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A non-surgical uterine lavage technique in large cats intended for treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the successful use of a non-surgical, transcervical uterine lavage technique for the treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility in three female large cats. We developed a non-surgical uterine lavage technique, which allowed repeated flushing of the uterine lumen and installation of therapeutic antibiotics. The entire procedure was performed under general anaesthesia (duration of anesthesia ranged from 40 to

T. B. Hildebrandt; F. Göritz; W. Boardman; T. Strike; G. Strauss; K. Jewgenow



A non-surgical uterine lavage technique in large cats intended for treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility.  


This paper presents the successful use of a non-surgical, transcervical uterine lavage technique for the treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility in three female large cats. We developed a non-surgical uterine lavage technique, which allowed repeated flushing of the uterine lumen and installation of therapeutic antibiotics. The entire procedure was performed under general anaesthesia (duration of anesthesia ranged from 40 to 70 min). It was successfully applied in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), a Corbett tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) and an Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis). The tigers were treated only once, whereas the leopard received four uterine treatments, due to re-infection after mating. Decisions to conduct uterine treatments were based on detection of uterine fluid during previous transrectal ultrasound examinations. The catheter was guided into the vagina, with the aid of an endoscope, passing the urethra, and then into the uterus, with the aid of transrectal ultrasonography. Both uterine horns were separately flushed with approximately 300 mL of cell medium M199, followed by an antibiotic infusion. Upon ultrasonographic re-examination, the topical uterine treatments resulted in an apparent decline in the inflammatory and/or degenerative processes. The Corbett tiger had the most severe uterine alterations, in addition to an aseptic pyometra. As a result, she was treated 1 month prior to ovariohysterectomy (in order to reduce the surgical risk). The Sumatran tiger was artificially inseminated twice after hormone-induced estrus, and the Amur leopard expressed a spontaneous estrus and re-initiated mating behaviour. PMID:16530816

Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Boardman, W; Strike, T; Strauss, G; Jewgenow, K



Determination of presence of Tritrichomonas foetus in uterine lavages from cows with reproductive problems.  


The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Tritrichomonas foetus in two dairy herds on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense. Twenty-one low-volume uterine lavages from cows with a history of reproductive problems in two dairy herds located in the municipality of Sibaté (Cundinamarca) and Ventaquemada (Boyacá) were evaluated. In the first herd, 10 cows were sampled and in the second, 11 cows, based on three inclusion criteria. The uterine lavages were obtained through infusion of physiological saline solution into the uterine body. The samples were centrifuged and seeded in Tritrichomonas basal medium for 10-15 days at 37 ºC. The protozoa were evaluated on the day of sampling and 10 and 15 days after incubation by means of direct viewing under a dark-field microscope. Positive samples were stained with Wright and Lugol to identify the morphological characteristics. This study showed that T. foetus was present in 61.8% of the animals sampled. The determination that T. foetus was present in 61.8% of the samples analyzed is a significant finding given that in the herds evaluated, this agent had not previously been diagnosed. PMID:23070427

González-Carmona, Lady Carolina; Sánchez-Ladino, Milena Jineth; Castañeda-Salazar, Rubiela; Pulido-Villamarín, Adriana Del Pilar; Guáqueta-Munar, Humberto; Aranda-Silva, Moisés; Rueda-Varón, Milton Januario



Proteins and enzymes in uterine lavage fluid of postpartum and nonparturient mares.  


Uterine lavage fluids from postpartum and nonparturient mares were compared to determine when the normal secretory capacity of the postpartum uterus is restored. Lavage fluids were obtained from cyclic nonparturient mares on the second, fourth or fifth day of oestrus, and 3, 8, or 14 days after ovulation (seven mares/sampling day). Twelve intact postpartum mares were sampled 1 to 28 days postpartum (group A: 1, 6, 12 and 20; group B: 2, 8, 14 and 24; group C: 4, 10, 16 and 28 days postpartum; four mares/group). Three ovariectomized (OVX) postpartum mares were sampled as mares in group C. Samples were analysed for neutrophils, bacteria, total protein concentration, proteolytic and antiproteolytic activities and for various lysosomal enzyme activities. In nonparturient mares, activities of acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase (B-Gase), and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) in uterine lavage fluids were significantly higher in mid- and late-dioestrus than in mid- to late-oestrus (p < 0.05). Lysozyme concentration, trypsin-inhibitor capacity (TIC), and plasmin activity were below the detection limit in nonparturient mares. One to four days postpartum, total protein, acid phosphatase, B-Gase, and NAGase were high but declined rapidly thereafter. Lysozyme and plasmin activities were high 1 to 6 days postpartum. TIC peaked around day 6 postpartum. On day 16 postpartum, acid phosphatase, B-Gase, and NAGase, being progesterone-dependent, tended to be higher in intact mares than in OVX ones (p < 0.1). Total protein and lysozyme concentrations, TIC, and B-Gase (p < 0.01) and acid phosphatase (p < 0.05) activities were significantly higher in parturient mares during postpartum oestrus than in oestrous nonparturient mares. High total protein concentration and TIC, and detectable lysozyme and plasmin activities during postpartum oestrus were associated with uterine inflammation. During dioestrus, differences between postpartum and nonparturient mares were not statistically significant and suggested that the endometrium of postpartum mares had resumed its normal secretory capacity by this time. PMID:12354177

Reilas, T; Katila, T



Successful management of a cesarean scar defect with dehiscence of the uterine incision by using wound lavage.  


Cesarean scar defects (CSDs) that can be visualized using transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) may cause prolonged menstruation, irregular genital bleeding, and secondary infertility; surgical repair is sometimes necessary. We present a case of CSD, with dehiscence of the uterine incision, which was managed using wound lavage. A 38-year-old woman (gravida 4, para 4) had delivered her third and fourth children by cesarean section. Upon the resumption of menstruation, 9 months after her second cesarean section, she demonstrated prolonged menstruation and the presence of a menstrual fistula due to dehiscence of the cesarean section incision from the myometrium to the serosa. We treated the defect by lavaging with a physiological saline solution. After lavaging the wound 3 times, spontaneous healing of the dehiscent muscle layer was successfully achieved. The treatment was complication-free and the healing of the muscle layer has been maintained for more than 8 months. PMID:25431714

Ida, Akinori; Kubota, Yoko; Nosaka, Maiko; Ito, Koichi; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki



Successful Management of a Cesarean Scar Defect with Dehiscence of the Uterine Incision by Using Wound Lavage  

PubMed Central

Cesarean scar defects (CSDs) that can be visualized using transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) may cause prolonged menstruation, irregular genital bleeding, and secondary infertility; surgical repair is sometimes necessary. We present a case of CSD, with dehiscence of the uterine incision, which was managed using wound lavage. A 38-year-old woman (gravida 4, para 4) had delivered her third and fourth children by cesarean section. Upon the resumption of menstruation, 9 months after her second cesarean section, she demonstrated prolonged menstruation and the presence of a menstrual fistula due to dehiscence of the cesarean section incision from the myometrium to the serosa. We treated the defect by lavaging with a physiological saline solution. After lavaging the wound 3 times, spontaneous healing of the dehiscent muscle layer was successfully achieved. The treatment was complication-free and the healing of the muscle layer has been maintained for more than 8 months. PMID:25431714

Ida, Akinori; Kubota, Yoko; Nosaka, Maiko; Ito, Koichi; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki



The effect of postbreeding uterine lavage on pregnancy rate in mares  

E-print Network

large bore intrauterine balloon-cuffed catheter. ' On Day 6 post ovulation/lavage, a second endometrial biopsy was obtained from each mare. The endometrial tissues were fixed in Bouin's solution, imbedded in paraffin, cut into 4. 0-um thick sections... insemination with I L of 0. 05/ povidone-iodine solution (I'IS v/v; 8). Lavage solutions were warmed to 40'C and administered via gravity flow through a large bore intrauterine balloon cuffed catheter as in Study I, Lavage effluent from each mare...

Brinsko, Steven Patrick



Gastric lavage.  


Gastric lavage has been used to manage toxic ingestions since the early 1800s. The entire realm of gastrointestinal decontamination has been extensively studied for the past 30 years. Recommendations are still evolving and remain controversial. The current indications for lavage are obtundation, unprotected airway, seizures, the need for urgent removal, and the tendency to form concretions. Hydrocarbon management depends on specific toxicity and viscosity. Contraindications for this procedure are insignificant ingestions, prolonged time since ingestion, and caustic poisoning. Proper technique minimizes complications and maximizes toxin removal. Activated charcoal and a cathartic are given after lavage. Complications include nasal trauma, esophageal perforation, tracheal intubation, aspiration, electrolyte imbalance, and hypothermia. PMID:3734388

Lanphear, W F



A novel diagnostic technique to determine uterine health of Holstein cows at 35 days postpartum.  


The objectives were (1) to evaluate the association of uterine lavage sample optical density (ULSOD) with uterine health, and (2) to estimate and evaluate a threshold value that will maximize the accuracy of ULSOD as a diagnostic tool for clinical endometritis. The study enrolled 1,742 cows from 3 dairy farms located near Ithaca, New York. The samples were collected at 35 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) by using low-volume uterine lavage. Cows with a purulent or mucopurulent secretion in the sample were diagnosed with clinical endometritis, whereas a subgroup of all studied cows was examined for cytological evidence of inflammation by endometrial cytology. Data for ULSOD measured at different wavelengths (200, 352, 620, 790, 860, and 960 nm) were available for 554 cows; all 1,742 cows had data for ULSOD measured at 620 nm (ULSOD(620)). Incidences of clinical endometritis, metritis, and retained placenta were 10, 15.2, and 5.6%, respectively. The ULSOD(620) was associated with clinical endometritis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of the accuracy of optical density in the detection of clinical endometritis was conducted for ULSOD measured at different wavelengths; ULSOD(620) was selected for further analysis because it presented the best ROC curve to detect clinical endometritis. The recommended threshold for ULSOD(620) ROC was 0.058, where the sensitivity and specificity were 76.3 and 78.3%, respectively. The ROC analysis of the accuracy of optical density in the detection of endometritis defined as a percentage of neutrophils in the uterine lavage samples higher than 18% was conducted for ULSOD(620). The recommended threshold was 0.059, where the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 82.2%, respectively. Cows with ULSOD(620) ? 0.058 were 1.21 times more likely to conceive than cows with ULSOD(620) >0.058; moreover, the median calving-to-conception interval for cows that had ULSOD(620) ? 0.058 was 122 d compared with 148 d for cows that had ULSOD(620) >0.058. Cows that were positive for Arcanobacterium pyogenes, diagnosed with metritis, or had retained placenta had 4.0, 1.4, and 1.7 times higher odds of having ULSOD(620) >0.058, respectively. Cows with ULSOD(620) >0.058 had a higher percentage of neutrophils in the uterine lavage samples than cows with ULSOD(620) ? 0.058. Uterine lavage sample optical density measured at 620 nm can be used as an objective indicator of uterine health in dairy cows, principally for clinical endometritis. PMID:22365216

Machado, V S; Knauer, W A; Bicalho, M L S; Oikonomou, G; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C



A simple technique to restore needle patency during percutaneous lavage and aspiration of calcific rotator cuff tendinopathy.  


Calcific rotator cuff tendinopathy caused by symptomatic calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition is a well-established cause of shoulder pain. In refractory or acutely symptomatic cases, sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration can significantly reduce pain in approximately 60%-92% of cases. Although the complication rate of sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration is apparently low, needle clogging attributable to impacted calcific debris has been described by several authors and in our experience can occur in daily practice. Traditionally, an inability to relieve the obstruction via needle repositioning or increased syringe plunger pressure has required needle removal and replacement. In this article, we outline a simple technique that can be used to restore patency of the obstructed lavage needle without necessitating needle removal and replacement. PMID:23399296

Jelsing, Elena J; Maida, Eugene; Smith, Jay



Sampling techniques for oviductal and uterine luminal fluid in cattle.  


Analysis of luminal fluid microenvironments in the reproductive tract is pivotal to elucidate embryo-maternal signaling mechanisms responsible for successful reproduction in mammals, including cattle. Besides facilitating production of an optimized medium for in vitro fertilization and embryo culture in assisted reproductive technologies, screening of luminal fluid constituents in the oviduct and uterus could also provide critical information for elucidation of mechanisms underlying developmental programming. A key issue in this type of research is the sampling of luminal fluids. In this review we discuss the sampling techniques available for bovine species, including a recent in situ technique developed with the Ghent device, which allows rapid recovery of measurable amounts of pure uterine luminal fluid with minimal disturbance to the donor animal. PMID:19682731

Velazquez, M A; Parrilla, I; Van Soom, A; Verberckmoes, S; Kues, W; Niemann, H



Use of epr spin-trapping techniques to detect radicals from rat lung lavage fluid following sulfur mustard vapor exposure  

SciTech Connect

Although well known for skin vesicating properties, pulmonary damage and associated infections account for most of the mortality associated with sulfur mustard (HD). We have employed an in vivo HD vapor exposure model, bronchoalveolar lavage and histopathology in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques to provide evidence for HD-induced (free radical/lipid peroxidation associated) lung injury. Anesthetized rats were intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.35 mg HD vapor over 50 min. Immediately, 1 hr or 24 hr after exposure, lungs were lavaged with the spin trap, alpha-phenyl-t-butyl nitrone (PBN; 0.35 mg/ml). Recovered lavage fluid was assayed by EPR spectroscopy for radical spin adducts. Airway lipid extracts were assayed for thiobarbituric acid reactive products (TBARs); while separate groups of rats were used to evaluate histopathology. EPR results show the presence of an ascorbyl radical at 1 and 24 hr, and a carbon centered PBN spin adduct at 24 hr, both indicative of lipid peroxidation. TBAR (A532nm) formation was also detected at 24 hr. Histopathology revealed multifocal separation of the bronchial epithelium from the submucosa with little or no alveolar involvement at 24 hrs. These studies provide evidence that HD may affect lungs by a free radical mechanism which produces membrane and other tissue damage.

Anderson, D.R.; Yourick, J.J.; Arroyo, C.M.; Young, G.D.; Harris, L.W.



Comparison of non-invasive electrohysterographic recording techniques for monitoring uterine dynamics.  


Non-invasive recording of uterine myoelectric activity (electrohysterogram, EHG) could provide an alternative to monitoring uterine dynamics by systems based on tocodynamometers (TOCO). Laplacian recording of bioelectric signals has been shown to give better spatial resolution and less interference than mono- and bipolar surface recordings. The aim of this work was to study the signal quality obtained from monopolar, bipolar and Laplacian techniques in EHG recordings, as well as to assess their ability to detect uterine contractions. Twenty-two recording sessions were carried out on singleton pregnant women during the active phase of labour. In each session the following simultaneous recordings were obtained: internal uterine pressure (IUP), external tension of abdominal wall (TOCO) and EHG signals (5 monopolar and 4 bipolar recordings, 1 discrete approximation to the Laplacian of the potential and 2 estimates of the Laplacian from two active annular electrodes). The results obtained show that EHG is able to detect a higher number of uterine contractions than TOCO. Laplacian recordings give improved signal quality over monopolar and bipolar techniques, reduce maternal cardiac interference and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The optimal position for recording EHG was found to be the uterine median axis and the lower centre-right umbilical zone. PMID:23958388

Alberola-Rubio, J; Prats-Boluda, G; Ye-Lin, Y; Valero, J; Perales, A; Garcia-Casado, J



Analysis of Culture-Dependent versus Culture-Independent Techniques for Identification of Bacteria in Clinically Obtained Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis and management of pneumonia are limited by the use of culture-based techniques of microbial identification, which may fail to identify unculturable, fastidious, and metabolically active viable but unculturable bacteria. Novel high-throughput culture-independent techniques hold promise but have not been systematically compared to conventional culture. We analyzed 46 clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant recipients both by culture (using a clinical microbiology laboratory protocol) and by bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacteria were identified in 44 of 46 (95.7%) BAL fluid specimens by culture-independent sequencing, significantly more than the number of specimens in which bacteria were detected (37 of 46, 80.4%, P ? 0.05) or “pathogen” species reported (18 of 46, 39.1%, P ? 0.0001) via culture. Identification of bacteria by culture was positively associated with culture-independent indices of infection (total bacterial DNA burden and low bacterial community diversity) (P ? 0.01). In BAL fluid specimens with no culture growth, the amount of bacterial DNA was greater than that in reagent and rinse controls, and communities were markedly dominated by select Gammaproteobacteria, notably Escherichia species and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Culture growth above the threshold of 104 CFU/ml was correlated with increased bacterial DNA burden (P < 0.01), decreased community diversity (P < 0.05), and increased relative abundance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.001). We present two case studies in which culture-independent techniques identified a respiratory pathogen missed by culture and clarified whether a cultured “oral flora” species represented a state of acute infection. In summary, we found that bacterial culture of BAL fluid is largely effective in discriminating acute infection from its absence and identified some specific limitations of BAL fluid culture in the diagnosis of pneumonia. We report the first correlation of quantitative BAL fluid culture results with culture-independent evidence of infection. PMID:25078910

Dickson, Robert P.; Erb-Downward, John R.; Prescott, Hallie C.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Lama, Vibha N.




EPA Science Inventory

A new nasal lavage technique was used to compare the washout curves and total lavagable amounts (per kg body wt) of protein, ascorbate, glutathione and uric acid in guinea pigs, rats and mice. Washout curves were usually observed with sequential lavage volumes of saline of 1.0 ml...


B-lynch: a technique for uterine conservation or deformation? A case report with literature review.  


Postpartum haemorrhage is a leading cause of global maternal mortality and morbidity, accounting for 25-30% of all maternal deaths, and 75-90% of these casualties result from uterine atony. Uterine compressive sutures are a well established measure for control of haemorrhage following atonic postpartum haemorrhage, when medical and nonmedical interventions fail. Here, we are reporting a case of secondary infertility in a 24-year-old lady who had undergone an elective caesarean section for central placenta previa in her first pregnancy. She had massive postpartum haemorrhage, for which B-Lynch suture and vessel ligation were done. Subsequently, she failed to conceive for 4 years. This was because of severe pelvic adhesions and uterine deformation which were found intraoperatively, as a consequence of previous use of B-Lynch suture. As no definitive treatment could be offered to her, we suggested her to go for adoption. PMID:24959485

Begum, Jasmina; Pallave, P; Ghose, Seetesh




EPA Science Inventory

Background. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a relatively non-invasive technique used to obtain diagnostic samples from the lower airways of companion animals with respira¬tory disease. BAL is also commonly used in laboratory animals to assess pulmo¬nary changes after expos...


Bronchoalveolar lavage in malignancy.  


Bronchoalveolar lavage is a useful diagnostic tool in diffuse or disseminated lung malignancies that do not involve the bronchial structures visible by endoscopy. The neoplastic histotype and the intraparenchymal neoplastic growth pattern are good predictors for diagnostic yield; adenocarcinoma, and tumors with lymphangitic or lepidic growth patterns are more easily diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage; in these cases the diagnostic yield reported is higher than 80%. In hematologic malignancies the diagnostic yield is quite good in secondary diffuse indolent B cell lymphomas and in primary B cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type but low in Hodgkin disease. Morphological analysis may be implemented by immunocytochemical or molecular tests to identify the cell lineage and the presence of monoclonality. Disorders in which bronchioloalveolar cell hyperplasia/dysplasia is a significant morphological component may have cytological features in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid that mimic lung neoplasms: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP), and acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are the most important clinical entities in this group. PMID:17975781

Poletti, Venerino; Poletti, Giovanni; Murer, Bruno; Saragoni, Luca; Chilosi, Marco



Uterine artery embolization using a transradial approach: initial experience and technique.  


This study investigates the feasibility of performing uterine artery embolization (UAE) via transradial access (TRA). Growing evidence demonstrates significant benefits of TRA versus standard transfemoral access during percutaneous coronary intervention, now making it the preferred approach at many centers worldwide. At a single institution from March 2013 to October 2013, 29 consecutive patients were treated by transradial UAE. Technical success rate was 100%, with no immediate major or minor complications. The radial artery was patent at 1-month follow-up evaluation in all cases. These preliminary data suggest that transradial UAE is feasible and safe. PMID:24581468

Resnick, Neil J; Kim, Edward; Patel, Rahul S; Lookstein, Robert A; Nowakowski, F Scott; Fischman, Aaron M



Uterine Carcinosarcoma

A rare cancer, uterine carcinosarcoma makes up less than five percent of all uterine cancers.2 In the U.S., about two per 100,000 women develop uterine carcinosarcoma annually.3 Roughly only 35 percent of patients survive five years after diagnosis.


A Novel Technique to Measure In Vivo Uterine Suspensory Ligament Stiffness  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe a new computer-controlled research apparatus for measuring in vivo uterine ligament force-displacement behavior and stiffness and to present pilot data in women with and without prolapse. Study Design Seventeen women with varying uterine support underwent testing in the operating room (OR) after anesthetic induction. A tripod-mounted computer-controlled linear servoactuator was used to quantify force-displacement behavior of the cervix and supporting ligaments. The servoactuator applied a caudally-directed force to a tenaculum at 4 mm/s velocity until the traction force reached 17.8N (4 lbs.). Cervix location on POP-Q in clinic, in the OR at rest, and with minimal force (<1.1N), and maximum force (17.8N) was recorded. Ligament “stiffness” between minimum and maximum force was calculated. Results The mean (SD) subject age was 54.5 (12.7) years, parity 2.9 (1.1), BMI 29.0 (4.3) kg/m2, and POP-Q point C ?3.1 (3.9) cm. POP-Q point C was most strongly correlated with cervix location at maximum force (r=+0.68, p=.003) and at rest (r=+0.62, p=.009). Associations between cervix location at minimum force (r=+0.46, p=.059) and ligament stiffness (r= ?0.44,p=.079) were not statistically significant. Cervix location in the OR with minimal traction lay below the lowest point found on POP-Q for 13 women. Conclusions POP-Q point C was strongly correlated with cervix location at rest and at maximum traction force; however only 19% of the variation in POP-Q point C location was explained by ligament stiffness. The cervix location in the OR at minimal traction lay below POP-Q point C value in ¾ of women. PMID:23747493

Smith, Tovia M.; Luo, Jiajia; Hsu, Yvonne; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Delancey, John O.L.



Uterine fibroids: current perspectives  

PubMed Central

Uterine fibroids are a major cause of morbidity in women of a reproductive age (and sometimes even after menopause). There are several factors that are attributed to underlie the development and incidence of these common tumors, but this further corroborates their relatively unknown etiology. The most likely presentation of fibroids is by their effect on the woman’s menstrual cycle or pelvic pressure symptoms. Leiomyosarcoma is a very rare entity that should be suspected in postmenopausal women with fibroid growth (and no concurrent hormone replacement therapy). The gold standard diagnostic modality for uterine fibroids appears to be gray-scale ultrasonography, with magnetic resonance imaging being a close second option in complex clinical circumstances. The management of uterine fibroids can be approached medically, surgically, and even by minimal access techniques. The recent introduction of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) and aromatase inhibitors has added more armamentarium to the medical options of treatment. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) has now been well-recognized as a uterine-sparing (fertility-preserving) method of treating fibroids. More recently, the introduction of ultrasound waves (MRgFUS) or radiofrequency (VizAblate™ and Acessa™) for uterine fibroid ablation has added to the options of minimal access treatment. More definite surgery in the form of myomectomy or hysterectomy can be performed via the minimal access or open route methods. Our article seeks to review the already established information on uterine fibroids with added emphasis on contemporary knowledge. PMID:24511243

Khan, Aamir T; Shehmar, Manjeet; Gupta, Janesh K



Uterine fluid from bitches with mating-induced endometritis reduces the attachment of spermatozoa to the uterine epithelium.  


Persistence of free fluid in the uterine lumen of bitches with endometrial hyperplasia appears to be diagnostic for mating-induced endometritis and is associated with reduced chances of pregnancy. This study investigated the possibility that reduced fertility might be associated with an effect of uterine fluid on sperm. Uterine lavage fluid was collected pre- and post-insemination from normal bitches without ultrasonographically-detectable luminal fluid (n=4), and previously non-pregnant bitches with endometrial hyperplasia and luminal fluid (n=4). Concentrations of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) were measured and the effect of the fluid on the attachment of spermatozoa to the uterine epithelium was studied using medium (M) 199 as a control. To elucidate whether any effect was accounted for by the presence of PMNs, attachment was also measured in M199 with PMNs added at the concentration found in lavage fluid. Pre-insemination lavage fluid from both groups contained low concentrations of PMNs which increased post-insemination; the increase was larger for bitches with uterine fluid. Compared with M199 controls, lavage fluid reduced the attachment of spermatozoa; fluid from bitches with endometrial hyperplasia and uterine fluid had a greater effect than normal bitches, and post-insemination fluid had a greater effect than pre-insemination fluid. Spermatozoal attachment was reduced by a similar magnitude for M199 with added PMNs, although post-insemination fluid from bitches with endometrial hyperplasia reduced attachment more than M199 with added PMNs. Poor fertility in bitches with uterine luminal fluid might be partially associated with impaired attachment of spermatozoa to uterine epithelium, mediated principally, but not solely, by PMN influx into the uterine lumen. PMID:23981353

Freeman, S L; Green, M J; England, G C W



21 CFR 880.5475 - Jet lavage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5475 Jet lavage. (a) Identification. A jet lavage is a device used to clean a wound by a pulsatile jet of sterile fluid. The device...tubing, such as an electric roller pump. (b) Classification....



Uterine prolapse  


Pelvic relaxation - uterine prolapse; Pelvic floor hernia; Prolapsed uterus ... Muscles, ligaments, and other structures hold the uterus in the ... into the vaginal canal. This is called prolapse. This condition ...


Uterine Cancer  


... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...


Bronchoalveolar lavage: role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of interstitial lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchoalveolar lavage has emerged as a useful technique for the study of pulmonary interstitial disorders. Several types of information are provided by the evaluation of lavage fluid. First, the identification of cellular constituents helps to separate inflammatory processes in which lymphocytes predominate (for example, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and berylliosis) from those in which neutrophils or macrophages predominate (for example, idiopathic

R. P. Daniele; J. A. Elias; P. E. Epstein; M. D. Rossman



Uterine Inversion; A case report  

PubMed Central

The puerperal uterine inversion is a rare and severe complication occurring in the third stage of labour. The mechanisms are not completely known. However, extrinsic factors such as oxytocic arrests after a prolonged labour, umbilical cord traction or abdominal expression are pointed. Other intrinsic factors such as primiparity, uterine hypotonia, various placental localizations, fundic myoma or short umbilical cord were also reported. The diagnosis of the uterine inversion is mainly supported by clinical symptoms. It is based on three elements: haemorrhage, shock and a strong pelvic pain. The immediate treatment of the uterine inversion is required. It is based on a medical reanimation associated with firstly a manual reduction then surgical treatment using various techniques. We report an observation of a 25 years old grand multiparous patient with a subacute uterine inversion after delivery at home. PMID:21516244

Bouchikhi, C; Saadi, H; Fakhir, B; Chaara, H; Bouguern, H; Banani, A; Melhouf, MA



Dysfunctional uterine bleeding.  

PubMed Central

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common, debilitating condition. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is the diagnosis given to women with abnormal uterine bleeding in whom no clear etiology can be identified. DUB has been observed in both ovulatory and anovulatory cycles. Medical treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral contraceptive pills, progestins, danazol (a synthetic androgen), GnRH agonists, and antifibrinolytic drugs. The drawback to medical therapy, in addition to side effects, is that the benefit lasts only while the patient takes the medication. Surgical options have concentrated mainly on endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, and it is unclear whether one is superior to the other in terms of long-term outcome and patient satisfaction. Newer and less invasive ablation techniques, such as thermal balloon ablation, offer more treatment alternatives. PMID:9830356

Chen, B H; Giudice, L C



Bronchoalveolar lavage: role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of interstitial lung disease  

SciTech Connect

Bronchoalveolar lavage has emerged as a useful technique for the study of pulmonary interstitial disorders. Several types of information are provided by the evaluation of lavage fluid. First, the identification of cellular constituents helps to separate inflammatory processes in which lymphocytes predominate (for example, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and berylliosis) from those in which neutrophils or macrophages predominate (for example, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and histiocytosis X). Second, the cells removed during lavage can be studied for their immune properties and function; tested with specific antigens, in diseases such as berylliosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis; and examined for the presence of unique surface antigens with monoclonal antibodies (for example, histiocytosis X). Third, in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy and electron probe analysis, lavage makes possible the identification of inorganic particles in alveolar macrophages of patients with pneumoconiotic lung disease. Finally, although lavage is still an investigative procedure for most pulmonary disorders, it has an established role in the diagnosis of opportunistic infections in the immunocompromised patient.

Daniele, R.P.; Elias, J.A.; Epstein, P.E.; Rossman, M.D.



Uterine sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics, with the prognostic factors, treatment outcome, pattern of relapse, and survival analysis of uterine sarcoma patient Methods: All patients with histologically proven uterine sarcoma were identified using the database at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 2000 and December 2012. Results: A total of 36 patients with uterine sarcoma were reviewed. The median age of all patients was 57 years, and the mean age was 57.72±13.17 years. Carcinosarcoma was reported in 21 patients (58%), leiomyosarcoma in 7 (19%), undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma in 6 (17%), and rhabdomyosarcoma in 2 (6%). Approximately half of the patients were stages III and IV (28% and 25%), while 15 patients (41%) were stage I; only 2 patients (6%) were stage II. The surgical treatment was hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophorectomy (H+BSO) plus staging in 18 patients (50%), while in 4 patients (19%), H+BSO plus debulking was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given in 24 (69%) and adjuvant radiotherapy in 5 (14%) cases, At a median follow-up period of 13.5 months, 8 patients (22%) relapsed. The 2-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 22% and the 5-year was 14%. In the multivariate analysis, the advanced stages (p=0.015) and lymph vascular invasion (p=0.0001) were associated with poor DFS, while the use of chemotherapy significantly improved the DFS (p=0.027). Conclusions: The poor outcome of high-grade uterine sarcoma patients was identified, and only one third of patients (30%) survived for 2 years. This finding necessitates the need for more aggressive tools to fight this disease. PMID:25316466

Sait, Hesham K.; Anfinan, Nisrin M.; Sayed, Mohamed E. El; Alkhayyat, Shadi S.; Ghanem, Ahmed T.; Abayazid, Reem M.; Sait, Khalid H.



21 CFR 880.5475 - Jet lavage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5475 Jet lavage. (a) Identification. A jet lavage is a device used to clean a wound by a pulsatile jet of sterile fluid. The device consists of the pulsing head, tubing to connect to a container of...



21 CFR 880.5475 - Jet lavage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5475 Jet lavage. (a) Identification. A jet lavage is a device used to clean a wound by a pulsatile jet of sterile fluid. The device consists of the pulsing head, tubing to connect to a container of...



Uterine & Ovarian Cancer I. Uterine Cancer  

E-print Network

to endometrial cancer C. Prevalence & Incidence D. Causes E. Risk factors F. Detection G. Treatment II. Ovarian Cancer A. Risk factors B. Symptoms C. Detection D. Treatment I. Endometrial Cancer ­ Uterine Cancer1 Uterine & Ovarian Cancer I. Uterine Cancer A. Atypical Hyperplasia B. From hyperplasia

Dever, Jennifer A.


Bronchoalveolar lavage versus bolus administration of lucinactant, a synthetic surfactant in meconium aspiration in newborn lambs.  


This study was designed to study effects of lung lavage versus the classical bolus instillation with a peptide-based synthetic surfactant (lucinactant) in a model of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS). Eighteen newborn lambs received meconium and were randomized to: the experimental meconium installation (eMAS) group-lambs with eMAS kept on conventional mechanical ventilation (control); the SF-Bolus group-eMAS receiving a lucinactant bolus (30?mg/ml); or the D-SF-Lavage group-eMAS treated with dilute lucinactant bronchoalveolar lavage (10?mg/ml). Systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, blood gases, and pulmonary mechanics were recorded for 180?min. In addition, the intrapulmonary distribution of the lucinactant was determined using dye-labeled microspheres. Following meconium instillation, severe hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, and pulmonary hypertension developed, and dynamic compliance decreased (50% from baseline). After lung lavage with dilute lucinactant, gas exchange significantly improved versus bolus instillation (P?lavage group did pulmonary arterial pressure return to basal values and dynamic compliance significantly increased. Both lung lavage and bolus techniques for the administration of lucinactant resulted in a non-uniform lung distribution. In conclusion, in newborn lambs with respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension induced by meconium, lung lavage with dilute lucinactant seems to be an effective and safe alternative for treatment for MAS. PMID:21520434

Rey-Santano, C; Alvarez-Diaz, F J; Mielgo, V; Murgia, X; Lafuente, H; Ruiz-Del-Yerro, E; Valls-I-Soler, A; Gastiasoro, E



Uterine Fibroids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains uterine fibroids and their causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and possible complications. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute


[Uterine fibroids].  


The uterine fibroid is a benign tumour. The prevalence, in all the population, is 50% for european women and 80% for black women. 30% of fibroids are symptomatic. The new FIGO classification gives 7 positions (0 to 7), submuccus (0, 1, 2), interstitial (3, 4, 5), subserous (6, 7). Diagnosis is performed by 2D and 3D ultrasound which could be associated by hysterosonography. Hysteroscopy and MRI could be proposed. Hysterectomy is the main treatment, if possible by vaginal or laparoscopic way. Conservative treatment (myomectomy) could be realized by hysteroscopic, laparoscopic way or laparotomy for patients who desire to preserve fertility. Arteries embolisation is an alternative to hysterectomy or myomectomy for patients without desire of pregnancy. Preoperative treatments by GnRH agonist or SPRM like ulipristal acetate treat anaemia, decrease the myoma volume and could modify the therapeutic strategy. PMID:24855792

Fernandez, Hervé



What Is Uterine Sarcoma?  


... sarcomas used to be considered a type of endometrial stromal sarcoma, but since they are more aggressive and are treated differently from low-grade tumors, they are now considered separately. These ... (Uterine) Cancer . Benign uterine tumors Several types of ...


Uncertainty concerning the 4-field box technique for Stage-IB2 carcinoma of the uterine cervix.  


Radiation Therapy (RT) plays a pivotal role in the curative approach for carcinoma of the cervix. Inspite of the emergence of various new conformal techniques in RT, conventional techniques still hold vital importance. Majority of the patients worldwide are treated with 2D-RT techniques. 2D-RT techniques have been proven to be non-inferior and simpler in comparison to 3D-RT in the context of carcinoma of the cervix. However, inadequate target volume coverage with improper portal design can preclude the chances of cure. We demonstrate the need for abolishing guesswork in terms of target volume determination through the example of a patient's sagittal magnetic resonance image showing a case of the retroverted uterus which would have been likely to be missed from the treatment portals if they were designed using definitions based on bony landmarks. PMID:23531883

Thakur, Priyanka; Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Rastogi, Madhup; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Seam, Rajeev Kumar; Gupta, Manish



Effect of insemination dose and site on uterine inflammatory response of mares.  


It is unclear whether AI of mares deep into the uterine horn causes more or less inflammation of the endometrium than conventional AI. Thus, we compared uterine inflammatory reactions of mares inseminated with two different doses of frozen-thawed semen into the tip of the uterine horn (UH) ipsilateral to the preovulatory follicle with those of mares inseminated into the uterine body (UB). Thirty-two mares were assigned to one of four groups (eight mares/group): UB20=AI into UB, 20 x 10(6)sperm/0.5 mL; UB200=AI into UB, 200 x 10(6)sperm/0.5 mL; UH20=AI into UH, 20 x 10(6)sperm/0.5 mL; UH200=AI into UH, 200 x 10(6)sperm/0.5 mL, and inseminated 24 h after hCG administration. Before and 24 h after AI, they were examined with ultrasonography for the presence of intrauterine fluid. At 24 h, uterine fluid samples were obtained first by absorbing fluid into a tampon and then by uterine lavage. Uterine fluid was examined for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and bacteriology, and frozen for lysozyme and TIC (trypsin-inhibitor capacity) assays. Only three mares conceived, one in each of the following groups: UB200, UH20, and UH200. Mares in the UH20 group accumulated less intrauterine fluid (p<0.05) than those in the other groups, which had similar amounts. No significant differences in PMN numbers were detected in either tampon or lavage fluid. Enzyme levels between groups did not differ statistically, except for TIC, which was lowest in the UH200 group. Thus, deep uterine horn AI caused no greater inflammation or irritation than uterine body AI in normal mares 24 h after insemination. PMID:15910930

Güvenc, Kazim; Reilas, Tiina; Katila, Terttu



Detection of Plant DNA in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage of Patients with Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHospital-acquired infections such as nosocomial pneumonia are a serious cause of mortality for hospitalized patients, especially for those admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Despite the number of the studies reported to date, the causative agents of pneumonia are not completely known. Herein, we found by molecular technique that vegetable and tobacco DNA may be detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage

Sabri Bousbia; Laurent Papazian; Bernard La Scola; Didier Raoult; Rory Edward Morty



Sampling the Airway: Improving the Predictive and Toxicological Value of Bronchoalveolar Lavage  

EPA Science Inventory

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a relatively simple technique to obtain biological material in the form of BAL fluid (BALF) from airways of humans and laboratory animals. Numerous predictive biomarkers of pulmonary injury and diseases can be detected in BALF which aid in diagnosi...


Experience with over 2500 diagnostic peritoneal lavages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to confirm the safety and efficacy of diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) for trauma patients. A prospectively maintained database of all DPLs performed in the past 75 months was analyzed. A red blood cell count of 100,000\\/mm3 was considered positive for injury in blunt trauma; 10,000\\/mm3 was considered positive for peritoneal penetration in penetrating trauma. Information relative

Kimberly K Nagy; Roxanne R Roberts; Kimberly T Joseph; Robert F Smith; Gary C An; Faran Bokhari; John Barrett



Effect of oxytocin and flunixin meglumine on uterine response to insemination in mares.  


The most probable reason for persistent postbreeding endometritis in mares is weak myometrial contractility. The influence of oxytocin (OT; an ecbolic agent) and flunixin meglumine (FLU; a prostaglandin inhibitor serving as a model for mares with decreased uterine contractility) on uterine response to artificial insemination (AI) was studied in mares with no history of reproductive failure. The mares were treated intravenously with 10 mL saline (Group C, n=10) or 0.01 IU/kg OT (Group OT, n=10) 2, 4, 8, and 25 h after AI. Group FLU (n=11) was treated with 1.1mg/kg FLU 2h after AI and with saline thereafter. The mares received the same treatments in the first and third cycles but were sampled either at 8 or 25 h. The amount of intrauterine fluid (IUF) and edema and the number of uterine contractions were recorded before AI and 10 min after the treatments using transrectal ultrasonography. At 8h after AI, the mares were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin, and, after 8-h or 25-h scans, a 500-mL uterine lavage and a biopsy were performed. Ovulation was confirmed at 48 h and pregnancy 14 to 17 d after AI. No manipulations were done during the second estrus. At 8h after AI, Group FLU had more polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the uterine lavage fluid than did Group OT (P<0.05), but uterine contractions did not differ significantly. At 25 h, the PMN concentrations were low in all groups. Group OT rarely showed IUF. The uterine biopsy specimens of Group FLU showed less inflammation of the stroma but more PMNs in the uterine lumen 8h after AI than that of the control group (P<0.05). The pregnancy rates did not differ between the groups (63% C, 53% OT, and 50% FLU). Oxytocin rapidly and effectively removed IUF and PMNs after AI and thereby shortened the duration of postbreeding inflammation. PMID:19783032

Risco, A M; Reilas, T; Muilu, L; Kareskoski, M; Katila, T



Diagnosis and Nonsurgical Management of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

SciTech Connect

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an uncommon problem and traditional treatment by hysterectomy excludes the possibility of future pregnancy. Developments in interventional techniques make transcatheter embolization of the feeding vessel(s) a therapeutic alternative, potentially preserving the patient's fertility. We present a case of successful endovascular treatment of uterine AVM.

Rangarajan, R. D.; Moloney, J. C.; Anderson, H. J. [Eastbourne District General Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)], E-mail:



Uterine Cancer Statistics  


... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...


Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  


... abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by a hormone imbalance. When hormones are the problem, doctors call the ... bleeding, or DUB. Abnormal bleeding caused by hormone imbalance is more common in teenagers or in women ...


Shotgun MS proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in normal subjects.  


We provide a review of proteomic techniques used to characterize the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) proteome of normal healthy subjects. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is the most common technique for sampling the components of the alveolar space. The proteomic techniques used to study normal BALF include protein separation by 2DE, whereby proteins were identified by comparison to a reference gel as well as high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS, also known as shotgun proteomics. We summarize recent progress using shotgun MS technologies to define the normal BALF proteome. Surprisingly, we find that despite advances in shotgun proteomic technologies over the course of the last 10 years, which have resulted in greater numbers of proteins being identified, the functional landscape of normal BALF proteome was similarly described by all methods examined. PMID:24616423

Nguyen, Elizabeth V; Gharib, Sina A; Schnapp, Lynn M; Goodlett, David R



Image-guided thermal therapy of uterine fibroids  

PubMed Central

Thermal ablation is an established treatment for tumor. The merging of newly developed imaging techniques has allowed precise targeting and real-time thermal mapping. This article provides an overview of the image-guided thermal ablation techniques in the treatment of uterine fibroids. Background on uterine fibroids, including epidemiology, histology, symptoms, imaging findings and current treatment options, is first outlined. After describing the principle of magnetic resonance thermal imaging, we introduce the applications of image-guided thermal therapies, including laser ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy and particularly the newest, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery, and how they apply to uterine fibroid treatment. PMID:19358440

Shen, Shu-Huei; Fennessy, Fiona; McDannold, Nathan; Jolesz, Ferenc; Tempany, Clare



Unusual presentation of uterine leiomyoma.  


Uterine leiomyoma is the most common pelvic tumour in women. The presentation of uterine leiomyoma varies. Symptoms may include abnormal uterine bleeding or abdominal pressure and heaviness; however, most cases are asymptomatic. We report a case with renal impairment as the first presentation of uterine leiomyoma in a patient who presented with extensive bilateral lower limb oedema and no menstrual symptoms. Imaging studies, a subsequent Papanicolaou test and uterine biopsy were suggestive of uterine leiomyoma, which was confirmed by pathological examination after hysterectomy. The patient's kidney impairment resolved completely after the procedure. PMID:25858937

Al Hadidi, Samer; Shaik Mohammed, Tabrez; Bachuwa, Ghassan



Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in lung parenchyma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical concentrations of asbestos bodies (AB) were measured by light microscopy both in samples of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and in samples of lung parenchyma from 69 patients with suspected asbestos-related diseases who had had lavages and later open lung biopsies or autopsies. Objectives were to study the recovery of pulmonary AB by BAL and the ability of BAL concentrations

P. Sebastien; B. Armstrong; G. Monchaux; J. Bignon



Uterine cirsoid aneurysm: MRI and MRA  

SciTech Connect

Uterine cirsoid aneurysm is uncommon. It is important to make a diagnosis of this disease preoperatively, because repeated curettages may induce life-threatening massive genital bleeding. We present a case of a 51-year-old woman with uterine cirsoid aneurysm in whom MRI and MRA were very useful for the preoperative diagnosis. The radiologic appearances on ultrasonography, CT, conventional SE MRI, MRA, dynamic MRI, and pelvic angiography are presented. Conventional SE T1-weighted and T2-weighted images demonstrated multiple flow voids in the uterus and bilateral adnexal regions. MRA demonstrated a cluster of distinct, tortuous, and coiled vascular channels in the pelvis. MRA could obtain images almost equal to angiography and was considered to be an excellent noninvasive imaging technique for the diagnosis of uterine cirsoid aneurysm. 28 refs., 7 figs

Joja, Ikuo; Asakawa, Mari; Motoyama, Kazumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan)] [and others] [Okayama Univ. (Japan); and others



Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Docetaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Corpus Leiomyosarcoma



A comparison of diagnostic techniques for postpartum endometritis in dairy cattle.  


Holstein cows (n=221) from eight commercial dairy herds were examined for endometritis between 28 and 41 days postpartum using 5 diagnostic techniques: (1) vaginoscopy; (2) ultrasonographic assessment of uterine fluid volume; (3) ultrasonographic assessment of endometrial thickness; (4) endometrial cytology collected by cytobrush; and (5) endometrial cytology collected by uterine lavage. Concordance correlation was used to evaluate the reliability of cytobrush and lavage cytology. Cytobrush cytology was found to have the greatest intraobserver repeatability (cytobrush, rho(c)=0.85 versus lavage, rho(c)=0.76) and was chosen as the reference diagnostic test. Pregnancy data at 150 days postpartum was available for 189 cows. Survival analysis was used to determine the lowest percentage of polymorphonuclear cells associated with time to pregnancy. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic techniques was determined using pregnancy status at 150 days and cytobrush cytology as the diagnostic standards. The risk of non-pregnancy at 150 days was 1.9 times higher in cows with more than 8% PMNs identified using cytobrush cytology than in cows with less than 8% PMNs (P=0.04). Twenty-one cows of 189 cows (11.1%) had >8% PMNs and were considered to be positive for endometritis. Cows with endometritis had a 17.9% lower first service conception rate (P=0.03) and a 24-day increase in median days open (P=0.04). The sensitivities of all five diagnostic tests relative to 150-day pregnancy status ranged from 7.1 to 14.3% and the specificities from 84.0 to 93.3%. Relative to cytobrush cytology, the respective sensitivity and specificity values are as follows: vaginoscopy (53.9%, 95.4%); lavage cytology (92.3%, 93.9%); ultrasonographic assessment of uterine fluid (30.8%, 92.8%); and ultrasonographic assessment of endometrial thickness (3.9%, 89.2%). Endometritis impaired reproductive performance. Cytobrush cytology was the most reliable method of diagnosing endometritis in cattle. PMID:18242670

Barlund, C S; Carruthers, T D; Waldner, C L; Palmer, C W



Bilateral whole lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis--a retrospective study.  


Whole lung lavage (WLL) is the gold standard technique for the treatment of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP). In this paper we evaluated and discuss bilateral WLL, namely the procedure work-up and the therapeutic efficacy. Six bilateral WLL performed through a careful adherence to a modified Royal Brompton Hospital (London) technique were carried out without major complications and were associated with clinical and functional improvement of the PAP patients submitted to this procedure. As there are benefits in terms of time, patient comfort and cost effectiveness compared to unilateral WLL, associated with the efficacy and safety observed, bilateral WLL seems to be a suitable first choice for therapeutic lavage in PAP patients. PMID:25042291

Silva, A; Moreto, A; Pinho, C; Magalhães, A; Morais, A; Fiuza, C



Effect of frozen semen on the uterus of mares with pathological uterine changes.  


