnancy after in vitro Fertilization: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background Placenta accreta is a rare obstetrical condition that mainly occurs in the third trimester leading to life-threatening complications. Hereby, a case of uterine rupture due to placenta accreta occuring in the second trimester is presented. Case Presentation A forty-year old patient who conceived after in vitro fertilization treatment (oocyte donation and embryo transfer) presented in emergency department in the nineteen weeks of gestation with acute abdominal pain, heamoperitoneum and fetal death. Emergency laprotomy showed uterine rupture along with placenta accreta for which the patient underwent subtotal hysterectomy. Conclusion Although, an uncommon occurrence, physicians in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) clinics should consider placenta accreta in gravid patients who present with acute abdominal pain and shock, considering the fact that they usually have associated high risk factors for abnormal placentation.

Dahiya, Priya; Nayar, Kanad D.; Gulati, Amar J.S.; Dahiya, Kiran



Patient Presentation and Management of Labial Ulceration Following Uterine Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Uterine artery embolization is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Nontarget embolization of adjacent internal iliac artery branches is a reported complication of uterine artery embolization. The following report describes the presentation and management of ulcerations of the labium minora due to nontarget embolization of the internal pudendal artery.

Gonsalves, Carin, E-mail:; Franciosa, Stefan V.; Shah, Suken; Bonn, Joseph; Wu, Christine [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital (United States)



Elevated blood flow resistance in uterine arteries of women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Uterine perfusion appears to regulate uterine receptivity. However, vascular changes in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) remain poorly studied. METHODS: One hundred and twentyone women were enrolled into this study: normal women with sterility caused by male factor (control group: n 72) and women with RPL (n 49). Women with uterine anomaly, impaired glucose tolerance, abnormal thyroid function, or anti-phospholipid

T. Habara; M. Nakatsuka; H. Konishi; K. Asagiri; S. Noguchi; T. Kudo



Case report: Recurrence of a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors are very rare uterine neoplasias that generally behave in a benign manner. We report the case of a uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex-cord tumor that recurred after hysterectomy.

Alix C. O'Meara; Olivier T. Giger; Michael Kurrer; Gabriel Schaer



Laparoscopic Bipolar Coagulation of Uterine Vessels to Manage Delayed Postpartum Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a big challenge for obstetricians. Fertility-preserving procedures are encouraged, especially in young women. Bilateral hypogastric (internal iliac) artery ligation, bilateral uterine artery ligation after vaginal delivery or after cesarean delivery, and uterine artery embolization are well documented vascular occlusive methods for treating PPH. To our knowledge, the laparoscopic approach to uterine artery ligation has not been

Yu-Ching Chou; Peng-Hui Wang; Chiou-Chung Yuan; Yuan-Kuei Yen; Wei-Min Liu



Intramyometrial ectopic pregnancy in an ICSI patient following uterine artery embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myometrial pregnancy represents a rare subtype of ectopic pregnancy. A history of uterine artery embolization (UAE) because of symptomatic uterine fibroids, and assisted reproductive treatment may predispose to this unusual implantation site. A 40-year-old woman with a history of uterine fibroids underwent a transfer of two embryos after intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment. The combined findings on transvaginal ultrasound scan, pelvic

M. Leyder; M. De Vos; B. Popovic-Todorovic; M. Dujardin; P. Devroey; H. M. Fatemi



Cost and Reimbursement for Three Fibroid Treatments: Abdominal Hysterectomy, Abdominal Myomectomy, and Uterine Fibroid Embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To compare costs and reimbursements for three different treatments for uterine fibroids. Methods. Costs and reimbursements were collected and analyzed from the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital decision support database from 540 women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy (n 299), abdominal myomectomy (n = 105), or uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) (n = 136) for uterine fibroids during 2000-2002. We used the