Pregnancy rates after frozen semen inseminations (AI), particularly in older and problem mares, are lower than after fresh semen AI. Uterine contractility and the inflammatory reaction after frozen semen insemination were studied in two groups of mares: the abnormal group comprised of 6 old barren mares categorized in biopsy category IIB or III, and the control group including 6 reproductively normal young maiden mares in biopsy category I or IIA. All 12 mares were inseminated in the first cycle with 2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and in their second cycle with 2 mL of frozen semen containing 800 x 10(6) spermatozoa. Before and 1, 2, 4, 8, and 20 to 24 h after this treatment, all mares were examined by ultrasonography for intrauterine fluid accumulations (IUFA). The examinations were videotaped to count the number of uterine contractions later. Uterine fluid was obtained by tampon before treatment, and by the tampon method followed by uterine lavage after the last examination. Fluids were cultured bacteriologically, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were counted. Trypsin-inhibitor capacity (TIC), lysozyme concentration, and beta-glucuronidase (BGase) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities were determined in frozen-thawed tampon and lavage fluids. Both treatments induced significant neutrophilia in the uterine lumen. Although PMN concentrations were numerically higher after frozen semen AI than after PBS-treatment, the difference was not significant. There was not any difference between the mare groups either. The amount of IUFA differed only in the normal group between frozen semen AI and PBS treatment, and between 0- and 24-h samples for frozen semen AI. Although abnormal mares showed consistently more fluid than normal mares, this difference was not significant. Uterine contractions and enzyme concentrations between groups did not differ. None of the variables showed significant differences between the normal and abnormal mares in their reaction to frozen semen AI. PMID:15460163

Güvenc, Kazim; Reilas, Tiina; Katila, Terttu



The utility of bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis in the diagnosis of silicosis  

SciTech Connect

We used analytical electron microscopic techniques, including energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, to evaluate a patient with diffuse infiltrates and a history of silica exposure. We identified silica particles in digested bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, sectioned alveolar macrophages recovered by lavage, and parenchymal specimens obtained by transbronchial biopsy. This analysis confirmed our clinical suspicion (a sporadic case of accelerated silicosis) and eliminated the need for additional, more complicated, diagnostic procedures.

Nugent, K.M.; Dodson, R.F.; Idell, S.; Devillier, J.R. (Univ. of Texas Health Center, Tyler (USA))



Uterine Vascular Lesions  

PubMed Central

Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash



Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E., III



Successful treatment of diffuse lipoid pneumonitis with whole lung lavage.  

PubMed Central

Diffuse lipoid pneumonitis is rare. Prednisolone can be beneficial, but no other method of treatment has been tried. The first case of diffuse lipoid pneumonitis successfully managed with whole lung lavage is described. Images PMID:8236080

Chang, H. Y.; Chen, C. W.; Chen, C. Y.; Hsuie, T. R.; Chen, C. R.; Lei, W. W.; Wu, M. H.; Jin, Y. T.



Novel Image-Guided Management of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

SciTech Connect

The investigators present a novel image-guided embolization, not previously described, of a uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) resistant to endovascular management. The uterus was exposed surgically, and Histoacryl (Braun, Fulda, Germany) was injected directly into the nidus using ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopy. The patient had a successful full-term pregnancy after this procedure. This technique may be a useful alternative management strategy in patients with uterine AVM who fail traditional endovascular embolization and who still desire fertility.

Przybojewski, Stefan J., E-mail:; Sadler, David J. [University of Calgary, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Foothills Hospital (Canada)



Changes in nasal lavage fluid due to formaldehyde inhalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aim of the study was to characterize the nature of the formaldehyde-induced nasal response consisting in symptoms of rhinitis and changes in nasal lavage fluid. Eleven healthy subjects and nine patients with specific skin sensitization were provoked in a toxicological chamber with formaldehyde at a dose of 0.5 mg\\/m3 over 2 h. Nasal lavage was performed prior to

Konrad Pazdrak; Pawel Górski; Anna Krakowiak; Urszula Ruta



Comparison of oral lavage methods for preoperative colonic cleansing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution was compared with a 10 percent mannitol solution for preoperative colonic\\u000a cleansing. Eighty patients were prepared randomly with one of these solutions on the afternoon prior to surgery. Colonic cleansing\\u000a was better with polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage (90 percent optimal cleansingvs. 75 percent). Analysis of hematologic, biochemical, and weight changes before and after the bowel

David E. Beck; Victor W. Fazio; David G. Jagelman




PubMed Central

The analysis of airway fluid, as sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), provides a minimally invasive route to interrogate lung biology in health and disease. Here, we used immunodepletion, coupled with gel- and label-free LC-MS/MS, for quantitation of the BAL fluid (BALF) proteome in samples recovered from human subjects following bronchoscopic instillation of saline, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or house dust mite antigen into three distinct lung subsegments. Among more than 200 unique proteins quantified across nine samples, neutrophil granule-derived and acute phase proteins were most highly enriched in the LPS-exposed lobes. Of these, peptidoglycan response protein 1 was validated and confirmed as a novel marker of neutrophilic inflammation. Compared to a prior transcriptomic analysis of airway cells in this same cohort, the BALF proteome revealed a novel set of response factors. Independent of exposure, the enrichment of tracheal-expressed proteins in right lower lung lobes suggests a potential for constitutive intralobar variability in the BALF proteome; sampling of multiple lung subsegments also appears to aid in the identification of protein signatures that differentiate individuals at baseline. Collectively, this proof-of-concept study validates a robust workflow for BALF proteomics and demonstrates the complementary nature of proteomic and genomic techniques for investigating airway (patho)physiology. PMID:23550723

Foster, Matthew W.; Will Thompson, J.; Que, Loretta G.; Yang, Ivana V.; Schwartz, David A.; Arthur Moseley, M.; Marshall, Harvey E.



Proteomic analysis of human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after subsgemental exposure.  


The analysis of airway fluid, as sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), provides a minimally invasive route to interrogate lung biology in health and disease. Here, we used immunodepletion, coupled with gel- and label-free LC-MS/MS, for quantitation of the BAL fluid (BALF) proteome in samples recovered from human subjects following bronchoscopic instillation of saline, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or house dust mite antigen into three distinct lung subsegments. Among more than 200 unique proteins quantified across nine samples, neutrophil granule-derived and acute phase proteins were most highly enriched in the LPS-exposed lobes. Of these, peptidoglycan response protein 1 was validated and confirmed as a novel marker of neutrophilic inflammation. Compared to a prior transcriptomic analysis of airway cells in this same cohort, the BALF proteome revealed a novel set of response factors. Independent of exposure, the enrichment of tracheal-expressed proteins in right lower lung lobes suggests a potential for constitutive intralobar variability in the BALF proteome; sampling of multiple lung subsegments also appears to aid in the identification of protein signatures that differentiate individuals at baseline. Collectively, this proof-of-concept study validates a robust workflow for BALF proteomics and demonstrates the complementary nature of proteomic and genomic techniques for investigating airway (patho)physiology. PMID:23550723

Foster, Matthew W; Thompson, J Will; Que, Loretta G; Yang, Ivana V; Schwartz, David A; Moseley, M Arthur; Marshall, Harvey E



Transient Occlusion of Uterine Arteries in Laparoscopic Uterine Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of transient occlusion of the uterine arteries (TOUA) during laparoscopic surgery for benign uterine tumors, with preservation of fertility. Methods: Patients with uterine myoma or adenomyoma underwent laparoscopic uterine surgery, with or without TOUA, performed by a single surgeon (Y.-S.K.). Surgical outcomes included operative time; occurrence of intraoperative injury of blood vessels, nerves, and pelvic organs; and intraoperative blood loss. Results: Of the 168 surgical patients included in this study, 144 were enrolled consecutively during the study period, and 24 had undergone adenomectomy before the study period. A total of 104 women (70 with myoma; 34 with adenomyoma) seeking uterine preservation underwent laparoscopic surgery with TOUA for benign uterine tumors. Sixty-four women (40 with myoma; 24 with adenomyoma) underwent surgery without TOUA. The mean total surgical time of the TOUA groups was 74.85 minutes for uterine myoma and 84.09 minutes for uterine adenomyoma. The mean estimated blood loss during laparoscopic myomectomy and adenomyomectomy was less in the TOUA groups than in the non-TOUA groups (109 vs. 203.4 mL in myomectomy, P < .05; 148.1 vs. 158.9 mL in adenomyomectomy; P < .05). Time to perform TOUA was 13.9 minutes in laparoscopic myomectomy and 7.33 minutes in laparoscopic adenomyomectomy. The hospital stay of the TOUA groups was 3.32 days for uterine myoma and 3.82 days for uterine adenomyoma. No intraoperative conversion to laparotomy was necessary, and no major complications occurred during any of the procedures. Conclusion: Laparoscopic uterine surgery with TOUA could be a safe and effective surgical method for women with symptomatic benign uterine tumors who wish to preserve fertility.

Kwon, Yong-Soon; Roh, Hyun Jin; Ahn, Jun Woo; Lee, Sang-Hun



Investigation of postpartum dairy cows' uterine microbial diversity using metagenomic pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.  


The objective of this study was the use of metagenomic pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for the investigation of postpartum dairy cows' uterine bacterial diversity. The effect of subcutaneous supplementation of a trace mineral supplement containing Zn, Mn, Se, and Cu (Multimin North America, Inc., Fort Collins, CO) at 230 days of gestation and 260 days of gestation on dairy cows' uterine microbiota was also evaluated. Uterine lavage samples were collected at 35 DIM and were visually scored for the presence of purulent or mucopurulent secretion. The same samples were also used for the acquisition of bacterial DNA. The 16S rRNA genes were individually amplified from each sample. Pyrosequencing of the samples was carried at the Cornell University Life Sciences Core Laboratories Center using Roche 454 GS-FLX System Titanium Chemistry. The Ribosomal Database Project online tools were used for the analysis of the obtained sequences library. Bacteroides spp., Ureaplasma spp., Fusobacterium spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Sneathia spp., Prevotella spp. and Arcanobacterium spp. prevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher in samples derived from cows that had a higher uterine lavage sample score. Bacteroides spp., Ureaplasma spp., Fusobacterium spp., and Arcanobacterium spp. prevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher in samples derived from cows that were not pregnant by 200 DIM. Anaerococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Parabacteroides spp., and Propionibacterium spp. prevalence was significantly (P<0.05) lower in samples derived from cows that were trace mineral supplemented. PMID:22595139

Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Bicalho, M L S; Knauer, W A; Gilbert, R; Bicalho, R C



Early uterine development in pigs.  


The capacity of pig uterine tissues to recognize and respond to maternal and conceptus signals determines whether pregnancy can be established and defines the environment in which embryonic and fetal growth occur. Limits of uterine capacity may be defined genetically. However, the extent to which functional uterine capacity approaches genetic potential may be determined, in part, by the success of organizational events associated with growth, morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of uterine tissues. It is important, therefore, that these events be identified and evaluated with respect to their potential effect on adult uterine function. Histogenesis of the pig uterus begins prenatally, but is completed postnatally. Transformation of the uterine wall from histoarchitectural infancy to maturity occurs between birth and day 120. Morphogenetic events characteristic of the first 60 days of neonatal life proceed normally in gilts ovariectomized at birth. These events include appearance and proliferation of uterine glands, development of endometrial folds, and growth of the myometrium. Endometrial development during this period involves alterations in patterns of epithelial and stromal DNA synthesis, coordinated changes in the distribution and biosynthesis of extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans and cell surface glycoconjugates, and specific alterations in patterns of uterine protein secretion. The ovary-independent, spatially coordinated nature of these events suggests that neonatal uterine development is regulated locally via dynamic cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. The extent to which such potentially critical interactions must be preserved to ensure developmental success remains unknown. However, the normal pattern of ovary-independent cellular and molecular events associated with development of the uterine wall was disrupted by treating neonatal gilts with oestradiol valerate, and daily administration of oestrogen to gilts from birth to day 13 did not affect ovulation rate, but did reduce embryonic survival by 22% on day 45 of gestation in adults that were exposed to oestrogen neonatally. These observations support the idea that some organizational events associated with development of the neonatal uterine wall must be allowed to proceed without interruption to ensure that adult uterine function is not compromised. Efforts to identify specific developmental determinants of uterine capacity may be facilitated by examining the consequences of xenobiotically induced interruption of uterine development on adult uterine function. Such studies may also contribute to identification of uterine factors affecting embryonic survival and fetal growth. PMID:8145217

Bartol, F F; Wiley, A A; Spencer, T E; Vallet, J L; Christenson, R K



The effect of pulsed jet lavage in vertebroplasty on injection forces of PMMA bone cement: an animal study.  


Percutaneous vertebroplasty, comprising of the injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into vertebral bodies, is an efficient procedure to stabilize osteoporotic compression fractures as well as other weakening lesions. Besides fat embolism, cement leakage is considered to be one of the major and most severe complications during percutaneous vertebroplasty. The viscosity of the PMMA during injection plays a key role in this context. It was shown in vitro that the best way to lower the risk of cement leakage is to inject the cement at higher viscosity, which is requires high injection forces. Injection forces can be reduced by applying a newly developed lavage technique as it was shown in vitro using human cadaver vertebrae. The purpose of this study was to prove the in vitro results in an in vivo model. The investigation was incorporated in an animal study that was performed to evaluate the cardiovascular reaction on cement augmentation using the lavage technique. Injection forces were measured with instrumentation for 1 cc syringes, additionally acquiring plunger displacement. Averaged injection forces measured, ranged from 12 to 130 N and from 28 to 140 N for the lavage group and the control group, respectively. Normalized injection forces (by viscosity and injection speed) showed a trend to be lower for the lavage group in comparison to the control group (P = 0.073). In conclusion, the clinical relevance on the investigated lavage technique concerning lowering injection forces was only shown by trend in the performed animal study. However, it might well be that the effect is more pronounced for osteoporotic vertebral bodies. PMID:19568774

Boger, Andreas; Benneker, Lorin M; Krebs, Jörg; Boner, Vanessa; Heini, Paul F; Gisep, Armando



Peritoneal lavage efficiently eliminates protease-alpha-2-macroglobulin complexes and components of the contact system from the peritoneal cavity in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.  


Trypsin (Try), plasma kallikrein (KK) and plasmin activities together with coagulation factor XII (F XII, Hageman factor), high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK), plasma prekallikrein (PKK), alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-M), C1 inhibitor (C1Inh), and functional plasma kallikrein inhibition (KKI) values were studied in peritoneal fluid and lavage taps of 9 patients with severe acute pancreatitis treated with peritoneal lavage. Both immunochemical methods and functional techniques based on chromogenic peptide substrate assays were used. In the exudate obtained before peritoneal lavage was performed, F XII was 52%, HMWK was 30%, PKK was 40%, alpha 2-M was 29% and C1Inh was 57% of standard plasma pool values, determined by immunochemical technique. Functional plasma KKI values were zero, whereas Try activities determined by chromogenic peptide substrate technique were markedly elevated in the exudate. Using a prepacked HR 10/30 Superose Tm 12 column (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) and chromogenic peptide substrate assays, Try and KK activities were detected in the alpha 2-M containing fractions of the peritoneal exudate demonstrating KK-alpha 2-M and Try-alpha 2-M complex formation. The peritoneal lavage procedure efficiently eliminated components of the contact system and protease activities. In the first lavage tap, Try activities were markedly reduced compared to values found in the exudate and concentrations of F XII, HMWK, PKK, alpha 2-M and C1Inh were all zero. In consecutive lavage taps Try values were also zero. The study shows that the lavage procedures efficiently clears the peritoneal cavity for protease-alpha 2-M complexes generated during acute pancreatitis. Also, components of the contact system found in peritoneal exudate, and which might serve as substrates for the protease-alpha 2-M complexes, are rapidly eliminated by the procedure. PMID:2469582

Aasen, A O; Ruud, T E; Roeise, O; Bouma, B N; Stadaas, J O



Uterine & Ovarian Cancer I. Uterine Cancer (Endometrial Cancer)  

E-print Network

most common cancer found in women -- after breast cancer, lung cancer and colon cancer. n About 84/12/14 1 Uterine & Ovarian Cancer I. Uterine Cancer (Endometrial Cancer) A. Atypical Hyperplasia B. From hyperplasia to endometrial cancer C. Prevalence & Incidence D. Causes E. Risk factors F. Detection

Dever, Jennifer A.


Digital Subtraction Fluoroscopy to Enhance Visualization During Uterine Fibroid Embolization: A Technical Note  

SciTech Connect

We describe a simple but underutilized technique for improving visualization during transcatheter embolization using particulate agents. The technique is of distinct utility in uterine fibroid embolization, during which non-target embolization can be of particular clinical significance.

Andrews, Robert T. [Dotter Interventional Institute, Portland, OR, Oregon Health and Science University (United States)], E-mail:; Binkert, Christoph A. [Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, Department of Radiology (United States)



Uterine rupture after the uterine fundal pressure maneuver.  


Abstract Objective: To clarify the incidence of uterine fundal pressure at delivery and its effect on uterine rupture. Study design: A questionnaire was sent to 2518 institutions in Japan. We received a response from 1430. Results: Of reporting institutions, 89.4% used fundal pressure in at least some of their deliveries. Among the 347,771 women who delivered vaginally in this study, 38,973 (11.2%) were delivered with the assistance of fundal pressure. There were six cases of uterine rupture associated with uterine fundal pressure, with one case resulting in maternal death secondary to amniotic fluid embolism. Conclusion: Since uterine fundal pressure may potentially cause serious injury to either the mother and/or neonates, the indications for application need to be clearly elucidated, and obstetric care providers also need comprehensive education and training. PMID:25389983

Hasegawa, Junichi; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ishiwata, Isamu; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki



Microwave occlusion of the rabbit uterine horn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microwave applicator was developed and tested in a rabbit model, with the goal of developing a system to sterilize a human female through a transvaginal-transcervical- transuterine retrograde technique. The clinical procedure wold create an occluding lesion in the isthmic portion of the human fallopian tube in an out-patient procedure. The microwave applicator consisted of a flexible coaxial cable from which the inner conductor was extended to form a resonant monopole antenna. The coaxial cable and monopole were placed within a sealed teflon catheter of 3 mm diameter. A second parallel catheter of 1 mm diameter was secured to the first to provide guidance for a microwave- immune thermometry probe. Following laparotomy exposure, the applicator was placed with a transvaginal-transcervical retrograde technique in each uterine horn in succession. The temperature was elevated to 65 degree(s)C for 5 minutes. Thirty days following treatment, there was marked constriction and discoloration of the treated site as well as significant architectural effacement of the tissue composing the uterine wall. In some cases, the uterine lumen was completely occluded. Future experiments will assess the tissue response to smaller thermal doses.

Trembly, B. Stuart; Manganiello, Paul D.; Hoopes, P. Jack



Exogenous lipoid pneumonia successfully treated with bronchoscopic segmental lavage therapy.  


A 65-y-old Japanese man was referred to the respiratory medicine department because of abnormal radiologic findings. High-resolution chest computed tomography scans revealed a geographic distribution of ground-glass opacities and associated thickening of the interlobular septa (crazy-paving patterns) in both lower lobes. He had a habit of drinking 400-500 mL of milk and 400-800 mL of canned coffee with milk every day. A swallowing function test revealed liquid dysphagia. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology findings showed multiple lipid-laden macrophages. Taken together, these findings revealed exogenous lipoid pneumonia. We performed bronchoscopic segmental lavage therapy 3 times in the left lung. After the treatment, the radiologic findings improved in both lungs. The patient has not experienced a recurrence of lipoid pneumonia in 2 y to date. In conclusion, a case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia was successfully treated with bronchoscopic segmental lavage therapy. PMID:25161297

Nakashima, Shota; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Hara, Shintaro; Kitaichi, Masanori; Kohno, Shigeru



Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Uterine Cancer

Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Uterine health is often compromised in cattle by bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen after parturition, and pathogenic bacteria often persist causing uterine disease, which is a key cause of infertility in cattle. However, the definition or characterization of uterine disease frequently lac...


Assessment of Environmental Asbestos Exposure in Turkey by Bronchoalveolar Lavage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental or domestic exposure to asbestos fibers originating from local soil is responsible for a high incidence of diseases in large rural areas of Turkey. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) were obtained for 65 Turkish subjects originating from these areas and for 42 Turkish controls. Asbestos bodies (ABs) and uncovered fibers (UFs) were quantified by phase contrast light microscopy. Total fi-



Swyer-James syndrome: bronchoalveolar lavage findings in two patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swyer-James syndrome: bronchoalveolar lavage findings in two patients. F. Bernardi, S. Cazzato, V. Poletti, D. Tassinari, M. Burnaccini, M. Zompatori, E. Cacciari. ?ERS Journals Ltd 1995. ABSTRACT: Swyer-James syndrome (SJS) is a rare constrictive bronchiolitis that appears to be the result of acute bronchiolitis in infancy or early childhood. In the present study the cytological and immunophenotypical profile of bronchoalveolar

F. Bernardi; S. Cazzato; V. Poletti; D. Tassinari; M. Burnaccini; M. Zompatori; E. Cacciari




Microsoft Academic Search

Stomach lavaging was used to study the feeding habits of northern elephanr seals (Mirounga angustirostris) found on San hliguel Island, California, during the spring of 1984. Fifty-nine elephant seals were chemically immobilized with an intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride. Once immobilized, an animal's stomach was intubated, filled nith 3-4 liters of water to create a slurry of the undigested food

George A. Antonelis; Mark S. Lowry; Douglas P. DeMaster; Clifford H. Fiscus



Mast cell and histamine content of human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  

PubMed Central

Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 97 patients including control patients with bronchial carcinoma (24) and patients with sarcoidosis (20), cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (9), and asthma (4), and others. Cytocentrifuged slides were stained by two methods: May-Grünwald Giemsa and toluidine blue. In the last 32 subjects the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was separated into supernatant and cell pellet for the subsequent assay of the performed mast cell mediator, histamine. Comparison of the two methods of staining showed a bias towards toluidine blue. Controls had a differential mean (SE) mast cell count of 0.07% (0.01%). Higher counts were noted in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis--0.61% (0.15%) (p less than 0.001)--and in sarcoidosis--0.14% (0.02%) (p less than 0.05). There was a strong correlation between absolute mast cell counts and cell lysate histamine concentration (r = 0.78, p less than 0.001). Less strong, significant, correlations between supernatant histamine concentration and absolute mast cell counts (r = 0.48, p less than 0.01) or cell lysate histamine concentration (r = 0.72, p less than 0.01) were also found. Derived mean values of histamine per mast cell ranged from 3.7 to 10.9 picograms. The mean histamine content of lavage fluid supernatant as a percentage of the total lavage fluid histamine was 24.9% (3.3%). The possible clinical significance of these findings is discussed. Images PMID:4060097

Agius, R M; Godfrey, R C; Holgate, S T




EPA Science Inventory

Accumulation of protein in lung lavage fluid was used as an indicator of pulmonary damage following exposure of guinea pigs to 03. Exposure of animals to 510, 1000 or 1960 micrograms/cu. m. (O.26, 0.51 or 1.0 ppm) of O3 for 72 hours resulted in significantly elevated levels of la...


Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Occurring After Uterine Artery Embolization for Uterine Myoma  

SciTech Connect

This case report describes posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) occurring after uterine artery embolization (UAE) for uterine myoma. This is the first report of PRES occurring after uterine vascular radiologic intervention. The mechanism by which UAE induced PRES is unclear.

Suzuki, Satoshi, E-mail:; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kariya, Syuji; Komemushi, Atsushi; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Tokuda, Takanori [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kishimoto, Masanobu; Tomino, Atsutoshi [Kansai Medical University, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine (Japan); Fujioka, Masayuki [Dresden University of Technology, Stroke Center, Helios General Hospital (Germany); Kitazawa, Yasuhide [Kansai Medical University, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine (Japan); Sawada, Satoshi [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)



Uterine development and endometrial programming.  


Structural patterning and functional programming of uterine tissues are mechanistically coupled. These processes ensure anteroposterior differentiation of uterine tissues from adjacent segments of the developing female reproductive tract (FRT) and radial patterning that establishes uterine-specific histoarchitecture and functionality. Uterine organogenesis begins prenatally and is completed postnatally. Genes required for FRT development include Pax2, Lim1 and Emx2, genes in the abdominal-B Hoxa cluster, and members of both Wnt and Hedgehog (Hh) gene families. Disruption of morphoregulatory gene expression patterns can prevent FRT development entirely or compromise uterine organogenesis specifically. Oestrogen receptor-alpha (ER) -dependent events associated with development of the neonatal porcine uterus can be altered by administration of oestrogen (E) or relaxin (RLX). Expression of the RLX receptor is detectable in porcine endometrium at birth, before onset of ER expression and uterine gland genesis. Uterotrophic effects of both E and RLX can be inhibited with the ER antagonist ICl 182,780, indicating that RLX may act via crosstalk with the ER system in neonatal tissues. Exposure of neonatal gilts to E alters temporospatial patterns of Hh, Wnt and Hoxa expression in the uterine wall. Oestrogen given for two weeks from birth produced hypoplastic adult porcine uteri that were less responsive to periattachment conceptus signals as reflected by reduced growth response and luminal fluid protein accumulation, altered endometrial gene expression, and reduced capacity for conceptus support. Data reinforce the concept that factors affecting signalling events in uterine tissues that produce changes in morphoregulatory gene expression patterns during critical organisational periods can alter the developmental trajectory of the uterus with lasting consequences. Thus, uterine tissues can be programmed epigenetically for success or failure during perinatal life. PMID:16866313

Bartol, F F; Wiley, A A; Bagnell, C A



Uterine Artery Anatomy Relevant to Uterine Leiomyomata Embolization  

SciTech Connect

To categorize the anatomic variants of uterine arteries, and determine the incidence of menopausal symptoms where the tubo-ovarian branches were seen prior to embolization. Between July 1997 and June 2000, 257 (n = 257) uterine fibroid embolizations were performed at our institution. Arteriograms were retrospectively evaluated. Uterine arteries were classified into groups: type I (the uterine artery as first branch of the inferior gluteal artery), type II (the uterine artery as second or third branch of the inferior gluteal artery), type III (the uterine artery, the inferior gluteal and the superior gluteal arteries arising as a trifurcation), type IV (the uterine artery as first branch of the hypogastric artery), inconclusive, or not studied. Tubo-ovarian branches were recorded if visualized prior to and/or after embolization. Menopausal symptoms were recorded (n = 175 at 3 months, n = 139 at 6 months, n = 98 at 1 year, n = 22 at 2 years) using written questionnaires. Five hundred and fourteen uterine arteries (n = 514) were evaluated. There were 38% classifiable types, 23% inconclusive, and 39% not studied. Classification was as follows: type I, 45%; type II, 6%; type III, 43%; type IV, 6%. Among 256 patients, tubo-ovarian arteries were seen in 36 prior to embolization, but not afterwards. In this group, 25 patients reported transient menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, amenorrhea). Five patients did not report any menopausal symptoms. Six patients did not answer the questionnaires. Type I is the most common type of anatomy, followed by type III. The tubo-ovarian arteries may be visualized prior to and/or after embolization. The embolization was monitored to avoid embolization of the tubo-ovarian branches. Menopausal symptoms were transient all patients when the tubo-ovarian branches were seen prior to embolization.

Gomez-Jorge, Jackeline [University of Miami School of Medicine, PO Box 016960 (R-109), Miami, FL 33101, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail:; Keyoung, Andrew [Georgetown University Hospital, CCC Building Ground Floor, 3800 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007, Department of Radiology (United States); Levy, Elliot B.; Spies, James B. [University of Miami School of Medicine, PO Box 016960 (R-109), Miami, FL 33101, Department of Radiology (United States)



Surgical Methods for the Treatment of Uterine Fibroids – Risk of Uterine Sarcoma and Problems of Morcellation: Position Paper of the DGGG  

PubMed Central

The appropriate surgical technique to treat patients with uterine fibroids is still a matter of debate as is the potential risk of incorrect treatment if histological examination detects a uterine sarcoma instead of uterine fibroids. The published epidemiology for uterine sarcoma is set against the incidence of accidental findings during surgery for uterine fibroids. International comments on this topic are discussed and are incorporated into the assessment by the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). The ICD-O-3 version of 2003 was used for the anatomical and topographical coding of uterine sarcomas, and the “Operations- und Prozedurenschlüssel” (OPS) 2014, the German standard for process codes and interventions, was used to determine surgical extirpation methods. Categorical qualifiers were defined to analyze the data provided by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the German Federal Bureau of Statistics (DESTATIS; Hospital and Causes of Death Statistics), the population-based Cancer Register of Bavaria. A systematic search was done of the MEDLINE database and the Cochrane collaboration, covering the period from 1966 until November 2014. The incidence of uterine sarcoma and uterine fibroids in uterine surgery was compared to the literature and with the different registries. The incidence of uterine sarcoma in 2010, standardized for age, was 1.53 for Bavaria, or 1.30 for every 100?000 women, respectively, averaged for the years 2002–2011, and 1.30 for every 100?000 women in Germany. The mean incidence collated from various surveys was 2.02 for every 100?000 women (0.35–7.02; standard deviation 2.01). The numbers of inpatient surgical procedures such as myoma enucleation, morcellation, hysterectomy or cervical stump removal to treat the indication “uterine myoma” have steadily declined in Germany across all age groups (an absolute decrease of 17?% in 2012 compared to 2007). There has been a shift in the preferred method of surgical access from an abdominal/vaginal approach to endoscopic or endoscopically assisted procedures to treat uterine fibroids, with the use of morcellation increasing by almost 11?000 coded procedures in 2012. Based on international statements (AAGL, ACOG, ESGE, FDA, SGO) on the risk of uterine sarcoma as an coincidental finding during uterine fibroid surgery and the associated risk of a deterioration of prognosis (in the case of morcellation procedures), this overview presents the opinion of the DGGG in the form of four Statements, five Recommendation and four Demands. PMID:25797958

Beckmann, M. W.; Juhasz-Böss, I.; Denschlag, D.; Gaß, P.; Dimpfl, T.; Harter, P.; Mallmann, P.; Renner, S. P.; Rimbach, S.; Runnebaum, I.; Untch, M.; Brucker, S. Y.; Wallwiener, D.



Cholangiocarcinoma Presenting as Uterine Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Metastases to the female genital tract are rare, with metastatic disease restricted to the uterus being even less frequent. The primary tumor is most often intragenital rather than extragenital. The diagnosis is usually made after occurrence of gynecological symptoms. We describe the case of a 26-year-old female, in whom a curettage for menorrhagia revealed a uterine malignancy, at first thought to be a carcinosarcoma. Biochemistry only showed iron deficiency anemia. Imaging showed discrepant results with liver lesions, suspect of neoplastic or inflammatory disease. She underwent an abdominal hysterectomy and, peroperatively, a frozen section of a mass in the liver hilus demonstrated a cholangiocarcinoma. The diagnosis of a uterine metastasized cholangiocarcinoma was made. We emphasize the fact that uterine metastases have to be excluded in every woman with abnormal uterine bleeding and a personal history of malignancy. However, our case also indicates that gynecological metastatic disease may be the first presentation of an extragenital primary neoplasm. PMID:25610676

Dendas, W.; Cappelle, L.; Verguts, J.; Orye, G.



Uterine Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials

Programs and Projects Uterine Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Ongoing Phase I/II Prevention Trials Funded and Monitored by the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG) Principal Investigator Funding Mechanism Title of Award


What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Uterine Sarcoma?  


... for uterine sarcoma? What should you ask your doctor about uterine sarcoma? It is important for you ... and Staging Treating Uterine Sarcoma Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Uterine Sarcoma Research? ...


Ultrastructural changes in bronchoalveolar lavage cells in sarcoidosis and comparison with the tissue granuloma.  

PubMed Central

The authors undertook this study to determine whether there were any morphologic changes in bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytes and macrophages in sarcoidosis and, in particular, to determine whether changes described previously in the mononuclear phagocytes of sarcoid granulomas were also evident in such cells obtained by lavage. Lavage cells from 28 sarcoidosis patients were studied by transmission electron microscopy and compared with lavage cells from 17 control subjects and with lung tissue granulomas from 5 sarcoidosis patients. Interactions between mononuclear phagocytes, especially subplasmalemmal linear densities, and between these cells and lymphocytes were observed in both the tissue granulomas and lavage specimens from sarcoidosis patients. Subplasmalemmal linear densities were never observed in control lavage specimens. Fully developed epitheloid cells were not identified in lavage specimens, but differences were nevertheless found between the lavage cells from sarcoidosis patients and control subjects: in particular, alveolar macrophages in sarcoidosis were larger and showed better developed pseudopodia, more marked polarity, less nuclear heterochromatin, and lysosomes that were larger and more numerous but less electron-dense than normal. Lymphocytes were also enlarged and contained more lysosomes. It is concluded that although there are only a few similarities between the cells of the granuloma and those obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage in sarcoidosis, there are noticeable differences between the lavage cells of sarcoidosis patients and control subjects. In sarcoidosis, a variable proportion (10-70%) of the lavage cells show morphologic features of "activation." Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6859231

Danel, C.; Dewar, A.; Corrin, B.; Turner-Warwick, M.; Chretien, J.



Ulipristal acetate: in uterine fibroids.  


Ulipristal acetate, a selective progesterone-receptor modulator, inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of leiomyoma cells in vitro. It also modulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors and hormone receptors and modulates extracellular matrix breakdown in leiomyoma cells but not in myometrial cells. In two randomized, double-blind, multinational phase III trials of 13 weeks' duration in women aged 18-50 years with uterine fibroids, a once-daily regimen of oral ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day controlled excessive uterine bleeding (primary endpoint) in ?90% of patients. Ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day was more effective than placebo and was shown to be noninferior to intramuscular leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg once monthly in controlling uterine bleeding. Uterine bleeding was rapidly controlled by ulipristal acetate. Approximately half of recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day became amenorrhoeic within the first 10 days of treatment. Furthermore, uterine bleeding was controlled significantly more rapidly for recipients of ulipristal acetate than recipients of leuprolide acetate. A significantly greater median reduction from baseline in total fibroid volume was observed for recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg once daily than recipients of placebo following 13 weeks' treatment (coprimary endpoint). For patients who did not undergo surgery, the volume reduction was maintained for at least 6 months after discontinuing treatment. Ulipristal acetate was generally well tolerated in women with uterine fibroids. The incidence of hot flush occurred with a significantly lower frequency for recipients of ulipristal acetate than for recipients of leuprolide acetate. PMID:22568731

Croxtall, Jamie D



Simultaneous determination of trace elements in lavage fluids from human bronchial alveoli by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence. 3. Routine analysis  

SciTech Connect

We applied the energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique to determination of trace elements in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Our analysis of more than 200 samples allowed us to determine normal reference values, to be used in characterizing occupational exposure. These values are expressed both in nanograms per 1000 cells (of all kinds) and nanograms per 1000 macrophages to correlate lavage efficiency and dust content of the alveoli. The result expressed in milligrams per liter is not sufficient, because some healthy volunteers showed high concentrations of iron but normal values when expressed vs the number of cells. Some examples of abnormal compositions of broncho-alveolar lavages are reported and the fully automated spectrometer developed for clinical and biological investigations is described.

Maier, E.A.; Dietemann-Molard, A.; Rastegar, F.; Heimburger, R.; Ruch, C.; Maier, A.; Roegel, E.; Leroy, M.J.



Modified Uterine Allotransplantation and Immunosuppression Procedure in the Sheep Model  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop an orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation technique and an effective immunosuppressive protocol in the sheep model. Methods In this pilot study, 10 sexually mature ewes were subjected to laparotomy and total abdominal hysterectomy with oophorectomy to procure uterus allografts. The cold ischemic time was 60 min. End-to-end vascular anastomosis was performed using continuous, non-interlocking sutures. Complete tissue reperfusion was achieved in all animals within 30 s after the vascular re-anastomosis, without any evidence of arterial or venous thrombosis. The immunosuppressive protocol consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and methylprednisolone tablets. Graft viability was assessed by transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Results Viable uterine tissue and vascular patency were observed on transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy. Histological analysis of the graft tissue (performed in one ewe) revealed normal tissue architecture with a very subtle inflammatory reaction but no edema or stasis. Conclusion We have developed a modified procedure that allowed us to successfully perform orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation in sheep, whose uterine and vascular anatomy (apart from the bicornuate uterus) is similar to the human anatomy, making the ovine model excellent for human uterine transplant research. PMID:24278415

Yang, Hong; Zhao, Guang-Yue; Zhang, Geng; Lu, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Yan-Hong; Ma, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Hai-Xia; Liang, Sheng-Ru; Yang, Fang; Chen, Bi-Liang



Novel genes induce uterine receptivity: the characterization of a specific gene product in the ewe uterus  

E-print Network

. However, genes important to uterine receptivity are relatively uncharacterized. In previous experiments, the technique of Differential Display-Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to identify novel endometrial genes that are expressed in receptive versus...

De Graauw, Jennifer Ann



Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in lung parenchyma  

SciTech Connect

Numerical concentrations of asbestos bodies (AB) were measured by light microscopy both in samples of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and in samples of lung parenchyma from 69 patients with suspected asbestos-related diseases who had had lavages and later open lung biopsies or autopsies. Objectives were to study the recovery of pulmonary AB by BAL and the ability of BAL concentrations to predict parenchymal concentrations. BAL and parenchymal concentrations were both spread over 6 orders of magnitude and were positively correlated (r = 0.74 between logarithmic values). It is believed that, by a process of progressive elution, AB firmly adherent to the alveolar wall become suspended in BAL fluid; such suspended bodies represent roughly 2% of all the bodies stored in the portion of lung lavaged. Recovery is associated with great interindividual variations. When a measured BAL concentration exceeds 1 AB/ml, it can be quite confidently predicted, however, that the parenchymal concentration is in excess of 1000 AB/g and that the patient has experienced a nontrivial asbestos exposure.

Sebastien, P.; Armstrong, B.; Monchaux, G.; Bignon, J.



Intracavitary combined with CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy for locally advanced uterine cervical cancer: introduction of the technique and a case presentation.  


We report a new technique of brachytherapy consisting of intracavitary combined with computed tomography (CT)-guided interstitial brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. A Fletcher-Suit applicator and trocar point needles were used for performing high-dose rate brachytherapy under in-room CT guidance. First, a tandem and ovoids were implanted into the patient's vagina and uterus by conventional brachytherapy method. Based on clinical examination and MRI/CT imaging, operating radiation oncologists decided the positions of insertion in the tumor and the depth of the needles from the upper surface of the ovoid. Insertion of the needle applicator was performed from the vaginal vault inside the ovoid within the tumor under CT guidance. In treatment planning, dwell positions and time adaptations within the tandem and ovoids were performed first for optimization based on the Manchester system, and then stepwise addition of dwell positions within the needle was continued. Finally, dwell positions and dwell weights were manually modified until dose-volume constraints were optimally matched. In our pilot case, the dose of D90 to high-risk clinical target volume was improved from 3.5 Gy to 6.1 Gy by using our hybrid method on the dose-volume histogram. D1cc of the rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon by our hybrid method was 4.8 Gy, 6.4 Gy and 3.5 Gy, respectively. This method consists of advanced image-guided brachytherapy that can be performed safely and accurately. This approach has the potential of increasing target coverage, treated volume, and total dose without increasing the dose to organs at risk. PMID:21293072

Wakatsuki, Masaru; Ohno, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Daisaku; Noda, Shin-ei; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Shibuya, Kei; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Takeo; Nakano, Takashi



Bronchoalveolar lavage and gallium-67 lung scanning in the evaluation of asbestos-exposed individuals  

SciTech Connect

In this study, an attempt is made to evaluate certain parameters that might indicate the beginning of a certain fibrogenic activity in the lung parenchyma, even before such changes become visible on the chest x-ray. The hypothesis is that studies such as certain bronchoalveolar immunological characteristics and Gallium-67 lung scans may be more sensitive indicators of parenchymal lung damage in response to asbestos inhalation than conventional radiographic criteria. If so, then in those cases where the criteria for the diagnosis of asbestosis lack the presence of parenchymal changes, it would be unwise to deny the diagnosis unless further investigation, such as the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis and the Gallium-67 lung scan techniques, are made available. The most significant laboratory parameter for bronchoalveolar lavage, in this study, is that of Neutrophils (PMNs). All three asbestos-exposed groups showed no differences when compared with each other, while such differences were statistically significant when such groups were separately compared with the normal comparison group. A similar finding existed also when the Helper: suppressor T-Cell ratios were compared, and found to be higher in all the asbestos-exposed groups.

Al-Tawil, W.G.



Pig blastocyst-uterine interactions.  


The litter-bearing pig is an invaluable model for research in reproductive biology. Spherical pig blastocysts on Day 10 of pregnancy undergo rapid morphological changes to tubular and then filamentous forms by Day 12 and a filamentous conceptus of almost 1m in length by Day 16 of pregnancy. Thus, trophectoderm of each conceptus achieves intimate contact with luminal uterine epithelium (LE) for exchange of nutrients, gases, hormones, growth factors and other key molecules for survival and development. Estrogens secreted between Days 11 and 13 of pregnancy signals pregnancy recognition to ensure that nutrients and prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGF) are secreted into the uterine lumen (exocrine secretion) rather than into the uterine vein (endocrine secretion) which would lead to regression of the corpora lutea (CL) and failure to maintain pregnancy. Pigs have a true epitheliochorial placenta. The fluid filled amnion bouys the embryo so that it develops symmetrically. The allantois fills with allantoic fluid to expand contact of the chorioallantois with uterine LE, and the allanotois supports the vascular system of the placenta. The chorion/trophectoderm in direct contact with uterine LE exchanges gases and nutrients and forms unique structures call areolae that absorb nutrient-rich secretions from uterine glands and transports them directly into fetal blood. The period from Days 20 to 70 of pregnancy is for placental growth in preparation for rapid fetal growth between Days 70 and 114 (term) of gestation. Maturation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leads to increases in secretion of cortisol from the fetal adrenal glands. Cortisol sets in motion secretion of estrogens, oxytocin, relaxin and prolactin, as well as increases in their receptors, which are required for delivery of piglets and for initiation of lactation and expression of maternal behavior. This review provides details of gestation in the pig with respect to uterine biology, implantation, placentation, fetal development and parturition. PMID:24388881

Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A



Can Uterine Sarcoma Be Found Early?  


... Sarcoma + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE ... Uterine Sarcoma? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Uterine Sarcoma Talking With ...


Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection following uterine instrumentation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding.  


Shunt infections are most common within the first 6 months following implantation. A shunt infection 19 years after implantation secondary to uterine ablation has not been reported to our knowledge. Office hysteroscopic procedures have become commonplace in gynecologic practice. Infectious complication rates are low, but peritonitis has been described. We present a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection following a uterine ablation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Three days following the ablation she developed abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen 5 months after the procedure revealed a pseudocyst. She then underwent removal of her shunt with intra-operative cultures revealing Streptococcus agalactiae. Definitive treatment consisted of shunt explantation and antibiotic treatment with complete resolution of her pain and pseudocyst. Consideration for prophylactic antibiotics should be made when a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt undergoes any transvaginal procedure. PMID:24656752

Shaw, Andrew B; Marlin, Evan S; Ikeda, Daniel S; Ammirati, Mario



Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Docetaxel, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Uterine Sarcoma That Has Been Removed By Surgery

Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Corpus Leiomyosarcoma



Partial uterine prolapse associated with uterine foreign body in a cow.  


After correction of partial uterine prolapse in a Holstein cow, a 6-cm-long twig was found deep in the affected uterine horn. The twig was removed, and calcium-dextrose and penicillin G were administered. Recovery was unremarkable. Other reports of uterine foreign bodies in cows are scarce and do not describe uterine foreign bodies associated with uterine prolapse or invagination. PMID:2211330

Levine, H D



Total and acute uterine inversion after delivery: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Uterine inversion is a rare obstetric emergency that can lead to hypovolemic shock or even maternal death. There are many management strategies, but they are poorly described and dispersed in the medical literature. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of complete acute uterine inversion and a review of the literature. Case presentation The authors describe a case of complete uterine inversion after a normal delivery with fundal placenta and without cord traction, in a 33-year-old Caucasian woman. After the diagnosis was made and after several attempts of manual correction of the inversion, the patient was taken immediately to the operating room and a laparotomy was performed. With opposing pressures in the cervical ring through the abdominal cavity and on the uterus fundus through her vagina, the inversion was resolved. An incision on the cervical ring was unnecessary. Due to incomplete detachment of the placenta the bleeding was mild. She recovered without complications and the histological examination of placenta was unremarkable. In this case, the only risk factor for uterine inversion was the fundal implantation of the placenta. Conclusions The low incidence of uterine inversion leads to sparse experience in resolving this obstetrical emergency. The best prognosis occurs in situations where the diagnosis and maneuvers for uterine reversal are made at an early stage. The authors concluded that opposing pressures in the cervical ring through the abdominal cavity and on the uterus fundus through the vagina can resolve the inversion without the need of other surgical techniques. It is essential to keep in mind this diagnosis, and be updated about the strategies required to solve this complication. PMID:25326075



Uterine fibroids associated with infertility.  


In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the contributory role of uterine fibroids to infertility. The prevalence of these tumors increases with age, which becomes significant as more women are delaying childbearing. Therefore, fibroids and infertility frequently occur together. Treatment varies with fibroid location and size. The various methods of treatment include open myomectomy, laparoscopic or robot-assisted myomectomy, medical treatment, uterine artery embolization and magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery. While there is a general consensus on the treatment of submucosal fibroids, the management of intramural fibroids in the infertility patient remains controversial. This paper aims to review and summarize the current literature in regards to the approach to uterine fibroids in the infertile patient. PMID:25482490

Van Heertum, Kristin; Barmat, Larry



Surgical Management of Neurovascular Bundle in Uterine Fibroid Pseudocapsule  

PubMed Central

The uterine fibroid pseudocapsule is a fibro-neurovascular structure surrounding a leiomyoma, separating it from normal peripheral myometrium. The fibroid pseudocapsule is composed of a neurovascular network rich in neurofibers similar to the neurovascular bundle surrounding a prostate. The nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy has several intriguing parallels to myomectomy. It may serve either as a useful model in modern fibroid surgical removal, or it may accelerate our understanding of the role of the fibrovascular bundle and neurotransmitters in the healing and restoration of reproductive potential after intracapsular myomectomy. Surgical innovations, such as laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy applied to the intracapsular technique with magnification of the fibroid pseudocapsule surrounding a leiomyoma, originated from the radical prostatectomy method that highlighted a careful dissection of the neurovascular bundle to preserve sexual functioning after prostatectomy. Gentle uterine leiomyoma detachment from the pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle has allowed a reduction in uterine bleeding and uterine musculature trauma with sparing of the pseudocapsule neuropeptide fibers. This technique has had a favorable impact on functionality in reproduction and has improved fertility outcomes. Further research should determine the role of the myoma pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle in the formation, growth, and pathophysiological consequences of fibroids, including pain, infertility, and reproductive outcomes. PMID:22906340

Malvasi, Antonio; Hurst, Brad S.; Tsin, Daniel A.; Davila, Fausto; Dominguez, Guillermo; Dell'edera, Domenico; Cavallotti, Carlo; Negro, Roberto; Gustapane, Sarah; Teigland, Chris M.; Mettler, Liselotte



Effect of bronchopulmonary lavage on lung retention and clearance of particulate material in hamsters  

SciTech Connect

Hamsters were exposed to an aerosol of fused aluminosilicate particles (FAP) labeled with [sup 57]CO. Three groups of animals were given bronchopulmonary lavage, beginning at either 1 week, 1 month, or 6 months after exposure. Each treated group was lavaged eight times over a period of 25 days. Each lavage involved 10 saline washes of the lungs. For each group, about 60-70% of the body content of [sup 57]CO at the start of lavage treatment was removed; nearly half of this was recovered in the first two lavages. A positive correlation was demonstrated between the macrophage content and [sup 57]Co activity of the washings. The subsequent fractional clearance rate of [sup 57]Co from lavaged animals was not significantly different from that in a group of untreated control animals. 30 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Ellender, M.; Hodgson, A.; Wood, K.L.; Moody, J.C. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom))



Evaluating the effect of intraoperative peritoneal lavage on bacterial culture in dogs with suspected septic peritonitis  

PubMed Central

This pilot study describes the effect of intraoperative peritoneal lavage (IOPL) on bacterial counts and outcome in clinical cases of septic peritonitis. Intraoperative samples were cultured before and after IOPL. Thirty-three dogs with presumed septic peritonitis on the basis of cytology were managed surgically during the study period. Positive pre-lavage bacterial cultures were found in 14 cases, 13 of which were a result of intestinal leakage. The post-lavage cultures showed fewer isolates in 9 cases and in 1 case became negative. The number of dogs with a decrease in the concentration of bacteria cultured from pre-lavage to post-lavage samples was not statistically significant. There was no significant effect of the change in pre- to post-lavage culture, single versus multiple types of bacteria, selection of an appropriate empiric antimicrobial on survival or the need for subsequent surgery. PMID:23450861

Swayne, Seanna L.; Brisson, Brigitte; Weese, J. Scott; Sears, William



Synovitis induced by joint lavage with hypertonic saline solutions in healthy dairy calves  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single joint lavage with 7.2% or 15% hypertonic saline solutions (HSS) on the tarsocrural joints of healthy calves. The tarsi of 10 calves were randomly lavaged with 7.2% HSS, 15% HSS, or isotonic saline. Synovial fluid samples were collected aseptically on days 1 (before joint lavage), 2, 3, 4, and 8 for complete cytological analysis. Lameness, joint swelling, and pain were recorded daily. Calves were euthanized on day 8 for gross and histological analyses of synovial membranes and articular cartilage. Synovitis was evaluated using a scoring system reflecting inflammatory changes in synovial membranes. Joints irrigated with HSS were more distended and painful compared with isotonic control joints. Swelling decreased consistently in the joints lavaged with 7.2% HSS, whereas it remained unchanged in joints lavaged with 15% HSS. Slight to moderate lameness was observed in the joints lavaged with 15% HSS. In comparison to isotonic saline joints, total protein concentration was significantly increased on day 2 and 3 for the joints lavaged with 7.2% HSS (P ? 0.01) and on days 2, 3, and 4 in the joints lavaged with 15% HSS (P ? 0.0006). Gross and histological findings revealed that synovitis was more severe in the joints lavaged with 15% HSS but variable in the joints lavaged with 7.2% HSS. No significant differences were observed for the articular cartilage. Fifteen percent HSS is not recommended for joint lavage. Although irrigation with 7.2% HSS may induce a variable synovitis, it was found appropriate for joint lavage. Its effects on septic joints remain undetermined. PMID:23024450

Achard, Damien; Francoz, David; Desrochers, André; Girard, Christiane; Piché, Caroline



Peritoneal Tap and Lavage in Patients with Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Their Contribution to Surgical Decisions  

PubMed Central

In a study of 51 patients with a history of blunt abdominal trauma, peritoneal tap and lavage made a positive contribution to the diagnostic process in 15 cases. Thirteen patients had early definitive operation on the basis of tap and lavage evidence which overruled the clinical evaluation, and two patients were managed conservatively when a negative tap and lavage contradicted the clinical decision. PMID:5162323

Pacey, J.; Forward, A. D.; Preto, A. F.



The Hazards of Gastric Lavage for Intentional Self-Poisoning in a Resource Poor Location  

PubMed Central

Objective: The 10-20% case fatality found with self-poisoning in the developing world differs markedly from the 0.5% found in the West. This may explain in part why the recent movement away from the use of gastric lavage in the West has not been followed in the developing world. After noting probable harm from gastric lavage in Sri Lanka, we performed an observational study to determine how lavage is routinely performed and the frequency of complications. Case series: Fourteen consecutive gastric lavages were observed in four hospitals. Lavage was given to patients unable or unwilling to undergo forced emesis, regardless of whether they gave consent or the time elapsed since ingestion. It was also given to patients who had taken non-lethal ingestions. The airway was rarely protected in patients with reduced consciousness, large volumes of fluid were given for each cycle (200 to more than 1000 ml), and monitoring was not used. Serious complications likely to be due to the lavage were observed including cardiac arrest and probable aspiration of fluid. Health care workers perceived lavage as being highly effective and often life-saving; there was peer and relative pressure to perform lavage in self-poisoned patients. Conclusions: Gastric lavage as performed for highly toxic poisons in a resource-poor location is hazardous. In the absence of evidence for patient benefit from lavage, (and in agreement with some local guidelines), we believe that lavage should be considered for few patients – in those who have recently taken a potentially fatal dose of a poison, and who either give their verbal consent for the procedure or are sedated and intubated. Ideally, a randomised controlled trial should be performed to determine the balance of risks and benefits of safely performed gastric lavage in this patient population. PMID:17364630

Eddleston, Michael; Haggalla, Sapumal; Reginald, K; Sudarshan, K; Senthilkumaran, M; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Ariaratnam, Ariaranee; Sheriff, M H Rezvi; Warrell, David A; Buckley, Nick A



Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens in eight samples. The organism was found as a sole bacterilogical findings in five of the samples as well as in combination with Mannheimia haemolytica, Haemophilus somni and Salmonella Dublin. This is the first report of isolation of M. alkalescens in Denmark. PMID:17204146

Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F; Ahrens, Peter



Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.



The hormonal control of uterine luminal fluid secretion and absorption.  


The secretion of uterine luminal fluid initially provides a transport and support medium for spermatozoa and unimplanted embryos, while the absorption of uterine luminal fluid in early pregnancy results in the closure of the lumen and allows blastocysts to establish intimate contact with the uterine epithelium. We have established an in vivo perfusion technique of the lumen to study the hormonal control of the events in the peri-implantation period. Fluorescein-labelled dextran was included in the perfusion medium to monitor fluid movements and the concentrations of Na(+) and CI(-) ions in the effluent were monitored. Using an established regimen of steroid treatment of ovariectomized rats mimicking early pregnancy, oestradiol caused fluid secretion, while progesterone resulted in an amiloride-sensitive fluid absorption. Fluid absorption peaked at about the expected time of implantation. The effect of progesterone could be inhibited by treatment with a high dose of oestradiol, by the anti-progestin RU486, and by the presence of an intra-uterine contraceptive device. Studies of expression of Na(+) and CI(-) channels (ENaC, CFTR) indicated that these channels were subject to tissue-specific regulation within the uterus, but more work is required to determine their role and the factors controlling their abundance and localization in early pregnancy. PMID:16440178

Salleh, N; Baines, D L; Naftalin, R J; Milligan, S R



Obstetric outcomes after uterine myomectomy: Laparoscopic versus laparotomic approach  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the pregnancy-related complications after laparoscopic and laparotomic uterine myomectomy. Methods A retrospective study of 415 women who received laparoscopic (n = 340) or laparotomic (n = 75) resection of uterine leiomyomas in one center. The mean follow-up period was 26.5 months in laparoscopic group and 23.9 months in laparotomic group. Results Fifty-four and 12 pregnancies occurred in laparoscopic and laparotomic myomectomy group, respectively. The major obstetric outcomes were similar between two groups. There was no ectopic pregnancy or preterm birth. There were two cases of obstetric complication in laparoscopic group only; one experienced neonatal death and postpartum hemorrhage due to placental abruption and the other underwent subtotal hysterectomy due to uterine dehiscence identified during Cesarean section. Conclusion Uterine rupture or dehiscence after laparoscopic myomectomy occurred in 3.7% (2/54) which lead to unfavorable outcome. Appropriate selection of patients and secure suture techniques appears to be important for laparotomic myomectomy in reproductive-aged women. PMID:24396816

Kim, Myo Sun; Uhm, You Kyoung; Kim, Ju Yeong; Kim, Yong Beom



Successful pregnancy after treatment with ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroids.  


This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5?mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment. PMID:25143845

Monleón, Javier; Martínez-Varea, Alicia; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio



Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids  

PubMed Central

This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5?mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment. PMID:25143845

Monleón, Javier; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio



Biological roles of uterine glands in pregnancy.  


All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

Spencer, Thomas E



Biological Roles of Uterine Glands in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

Spencer, Thomas E.



Peritoneal taurolidine lavage in children with localised peritonitis due to appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite aggressive surgical treatment, rational antibiotic therapy, and modern intensive care, generalised peritonitis remains a major threat in the paediatric age group. Several adjuvant strategies such as peritoneal saline lavage and peritoneal drainage have been utilised. Taurolidine, derived from the amino acid taurine, has bactericidic, antiendotoxic, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been introduced previously for intraoperative peritoneal lavage in treating

Axel Schneider; Ulrich Sack; Karin Rothe; Joachim Bennek



Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and their relation to therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchoalveolar lavage was used to sample inflammatory cells from the lungs of 51 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) (24 smokers, 12 ex-smokers, and 15 non-smokers). The smokers with CFA have been compared with 15 smoking control subjects in whom there was no radiographic abnormality or clinical evidence of chronic bronchitis. Significantly lower volumes of lavage fluid were recovered from

P L Haslam; C W Turton; A Lukoszek; A J Salsbury; A Dewar; J V Collins; M Turner-Warwick



Effectiveness of polyethylene glycol antegrade gut lavage bowel preparation for colonoscopy—timing is the key!  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Polyethylene glycol gut lavage is an effective bowel preparation for colonoscopy. The quality of the preparation is not uniform however, and most studies report a rate of suboptimal cleansing of 10 percent or more. One of the possible reasons for a poor preparation is the length of time between the lavage and the examination. The aim of this study

James M. Church



Upper airway response in workers exposed to fuel oil ash: nasal lavage analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--Among other constituents, fuel oil ash contains vanadium pentoxide, a known respiratory irritant. Exposure to ambient vanadium pentoxide dust has been shown to produce irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. The usefulness of nasal lavage in detecting an inflammatory response to exposure to fuel oil ash among 37 boilermakers and utility workers was investigated. METHODS--A baseline lavage was performed

R Hauser; S Elreedy; J A Hoppin; D C Christiani



Serial bronchoscopic lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis under local anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease, characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids due to defective surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages. Mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage, which requires general anesthesia. Herein, we report a case of primary PAP, successfully treated with serial bronchoscopic lung lavages under local anesthesia.

Davis, K. Rennis; Vadakkan, D. Thomas; Krishnakumar, E. V.; Anas, A. Muhammed



Detection of Equid herpesvirus type 2 and 5 DNA in uterine flushings of mares with reproductive disorders.  


In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of the potential pathogenic significance of equine gammaherpesviruses in the horse. In humans, cattle and mice, gammaherpesviruses have already been associated with uterine infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of gammaherpesviruses in uterine flushings of mares with reproductive problems and to evaluate if there was a possible statistical association with clinical and laboratory findings in these cases. A total of 80 uterine flushings were collected from 61 mares with different reproductive problems and these were tested for equine herpesviruses (EHV) 1-5 by PCR. In the case of each mare in the study, the age, history of infertility, presence of anatomical defects in the reproductive tract, presence of systemic or local disease at time of sampling, phase in the oestrous cycle, post-partum interval, nature of uterine lavage performed (low versus large volume lavage), cytological and bacteriological examination results from the uterine flushing, and PCR herpesvirus results were recorded. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify possible statistical associations and risk factors. Nine out of 61 mares (14.7%) had EHV-5 DNA in their uterine flushings. Co-infections with EHV-1 and EHV-2 were present in two cases. Of all the variables analyzed, only the cytological examination findings were associated with EHV-5 PCR positive results, both on univariate and multivariable analysis, especially in cases with an inflammation score of 3. It is postulated that presence of EHV-5 infection in the non-pregnant uterus may have a role to play in reproductive dysfunction and have a negative consequence on the pregnant uterus. Additional studies involving both healthy mares and mares with reproductive problems need to be performed, however, to elucidate whatever role equine gammaherpesviruses may play in the reproductive tract. This would be very worthwhile, since reproductive problems can have a significant impact on the equine breeding industry. Gaining a greater understanding of its causes could lead to new approaches for prevention and treatment. PMID:25455084

Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Sforna, Monica; Stefanetti, Valentina; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Brignone, Luca; Del Sero, Andrea; Falcioni, Fabio; Orvieto, Simona; Tamantini, Cristina; Tiburzi, Alessandra; Valentini, Silvia; Coletti, Mauro; Timoney, Peter J; Passamonti, Fabrizio



Autofluorescent particles of human uterine muscle cells.  

PubMed Central

Smooth muscle tissue collected from the uterine fundus of 24 patients undergoing hysterectomy was examined for chromolipoid pigments by histochemical and electron microscopic techniques. Certain cytoplasmic particles were found, mainly in smooth muscle cells, which exhibited characteristic autofluorescence, sudanophilia, and acid phosphatase activity but did not correspond to any typical pigment described previously. These particles were present in all subjects and they tended to increase in number with age. Chemical tests on tissue lipid extracts failed to prove that vitamin A was responsible for the fluorescence. The ultrastructural appearance of the particles somewhat variable, but most particles were rounded and of low electron density, with a lucent central space and dense bodies, probably lysosomes, at the periphery. The whole complex was enclosed by a single trilaminar membrane. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 4 PMID:645817

Gosden, R. G.; Hawkins, H. K.; Gosden, C. A.



Redistribution of aquaporins in uterine epithelial cells at the time of implantation in the rat.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of aquaporins 1, 4 and 5 in uterine epithelial cells during the early stages of pregnancy in the rat. Immunofluorescent and immunogold techniques showed that there was a shift of aquaporin 5 to the apical surface of uterine epithelial cells in the mesometrial pole of the uterus at the time of implantation. This study also revealed the absence of aquaporin 4 in the rat uterus during early pregnancy. Aquaporin 1 was observed in stromal blood vessels but there was no change in uterine epithelial cells during early pregnancy. These results suggest that aquaporin 5 plays an important role in the removal of uterine luminal fluid at the time of implantation in the rat and may contribute to the antimesometrial positioning of the implanting blastocyst. PMID:15350812

Lindsay, Laura A; Murphy, Christopher R



Cesarean scar defects: an underrecognized cause of abnormal uterine bleeding and other gynecologic complications.  


The gynecologic sequelae due to deficient uterine scar healing after cesarean section are only recently being identified and described. These include conditions such as abnormal bleeding, pelvic pain, infertility, and cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, as well as a potentially higher risk of complications and difficulties during gynecologic procedures such as uterine evacuation, hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, and insertion of an intrauterine device. The proposed mechanism of abnormal uterine bleeding is a pouch or "isthmocele" in the lower uterine segment that causes delayed menstrual bleeding. The prevalence of symptomatic or clinically relevant cesarean scar defects (CSDs) ranges from 19.4% to 88%. Possible risk factors for CSD include number of cesarean sections, uterine position, labor before cesarean section, and surgical technique used to close the uterine incision. There are no accepted guidelines for the diagnostic criteria of CSD. We propose that a CSD be defined on transvaginal ultrasound or saline infusion sonohysterography as a triangular hypoechoic defect in the myometrium at the site of the previous hysterotomy. We also propose a classification system to aid in standardized classification for future research. Surgical techniques for repair of CSD include laparoscopic excision, resectoscopic treatment, vaginal revision, and endometrial ablation. PMID:23680518

Tower, Amanda M; Frishman, Gary N



Analysis of multitag pyrosequence data from human cervical lavage samples.  


We have been using the Roche GS-FLX sequencing platform to produce tens of thousands of sequencing reads from samples of both bacterial communities (microbiome) and fungal communities (mycobiome) of stool, gut mucosa, vaginal washes, and oral washes from a large number of subjects. This vast volume of data from diverse sources has necessitated the development of an analysis pipeline in order to systematically and rapidly identify the taxa within the samples and to correlate the sample data with clinical and environmental features. Specifically, we have developed automated analytical tools for data tracking, taxonomical analysis, and feature clustering of bacteria in the human microbiome and demonstrate the pipeline using Cervical Vaginal Lavage (CVL) samples. This analysis pipeline will not only provide insight to our specific CVL dataset, but is applicable to other microbiome samples and will ultimately broaden our understanding of how the microbiome influences human health. PMID:20491067

Naqvi, Ammar; Rangwala, Huzefa; Spear, Greg; Gillevet, Patrick



Pharmacological Treatment of Uterine Fibroids  

PubMed Central

Uterine fibroids (UF) are common, benign gynecologic tumors, affecting one in three to four women, with estimates of up to 80%, depending on the population studied. Their etiology is not well established, but it is under the influence of several risk factors, such as early menarche, nulliparity and family history. More than 50% of affected women are asymptomatic, but the lesions may be related to bothersome symptoms, such as abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain and bloating or urinary symptoms. The treatment of UF is classically surgical; however, various medical options are available, providing symptom control while minimizing risks and complications. A large number of clinical trials have evaluated commonly used medical treatments and potentially effective new ones. Through a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Scopus and Google Scholar databases, through which we included 41 studies out of 7658 results, we thoroughly explored the different pharmacological options available for management of UF, their indications, advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25364587

Moroni, RM; Vieira, CS; Ferriani, RA; Candido-dos-Reis, FJ; Brito, LGO



Molecular Approach to Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: LMP2-Deficient Mice as an Animal Model of Spontaneous Uterine Leiomyosarcoma  

E-print Network

Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) develops more often in the muscle tissue layer of the uterine body than in the uterine cervix. The development of gynecologic tumors is often correlated with female hormone secretion; however, ...

Hayashi, Takuma


Maternal Uterine Vascular Remodeling During Pregnancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms.

Maurizio Mandala (University of Calabria)



Paclitaxel and Intraperitoneal Carboplatin Followed by Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIC-IV Uterine Cancer

Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC1 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC2 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer



Uterine glands: biological roles in conceptus implantation, uterine receptivity and decidualization.  


All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in uterine receptivity, blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, and stromal cell decidualization. Studies with the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model support a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid histrotroph for conceptus survival and development. In rodents, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation and also may influence blastocyst trophectoderm activation and stromal cell decidualization in the uterus. Similarly in humans, histotroph from uterine glands appears critical for blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus nutrition during the first trimester and uterine glands likely have a role in stromal cell decidualization. An increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility problems, particularly infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, in domestic animals and humans. PMID:25023676

Filant, Justyna; Spencer, Thomas E



Uterine glands: biological roles in conceptus implantation, uterine receptivity, and decidualization  

PubMed Central

All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in uterine receptivity, blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, and stromal cell decidualization. Studies with the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model support a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid histrotroph for conceptus survival and development. In rodents, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation and also may influence blastocyst trophectoderm activation and stromal cell decidualization in the uterus. Similarly in humans, histotroph from uterine glands appears critical for blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus nutrition during the first trimester and uterine glands likely have a role in stromal cell decidualization. An increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility problems, particularly infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, in domestic animals and humans. PMID:25023676

Filant, Justyna; Spencer, Thomas E.



Gene therapy and uterine leiomyoma: a review.  


Leiomyomas (fibroids) are common estrogen-dependent uterine tumours that cause significant morbidity for women and a substantial economic impact on health delivery systems. Currently, there is no effective medical treatment option for this condition-hysterectomy is the mainstay of management. This is not an attractive choice for many women, especially patients desiring to preserve their fertility potential. Gene therapy is becoming a clinical reality, with more than 600 clinical trials worldwide. Researchers have recently attempted to develop a gene-therapy-based approach for the ablation of uterine fibroids. The localized nature of this condition and its accessibility using different imaging or endoscopic techniques make it an attractive target for direct delivery of gene-based vectors. Recent work from our laboratory suggests the potential use of a dominant-negative form of estrogen receptor (ER) to inactivate estrogen signalling in leiomyoma cells and induce apoptosis. Our in vivo data in a mouse model demonstrate the ability of an adenovirus-expressing dominant-negative ER to arrest leiomyoma growth. We and others also have described the utility of the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) plus ganciclovir (GCV) suicide gene-therapy system to effectively eradicate leiomyoma cells by utilizing the bystandard effect phenomena and the high expression of gap-junction protein in these tumours. Further work on rat models will pave the way for future leiomyoma gene-therapy clinical trials and allow the realization of gene therapy as a viable non-surgical option for this common problem in women's health. PMID:16603566

Al-Hendy, Ayman; Salama, Salama



Value of bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of pulmonary infection in acquired immune deficiency syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Seventy five patients with pulmonary disease and suspected acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) underwent fibreoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. Of 54 cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 53 (98%) were diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage. Complications were recorded in 12 instances and included pneumothorax in two and transient increase in fever and hypoxaemia in the remainder. Bronchoalveolar lavage is a safe, easy, and effective procedure for diagnosing pneumocystis pneumonia in patients at high risk of AIDS and should be done routinely when fibreoptic bronchoscopy is performed in such patients. PMID:3489298

Orenstein, M; Webber, C A; Cash, M; Heurich, A E



Uterine prolapse in 2 dromedary camels.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of uterine prolapse in dromedary camels in a herd with concomitant cases of white muscle disease are described. Serum selenium and glutathione peroxidase in whole blood were investigated in both patients and showed statistical difference compared with a control group. Results suggest that selenium deficiency could promote uterine prolapse in dromedary camels. PMID:11665430

Gutierrez, C; Corbera, J A; Morales, I; Morales, M; Navarro, R



Operative and Conservative Treatment of Uterine Sarcomas  

PubMed Central

Uterine sarcomas are rare, aggressive mesenchymal tumours with a relatively poor prognosis. The term comprises various histological subtypes, such as leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcomas as well as undifferentiated uterine sarcomas, which require different operative and systemic/radiation therapy strategies accordingly. The evidence on operative, adjuvant and palliative treatment currently available is presented here. PMID:24882876

Harter, P.; El-Khalfaoui, K.; Heitz, F.; du Bois, A.



Rare Endobronchial metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Uterine sarcomas are rare and represent approximately 3.2% of all invasive uterine cancers. The annual incidence rate is less than two per 100,000 women. The median age at which uterine sarcoma diagnosed is 56 years. The most common histologic pattern is leiomyosarcoma (LMS) which originates from the myometrium or myometrial vessels. Uterine LMSs are aggressive tumors with high rates of recurrence. The most common mode of spread is hematogenous, with lymphatic spread being rare. Recurrences of up to 70% are reported in stage I and II disease with the site of recurrence being distal, most commonly the lungs or the upper abdomen. But the intra bronchial spread is extremely rare. Here we are reporting a case of uterine LMS with endobronchial metastasis causing whole lung collapse.

Ghosh, Saswata; Kundu, Susmita; Pal, Amitava; Paul, Suman



Uterine metrology devices for IUD selection.  


Accurate measurements of the length of the uterine cavity would make it feasible to select an IUD that is compatible with a given cavity size. Considerable evidence exists to indicate that selecting an IUD on the basis of accurate longitudinal measurements of the uterine cavity improves IUD performance. There are study findings to suggest that as more data are available, specific IUDs can be prescribed for defined ranges of uterine cavity length. Metrology (uterine measuring) devices improve the ability of the clinican to measure accurately longitudinal and, in some instances, lateral dimensions of the uterine cavity. Longitudinal measurements depend on identifying the location of the internal os in order to determine the total length of the cervical canal. Lateral metrology devices also provide a measurement of uterine cavity width. Pain and discomfort associated with the use of the prototype lateral measurement instruments developed thus far is a major deterrent to their wide-scale use. 2 metrology devices -- the Crochet Hook Sound and the Hasson Wing Sound -- are designed to obtain longitudinal measurements of total uterine cavity length and of the length of the cervical canel. 2 new instruments -- the Cavimeter and the Hasson Wing Sound 2 -- designed to obtain both lateral and longitudinal measurements are now available for evaluation. The Hasson Wing Sound appears to be the only uterine metrology device available for service programs that could affect continuation rates of IUD users. It can measure the length of the uterine cavity directly, thus permitting improved IUD selection of individual women or the ability to exclude women who should not be IUD users because of small uterine size. An illustration of the prescriptive approach is included in a table. PMID:12278959



Preoperative Uterine Artery Embolization (PUAE) Before Uterine Fibroid Myomectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the potential of uterine artery embolization to minimize blood loss and facilitate easier removal of fibroids during subsequent myomectomy. Methods. This retrospective study included 22 patients (median age 37 years), of whom at least 15 wished to preserve their fertility. They presented with at least one fibroid (mean diameter 85.6 mm) and had undergone preoperative uterine artery embolization (PUAE) with resorbable gelatin sponge. Results. No complication or technical failure of embolization was identified. Myomectomies were performed during laparoscopy (12 cases) and laparotomy (9 cases). One hysterectomy was performed. The following were noted: easier dissection of fibroids (mean 5.6 per patient, range 1-30); mean intervention time 113 min (range 25-210 min); almost bloodless surgery, with a mean peroperative blood loss of 90 ml (range 0-806 ml); mean hemoglobin pretherapeutically 12.3 g/dl (range 5.9-15.2 g/dl) and post-therapeutically 10.3 g/dl (range 5.6-13.3 g/dl), with no blood transfusion needed. Patients were discharged on day 4 on average and the mean sick leave was 1 month. Conclusion. Preoperative embolization is associated with minimal intraoperative blood loss. It does not increase the complication rate or impair operative dissection, and improves the chances of performing conservative surgery.

Dumousset, E.; Chabrot, P.; Rabischong, B.; Mazet, N.; Nasser, S.; Darcha, C.; Garcier, J.M.; Mage, G.; Boyer, L. [Services de Radiologie B et Gynecologie, hopital G. Montpied, CHU Clermont Ferrand (France)], E-mail:



Uterine angioleiomyoma: a rare variant of uterine leiomyoma.  


Uterine angioleiomyoma is an extremely rare and unique variant of leiomyoma. It usually occurs in middle-aged women, who commonly present with menorrhagia, abdominal pain, or abdominal mass. The lesions are either single or multiple and manifest as submucosal, intramural, or subserosal whorled nodules. Microscopy of the individual nodule shows interlacing fascicles of spindle cells swirling around thick-walled blood vessels. Angioleiomyoma usually lacks mitotic figures, pleomorphism, or necrosis, although cases with marked nuclear atypia and multinucleated giant cells have been reported. The tumor cells are immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, desmin, h-caldesmon, and progesterone receptor, with a low Ki-67 labeling index. Because these lesions are vascular, they may undergo spontaneous rupture and pose a life-threatening emergency, especially in pregnancy. There are no specific imaging findings; therefore, a preoperative diagnosis is extremely difficult. It is important to recognize this entity and differentiate it from a malignancy, particularly when angioleiomyoma shows significant cytologic atypia or raised cancer antigen 125 levels by thorough sampling. When required, a proper immunohistochemical panel should be used to arrive at a correct diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on uterine angioleiomyoma and its clinical relevance. PMID:25076303

Garg, Garima; Mohanty, Sambit K



Management of uterine and vaginal prolapse in the bovine.  


Uterine prolapse in cows is a historic topic that is well discussed in scientific veterinary literature and texts, argued at legendary proportion between practitioners, and even referenced in western poetry. The condition occurs sporadically and is recognized easily, but sometimes it is not so easily repaired. This article discusses the replacement, repair, and removal of the uterus and helpful techniques and potential complications. Because the veterinarian occasionally encounters situations where manual eversion (iatrogenic prolapse) of the uterus is helpful, particularly for efficiently repairing the traumatized uterus in the field, a technique for iatrogenic prolapse is discussed. PMID:18471579

Miesner, Matt D; Anderson, David E



Lymphocyte subpopulations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in asbestos workers  

SciTech Connect

The authors examined peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid lymphocyte subpopulations in 29 asbestos workers, 10 with and 19 without clinical or radiologic evidence of asbestosis. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations were also measured in 13 control subjects. The mean OKT4:OKT8 (T-helper/inducer:T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocyte) ratio in BAL fluid in the 29 asbestos workers was 0.96, significantly less than 1.76 in peripheral blood. There were no significant differences in OKT4:OKT8 ratios in peripheral blood between the 10 patients with asbestosis, the 19 asbestos workers without asbestosis, and the 13 normal control subjects or in the OKT4:OKT8 ratios in BAL fluid between patients with asbestosis and asbestos workers without asbestosis. In the group as a whole, 83% of those who had suffered more than 5 yr of exposure to asbestos showed OKT4:OKT8 ratios less than 1.2, whereas in those who had suffered fewer than 5 yr of exposure, 80% showed ratios greater than 1.2. No other relationships between OKT4:OKT8 ratios and clinical, radiographic, or physiologic variables were observed.

Gellert, A.R.; Macey, M.G.; Uthayakumar, S.; Newland, A.C.; Rudd, R.M.



Dilute betadine lavage reduces implant-related bacterial burden in a rabbit knee prosthetic infection model.  


Treatment of acute postoperative arthroplasty infection with polyethylene exchange and retention of components has a limited success rate, potentially because of residual bacterial burden. We hypothesized that dilute Betadine (povidone-iodine) lavage would decrease bacterial burden in a rabbit knee infection model. We inserted a stainless steel screw with a polyethylene washer into the lateral femoral condyle in 16 bilateral rabbit knees, and the sites were infected with Staphylococcus aureus. After 1 week, all knees were treated with a polyethylene washer exchange and either a saline lavage or a 3.5% Betadine lavage. We assessed bacterial growth after 7 days. Betadine-treated knees showed a statistically significant decrease in the bacterial count on the stainless steel screw and polyethylene washer but no difference in soft-tissue growth. Betadine lavage as a treatment adjunct may improve component retention for acute arthroplasty infection. PMID:25658080

Gilotra, Mohit; Nguyen, Thao; Jaffe, David; Sterling, Robert



LADTAG Progress 2010 and Plans for 2011 and Provisional PELs from Lavage and Blood Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) plans and progress for 2010 and 2011. Provisional Permissible Exposure Limits (PPELs) from lavage fluid and blood data are also presented.

James, John T.



Posterior intravaginal slingplasty with preservation of the uterus: a modified surgical technique in a young myelomeningocele patient.  


We report a case of uterine prolapse in a young woman, treated by posterior intravaginal slingplasty with preservation of the uterus as a feasible and safe surgical procedure. Posterior intravaginal slingplasty is commonly used to correct vaginal vault prolapse, but may be a valuable alternative to correct uterine prolapse. We compare this technique to other techniques to correct uterine prolapse. PMID:17159352

Verguts, Jasper; Roovers, Jan-Paul; De Ridder, Dirk; Coremans, Georges; Deprest, Jan



Scanning electron microscopic findings on the rabbit meninges after local lavage with Polyvinylpyrrolidon-Jod-Komplex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The microbicide Polyvinylpyrrolidon-Jod-Komplex (P.J.K.) was experimentally evaluated for its use in local lavage of the epidural space. In 20 rabbits a lumbar laminectomy was performed followed either by local lavage with P.J.K. or with NaCl. After one month the meningeal covering of the operated spinal cords revealed no signs of fibrosis or arachnoid adhesions when studied macroscopically or by

J. Strohecker; A. Lametschwandtner; W. P. Piotrowski



[Structural and functional-metabolic criteria for studies of bronchial lavage cells in beryllium production workers].  


The article presents results of cytomorphologic and cytochemical studies of bronchoalveolar lavage cells in experimental animals and in beryllium production workers having beryllium intoxication signs. Findings are increased counts of degenerated neutrophils and macrophages in bronchial lavage, high degree of microbial (streptococcal and staphylococcal) contamination in workers having atrophic bronchitis, low levels of catecholamines and esterase activity, high content of phospholipids, if compared to apparently healthy individuals. These tests are expedient to use in early diagnosis among beryllium production workers. PMID:22180971

Bazeliuk, L T; Sadykov, K B



Raised immunoglobulin concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of healthy granite workers.  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin concentrations and lymphocyte counts were determined in bronchoalveolar fluid obtained from nine symptomless, healthy, non-smoking granite workers (mean age 45.6, range 22-56 years) and nine normal, non-smoking, non industrial controls (mean age 22.8, range 21-32 years). The proteins were measured in unconcentrated lavage fluid by means of a solid phase, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. IgG and IgA concentrations were three times greater in lavage fluid from granite workers than the samples from non-industrial controls (p less than 0.02). Eight of nine normal volunteers (89%) had no detectable IgM (less than 30 ng/ml) in the lavage fluid whereas eight of nine (89%) granite workers had detectable IgM (chi 2 = 8, p less than 0.01). Lymphocyte counts in lavage fluid from the workers were significantly greater (15.5%) than control counts (5.6%; p less than 0.05). The normal albumin concentration suggests that differences in permeability do not account for all of the increased immunoglobulin concentrations found in granite workers' lavage fluid and that some immunoglobulin is locally synthesised. It is concluded that occupational exposure to granite dust is associated with an increased proportion of lymphocytes and an increased concentration of immunoglobulin in lavage fluid that may reflect a subclinical immune inflammatory response. PMID:3738846

Calhoun, W J; Christman, J W; Ershler, W B; Graham, W G; Davis, G S



Uterine transplantation: a promising surrogate to surrogacy?  


Infertility due to the inability of the uterus to carry a pregnancy ranks among the most unresolved issues in reproductive medicine. It affects millions of women worldwide who have congenital or acquired uterine affections, often requiring hysterectomy, and potentially represents a considerable fraction of the general infertile population. Patients suffering from severe uterine infertility are currently compelled to go through gestational surrogacy or adoption; both approaches, unfortunately, deprive them of the maternal experience of pregnancy and birth. Uterine transplantation represents an outstanding, yet complex, perspective to alleviating definitive uterine infertility. In the past decades, a number of scientific experiments conducted both in animals and women, focusing on uterine transplantation, have led to promising results. Collectively, these findings undoubtedly constitute a sound basis to clinically apply uterine transplantation in the near future. This paper is, however, an overview not only of the extent and limitations of accumulated scientific knowledge on uterine transplantation, but also its ethical implications, in an effort to define the actual place of such an approach among the therapeutic arsenal for alleviating infertility. PMID:21401629

Grynberg, Michael; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Bulletti, Carlo; Frydman, Rene; Fanchin, Renato



Rare metastases of carcinoma of uterine cervix.  


This paper describes a case of cancer of the uterine cervix metastasizing in the spleen two years after the primary carcinoma was diagnosed and treated. After detailed diagnostics, the patient was subjected to surgery. Histopathological examination after splenectomy confirmed a very rare case - presence of metastases of planocellular carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Over the last ten years, references cite isolated cases of metastases of adenocarcinoma of the colon, stomach and breast in the spleen as well as lung carcinoma and malignant skin melanoma. Until now cases of uterine cervix carcinoma metastasizing to the spleen have been published as micrometastases detected in autopsy material. PMID:22053687

Zamurovic, M; Pesic-Stevanovic, I; Perisic, Z



Pre-eclampsia - The "uterine reinnervation" view.  


Difficult vaginal deliveries, gynaecological surgery, and, persistent straining during defaecation injure uterine nerves. Cytokines released from injured, uterine nerves cause regeneration of new nerves with altered structures and functions. In structural terms, these new nerves proliferate in chaotic and dysfunctional patterns with abnormal, cross-sectional profiles. In functional terms they are particularly sensitive to "stretch" or mechanosensory transduction. Release of neural cytokines also causes hyperplasia of the walls of adjacent, denervated uterine arterioles that may reduce uteroplacental blood flow during pregnancy. In the "uterine reinnervation" view, "stretch" applied to injured uterine nerves triggers uterorenal nerves to cause vasoconstriction in the renal cortex, hypertension and proteinuria i.e. the key features of preeclampsia. There are two intrauterine mechanisms that stretch injured, uterine nerves (a) in the placental bed, (b) in the extraplacental myometrium, respectively. In "early-onset" preeclampsia (<34weeks), continuing increases in maternal plasma volume, increase blood flow through denervated, and, narrowed uterine arterioles in the placental bed, stretching injured perivascular nerves resulting in preeclampsia with a small-for-gestational-age fetus. In "late-onset" preeclampsia (>34weeks), nulliparity, multiple pregnancy, concealed abruption and polyhydramnios increase myometrial tension and results in preeclampsia with an appropriate-for-gestational-age fetus. Widespread activation of autonomic nerves results in multi-system features of these syndromes. Changes in placental site and circulatory compliance may contribute to different phenotypes of the preeclamptic syndromes in subsequent pregnancies. The "uterine reinnervation" view offers an explanation of the common clinical features of the preeclamptic syndromes through a single pathophysiological mechanism, namely, prepregnancy injury to uterine nerves. Importantly, it offers an explanation for resolution of the symptoms and signs of preeclampsia with delivery of the fetus, the "early" and "late-onset" preeclamptic syndromes, and, the established clinical associations of the condition including nulliparity, hydramnios, multiple pregnancy, molar pregnancy, concealed abruption, etc. Establishing the presence of injured nerves expressing mechanoreceptors in the uterus, and, neural cytokines in thickened, uterine arterioles, will assist in developing this view. However, myometrial hyperplasia during the second half of pregnancy separates injured uterine nerves from injured uterine arterioles ensuring that the key pathoanatomical relationship in preeclampsia will be difficult to demonstrate. PMID:25216751

Quinn, M J



Multiple Cutaneous and Uterine Leiomyomatosis Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by leiomyomas of the skin and uterus. A small proportion of patients affected by multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis will develop renal cell carcinoma and this condition is known as hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma. Diagnosis usually occurs during histological analysis of a cutaneous biopsy. Management should involve a multidisciplinary team along with periodical radiological studies to closely monitor tumor size in the uterus and kidneys. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues are helpful in reducing the size of uterine fibroids. PMID:23630637

McLeod, Michael; Torchia, Daniele; Romanelli, Paolo



Uterine artery embolization as a treatment option for uterine myomas.  


Information is still being collected on the long-term clinical responses and appropriate patient selection for UAE. Prospective RCTs have not been performed to compare the clinical results from UAE with more conventional therapies for symptomatic uterine leiomyomata. At least three attempts at conducting such RCTs have been unsuccessful because of poor patient accrual that related to differing patient expectation and desires, clinical bias, insurance coverage, and the tendency that patients who have exhausted other treatment options may be disposed more favorably to less invasive treatments. Other comparative studies have serious limitations. For example, the retrospective study that compared outcomes after abdominal myomectomy with UAE suggested that patients who received UAE were more likely to require further invasive treatment by 3 years than were recipients of myomectomy. Lack of randomization introduced a selection bias because women in the group that underwent UAEwere older and were more likely to have had previous surgeries. A prospective study of "contemporaneous cohorts," which excluded patients who had sub-mucosal and pedunculated subserosal myomas, sought to compare quality of life measures and adverse events in patients who underwent UAE or hysterectomy. The investigators concluded that both treatments resulted in marked improvement in symptoms and quality of life scores, but complications were higher in the group that underwent hysterectomy over 1 year. In this study,however, a greater proportion of patients who underwent hysterectomy had improved pelvic pain scores. Furthermore, hysterectomy eliminates uterine bleeding and the risk for recurrence of myomas. Despite the lack of controlled studies that compared UAE with conventional surgery, and despite limited extended outcome data, UAE has gained rapid acceptance, primarily because the procedure preserves the uterus, is less invasive, and has less short-term morbidity than do most surgical options. The cost of UAE varies by region, but is comparable to the charges for hysterectomy and is less expensive than abdominal myomectomy. The evaluation before UAE may entail additional fees for diagnostic testing, such as MRI, to assess the uterine size and screen for adenomyosis. Other centers have recommended pretreatment ultrasonography, laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, endometrial biopsy, and biopsy of large fibroids to evaluate sarcoma. Generally,after UAE the recovery time and time lost from work are less; however, the potential need for subsequent surgery may be greater when compared with abdominal myomectomy. Any center that offers UAE should adhere to published clinical guidelines,maintain ongoing assessment of quality improvements measures, and observe strict criteria for obtaining procedural privileges. After McLucas advocated that gynecologists learn the skill to perform UAE for managing symptomatic myomas, the Society of Interventional Radiology responded with a precautionary commentary on the level of technical proficiency that is necessary to maintain optimum results from UAE. The complexity of pelvic arterial anatomy, the skill that is required to master modern coaxial microcatheters, and the hazards of significant patient radiation exposure were cited as reasons why sound training and demonstration of expertise be obtained before clinicians are credentialed to perform UAE.A collaboration between the gynecologist and the interventional radiologist is necessary to optimize the safety and efficacy of UAE. The primary candidates for this procedure include women who have symptomatic uterine fibroids who no longer desire fertility, but wish to avoid surgery or are poor surgical risks. The gynecologist is likely to be the primary initial consultant to patients who present with complaints of symptomatic myomas. Therefore, they must be familiar with the indications, exclusions, outcome expectations, and complications of UAE in their particular center. When hysterectomy is the only option, UAE should be considered. Appropriate diagnostic testing should ai

Marshburn, Paul B; Matthews, Michelle L; Hurst, Bradley S



Effects of vascular elastosis on uterine blood flow and perfusion in anesthetized mares.  


In the uterus of the mare, data obtained using transrectal Doppler ultrasonography indicate that uterine blood flow (UBF) is dynamic and changes throughout the estrous cycle. Degenerative lesions in the uterus are associated with subfertility and infertility. Among these lesions, vascular elastosis has been reported in aged, multiparous, and infertile mares. Angiosis of the uterine vasculature could potentially compromise UBF. The objectives of this experiment are to determine levels of UBF and perfusion of reproductively healthy mares and compare them to levels of subfertile/infertile mares affected by uterine vascular elastosis. Twenty mares were classified on the basis of degree of vascular degeneration and stage of cycle. A fluorescent microsphere technique was used to measure reproductive organ perfusion, where microspheres were injected into the left ventricle of the heart and became trapped in capillary beds in proportion to blood flow and tissue perfusion. The reproductive tract was removed, sectioned, and the fluorescent intensity evaluated to measure blood flow and perfusion. Additionally, full-thickness samples of the uterine wall were examined postmortem to further assess the degree of vascular degeneration in all layers of uterine wall. The mean value of uterine perfusion for the control mares during estrus (n = 5) was higher (P < 0.01) than that during diestrus (n = 5); 17.6 and 11.9 mL/min/100g, respectively. For the subfertile/infertile mares, the mean value of tissue perfusion was not different (P > 0.05) during estrus (n = 5) and diestrus (n = 5); 5.9 and 7.2 mL/min/100g, respectively. Uterine perfusion in subfertile/infertile mares affected by elastosis was lower than that of control mares during both estrus (P < 0.01) and diestrus (P < 0.01). The differences in baseline levels of perfusion between the control and elastosis groups indicate that elastosis of the uterine vasculature is associated with decreased uterine perfusion during both phases of the estrous cycle. In the uterus, a compromise in UBF could have implications in endometrial glandular development, postbreeding endometritis, uterine clearance, development of the conceptus, and overall fertility. PMID:25543154

Esteller-Vico, A; Liu, I K M; Vaughan, B; Steffey, E P; Brosnan, R J



Sulfuric acid aerosol exposure in humans assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that exposure to acidic aerosols may affect human health. Brief exposures to acidic aerosols alter mucociliary clearance and increase airway responsiveness, but effects on host defense mechanisms at the alveolar level have not been studied in humans. Twelve healthy, nonsmoking volunteers between 20 and 39 yr of age were exposed for 2 h to aerosols of approximately 1,000 micrograms/m3 sulfuric acid (H2SO4) or sodium chloride (NaCl (control)), with intermittent exercise, in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Each subject received both exposures, separated by at least 2 wk. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 18 h after exposure in order to detect evidence of an inflammatory response, changes in alveolar cell subpopulations, or changes in alveolar macrophage (AM) function, which is important in host defense. When compared with NaCl, exposure to H2SO4 did not increase polymorphonuclear leukocytes in BAL fluid. The percentage of T lymphocytes decreased in association with H2SO4 exposure, but the difference was not statistically significant (14.9% after NaCl, 11.5% after H2SO4; p = 0.14). Antibody-mediated cytotoxicity of AM increased in association with H2SO4 exposure (percent lysis 19.1 after NaCl, 23.6 after H2SO4; p = 0.16). No significant change was seen in release of superoxide anion or inactivation of influenza virus in vitro. Brief exposures to H2SO4 aerosol at 1,000 micrograms/m3 do not cause an influx of inflammatory cells into the alveolar space, and no evidence was found for alteration in antimicrobial defense 18 h after exposure.

Frampton, M.W.; Voter, K.Z.; Morrow, P.E.; Roberts, N.J. Jr.; Culp, D.J.; Cox, C.; Utell, M.J. (Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY (United States))



Treatment of Uterine Artery Vasospasm with Transdermal Nitroglycerin Ointment During Uterine Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Uterine artery vasospasm can complicate uterine artery embolization (UAE) by prolonging procedure times or even causing treatment failure. Embolization must be delayed until the spasm improves and adequate antegrade flow in the vessel is restored. Vasospasm can also produce a 'false endpoint' to the procedure, where stasis of flow in the vessel is falsely attributed to successful embolization but is actually the result of vasospasm, leading to undertreatment or treatment failure. Traditional treatments for uterine artery vasospasm have included transcatheter intra-arterial vasodilators and catheter withdrawal from the vessel, both of which can yield mixed results. We report a case of uterine artery vasospasm during UAE successfully treated with transdermal nitroglycerine ointment.

Denison, Gregory L., E-mail:; Ha, Thuong Van; Keblinskas, Darius [The University of Chicago Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)



Uterine carcinosarcoma with melanocytic differentiation.  


A 65-year-old black woman was found to have a 3.0 cm endometrial tumor that was a carcinosarcoma with a major epithelial and a less prominent mesenchymal component. The latter was undifferentiated but one focus of chondroid differentiation was noted. The former showed papillary serous differentiation. Melanin pigment was observed in both epithelial and mesenchymal components. Staining with antisera to S100 protein and HMB-45 confirmed the presence of melanocytes. An endocervical focus of tumor also contained melanin. Electron-microscopic studies showed large tumor cells with an irregularly indented nucleus and abnormal giant cytoplasmic melanosomes. Only one case of uterine carcinosarcoma with melanocytic differentiation has been previously reported. PMID:11293166

Amant, F; Moerman, P; Davel, G H; De Vos, R; Vergote, I; Lindeque, B G; de Jonge, E



[Imaging of cancer of the uterine cervix].  


Imaging of uterine cervix carcinoma has evolved during the last decade. Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging have expanded the role of MRI in evaluating the pathology of uterine cervix carcinoma. MRI is now the modality of choice for tumor staging, evaluating tumor response to treatment, diagnosing recurrences and for evaluating pregnant patients. MRI images will soon be used to calculate dosimetry for brachytherapy with matching and fusion software. PMID:10812355

Viala, J



Arterial embolisation to treat uterine myomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemorrhage, probably related to hypervascularisation, is the commonest complication of uterine myomata and is difficult to treat. 16 patients, aged 34-48 years, with symptomatic uterine myomata, for which a major surgical procedure was planned after failure of medical treatment, were treated by selective free-flow arterial embolisation of the myomata with Ivalon particles. With a mean follow-up of 20 months (range

J. H. Ravina; N. Ciraru-Vigneron; J. M. Bouret; D. Herbreteau; E. Houdart; A. Aymard; J. J. Merland



Comparison of reduced volume versus four liters sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solutions for colonoscopy colon cleansing  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:In an attempt to improve patient tolerance for colonoscopy cleansing, a reduced volume lavage regimen with 2 L sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solution (SF-ELS, NuLYTELY, Braintree Laboratories, Braintree, MA) plus 20 mg p.o. bisacodyl (Half Lytely, Braintree Laboratories) was compared with standard 4 L SF-ELS lavage for safety and efficacy.METHODS:At two centers, 200 patients undergoing colonoscopy for routine indications were randomized

Jack A. DiPalma; Bruce G. Wolff; Alan Meagher; Mark v B. Cleveland



Might uterus transplantation be an option for uterine factor infertility?  

PubMed Central

Current data on uterus allotransplantation research has been reviewed and summarized. Over the past 15 years, progress in uterus transplantation research has increased dramatically. As a consequence, the first pregnancy and delivery following uterus allotransplantation in rats have been reported. The technique has been better defined. Although clinical pregnancy and delivery following uterus allotransplantation has been reported in humans, there are still many questions to be answered before clinical application. Gestational surrogacy still remains an important option for being a genetic parent in selected cases with uterine factor infertility. PMID:25788850

Akar, Münire Erman



Uterine sarcomas: clinical presentation and MRI features.  