Jay Goldberg; Anne Bussard; Jean McNeil; James Diamond



Modulation of the baboon (Papio anubis) uterine endometrium by chorionic gonadotrophin during the period of uterine receptivity  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to determine the modulation of uterine function by chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) in a nonhuman primate. Infusion of recombinant human CG (hCG) between days 6 and 10 post ovulation initiated the endoreplication of the uterine surface epithelium to form distinct epithelial plaques. These plaque cells stained intensely for cytokeratin and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The stromal fibroblasts below the epithelial plaques stained positively for ?-smooth muscle actin (?SMA). Expression of ?SMA is associated with the initiation of decidualization in the baboon endometrium. Synthesis of the glandular secretory protein glycodelin, as assessed by Western blot analysis, was markedly up-regulated by hCG, and this increase was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, Northern blot analysis, and reverse transcriptase-PCR. To determine whether hCG directly modulated these uterine responses, we treated ovariectomized baboons sequentially with estradiol and progesterone to mimic the hormonal profile of the normal menstrual cycle. Infusion of hCG into the oviduct of steroid-hormone-treated ovariectomized baboons induced the expression of ?SMA in the stromal cells and glycodelin in the glandular epithelium. The epithelial plaque reaction, however, was not readily evident. These studies demonstrate a physiological effect of CG on the uterine endometrium in vivo and suggest that the primate blastocyst signal, like the blastocyst signals of other species, modulates the uterine environment prior to implantation.

Fazleabas, Asgerally T.; Donnelly, Kathleen M.; Srinivasan, Sudha; Fortman, Jeffrey D.; Miller, Josephine B.



Uterine lesions in 32 female miniature pet pigs.  


Thirty-two 4-month-old to 19-year-old female miniature pet pigs were spayed. Uterine lesions were present in all except 8 pigs. The 24 remaining pigs had diffuse cystic endometrial hyperplasia, of which 14 had smooth muscle tumors, including leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, in the uterus or broad ligament. Nodular endometrial lesions-including adenocarcinomas, adenomas, and/or adenomyosis-were present in 10 pigs, 3 of which had concurrent smooth muscle tumors. Pyometra was present in 3 pigs. In uterine sections with cystic endometrial hyperplasia, adenomyosis, or adenomas, approximately 70% of epithelial nuclei expressed estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor immunohistochemically; in adenocarcinomas, expression was 20%. Regardless of malignancy, more than 50% of nuclei in smooth muscle tumors expressed estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. Aging was associated with the development of uterine lesions in miniature pet pigs. PMID:20817893

Ilha, M R S; Newman, S J; van Amstel, S; Fecteau, K A; Rohrbach, B W



Uterine liposarcoma in a young woman: a case report.  


Liposarcoma of uterus is a very rare neoplasm encountered generally in the sixth or seventh decade of life. We reported the eighth case of uterine liposarcoma with extension to broad ligament in a 23-year-old woman who presented with pelvic pain, dysuria, and rapidly enlarging pelvic mass. During laparotomy, the mass was detected to be originated from the uterine cervix. In frozen section, no definitive diagnosis was established, and for preservation of fertility, extirpation of the mass was performed. The histopathologic examination of the specimen revealed liposarcoma. The tumor cells were diffusely and intensively immune reactive for vimentin and S-100, and negative for smooth muscle actin, desmin, h-caldesmon, pan cytokeratin, and CD10. Staining with periodic acid and Schiff, alcian blue, mucicarmine, and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) were negative. No recurrence was detected in the postoperative seventh month. Present case is the youngest patient with uterine liposarcoma and also the first case detected in reproductive period. PMID:16343221

Karateke, A; Gurbuz, A; Kabaca, C; Alkan, A; Kir, G; Cetiner, H


Paradoxical effect of flavoxate on human uterine contractility in vivo.  