Uterine sarcomas are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors of mesenchymal origin, accounting for approximately 8% of uterine malignancies. They comprise leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma, and adenosarcoma. Compared with the more common endometrial carcinomas, uterine sarcomas behave more aggressively and are associated with a poorer prognosis. Due to their distinct clinical and biological behavior, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics introduced a new staging system for uterine sarcomas in 2009, categorizing uterine carcinosarcoma as a variant of endometrial carcinoma, rather than a pure sarcoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a developing role in the assessment of these malignancies. Features such as tumor localization, irregular or nodular margins, necrosis, rapid growth, intense contrast enhancement, and restriction at diffusion-weighted imaging can suggest the diagnosis and help differentiate from more common leiomyomas and endometrial carcinoma. MRI is therefore extremely useful in preoperative detection and staging and, consequently, in determination of appropriate management. This pictorial review aims to discuss the clinical features of uterine sarcomas, as well as their most common appearances and distinct characteristics in MRI. PMID:25347940

Santos, Pedro; Cunha, Teresa Margarida



Case report: pregnancy outcome following unilateral uterine artery embolisation for uterine arterio-venous malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine arterio-venous malformation (UAVM) is an extremely rare but serious cause of genital tract bleeding and experience in its management is limited. Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) has been reported to be a successful treatment in women seeking to retain their fertility potential. However, data on pregnancy outcomes following UAE for UAVM are scarce with less than 30 such cases reported.The

CL Khoo; GL Stephen; JA Davies; AJ Bellis



Uterine Artery Embolization to Treat Uterine Adenomyosis with or without Uterine Leiomyomata: Results of Symptom Control and Health-Related Quality of Life 40 Months after Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcome for uterine adenomyosis with or without uterine leiomyomata 40 months after uterine artery embolization (UAE). Methods: Forty women aged 39-56 years (median 46 years) with symptomatic uterine adenomyosis and magnetic resonance imaging findings of uterine adenomyosis with or without combined uterine leiomyomata underwent UAE. Self-perceived changes in clinical symptoms were assessed, and residual symptom severity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after UAE were evaluated. Clinical failure was defined as no symptomatic improvement or second invasive therapy after UAE. Results were stratified by the extent of uterine adenomyosis at baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Patients were followed for a median of 40 months (range 5-102 months). UAE led to symptomatic control after UAE in 29 (72.5%) of 40 patients while 11 women underwent hysterectomy (n = 10) or dilatation and curettage (n = 1) for therapy failure. No significant difference between women with pure uterine adenoymosis and women with uterine adenomyosis combined with uterine leiomyomata was observed. Best results were shown for UAE in uterine adenomyosis with uterine leiomyomata predominance as opposed to predominant uterine adenomyosis with minor fibroid disease (clinical failure 0% vs. 31.5%, P = 0.058). Throughout the study group, HRQOL score values increased and symptom severity scores decreased after UAE. Least improvement was noted for women with pure adenomyosis. Conclusions: UAE is clinically effective in the long term in most women with uterine adenomyosis. Symptomatic control and HRQOL were highest in patients with combined disease of uterine adenomyosis but leiomyomata predominance.

Froeling, V., E-mail:; Scheurig-Muenkler, C., E-mail:; Hamm, B., E-mail:; Kroencke, T. J., E-mail: [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)



Identification and cloning of caprine uterine serpin.  


The uterine serpins have been described in sheep, cattle, and pigs as a highly diverged group of the large superfamily of serpin proteins that typically function as serine proteinase inhibitors. Here, the range of species that possess and express a uterine serpin gene is extended to the goat. Sequencing of cDNA amplified from total RNA from a pregnant goat at day 25 of pregnancy resulted in a 1,292 bp full-length consensus cDNA sequence for caprine uterine serpin (CaUS). The predicted amino acid sequence of the caprine precursor showed 96%, 82%, 55%, and 56% identity to OvUS, BoUS, PoUS1, and PoUS2, respectively. The signal peptide extends from amino acids 1 to 25, resulting in a secreted protein of 404 amino acids and 46,227 Mr (excluding carbohydrate). Both the goat and sheep uterine serpins have a nine amino acid insert in the Helix I region that is not found in bovine or porcine uterine serpins. A total of 13 amino acids in CaUS are different than those for the nearest homologue, ovine uterine serpin. One of these is in the site of cleavage of the signal sequence, where a single nucleotide substitution (G --> C) changed the cysteine for the sheep, bovine, and porcine genes to a serine. In addition, the amino acid at the putative P1-P1' site (the scissile bond for antiproteinase activity) is a valine for CaUS, BoUS, PoUS1, and PoUS2 versus an alanine for OvUS. The hinge region of all five of the uterine serpins (P17-P9) is distinct from the consensus pattern for inhibitory sequences and it is unlikely, therefore, that the uterine serpins possess prototypical proteinase inhibitory activity. The goat uterine serpin was immunolocalized to the glandular epithelium of the endometrium from a pregnant nanny at day 25 of pregnancy. There was also immunoreactive product in scattered luminal epithelial cells. No immunoreaction product was detected in endometrium from a nanny at day 5 of the estrous cycle. Western blotting of uterine fluid collected from the pregnant uterine horn of a unilaterally-pregnant goat revealed the presence of a protein band at Mr approximately 56,000 that reacted with monoclonal antibody to OvUS. In conclusion, the range of species in which uterine serpins are present and expressed in the uterus includes the goat in addition to the previously described sheep, cow, and pig. In all of these species, the uterine serpin is derived primarily from glandular epithelium, is secreted into the uterine lumen, and contains sequence characteristics suggesting it is not an inhibitory serpin. PMID:15625696

Tekin, Saban; Padua, Maria B; Newton, Gary R; Hansen, Peter J



Spontaneous Hemoperitoneum due to Rupture of Uterine Varicose Veins during Labor Successfully Treated by Percutaneous Embolization  

PubMed Central

Hemoperitoneum during pregnancy is a rare but potentially lethal clinical condition. Improvements in antenatal and intrapartum care, especially in surgical and anesthetic techniques, have reduced maternal mortality; perinatal mortality remains very high (31%). Treatment is based on the systemic correction of hypovolemia and immediate surgery via laparotomy or laparoscopy in cases in the first trimester of pregnancy for hemostatic purposes. Sometimes, hysterectomy is needed. A 35-year-old Asiatic primigravid woman at 37 weeks' gestation with otherwise uneventful pregnancy came to the hospital referring abrupt-onset lumbar and abdominal pain. A bleeding uterine superficial varicocele of about 7?cm was found on the left uterine horn during Caesarean section. Interventional radiologic embolization of both uterine arteries was successfully performed. Posterior evolution of the patient was favorable. Percutaneous vascular embolization of the uterine arteries is an effective alternative treatment for many obstetrical and gynecological causes of bleeding. The main advantage of this technique is the low rate of serious complications and the preservation of reproductive function. To our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous intrapartum hemoperitoneum treated with this technique. An early diagnosis and a rapid indication of this therapeutic option are essential. Hemodynamic stability is needed to decide this conservative management. PMID:25114819

Díaz-Murillo, Rebeca; Tobías-González, Pablo; López-Magallón, Sara; Magdaleno-Dans, Fernando; Bartha, José L.



Reduction effect of bacterial counts by preoperative saline lavage of the stomach in performing laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of gastric lavage with 2000 mL of saline in laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery. METHODS: Twenty two patients who were diagnosed with a gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor were enrolled. In former term, irrigations of the stomach were conducted whenever it was necessary, not systematically (Non systemic lavage group). In latter term, the stomach was thoroughly cleaned with 2000 mL of saline using an endoscope with a water jet, and Duodenal balloon occlusion was conducted to prevent refluxed bile and pancreatic juice (Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group). The gastric wall was sprayed with 20 mL of distilled water, and 20 mL of gastric juice was collected in a sterile tube and submitted for culture. 20 mL of ascites was also collected from the laparoscopic ports and submitted for culture. We compared WBC, CRP, BT between two groups, and verify the reduction effect of bacterial counts in Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group. RESULTS: WBC count before, 1 d after, and 3 d after laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) were 5060 (95%CI: 4250-9640), 12140 (6050-14110), and 6910 (5320-12520) in Non systemic lavage group, 4400 (3660-7620), 8910 (6480-10980), and 5950 (4840-7860) in Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group. Significant differences between two groups at the day after LECS (P = 0.029) and the 3 d after LECS (P = 0.042). CRP levels in Non systemic lavage group and in Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group were significantly different at the day after LECS (P = 0.005) and the 3 d after LECS (P = 0.028). BTs (°C) in Non systemic lavage group and in Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group were also significantly different at the day after LECS (P = 0.004) and the 3 d after LECS (P = 0.006). In a logarithmic comparison, bacterial load before gastric lavage, after lavage, and ascites culture were 6.08 (95%CI: 4.04-6.97), 0.48 (0-0.85), and 0.21 (0-0.56). The bacterial counts before and after gastric lavage were significantly suppressed (P = 0.007), but no significant difference between gastric juice culture after lavage and ascites (P = 0.154). CONCLUSION: Pre-LECS lavage with 2000 mL of saline exhibited a bacteria-reducing effect equivalent to disinfectants and obtained favorable results in terms of clinical symptoms and data. PMID:25400461

Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Tsushimi, Takaaki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Tani, Joji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Morishita, Asahiro; Masaki, Tsutomu



What's New in Uterine Sarcoma Research and Treatment?  


... Next Topic Additional resources for uterine sarcoma What`s new in uterine sarcoma research and treatment? Molecular pathology ... the chromosomes leads to the formation of a new gene, called JAZF1/JJAZ. This gene may help ...


What Are the Key Statistics about Uterine Sarcoma?  


... factors for uterine sarcoma? What are the key statistics about uterine sarcoma? The American Cancer Society's estimates ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...


Postpartum Prolapsed Leiomyoma with Uterine Inversion Managed by Vaginal Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Background. Uterine inversion is a rare, but life threatening, obstetrical emergency which occurs when the uterine fundus collapses into the endometrial cavity. Various conservative and surgical therapies have been outlined in the literature for the management of uterine inversions. Case. We present a case of a chronic, recurrent uterine inversion, which was diagnosed following spontaneous vaginal delivery and recurred seven weeks later. The uterine inversion was likely due to a leiomyoma. This late-presenting, chronic, recurring uterine inversion was treated with a vaginal hysterectomy. Conclusion. Uterine inversions can occur in both acute and chronic phases. Persistent vaginal bleeding with the appearance of a prolapsing fibroid should prompt further investigation for uterine inversion and may require surgical therapy. A vaginal hysterectomy may be an appropriate management option in select populations and may be considered in women who do not desire to maintain reproductive function. PMID:25379314

Pieh-Holder, Kelly L.; DeVente, James E.



Nanomedicine for Uterine Leiomyoma Therapy  

PubMed Central

Aims The purpose of this work was to engineer polymeric nanoparticles to encapsulate and deliver 2-methoxyestradiol, a potential antitumor drug for treatment of uterine leiomyoma (fibroids), the most common hormone-dependent pathology affecting women of reproductive age. Materials & Methods Encapsulation efficiency and drug release from the nanoparticles were monitored by HPLC. Cell morphology and in vitro cytotoxicity experiments were carried out in a human leiomyoma cell line (huLM). Results The nanoparticles displayed high encapsulation efficiency (>86%), which was verified by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Excellent long-term stability of the nanoparticles and gradual drug release without burst were also observed. Cellular uptake of fluorescent nanoparticles was confirmed by confocal imaging. The drug-loaded poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles induced cytotoxicity in huLM cells to a significantly greater extent than the free drug at 0.35 ?M. Conclusion This novel approach represents a potential fertility-preserving alternative to hysterectomy. PMID:23343157

Ali, Hazem; Kilic, Gokhan; Vincent, Kathleen; Motamedi, Massoud; Rytting, Erik



Current concepts in the imaging of uterine sarcoma.  


Recent advances in genetics and pathology have improved our understanding of diagnosis and staging of uterine sarcomas. The major types of uterine sarcomas include leiomyosarcoma, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma, adenosarcoma and carcinosarcoma. The distinctive biological behavior and poor overall survival of uterine sarcoma create challenges in the management of these tumors. We herein present a comprehensive review of taxonomy, epidemiology, pathology, imaging findings and natural history of a wide spectrum of uterine sarcomas. PMID:22699695

Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Ojili, Vijayanadh; Shanbhogue, Alampady Krishna Prasad; Fasih, Najla; Ryan, John G; Reinhold, Caroline



Clinical and Periprocedural Pain Management for Uterine Artery Embolization  

PubMed Central

Uterine artery embolization has Level A data supporting excellent safety and efficacy in treating symptomatic uterine leiomyomata. However, there is a perception that either postprocedural pain is severe or poorly managed by the physician performing these procedures. This has led some primary care physicians to omit this procedure from the patients' options or to steer patients away from this procedure. A few simple techniques (pruning of the vascular tree and embolizing to 5–10 beat stasis) and fastidious pre-, intra-, and post-procedural management can nearly eliminate significant pain associated with embolization. Specifically, early implementation of long-acting low-dose narcotics, antiemetics and anti-inflammatory medications is critical. Finally, the use of a superior hypogastric nerve block, which takes minutes to perform and carries a very low risk, significantly reduces pain and diminishes the need for narcotics; when this technique was used in a prospective study, all patients were able to be discharged the day of the procedure. In the authors' experience, patients treated in this manner largely recover completely within 5 days and have a far less traumatic experience than patients traditionally treated with only midazolam (Versed) and fentanyl citrate (fentanyl) intraprocedurally, and narcotics and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs postprocedurally. PMID:24436562

Spencer, Elizabeth Brooke; Stratil, Peter; Mizones, Heidi



[Determining the volume of solution necessary for intraoperative disinfection lavage of the abdominal cavity in diffuse suppurative peritonitis].  


The advantages of lavage of the abdominal cavity in diffuse purulent peritonitis by means of a developed device "Geyser" are shown. Changes in the bacterial contamination, toxicity and metabolite contents in the lavage solution and peritoneum depended on a volume of the fluid used. PMID:2338787

Nifant'ev, O E; Popov, A E; Voevodina, T V; Okolelova, E V



[Simple evaluation of numbers of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid under light microscopy: analysis of 35 pulmonary nodular lesions].  


More than 1 asbestos body (AB) per ml of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) under light microscopy was defined as AB positive (ABP) and suggests an occupational asbestos exposure. We microscopically evaluated the AB number per one ml of BALF, which we defined as the AB concentration (ABC), using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytocentrifuge slides obtained from 35 patients having pulmonary nodular lesions (20 carcinoma and 15 nonneoplastic disease) and examined the correlation between ABC and clinicopathological data including findings on Helical computed tomography scan (HCTS) and occupational history of asbestos exposure (OHAE). BAL was performed by the standard technique without removing mucous with a gauze filter. AB was microscopically defined as a structure consisting of a core of transparent asbestos surrounded by an iron-protein coat. Twenty of 35 patients were ABP (ABP rate; 57%) and ABC ranged from 0 to 207.98/ml (mean ABC; 11.33/ml). Mean ABC was significantly higher in patients with OHAE (15.04/ml) compared to that in patients without OHAE (3.23/ml). Twenty-two of 35 patients (63%) lacked abnormality on HCTS and among these, 12 patients (55%) were ABP. In 20 pulmonary carcinoma patients, the ABP rate was 85% and ABC ranged from 0 to 31.1/ml (Mean ABC; 2.99/ml). The ABP rate of pulmonary carcinoma patients was 40% (8 patients) and among these, 5 patients (63%) did not show any abnormality on HCTS. In conclusion, our method was simple and useful and should be applied to patients with pulmonary nodular lesions and OHAE, even if there are no abnormalities on HCTS. PMID:18516963

Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Kawasumi, Hiromi; Nagano, Teruaki; Sasada, Shinji; Okamoto, Norio



Foetal heart rate power spectrum response to uterine contraction.  


Cardiotocography is the most diffused prenatal diagnostic technique in clinical routine. The simultaneous recording of foetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contractions (UC) provides useful information about foetal well-being during pregnancy and labour. However, foetal electronic monitoring interpretation still lacks reproducibility and objectivity. New methods of interpretation and new parameters can further support physicians' decisions. Besides common time-domain analysis, study of the variability of FHR can potentially reveal autonomic nervous system activity of the foetus. In particular, it is clinically relevant to investigate foetal reactions to UC to diagnose foetal distress early. Uterine contraction being a strong stimulus for the foetus and its autonomic nervous system, it is worth exploring the FHR variability response. This study aims to analyse modifications of the power spectrum of FHR variability corresponding to UC. Cardiotocographic signal tracts corresponding to 127 UC relative to 30 healthy foetuses were analysed. Results mainly show a general, statistically significant (t test, p<0.01) power increase of the FHR variability in the LF 0.03-0.2 Hz and HF 0.2-1 in correspondence of the contraction with respect to a reference tract set before contraction onset. Time evolution of the power within these bands was computed by means of time-varying spectral estimation to concisely show the FHR response along a uterine contraction. A synchronised grand average of these responses was also computed to verify repeatability, using the contraction apex as time reference. Such modifications of the foetal HRV that follow a contraction can be a sign of ANS reaction and, therefore, additional, objective information about foetal reactivity during labour. PMID:16937160

Romano, M; Bifulco, P; Cesarelli, M; Sansone, M; Bracale, M



Comparison of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Bronchoalveolar Lavage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly studied as a noninvasive research method of sampling the lungs, measuring several biomarkers. The exact site of origin of substances measured in EBC is unknown, as is the clinical applicability of the technique. Special techniques might be needed to measure EBC biomarkers. Objectives: To assess biomarker concentrations in clinical disease and investigate the

Abigail S. Jackson; Alessandra Sandrini; Charlotte Campbell; Sharron Chow; Paul S. Thomas; Deborah H. Yates


Uterine Artery Embolization for Treatment of Symptomatic Fibroids: A Review of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

Fibroids are the most common benign tumors of the uterus during female reproductive age. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) using embolic particles (PVA, Gelfoam) to occlude the uterine arteries, have been reported as a relatively safe, effective, and durable nonsurgical alternative to hysterectomy in diminishing fibroid-related symptoms. To block the arterial blood supply to the fibroid completely, UAE is typically performed in both uterine arteries by an experienced interventional radiologist. Reduction in menorrhagia has been reported as 80-93 percent and the mean decrease in fibroid size varies from 50-78% in the literature. In our center improvement in menstrual bleeding after 6 months was 80.3%, and uterine fibroids underwent shrinkage of 63.7±33.7% after12 months. Complication rate including amenorrhea ranges from 1% - 7% in the literature. UAE may be followed by menopause in 1% of cases. Nevertheless, it is usually encountered in women in their late 40s. It seems that the future of UAE depends on optimal selection of patients according to volume-shrinkage prediction and fertility outcome. Although pregnancy is possible after embolization, however neither fertility preservation nor improvement can be guaranteed following UAE. Indeed, Women who desire to become pregnant should be cautioned about potential complications during pregnancy. The aim of this review is to discuss about the efficacy, safety, technique, and choice of embolic agent. Also we present the effects of this technique on fertility and pregnancy outcome and also methods for dose reduction during this procedure. PMID:24693405

Firouznia, Kavous; Ghanaati, Hossein; Jalali, Amir Hossein; Shakiba, Madjid



Uterine Rbpj is required for embryonic-uterine orientation and decidual remodeling via Notch pathway-independent and -dependent mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Coordinated uterine-embryonic axis formation and decidual remodeling are hallmarks of mammalian post-implantation embryo development. Embryonic-uterine orientation is determined at initial implantation and synchronized with decidual development. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these events remain elusive despite its discovery a long time ago. In the present study, we found that uterine-specific deletion of Rbpj, the nuclear transducer of Notch signaling, resulted in abnormal embryonic-uterine orientation and decidual patterning at post-implantation stages, leading to substantial embryo loss. We further revealed that prior to embryo attachment, Rbpj confers on-time uterine lumen shape transformation via physically interacting with uterine estrogen receptor (ER?) in a Notch pathway-independent manner, which is essential for the initial establishment of embryo orientation in alignment with uterine axis. While at post-implantation stages, Rbpj directly regulates the expression of uterine matrix metalloproteinase in a Notch pathway-dependent manner, which is required for normal post-implantation decidual remodeling. These results demonstrate that uterine Rbpj is essential for normal embryo development via instructing the initial embryonic-uterine orientation and ensuring normal decidual patterning in a stage-specific manner. Our data also substantiate the concept that normal mammalian embryonic-uterine orientation requires proper guidance from developmentally controlled uterine signaling. PMID:24971735

Zhang, Shuang; Kong, Shuangbo; Wang, Bingyan; Cheng, Xiaohong; Chen, Yongjie; Wu, Weiwei; Wang, Qiang; Shi, Junchao; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Shumin; Lu, Jinhua; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco; Pear, Warren S; Han, Hua; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Lei; Wang, Hongmei; Wang, Yan-ling; Li, Bing; Chen, Qi; Duan, Enkui; Wang, Haibin



Uterine Rbpj is required for embryonic-uterine orientation and decidual remodeling via Notch pathway-independent and -dependent mechanisms.  


Coordinated uterine-embryonic axis formation and decidual remodeling are hallmarks of mammalian post-implantation embryo development. Embryonic-uterine orientation is determined at initial implantation and synchronized with decidual development. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these events remain elusive despite its discovery a long time ago. In the present study, we found that uterine-specific deletion of Rbpj, the nuclear transducer of Notch signaling, resulted in abnormal embryonic-uterine orientation and decidual patterning at post-implantation stages, leading to substantial embryo loss. We further revealed that prior to embryo attachment, Rbpj confers on-time uterine lumen shape transformation via physically interacting with uterine estrogen receptor (ER?) in a Notch pathway-independent manner, which is essential for the initial establishment of embryo orientation in alignment with uterine axis. While at post-implantation stages, Rbpj directly regulates the expression of uterine matrix metalloproteinase in a Notch pathway-dependent manner, which is required for normal post-implantation decidual remodeling. These results demonstrate that uterine Rbpj is essential for normal embryo development via instructing the initial embryonic-uterine orientation and ensuring normal decidual patterning in a stage-specific manner. Our data also substantiate the concept that normal mammalian embryonic-uterine orientation requires proper guidance from developmentally controlled uterine signaling. PMID:24971735

Zhang, Shuang; Kong, Shuangbo; Wang, Bingyan; Cheng, Xiaohong; Chen, Yongjie; Wu, Weiwei; Wang, Qiang; Shi, Junchao; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Shumin; Lu, Jinhua; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco; Pear, Warren S; Han, Hua; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Lei; Wang, Hongmei; Wang, Yan-Ling; Li, Bing; Chen, Qi; Duan, Enkui; Wang, Haibin



The effect of intrauterine administration of mannose or bacteriophage on uterine health and fertility of dairy cows with special focus on Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intrauterine administration of 50 g of ultrapure mannose or a bacteriophage cocktail and the presence of Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes in the uterine lumen on uterine health and reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows. The study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm located near Ithaca, New York, from May 4 to January 20, 2011, and 597 cows were enrolled. The cows were divided randomly into 3 treatment groups, and treatments were administered at 2 ± 1 d in milk (DIM). Treatment 1 consisted of intrauterine administration of 50 g of ultrapure mannose powder divided in 4 pills; treatment 2 consisted of intrauterine administration of a bacteriophage cocktail that included 4 different phages in one pill, with a dose of approximately 10? plaque-forming units; and treatment 3 consisted of intrauterine administration of one empty pill (control). Intrauterine fluid swabs were collected on day of treatment and at 10 ± 3 DIM; uterine lavage samples were collected at 35 ± 3 DIM. Swabs and uterine lavage samples were cultured for E. coli and A. pyogenes. The intrauterine administration of mannose and bacteriophage did not affect uterine health, reproduction performance, or outcome of intrauterine secretion cultures for E. coli and A. pyogenes. Prevalence of intrauterine E. coli at 2 ± 1 DIM and A. pyogenes at 2 ± 1, 10 ± 3, and 35 ± 3 were affected by retained placenta. Additionally, prevalence of intrauterine E. coli at 10 ± 3 and A. pyogenes at 35 ± 3 DIM were associated with metritis, and cows that were diagnosed with clinical endometritis at 35 ± 3 DIM had greater prevalence of intrauterine E. coli at 2 ± 1 DIM and A. pyogenes at 35 ± 3 DIM. Furthermore, cows positive for E. coli at 2 ± 1 and 10 ± 3 DIM and for A. pyogenes at 10 ± 3 DIM had 1.63, 2.34, and 1.54 increased odds of having metritis. Cows positive for A. pyogenes at 35 ± 3 DIM and for E. coli at 2 ± 1 DIM had 19.8 and 2.66 higher odds of being diagnosed with clinical endometritis, respectively. Additionally, cows negative for E. coli at 2 ± 1 DIM were 1.39 times more likely to conceive than cows positive cows for E. coli. PMID:22612946

Machado, V S; Bicalho, M L S; Pereira, R V; Caixeta, L S; Bittar, J H J; Oikonomou, G; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C



Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus  

PubMed Central

Mesonephric carcinomas are rare in the female genital tract and usually are found in sites where embryonic remnants of wolffian ducts are usually detected, such as the uterine cervix, broad ligament, mesosalpinx and exceptionally rarely in the uterine corpus. To date, only four cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in the uterine corpus have been described in literature. Here we report two cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in a deep intramural location of the uterine corpus in a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old woman in Chinese populations. It is believed to be the first report in China. Both cases presented with a little postmenopausal bleeding. Before hospitalized, uterine curettages were programmed for both cases. The pathology reports were mesonephric adenocarcinoma. A total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. On gross examination, the tumors of both cases were confined to the myometrium. Microscopic examination found both tumors of these two cases were adenocarcinomas mixed with spindle cell component. The most primary histologic patterns of the mesonephric adenocarcinomas were tubular glands that varied in size and were lined by one to several layers of columnar cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed positive with CD10, calretinin, vimentin, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA); but expressions of ER and PR were completely negative. The peculiar location of mesonephric carcinoma of the uterine corpus may be misinterpreted as other histological type neoplasms. Awareness of this rare phenomenon and immunostaining for markers of mesonephric carcinoma can prevent from making a false diagnosis. PMID:25400789

Wu, Haixia; Zhang, Lin; Cao, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanjing; Liu, Yixin



Cardiac arrest following acute puerperal uterine inversion.  


Although uterine inversion is a potentially life-threatening complication of childbirth, there are only six case reports of cardiac arrest due to acute inversion to date. We report a successful outcome in a patient with sickle cell disease who had a witnessed cardiac arrest due to acute puerperal uterine inversion. Revival from cardiac arrest and resuscitation was followed by manual repositioning of the uterus. She gradually recovered from the acute kidney injury that developed as sequelae of the cardiac arrest and subsequent circulatory shock. Awareness of this rare complication and timely intervention is the key to a successful outcome in these patients. PMID:25694631

Nag, Deb Sanjay; Datta, Mamta Rath; Samaddar, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Binita



Uterine Prolapse: From Antiquity to Today  

PubMed Central

Uterine prolapse is a condition that has likely affected women for all of time as it is documented in the oldest medical literature. By looking at the watershed moments in its recorded history we are able to appreciate the evolution of urogynecology and to gain perspective on the challenges faced by today's female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgeons in their attempts to treat uterine and vaginal vault prolapse. “He who cannot render an account to himself of at least three thousand years of time, will always grope in the darkness of inexperience” —Goethe, Translation of Panebaker PMID:22262975

Downing, Keith T.



Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Nitrite\\/Nitrate in Active Pulmonary Sarcoidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased exhaled nitric oxide (NO) may reflect respiratory tract inflammation in untreated asthmat- ics. We compared exhaled NO and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) nitrate\\/nitrite (NO 3 2 \\/NO 2 2 ) in 10 patients who had untreated, active pulmonary sarcoidosis with those of normal control subjects. Ex- haled NO concentrations, determined by chemiluminescence, were similar in patients and control subjects (peak




Increased Release of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and by Alveolar Macrophages of Asthmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine whether matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to inflammation in asthma, we have examined the release of MMPs in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and their production and regulation by alveolar macrophages (AM), in short-term culture. BAL was collected from 38 asthmatic subjects (24 untreated and 14 treated with inhaled corticosteroids), 26 healthy nonsmokers, and 18 patients with chronic

Gisèle Mautino; Nicolas Oliver; Pascal Chanez; Jean Bousquet; Françoise Capony



Pleural lavage cytology in esophageal cancer without pleural effusions: clinicopathologic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The literature of pleural lavage cytology (PLC) is focused on lung cancer. We conducted this pilot study to determine the incidence of malignant pleural cytologies in patients without pleural effusions who undergo curative resection for esophageal cancer, and to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance of positive cytology. Methods: Forty-eight patients underwent esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer in our unit from

Xiaolong Jiao; Minghe Zhang; Zaoqing Wen; Mark J Krasna



Pleural lavage cytology in esophageal cancer without pleural effusions: clinicopathologic analysis q  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The literature of pleural lavage cytology (PLC) is focused on lung cancer. We conducted this pilot study to determine the incidence of malignant pleural cytologies in patients without pleural effusions who undergo curative resection for esophageal cancer, and to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance of positive cytology. Methods: Forty-eight patients underwent esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer in our unit from

Xiaolong Jiao; Minghe Zhang; Zaoqing Wen; Mark J. Krasna



Pleural lavage cytology in esophageal cancer without pleural effusions: clinicopathologic analysisq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The literature of pleural lavage cytology (PLC) is focused on lung cancer. We conducted this pilot study to determine the incidence of malignant pleural cytologies in patients without pleural effusions who undergo curative resection for esophageal cancer, and to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance of positive cytology. Methods: Forty-eight patients underwent esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer in our unit from

Xiaolong Jiao; Minghe Zhang; Zaoqing Wen; Mark J. Krasna


Trends in asbestos body counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid over two decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in asbestos body counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid over two decades. P. Dumortier, J. Thimpont, V. de Maertelaer, P. De Vuyst. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: As in most western countries, the use of asbestos has decreased in Belgium since the mid 19709s. Successive regulations have lowered the permissible levels of exposure and prohibited the use of various asbestos



Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) is considered by many as the most important investigation for the early detection of intraperitoneal injury. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of DPL as a diagnostic method in evaluating abdominal trauma. A prospectively maintained database of all DPLs performed in the past 36 months at Sina Hospital was analyzed. Information relative

J. Salimi; M. Motamedi


Laparoscopic diagnostic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL): A method for evaluation of penetrating abdominal stab wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The management of penetrating abdominal stab wounds has been the subject of continued reappraisal and controversy. In the present study a novel method which combines the use of diagnostic laparoscopy and DPL, termed laparoscopic diagnostic peritoneal lavage (L-DPL) is described METHOD: Five trauma patients with penetrating injuries to the lower chest or abdomen were included. Standard videoscopic equipment is

Michael M Krausz; Benyamine Abbou; Dan D Hershko; Ahmad Mahajna; Daniel S Duek; Bishara Bishara; Shlomo H Israelit



Neuroendoscopic lavage for the treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus in neonates.  


Object Neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) may evolve into posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and cause neurodevelopmental impairment. In this study, an endoscopic surgical approach directed toward the removal of intraventricular hematoma was evaluated for its safety and efficacy. Methods Between August 2010 and December 2012 (29 months), 19 neonates with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus underwent neuro endoscopic lavage for removal of intraventricular blood remnants. During a similar length of time (29 months) from March 2008 to July 2010, 10 neonates were treated conventionally, initially using temporary CSF diversion via lumbar punctures, a ventricular access device, or an external ventricular drain. Complications and shunt dependency rates were evaluated retrospectively. Results The patient groups did not differ regarding gestational age and birth weight. In the endoscopy group, no relevant procedure-related complications were observed. After the endoscopic lavage, 11 (58%) of 19 patients required a later shunt insertion, as compared with 100% of infants treated conventionally (p < 0.05). Endoscopic lavage was associated with fewer numbers of overall necessary procedures (median 2 vs 3.5 per patient, respectively; p = 0.08), significantly fewer infections (2 vs 5 patients, respectively; p < 0.05), and supratentorial multiloculated hydrocephalus (0 vs 4 patients, respectively; p < 0.01) [corrected].Conclusions Within the presented setup the authors could demonstrate the feasibility and safety of neuro endoscopic lavage for the treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in neonates with IVH. The nominally improved results warrant further verification in a multicenter, prospective study. PMID:24702621

Schulz, Matthias; Bührer, Christoph; Pohl-Schickinger, Anja; Haberl, Hannes; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm



Meta-analysis and cost comparison of polyethylene glycol lavage versus sodium phosphate for colonoscopy preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although polyethylene glycol lavage solutions are widely used for colonoscopy preparation, evidence suggests that sodium phosphate is better tolerated and has similar efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare compliance with and efficacy of polyethylene glycol and sodium phosphate using meta-analysis and to compare the cost of colonoscopy with both methods. Methods: We used Medline to identify

Chia-Wen Hsu; Thomas F. Imperiale



Elevated Peptides in Lung Lavage Fluid Associated with Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this discovery-level investigation was to use mass spectrometry to identify low mass compounds in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from lung transplant recipients that associate with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Experimental Design Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from lung transplant recipients were evaluated for small molecules using ESI-TOF mass spectrometry and correlated to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Peptides associated with samples from persons with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and controls were identified separately by MS/MS analysis. Results The average bronchoalveolar lavage fluid MS spectrum profile of individuals that developed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome differed greatly compared to controls. Controls demonstrated close inter-sample correlation (R?=?0.97+/?0.02, average+/?SD) while bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome showed greater heterogeneity (R?=?0.86+/?0.09, average+/?SD). We identified 89 features that were predictive of developing BOS grade 1 and 66 features predictive of developing BOS grade 2 or higher. Fractions from MS analysis were pooled and evaluated for peptide content. Nearly 10-fold more peptides were found in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome relative to controls. C-terminal residues suggested trypsin-like specificity among controls compared to elastase-type enzymes among those with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Conclusions Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from individuals with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome has an increase in low mass components detected by mass spectrometry. Many of these features were peptides that likely result from elevated neutrophil elastase activity. PMID:24392140

Nelsestuen, Gary L.; Reilly, Cavan; Hertz, Marshall I.; Wendt, Chris H.



Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 15 brake lining (BL) workers exposed only to chrysotile have been determined and compared with those from 44 asbestos cement (AC) workers extensively exposed to amphiboles. The mean AB concentrations (263 +\\/- 802 and 842 +\\/- 2086 AB\\/ml respectively) for those groups did not differ significantly but were much higher than

P Dumortier; P De Vuyst; P Strauss; J C Yernault



Reliability of cell counts and protein determinations in serial bronchoalveolar lavage procedures performed on healthy volunteers.  


We measured the variability in volume, total cells, cell types, and proteins in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid recovered from 10 volunteers (five smokers, five non-smokers) lavaged repeatedly over a three-year period. Thirty lavages were performed using a rigorously standardized approach. Differential counts on the cytospin preparations were performed by three independent readers and interobserver variability in the interpretation of these counts measured. Variability in interpreting the cellular counts was less in smokers than non-smokers and decreased as the number of cells of any particular type increased. Only one reader interpreting the mean percentage of cells recovered of one cell type (neutrophils) in only one smoking group, the nonsmokers, was significantly different from the other two. There was also considerable variability in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid total protein, albumin, IgG, and IgA. Expressing albumin and IgG as a percentage of total protein recovered and expressing IgA and albumin as a ratio in nonsmokers lessened the variability of these parameters. Mean and standard deviations of the cellular and protein concentrations showed that large differences in these parameters would be necessary in order to attribute these changes to changes in the underlying pulmonary status. Excessive variability in nearly all parameters in this group without recognized lung disease challenges the usefulness of this test in the clinical assessment of patients serially followed because of underlying lung disease. PMID:2240014

Banks, D E; Morgan, J E; Deshazo, R D; Weissman, D; Rodriguez, F H; Barkman, H W; Salvaggio, J E



Obesity is Associated with Atypia in Breast Ductal Lavage of Women with Proliferative Breast Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Benign proliferative breast disease without atypia slightly increases breast cancer risk but there are currently few clinical options for breast cancer prevention in this group of women. Methods We conducted a pilot study of women with a past diagnosis of proliferative breast disease with a goal to determine if the characteristics of cells obtained by breast ductal lavage were related to nutritional factors. Results There were 57 women who enrolled. A total of 39 women yielded nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) samples and 36 underwent breast ductal lavage. Five of the lavage samples were acellular and 28 had at least 200 cells. Surprisingly, atypia was present in 11 women. Presence of atypia was associated with slight changes in morphometric features of the epithelial cells such as measures of circularity) as obtained by image analysis, but the only variable significantly different in women with atypia (versus no atypia) was a higher mean body mass index. Body mass index also was significantly correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the nipple aspirate fluid, indicating that obesity might have a pro-inflammatory effect on the breast that can contribute to increased rates of atypia. Conclusions Although the clinical significance of atypia in breast ductal lavage is uncertain, these results support further work on prevention of obesity as a strategy for reducing breast cancer risk. PMID:19683484

Djuric, Zora; Edwards, Ann; Madan, Shashi; Darga, Linda; Ren, Jianwei; Koletsky, Mathew; Heilbrun, Lance K.




EPA Science Inventory

In this study, we have examined the effect of an acute (2 hour) exposure of ozone at 0.4 ppm on the inflammatory response in the upper airways of 10 normal volunteers and compared these results to those obtained in the lower airways assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). he re...


Bronchoalveolar lavage in pulmonary fibrosis: comparison of cells obtained with lung biopsy and clinical features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchoalveolar lavage, open lung biopsy, and cell extraction from the biopsy material have been studied in 21 symptomatic patients with progressive pulmonary fibrosis (18 with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, fulfilling also the criteria for “usual interstitial pneumonia” (UIP), and three with rapidly progressive disease probably related to asbestos exposure). The total and differential cell counts between the three different samples have

P L Haslam; C W G Turton; B Heard; A Lukoszek; J V Collins; A J Salsbury; M Turner-Warwick



Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) is one of the well known fungi used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment asthma and bronchial and lung inflammation. In this study, effects of C. sinensis methanolic extracts on bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) cells proliferation, inflammatory cytokines production, and genes expression were evaluated. The proliferative response of BALF cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was determined by

Yuh-Chi Kuo; Wei-Jern Tsai; Jir-Yenn Wang; Shi-Chung Chang; Ching-Yuang Lin; Ming-Shi Shiao



Increased expression of electron transport chain genes in uterine leiomyoma.  


The etiology and pathophysiology of uterine leiomyomas, benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus, are not well understood. To evaluate the role of mitochondria in uterine leiomyoma, we compared electron transport gene expressions of uterine leiomyoma tissue with myometrium tissue in six uterine leiomyoma patients by RT-PCR array. Our results showed an average of 1.562 (±0.445) fold increase in nuclear-encoded electron transport genes. These results might suggest an increase in size, number, or activity of mitochondria in uterine leiomyoma that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. PMID:25361934

Tuncal, Akile; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan; Askar, Niyazi; Ozkaya, Ali Burak; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Akdemir, Ali; Ak, Handan



MRI Assessment of Uterine Artery Patency and Fibroid Infarction Rates 6 Months after Uterine Artery Embolization with Nonspherical Polyvinyl Alcohol  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We have observed significant rates of uterine artery patency after uterine artery embolization (UAE) with nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (nsPVA) on 6 month follow-up MR scanning. The study aim was to quantitatively assess uterine artery patency after UAE with nsPVA and to assess the effect of continued uterine artery patency on outcomes. Methods: A single centre, retrospective study of 50 patients undergoing bilateral UAE for uterine leiomyomata was undertaken. Pelvic MRI was performed before and 6 months after UAE. All embolizations were performed with nsPVA. Outcome measures included uterine artery patency, uterine and dominant fibroid volume, dominant fibroid percentage infarction, presence of ovarian arterial collaterals, and symptom scores assessed by the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL). Results: Magnetic resonance angiographic evidence of uterine artery recanalization was demonstrated in 90 % of the patients (64 % bilateral, 26 % unilateral) at 6 months. Eighty percent of all dominant fibroids demonstrated >90 % infarction. The mean percentage reduction in dominant fibroid volume was 35 %. No significant difference was identified between nonpatent, unilateral, and bilateral recanalization of the uterine arteries with regard to percentage dominant fibroid infarction or dominant fibroid volume reduction. The presence of bilaterally or unilaterally patent uterine arteries was not associated with inferior clinical outcomes (symptom score or UFS-QOL scores) at 6 months. Conclusion: The high rates of uterine artery patency challenge the current paradigm that nsPVA is a permanent embolic agent and that permanent uterine artery occlusion is necessary to optimally treat uterine fibroids. Despite high rates of uterine artery recanalization in this cohort, satisfactory fibroid infarction rates and UFS-QOL scores were achieved.

Das, Raj, E-mail:; Gonsalves, Michael; Vlahos, Ioannis [St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Blackshaw, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)] [St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Blackshaw, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Manyonda, Issac [St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Gynaecology (United Kingdom)] [St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Gynaecology (United Kingdom); Belli, Anna-Maria [St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Blackshaw, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)] [St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Blackshaw, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)



MR-Guided Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Uterine Fibroids  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) ablation of uterine fibroids provides a minimally invasive outpatient technique for targeting and treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a guidance platform that has high temporal and spatial resolution for guiding, as well as thermal monitoring of the procedure. The high-intensity focused ultrasound provides a mechanism for delivering large amounts of energy directly into the fibroid without causing detrimental effects to the nontarget tissues. Early and intermediate follow-up of patients treated with MRgFUS provided promising results on the efficacy of the technique for providing symptom relief to patients. As more long-term follow-up data are published, the efficacy of this technique can be compared to more invasive surgical and minimally invasive catheter treatments.

Hesley, Gina K.; Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Woodrum, David A., E-mail: [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)



Estrogen-induced disruption of neonatal porcine uterine development alters adult uterine function.  


In the pig, estradiol-17beta valerate (EV) exposure from birth (Postnatal Day [PND] 0) disrupts estrogen receptor-alpha (ER)-dependent uterine development and increases embryo mortality in adults. To determine effects of neonatal EV exposure on adult uterine morphology and function, 36 gilts received corn oil (CO) or EV from PND 0 to PND 13. Cyclic and pregnant (PX) adults from each treatment group were hysterectomized on Day 12 after estrus/mating. Treatment and pregnancy effects were determined for uterine weight and horn volume, uterine luminal fluid (ULF) protein and estradiol content, endometrial incorporation of 3H-leucine (3H-Leu) into nondialyzable product, and endometrial mRNA levels for ER, progesterone receptor (PR), uteroferrin (UF), retinol-binding protein (RBP), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Adults cycled normally and had similar numbers of corpora lutea. Uteri of PX gilts contained tubular/filamentous conceptuses, and ULF estradiol content was unaffected by treatment. However, pregnancy increased uterine weight and size only in CO gilts (Treatment x Status, P < 0.01). Treatment reduced ULF protein content (P < 0.01), endometrial 3H-Leu incorporation (P < 0.05), and the pregnancy-associated increase in ULF protein (Treatment x Status, P < 0.01). Treatment did not affect endometrial ER or PR mRNA levels but attenuated the pregnancy-associated increase in UF mRNA (Treatment x Status; P < 0.01), increased RBP (P < 0.10), and decreased KGF mRNA levels (P < 0.05). These results establish that transient postnatal estrogen exposure affects porcine uterine responsiveness to potentially embryotrophic signals and that estrogen-sensitive postnatal uterine organizational events are determinants of uterine size and functionality. PMID:12606348

Tarleton, Becky J; Braden, Tim D; Wiley, Anne A; Bartol, Frank F



Uterine balloon therapy to treat menorrhagia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the clinical efficacy, safety and acceptability of the thermal balloon endometrial ablation (TBEA) in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Methods: Thirteen patients with DUB who did not respond to medical treatment and dilatation and curettage consented to a trial of TBEA with EASYTM model of balloon catheter by Gynecare. All procedures were done under intravenous (IV) sedation

K Buckshee; K Banerjee; H Bhatla



Nitroxidergic nerve stimulation relaxes human uterine vein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant action of nitroglycerin, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, on veins over arterioles is well recognized. This study was carried out to determine whether endogenous NO derived from vasodilator nerve regulates the tone of human uterine venous strips. The isolated vein partially contracted with prostaglandin F2? responded to nicotine with a contraction or a relaxation; the contraction was reversed

Noboru Toda; Toshio Kimura; Tomio Okamura



Uterine Positions and Schedules of Urination: Correlates  

E-print Network

Uterine Positions and Schedules of Urination: Correlates of Differential Maternal Anogenital sex. In the present article, we explore the characteristics of same-sex littermates for understanding of how maternal behavior may mediate hormonal effects on the develop- ment of young gerbils

Galef Jr., Bennett G.


Primary malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix.  


A case of primary malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix is presented. It demonstrates the histological findings at both light and electron microscopy, the unusual flow cytofluorometric analysis, the clinical response to irradiation and the rapid dissemination of the tumour. PMID:3396293

Owens, O J; Pollard, K; Khoury, G G; Dyson, J E; Jarvis, G J; Joslin, C A




E-print Network

Abstract. With the aim of studying the frequency of Chagas ’ disease among sufferers of uterine leiomyoma, we analyzed women older than 35 years who underwent surgery and presented with leiomyoma on anatomicopathological examination. The diagnosis of Chagas infection was based on positivity to at

Eddie Fernando; Candido Murta; Gustavo Paludetto Oliveira; Fernando De; Oliveira Prado; Maria Azniv; Hazarabedian De Souza; Beatriz Martins; Tavares Murta; Sheila; Jorge Adad


Uterine fibroid tumors: diagnosis and treatment.  


The incidence of uterine fibroid tumors increases as women grow older, and they may occur in more than 30 percent of women 40 to 60 years of age. Risk factors include nulliparity, obesity, family history, black race, and hypertension. Many tumors are asymptomatic and may be diagnosed incidentally. Although a causal relationship has not been established, fibroid tumors are associated with menorrhagia, pelvic pain, pelvic or urinary obstructive symptoms, infertility, and pregnancy loss. Transvaginal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, sonohysterography, and hysteroscopy are available to evaluate the size and position of tumors. Ultrasonography should be used initially because it is the least invasive and most cost-effective investigation. Treatment options include hysterectomy, myomectomy, uterine artery embolization, myolysis, and medical therapy. Treatment must be individualized based on such considerations as the presence and severity of symptoms, the patient's desire for definitive treatment, the desire to preserve childbearing capacity, the importance of uterine preservation, infertility related to uterine cavity distortions, and previous pregnancy complications related to fibroid tumors. PMID:17555142

Evans, Patricia; Brunsell, Susan



Minimum intrauterine pressure required for uterine distention.  


Study Objective. To determine the minimum intrauterine pressure required to distend the uterine cavity during hysteroscopy using saline as a distending medium. Design. Nonrandomized, prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Setting. Ambulatory surgery suites. Patients. Seven women from the practice of the principal investigator. Intervention. Hysteroscopy was performed and intrauterine perfusion pressure was measured. Measurements and Main Results. Intrauterine perfusion pressure required to separate the anterior and posterior uterine walls was measured using a Cobe CDX pressure transducer kit. The uterine cavity was distended when intrauterine perfusion pressure reached a median of 40 mm Hg (range 25-50 mm Hg). Conclusion. This preliminary study suggests that a liquid with the same viscosity as normal saline distends the uterine cavity at a pressure of approximately 40 mm Hg. This pressure is lower than that at which spillage from fallopian tubes occurs, suggesting that it may theoretically be possible to ablate the endometrial lining with heated liquid without spilling liquid into the peritoneal cavity. Further study with larger numbers of patients is required to verify this finding. PMID:9454877

Baker, V L; Adamson, G D



Gene therapy and uterine leiomyoma: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leiomyomas (fibroids) are common estrogen-dependent uterine tumours that cause significant morbidity for women and a substantial economic impact on health delivery systems. Currently, there is no effective medical treatment option for this condition—hysterectomy is the mainstay of management. This is not an attractive choice for many women, especially patients desiring to preserve their fertility potential. Gene therapy is becoming a

Ayman Al-Hendy; Salama Salama



Uterine and chorioallantoic angiogenesis and changes in the uterine epithelium during gestation in the viviparous lizard, niveoscincus conventryi (Squamata: Scincidae).  