Flavoxate's effect on uterine contractility was investigated in 20 women with histories of primary dysmenorrhea. After 100 mg of the smooth muscle relaxant was infected intravenously, intrauterine pressure was recorded continuously for 1--2 hours. Immediately after the injection, intrauterine pressure and the frequency of contractions increased for 5--15 minutes at all phases of the menstrual cycle. After the activating response, there was a reduction in both the frequency of contractions and uterine tonus below preinjection levels in some patients. The paradoxical effect of flavoxate on uterine motility may be caused by its relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, which results in increased blood flow and, consequently, increased oxygen supply to the myometrium. PMID:6106577

Coutinho, E M; Darzé, E; Gesteira, S K


Use of uterine electromyography to diagnose term and preterm labor  

PubMed Central

Current methodologies to assess the process of labor, such as tocodynamometry or intrauterine pressure catheters, fetal fibronectin, cervical length measurement and digital cervical examination, have several major drawbacks. They only measure the onset of labor indirectly and do not detect cellular changes characteristic of true labor. Consequently, their predictive values for term or preterm delivery are poor. Uterine contractions are a result of the electrical activity within the myometrium. Measurement of uterine electromyography (EMG) has been shown to detect contractions as accurately as the currently used methods. In addition, changes in cell excitability and coupling required for effective contractions that lead to delivery are reflected in changes of several EMG parameters. Use of uterine EMG can help to identify patients in true labor better than any other method presently employed in the clinic.




Conservative Treatment of a Gossypiboma Causing Uterine Wound Dehiscence  

PubMed Central

We present a rare case with gossypiboma following cesarean section which led to uterine wound dehiscence. A 30-year-old woman had been submitted to an emergency cesarean section 4 months previously at another hospital. Clinical and ultrasound findings revealed a large intra-abdominal mass and diffuse peritonitis. At laparotomy, a gossypiboma causing an abscess and uterine wound dehiscence with necrosis of the margins was detected. We performed repetitive wound debridements under broad-spectrum antibiotic cover and eventually resutured the incision. Although hysterectomy has so far been the choice of treatment in the literature once a uterine wound dehiscence had occurred, it was possible in this case to preserve the uterus.

Usta, Taner A.; Ozyurek, Sefik E.; Gundogdu, Elif C.



Automatic image quality assessment for uterine cervical imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. However, its death rate can be dramatically reduced by appropriate treatment, if early detection is available. We are developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system to facilitate colposcopic examinations for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis. Unfortunately, the effort to develop fully automated cervical cancer diagnostic algorithms is hindered by the paucity of high quality, standardized imaging data. The limited quality of cervical imagery can be attributed to several factors, including: incorrect instrumental settings or positioning, glint (specular reflection), blur due to poor focus, and physical contaminants. Glint eliminates the color information in affected pixels and can therefore introduce artifacts in feature extraction algorithms. Instrumental settings that result in an inadequate dynamic range or an overly constrained region of interest can reduce or eliminate pixel information and thus make image analysis algorithms unreliable. Poor focus causes image blur with a consequent loss of texture information. In addition, a variety of physical contaminants, such as blood, can obscure the desired scene and reduce or eliminate diagnostic information from affected areas. Thus, automated feedback should be provided to the colposcopist as a means to promote corrective actions. In this paper, we describe automated image quality assessment techniques, which include region of interest detection and assessment, contrast dynamic range assessment, blur detection, and contaminant detection. We have tested these algorithms using clinical colposcopic imagery, and plan to implement these algorithms in a CAD system designed to simplify high quality data acquisition. Moreover, these algorithms may also be suitable for image quality assessment in telemedicine applications.

Gu, Jia; Li, Wenjing



Saline lavage: a rapid, safe, effective method of whole-gut irrigation for bowel preparation.  


The standard preparation for cleansing the colon usually involves dietary restrictions, purgatives, and enemas. This is time-consuming, often uncomfortable, and at times unsuccessful. This study of 37 patients examines the efficacy of saline lavage as an alternative method for cleansing the bowel. Isotonic sodium chloride solution is passed into the gut via a small nasogastric tube. The flush is continued for about four hours, until clear effluent is passed per anus. There were no significant complications or variations in weight or serum electrolyte values. Patient acceptance was generally excellent. In our opinion, this rapid bowel preparation consistently provided a clean bowel so that both bowel preparation and colonscopy were accomplished the same day. PMID:684491