We used immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to quantify uterine vascularity and to describe uterine surface morphology during gestation in pregnant females of the lecithotrophic lizard Niveoscincus coventryi. As uterine angiogenesis and epithelial cell morphology are thought to be under progesterone control, we studied the effect of a progesterone receptor antagonist (mifepristone) on uterine and chorioallantoic microvasculature and features of the uterine epithelial surfaces. Although intussuceptive angiogenesis was observed in both, uterine and chorioallantoic, vascular beds during gestation, the only significant increases were in the diameters of the uterine vessels. An ellipsoid vessel-dense area grows in the mesometrial hemisphere of the developing conceptus, which parallels the expansion of the allantois to form the chorioallantoic placenta. Uterine surface topography changed during gestation. In particular, uterine blood vessels bulge over the luminal surface to form marked ridges on the uterine embryonic hemisphere, especially during the last stage of pregnancy, and ciliated cells are maintained in the embryonic and abembryonic hemispheres but disappear in both the mesometrial and antimesometrial poles. This distinct regionalization of uterine ridges and ciliated cells in the uterine surface and in the shape of the epithelial component of the chorion might be related to the function of both chorioallantoic and yolk sac placentae during gestation. There was no significant difference between females treated with or without mifepristone, which may be related to the partial function of mifepristone as a progestin antagonist and/or with the function and time of action of progesterone in the uterus during gestation in N. coventryi. Differences in the pattern of angiogenesis and uterine surface morphology during gestation among squamates may be related to the functional diversity of the uterine component of the different placentae and probably reflect its diverse evolutionary history. PMID:21845731

Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia; Parker, Scott L; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B



Inhalation toxicity of methyl isocyanate: biochemical and cytological profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in rats.  


Acute pulmonary injury in rats following a single inhalation exposure to methyl isocyanate (3.2 mg l-1) was reflected by alterations in the biochemical and cytological constituents of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) over a period of 30 days. Total protein, sialic acid and lactic acid contents of BALF were increased followed by a gradual decline to normalcy between day 3 and day 30 post-exposure. The activity of lactic dehydrogenase also increased progressively with time. The cellularity of BALF was increased significantly and primarily comprised of polymorphonuclear neutrophils at 8 days. The adherence of macrophages was unchanged but their viability was lowered at 30 days post-exposure. The results indicate the significance of bronchoalveolar lavage analysis in monitoring pulmonary toxicity by methyl isocyanate, which is characterized by the hypoxic condition and reduced cellular defence. Some toxic manifestations are potentially reversible with time after cessation of exposure. PMID:1918788

Gupta, G S; Kaw, J L; Naqvi, S H; Dixit, R; Ray, P K



Lidocaine effects on immunocompetent cells. Implications for studies of cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage.  


Immunologic data obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is useful for both clinical and investigative purposes. Although lidocaine, used for local anesthesia, is present in BAL in up to 12 mmol concentration, its effects on immunologic tests are unclear. The results of our study show that lidocaine has profound effects on the results of functional studies of immuno-competent cells. Care should be taken to quantify, standardize, and limit the exposure of alveolar cells to lidocaine during bronchoscopy if such studies are to be performed. However, exposure of cells for 25 minutes or less to lidocaine solutions up to 12mmol in concentration does not affect a variety of immunologic tests of interest. At the same time, carefully controlled use of lidocaine in lavage solutions significantly increases the number of cells obtained for study. PMID:6980778

Baser, Y; deShazo, R D; Barkman, H W; Nordberg, J



Bronchoalveolar Lavage and Other Methods to Define the Human Respiratory Tract Milieu in Health and Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

During fiber-optic bronchoscopy (FOB), surface sampling of the human respiratory airways and alveolar unit can be done with\\u000a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), plus selective sites can be brushed for cells and transbronchial biopsies made in adjacent tissue.\\u000a This permits analysis of the respiratory tract’s milieu in healthy normals, in those with disease, and in control subjects.\\u000a These combined procedures have been

Herbert Y. Reynolds



Secondary Aspergillus in Bronchoalveolar Lavages (BALs) of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients from North-India  

Microsoft Academic Search

To find out the prevalence of Aspergillus spp. in Bronchoalveolar Lavages (BALs) of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, to study the anti-Aspergillus antibodies in patient's sera and to study the anti-fungal susceptibility of the isolated Aspergillus strains. BALs obtained from sixty-five patients of pulmonar y tuberculosis and 10 healthy volunteers were studied. Direct microscopy was performed by 10% KOH and Lacto- Phenol

M. Shahid; A. Malik; R. Bhargava


Effects of Peritoneal Lavage with Scolicidal Agents on Survival and Adhesion Formation in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraoperative irrigation of the peritoneal cavity with scolicidal agents is frequently recommended when dealing with traumatic\\u000a or spontaneous rupture of hydatid cysts. The present experimental study was designed to examine the influence of various scolicidal\\u000a agents on adhesion formation and survival. A total of 149 rats were randomly allocated to nine groups. Peritoneal lavage through\\u000a a median laparotomy was performed

Omer Topcu; Isinsu Kuzu; Kaan Karayalcin



Long-term evaluation following temporomandibular joint arthroscopy with lysis and lavage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis has been utilized for almost 20 years, most papers which evaluate the success of this procedure present relatively short-term data (less than two years). The purpose of this paper is to present the longer-term condition of 22 patients who were re-examined 2 to 10.8 years after arthroscopic surgery with lysis and lavage. Assessment of symptoms reported

Bertrand Sorel; Joseph F. Piecuch



Neutrophil Granule Proteins in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Subjects with Subclinical Emphysema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for the contribution of neutrophils to the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema is not convincing. We evaluated neutrophil involvement in subclinical pulmonary emphysema by measuring human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) and two matrix metalloproteinases, gelatinase B (MMP-9) and neutrophil collagenase (MMP-8), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 65 community-based older volunteers. HNL is a recently isolated 24-kD protein secreted from secondary




Fibres and asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of asbestos sprayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alveolar content of fibres and asbestos bodies was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in 21 asbestos sprayers. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) and two light microscopical (LM) methods, cytocentrifugation, and Millipore filtration were used. The subjects had been exposed mainly to crocidolite asbestos for an average of 2.8 (range 0.2-13) years in 1950-75. The mean (median)

T Tuomi; P Oksa; S Anttila; O Taikina-aho; E Taskinen; A Karjalainen; P Tukiainen



Bleomycin-induced lung injury in baboons: Alteration of cells and immunoglobulins recoverable by bronchoalveolar lavage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bleomycin-induced lung injury in baboons was investigated by serial bronchoalveolar lavage. Nine juvenile baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were injected intramuscularly with bleomycin sulfate, 1. 5 U\\/kg body wt., twice weekly for 22 consecutive weeks. Six baboons\\u000a of similar age served as untreated controls. During the treatment period, the amounts of immunoglobulin G and A and the numbers\\u000a of eosinophils recovered by

B. McCullough; Sandra Schneider; N. D. Greene; W. G. Johanson



Initial Experience of Uterine Fibroid Embolization Using Porous Gelatin Sponge Particles  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the safety and effectiveness of uterine artery embolization (UAE) using porous gelatin particle (PGP; Gelpart; Asuterasu, Tokyo, Japan) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Twenty-five consecutive premenopausal women underwent UAE with PGP. The angiographic end point of embolization was near stasis of the ascending uterine artery. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained before and after the procedure. Complications were assessed. The outcomes of technique, infarction rates of all fibroid tissue after UAE with contrast-enhanced MRI, change in symptoms and quality of life using serial Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL) questionnaires, and additional interventions were evaluated. Bilateral UAE was successfully performed in all patients. Enhanced MRI 1 week after UAE showed that 100% infarction of all fibroid tissue was achieved in 65% (15 of 23) of patients; 90-99% infarction was achieved in 35% (8 of 23) of patients. Mean follow-up was 12 months (range 1-20). Symptom and QOL scores at baseline were 47.2 and 61.7, respectively. Both scores significantly improved to 26.3 (P < 0.001) and 82.4 (P < 0.001) at 4 months and to 20.4 (P < 0.001) and 77.6 (P < 0.001) at 1 year, respectively. No additional gynecologic interventions were performed in any patient. There were no major complications. Minor complications occurred in two patients. UAE using PGP is a safe and effective procedure and shows that outcomes after UAE, as measured with enhanced MRI and UFS-QOL questionnaires, seem comparable with those of UAE using other embolic agents. PGP is a promising embolic agent used for UAE to treat symptomatic uterine fibroids. Further comparative study between PGP and other established embolic agents is required.

Katsumori, Tetsuya, E-mail:; Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Oda, Minori; Kotani, Tomoya [Saiseikai Shiga Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)



Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression in the Uterine Endometrium during the Implantation Period in Pigs  

PubMed Central

During embryo implantation in pigs, the uterine endometrium undergoes dramatic morphological and functional changes accompanied with dynamic gene expression. Since the greatest amount of embryonic losses occur during this period, it is essential to understand the expression and function of genes in the uterine endometrium. Although many reports have studied gene expression in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy, the pattern of global gene expression in the uterine endometrium in response to the presence of a conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes) has not been completely determined. To better understand the expression of pregnancy-specific genes in the endometrium during the implantation period, we analyzed global gene expression in the endometrium on day (D) 12 and D15 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle using a microarray technique in order to identify differentially expressed endometrial genes between D12 of pregnancy and D12 of the estrous cycle and between D15 of pregnancy and D15 of the estrous cycle. Results showed that the global pattern of gene expression varied with pregnancy status. Among 23,937 genes analyzed, 99 and 213 up-regulated genes and 92 and 231 down-regulated genes were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the uterine endometrium on D12 and D15 of pregnancy compared to D12 and D15 of the estrous cycle, respectively. Functional annotation clustering analysis showed that those DEGs included genes involved in immunity, steroidogenesis, cell-to-cell interaction, and tissue remodeling. These findings suggest that the implantation process regulates differential endometrial gene expression to support the establishment of pregnancy in pigs. Further analysis of the genes identified in this study will provide insight into the cellular and molecular bases of the implantation process in pigs. PMID:25049669

Kim, Mingoo; Seo, Heewon; Choi, Yohan; Shim, Jangsoo; Kim, Heebal; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Ka, Hakhyun



Deep intra-uterine artificial inseminations using cryopreserved spermatozoa in beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial insemination (AI) with liquid-stored spermatozoa and sperm cryopreservation using directional freezing (DF) have been successful in the beluga. This study built on this foundation to develop a deep intra-uterine AI technique with frozen-thawed semen in beluga. Forty-two ejaculates from one male were cryopreserved using DF technology and subsequently used for 10 insemination attempts with seven females. Percentage pre- and

T. R. Robeck; K. J. Steinman; G. A. Montano; E. Katsumata; S. Osborn; L. Dalton; J. L. Dunn; T. Schmitt; T. Reidarson; J. K. O'Brien



Mathematical Approach for Modeling the Uterine Electrical Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of physiological modeling of the uterine electrical activity generated at cellular level is to understand the main physiological uterine contractile mechanisms, in particular, the propagation mechanisms and their relationship with the uterine EMG signal recorded externally from the abdominal wall of the pregnant women. In this present paper, we model the electrical activity simulated at its cellular level. This model is built in three steps: first we built a model based on the formulation of Hodgkin and Huxley and adapted to the specificities of the uterine cell. The second step was the integration of the cellular model in a two-dimensional propagation model by using the reactiondiffusion equations in order to simulate the propagation of the uterine activity at the tissue level. Finally, a simplified version of the space-time integration of the electrical activity was used to build a first example of the uterine EMG.

Chkeir, Aly; Moslem, Bassam; Rihana, Sandy; Germain, Guy; Marque, Catherine


Bird fancier’s lung: Studies of broncho-alveolar lavage and correlations with inhalation provocation tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular, biochemical and immunologic characteristics of lavage fluid collected from 9 patients with bird fancier’s lung\\u000a and from 4 asymptomatic pigeon breeders of whom 3 had positive serum precipitating antibodies were compared with clinical,\\u000a biological and functional pulmonary responses after inhalation provocation tests. In the symptomatic subjects, the lavage\\u000a fluid consistently revealed a lymphocytosis (34% to 90%) with elevation

C. Voisin; A. B. Tonnel; C. Lahoute; H. Robin; J. Lebas; C. Aerts



A mathematical model to predict protein wash out kinetics during whole-lung lavage in autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.  


Whole-lung lavage (WLL) remains the standard therapy for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a process in which accumulated surfactants are washed out of the lung with 0.5-2.0 l of saline aliquots for 10-30 wash cycles. The method has been established empirically. In contrast, the kinetics of protein transfer into the lavage fluid has not been fully evaluated either theoretically or practically. Seventeen lungs from patients with autoimmune PAP underwent WLL. We made accurate timetables for each stage of WLL, namely, instilling, retaining, draining, and preparing. Subsequently, we measured the volumes of both instilled saline and drained lavage fluid, as well as the concentrations of proteins in the drained lavage fluid. We also proposed a mathematical model of protein transfer into the lavage fluid in which time is a single variable as the protein moves in response to the simple diffusion. The measured concentrations of IgG, transferrin, albumin, and ?2-microglobulin closely matched the corresponding theoretical values calculated through differential equations. Coefficients for transfer of ?2-microglobulin from the blood to the lavage fluid were two orders of magnitude higher than those of IgG, transferrin, and albumin. Simulations using the mathematical model showed that the cumulative amount of eliminated protein was not affected by the duration of each cycle but dependent mostly on the total time of lavage and partially on the volume instilled. Although physicians have paid little attention to the transfer of substances from the lung to lavage fluid, WLL seems to be a procedure that follows a diffusion-based mathematical model. PMID:25398988

Akasaka, Keiichi; Tanaka, Takahiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Kitamura, Nobutaka; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Ito, Yuko; Watanabe, Hiroyoshi; Wakayama, Tomoshige; Arai, Takero; Hayashi, Masachika; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Uchida, Kanji; Ohkouchi, Shinya; Tazawa, Ryushi; Takada, Toshinori; Yamaguchi, Etsuro; Ichiwata, Toshio; Hirose, Masaki; Arai, Toru; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Hirosuke; Nakata, Koh



Metastatic Uterine Adenocarcinoma in an 8-year-old Gilt  

PubMed Central

An 8-y-old gilt was evaluated after the onset of hemorrhagic perineal discharge. Uterine adenocarcinoma with metastases to the lungs and regional lymph nodes was diagnosed at necropsy. Tumor cells lacked expression of estrogen receptor ? and progesterone receptor. This case represents the first reported uterine adenocarcinoma in a research pig and the first swine uterine neoplasia in which steroid hormone receptor expression was evaluated. PMID:19930830

Cannon, Coralie Zegre; Godfrey, Virginia L; King-Herbert, Angela; Nielsen, Judith N



Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer



Screening hospital patients for uterine cervical cancer.  

PubMed Central

Women patients admitted to a district general hospital with non-gynaecological conditions were offered a cervical smear test. In three years 2296 women were tested. Serious uterine pathology was detected in 13 patients (5.7 per 1000) and significant cytological abnormalities (dyskaryosis of all grades) in 46 (20.0 per 1000). Of the women screened 963 (41.9%) had never had a smear test before and 1608 (70.0%) were over 39 yr. The results show that cervical screening of non-gynaecological patients in hospital reaches many of the women at risk for cervical cancer who do not otherwise have smears taken and reveals considerable uterine pathology. PMID:6853729

Hudson, E; Hewertson, S; Jansz, C; Gordon, H



A systematic review of the methods used to assess race and racial disparities in uterine fibroid research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Black women are reported to have a higher prevalence of uterine fibroids, and a threefold higher incidence rate and relative risk for clinical uterine fibroid development as compared to women of other races. Uterine fibroid research has reported that black women experience greater uterine fibroid morbidity and disproportionate uterine fibroid disease burden. With increased interest in understanding uterine fibroid

Nicole A Streeter



Ectopic prostatic tissue in the uterine cervix.  


This is the first reported case of ectopic prostatic tissue in the uterine cervix, diagnosed in a 38-year-old woman. A cluster of benign prostatic glands with cribriform and papillary patterns and focal squamous metaplasia occupied the superficial endocervical stroma. The glands were immunoreactive for prostatic specific antigen and prostatic specific acid phosphatase. This lesion, which could be confused with microglandular hyperplasia, mesonephric rests, or adenocarcinoma in situ may represent an embryonic rest. PMID:9421098

Larraza-Hernandez, O; Molberg, K H; Lindberg, G; Albores-Saavedra, J



Uterine prolapse and hypocalcemia in dairy cows.  


Blood samples were collected from 53 dairy cows with uterine prolapse and from 53 cows with normal parturition (no uterine prolapse) matched by dairy as controls for various management programs among dairies. Cows with uterine prolapse had significantly lower total serum calcium content than did controls (P less than 0.01). Mean (+/- SEM) serum calcium content (mg/dl) for affected cows and controls were 6.08 (+/- 0.25) and 6.96 (+/- 0.20), respectively. Severe hypocalcemia (less than 4 mg/dl) was found in 10 (19%) of the affected cows, compared with 1 (1.8%) of the controls. Fifteen (28%) of the affected cows had moderate hypocalcemia (4.1 to 6.0 mg/dl), compared with 14 (26%) of the controls; 19 (36%) of the affected cows were mildly hypocalcemic (6.1 to 7.9 mg/dl), compared with 25 (47%) of the controls. Nine (17%) of the affected cows and 13 (25%) of the controls were within the normal range of calcium content (greater than 8 mg/dl). Nine of the affected cows were first-calf cows. The serum of these animals did not have significantly lower calcium concentrations, compared with controls matched by parity. Serum calcium values (mg/dl) for 9 first-calf cows and the 9 matched controls were 7.24 (+/- 0.42) and 7.00 (+/- 0.39), respectively. It was concluded that hypocalcemia was associated with uterine prolapse in multiparous dairy cows and, along with other factors, is involved as an etiologic factor for this puerperal condition. PMID:6511623

Risco, C A; Reynolds, J P; Hird, D



Observations on Uterine Prolapse in Beef Cattle  

PubMed Central

Serum samples were obtained from 26 beef cows with uterine prolapse and from 15 with minor dystocia (controls). The serum of animals with uterine prolapse had significantly lower calcium concentration (mean ± S.D. = 8,22 ± 0,69 mg/dL, P?0,01), higher phosphorus concentration (mean ± S.D. = 4,78 ± 1,75 mg/dL, P?0,05) and lower calcium to phosphorus ratios (mean ± S.D. = 1,99 ± 0,88, P?0,01) than for the control animals (means ± S.D. = 8,91 ± 0,75 mg/dL, 3,54 ± 1,41 mg/dL and 2,99 ± 1,41 respectively). Mild hypocalcemia (6,9 mg/dL-7,9 mg/dL) was present in 11 (42,3%) of the cows with prolapse as compared to only one (6,7%) of the controls. Hypophosphatemia was present in 11 (42,3%) of the animals with prolapse and in ten (66,7%) of the controls. Eighteen (69,2%) of the animals with prolapse were alert and ambulatory when treated and 15 (57,7%) were known to have required help to deliver the calf. Of the cattle group with uterine prolapse, 14 (53,8%) were two years old, six (23,1%) were three years old, and six (23,1%) were four years of age or older. It was concluded that mild hypocalcemia and some degree of dystocia were associated with the uterine prolapses. The phosphorus results were equivocal but the high incidence of hypophosphatemia may reflect a phosphorus deficient diet. PMID:7284951

Richardson, G. F.; Klemmer, A. D.; Knudsen, D. B.



Observations on uterine prolapse in beef cattle.  


Serum samples were obtained from 26 beef cows with uterine prolapse and from 15 with minor dystocia (controls). The serum of animals with uterine prolapse had significantly lower calcium concentration (mean +/- S.D. = 8,22 +/- 0,69 mg/dL, Puterine prolapse, 14 (53,8%) were two years old, six (23,1%) were three years old, and six (23,1%) were four years of age or older. It was concluded that mild hypocalcemia and some degree of dystocia were associated with the uterine prolapses. The phosphorus results were equivocal but the high incidence of hypophosphatemia may reflect a phosphorus deficient diet. PMID:7284951

Richardson, G F; Klemmer, A D; Knudsen, D B



Outpatient versus inpatient uterine polyp treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding: randomised controlled non-inferiority study  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the effectiveness and acceptability of outpatient polypectomy with inpatient polypectomy. Design Pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled non-inferiority study. Setting Outpatient hysteroscopy clinics in 31 UK National Health Service hospitals. Participants 507 women who attended as outpatients for diagnostic hysteroscopy because of abnormal uterine bleeding and were found to have uterine polyps. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to either outpatient uterine polypectomy under local anaesthetic or inpatient uterine polypectomy under general anaesthesia. Data were collected on women’s self reported bleeding symptoms at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Data were also collected on pain and acceptability of the procedure at the time of polypectomy. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was successful treatment, determined by the women’s assessment of bleeding at six months, with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of 25%. Secondary outcomes included generic (EQ-5D) and disease specific (menorrhagia multi-attribute scale) quality of life, and feasibility and acceptability of the procedure. Results 73% (166/228) of women in the outpatient group and 80% (168/211) in the inpatient group reported successful treatment at six months (intention to treat relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.02; per protocol relative risk 0.92, 0.82 to 1.02). Failure to remove polyps was higher (19% v 7%; relative risk 2.5, 1.5 to 4.1) and acceptability of the procedure was lower (83% v 92%; 0.90, 0.84 to 0.97) in the outpatient group Quality of life did not differ significantly between the groups. Four uterine perforations, one of which necessitated bowel resection, all occurred in the inpatient group. Conclusions Outpatient polypectomy was non-inferior to inpatient polypectomy. Failure to remove a uterine polyp was, however, more likely with outpatient polypectomy and acceptability of the procedure was slightly lower. Trial registration International Clinical Trials Registry 65868569. PMID:25801579

Cooper, Natalie A M; Middleton, Lee; Diwakar, Lavanya; Smith, Paul; Denny, Elaine; Roberts, Tracy; Stobert, Lynda; Jowett, Susan; Daniels, Jane



The effects of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on uterine vascular impedance and uterine artery mechanics  

PubMed Central

Objectives Uterine vascular resistance (UVR) is the ratio of systemic mean arterial pressure to mean uterine blood flow and is sensitive to changes in small arteries and arterioles. However, it provides little or no insight into changes in large, conduit arteries. Fluctuations in estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels during the ovarian cycle are thought to cause uterine resistance artery vasodilation; the effects on large arteries are unknown. Herein, our objective was to use the uterine vascular impedance, which is sensitive to changes in small and large arteries, to determine the effects of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on the entire uterine vasculature. Study Design Uterine vascular perfusion pressure and flow rate were recorded simultaneously on anesthetized sheep in the nonpregnant (NP) luteal (NP-L, n=6) and follicular (NP-F, n=7) phases and in late gestation pregnant (CP, n=10) sheep. Impedance and metrics of impedance (input impedance Z0, index of wave reflection RW, characteristic impedance ZC) were calculated. E2 and P4 levels were measured from jugular vein blood samples. Finally, from pressure-diameter tests post-mortem, large uterine artery circumferential elastic modulus (ECirc) was measured. Significant differences were evaluated by two-way ANOVA or Student’s t-test. Results As expected, E2:P4 was higher in the NP-F group compared to the NP-L group (p<0.05). Also as expected, UVR and Z0 decreased in the follicular phase compared to the luteal (p<0.05), but RW, ZC, and ECirc were unaltered. Pregnancy not only substantially decreased UVR (and Z0) (p<0.00001) but also decreased ZC (p<0.001), RW (p<0.0001), ECirc (p<0.01), and pulse wave velocity (p<0.0001). Conclusions The E2:P4 ratio mediates resistance artery vasodilatation in nonpregnant states, but has no effect on conduit artery size or stiffness. In contrast, pregnancy causes dramatic vasodilation and remodeling, including substantial reductions in conduit artery stiffness and increases in conduit artery size, which affect pulsatile uterine hemodynamics. PMID:19297074

Sprague, Benjamin J.; Phernetton, Terrance M.; Magness, Ronald R.; Chesler, Naomi C.



EB9, a new antibody for the detection of trophozoites of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens in AIDS.  

PubMed Central

AIM--To prepare a monoclonal antibody (EB9) against the trophozoite form of Pneumocystis carinii and to test its efficacy for detecting infection with this organism. METHOD--The sensitivity and specificity of the EB9 antibody were assessed by comparing it with other conventional stains (Papanicolaou, Giemsa and Grocott) and 3F6 antibody in 33 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from HIV positive patients suspected of having P carinii pneumonia. RESULTS--P carinii infection was detected in 15 of 33 patients. In 14 cases the organism was detected by two or more of the staining methods used; however, EB9 failed to detect infection in two cases which were positive by other staining techniques. In one case P carinii infection was detected by EB9 only. CONCLUSION--The results of this study suggest that P carinii infection in the lung may occur in two forms: the cyst form and the trophozoite form, which may explain the observed variation in response to treatment. Images PMID:7876385

Wazir, J F; Brown, I; Martin-Bates, E; Coleman, D V



Treatment of the calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff by ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle lavage. Two years prospective study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: to evaluate the short and long term effectiveness of ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous needle lavage in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To study the evolution of the size of calcifications and pain in the two years after treatment. Methods: study design: A 2 year longitudinal prospective study is carried out after applying the UGPL technique on a number of patients diagnosed with calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff. Clinical, ultrasound and radiology follow-up controls were performed, 3 months, 6 months, one year and two years after the treatment. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess the pain. The degree and point of pain is selected on a 10 cm line, arranged horizontally or vertically. The “0” represents no pain and “10” represents worst pain. The population studied was made up of 121 patients that required our service as a result of suffering from a painful shoulder. Results: the pain (VAS) and the size of the calcification significantly decreased with the application of the technique (p< 0,001 in both cases) and regardless of the sex (p: 0.384 for pain and p: 0.578 for the size of the calcification). This occurred from the first check-up (3 months) and was maintained for two year. Conclusions: we consider this technique to be a valid alternative as a first-choice treatment of calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. The intervention is simple, cost-effective, does not require hospitalization, involves no complications, rehabilitation treatment is not required and it shows very few side effects without sequelae, significantly reducing the size of the calcification and pain in the majority of patients. PMID:25332939

Castillo-González, Federico Del; Ramos-Álvarez, Juan José; Rodríguez-Fabián, Guillermo; González-Pérez, José; Calderón-Montero, Javier



Treatment of the calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff by ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle lavage. Two years prospective study  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose: to evaluate the short and long term effectiveness of ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous needle lavage in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To study the evolution of the size of calcifications and pain in the two years after treatment. Methods: a 2 year longitudinal prospective study is carried out after applying the UGPL technique on a number of patients diagnosed with calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff. Clinical, ultrasound and radiology follow-up controls were performed, 3 months, 6 months, one year and two years after the treatment. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess the pain. The degree and point of pain is selected on a 10cm line, arranged horizontally or vertically. The “0” represents no pain and “10” represents worst pain. The population studied was made up of 121 patients that required our service as a result of suffering from a painful shoulder. Results: the pain (VAS) and the size of the calcification significantly decreased with the application of the technique (p< 0,001 in both cases) and regardless of the sex (p: 0.384 for pain and p: 0.578 for the size of the calcification). This occurred from the first check-up (3 months) and was maintained for two year. Conclusion: we consider this technique to be a valid alternative as a first-choice treatment of calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. The intervention is simple, cost-effective, does not require hospitalization, involves no complications, rehabilitation treatment is not required and it shows very few side effects without sequelae, significantly reducing the size of the calcification and pain in the majority of patients.

Del Castillo-González, Federico; Ramos-Álvarez, Juan José; Rodríguez-Fabián, Guillermo; González-Pérez, José; Calderón-Montero, Javier



Early peritoneal lavage with ulinastatin improves outcome and enhances multi-organ protection in a model of severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early peritoneal lavage with ulinastatin on the outcome of a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: Sham-operated (C), SAP model (M), saline lavage (SL), intravenous ulinastatin (IU), early ulinastatin lavage (EUL) and late ulinastatin lavage (LUL). Intraperitoneal lavage or injection were performed immediately subsequent to the establishment of the SAP model in groups SL, IU and EUL and 3 h later in group LUL. Intraperitoneal lavage with or without ulinastatin was performed for 3 h. The survival time of the rats in groups C, M, EUL and LUL was recorded over a 12-h period and the median survival time was calculated. At 3 h after the induction of SAP, histopathological analyses were performed and the biochemical parameters of groups C, M, SL, IU and EUL were assessed. Groups EUL and LUL exhibited an increased median survival time compared with Group M, with the survival time of the rats in group EUL markedly longer than that in the group LUL rats. Group SL, IU and EUL rats were found to have reduced plasma activities of amylase, lipase, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, with the biggest change observed in the group EUL rats. Furthermore, the intervention in groups SL and EUL was more effective at reducing creatinine and urea levels than that in group IU. Rats in group EUL exhibited a greater inhibition of the SAP-induced increase in troponin T levels than rats in groups SL and IU. The pathological severity scores of the pancreas, liver, kidney and lung in group EUL were significantly lower than those in groups M and better than those in groups SL and IU. In conclusion, early intraperitoneal lavage with ulinastatin significantly improves the median survival time and protects multi-organ function in an SAP model. PMID:25780405





E-print Network

FREE AMINO ACID CONTENT OF EWE UTERINE FLUID UNDER VARIOUS HORMONAL TREATMENTS DURING EARLY Recherches zootechniques, I. N. R. A., i'8350 Jouy en Josas SUMMARY Free amino acids are dosed in ewe uterine secretions are very rich in free amino acids, especially glutamic acid + glutamine and glycine. However

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


What Are the Risk Factors for Uterine Sarcoma?  


... know what causes uterine sarcoma? What are the risk factors for uterine sarcoma? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is ...


A Prospective Study of Hypertension and Risk of Uterine Leiomyomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although uterine leiomyomata (also known as fibroids or myomas) affect the reproductive health and well-being of approximately 25% of premenopausal women, risk factors are poorly understood. Elevated diastolic blood pressure may increase fibroid risk through uterine smooth muscle injury, not unlike atherosclerosis. The authors prospectively examined the relation between diastolic blood pressure and incidence of clinically detected leiomyomata. The sample

Renee Boynton-Jarrett; Janet Rich-Edwards; Susan Malspeis; Stacey A. Missmer; Rosalind Wright


Original article Uterine collagen during pregnancy in cattle  

E-print Network

Original article Uterine collagen during pregnancy in cattle R Kaidi PJ Brown JSE David DJ of collagen; this level was the same at the beginning and end of pregnancy. uterus I collagen / pregnancy of the bovine uterus during pregnancy and to determine the nature of pyridinium cross- links in uterine collagen

Boyer, Edmond


Laparoscopic oxidized cellulose (Surgicel) application for small uterine perforations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To test the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic oxidized cellulose application at the uterine perforation site. Methods: In a prospective study over a 3.5-year period a total of 30 women undergoing combined surgical termination of pregnancy and laparoscopic sterilization who had a small uterine perforation were recruited. Oxidized cellulose (Surgicel) was inserted and attached to the perforation site with

J. B. Sharma; M. Malhotra; P. Pundir



Purification and Characterization of Hexosaminidase from Human Uterine Cervical Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal human uterine cervical tissue and uterine cervical carcinoma tissue were collected and subjected to fractionation of hexosaminidase isoenzymes Hex A, Hex B, and Hex I using DEAE-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography. Hex A was found to be the major isoenzyme in control tissues, whereas Hex B was the major isoenzyme in carcinoma tissues. These two major isoenzyme fractions were first purified

V. Bhuvarahamurthy; S. Govindasamy



Uterine clearance and resistance to persistent endometritis in the mare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to review the role of uterine defense mechanisms in natural resistance to chronic or persistent endometritis. A breakdown of uterine physical clearance mechanisms is currently believed to play a major role in susceptibility to persistent endometritis. Mares with increased susceptibility to persistent endometritis have impaired myometrial contractility in response to an acute inflammation, resulting

M. H. T. Troedsson



Polytocus focus: Uterine position effect is dependent upon horn size.  


Understanding the variability caused by uterine position effects in polytocus species, such as rats, may enhance prenatal animal models for the study of drug and environmental agents. The primiparous litters of 42 intact female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Uterine position, fetal body weight, and fetal brain (wet) weight were recorded on gestation day (GD) 20 (GD 0=sperm positive). Uterine position effect for brain and body weight varied depending upon horn size. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between horn size (and, to a lesser extent, litter size) and fetal weight applied to both body and brain weight measures. There were no statistical differences in brain and body weights between the left and right uterine horns. The position of the uterine horn (left vs. right) and litter size did not influence the uterine position effect in the rat. Collectively, the present data suggest the presence of a significant uterine position effect. Prenatal differences based on uterine position provide an untapped opportunity to increase our understanding of developmental neurotoxicological and teratological studies that employ a polytocus species as an animal model. PMID:25447787

McLaurin, Kristen A; Mactutus, Charles F



Exploring Preterm Birth as a Polymicrobial Disease: An Overview of the Uterine Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Infection is a leading cause of preterm birth (PTB). A focus of many studies over the past decade has been to characterize microorganisms present in the uterine cavity and document any association with negative pregnancy outcome. A range of techniques have been used to achieve this, including microbiological culture and targeted polymerase chain reaction assays, and more recently, microbiome-level analyses involving either conserved, phylogenetically informative genes such as the bacterial 16S rRNA gene or whole shotgun metagenomic sequencing. These studies have contributed vast amounts of data toward characterization of the uterine microbiome, specifically that present in the amniotic fluid, fetal membranes, and placenta. However, an overwhelming emphasis has been placed on the bacterial microbiome, with far less data produced on the viral and fungal/yeast microbiomes. With numerous studies now referring to PTB as a polymicrobial condition, there is the need to investigate the role of viruses and fungi/yeasts in more detail and in particular, look for associations between colonization with these microorganisms and bacteria in the same samples. Although the major pathway by which microorganisms are believed to colonize the uterine cavity is vertical ascension from the vagina, numerous studies are now emerging suggesting hematogenous transfer of oral microbiota to the uterine cavity. Evidence of this has been produced in mouse models and although DNA-based evidence in humans appears convincing in some aspects, use of methodologies that only detect viable cells as opposed to lysed cells and extracellular DNA are needed to clarify this. Such techniques as RNA analyses and viability polymerase chain reaction are likely to play key roles in the clinical translation of future microbiome-based data, particularly in confined environments such as the uterus, as detection of viable cells plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment of infection. PMID:25505898

Payne, Matthew S.; Bayatibojakhi, Sara



Ozone-induced airway inflammation in human subjects as determined by airway lavage and biopsy  

SciTech Connect

Ozone (O3) is a major constituent of urban air pollution. The acute effects of the inhalation of O3 at ambient or near-ambient concentrations on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) end points consistent with a distal lung inflammatory response have been well documented in human subjects. Animal toxicologic studies have shown that the airway is also a major site of O3-induced injury and inflammation. To date, no studies have confirmed this finding in human subjects. Effects of O3 on the proximal airways are not adequately studied by BAL, which is primarily influenced by events occurring in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli. We hypothesized that O3 causes injury and inflammation in the airways in addition to that previously documented to occur in the distal lung. We performed isolated lavage of the left mainstem bronchus and forceps biopsy of the bronchial mucosa in a group of 14 healthy, athletic subjects 18 h after exposure to 0.20 ppm O3 for 4 h during moderate exercise in order to assess this possibility. We followed an identical protocol in a similar group of 12 subjects exposed to filtered air. The mean (SD) total cell count and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration in the isolated airway lavage were significantly greater after O3 than after air, 13.9 (20.5) versus 4.9 (5.4) cells/ml x 10(4) and 18.9 (11.2) versus 9.6 (9.0) U/L, respectively. Morphometry (2,070 neutrophils/cm2 of tissue for O3 and 330 neutrophils/cm2 of tissue for air) demonstrated that O3 exposure induced an acute inflammatory cell influx into the airway.

Aris, R.M.; Christian, D.; Hearne, P.Q.; Kerr, K.; Finkbeiner, W.E.; Balmes, J.R. (San Francisco General Hospital, CA (United States))



Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors.  


Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) are rare neoplasms of unknown etiology. Only 67 cases have been reported in the literature, to our knowledge, so far. The neoplasm usually occurs in middle-aged women. Most patients present with abnormal uterine bleeding and/or abdominal pain, along with an enlarged uterus or a palpable uterine mass. There is no specific imaging finding, and the diagnosis is made exclusively on histopathologic examination. A multitude of architectural patterns are described, which include plexiform cords, anastomosing trabeculae, watered-silk, microfollicle, macrofollicle, tubules, retiform, solid cellular islands, and diffuse pattern of growth. The neoplastic cells are usually small with round to ovoid nuclei, nuclear monotony, mild nuclear hyperchromasia, and inconspicuous nucleoli with scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Nuclear grooves are rare. Mitotic figures are infrequent, and necrosis is mostly absent. This tumor depicts a diverse immunohistochemical profile with expression of sex cord, epithelial, and smooth muscle lineages markers. Sex cord markers, such as inhibin, calretinin, CD99, WT1, and MART-1; epithelial markers, such as pancytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen; smooth muscle markers, such as smooth muscle actin, desmin, and histone deacetylase 8; and miscellaneous markers, such as CD10, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, S100, and CD117, are often coexpressed. Immunoexpression for calretinin and at least for one of the other sex cord markers is required to establish a diagnosis of UTROSCT. Hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is usually the treatment for UTROSCT. Although most UTROSCTs behave benignly, some do recur, and thus, this entity should be considered as a tumor of low malignant potential. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on UTROSCT and its clinical relevance. PMID:24283865

Pradhan, Dinesh; Mohanty, Sambit K



Uterine leiomyosarcoma with central nervous system metastases  

PubMed Central

Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare tumour and comprises 2–3% of all malignant uterus neoplasms [1]. Leiomyosarcoma is characterised by aggressive behaviour, high recurrence rates, and poor overall survival, despite multimodal treatment [3]. Surgery is the main treatment and consists of total abdominal hysterectomy. A randomised trial consisting of 224 patients diagnosed with uterine sarcomas stage I and II showed that adjuvant radiotherapy improves locoregional control. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy is still unclear [1]. Unfortunately, roughly 50% of patients with organ-confined disease will usually develop distant metastasis to lung, peritoneum, liver, pelvic, and para-aortic lymph nodes. Brain metastases are extremely rare [5]. PMID:25767563

Abrahão, Carina Meira; Maluf, Fernando Cotait



Childbirth and Myoma Treatment by Uterine Artery Occlusion: Do They Share a Common Biology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the uterine arteries are bilaterally occluded, either by uterine artery embolization or by laparoscopic obstruction, women with myomas experience symptomatic relief. After the uterine arteries are occluded, most blood stops flowing in myometrial arteries and veins, and the uterus becomes ischemic. It is postulated that myomas are killed by the same process that kills trophoblasts: transient uterine ischemia.When the

Fred Burbank



Identification of inorganic dust particles in bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages by energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis.  


This study shows that energy dispersive x-ray microprobe analysis to identify and quantify intracellular particles in macrophages obtained by the minimally invasive method of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can detect inorganic dust exposures of many different kinds. Bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages from 22 patients have been examined. Twelve patients had occupational exposure to asbestos, talc, silica, hard metal or printing ink, while 10 had no known history of dust exposure. X-ray microprobe analysis identified particles which related to the known exposures, superimposed on a background of other particles related to smoking (kaolinite and mica) or to the general environment (silicon, titanium, and iron). The particle identification provided useful objective confirmation of the known exposures, except for silica, which could not be distinguished from the general background levels. X-ray microanalysis using BAL macrophages can be helpful for clarification of mixed dust exposures, to identify particles when light microscopy indicates retained dust in patients with no known history of exposure, and to monitor retained particles after removal from exposure. PMID:3740951

Johnson, N F; Haslam, P L; Dewar, A; Newman-Taylor, A J; Turner-Warwick, M



Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers.  


Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 15 brake lining (BL) workers exposed only to chrysotile have been determined and compared with those from 44 asbestos cement (AC) workers extensively exposed to amphiboles. The mean AB concentrations (263 +/- 802 and 842 +/- 2086 AB/ml respectively) for those groups did not differ significantly but were much higher than those found in control groups. Analytical electron microscopy of asbestos body cores showed that in the BL group 95.6% were chrysotile fibres whereas in the AC group amphiboles accounted for 93.1%. The size characteristics of the central fibres differed for chrysotile and amphibole AB, the former being shorter and thinner. Examination of repeated bronchoalveolar lavage samples showed that the mechanisms of clearance of chrysotile fibres do not affect AB concentration for at least 10 months after cessation of exposure. It thus appears that routine counting of ABs in BAL allows the assessment of current or recent occupational exposures to asbestos. Exposures to chrysotile lead to AB concentrations comparable with those encountered in exposures to amphiboles. PMID:2155652

Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P; Strauss, P; Yernault, J C



Biomarkers of inflammation in ozone-exposed humans: Comparison of the nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage  

SciTech Connect

An influx of neutrophils (PMNs), a primary feature of acute inflammation, has been associated with the development of lower lung disorders, such as emphysema and idiopathic fibrosis, as well as airway hyperreactivity and increased mucus secretion. It was previously established that an acute inflammatory response in the upper respiratory tract of humans could be studied by analysis of nasal lavages (NL), which is inexpensive, non-invasive, and atraumatic. However, the relationship of the cellular changes in the upper respiratory tract to changes in the lower airways has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. Here the cellular changes detected in the NL with those detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) taken from the same individual have been compared. Ten subjects were exposed to either filtered air or 0.4 ppm ozone (O3), with exercise, for 2 hrs. The NL was done prior to, immediately following an 18 hr post exposure, while the BAL was done only at 18 hr post exposure. A significant increase in PMNs was detected in the NL immediately post exposure to 03, (7.7-fold increase; p=.003), and remained elevated in the 18 hr post-03 NL (6.1-fold increase; p<.001).

Graham, D.E.; Koren, H.S.



Radiation-induced uterine changes: MR imaging  

SciTech Connect

To assess the capability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to demonstrate postirradiation changes in the uterus, MR studies of 23 patients who had undergone radiation therapy were retrospectively examined and compared with those of 30 patients who had not undergone radiation therapy. MR findings were correlated with posthysterectomy histologic findings. In premenopausal women, radiation therapy induced (a) a decrease in uterine size demonstrable as early as 3 months after therapy ended; (b) a decrease in signal intensity of the myometrium on T2-predominant MR images, reflecting a significant decrease in T2 relaxation time, demonstrable as early as 1 month after therapy; (c) a decrease in thickness and signal intensity of the endometrium demonstrable on T2-predominant images 6 months after therapy; and (d) loss of uterine zonal anatomy as early as 3 months after therapy. In postmenopausal women, irradiation did not significantly alter the MR imaging appearance of the uterus. These postirradiation MR changes in both the premenopausal and postmenopausal uteri appeared similar to the changes ordinarily seen on MR images of the nonirradiated postmenopausal uterus.

Arrive, L.; Chang, Y.C.; Hricak, H.; Brescia, R.J.; Auffermann, W.; Quivey, J.M.



Measurement of Phenolic Environmental Estrogens in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the effect of phenolic environmental estrogens on uterine leiomyoma from the perspective of clinical epidemiology. Methods Urine and blood samples were collected from Han women with uterine leiomyoma and women without uterine leiomyoma, living in Nanjing, China, between September 2011 and February 2013. A total of 156 urine samples and 214 blood samples were collected from the uterine leiomyoma group and 106 urine samples and 126 blood plasma samples from the control group. Bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) concentrations were determined by solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Results Phenolic environmental estrogens in the uterine leiomyoma and control groups were compared based on: gravida>3 and gravida ? 3. In participants with gravida>3, urine OP concentration was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the uterine leiomyoma group than in the control group. In participants with gravida ? 3, urine NP concentration was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the uterine leiomyoma group compared to controls. Despite obstetric history, urine BPA mean exposure concentration was significantly (P<0.05) different between uterine leiomyoma group and control group. The urine BPA concentration was not significantly (P>0.05) different between gravida>3 and gravida ? 3 patients. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in plasma concentrations of BPA, OP and NP between the leiomyoma group and control group. Mean exposure concentration and range of distribution of BPA, OP and NP plasma concentration differed between the uterine leiomyoma and control group. Conclusion Exposure level of phenolic environmental estrogens in human was related with leiomyoma tumorigenesis. PMID:24255718

Shen, Yang; Xu, Qian; Ren, Mulan; Feng, Xu; Cai, Yunlang; Gao, Yongxing



Effect of Peritoneal Lavage with Taurolidine on Primary Colonic Anastomosis in a Rat Model of Secondary Peritonitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The reported antibacterial, antiendotoxic, and antiadhesive effects of taurolidine prompted us to study the benefits of intraperitoneal\\u000a lavage with taurolidine on primary colonic anastomosis in a rat model of secondary peritonitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We induced peritonitis in 40 rats by injecting Escherichia coli isolate intraperitoneally. We performed colonic resection and primary anastomosis 5?h later, after lavage with either taurolidine\\u000a or saline solution.

A?k?n Akku?; Mustafa Gülmen; Ayhan Çevik; Nejdet Bildik; Orhan ?ad; Erdem Öztürk; Nagihan Özdemir Bar???k



Primary uterine osteosarcoma presenting synchronously with bilateral breast carcinomas.  


Primary uterine sarcomas are infrequent neoplasms and most commonly leiomyosarcomas or endometrial stromal sarcomas. We report a rare case of primary uterine osteosarcoma discovered in a woman in her 60s following staging CT imaging for bilateral breast carcinomas. Examination of the subsequent hysterectomy specimen showed a tumour composed of malignant spindle cells and osteoclast-like giant cells associated with osteoid and neoplastic bone, in keeping with primary uterine osteosarcoma. Distinction of osteosarcoma from the more common carcinosarcoma is important due to the worse prognosis impacting on treatment decisions. In addition, synchronous presentation of this unusual tumour with bilateral breast carcinomas raises the possibility of a mutual genetic pathogenesis. PMID:24898994

Powell, George; Barth, Laura; Todd, Richard; Ganesan, Raji



Case report: Malignant teratoma of the uterine corpus  

PubMed Central

Background Teratomas are the commonest germ cell tumours and are most frequently found in the testes and ovary. Extragonadal teratomas are rare and mainly occur in midline structures. Uterine teratomas are extremely rare with only a few previous case reports, usually involving mature teratomas of the uterine cervix. Case Presentation We report an 82-year-old lady presenting with post-menopausal bleeding. Initial investigations revealed a benign teratoma of the uterus which was removed. Her symptoms persisted and a recurrent, now malignant, teratoma of the uterine corpus was resected at hysterectomy. Six months after surgery she relapsed with para-aortic lymphadenopathy and was treated with a taxane, etoposide and cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimen followed by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Conclusion In this report we discuss the aetiology, diagnosis and management of uterine teratomas, and review previous case studies. PMID:19538751



Ultrasound-Guided Unification of Noncommunicating Uterine Cavities  

PubMed Central

Background: The benefits of ultrasound-guided hysteroscopic metroplasty have been well described in the management of the partial septate uterus. The use of ultrasonography at the time of hysteroscopy provides visualization of the intrauterine instruments within the uterine cavity. This report describes a case where ultrasound-guidance was used to enter a noncommunicating uterine cavity hysteroscopically. Methods: A 22-year-old female after her third miscarriage experienced worsening dysmenorrhea. The patient underwent a laparoscopy and hysteroscopy to further evaluate the cause of pelvic pain and to treat the Müllerian anomaly. Under ultrasound-guidance, the 2 uterine cavities were unified by hysteroscopic metroplasty. Results: Postoperative sonohysterography demonstrated unification of the 2 cavities. Conclusions: This unique application of ultrasound-guidance in hysteroscopic surgery may aid the surgeon in entering a noncommunicating uterine cavity. PMID:12856848

Mullesserill, Bijoy T.; Dumesic, Daniel A.; Damario, Mark A.



Genetic Cause of Infertility Associated with Uterine Fibroids  


... Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives Genetic Cause of Infertility Associated with Uterine Fibroids Skip sharing on social ... To determine whether TSC genes were involved in infertility related to fibroids, scientists funded by the Fertility ...


Outcome analysis in patients with uterine sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze the prognostic factors for survivals and to evaluate the impact of postoperative whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) on pelvic failure in patients with uterine sarcoma treated with radical surgery. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 75 patients with uterine sarcoma who underwent radical surgery with (n = 22) or without (n = 53) radiotherapy between 1990 and 2010. There were 23 and 52 patients with carcinosarcoma and non-carcinosarcoma (leiomyosarcoma, 22; endometrial stromal sarcoma, 25; others, 5), respectively. The median follow-up period was 64 months (range, 17 to 269 months). Results The 5-year overall survival (OS) and pelvic failure-free survival (PFFS) of total patients was 64.2% and 83.4%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that mitotic count (p = 0.006) was a significant predictor of OS. However, factors were not found to be associated with PFFS. On analyzing each of the histologic subtypes separately, postoperative WPRT significantly reduced pelvic failure in patients with carcinosarcoma (10.0% vs. 53.7%; p = 0.046), but not in patients with non-carcinosarcoma (12.5% vs. 9.9%; p = 0.866). Among the patients with carcinosarcoma, 4 patients (17%) had recurrence within the pelvis and 3 patients (13%) had recurrence in other sites as an initial failure, whereas among the patients with non-carcinosarcoma, 3 patients (6%) experienced pelvic failure and 13 patients (25%) experienced distant failure. Conclusion The most significant predictor of OS was mitotic count. Based on the improved PFFS after postoperative WPRT only in patients with carcinosarcoma and the difference in patterns of failure between histologic subtypes, optimal adjuvant treatment options should be offered to patients based on the risk of recurrence patterns. PMID:25874175

Yu, Tosol; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan; Song, Yong-Sang; Park, Noh-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Won



Thermal conductivity of uterine tissue in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermotherapy of the uterus has emerged as an alternative to hysterectomy in the treatment of menorrhagia, from whence it follows that the thermal properties of uterine tissue have become of importance. This study presents measurements of the thermal conductivity and the water content of uterine tissue in vitro. A steady-state thermal conductivity apparatus, based on the comparison of test samples with a material with known thermal conductivity, is described. Measurements were conducted on tissue samples from eleven patients, directly after hysterectomy. Samples with and without endometrium, as well as coagulated samples, were examined. The thermal conductivity of myometrial tissue was found to be and the corresponding water content was % . Measurements on samples with both endometrium and myometrium showed similar thermal conductivity (, ) and water content (%, ). It was also indicated that coagulation causes dehydration, resulting in a lower thermal conductivity.

Olsrud, Johan; Friberg, Britt; Ahlgren, Mats; Persson, Bertil R. R.



[Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm: an unusual cause of postpartum hemorrhage].  


Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of cesarean section. It can lead to severe postpartum hemorrhage. We report three cases of pseudoaneurysm diagnosed late after cesarean delivery, one followed by hemorrhagic shock. Ultrasound may point to the diagnosis, but arteriography of uterine arteries is decisive for the diagnosis. Selective artery embolization is recommended for treatment. Main advantages are complete occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm and fertility preservation. PMID:24656739

Delesalle, C; Dolley, P; Beucher, G; Dreyfus, M; Benoist, G



Phospholipids reduce adhesion formation in the rabbit uterine horn model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To access the ability of intraperitoneal phospholipids to reduce adhesions in a standardized model for gynecologic operations.Design: A randomized, experimental, blinded study using the double uterine horn model.Setting: Academic animal research laboratory.Animal(s): Thirty-three Chinchilla rabbits.Intervention(s): Phospholipids or Ringer’s lactate were intraperitoneally administered after bilateral uterine horn injury.Main Outcome Measure(s): After 10 days, adhesions were evaluated concerning area and strength

Stefan A. Müller; Karl H. Treutner; Hendrik Jörn; Michail Anurov; Alexander P. Oettinger; Volker Schumpelick



Endoscopic OCT for imaging of uterine body and cervix pathologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in gynecology are presented. We have studied mucosa of uterus, uterine cervix and vagina in vivo. Images of healthy endometrium in different stages of menstrual cycle have been recorded. For uterine cervix not only OCT data of normal state but some kids of pathology have been analyzed. Capability of OCT to identify alterations of mucosa makes this method promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Sergeev, Alexander M.



Antepartum uterine relaxation with nitroglycerin at Caesarean delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this case report, NTG provided sufficient uterine relaxation to allow difficult twin extraction at Caesarean delivery.\\u000a Administration of NTG in this situation was controversial, and if it had not been effective, time may have been lost before\\u000a general anaesthesia could have been induced. Nitroglycerin merits further evaluation as an antepartum uterine relaxant, but\\u000a the initial experience is encouraging.

David C. Mayer



Treatment options for dysfunctional uterine bleeding: evaluation of clinical results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most common problems in women of reproductive age, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding\\u000a (DUB) accounts for about half the cases. The aim of this review is to present all treatment options for women suffering from\\u000a DUB and to evaluate their effectiveness. A detailed search strategy on electronic databases was carried out to identify trials

George Pados; Dimitrios Athanatos; Dimitrios Tsolakidis; Panagiotis Stamatopoulos; Basil Tarlatzis


Downregulation of the Integrin ?v Signaling Pathway in Uterine Leiomyomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate alterations of integrin ?v, survival and apoptosis signaling pathways in uterine leiomyomas. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study of 50 women with uterine leiomyomas that had been pathologically confirmed, specimens were obtained laparoscopically from 2007 to 2009. The expressions of integrin ?v signaling pathways (Ras\\/Raf\\/ERK1\\/2, Akt and cleaved caspase-3), surface microstructures by surface electron microscopy and

Feng-Chou Tsai; Wei-Min Liu; Man-Hui Pai; Ming-Shium Hsieh; Jui-Yu Lin; Chih-Ming Chou



Sequence of bronchoalveolar lavage and histopathologic findings in rat lungs early in inhalation asbestos exposure  

SciTech Connect

To assess the early cellular inflammatory response of the lungs, 7 rats per group were exposed nose-only to 13 mg/m/sup 3/ of chrysotile asbestos, 7 h/day for 2, 4, or 6 wk. Lung histopathology and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were analyzed. In exposed animals, dose-related bronchiolitis and fibrosis were found that were not seen in control rats. In exposed rats, total BAL cells were increased six- to sevenfold over matched controls, and more cells were retrieved with longer exposure. In the BAL, counts of macrophages, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) were each elevated in the exposed rats. PMNs seen histologically in the BAL may be related to the time period examined. PMNs and lymphocytes observed throughout this 6-wk study support the idea that these cells may have an important role in early events of asbestos lung injury.

Smith, C.M.; Batcher, S.; Catanzaro, A.; Abraham, J.L.; Phalen, R.



Tissue doses from radiotherapy of cancer of the uterine cervix  

SciTech Connect

For use in an epidemiologic study of subsequent tumors, absorbed doses from brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy were measured and calculated for various tissues of patients treated for cancer of the uterine cervix. External beams included orthovoltage x rays (1.9 and 3.0 mm Cu half-value layer), cobalt-60 gamma rays, 2 MV x rays, and 25 MV x rays. The brachytherapy sources were encapsulated radium. Measurements were made in an Alderson anthropomorphic phantom and a water phantom; calculations were made using a Monte Carlo technique or standard radiotherapy methods. Depending upon stage of disease and radiation energy, the absorbed doses (cGy) from typical treatment regimes to tissues of interest were: ovaries, 1400--5200; stomach, 130--320; kidneys, 120--310; pancreas, 100--260; lungs, 22--48; breasts, 19--52; thyroid, 6--17; salivary glands, 4--11; brain, 2--7, and total active bone marrow, 320--1100. The lower values of each range were for stage I of the disease.

Stovall, M.; Smith, S.A. (Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (US)); Rosenstein, M. (Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, Public Health Service, Rockville, Maryland 20857)



Experimental platform for intra-uterine needle placement procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A framework has been investigated to enable a variety of comparative studies in the context of needle-based gynaecological brachytherapy. Our aim was to create an anthropomorphic phantom-based platform. The three main elements of the platform are the organ model, needle guide, and needle drive. These have been studied and designed to replicate the close environment of brachytherapy treatment for cervical cancer. Key features were created with the help of collaborating interventional radio-oncologists and the observations made in the operating room. A phantom box, representing the uterus model, has been developed considering available surgical analogies and operational limitations, such as organs at risk. A modular phantom-based platform has been designed and prototyped with the capability of providing various boundary conditions for the target organ. By mimicking the female pelvic floor, this framework has been used to compare a variety of needle insertion techniques and configurations for cervical and uterine interventions. The results showed that the proposed methodology is useful for the investigation of quantifiable experiments in the intraabdominal and pelvic regions.

Madjidi, Yashar; Haidegger, Tamás.; Ptacek, Wolfgang; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Kronreif, Gernot; Fichtinger, Gabor



New concepts in the treatment of uterine leiomyomas.  


Uterine leiomyomas are a common clinical occurrence for gynecologists. The current approach to treating these neoplasms is shaped by classic surgical principles and the knowledge that these tumors are responsive to the gonadal steroids estrogen and progesterone. As knowledge of leiomyomas advances through the techniques of molecular biology and molecular genetics, new concepts are developed that go beyond just myomas as steroid-responsive tumors. Understanding the molecular events involved in the transformation of a normal myometrial cell into a neoplastic cell and the subsequent growth of these leiomyoma cells will be important in determining the pathogenesis of these tumors and providing new targets for treatment. Knowing the role of peptide growth factors, including basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta, in the pathogenesis of leiomyoma-related symptoms might lead to new treatments targeting these molecules or their receptors. As the effects of genes, including HMGIC and HMGI(Y), are determined; new treatments to prevent leiomyoma formation or growth may be developed. As we gain understanding of the molecular events that cause benign gynecologic conditions such as leiomyomas, safer and more effective treatments might be found as we enter the 21st century. PMID:9764641

Stewart, E A; Nowak, R A



Characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with sulfur mustard gas–induced asthma or chronic bronchitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To examine the pattern of immunoglobulins and cellular constituents in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from patients with sulfur mustard gas–induced asthma or chronic bronchitis as compared with healthy control subjects.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied two groups of nonsmoking veterans with either bronchial asthma (n = 21) or chronic bronchitis (n = 28) believed to have been caused by sulfur

Ali Emad; Gholam Reza Rezaian



Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods for Microbial Community Profiling with an Application to Pediatric Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barcoded amplicon sequencing is rapidly becoming a standard method for profiling microbial communities, including the human respiratory microbiome. While this approach has less bias than standard cultivation, several steps can introduce variation including the type of DNA extraction method used. Here we assessed five different extraction methods on pediatric bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples and a mock community comprised of nine

Dana Willner; Joshua Daly; David Whiley; Keith Grimwood; Claire E. Wainwright; Philip Hugenholtz



Gene promoter hypermethylation in ductal lavage fluid from healthy BRCA gene mutation carriers and mutation-negative controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Female germline BRCA gene mutation carriers are at increased risk for developing breast cancer. The purpose of our study was to establish whether healthy BRCA mutation carriers demonstrate an increased frequency of aberrant gene promoter hypermethylation in ductal lavage (DL) fluid, compared with predictive genetic test negative controls, that might serve as a surrogate marker of BRCA1\\/2 mutation status

Imogen Locke; Zsofia Kote-Jarai; Mary Jo Fackler; Elizabeth Bancroft; Peter Osin; Ashutosh Nerurkar; Louise Izatt; Gabriella Pichert; Gerald PH Gui; Rosalind A Eeles



A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Surfaxin (Lucinactant) Lavage With Standard Care for Treatment of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. Infants with meconium aspi- ration syndrome (MAS) have marked surfactant dysfunc- tion. Airways and alveoli of affected neonates contain meconium, inflammatory cells, inflammatory mediators, edema fluid, protein, and other debris. The objective of this study was to compare treatment with bronchoalveo- lar lavage using dilute Surfaxin with standard therapy in a population of newborn infants with MAS. Methods.

Thomas E. Wiswell; Gail R. Knight; Neil N. Finer; Steven M. Donn; Hemant Desai; William F. Walsh; Krishnamurthy C. Sekar; Graham Bernstein; Martin Keszler; Valya E. Visser; T. Allen Merritt; Mha Frank L. Mannino; Lisa Mastrioianni; Rn Brian Marcy; Med Susan D. Revak; Bs Huei Tsai; Charles G. Cochrane


A novel protocol for gastric lavage in patients with aluminum phosphide poisoning: a double-blind study.  


Aluminum phosphide poisoning (ALPP) still has no efficient and approved antidote. Supportive care and hemodynamic monitoring are the only choices of treatment. We proposed a new lavage formulation in addition to evaluation of its efficacy and defining the impact of clinical characteristics of patients on their prognosis. During eight months period of time, 120 patients were enrolled to the study and randomly received two different gastric lavage protocols. Our new lavage protocol had positive impact on patients' survival and the P-value in comparison with the classic gastric lavage method was close to significant level (P=0.054). On hospital arrival indication for intubation-ventilation as well as sense of thirst, sore throat and absence of nausea indicate worse outcome. Using our novel approach, indication for intubation-ventilation as well as sense of thirst, sore throat and absence of nausea can be considered as applicable prognostic factors in survival of ALPP patients. Further studies are required to set this approach as preferred treatment. PMID:23109024

Mostafazadeh, Babak; Farzaneh, Esmaeil



Analysis of proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids during pulmonary edema resulting from nitrogen dioxide and cadmium exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new HPLC method by which quantitative measurements can be made on the biochemical constituents of the extracellular fluid lining of the lung as sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage. Nine of the fractions are proteins, two are phospholipids, and two fractions remained unidentified. Rats were subjected to the intrapulmonary deposition of cadmium, a treatment model known to induce

L. R. Gurley; J. E. London; L. A. Dethloff; B. E. Lehnert



Acute toxicity of polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenol ether in Syrian hamsters exposed by inhalation or bronchopulmonary lavage  

SciTech Connect

Dose-response studies were conducted with Syrian hamsters exposed to polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenyl ether (Triton X-100) via inhalation or bronchopulmonary lavage. Syrian hamsters were exposed to an aerosol of Triton X-100 with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.5 and a concentration of 3.0 mg/liter. Estimated initial lung burdens of Triton X-100 ranged from 800 to 3100 Hamsters were lavaged with concentrations of Triton X-100 ranging from 0.01 to 0.10% in isotonic saline resulting in initial lung burdens of Triton X-100 that ranged from 300 to 3200 The LD50/7 values were 1700 (1300 to 2100, 95% confidence limits) for the inhalation study and 2100 (1900 to 2700) for the lavage study. The difference between the LD50/7 values for the two methods of exposure was not significant. However, histopathological examination revealed differences in the nature and distribution of pathologic changes observed in animals exposed by the two routes of administration. Animals exposed by inhalation died as a result of ulcerative laryngitis and laryngeal edema with only minimal pulmonary pathologic alterations. Animals exposed by lavage, where the larynx was not exposed to Triton X-100, died from pulmonary edema and acute exudative pneumonia. These results demonstrate the need for careful selection of exposure methods to meet the specific objectives of a toxicology study.

Damon, E.G. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM); Halliwell, W.H.; Henderson, T.R.; Mokler, B.V.; Jones, R.K.




EPA Science Inventory

Questions of the adequacy of existing ozone (O3) standards prompted an examination of relationships between concentration (C) and exposure time (T) and the impact of changes in the C x T product on toxic responses. sing protein concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALP)...


Evaluation of eicosanoids in nasal lavage as biomarkers of inflammation in patients with allergic rhinitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs), 8-isoprostane and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) constitute fundamental mediators in allergic inflammation; therefore we wanted to determine the utility of PGE2, 8-isoprostane and cys-LT levels in nasal lavage as biomarkers of allergic inflammation. Material and methods Twenty-one patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) were included on the basis of a positive history of AR symptoms and positive results of skin prick tests to grass pollen allergens. The main exclusion criteria were: uncontrolled asthma, nasal polyps, respiratory infection, tuberculosis, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases, current smoking and immunotherapy. Both outside the pollen season and at the height of the pollen season, total nasal symptom score (TNS-4) was evaluated and the levels of cys-LTs, 8-isoprostane and PGE2 were measured in nasal lavage fluid (NALF). Results Natural allergen stimulation resulted in a significant increase of TNS-4 (p < 0.001) and nasal eosinophilia (p < 0.001). The concentration of PGE2 dominated in the NALF outside the pollen season and decreased significantly at the height of natural exposure (p < 0.01). In contrast, lower baseline concentrations of cys-LTs and 8-isoprostane increased significantly upon allergen stimulation (p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between mean concentration of PGE2 and eosinophil number in NALF (r = 0.67, p = 0.0439). Conclusions The NALF concentrations of cys-LTs and 8-isoprostane change simultaneously with TNS-4 and nasal eosinophilia. However, due to the lack of any significant correlation, their utility as markers of allergic rhinitis should be warily considered. The decrease of PGE2 concentration in NALF which correlated with nasal eosinophilia may participate in escalation of allergic inflammation and needs further evaluation. PMID:25624848

Górski, Pawe?; Antczak, Adam



Biomarkers of inflammation in ozone-exposed humans. Comparison of the nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage  

SciTech Connect

Previously we established that an acute inflammatory response in the upper respiratory tract of humans could be studied by analyses of nasal lavages (NL). The relationship of these cellular responses to responses in the lower lung has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. In this study we have compared the cellular changes detected in NL with those detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) taken from the same individual. A group of 10 subjects was exposed to either filtered air or 0.4 ppm ozone (O3), with exercise, for 2 h. The NL was done prior to, immediately following, and 18 h postexposure; the BAL was done only at 18 h postexposure. A significant increase in PMN was detected in the NL immediately postexposure to O3 (7.7-fold increase; p = 0.003) and remained elevated in the 18 h post-O3 NL (6.1-fold increase; p less than 0.001). A similar increase in PMN was detected in the BAL 18 h after exposure to O3 (6.0-fold increase; p less than 0.001). The albumin levels in the NL and BAL were also similarly increased 18 h after O3 (3.9-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively). Although a qualitative correlation in the mean number of PMN existed between the upper and lower respiratory tract after O3, comparison of the NL and BAL PMN from each individual showed a significant quantitative correlation for the air data (r = 0.741; p = 0.014) but not for the O3 data (r = 0.408; p = 0.243). This study demonstrates that PMN counts in the NL can be a useful, inexpensive means of studying the acute inflammatory effect of ozone and monitoring those effects in the lower lung.

Graham, D.E.; Koren, H.S. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))



Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and their relation to therapy.  

PubMed Central

Bronchoalveolar lavage was used to sample inflammatory cells from the lungs of 51 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) (24 smokers, 12 ex-smokers, and 15 non-smokers). The smokers with CFA have been compared with 15 smoking control subjects in whom there was no radiographic abnormality or clinical evidence of chronic bronchitis. Significantly lower volumes of lavage fluid were recovered from the smokers with CFA (p < 0.001) and the fluid contained lower percentages of macrophages (p < 0.01), reflecting increased percentages of eosinophils (p < 0.001) and neutrophils (p < 0.01). Similar changes were seen in the ex-smokers and non-smokers. There was also an increase in the percentages of lymphocytes when the whole group of CFA patients was compared with the control subjects (p less than or equal to 0.05). No significant differences were found when patients with "lone" CFA were compared with those having associated systemic disease. The only feature distinguishing smokers from non-smokers with CFA was the presence of pigmented cytoplasmic inclusions in the macrophages from the smokers (p < 0.001). However, there were lower numbers of pigmented macrophages in the smoking CFA patients by comparison with the control subjects suggesting either a change in phagocytic capacity or turnover rate in this disease. Profiles of differential cell counts in individual patients showed that increases of eosinophils over 3% or neutrophils over 4% or both with lymphocyte counts of less than 11% related to a poor clinical response to corticosteroids, but lymphocyte percentages greater than 11% related to improvement (p < 0.05). Images PMID:7434282

Haslam, P L; Turton, C W; Lukoszek, A; Salsbury, A J; Dewar, A; Collins, J V; Turner-Warwick, M



Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid IFN-?+ Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis  

PubMed Central

In sarcoidosis, increased Th17 cell fractions have been reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and elevated numbers of Th17 cells producing IFN-? have been observed in peripheral blood. The balance between Th1, Th17, and FoxP3+ CD4+ T cell subsets in sarcoidosis remains unclear. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells, from 30 patients with sarcoidosis, 18 patients with other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, and 15 healthy controls, were investigated with flow cytometry for intracellular expression of FoxP3. In a subset of the patients, expression of the cytokines IL17A and IFN-? was investigated. The fractions of FoxP3+ CD4+ T cells and Th17 cells were both lower in sarcoidosis compared to controls (P = 0.017 and P = 0.011, resp.). The proportion of Th17 cells positive for IFN-? was greater in sarcoidosis than controls (median 72.4% versus 31%, P = 0.0005) and increased with radiologic stage (N = 23, rho = 0.45, and P = 0.03). IFN-?+ Th17 cells were highly correlated with Th1 cells (N = 23, rho = 0.64, and P = 0.001), and the ratio of IFN-?+ Th17/FoxP3+ CD4+ T cells was prominently increased in sarcoidosis. IFN-?+ Th17 cells may represent a pathogenic subset of Th17 cells, yet their expression of IFN-? could be a consequence of a Th1-polarized cytokine milieu. Our results indicate a possible immune cell imbalance in sarcoidosis. PMID:24882950

Tøndell, Anders; Moen, Torolf; Børset, Magne; Salvesen, Øyvind; Rø, Anne Dorthea; Sue-Chu, Malcolm



Evaluation of Referenceless Thermometry in MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery of Uterine Fibroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: A recently described method to produce MRI-based temperature images from individual phase maps (referenceless thermometry) was tested in images acquired during MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery of uterine fibroids. Methods: Temperature measurements, noise in unheated areas, and thermal dose contours from 100 sonications as measured by the referenceless method were compared to images constructed with the standard phase-difference technique. Results: The agreement between temperature measurements was good, with 92% having a difference from the phase difference method less than or equal to 3°C. Conclusions: The referenceless method appears to be adequate for temperature monitoring of MRI-guided focused ultrasound in fibroids.

McDannold, Nathan; Tempany, Clare; Jolesz, Ferenc; Hynynen, Kullervo



Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea  

PubMed Central

Background We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions Candidate proteins and miRNAs associated with the general diagnosis of dyspnea have been identified in subjects with differing medical diagnoses. Since these markers can be measured in readily obtained clinical samples, further studies are possible that test the value of these findings in more formal classification or case–control studies in much larger cohorts of subjects with specific lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, or some other well-defined lung disease. PMID:25282157



Reproductive Outcome Following Hysteroscopic Treatment of Uterine Septum  

PubMed Central

Background: Septate uterus is the most common uterine anomaly and a cause for miscarriage and infertility. Existing data suggested a better reproductive outcome of uterine septum following hysteroscopic septum resection. Objective: Current study was administered to share our experience in hystroscopic septum resection for reproductive outcome following hysteroscopic treatment of uterine septum and specifically focusing on different treatment protocols after hysteroscopic septum resection. Methods& materials: This study was a cross-sectional study based on secondary data that was obtained from medical records of infertile women who had undergone transvaginal hysteroscopy and used different treatment protocols after hysteroscopic correction of uterine septum in Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center between April 2005 and February 2014. Results: The total number of infertile women underwent hysteroscopy uterine septoplasty was 106. The hysteroscopy septoplasty resulted in an overall pregnancy rate of 67% and a live birth 57.5%. Pregnancy rate for patients who had not male infertility was 92.1%. The chi-square test did not reveal any statistically significant difference in side affect, pregnancy, live birth, abortion, preterm deliveries, and term deliveries rate between these patients either with consistent hormone therapy plus IUD insertion or with alternate hormone therapy plus IUD after hysteroscopic metroplasty. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated hysteroscopic septum resection to remove a uterine septum in women with infertility is safe and may be an efficacious procedure. Treatment following hysteroscopic septum resection, either the consistent or the alternate protocol is both beneficial to improve pregnancy rate. PMID:25685079

Esmaeilzadeh, Seddigheh; Delavar, Mouloud Agajani; Andarieh, Maryam Ghanbari



Risk awareness on uterine cancer among Australian women.  


Uterine cancer is the most common invasive gynaecological cancer in Australia. Early detection is a key predictive factor achieved by increasing public awareness and participation in screening. This observational study measures awareness of gynaecological malignancies, particularly uterine, among women in two rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. Patients presenting to gynaecology clinics in January to March 2014 were invited to complete a structured questionnaire. Women with a history of cancer and incomplete questionnaires were excluded. Of the 382 patients invited to participate, 329 (86%) responded with complete feedback. Most respondents were younger than than 50 years (66%) and married with at least 2 children (74%). The majority (94%) of participants had no awareness of uterine cancer and many (46%) were unable to identify common risk factors including obesity, diabetes and hypertension. The ability to identify risk factors was correlated to age, marital status and obesity. The study identifies poor awareness on uterine malignancies in two typical areas of rural Australia. Although external validity is limited by sociological factors, poor awareness of uterine cancer among rural patients in this study represents a valid public health concern. It is imperative to improve awareness of uterine cancer and available screening programs to facilitate early detection and cure. PMID:25556456

George, Mathew; Asab, Nihad Abu; Varughese, Elizabeth; Irwin, Matthew; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Hollebone, Keith; Apen, Kenneth; Renner, Stefan



Spontaneous cessation and recurrence of massive uterine bleeding can occur in uterine artery pseudoaneurysm after laparoscopically assisted myomectomy.  


A uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) is a rare but life-threatening complication that can occur after gynecologic surgery. Herein, we present a case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with massive uterine bleeding one month after a laparoscopically assisted myomectomy. Although the bleeding ceased spontaneously, a massive hemorrhage reoccurred three weeks thereafter, and a ruptured perfusion sac at the right uterine artery was identified by computed tomography angiography and ultrasonography. The patient was treated with transfemoral catheter embolization of the right uterine artery, and complete resolution of the UAP was successfully obtained. Our case suggests that a UAP may be a cause of unexplained repetitive metrorrhagia after myomectomy. PMID:23002950

Oishi, Hajime; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Osuga, Yutaka; Yano, Tetsu; Kozuma, Shiro; Taketani, Yuji



Histological characteristics of the uterine endometrium and corpus luteum during early embryogenesis and the relationship to embryonic mortality in the domestic cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy rates are low and litter sizes generally small when assisted reproduction techniques are used in gonadotropin-treated felid (cat) species. A prerequisite to determining whether or not abnormal morphological changes in the uterine lumen or corpus luteum (CL) are related to this reproductive failure is the documentation of normal histological kinetics during natural embryogenesis. This study characterized the histological changes

T. L. Roth; L. Munson; W. F. Swanson; D. E. Wildt



Reproductive outcome after IVF following hysteroscopic division of incomplete uterine septum/arcuate uterine anomaly in women with primary infertility  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine reproductive outcome after in-vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in women with primary infertility following hysteroscopic septoplasty of incomplete uterine septum or arcuate uterine anomaly. Methods: This is a historical cohort study. The study group consisted of 156 consecutive patients who underwent a total of 221 cycles of IVF/ET following hysteroscopic septoplasty of an incomplete uterine septum or arcuate anomaly (Group 1). The control group included 196 consecutive patients with normal endometrial cavity on hysteroscopy who underwent a total of 369 cycles of IVF/ET (Group 2). The reproductive outcome after the first cycle of IVF-ET and the best reproductive outcome of all the cycles the patient underwent were calculated. In addition, we compared the reproductive outcome in the study group based on the type of the anomalies (septum versus arcuate). Results: In the first fresh cycle, following septoplasty, there were significantly higher clinical pregnancy and delivery rates in Group 1 (60.3% and 51.3% respectively) compared to Group 2 (38.8% and 33.2% respectively). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the clinical pregnancy (74.4% vs. 67.3%) or in the delivery (65.4% vs. 60.2%) rates per patient, respectively. There was no significant difference in the reproductive outcome after IVF-ET between patients who previously had arcuate uterine anomaly versus incomplete uterine septum. Conclusion: Reproductive outcome of IVF-ET after hysteroscopic correction of incomplete uterine septum/arcuate uterine anomaly in women with primary infertility is no different from women with normal uterine cavity. PMID:25593694

Abuzeid, M.; Ghourab, G.; Abuzeid, O.; Mitwally, M.; Ashraf, M.; Diamond, M.



Iatrogenic uterine perforation and bowel penetration using a Hohlmanipulator: A case report?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Adequate exposure is a vital factor in total laparoscopic hysterectomy, and uterine manipulators have been used in achieving that. The Hohl uterine manipulator has been considered to be one of the safer manipulators. Beside adequate exposure, it is associated with lower intraoperative complications. However, we report a case of iatrogenic uterine rupture with the Hohl manipulator which also caused bowel penetration. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 52-year-old woman with endometrial hyperplasia was scheduled for total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Prior to entering into the abdomen, the Hohl uterine manipulator was introduced into the uterine cavity without force. During the laparoscopic exploration, we noted that the tip of the Hohl manipulator had perforated the posterior uterine fundus and penetrated the bowel. Therefore, laparotomy was performed, and the bowel injury was repaired by a colorectal surgeon. DISCUSSION The Hohl uterine manipulator is safe and easy to use, and is associated with decreased intraoperative injuries. However, the complications observed due to the improper use of an uterine manipulator can overshadow any advantages of manipulator. In the present report, we describe a case of uterine perforation and bowel penetration caused by the Hohl uterine manipulator during total laparoscopic hysterectomy, which required conversion to laparotomy. The cause for this complication is associated with improper usage of the uterine manipulator. CONCLUSION Uterine manipulator may cause uterine perforation and bowel penetration at the beginning of the hysterectomy procedure. These types of complications can be prevented by proper application of the Hohl manipulator into the uterus under direct pelvic visualization. PMID:24721564

Akdemir, Ali; Cirpan, Teksin



Uterine Artery Embolization Versus Laparoscopic Uterine Artery Occlusion: The Outcomes of a Prospective, Nonrandomized Clinical Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare outcomes of two different types of occlusive therapy of uterine fibroids. Methods: Women with fibroid(s) unsuitable for laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) were treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE) or laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion (LUAO). Results: Before the procedure, patients treated with UAE (n = 100) had a dominant fibroid greater in size (68 vs. 48 mm) and a mean age lower (33.1 vs. 34.9 years) than surgically treated patients (n = 100). After 6 months, mean shrinkage of fibroid volume was 53 % after UAE and 39 % after LUAO (p = 0.063); 82 % of women after UAE, but only 23 % after LUAO, had complete myoma infarction (p = 0.001). Women treated with UAE had more complications (31 vs. 11 cases, p = 0.006) and greater incidence of hysteroscopically verified intrauterine necrosis (31 vs. 3 %, p = 0.001). Both groups were comparable in markers of ovarian functions and number of nonelective reinterventions. The groups did not differ in pregnancy (69 % after UAE vs. 67 % after LUAO), delivery (50 vs. 46 %), or abortion (34 vs. 33 %) rates. The mean birth weight of neonates was greater (3270 vs. 2768 g, p = 0.013) and the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction lower (13 vs. 38 %, p = 0.046) in post-UAE patients. Conclusion: Both methods are effective in the treatment of women with future reproductive plans and fibroids not suitable for LM. UAE is more effective in causing complete ischemia of fibroids, but it is associated with greater risk of intrauterine necrosis. Both methods have low rate of serious complications (except for a high abortion rate).

Mara, Michal; Kubinova, Kristyna, E-mail: [General Faculty Hospital and 1st Medical Faculty of Charles University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Czech Republic); Maskova, Jana [Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Horak, Petr [General Faculty Hospital and 1st Medical Faculty of Charles University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Czech Republic); Belsan, Tomas [Central Military Hospital, Department of Radiology (Czech Republic); Kuzel, David [General Faculty Hospital and 1st Medical Faculty of Charles University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Czech Republic)




PubMed Central

Introduction: The rate of attempted vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery has decreased, while the success rate of such births increased. Advances in surgical techniques, the development of anesthesiology services, particularly endotracheal anesthesia, very quality postoperative care with cardiovascular, respiratory and biochemical resuscitation, significantly reduce maternal mortality and morbidity after cesarean section. Progress and development of neonatal services, and intensive care of newborns is enabled and a high survival of newborn infants. Complications after cesarean section were reduced, and the introduction of prophylaxis and therapy of powerful antibiotics, as well as materials for sewing drastically reduce all forms of puerperal infection. Goal: Goal was to establish a measurement value of the parameters that are evaluated by ultrasound. Material and methods: Each of the measured parameters was scored. The sum of points is shown in tables. Based on the sum of points was done an estimate of the scar on the uterus after previous caesarian section and make the decision whether to complete delivery naturally or repeat cesarean section. We conducted a prospective study of 108 pregnant women. Analyzed were: shape scar thickness (thickening), continuity, border scar out, echoing the structure of the lower uterine segment and scar volume Results: The study showed that scar thickness of 3.5 mm or more, the homogeneity of the scar, scar triangular shape, qualitatively richer perfusion, and scar volume verified by 3D technique up to10 cm are attributes of the quality of the scar. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results we conclude that ultrasound evaluation of the quality of the scar has practical application in the decision on the mode of delivery in women who had previously given birth by Caesarean section. PMID:23322970

Basic, Ejub; Basic-Cetkovic, Vesna; Kozaric, Hadzo; Rama, Admir



A novel uterine manipulator incorporating non-local controls and lateral motion  

E-print Network

The work described in the paper was driven by a clinical need for a better uterine manipulator during laparoscopic gynecological procedures, including both hysterectomy and hysteroscopy. The primary purpose of the uterine ...

Tsai, Wan-Ni



[Hemostatic therapy of dysfunctional uterine hemorrhage].  


The effectiveness of hemostatic therapy in connection with the functional condition of the hypophysis is studied. The study included 92 women in their pubertal, reproductive, and climacteric years. Dysfunctional uterine hemorrhage in these patients was treated by various methods of hemostatic therapy. Radioimmunological determinations of gonadotrophic hormones in peripheral blood were performed to monitor the functional condition of the hypophysis during the hemorrhage phase and hemostatic therapy. The statistically processed data prove that hemostasis with symptomatic preparations is significantly less effective than synthetic progestins and hormonal methods, especially with the combined use of sex hormones. Hemostatic therapy with estrogenic hormones causes pronounced changes in the functional condition of the hypophysis, i.e., inhibition of folliculostimulatory activity. Hemostasis with booster doses of Non-ovlon had the strongest impact on the gonadotrophic function of the hypophysis. Combined use of sex hormones inhibits not only the folliculostimulatory function of the hypophysis, but also its luteinizing function. Comparative analysis of clinical effectiveness data for various treatment methods suggests that higher hemostatic effects are accompanied by significant inhibition of the gonadotrophic activity of the hypophysis. PMID:2418511

Lekomtsev, S P



A Mouse Model of Uterine Leiomyosarcoma  

PubMed Central

We are using an approach that is based on the cre/loxP recombination process and involves a binary system of Cre-producing and Cre-responding transgenic mice to achieve ubiquitous or tissue-specific expression of oncoproteins. To develop mouse models of tumorigenesis, Cre-producers are mated with responder animals carrying a dormant oncogene targeted into the 3? untranslated region of the locus encoding cytoplasmic ?-actin (actin cassette). Production of oncoprotein from a bicistronic message is accomplished in bitransgenic progeny by Cre-mediated excision of a segment flanked by loxP sites that is located upstream from the oncogenic sequence. Widespread Cre-dependent activation and expression of an actin-cassette transgene encoding the T antigens of the SV40 early region (SVER) commencing in embryos was compatible with normal development and did not impair viability. However, at ?3 months of age, all female animals developed massive uterine leiomyosarcomas, whereas practically all males exhibited enormously enlarged seminal vesicles because of pronounced hyperplasia of the smooth muscle layers. In addition, because of smooth muscle hyperproliferation, marked dilation of the gallbladder was observed in mice of both sexes. To begin exploring aberrant signaling events in the SVER-triggered tumorigenic pathways, we analyzed the expression profile of leiomyosarcomas by DNA microarray analysis. PMID:14695345

Politi, Katerina; Szabolcs, Matthias; Fisher, Peter; Kljuic, Ana; Ludwig, Thomas; Efstratiadis, Argiris



Automated image analysis of uterine cervical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical Cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality of women in developing countries. If detected early and treated adequately, cervical cancer can be virtually prevented. Cervical precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician with a Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system. In colposcopy, epithelium that turns white after application of acetic acid is called acetowhite epithelium. Acetowhite epithelium is one of the major diagnostic features observed in detecting cancer and pre-cancerous regions. Automatic extraction of acetowhite regions from cervical images has been a challenging task due to specular reflection, various illumination conditions, and most importantly, large intra-patient variation. This paper presents a multi-step acetowhite region detection system to analyze the acetowhite lesions in cervical images automatically. First, the system calibrates the color of the cervical images to be independent of screening devices. Second, the anatomy of the uterine cervix is analyzed in terms of cervix region, external os region, columnar region, and squamous region. Third, the squamous region is further analyzed and subregions based on three levels of acetowhite are identified. The extracted acetowhite regions are accompanied by color scores to indicate the different levels of acetowhite. The system has been evaluated by 40 human subjects' data and demonstrates high correlation with experts' annotations.

Li, Wenjing; Gu, Jia; Ferris, Daron; Poirson, Allen



[Intra-uterine device and nulliparous women].  


Intra-uterine device (IUD) is one of the birth control methods, which is available for nulliparous women, even though misconceptions still remain in medical or popular opinion. Only 1.3 % of nulliparous have a IUD as contraception in France while it is the second methods used by all women, after pill. The best contraception is the one chosen by women; however, the choice for a nulliparous of an IUD may be really difficult, despite the increasing number of women wishing to use it. Long-acting reversible contraceptives utilization, including IUD, is probably one of the issues to decrease the unintended pregnancies. An exhaustive and clear information about IUD is necessary to allow an informed and real choice. This prescription must consider contraindications and medical conditions for safe insertion, especially to avoid infection by screening STD (Chlamydia trachomatis and Nesseria gonorrhoeae) in nulliparous women<25 years old. Insertion must be effected with usual precautions and short or SL IUD preferred. Even if side effects such as expulsion, pelvic pains or dysmenorrhea are more frequent by nulliparous, IUD is a first intention choice for contraception to be consider, that women could obtain easily, including in emergency contraception situation. PMID:24861439

Trignol-Viguier, N; Blin, E; Marret, H



Embolization of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations Associated with Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease  

SciTech Connect

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of vaginal bleeding and miscarriage. We report two cases of uterine AVMs in patients with a history of complex congenital heart disease, an association that has not been previously described. Both patients were treated by selective uterine artery embolization, a minimally invasive therapy that has revolutionized the management of uterine AVMs, thus offering an alternative to conventional hysterectomy.

Wijesekera, N. T., E-mail:; Padley, S. P.; Kazmi, F.; Davies, C. L.; McCall, J. M. [Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)



Normal human alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage have a limited capacity to release interleukin-1.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a mediator released by stimulated mononuclear phagocytes that is thought to play an important role in modulating T and B lymphocyte activation as well as in contributing to the febrile response and other inflammatory processes. Circulating mononuclear phagocytes, blood monocytes, readily release IL-1 when stimulated. However, the ability of lung mononuclear phagocytes, alveolar macrophages, to dispose of the large daily burden of inhaled antigens without stimulating an inflammatory response suggests that the release of IL-1 by alveolar macrophages may differ significantly from that of blood monocytes. To evaluate this hypothesis, normal autologous alveolar macrophages, obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage, were compared with blood monocytes for their ability to release IL-1 in response to a standard stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Alveolar macrophages were found to be at least 1,000 times less sensitive to LPS than blood monocytes. Furthermore, alveolar macrophages released significantly less IL-1 than blood monocytes (26 +/- 11 vs. 128 +/- 21 U/10(6) cells X 24 h, respectively, after stimulation with 10 micrograms/ml of LPS, P less than 0.001). This difference was not due to the release of substances by macrophages, which inhibited lymphocyte proliferation in response to IL-1, or to degradation of IL-1 by macrophages. Culturing macrophages in the presence of indomethacin and dialysis of macrophage supernatants did not affect the difference, and culturing macrophages with monocytes did not decrease detectable IL-1 activity from the monocytes. The IL-1 produced by the two cell types was indistinguishable by anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and isoelectric focusing. In addition, consistent with the findings for alveolar macrophages, macrophages generated by the in vitro maturation of blood monocytes were also deficient in their ability to release IL-1. These findings suggest that if the population of alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage represents the total in vivo population of alveolar macrophages, although normal human macrophages are capable of IL-1 release, they are relatively limited in this ability, and this limitation seems to be linked to the maturational state of the mononuclear phagocyte. These observations may explain, in part, the ability of alveolar macrophages to clear the airspaces of foreign antigens without extensive activation of other pulmonary inflammatory and immune effector cells. Images PMID:6334697

Wewers, M D; Rennard, S I; Hance, A J; Bitterman, P B; Crystal, R G



Placenta Accreta Causing Uterine Rupture in Second Trimester of Pregnancy after in vitro Fertilization: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background Placenta accreta is a rare obstetrical condition that mainly occurs in the third trimester leading to life-threatening complications. Hereby, a case of uterine rupture due to placenta accreta occuring in the second trimester is presented. Case Presentation A forty-year old patient who conceived after in vitro fertilization treatment (oocyte donation and embryo transfer) presented in emergency department in the nineteen weeks of gestation with acute abdominal pain, heamoperitoneum and fetal death. Emergency laprotomy showed uterine rupture along with placenta accreta for which the patient underwent subtotal hysterectomy. Conclusion Although, an uncommon occurrence, physicians in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) clinics should consider placenta accreta in gravid patients who present with acute abdominal pain and shock, considering the fact that they usually have associated high risk factors for abnormal placentation. PMID:23926525

Dahiya, Priya; Nayar, Kanad D.; Gulati, Amar J.S.; Dahiya, Kiran



Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) in Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Myomas  

PubMed Central

Summary Magnetic Resonance-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a noninvasive technique for ablation therapy for uterine myomas, where focused ultrasound energy beam generates localized high temperature in the selected area and coagulates chosen tissue, leaving the skin and tissues in between unharmed. Magnetic resonance imaging enables accurate targeting for HIFU as well as temperature monitoring during treatment. MR guidance with 3D anatomical imaging provides reference data for treatment planning, while real-time temperature monitoring aids in controlling ablation process. This review provides basic information regarding methodology, clinical indications for this kind of treatment, expected outcome and patient management during MR-HIFU procedure. The aim of this work is to introduce a new, noninvasive treatment method for uterine leiomyomas and to present a comparison with other currently used methods. PMID:25469176

Filipowska, Justyna; ?ozi?ski, Tomasz



Automatic Identification of Motion Artifacts in EHG Recording for Robust Analysis of Uterine Contractions  

PubMed Central

Electrohysterography (EHG) is a noninvasive technique for monitoring uterine electrical activity. However, the presence of artifacts in the EHG signal may give rise to erroneous interpretations and make it difficult to extract useful information from these recordings. The aim of this work was to develop an automatic system of segmenting EHG recordings that distinguishes between uterine contractions and artifacts. Firstly, the segmentation is performed using an algorithm that generates the TOCO-like signal derived from the EHG and detects windows with significant changes in amplitude. After that, these segments are classified in two groups: artifacted and nonartifacted signals. To develop a classifier, a total of eleven spectral, temporal, and nonlinear features were calculated from EHG signal windows from 12 women in the first stage of labor that had previously been classified by experts. The combination of characteristics that led to the highest degree of accuracy in detecting artifacts was then determined. The results showed that it is possible to obtain automatic detection of motion artifacts in segmented EHG recordings with a precision of 92.2% using only seven features. The proposed algorithm and classifier together compose a useful tool for analyzing EHG signals and would help to promote clinical applications of this technique. PMID:24523828

Ye-Lin, Yiyao; Alberola-Rubio, José; Perales, Alfredo



Automatic identification of motion artifacts in EHG recording for robust analysis of uterine contractions.  


Electrohysterography (EHG) is a noninvasive technique for monitoring uterine electrical activity. However, the presence of artifacts in the EHG signal may give rise to erroneous interpretations and make it difficult to extract useful information from these recordings. The aim of this work was to develop an automatic system of segmenting EHG recordings that distinguishes between uterine contractions and artifacts. Firstly, the segmentation is performed using an algorithm that generates the TOCO-like signal derived from the EHG and detects windows with significant changes in amplitude. After that, these segments are classified in two groups: artifacted and nonartifacted signals. To develop a classifier, a total of eleven spectral, temporal, and nonlinear features were calculated from EHG signal windows from 12 women in the first stage of labor that had previously been classified by experts. The combination of characteristics that led to the highest degree of accuracy in detecting artifacts was then determined. The results showed that it is possible to obtain automatic detection of motion artifacts in segmented EHG recordings with a precision of 92.2% using only seven features. The proposed algorithm and classifier together compose a useful tool for analyzing EHG signals and would help to promote clinical applications of this technique. PMID:24523828

Ye-Lin, Yiyao; Garcia-Casado, Javier; Prats-Boluda, Gema; Alberola-Rubio, José; Perales, Alfredo



Proteomic profile of uterine luminal fluid from early pregnant ewes.  


Embryonic development is a time-sensitive period that requires a synchronized uterine environment, which is created by the secretion of proteins from both the embryo and uterus. Numerous studies have identified uterine luminal proteins and related these to specific adaptations during early pregnancy (EP). However, no study has yet utilized LC-MS/MS to identify the signature profile of proteins in the uterine lumen during EP. In this study, uterine luminal fluid from nonpregnant (NP; n = 3) and EP (n = 3; gestational day 16) ewes were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and validated by Western immunoblotting. We identified a unique signature profile for EP luminal fluid; 15 proteins related to specific aspects of embryonic development including growth and remodeling, immune system regulation, oxidative stress balance, and nutrition were significantly altered (up to 65-fold of NP) in EP profile. Specific uterine remodeling proteins such as transgelin (P = 0.008) and placental proteins like PP9 (P = 0.02) were present in EP luminal fluid but were barely detectable in the NP flushings. Direct correlations (R(2) = 0.84, P = 0.01) were observed between proteomics and immunoblotting. These data provide information on dynamic physiological processes associated with EP at the level of the uterus and conceptus and may potentially demonstrate a signature profile associated with embryonic well-being. PMID:20578732

Koch, Jill M; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Magness, Ronald R



[The uterine factor as a cause of sterility].  