Chambers, C E; Carter, H G



HLA-DR antigens on human macrophages from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  

PubMed Central

The expression of HLA-DR (Ia-like) antigens on human macrophages was investigated by analyses of cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from 12 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, six patients with extrinsic allergic alveolitis, nine patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, 11 normal non-smokers, and 12 normal smokers. The HLA-DR antigen was demonstrated by the mouse monoclonal antibody OKIa by a peroxidase-antiperoxidase method performed on glass slides. No differences were found in the percentage of alveolar macrophages that expressed DR antigens between the five study groups. OKIa positivity was observed on more than 90% of macrophages in all cases. These observations suggest that the previously reported enhanced antigen presentation by alveolar macrophages in sarcoidosis is not linked with an increase in the percentage of DR+ macrophages in the lung. Images

Costabel, U; Bross, K J; Andreesen, R; Matthys, H



De-escalation therapy rates are significantly higher by bronchoalveolar lavage than by tracheal aspirate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess outcomes with de-escalation therapy in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective observational study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Multidisciplinary intensive care unit.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and participants  VAP was diagnosed by positive quantitative cultures of both tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and treated\\u000a appropriately for all significant isolates of tracheal aspirate and BAL in 143 patients who were assigned to de-escalation\\u000a therapy by BAL or tracheal aspirate.

Elpis Giantsou; Nikolaos Liratzopoulos; Eleni Efraimidou; Maria Panopoulou; Eleonora Alepopoulou; Sofia Kartali-Ktenidou; Konstantinos Manolas



Saline nebulization before gastric lavage in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children and adolescents.  


The main objective is to assess whether nebulization before gastric lavage (GL) improves its sensitivity for the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis (TB). Children and adolescents suspected of pulmonary TB were randomly assigned (1 : 2) to nebulization with hypertonic saline 30 min before GL (Neb group; n = 36) or GL without prior nebulization (controls; n = 68). The proportion of positive GL smears was greater in Neb group than in the control group; however, no statistical significance was observed (36.3% vs. 22.2%; p = 0.4). Inhalation of nebulized hypertonic saline before GL did not improve TB diagnosis in this study. Nevertheless, the validation of our data will require large longitudinal studies. PMID:20207695

Maciel, Ethel Leonor; Peres, Renata Lyrio; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Macedo, Cristina Ribeiro; Palaci, Moisés; Vinhas, Solange Alves; Dietze, Reynaldo; Johnson, John L; Struchiner, Claúdio Jose



Hormone receptor expression in uterine sarcomas: prognostic and therapeutic roles.  


OBJECTIVES.: The utility of hormone therapy in the management of uterine sarcomas is poorly defined. We hypothesize that estrogen receptor (ER) expression is common in uterine sarcomas, and carries prognostic significance. Further, we hypothesize that ER-positive uterine sarcomas respond to hormone therapy. METHODS.: We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients with uterine sarcomas. Stepwise Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate variables related to the risk of death: age, histology, stage, use of pelvic radiotherapy, and ER expression. In addition, we examined clinical outcomes in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors, megestrol acetate, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and tamoxifen. RESULTS.: Fifty-four patients underwent immunohistochemical staining, and 34 (63%) were ER-positive. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test indicated that patients with ER-positive sarcomas demonstrated improved overall survival when compared with ER-negative patients (median OS 36 vs. 16 months, p=0.004). Upon multivariate analysis, ER positivity retained significance as an independent predictor of survival (HR=0.32, CI 0.12-0.89, p=0.03). Four patients received hormonal treatment in the adjuvant setting and remained in remission (range of follow up: 18-68 months). Eighteen patients received hormone therapy in the setting of recurrent or progressive disease: fourteen (78%) demonstrated stable disease or complete or partial response (range of follow up: 6-124 months). CONCLUSIONS.: ER expression is common and is associated with improved overall survival in uterine sarcomas. Conducting immunohistochemical staining to ascertain ER status may aid with prognostication in this disease. Hormone therapy should be considered in patients with primary and recurrent ER-positive