The case records of 96 patients examined in the infertility clinic of a La Paz, Bolivia, hospital between August 1977-December 1979 were examined to estimate the importance of uterine factors in infertility. The most important tests for determining uterine involvement were hysterosalpingography, endometrial biopsy, culture or innoculation of the menstrual blood, and history and clinical examination. Of the 77 endometrial biopsies, 25 showed secretory endometriums and 15 showed proliferative endometriums, 9 each showed endometrial hyperplasia, tuberculosis, and luteal insufficiency, 8 showed estrogenic insufficiency, 2 showed decidua, 1 showed gestational endometrium, and 1 showed chronic endometritis. It was concluded that the 9 patients with tuberculosis and 1 with chronic endometritis, or 12.6% of those undergoing biopsies, were infertile because of an organic uterine cause. Hysterosalpingography demonstrated that each of them also suffered from bilateral tubal obstruction. The remainder of the biopsies except those of the 25 secretory endometriums were functionally abnormal. Only 1 of 9 cultures of menstrual blood was positive. 56 hysterosalpingographs were normal. Of the remainder, 6 showed uterine hypoplasia, 4 showed tuberculosis, and the rest showed other anomalies. 16 of the 17 also demonstrated bilateral tubal obstruction. In 23 of the 96 cases uterine pathology was present; it was found to be the 4th most common cause of infertility. However, in 95.7% of cases some other factor was also responsible. PMID:12312435

Fernandez Valdez, J A



Proteomic identification of plasma biomarkers in uterine leiomyoma.  


Recent progresses in quantitative proteomics have offered opportunities to discover plasma proteins as biomarkers for tracking the progression and for understanding the molecular mechanisms of uterine leiomyomas. In the present study, plasma samples were analyzed by fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In total, 20 proteins have been firmly identified representing 13 unique gene products. These proteins mainly functioned in transportation (such as apolipoprotein A-I) and coagulation (such as fibrinogen gamma chain). Additionally, our quantitative proteomic approach has identified numerous previous reported plasma markers of uterine leiomyomas such as alpha-1-antitrypsin. On the contrary, we have presented several putative uterine leiomyomas biomarkers including afamin, apolipoprotein A-I, carbonic anhydrase 1, fibrinogen beta chain, fibrinogen gamma chain, gelsolin, hemopexin, leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein, serotransferrin and vitamin D-binding protein which have not been reported and may be associated with the progression and development of the disease. In summary, we report a comprehensive patient-based proteomic approach for the identification of potential plasma biomarkers for uterine leiomyomas. The potential of utilizing these markers for screening and treating uterine leiomyomas warrants further investigations. PMID:22193648

Lin, Chao-Po; Chen, Yi-Wen; Liu, Wen-Hsin; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Chang, Yi-Ping; Lin, Szu-Ting; Li, Ji-Min; Jian, Shiou-Fen; Lee, Ying-Ray; Chan, Hong-Lin



Effectiveness of Hysteroscopic Repair of Uterine Lesions in Reproductive Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Small intrauterine lesions such as septum, adhesion, polyp, and submucous myoma may be of greater significance in causing implantation failure, poor reproductive performance and abnormal uterine bleeding. We studied effectiveness of therapeutic intervention through operative hysteroscopy in improvement of pregnancy outcome and cessation of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in women with pregnancy and fertility problems. Materials and Methods This prospective cohort study was performed between 2003- 2009 on 65 patients with primary or secondary infertility, recurrent abortion and structural uterine lesions reported in sonography or hysterosalpingography. After hysteroscopic metroplasty, myomectomy, adhesiolysis and polypectomy under laparoscopic guide, we evaluated reproductive outcome, early and late complications, one year after surgery. Results Among all patients with recurrent abortion, 6 patients (75%) complete their pregnancy successfully. Our results showed that pregnancy rate after metroplasty was 58%. Reproductive outcome was poor after myomectomy and adhesiolysis. Abnormal uterine bleeding was improved in 62% of patients. Conclusion Structural uterine lesions has been assumed to cause infertility, while several studies have shown very poor reproductive performance with high miscarriage and low term delivery rates when malformation is not treated. We show improvement in conceptional outcome and in patient’s chief complaints after hysteroscopy surgery of these anomalies. PMID:25083176

Ghahiry, Atta Allah; Refaei Aliabadi, Elahe; Taherian, Ali Akbar; Najafian, Aida; Ghasemi, Mojdeh



Automated peritoneal lavage: an extremely rapid and safe way to induce hypothermia in post-resuscitation patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) is a worldwide used therapy to improve neurological outcome in patients successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest (CA). Preclinical data suggest that timing and speed of induction are related to reduction of secondary brain damage and improved outcome. Methods Aiming at a rapid induction and stable maintenance phase, MTH induced via continuous peritoneal lavage (PL) using the Velomedix® Inc. automated PL system was evaluated and compared to historical controls in which hypothermia was achieved using cooled saline intravenous infusions and cooled blankets. Results In 16 PL patients, time to reach the core target temperature of 32.5°C was 30 minutes (interquartile range (IQR): 19 to 60), which was significantly faster compare to 150 minutes (IQR: 112 to 240) in controls. The median rate of cooling during the induction phase in the PL group of 4.1°C/h (IQR: 2.2 to 8.2) was significantly faster compared to 0.9°C/h (IQR: 0.5 to 1.3) in controls. During the 24-hour maintenance phase mean core temperature in the PL patients was 32.38 ± 0.18°C (range: 32.03 to 32.69°C) and in control patients 32.46 ± 0.48°C (range: 31.20 to 33.63°C), indicating more steady temperature control in the PL group compared to controls. Furthermore, the coefficient of variation (VC) for temperature during the maintenance phase was lower in the PL group (VC: 0.5%) compared to the control group (VC: 1.5%). In contrast to 23% of the control patients, none of the PL patients showed an overshoot of hypothermia below 31°C during the maintenance phase. Survival and neurological outcome was not different between the two groups. Neither shivering nor complications related to insertion or use of the PL method were observed. Conclusions Using PL in post-CA patients results in a rapidly reached target temperature and a very precise maintenance, unprecedented in clinical studies evaluating MTH techniques. This opens the way to investigate the effects on neurological outcome and survival of ultra-rapid cooling compared to standard cooling in controlled trials in various patient groups. Trial Registration NCT01016236 See related letter by Esnault et al., PMID:23425514



Placental accommodations for transport and metabolism during intra-uterine crowding in pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Litter size and birth weights are limited by uterine capacity, defined as the ability of the uterus to maintain the appropriate development of some number of conceptuses. Uterine capacity is the result of the combined effects of uterine, placental and embryo/fetal function. The number of living conc...


Patient Presentation and Management of Labial Ulceration Following Uterine Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Uterine artery embolization is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Nontarget embolization of adjacent internal iliac artery branches is a reported complication of uterine artery embolization. The following report describes the presentation and management of ulcerations of the labium minora due to nontarget embolization of the internal pudendal artery.

Gonsalves, Carin, E-mail:; Franciosa, Stefan V.; Shah, Suken; Bonn, Joseph; Wu, Christine [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital (United States)



Regulation of uterine immune function by progesterone—lessons from the sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival of the fetal allograft results from orchestrated adjustments in activity of maternal lymphoid cells as well as in trophoblast gene expression. One molecule that regulates uterine immune responsiveness is progesterone. In fact, uterine skin graft survival and susceptibility to bacterial infections are increased by progesterone. This review focuses on the role of progesterone in regulation of uterine immune function

P. J. Hansen



Tissue levels of cadmium and trace elements in patients with myoma and uterine cancer.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) concentrations in uterine cancer and uterine myoma. Tissue levels of six elements in 15 uterine cancers and 28 uterine myomas were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected from women aged 32-79 (uterine myomas, uterine cancer and non-lesion uterine tissues from the same women). The results showed that the tissue Cd concentration was significantly lower in myoma than in non-lesion tissue. In uterine cancer, however, it was statistically significant, but only slightly lower than controls (the non-lesion uterine tissue). In the investigated tissues, the correlation between Cd concentration and age was found, but no effect of menopausal status or smoking habits on Cd level was detected. In uterine cancer tissue, a significant increase in Ca concentration and an insignificant increase in Mg level was observed when compared to normal uterine tissue. In uterine myoma, a significant increase of Mg and Mg/Ca ratio, as well as a decrease in Fe concentration were found. Statistical analysis showed no correlation between smoking habits, age, menopausal status and concentration of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Ca trace metals in myoma or cancer tissue. PMID:16408615

Nasiadek, M; Krawczyk, T; Sapota, A



Estimation of Optimal Brachytherapy Utilization Rate in the Treatment of Malignancies of the Uterine Corpus by a Review of Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Primary Evidence  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Brachytherapy (BT) is an important treatment technique for uterine corpus malignancies. We modeled the optimal proportion of these cases that should be treated with BT-the optimal rate of brachytherapy utilization (BTU). We compared this optimal BTU rate with the actual BTU rate. Methods and Materials: Evidence-based guidelines and the primary evidence were used to construct a decision tree for BTU for malignancies of the uterine corpus. Searches of the literature to ascertain the proportion of patients who fulfilled the criteria for BT were conducted. The robustness of the model was tested by sensitivity analyses and peer review. A retrospective Patterns of Care Study of BT in New South Wales for 2003 was conducted, and the actual BTU for uterine corpus malignancies was determined. The actual BTU in other geographic areas was calculated from published reports. The differences between the optimal and actual rates of BTU were assessed. Results: The optimal uterine corpus BTU rate was estimated to be 40% (range, 36-49%). In New South Wales in 2003, the actual BTU rate was only 14% of the 545 patients with uterine corpus cancer. The actual BTU rate in 2001 was 11% in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results areas and 30% in Sweden. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that BT for uterine corpus malignancies is underused in New South Wales and in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results areas. Our model of optimal BTU can be used as a quality assurance tool, providing an evidence-based benchmark against which can be measured actual patterns of practice. It can also be used to assist in determining the adequacy of BT resource allocation.

Thompson, Stephen R. [Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)], E-mail:; Delaney, Geoff [Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Gabriel, Gabriel S.; Jacob, Susannah; Das, Prabir [Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Barton, Michael [Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)



Estrogen regulation of aquaporins in the mouse uterus: potential roles in uterine water movement.  


Estrogen stimulates water imbibition in the uterine endometrium. This water then crosses the epithelial cells into the lumen, leading to a decrease in viscosity of uterine luminal fluid. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying this estrogen-stimulated water transport, we have explored the expression profile and functionality of water channels termed aquaporins (AQPs) in the ovariectomized mouse uterus treated with ovarian steroid hormones. Using immunocytochemical analysis and immunoprecipitation techniques, we have found that AQP-1, -3, and -8 were constitutively expressed. AQP-1 expression was restricted to the myometrium and may be slightly regulated by ovarian steroid hormones. AQP-3 was expressed at low levels in the epithelial cells and myometrium, whereas AQP-8 was found in both the stromal cells and myometrium. AQP-2 was absent in vehicle controls but strongly up-regulated by estrogen in the epithelial cells and myometrium of the uterus. This localization implicates all four isotypes in movement of water during uterine imbibition and, based on their localization to the luminal epithelial cells, AQP-2 and -3 in facilitating water movement into the lumen of the uterus. The analysis of the plasma membrane permeability of luminal epithelial cells by two separate cell swelling assays confirmed a highly increased water permeability of these cells in response to estrogen treatment. This finding suggests that estrogen decreases the luminal fluid viscosity, in part, by enhancing the water permeability of the epithelial layer, most likely by increasing the expression of AQP-2 and/or the availability of AQP-3. Together these results provide novel information concerning the mechanism by which estrogen controls water imbibition and luminal fluid viscosity in the mouse uterus. PMID:12855592

Jablonski, Elizabeth M; McConnell, Nisha A; Hughes, Francis M; Huet-Hudson, Yvette M



Incidental gynecologic neoplasms in morcellated uterine specimens: a case series with follow-up.  


Laparoscopic hysterectomy with morcellation (LHM) is considered a safe and less invasive alternative to other hysterectomy techniques by shortening postoperative hospital stay and patient recovery. Sparse incidental gynecologic neoplasms after LHM have been reported; however, the frequency and subsequent follow-up have not been systematically investigated in a large case series. We aimed to determine the frequency and types of incidental findings after LHM with clinical outcomes. An electronic chart review was conducted searching all cases of LHM performed within 5 years to determine the incidence of unexpected gynecologic neoplasms and subsequent peritoneal disease. Patient demographics, prior preoperative investigation, and subsequent follow-up were investigated. For comparison, the overall frequency of pertinent uterine neoplasms was noted during the study period. Of the 352 cases of LHM identified, 3 harbored unsuspected malignancies, an incidence of 0.9%. Four variant smooth muscle tumors (1.1%) and 5 benign non-smooth muscle neoplasms (1.4%) were identified at the time of initial morcellation. Two cases of subsequent peritoneal "implanted" leiomyoma were identified (0.6%). Of malignant or atypical mesenchymal neoplasms diagnosed at our institution during the study period, 8.6% were diagnosed in a morcellated specimen. There is a clinically important risk of occult malignant or atypical neoplasms in morcellated uterine specimens. Proper pathologic evaluation of malignant or atypical uterine neoplasms is limited when a uterus is morcellated. Patients undergoing morcellation procedures are also potentially at risk for dissemination of disease. Clinicians and patients should be aware of these risks when discussing surgical options for hysterectomy. PMID:25257577

Ehdaivand, Shahrzad; Simon, Rochelle A; Sung, C James; Steinhoff, Margaret M; Lawrence, W Dwayne; Quddus, M Ruhul



Identification of HLA-DR–bound peptides presented by human bronchoalveolar lavage cells in sarcoidosis  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, most commonly affecting the lungs. Activated CD4+ T cells accumulate in the lungs of individuals with sarcoidosis and are considered to be of central importance for inflammation. We have previously shown that Scandinavian sarcoidosis patients expressing the HLA-DR allele DRB1*0301 are characterized by large accumulations in the lungs of CD4+ T cells expressing the TCR AV2S3 gene segment. This association afforded us a unique opportunity to identify a sarcoidosis-specific antigen recognized by AV2S3+ T cells. To identify candidates for the postulated sarcoidosis-specific antigen, lung cells from 16 HLA-DRB1*0301pos patients were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. HLA-DR molecules were affinity purified and bound peptides acid eluted. Subsequently, peptides were separated by reversed-phase HPLC and analyzed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. We identified 78 amino acid sequences from self proteins presented in the lungs of sarcoidosis patients, some of which were well-known autoantigens such as vimentin and ATP synthase. For the first time, to our knowledge, we have identified HLA-bound peptides presented in vivo during an inflammatory condition. This approach can be extended to characterize HLA-bound peptides in various autoimmune settings. PMID:17975675

Wahlström, Jan; Dengjel, Jörn; Persson, Bengt; Duyar, Hüseyin; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Stevanovi?c, Stefan; Eklund, Anders; Weissert, Robert; Grunewald, Johan



Effect of ozone exposure and infection on bronchoalveolar lavage: sex differences in response patterns.  


Female mice exhibit a better survival rate than males after infection, but if infection follows an ozone-induced oxidative stress, male survival exceeds that of females. Our goal was to study bronchoalveolar lavage factors that contribute to these sex differences in outcome. We studied parameters at 4, 24, and 48 h after ozone exposure and infection, including markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and tissue damage, and surfactant phospholipids and surfactant protein A (SP-A). A multianalyte immunoassay at the 4h time point measured 59 different cytokines, chemokines, and other proteins. We found that: (1) Although some parameters studied revealed sex differences, no sex differences were observed in LDH, total protein, MIP-2, and SP-A. Males showed more intragroup significant differences in SP-A between filtered air- and ozone-exposed mice compared to females. (2) Oxidized dimeric SP-A was higher in FA-exposed female mice. (3) Surfactant phospholipids were typically higher in males. (4) The multianalyte data revealed differences in the exuberance of responses under different conditions - males in response to infection and females in response to oxidative stress. These more exuberant, and presumably less well-controlled responses associate with the poorer survival. We postulate that the collective effects of these sex differences in response patterns of lung immune cells may contribute to the clinical outcomes previously observed. PMID:24769259

Mikerov, Anatoly N; Phelps, David S; Gan, Xiaozhuang; Umstead, Todd M; Haque, Rizwanul; Wang, Guirong; Floros, Joanna



Characterization of the mouse bronchoalveolar lavage proteome by micro-capillary LC–FTICR mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) contains proteins derived from various pulmonary cell types, secretions and blood. As the characterization of the BALF proteome will be instrumental in establishing potential biomarkers of pathophysiology in the lungs, the objective of this study was to contribute to the comprehensive collection of Mus musculus BALF proteins using high resolution and highly sensitive micro-capillary liquid chromatography (microLC) combined with state-of-the-art high resolution mass spectrometry (MS). BALF was collected from ICR and C57BL/6 male mice exposed to nose-only inhalation to either air or cigarette smoke. The tandem mass spectra were analyzed by SEQUEST for peptide identifications with the subsequent application of accurate mass and time tags resulting in the identification of 1797 peptides with high confidence by high resolution MS. These peptides covered 959 individual proteins constituting the largest collection of BALF proteins to date. High throughput monitoring profiles of this extensive collection of BALF proteins will facilitate the discovery and validation of biomarkers that would elucidate pathogenic or adaptive responses of the lungs upon toxic insults.

Pounds, Joel G.; Flora, Jason W.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lee, Kyeonghee M.; Rana, Gaurav S.J.B.; Sengupta, Tapas; Smith, Richard D.; McKinney, Willie J.



Non-fibrous inorganic particles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of pottery workers.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the actual exposure of pottery workers to silica particles, as their risk of silicosis is potentially high because of the presence of inhalable crystalline silica particles in the workplace. METHODS: Nine pottery workers underwent bronchoalveolar lavage. The recovered fluid was analysed for cytological and mineralogical content by analytical transmission electron microscopy. The data were compared with those obtained from a control group composed of seven patients with sarcoidosis and six patients with haemoptysis. RESULTS: Cytological results showed a similar profile in exposed workers and controls, whereas in patients with sarcoidosis a lymphocytic alveolitis was found. Microanalysis of the particulate identified the presence of silicates, CRSs, and metals. Pottery workers had higher numbers of total particles and CRSs, and had a higher silicate/metal ratio. In five workers, the presence of zirconium silicate was also detected. Patients with sarcoidosis had the lowest number of particles, and an inverted silicate/metal ratio. CONCLUSION: Microanalysis by transmission electron microscope can provide useful information to assess occupational exposure to dusts. PMID:9038801

Falchi, M; Paoletti, L; Mariotta, S; Giosue, S; Guidi, L; Biondo, L; Scavalli, P; Bisetti, A



Mycological Microscopic and Culture Examination of 400 Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) Samples  

PubMed Central

Background: The frequency of invasive opportunistic mycoses has increased significantly over the past decades especially in immunocompromised patients. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among these patients. As bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples are generally useful specimens in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), this study was designed to evaluate the incidence of fungal elements in at-risk patients by direct microscopy and culture of BAL samples. Methods: In a 16-month period, 400 BAL samples were obtained from several groups of different patients with pulmonary and respiratory disorders and examined by using both direct microscopy and culture. Results: Of the 400 samples, 16 (4%) were positive direct examination with branching septate hyphae and 46 (11.5%) were positive culture: 25 (54%) Aspergillus flavus, 6 (13%) A. fumigatus, 5 (10.9%) A. niger, 1 (2.2%) A. terreus, 3 (6.5%) Penicillium spp. and 6 (13%) mixed A. flavus/A. niger. A. flavus was the most common cause of Aspergillus infection or colonization. Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients were the most susceptible group to fungal infection and/or colonization. Conclusion: Among Aspergillus species, A. flavus was the most common isolate in both infections and colonization in Iran. More studies are needed to clarify the epidemiological aspect of aspergillosis in Iran. PMID:23113213

Zarrinfar, H; Saber, S; Kordbacheh, P; Makimura, K; Fata, A; Geramishoar, M; Mirhendi, H



Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida  

SciTech Connect

Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-?mglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-?mglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.



Purification of native surfactant protein SP-A from pooled amniotic fluid and bronchoalveolar lavage.  


Surfactant protein SP-A is a hydrophilic glycoprotein, similar to SP-D, which plays an important role in pulmonary surfactant homeostasis and innate immunity. SP-A is actively expressed in the alveolar type II cells and Clara cells. Their basic structure consists of triple-helical collagen region and a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). By binding to the infectious microbes, SP-A (like SP-D) are involved in pathogen opsonization and agglutination and subsequent clearance of the microorganism, via recruitment of phagocytic cells via receptors for the collagen region. SP-A has also been localized at extra-pulmonary sites such as salivary epithelium, amniotic fluid, prostate glands, and semen. The presence of SP-A in fetal and maternal tissue and amniotic fluid suggests it is involved in pregnancy and labor. Native SP-A can be purified from amniotic fluid and bronchiolar lavage fluid (BALF) via affinity chromatography. In addition, we also report here a procedure to express and purify a recombinant form of trimeric CRD in Escherichia coli. The availability of highly pure native SP-A and CRD region can be central to studies that examine the diverse roles that SP-A play in surfactant homeostasis, pulmonary infection and inflammation and pregnancy. PMID:24218266

Karbani, Najmunisa; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Qaseem, Asif S; Madhukaran, Priyaa; Waters, Patrick; Tsolaki, Anthony G; Madan, Taruna; Kishore, Uday



Clinical Usefulness of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Cellular Analysis and Lymphocyte Subsets in Diffuse Interstitial Lung Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Diffuse interstitial lung diseases (DILDs) form a part of a heterogeneous group of respiratory diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis has been used for differential diagnosis of DILDs, but their clinical usefulness is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of BAL cellular analysis with lymphocyte subsets for the differential diagnosis of DILDs. Methods A total of 69 patients diagnosed with DILDs were enrolled. Basic demographic data, BAL cellular analysis with lymphocyte subsets, histology, and high resolution computed tomogram (HRCT) findings were analyzed and compared as per disease subgroup. Results Significant differences were found between groups in the proportion of neutrophils (P=0.0178), eosinophils (P=0.0003), T cells (P=0.0305), CD4 cells (P=0.0002), CD8 cells (P<0.0001), and CD4/CD8 ratio (P<0.0001). These findings were characteristic features of eosinophilic pneumonia and sarcoidosis. Other parameters were not significantly different between groups. At the cut-off value of 2.16 for sarcoidosis, CD4/CD8 ratio showed sensitivity of 91.7% (95% CI, 61.5-98.6%) and specificity of 84.2% (95% CI, 72.1-92.5%). Conclusions Routine analysis of BAL lymphocyte subset may not provide any additional benefit for differential diagnosis of DILDs, except for conditions where BAL is specifically indicated, such as eosinophilic pneumonia or sarcoidosis. PMID:25729724

Lee, Wookeun; Chung, Wha Soon; Hong, Ki-Sook




PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives In patients with ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III (TTSS) secreting isolates have been li nked to poor clinical outcomes. Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) induced by type III effector proteins may herald an irreversible lung injury. Methods Serial bronchoalveolar lavage fluids collected from 41 patients with P. aeruginosa at onset of VAP, day 4, and day 8 after antibiotic therapy were assayed for MMP-8, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and ?-2 macroglobulin levels. Results At the onset of VAP, isolates secreting ExoU had the highest MMP-9 levels. The response to antimicrobial therapy showed a differential drop in MMPs with significant decrease in MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels on days 4 and 8 in patients with TTSS? compared to TTSS+ phenotype. The ratio of MMP-9/TIMP-1 was significantly associated with ?-2 macroglobulin at end of therapy (r=0.4, p=0.02). Patients who survived had a lower MMP-9/TIMP-1ratio than those who died (p=0.003). Conclusions VAP linked to P. aeruginosa Type III phenotype portrays a divergent antibiotic treatment response in regards to the concentrations of metalloproteinases in the alveolar space. The imbalance between MMP-9 and TIMP-1 may determine the intensity of alveolocapillary damage and ultimate outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP. PMID:19535150

El-Solh, Ali A.; Amsterdam, Daniel; Alhajhusain, Ahmad; Akinnusi, Morohonfolu E.; Saliba, Ranime G.; Lynch, Susan V.; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine P.



Identification of oxidized phospholipids in bronchoalveolar lavage exposed to low ozone levels using multivariate analysis.  


Chemical reactions with unsaturated phospholipids in the respiratory tract lining fluid have been identified as one of the first important steps in the mechanisms mediating environmental ozone toxicity. As a consequence of these reactions, complex mixtures of oxidized lipids are generated in the presence of mixtures of non-oxidized naturally occurring phospholipid molecular species, which challenge methods of analysis. Untargeted mass spectrometry and statistical methods were employed to approach these complex spectra. Human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was exposed to low levels of ozone, and samples with and without derivatization of aldehydes were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Data processing was carried out using principal component analysis (PCA). Resulting PCA scores plots indicated an ozone dose-dependent increase, with apparent separation between BAL samples exposed to 60ppb ozone and non-exposed BAL samples as well as a clear separation between ozonized samples before and after derivatization. Corresponding loadings plots revealed that more than 30 phosphatidylcholine (PC) species decreased due to ozonation. A total of 13 PC and 6 phosphatidylglycerol oxidation products were identified, with the majority being structurally characterized as chain-shortened aldehyde products. This method exemplifies an approach for comprehensive detection of low-abundance, yet important, components in complex lipid samples. PMID:25575758

Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte; Voelker, Dennis; Murphy, Robert C



The Diagnosis of Invasive and Noninvasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis by Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Galactomannan Assay  

PubMed Central

The incidence and mortality of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) are rising, particularly in critically ill patients and patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Noninvasive aspergillosis occurring in these patients requires special attention because of the possibility of developing subsequent IPA, given the poor health and worsened immune state of these patients. We compared the performance of the Platelia galactomannan (GM) enzyme immunoassay in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum. The sensitivity, and specificity of BALF-GM were 85.4% and 62.4%, and those of serum-GM were 67.9% and 93.5% at the cutoff index of 0.5. As the cutoff index increased, the specificity of BALF-GM detection was increased with the detriment of sensitivity. The area under the ROC curves was 0.817 (95% CI: 0.718–0.916) for BALF-GM and 0.819 (95% CI: 0.712–0.926) for serum-GM. The optimal cutoff index was 1.19 for BALF-GM, and the sensitivity and specificity were 67.9% and 89.2%. The BALF-GM assay is more sensitive in detecting pulmonary aspergillosis than serum-GM assay and fungal cultures. However, BALF-GM assay has a high false-positive rate at the cutoff index of 0.5. Hence, the diagnostic cutoff index of the BALF-GM assay should be improved to avoid the overdiagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in clinic. PMID:25685819

Zhang, Shuzhen; Wang, Sibu; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu; Yu, Jin



Circulating intercellular adhesion molecules in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage in Behçet's disease  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (cICAM-1) in serum and in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), as a marker for the inflammatory process in patients with active Behçet's disease (BD). Circulating ICAM-1 was tested by an enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay in serum and in BAL of patients with BD. These values were compared to those of patients with tuberculosis and to healthy controls. Increased levels of circulating ICAM-1 were found in serum from patients with active BD compared to healthy controls (p < 0.01). Similar levels of serum cICAM-1 were found in BD and tuberculosis. Additionally, both BD and tuberculosis patients exhibited high levels of cICAM-1 in BAL fluid, suggesting that this increase may be a result of the immune system activation in inflammatory sites. Circulating ICAM-1 seemed to have a good discriminative power in identifying active BD, being elevated in all active stages (p < 0.01) compared to remission BD stage. No differences were found in active BD patients depending upon the clinical manifestations. These results suggest that cICAM-1 may be involved in leucocyte adhesion and migration into the vessel wall of the lung. Circulating forms are derived from molecules expressed on the surface of activated cells, as a result of an inflammatory process. PMID:18475664

Hamzaoui, A.; Chabbou, A.; Ayed, K.



Number of counting cells and cytospins selection influences on bronchoalveolar lavage cell profiles.  


Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cells count provides information about presence or absence of interstitial lung diseases. BAL fluid samples were taken from 50 patients hospitalized in University Hospital for Lung Diseases "Jordanovac" in Zagreb, Croatia. The samples of BAL fluid were prepared by cytocentrifuge. From each sample two cytospin were selected (C1 and C2) and after determing adequacy, counted up to 200 and 400 cells. After air drying, samples were stained according to May Grünwald Giemsa (MGG). Cells were counted by light microscope at magnification of 400x. Obtained results were analyzed in Statistics version 6 and Med Calc. Results for bronchial epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes and neutrophilic granulocytes showed insignificant statistical differences between groups (p > 0.05). Eosinophils percentages showed borderline insignificant statistical difference between groups of these cells (p = 0.052.). As it was exemplificated, the percentages of differentiated cells do not significant differ according to differentiation on 200 and 400 cells and cytospin selection. PMID:20432749

Harabajsa, Suzana; Martinci?, Josipa; Peharec, Ivancica; Popek, Bozena; Suskovi?-Medved, Snjezana; Zadrazil, Barica; Smojver-Jezek, Silvana



Elevated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid histamine levels in allergic asthmatics are associated with methacholine bronchial hyperresponsiveness.  

PubMed Central

Using a sensitive single isotope enzymatic assay we measured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid histamine in asymptomatic normal (nonallergic), allergic rhinitic, and allergic asthmatic subjects. Normal subjects were found to have little or no detectable amounts of histamine in BAL fluid (11 +/- 11 pg/ml), and few BAL fluid mast cells. In comparison, the allergic rhinitics and allergic asthmatics had much higher amounts of BAL fluid histamine (113 +/- 53 and 188 +/- 42 pg/ml, respectively), and a significantly greater number of BAL fluid mast cells. Furthermore, despite having equivalent baseline pulmonary function values, allergic asthmatics with BAL fluid histamine levels greater than 100 pg/ml required only 7 +/- 2 breath units of methacholine to induce a 20% drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (PD20FEV1) while asthmatics with BAL fluid histamine levels less than 100 pg/ml required 49 +/- 19 breath units (P less than 0.05). These data suggest that allergic asthmatics have ongoing lung mast cell degranulation that might contribute to the etiology of airway hyperresponsiveness. Images PMID:3549781

Casale, T B; Wood, D; Richerson, H B; Trapp, S; Metzger, W J; Zavala, D; Hunninghake, G W



Utility of galactomannan antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in immunocompromised patients.  


Diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a challenging process in immunocompromised patients. Galactomannan (GM) antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a method to detect IPA with improved sensitivity over conventional studies. We sought to determine the diagnostic yield of BAL GM assay in a diverse population of immunocompromised patients. A retrospective review of 150 fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) with BAL for newly diagnosed pulmonary infiltrate in immunocompromised patients was performed. Patient information, procedural details and laboratory studies were collected. BAL and serum samples were evaluated for GM using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Of 150 separate FOB with BAL, BAL GM was obtained in 143 samples. There were 31 positive BAL GM assays. In those 31 positive tests, 13 were confirmed as IPA, giving a positive predictive value of 41.9%. There was one false negative BAL GM. Of the 18 false positive BAL GM, 4 were receiving piperacillin-tazobactam and 11 were receiving an alternative beta-lactam antibiotic. BAL GM assay shows excellent sensitivity for diagnosing IPA. There was a significant number of false positive BAL GM assays and several of those patients were receiving beta-lactam antibiotics at the time of bronchoscopy. PMID:23496321

Brownback, Kyle R; Pitts, Lucas R; Simpson, Steven Q



EB9, a new antibody for the detection of trophozoites of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens in AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM--To prepare a monoclonal antibody (EB9) against the trophozoite form of Pneumocystis carinii and to test its efficacy for detecting infection with this organism. METHOD--The sensitivity and specificity of the EB9 antibody were assessed by comparing it with other conventional stains (Papanicolaou, Giemsa and Grocott) and 3F6 antibody in 33 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from HIV positive patients suspected of having

J F Wazir; I Brown; E Martin-Bates; D V Coleman



Oral sodium phosphate versus sulfate-free polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution in outpatient preparation for colonoscopy: a prospective comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Biochemical abnormalities induced by oral sodium phosphate and the risk of cardiac arrhythmias as potential sequelae have yet to be investigated. Methods: We studied 98 outpatients scheduled to undergo diagnostic colonoscopy and prospectively randomized them to receive oral sodium phosphate or sulfate-free polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (SF-PEG-ELS) as recommended by the manufacturers. Results: Forty-nine patients received sodium phosphate

Wendell K. Clarkston; Tony N. Tsen; David F. Dies; C. Lynn Schratz; Surender K. Vaswani; Preben Bjerregaard



Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A study of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals and comparison to patients with other chronic interstitial lung diseases  

SciTech Connect

We studied the asbestos body (AB) content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 20 patients with a history of occupational asbestos exposure, 31 patients with sarcoidosis and 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The cellular lavage pellet was digested in sodium hypochlorite and filtered onto Nuclepore filters for AB quantification by light microscopy. ABs were found in 15 of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals, 9 of 31 sarcoidosis cases and 2 of 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of ABs per million cells recovered or per milliliter of recovered lavage fluid in the asbestos-exposed group as compared to the other categories of chronic interstitial lung disease. The highest levels occurred in patients with asbestosis. Large numbers of asbestos bodies in the lavage fluid (greater than 1 AB/10(6) cells) were indicative of considerable occupational asbestos exposure, whereas occasional bodies were a nonspecific finding.

Roggli, V.L.; Piantadosi, C.A.; Bell, D.Y.



Automatic image quality assessment for uterine cervical imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. However, its death rate can be dramatically reduced by appropriate treatment, if early detection is available. We are developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system to facilitate colposcopic examinations for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis. Unfortunately, the effort to develop fully automated cervical cancer diagnostic algorithms is hindered by the paucity of high quality, standardized imaging data. The limited quality of cervical imagery can be attributed to several factors, including: incorrect instrumental settings or positioning, glint (specular reflection), blur due to poor focus, and physical contaminants. Glint eliminates the color information in affected pixels and can therefore introduce artifacts in feature extraction algorithms. Instrumental settings that result in an inadequate dynamic range or an overly constrained region of interest can reduce or eliminate pixel information and thus make image analysis algorithms unreliable. Poor focus causes image blur with a consequent loss of texture information. In addition, a variety of physical contaminants, such as blood, can obscure the desired scene and reduce or eliminate diagnostic information from affected areas. Thus, automated feedback should be provided to the colposcopist as a means to promote corrective actions. In this paper, we describe automated image quality assessment techniques, which include region of interest detection and assessment, contrast dynamic range assessment, blur detection, and contaminant detection. We have tested these algorithms using clinical colposcopic imagery, and plan to implement these algorithms in a CAD system designed to simplify high quality data acquisition. Moreover, these algorithms may also be suitable for image quality assessment in telemedicine applications.

Gu, Jia; Li, Wenjing



Evaluation of endometrium in peri-menopausal abnormal uterine bleeding.  


Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is one of the most common health problems encountered by women. It affects about 20% women of reproductive age, and accounts for almost two thirds of all hysterectomies. Gynaecologists are often unable to identify the cause of abnormal bleeding even after a thorough history and physical examination. Diagnostic evaluations and treatment modalities have been evolving over time. The onus in AUB management is to exclude complex endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. From D and C + EUA under general anesthesia the shift to more accurate procedures like hysteroscopy and vision directed biopsy was welcome. But the current minimally invasive procedures like sonohysterography, office vacuum aspiration (Pipelle) and the use of office hysteroscopy have revolutionized the management of AUB. We have tried to review the current literature and guidelines for evaluation of endometrium with the twin goals of finding an accurate reason causing the AUB and to rule out endometrial cancer or a potential for the cancer in future. We have also attempted to compare the current procedures and their present perspective vis-à-vis each other. Histological assessment is the final word, but obtaining a sample for histology makes it more accurate, and we have reviewed these techniques to enhance accuracy in diagnosis. Hysteroscopy and directed biopsy is the 'gold standard' approach for most accurate evaluation of endometrium to rule out focal endometrial Ca. Blind endometrial biopsies should no longer be performed as the sole diagnostic strategy in perimenopausal as well as in postmenopausal women with AUB. A single-stop approach, especially in high risk women (Obesity, diabetes, family history of endometrial, ovarian or breast cancer) as well as in women with endometrial hyperplasia of combining the office hysteroscopy, directed biopsy in presence of a focal lesion, and vacuum sampling of endometrium in normal looking endometrium, all without anesthesia is the most minimally invasive and yet accurate approach in current practice. PMID:23833528

Kotdawala, Parul; Kotdawala, Sonal; Nagar, Nidhi



Analysis of proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids during pulmonary edema resulting from nitrogen dioxide and cadmium exposure  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new HPLC method by which quantitative measurements can be made on the biochemical constituents of the extracellular fluid lining of the lung as sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage. Nine of the fractions are proteins, two are phospholipids, and two fractions remained unidentified. Rats were subjected to the intrapulmonary deposition of cadmium, a treatment model known to induce pulmonary edema and cause a translocation of blood compartment proteins into the lung's alveolar space compartment. Resulting pulmonary edema was hallmarked by /approximately/25-fold increases in three major blood compartment-derived HPLC protein fractions, two of which have been identified as albumin and immunoglobulin(s). Analysis of lavage fluid from rats exposed to 100 ppM NO/sub 2/ for 15 min, an exposure regimen which also produces pulmonary edema, indicated that the three blood compartment proteins in the lavage fluids were elevated 35- to 72-fold over controls 24 h after exposure. These results demonstrate that HPLC can be used to provide a highly sensitive method for detection and quantitation of pulmonary edema that can occur in acute lung injuries resulting from environmental insults.

Gurley, L.R.; London, J.E.; Dethloff, L.A.; Lehnert, B.E.



Cellular and protein changes in bronchial lavage fluid after late asthmatic reaction in patients with red cedar asthma.  


To investigate the sequence of cellular and protein changes after a late asthmatic reaction (LAR), bronchial lavage was carried out in 44 patients with red cedar asthma at different time intervals after bronchial challenge with plicatic acid. The results were compared to five patients with red cedar asthma who became asymptomatic after removal from exposure to red cedar for more than 2 months and 31 healthy subjects without asthma. The LAR was found to be associated with an increase in eosinophils in the lavage fluid, an increase in sloughing of bronchial epithelial cells, and an increase in degenerated cells consisting mainly of degenerated epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. There was an increase in vascular permeability as reflected by an increase in albumin in the lavage fluid. Although there was a slight but significant increase in neutrophils 48 hours after bronchial challenge, neutrophil infiltration was not a prominent feature earlier. The potential role of loss of epithelial cells to account for an increase in nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness after an LAR was discussed. PMID:3598029

Lam, S; LeRiche, J; Phillips, D; Chan-Yeung, M



[Peritoneal lavage diagnosis with TRC (transcription reverse transcription concerted reaction) system for prediction of peritoneal recurrence in gastric cancer].  


Peritoneal dissemination is the most frequent recurrent type in advanced gastric cancer. Therefore, the early detection or prediction of peritoneal dissemination is important for the management of patients with advanced gastric cancer. Cytological examination with peritoneal lavage fluids obtained at surgery is widely used for the detection of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer. However, the sensitivity of the conventional method is not enough for the prediction of peritoneal recurrence. Recently, molecular diagnosis for detection of cancer cells has been widely studied as the sensitive method for detection of cancer micrometastasis in patients with malignancies including gastric cancer. In this study, novel genetic diagnosis with TRC (transcription reverse transcription concerted reaction) system for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mRNA (Tosoh corporation, Tokyo, Japan) has been introduced for peritoneal lavage diagnosis. We assessed the sensitivity and reproducibility of the test using the diluted gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, the results of TRC with peritoneal lavage fluids obtained from gastric cancer patients has been compared with results of conventional cytology and RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction). PMID:18154031

Hanada, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Sohma, Itsuroh; Nakamura, Yurika; Takeoka, Keiko; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hidaka, Yoh



Type I collagenases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from preterm babies at risk of developing chronic lung disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess whether increased collagenolysis precedes severe chronic lung disease (CLD).?METHODS—Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-8 (enzymes that degrade type I collagen, the main structural protein of lung extracellular matrix) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 100 bronchoalveolar lavage samples taken during the first 6 postnatal days from 45 ventilated preterm babies < 33 weeks gestation. The median value for each baby was calculated. CLD was defined as an oxygen requirement after the 36th week after conception.?RESULTS—MMP-8 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were higher (median 13 ng/ml) in 20 babies who developed CLD than in 25 without CLD (median 2 ng/ml). No MMP-1 was detected in any sample.?CONCLUSIONS—MMP-8 can be detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from preterm babies, and higher levels are found in those who later develop CLD. MMP-8 may contribute to lung injury that occurs as a prelude to CLD.?? PMID:11320042

Sweet, D; McMahon, K; Curley, A; O'Connor, C; Halliday, H



Uterine glands: development, function and experimental model systems  

PubMed Central

Development of uterine glands (adenogenesis) in mammals typically begins during the early post-natal period and involves budding of nascent glands from the luminal epithelium and extensive cell proliferation in these structures as they grow into the surrounding stroma, elongate and mature. Uterine glands are essential for pregnancy, as demonstrated by the infertility that results from inhibiting the development of these glands through gene mutation or epigenetic strategies. Several genes, including forkhead box A2, beta-catenin and members of the Wnt and Hox gene families, are implicated in uterine gland development. Progestins inhibit uterine epithelial proliferation, and this has been employed as a strategy to develop a model in which progestin treatment of ewes for 8 weeks from birth produces infertile adults lacking uterine glands. More recently, mouse models have been developed in which neonatal progestin treatment was used to permanently inhibit adenogenesis and adult fertility. These studies revealed a narrow and well-defined window in which progestin treatments induced permanent infertility by impairing neonatal gland development and establishing endometrial changes that result in implantation defects. These model systems are being utilized to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying uterine adenogenesis and endometrial function. The ability of neonatal progestin treatment in sheep and mice to produce infertility suggests that an approach of this kind may provide a contraceptive strategy with application in other species. Recent studies have defined the temporal patterns of adenogenesis in uteri of neonatal and juvenile dogs and work is underway to determine whether neonatal progestin or other steroid hormone treatments might be a viable contraceptive approach in this species. PMID:23619340

Cooke, Paul S.; Spencer, Thomas E.; Bartol, Frank F.; Hayashi, Kanako



MR Venography of Deep Veins: Changes with Uterine Fibroid Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Deep veins (DVs) can be compressed by a uterus enlarged with fibroids. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of luminal narrowing of DVs caused by a myomatous uterus, and the change in DV narrowing in women with symptomatic fibroids after embolization using time-of-flight (TOF)-magnetic resonance venography (MRV). Twenty-nine consecutive women with symptomatic uterine fibroids underwent TOF-MRV and pelvic MRI before and 4 months after embolization. Based on the TOF-MRV, we evaluated the luminal narrowing of three DVs, including the inferior vena cava, and the bilateral common and external iliac veins, and divided the findings into three grades. The scores for each DV were added for each patient (lowest, 0; highest, 6). DV scores and symptom severity (SS) scores were compared between the baseline and 4 months after embolization using the paired t-test. The relationship between DV scores and uterine volume was investigated using Pearson's test. DV scores decreased significantly, from 1.52 {+-} 1.70 at baseline to 0.93 {+-} 1.56 at 4 months after embolization (p = 0.004). The uterine volume decreased from 948 {+-} 647 mL at baseline to 617 {+-} 417 mL at 4 months after embolization (p < 0.001). DV score correlated with uterine volume (r = 0.856, p < 0.001). SS scores decreased from 54.5 {+-} 14.6 at baseline to 26.8 {+-} 15.4 at 4 months after embolization (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the degree of luminal narrowing of DVs caused by a uterus with fibroids is correlated with the uterine volume. Uterine artery embolization may induce an improvement of luminal narrowing of DVs due to a reduction of the myomatous uterus volume.

Katsumori, Tetsuya, E-mail:; Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Tsuchida, Yoko; Nara, Yoshinori [Saiseikai Shiga Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)



Mapping the immunosuppressive environment in uterine tumors: implications for immunotherapy.  


The major hurdle for cancer vaccines to be effective is posed by tumor immune evasion. Several common immune mechanisms and mediators are exploited by tumors to avoid immune destruction. In an attempt to shed more light on the immunosuppressive environment in uterine tumors, we analyzed the presence of PD-L1, PDL2, B7-H4, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), galectin- 1, galectin-3, arginase-1 activity and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) infiltration. IDO, PD-L1, PD-L2 and B7-H4 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. PDL2 was mostly expressed at low levels in these tumors. We found high IDO expression in 21 % of endometrial carcinoma samples and in 14 % of uterine sarcoma samples. For PD-L1 and B7-H4, we found high expression in 92 and 90 % of endometrial cancers, respectively, and in 100 and 92 % of the sarcomas. Galectin-1 and 3 were analyzed in tissue lysates by ELISA, but we did not find an increase in both molecules in tumor lysates compared with benign tissues. We detected expression of galectin-3 by fibroblasts, immune cells and tumor cells in single-cell tumor suspensions. In addition, we noted a highly significant increase in arginase-1 activity in endometrial carcinomas compared with normal endometria, which was not the case for uterine sarcomas. Finally, we could demonstrate MDSC infiltration in fresh tumor suspensions from uterine tumors. These results indicate that the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction and B7-H4 could be possible targets for immune intervention in uterine cancer patients as well as mediation of MDSC function. These observations are another step toward the implementation of inhibitors of immunosuppression in the treatment of uterine cancer patients. PMID:24658839

Vanderstraeten, Anke; Luyten, Catherine; Verbist, Godelieve; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Amant, Frederic



Survey of perceptions of health care professionals in the United Kingdom toward uterine transplant.  


Context-Currently, the only 2 options that women with absolute uterine factor infertility have for managing their infertility are surragocy or adoption. These women may also benefit from a possible future third option: uterine transplantObjective-To investigate the opinions and views of UK health care professionals toward uterine transplant and rank issues related to uterine transplant by importance in order to make uterine transplant transparent and understandable to colleagues.Design-Large, in-depth survey investigating health care professionals' opinions on uterine transplant.Setting-Analysis done at Imperial College London.Participants-UK transplant professionals (surgeons, nurses, operating room staff, and donor coordinators) and obstetricians and gynecologists (trainees, members, and fellows of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists).Intervention-Questionnaires were given out at hospital grand rounds, trainee teaching days, and conferences (national and international).Main Outcome Measures-Should uterine transplant take place? Is uterine transplant achievable? What is the rank order of importance of key issues related to uterine transplant?Results-The study had 528 participants. With respect to overall support for uterine transplant and as a possible future therapeutic option for absolute uterine factor infertility, 93.8% (n=495) thought that uterine transplant should take place if considered appropriate medically, surgically, and ethically and 57.2% (n=302) thought it was an achievable objective. Issues related to immunology of uterine transplant and pregnancy after uterine transplant were unanimously thought of as most important. More effort is required to educate health care professionals about all aspects of uterine transplant. PMID:25758802

Saso, Srdjan; Clarke, Alex; Bracewell-Milnes, Timothy; Al-Memar, Maya; Hamed, Ali Hassan; Thum, Meen-Yau; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Priore, Giuseppe Del; Smith, J Richard



Primary gastric extra-uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma.  


Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is an uncommon uterine neoplasm, but its occurrence as an extra-uterine primary (EESS) is exceedingly unusual, and the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytopathology of EESS is rarely described. We hereby present 2 women with primary gastric EESS whereby the FNA cytopathology of this rare entity showed a population of cytologically monotonous oval-spindle shaped cells. This cytopathology is correlated with the subsequent histopathology. EESS is another, albeit rare, diagnostic consideration along with gastrointestinal stromal tumor, schwannoma, glomus tumor, and leiomyoma of cytologically bland neoplasms of the stomach that can be encountered using endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA biopsy. PMID:24636963

Jin, Ming; Reynolds, Jordan P; Odronic, Shelley I; Wakely, Paul E



Increased MIBG activity in the uterine cervix due to menstruation.  


A 21-year-old woman with history of presacral ganglioneuroblastoma underwent I-MIBG scan for restaging. Planar images revealed increased MIBG activity in the upper pelvis, suggestive of disease recurrence. Complementary SPECT/CT images, however, localized the activity to the uterine cervix. Upon further questioning, it has been established that the patient was menstruating. Subsequent follow-up scans proved normal, confirming the benign etiology of these findings. The case shows that radioactive blood accumulation in the uterine cervix can interfere with MIBG scan interpretation in menstruating patients. PMID:25144215

Liu, Bin; Yang, Hua; Codreanu, Ion; Zhuang, Hongming



Isolated humeral metastasis in uterine cervical cancer: a rare entity.  


Bone metastasis in cancer of uterine cervix, especially in the form of isolated bone involvement is a rare manifestation. Herein, we report the first case of isolated humeral metastasis in a known case of locally advanced cervical cancer. A fifty-six-year old female presented with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IV A squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix. She was treated with a combination of radiation and chemotherapy and then total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Seven months later, she developed an isolated lytic lesion in the left humerus, which turned out to be a bone metastatic lesion. PMID:23393636

Malek, Mahrooz; Kanafi, Alireza Rajabzadeh; Pourghorban, Ramin; Nafisi-Moghadam, Reza



Uterine lipoma and coincidental cervical cancer: a case report.  


Pure lipoma of the uterus is a rare clinical event, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Clinical symptoms and physical signs are similar to those found in leiomyomas. The histogenesis of these lesions is still unclear. However, adipose metaplasia of stromal cells or smooth muscle cells of leiomyoma were accepted hypothesis that explain histogenesis of lipomas of uterus. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with pure uterine lipoma and coincidental cancer of uterine cervix. PMID:16445676

Dilek, T U K; Akcin, U; Erdem, O; Tiras, B; Dursun, A



Analysis of cellular and protein content of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis.  

PubMed Central

To evaluate cellular and protein components in the lower respiratory tract of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP), limited broncho-alveolar lavage was done in 58 patients (19 IPF, 7 CHP, and 32 controls). Analysis of the cells and protein in the lavage fluids from patients with IPF revealed an inflammatory and eosinophilic response and a significant elevation of IgG in the lungs. With corticosteroid therapy, inflammation diminished but eosinophils remained. Lavage fluid from patients with CHP also had eosinophils and elevated levels of IgG. However, in contrast to IPF, lavage fluid from CHP patients contained IgM, fewer inflammatory cells, and a strikingly increased number (38-74%) of lymphocytes. Identification of lavage lymphocytes in CHP showed that T lymphocytes were significantly elevated and B lymphocytes were decreased compared to peripheral blood. These studies suggest nthat the lung in IPF and CHP may function as a relatively independent immune organ, and that analysis of cells and proteins in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid may be of diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative value in evaluating patients with fibrotic lung disease. PMID:830661

Reynolds, H Y; Fulmer, J D; Kazmierowski, J A; Roberts, W C; Frank, M M; Crystal, R G



Endometrial implantation factors in women with submucous uterine fibroids.  


Uterine fibroids are benign tumours, which are associated with subfertility and early pregnancy loss. This study was carried out to examine the effect of submucous fibroids on concentrations of glycodelin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and osteopontin in uterine flushings. Premenopausal women with a certain diagnosis of submucous fibroid confirmed on three-dimensional saline infusion sonohysterography were recruited into the study. The control group included women without ultrasonic evidence of any uterine or endometrial pathology. All women had uterine flushings performed 7days post LH surge. Enzyme linked immunoassays were performed to analyse glycodelin, IL-6, IL-10, TNF? and osteopontin, whilst immunoradiometric assay was used to analyse IGFBP-1. In 23 women with submucous fibroids, the concentrations of glycodelin and IL-10 in uterine flushings were significantly lower compared with 17 women in the control group (P=0.002; P=0.007, respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups in concentrations of IGFBP-1, IL-6, TNF? and osteopontin. Women with submucous fibroids had significantly lower concentrations of glycodelin and IL-10 in mid-luteal phase uterine flushings. This finding may explain the association with submucous fibroids and adverse reproductive outcomes. Uterine fibroids are small growths from the muscle of the uterus (womb). Submucous fibroids protrude into the cavity of the womb. We do not know what causes fibroids to form and grow. In most women, fibroids cause no symptoms and they are sometimes detected on routine gynaecological examination. In some women, however, fibroids can cause heavier and longer menstrual periods. Another problem associated with fibroids is bleeding between periods. The effect of fibroids on fertility is not clear, but some doctors believe that they may also cause infertility and early miscarriage. This study tried to see whether presence of submucous fibroids has any effect on various substances produced by the lining of the womb to facilitate development of early pregnancy. Women with a confirmed diagnosis of submucous fibroids were asked to attend the clinic and have the uterine cavity flushed with a special solution 7days after ovulation. The fluid, which was taken back from the womb, was then analysed to measure the amounts of substances that favour pregnancy development. Women with a normal uterine cavity were also asked to have the uterine cavity flushed to act as a comparison. The study showed that the uterine cavities of women with submucous fibroids were producing decreasing amount of substances favourable to early pregnancy development. We speculate that this may explain why some women with submucous fibroids have difficulties falling pregnant. Our findings should be helpful to doctors advising women with submucous fibroids who wish to start a family. PMID:20880745

Ben-Nagi, J; Miell, J; Mavrelos, D; Naftalin, J; Lee, C; Jurkovic, D



Pregnancy Following Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Patients with Uterine Fibroid or Adenomyosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose:To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy.Methods:Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20-40 years. The data were collected through review of medical records and telephone interviews. Mean duration of follow-up duration was 35 months (range 22-60 months). Patients using contraception and single women were excluded, and the chance of infertility caused by possible spousal infertility or other factors was disregarded. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients before and after UFE, and the size of PVA particles used was 255-700 {mu}m.Results:Among 94 patients who underwent UFE with PVA, 74 were on contraceptives, 6 had been single until the point of interview, and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 6 patients who desired future pregnancy, 5 (83%) succeeded in becoming pregnant (1 patient became pregnant twice). Of a total of 8 pregnancies, 6 were planned pregnancies and 2 occurred after contraception failed. Five deliveries were vaginal, and 2 were by elective cesarean. Artificial abortion was performed in 1 case of unplanned pregnancy. There was 1 case of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) followed by preterm labor and delivery of an infant who was small-for-gestational-age. After UFE, mean volume reduction rates of the uterus and fibroid were 36.6% (range 0 to 62.6%) and 69.3% (range 36.3% to 93.3%), respectively.Conclusion:Although the absolute number of cases was small, UFE with PVA particles ultimately did not affect fertility in the women who underwent the procedure.

Kim, Man Deuk [Bundang CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Departments of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:; Kim, Nahk Keun [Bundang CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Departments of Obstetric and Gynecology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Jin [Bundang CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Departments of Diagnostic Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mee Hwa [Bundang CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Departments of Obstetric and Gynecology (Korea, Republic of)



Clinical and Technical Aspects of MR-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids.  


Although many women undergo hysterectomy for treatment of uterine fibroids, there are more options than ever before for fibroid treatment. A combination of objective criteria, including clinical parameters, anatomic factors, fibroid characteristics, and patient desires influence the choice of optimal therapeutic modality for a woman with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is the only noninvasive treatment option for women with symptomatic uterine fibroids unresponsive to medical treatment. The procedure has been shown to be safe and effective. MR-HIFU couples the three-dimensional multiplanar anatomic imaging and thermal monitoring capability of MR imaging with the therapeutic thermal-based coagulative necrosis mechanism of HIFU to safely and effectively ablate limited volume classical fibroids. In the author's experience, a multidisciplinary fibroid clinic facilitates a unified approach between gynecologists, radiologists, and others to individualize the most appropriate fibroid treatment options for each woman. This article describes the MR-HIFU technique and outcomes, as well as patient selection and treatment assessment. PMID:24436561

Rueff, Laura E; Raman, Steven S



Clinical and Technical Aspects of MR-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids  

PubMed Central

Although many women undergo hysterectomy for treatment of uterine fibroids, there are more options than ever before for fibroid treatment. A combination of objective criteria, including clinical parameters, anatomic factors, fibroid characteristics, and patient desires influence the choice of optimal therapeutic modality for a woman with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is the only noninvasive treatment option for women with symptomatic uterine fibroids unresponsive to medical treatment. The procedure has been shown to be safe and effective. MR-HIFU couples the three-dimensional multiplanar anatomic imaging and thermal monitoring capability of MR imaging with the therapeutic thermal-based coagulative necrosis mechanism of HIFU to safely and effectively ablate limited volume classical fibroids. In the author's experience, a multidisciplinary fibroid clinic facilitates a unified approach between gynecologists, radiologists, and others to individualize the most appropriate fibroid treatment options for each woman. This article describes the MR-HIFU technique and outcomes, as well as patient selection and treatment assessment. PMID:24436561

Rueff, Laura E.; Raman, Steven S.



Does Size Really Matter? Analysis of the Effect of Large Fibroids and Uterine Volumes on Complication Rates of Uterine Artery Embolisation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between large uterine fibroid diameter, uterine volume, number of vials of embolic agent used and risk of complications from uterine artery embolisation (UAE). This was a prospective study involving 121 patients undergoing UAE embolisation for symptomatic uterine fibroids at a single institution. Patients were grouped according to diameter of largest fibroid and uterine volume. Results were also stratified according to the number of vials of embolic agent used and rate of complications. No statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated between the two groups according to diameter of the largest fibroid (large fibroids were classified as {>=}10 cm; Fisher's exact test P = 1.00), and no statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated according to uterine volume (large uterine volume was defined as {>=}750 cm{sup 3}; Fisher's exact test P = 0.70). 84 of the 121 patients had documentation of the number of vials used during the procedure. Patients were divided into two groups, with {>=}4 used defined as a large number of embolic agent. There was no statistical difference between these two groups and no associated increased risk of developing complications. This study showed no increased incidence of complications in women with large-diameter fibroids or uterine volumes as defined. In addition, there was no evidence of increased complications according to quantity of embolic material used. Therefore, UAE should be offered to women with large fibroids and uterine volumes.

Parthipun, A. A., E-mail:; Taylor, J. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Manyonda, I. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (United Kingdom); Belli, A. M. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)



Bone Involvement by Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Adenocarcinoma is the second most frequent cancer of the uterine cervix after squamous carcinoma, and the most frequent histotype is the mucinous one. Endo-cervical adenocarcinoma accounts for about 10–30% of all cervical cancers and clinically the lesion can be asymptomatic or, more frequently, presenting with anomalous bleeding and/or vaginal discharge. Case Report A 41-year-old woman with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix was subjected to chemotherapy after radical surgery. During the follow-up, the patient underwent a Positron Emission Tomography integrated with Computed Tomography and pelvic Magnetic Resonance, which showed rapid and diffuse disease progression from the site of the lesion to the pelvic bones. Conclusions Bone involvement in patients with cervical cancer, being a rare event, is significant since it greatly reduces life expectancy. The majority of metastatic bone lesions in cervical cancer seem to be of osteolytic nature. In our patient, Positron Emission Tomography integrated with Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance were the imaging methods used during the follow-up and both techniques clearly showed diffuse and rapid tumour spread to the bones. PMID:25745521

Crisci, Vincenzina; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Corvino, Fabio; Lauria, Rossella; Maurea, Simone



Development of morphological and functional polarity in primary cultures of immature rat uterine epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The present study describes a culture environment in which luminal epithelial cells isolated from immature rat uteri and cultured on a matrix-coated permeable surface, with separate apical and basal secretory compartments, proliferate to confluence. Subsequently the cells undergo a process of differentiation accompanied by progressive development of functional polarity. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical evidence verifies the ability of these primary cultures to regain polar organization, separate membrane domains, and form functional tight junctions as demonstrated by the development of transepithelial resistance. The appearance of uvomorulin is restricted to the lateral cell surface. Coordinated indices of functional polarity that develop progressively in post-confluent cultures include the preferential uptake of [35S]methionine from the basal surface and a rise in uterine epithelial cell secretory activity characterized by a progressive preference for apical secretion. The time dependent development of polarity was characterized by differences in the protein profiles of the apical and basolateral secretory compartments. The maintenance of hormone responsiveness by the cultured cells was validated by the secretion of two proteins identified as secretory markers of estrogen response in the intact uterus. The technique of culturing the cells on a matrix-coated permeable surface with separate secretory compartments produces a uterine epithelial cell that morphologically and functionally resembles its in situ equivalent. The culture method and analytical approach used in this present study may be applied to primary cultures of a variety of natural epithelia, which have hitherto proven resistant to more conventional culture methodologies. PMID:3143736



Anti-citrullinated heat shock protein 90 antibodies identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are a marker of lung-specific immune responses.  


Previous work has demonstrated a correlation between serum anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibodies and rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). To further investigate this potential pathogenic relationship, we used ELISA-based techniques to assess anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibody profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with different stages of RA-ILD. 9/21 RA-derived BALF specimens demonstrated IgG and/or IgA antibodies targeting citrullinated HSP90 proteins/peptides, highlighting disease specific responses (with a predilection for RA-ILD) that did not occur in IPF patients (0/5) or healthy control subjects (0/5). Comparison of antibody profiles between BALF and matching serum specimens revealed various recognition patterns favoring predominant production of anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibodies within the lung microenvironment-further supporting the connection between this antibody specificity and parenchymal lung disease. Equally important, qualitative as well as quantitative differences in anti-citrullinated HSP90 profiles between BALF and serum indicate that the lung plays a direct role in shaping the immune repertoire of RA/RA-ILD. PMID:25150019

Harlow, Lisa; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Rosas, Ivan O; Doyle, Tracy J; Osorio, Juan C; Travers, Timothy S; Camacho, Carlos C; Oddis, Chester V; Ascherman, Dana P



Increased antifungal antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum in pulmonary sarcoidosis.  


The recent studies suggest a role of fungi in development of sarcoidosis. Moreover, the immune response in sarcoidosis and fungal infection shows a striking similarity. We formulated a hypothesis of the possible increase in antifungal antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum in pulmonary sarcoidosis. BALF and serum levels of IgG-, IgM- and IgA-specific antibodies against the cell wall ?-D-glucan and mannan of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were tested in 47 patients (29 pulmonary sarcoidosis patients and 18 patients with other interstitial lung diseases (ILD - control group)) and 170 healthy controls. Our results proved: (1) an increase in IgG-, IgM- and IgA-specific antifungal antibodies in BALF in pulmonary sarcoidosis compared with the control group (C. albicans: IgG: P = 0.0329, IgM: P = 0.0076, IgA: P = 0.0156; S. cerevisiae: IgG: P = 0.0062, IgM: P = 0.0367, IgA: P = 0.0095) and (2) elevated levels of serum antifungal antibodies in pulmonary sarcoidosis compared with healthy controls (C. albicans: IgG: P = 0.0329, IgM: P = 0.0076, IgA: P = 0.0156; S. cerevisiae: IgG: P > 0.05, IgM: P < 0.05, IgA: P < 0.001). The study showed increased serum and BALF levels of antifungal antibodies in pulmonary sarcoidosis. The hypothesis that fungal infection is one of the possible aetiologic agents of sarcoidosis is interesting and deserves further attention. PMID:25641379

Suchankova, M; Paulovicova, E; Paulovicova, L; Majer, I; Tedlova, E; Novosadova, H; Tibenska, E; Tedla, M; Bucova, M



Proteasomes in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after burn and inhalation injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether 26S proteasome is detectable in human bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid (BALF) and whether burn and inhalation injury is accompanied by changes in BALF proteasome content or activity. Methods BALF was obtained on hospital admission from 28 patients with burn and inhalation injury (controls: 10 healthy volunteers). Proteasome concentrations were quantified by ELISA and their native molecular mass was assessed by gel filtration. Proteasome peptidase activity was measured employing a chymotryptic-like peptide substrate in combination with epoxomicin (specific proteasome inhibitor). Results BALF protein was increased in patients (p<0.001) and correlated positively with the degree of inhalation injury. 20S/26S proteasomes were detectable in all BALF by ELISA. Gel filtration confirmed the presence of intact 20S and of 26S proteasome which was stable without soluble ATP/Mg2+. In all BALF chymotryptic-like activity was detectable and could be inhibited with epoxomicin by 60–70% (p<0.01). Absolute amounts of 20S/26S proteasomes and proteasome activity were increased in patients (p<0.001 for all). The relative BALF composition after injury was characterized by increased concentrations of 20S proteasome/mg protein (p=0.0034 vs. volunteers), decreased concentrations of 26S proteasome/mg protein (p=0.041 vs. volunteers) and reduced specific proteasome activity (p=0.044 vs. volunteers). 26S proteasome/mg and specific proteasome activity were even further reduced in patients who developed ventilator-associated pneumonia (p=0.045 and p=0.03 vs. patients without VAP, respectively). Conclusions The present study supports the novel concept that extracellular proteasomes could play a pathophysiological role in the injured lung and suggests that insufficient proteasome function may increase susceptibility for pulmonary complications. PMID:19826256

Albright, Joslyn M.; Romero, Jacqueline; Saini, Vikas; Sixt, Stephan U.; Bird, Melanie D.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Peters, Jürgen; Majetschak, Matthias



Effects of peritoneal lavage with scolicidal agents on survival and adhesion formation in rats.  


Intraoperative irrigation of the peritoneal cavity with scolicidal agents is frequently recommended when dealing with traumatic or spontaneous rupture of hydatid cysts. The present experimental study was designed to examine the influence of various scolicidal agents on adhesion formation and survival. A total of 149 rats were randomly allocated to nine groups. Peritoneal lavage through a median laparotomy was performed with the following scolicidal agents. Group 1 (0.9% saline: controls), group 2 (20% hypertonic saline), group 3 (0.04% chlorhexidine gluconate), group 4 (3% hydrogen peroxide), group 5 (0.5% silver nitrate), group 6 (1% polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine, or PVP-I ), group 7 (5% PVP-I), group 8 (0.5% cetrimide/0.05% chlorhexidine), and group 9 (10% PVP-I). The surviving animals were sacrificed on postoperative day 15. Adhesion formation was macroscopically graded by the Nair criteria. The severity of adhesion formation was evaluated microscopically using the fibrosing scoring criteria and the strain test. Group 9 (10% PVP-I) was excluded from the adhesion evaluation because all of the rats died in this group. The mortality rate was significantly higher in groups 5 and 7 than in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8. Adhesion scores were significantly lower in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 than in groups 5, 6, 7, and 8. The lowest adhesion score was found in group 3 and the highest in the group 7. These results indicate that 0.04% chlorhexidine gluconate, the most potent scolicidal agent in vitro and in vivo, was associated with the lowest adhesion formation and mortality among various scolicidal agents in this experimental study. PMID:16369703

Topcu, Omer; Kuzu, Isinsu; Karayalcin, Kaan



Apoptotic effects of tamoxifen on leukocytes from horse peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  


A reduction in inflammatory cell apoptosis is an important concept in the maintenance of inflammation and a potential target for the resolution of inflammation in many inflammatory diseases. Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases, including tumors, neurodegenerative disorders and autoimmunity, and may also be implicated in allergic asthma. In horses, recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is an asthma-like condition that is characterized increased survival neutrophil bronchial. Tamoxifen is a synthetic, non-steroidal, anti-estrogen agent that is widely used for treating all stages of breast cancer and has been approved for the prevention of breast cancer in high-risk women. The observed efficacy of tamoxifen has been attributed to both growth arrest and the induction of apoptosis. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the ability of tamoxifen to induce apoptosis in vitro in granulocytic cells from peripheral blood and in mononuclear cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in horses. Flow cytometry using commercial AnnexinV-FITC and propidium iodide was used to quantify early and late apoptotic leukocytes, respectively. The results showed a significant increase in early apoptosis in peripheral blood and bronchial granulocytic cells treated with tamoxifen. The rate of early apoptosis of mononuclear cells from blood and BALF when incubated with tamoxifen was significantly lower compared with granulocytic cells. We did not observe a direct effect of tamoxifen on late apoptosis in any of the in vitro assays in the cell types used here. These results indicate that the apoptotic mechanisms under these experimental conditions would affect only blood and BALF granulocytic cells, particularly in early apoptosis. Finally, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to better understand apoptotic mechanisms because tamoxifen could be used to treat chronic, inflammatory pathologies associated with granulocytes and allergic diseases, such as asthma or equine RAO. PMID:23846832

Sarmiento, J; Perez, B; Morales, N; Henriquez, C; Vidal, L; Folch, H; Galecio, J S; Morán, G



Airway Symptoms and Biological Markers in Nasal Lavage Fluid in Subjects Exposed to Metalworking Fluids  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds Occurrence of airway irritation among industrial metal workers was investigated. The aims were to study the association between exposures from water-based metal working fluids (MWF) and the health outcome among the personnel, to assess potential effects on the proteome in nasal mucous membranes, and evaluate preventive actions. Methods The prevalence of airway symptoms related to work were examined among 271 metalworkers exposed to MWF and 24 metal workers not exposed to MWF at the same factory. At the same time, air levels of potentially harmful substances (oil mist, morpholine, monoethanolamine, formaldehyde) generated from MWF was measured. Nasal lavage fluid was collected from 13 workers and 15 controls and protein profiles were determined by a proteomic approach. Results Airway symptoms were reported in 39% of the workers exposed to MWF although the measured levels of MWF substances in the work place air were low. Highest prevalence was found among workers handling the MWF machines but also those working in the same hall were affected. Improvement of the ventilation to reduce MWF exposure lowered the prevalence of airway problems. Protein profiling showed significantly higher levels of S100-A9 and lower levels of SPLUNC1, cystatin SN, Ig J and ?2-microglobulin among workers with airway symptoms. Conclusions This study confirms that upper airway symptoms among metal workers are a common problem and despite low levels of MWF-generated substances, effects on airway immune proteins are found. Further studies to clarify the role of specific MWF components in connection to airway inflammation and the identified biological markers are warranted. PMID:24391738

Fornander, Louise; Graff, Pål; Wåhlén, Karin; Ydreborg, Kjell; Flodin, Ulf; Leanderson, Per; Lindahl, Mats; Ghafouri, Bijar



Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis, gallium-67 lung scanning and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in asbestos exposure  

SciTech Connect

This study examined different markers of lung immunologic and inflammatory responses to previous asbestos exposure. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and gallium-67 (/sup 67/Ga) lung scans and measured serum and BAL soluble interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels in 32 subjects with a history of significant asbestos exposure, 14 without (EXP) and 18 with (ASB) radiographic evidence of asbestosis. BAL analysis revealed increases in neutrophils in both ASB and EXP when compared to controls (P less than 0.01), which persisted after adjustment for smoking category. Although significant abnormalities of macrophage and total lymphocyte profiles were not found in the study population, lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed elevation of BAL T4/T8 ratios in the entire study group (ASB + EXP) when compared to controls (P less than 0.05), independent of smoking category. /sup 67/Ga lung scan activity was increased in 56% of ASB and in 36% of EXP: no correlations between positive scans and different radiological and functional parameters could be found. There was no significant elevation of mean SACE, serum, or BAL IL-2R levels in any of the study categories. These data suggest that asbestos exposure may be associated with parenchymal inflammation, even in the absence of clinical criteria for asbestosis. Abnormalities of gallium uptake and of BAL analysis reflect the clinically inapparent inflammation. The increased BAL T4/T8 ratios observed suggest that abnormal local pulmonary immunoregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung diseases.

Delclos, G.L.; Flitcraft, D.G.; Brousseau, K.P.; Windsor, N.T.; Nelson, D.L.; Wilson, R.K.; Lawrence, E.C.



Accuracy and precision of quantitative calibrated loops in transfer of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  


Quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid are important in the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia, and calibrated loops are commonly used to set up these cultures. In this study, the performances of calibrated 0.010- and 0.001-ml loops in the transfer of BAL fluid were determined. Five loops of one lot from seven manufacturers were tested. Calibrations were performed by the gravimetric method (0.010-ml loops) and the colorimetric method (0.001-ml loops). Most of the 0.010-ml loops displayed a precision that was less than 10%, but six of them showed very poor accuracies as they transferred a deficiency (nichrome loops) or an excess (disposable loops) of BAL fluid that exceeded +/-10%. The mean maximum and minimum BAL fluid volumes delivered by the 0.010-ml loops differed by a factor 3. The 0.001-ml loops displayed acceptable precision. Five of them showed inaccuracies of

Jacobs, J A; De Brauwer, E I; Cornelissen, E I; Drent, M




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The secretion rate of growth factors and the delivery rate of nutrients by the uterus to the conceptus affects the growth rate, development and survival of the conceptus. Many growth factors are products of uterine tissue. Transport of some nutrients is aided by specific transporter molecules on the...


Cluster of Heart Risk Factors Tied to Uterine Cancer Risk  


... this page, please enable JavaScript. Cluster of Heart Risk Factors Tied to Uterine Cancer Risk Excess weight likely a big factor, but other ... 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A collection of health risk factors known as the "metabolic syndrome" may boost ...


Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of uterine sarcomas.  


Uterine sarcomas account for less than 10% of all uterine neoplasms (Tropé et al., 2012). The most common include uterine leiomyosarcoma and the endometrial stromal neoplasms. The diagnosis requires pathologic review of the uterus in order to characterize extent of myometrial invasion. However, molecular diagnosis has aided the classification of endometrial stromal neoplasms, especially in helping to discriminate between endometrial stromal and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. The prognosis of these tumors following surgery varies, with endometrial stromal sarcoma associated with a better prognosis compared to leiomyosarcoma or undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. For aggressive sarcomas, there is interest in adjuvant treatment, which has focused on the evaluation of systemic agents. However, the rarity of these tumors makes the conduct of prospective trials difficult and no consensus adjuvant regimen has emerged. In the absence of Level I data, the use of chemotherapy is based on institutional preferences. Ongoing clinical trials will help inform the standard treatment approach for these tumors, and we encourage patients with uterine sarcoma to participate in well-designed clinical trials. PMID:24979254

Dizon, Don S; Birrer, Michael J



Comparative expression of thioredoxin-1 in uterine leiomyomas and myometrium.  


Uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be involved in the signaling pathways that stimulate proliferation of a variety of cell types. Thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) is a redox-regulating protein, which is overexpressed in various tumors. In the present study, we investigated the expressions of TRX-1 and its related molecules in uterine leiomyomas and matched adjacent myometrium. Our results showed the expression of TRX-1 was increased in leiomyomas compared with the matched adjacent myometrium by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. FOXO3A expression was increased in leiomyomas compared with myometrium by western blotting. The mRNA levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclin D1 were increased in leiomyomas compared with the adjacent myometrium. The mRNA level of (thioredoxin-1-binding protein) TBP-2 in leiomyomas was not altered when compared with the matched adjacent myometrium. These results suggest that TRX-1 and some of its related molecules are associated with the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas. The identification of TRX-1 signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation points to another potential therapeutic target for treatment and/or prevention of uterine leiomyomas. PMID:24130091

Hou, Ping; Zhao, Lu; Li, Ye; Luo, Fucheng; Wang, Shengdong; Song, Junying; Bai, Jie



Subfertility Linked to Combined Luteal Insufficiency and Uterine Progesterone Resistance  

PubMed Central

Early pregnancy loss is common and can be caused by a range of factors. The Brown Norway (BN) rat exhibits reproductive dysfunction characterized by small litter size and pregnancy failure and represents a model for investigating early pregnancy loss. In this study, we investigated the establishment of pregnancy in the BN rat and gained insight into mechanisms causing its subfertility. Early stages of BN uteroplacental organization are unique. The BN primordial placenta is restricted in its development and correlates with limited BN uterine decidual development. BN uterine decidua was shown to be both structurally and functionally distinct and correlated with decreased circulating progesterone (P4) levels. Ovarian anomalies were also apparent in BN rats and included decreased ovulation rates and decreased transcript levels for some steroidogenic enzymes. Attempts to rescue the BN uterine decidual phenotype with steroid hormone therapy were ineffective. BN uteri were shown to exhibit reduced responsiveness to P4 but not to 17?-estradiol. P4 resistance was associated with decreased transcript levels for the P4 receptor (Pgr), a P4 receptor chaperone (Fkbp4), and P4 receptor coactivators (Ncoa1 and Ncoa2). In summary, the BN rat exhibits luteal insufficiency and uterine P4 resistance, which profoundly affects its ability to reproduce. PMID:20660062

Konno, Toshihiro; Graham, Amanda R.; Rempel, Lea A.; Ho-Chen, Jennifer K.; Alam, S. M. Khorshed; Bu, Pengli; Rumi, M. A. Karim; Soares, Michael J.



Survival and fertility after uterine prolapse in dairy cows.  


Sixty-eight cases of uterine prolapase in pastured dairy cows were treated in 2 consecutive spring calving seasons in East Gippsland, Victoria. Fifty cows survived (73.5%). Of 43 cows available for followup, 36 (84%) conceived in the mating period following the prolapse, taking 10 d longer to conceive than herd mates that calved on the same day. Three of the 36 cows (8%) that conceived, aborted, this occurring in the middle trimester of pregnancy. No prolapses occurred at the following calving but one case had suffered uterine prolapse 2 years previously. The conclusions drawn from these observations are that cows with uterine prolapse have a good chance of surviving if treated, that treatment is cost-effective, that uterine prolapse is unlikely to reoccur and treated cows have a good chance of conceiving. The veterinarians involved in this investigation were reasonably accurate in their ability to predict long term survival but not as good in predicting ability to conceive again. PMID:2334369

Jubb, T F; Malmo, J; Brightling, P; Davis, G M




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Luteal-phase uteri are susceptible to infections, and PGE2 and exogenous progesterone can down-regulate, whereas PGF2a can up-regulate, uterine immune functions. To study this phenomenon, uteri of follicular- or luteal-phase ewes were inoculated with either saline or bacteria (Arcanobacterium pyogen...


Outcomes After Unilateral Uterine Artery Embolization: A Retrospective Review  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. Bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) is considered necessary to provide effective treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Occasionally, only unilateral embolization is performed, and this study evaluates these outcomes. Materials and Methods. As part of a prospective observational study of more than 1600 patients treated with UAE since 1996, there have been 48 patients in whom unilateral embolization has been performed. This study retrospectively reviews clinical response as assessed by our standard questionnaire and radiological response assessed by either magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound. Results. Two principal groups emerged: the largest, where only the dominant unilateral arterial supply was electively embolized (30 patients); and the second, where there was technical failure to catheterize the second uterine artery as a result of anatomical constraints (12 patients). Favorable clinical response with a reduction in menorrhagia at 1 year was seen in 85.7% (18/21) of those patients with a dominant arterial supply to the fibroid(s). In contrast, in those patients where there was technical failure to embolize one uterine artery, there was a high rate of clinical failure requiring further intervention in 58.3% (7/12). Comparison of the technical failure group with the dominant uterine artery group demonstrated a statistically significant (Fisher's exact test) difference in the proportion of patients with evidence of persistent fibroid vascularity (p < 0.001) and requiring repeat intervention (p < 0.01). Conclusion. We conclude that unilateral UAE can achieve a positive clinical result in the group of patients where there is a dominant unilateral artery supplying the fibroid(s), in contrast to the poor results seen following technical failure.

Bratby, M. J. [St George's Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Hussain, F. F.; Walker, W. J. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom)], E-mail:



Innervation in women with uterine myoma and adenomyosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if neurofilament (NF) is expressed in the endometrium and the lesions of myomas and adenomyosis, and to determine their correlation. Methods Histologic sections were prepared from hysterectomies performed on women with adenomyosis (n=21), uterine myoma (n=31), and carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix. Full-thickness uterine paraffin blocks, which included the endometrium and myometrium histologic sections, were stained immunohistochemically using the antibodies for monoclonal mouse antihuman NF protein. Results NF-positive cells were found in the endometrium and myometrium in 11 women with myoma and in 7 with adenomyosis, but not in patients with carcinoma in situ of uterine cervix, although the difference was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference between the existence of NF-positive cells and menstrual pain or phases. The NF-positive nerve fibers were in direct contact with the lesions in nine cases (29.0%) of myoma and in five cases (23.8%) of adenomyosis. It was analyzed if there was a statistical significance between the existence of NF positive cells in the endometrium and the expression of NF-positive cells in the uterine myoma/adenomyosis lesions. When NF-positive cell were detected in the myoma lesions, the incidence of NF-positive nerve cells in the eutopic endometrium was significantly high. When NF-positive cell were detected in the basal layer, the incidence of NF-positive nerve cells in the myoma lesions and adenomyosis lesions was significantly high. Conclusion We assume that NF-positive cells in the endometrium and the myoma and adenomyosis lesions might play a role in pathogenesis. Therefore, more studies may be needed on the mechanisms of nerve fiber growth in estrogen-dependent diseases.

Choi, Ye Jin; Chang, Ji-Ae; Chang, Sun Hee; Chun, Kyoung Chul; Koh, Jae Whoan



Gene expression fingerprint of uterine serous papillary carcinoma: identification of novel molecular markers for uterine serous cancer diagnosis and therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine serous papillary cancer (USPC) represents a rare but highly aggressive variant of endometrial cancer, the most common gynecologic tumour in women. We used oligonucleotide microarrays that interrogate the expression of some 10 000 known genes to profile 10 highly purified primary USPC cultures and five normal endometrial cells (NEC). We report that unsupervised analysis of mRNA fingerprints readily distinguished

A D Santin; F Zhan; S Bellone; M Palmieri; M Thomas; A Burnett; J J Roman; M J Cannon; J Shaughnessy; S Pecorelli




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One hundred six gilts of each line were randomly assigned to either UHO or intact groups in each of two seasons (March and September) of 1999 and 2000. Gilts were UHO at 160 days of age, mated within line, and slaughtered at 105 days of gestation. At slaughter, the remaining gravid uterine horn and...


Effect of insemination volume on uterine contractions and inflammatory response and on elimination of semen in the mare uterus-scintigraphic and ultrasonographic studies.  


The effect of artificial insemination (AI) volume on uterine contractility and inflammation and on elimination of semen in the reproductive tract of mares was examined for 4 h after AI using two methods, scintigraphy and ultrasonography. The same doses were used in both methods: 2 and 100 ml of skim milk-extended frozen semen. In the scintigraphic study, the number of reproductively normal mares was four per group and in the ultrasonographic study five per group. For scintigraphy, the semen was radiolabelled with technetium-99m. The static scintigrams were acquired immediately before and 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after AI. The activities in the vagina and uterus were calculated and the values for sperm that had been discharged from the mare were obtained by subtracting the counts for the uterus and vagina from the total radioactivity. The dynamic scintigrams were taken continuously for the first 30 min after AI and in 5-min periods immediately after having acquired the static scintigrams. The uterine contractions were counted. In the ultrasonographic study, the mares were scanned before AI and at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min after AI, for at least 1 min each time. The examinations were videotaped and contractions counted per minute. More contractions were observed with the ultrasonographic method than with the scintigraphic method. No difference was present in the number of contractions between the groups, except in the ultrasonographic study at 4 h, when the mares inseminated with 100 ml showed more contractions than did the mares inseminated with 2 ml. The intraluminal fluid was sampled with a tampon and by uterine lavage 4 h after AI in the ultrasonographic study. The numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and spermatozoa were counted, but the differences between the groups were not significant. Under our experimental conditions and with the number of mares examined, the volume of the AI dose had an insignificant effect on contractility - with the exception at 4 h - and inflammatory reaction and on semen elimination in the uterus. PMID:16268958

Sinnemaa, L; Järvimaa, T; Lehmonen, N; Mäkelä, O; Reilas, T; Sankari, S; Katila, T



Functional modelling of an equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteome provides experimental confirmation and functional annotation of equine genome sequences.  


The equine genome sequence enables the use of high-throughput genomic technologies in equine research, but accurate identification of expressed gene products and interpreting their biological relevance require additional structural and functional genome annotation. Here, we employ the equine genome sequence to identify predicted and known proteins using proteomics and model these proteins into biological pathways, identifying 582 proteins in normal cell-free equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We improved structural and functional annotation by directly confirming the in vivo expression of 558 (96%) proteins, which were computationally predicted previously, and adding Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for 174 proteins, 108 of which lacked functional annotation. Bronchoalveolar lavage is commonly used to investigate equine respiratory disease, leading us to model the associated proteome and its biological functions. Modelling of protein functions using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified carbohydrate metabolism, cell-to-cell signalling, cellular function, inflammatory response, organ morphology, lipid metabolism and cellular movement as key biological processes in normal equine BALF. Comparative modelling of protein functions in normal cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage proteomes from horse, human, and mouse, performed by grouping GO terms sharing common ancestor terms, confirms conservation of functions across species. Ninety-one of 92 human GO categories and 105 of 109 mouse GO categories were conserved in the horse. Our approach confirms the utility of the equine genome sequence to characterize protein networks without antibodies or mRNA quantification, highlights the need for continued structural and functional annotation of the equine genome and provides a framework for equine researchers to aid in the annotation effort. PMID:21749422

Bright, L A; Mujahid, N; Nanduri, B; McCarthy, F M; Costa, L R R; Burgess, S C; Swiderski, C E



Role of Peritoneal Lavage Cytology and Prediction of Prognosis and Peritoneal Recurrence After Curative Surgery for Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose In colorectal cancer, the role of detecting free malignant cells from peritoneal lavage is currently unclear. In this study, we investigated the positive rate of free malignant cells in peritoneal lavage fluid and their predictive value for prognosis and peritoneal recurrence after a curative resection. Methods From October 2009 to December 2011, in a prospective manner, we performed cytologic examinations of peritoneal lavage fluid obtained just after the abdominal incision from 145 patients who underwent curative surgery for colorectal cancer. We used proportional hazard regression models to analyze the predictive role of positive cytology for peritoneal recurrence and survival. Results Among total 145 patients, six patients (4.1%) showed positive cytology. During the median follow-up of 32 months (range, 8-49 months), 27 patients (18.6%) developed recurrence. Among them, 5 patients (3.4%) showed peritoneal carcinomatosis. In the multivariate analysis, positive cytology was an independent predictive factor for peritoneal recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 136.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.2-1,531.9; P < 0.0001) and an independent poor prognostic factor for overall survival (HR, 11.4; 95% CI, 1.8-72.0; P = 0.009) and for disease-free survival (HR, 11.1; 95% CI, 3.4-35.8; P < 0.0001). Conclusion Positive cytology of peritoneal fluid was significantly associated with peritoneal recurrence and worse survival in patients undergoing curative surgery for colorectal cancer. Peritoneal cytology might be a useful tool for selecting patients who need intraperitoneal or systemic chemotherapy. PMID:25580413

Bae, Sung Joon; Ki, Young-Jun; Cho, Sang Sik; Moon, Sun Mi; Park, Sun Hoo



Release of tumour necrosis factor alpha into bronchial alveolar lavage fluid following antigen challenge in passively sensitized guinea-pigs  

PubMed Central

Five groups of ten female guinea-pigs were passively sensitized against ovalbumin (OA) (n = 9) or control guinea-pig serum (n = 1). 24 h later, they received mepyramine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) and 30 min later inhaled aerosols of: (A) OA (2 in 0.9% saline, 8 min, n = 4/9); (B) saline (40 min, n = 4/9); (C) LPS (40 min, Escherichia coli 0111:B4, 150 ng/kg in PBS, n = 1/9); and (D) the control animal was treated as in (C) (n = 1). Their tracheas were cannulated under pentobarbital anaesthesia and bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) was performed with 2 × 5 ml PBS containing BSA (1%) (n = 1 group), or BSA (1%) and aprotinin (1000 KIU/ml) (n = 4 groups), at 30, 60, 90 or 120 min post-inhalations. BAL fluids recovered were centrifuged, the supernatants recovered and frozen until assayed for tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). No TNF-? could be detected unless aprotinin was present in the lavaging solution. BAL fluid from OA-sensitized and control animals that had inhaled LPS contained high levels of TNF-? that peaked at 90 min. BAL fluid from OA sensitized animals that inhaled OA aerosols contained no detectable TNF-? at 30 min, but it was found in increasing amounts at 60, 90 and 120 min; TNF-? was not detected in fluid from any of the animals that inhaled saline. As BAL fluids were toxic to the cells used in the assays, neither IL-1 nor IL-6 could be measured. We conclude that the monokine TNF-? is released into BAL fluid following anaphylactic challenge of passively sensitized guinea-pigs. The presence of the antiprotease, aprotinin, in the lavaging solution is essential for the detection and measurement of TNF-? in BAL fluid. PMID:18475495

Kelly, D. E.; Denis, M.



The effect of uterine motion and uterine margins on target and normal tissue doses in intensity modulated radiation therapy of cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of cervical cancer, uterine motion can be larger than cervix motion, requiring a larger clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margin around the uterine fundus. This work simulates different motion models and margins to estimate the dosimetric consequences. A virtual study used image sets from ten patients. Plans were created with uniform

J. J. Gordon; E. Weiss; O. K. Abayomi; J. V. Siebers; N. Dogan



Electron microscopic microanalysis of bronchoalveolar lavage: a way to identify exposure to silica and silicate dust.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The diagnostic implications of finding non-fibrous inorganic particles in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has not been fully assessed. The aim of this study has been to measure the silica and non-fibrous silicates in BAL fluid from populations with different exposures to inorganic dust, and to find whether such measurement is useful for diagnostic purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BAL samples from 19 subjects with only environmental exposure to inorganic dust (group A, mean (SD) age 50.7 (15.2)), 23 subjects with normal chest x ray films exposed to silica or silicates at work (group B, mean (SD) age 52.0 (12.4)), and 15 subjects with a previous diagnosis of silicosis (group C, mean (SD) age 68.0 (6.5)) were studied. Absolute and relative cell counts were found, and the samples were prepared for microanalysis by electron microscopy (EM). Firstly, semiquantitative x ray microanalysis was performed to find the level of silicon (Si) (peak/background Si) and this was followed by microanalysis of individual particles by EM. Variables related to the level of Si detected were assessed with multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Detected levels were higher in group B (2.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.56 to 2.82) and C (1.50, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.12) than in group A (0.87, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.16) (P < 0.05, Dunett t test). A first multivariate analysis showed that exposure to silica or silicates was the only determinant of the level of Si expressed as log peak/background Si, when adjusted for age, sex, smoking habit, and cell count. A second multivariate analysis with microanalysis of individual particles as an independent variable showed the silica count to be the main predictor of detected concentration of Si. Silica and non-aluminium silicates together explain 55.5% (R2) of the variation in detected levels of Si. CONCLUSIONS: Detected levels of Si in BAL fluid depend on silica count and are higher in subjects with exposure to inorganic dust at work, but will not discriminate between exposed subjects with and without silicosis. Because semiquantitative x ray microanalysis does not accurately define exposure to non-silica inorganic particles, this measurement must be followed by EM microanalysis of individual particles in most cases, especially when exposure to silicates or metal dust is suspected. PMID:9326159

Monsó, E; Carreres, A; Tura, J M; Ruiz, J; Fiz, J; Xaus, C; Llatjós, M; Morera, J



The comparison of a fibrogenic and two nonfibrogenic dusts by bronchoalveolar lavage.  


Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) appears to be a sensitive approach to characterizing an acute inflammatory response within the lung. More work, however, is needed to determine if analyses of BALF endpoints can predict chronic responses (i.e., fibrosis). The objective of the present study was to compare the dose and temporal pulmonary response of a known fibrogenic agent, silica, and two known nonfibrogenic agents, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide. Animals were instilled with silica (0, 0.2, 1.0, or 5.0 mg/100 g body wt), titanium dioxide (1.0 or 5 mg/100 g body wt), aluminium oxide (1.0 or 5.0 mg/100 g body wt) or saline. Animals (n = 5/group) were terminated 1, 7, 14, 28, and 63 days following instillation, and the BALF was characterized by biochemical and cellular assays. Histopathological changes were determined at 60 days after exposure. The biochemical results demonstrated BALF levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), beta-glucuronidase (BG), N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), and total protein (TP) increased in a dose-related fashion at the earlier time points for all test materials, with the magnitude of change being greatest for silica. The temporal response for these parameters was significantly different for the two classes of materials. With time, the response for the fibrogenic dust steadily increased, while the levels for the nonfibrogenic dusts decreased toward normal values during the 2-month study period. Of the cellular changes, total cell numbers, neutrophils, and lymphocyte numbers were the most sensitive markers of the pulmonary response. As shown with the biochemical parameters, the cellular response to silica increased with time while that of the nuisance dusts did not. It was also found that, similar to inhalation studies, high doses of a nuisance dust may result in toxicity/inflammation. This toxicity at high dose levels emphasizes the importance of choosing relevant doses when comparing potentially fibrogenic and nonfibrogenic dusts. In conclusion, the persistent and progressive changes seen in the biochemical (LDH, TP, BG, NAG) and cellular parameters (total cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes) following silica administration correlated with the fibrotic response which occurred after exposure to this material. The less dramatic and transient changes seen with aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide correlated with the inert nature of these nuisance dusts. The results of this study indicate evaluation of BALF may provide a means to predict the chronic pulmonary response to a material. PMID:2154066

Lindenschmidt, R C; Driscoll, K E; Perkins, M A; Higgins, J M; Maurer, J K; Belfiore, K A



Prospective, Controlled, Randomized Study of Intraoperative Colonic Lavage Versus Stent Placement in Obstructive Left-sided Colonic Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The main aim of this study was to compare short-term results and long-term outcomes of patients who underwent intraoperative\\u000a colonic lavage (IOCL) with primary anastomosis with those who had stent placement prior to scheduled surgery for obstructive\\u000a left-sided colonic cancer (OLCC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a prospective, controlled, randomized study of patients diagnosed with OLCC. Patients were divided into two groups:\\u000a stent

M. Alcántara; X. Serra-Aracil; J. Falcó; L. Mora; J. Bombardó; S. Navarro


Measuring the volume of uterine fibroids using 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound and comparison with histopathology.  


The aim of this study was clinical testing of the reliability and usability of three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) technology. The ultimate aim and purpose of this study was to establish ultrasound methods, standards and protocols for determining the volume of any gynecologic organ or tumor. The study included 31 women in reproductive age and postmenopause. All patients were examined with a RIC 5-9 3D-endovaginal probe (4.3-7.5 MHz) on a Voluson 730 Pro ultrasound device. The volume of myomas was measured by using the existing 2D and 3D ultrasound methods on the above mentioned device. All patients underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy due to clinically and ultrasonographically diagnosed uterine myomas indicating operative intervention. After the operation, the pathologist determined the volume of removed myomas by measuring them in a gauge bowl containing water, i.e. using Archimedes' principle (lift), serving as the control group with histopathologic diagnosis. A total of 155 myoma volumes were processed on 2D display, 31 myoma volumes were preoperatively measured on 3D display and 31 myoma volumes were measured by the pathologist. The values of US measurements for each US method were expressed as mean value of all measurements of myoma volumes. Statistical processing of the results and Student's t-test for independent samples revealed that the 2nd examined US method (measuring of myoma by using an ellipse and the longer tumor diameter) and 4th examined US method (measuring of myoma by using the longer and shorter tumor diameters together with establishing their mean values) in 2D US technique, as well as the 6th examined US method in 3D US technique showed no significant measurement differences in comparison with control measurement in a gauge bowl containing water (p < 0.05), indicating acceptability of the US methods for verifying tumor volumes. The standard error in determining the volume of myomas by the above US methods varied between 15% and 25%, so it is concluded that these three methods can be used in clinical practice to determine tumor volumes, in this case uterine myomas. The 3D MultiPlane method proved to be the most reliable method of determining the volume of uterine myomas. PMID:23540166

Zivkovi?, Nikica; Zivkovi?, Kreiimir; Despot, Albert; Pai?, Josip; Zeli?, Ana



A novel procedure for the mechanical characterization of the uterine cervix during pregnancy.  


An in-vivo measurement procedure is presented to characterize the mechanical behavior of human uterine cervix during pregnancy. Based on the aspiration method, a new instrument was developed to provide an inherently safe and easy-to-use mechanical testing technique. Initial measurements were performed on non-pregnant women to develop an appropriate measurement protocol. An inverse analysis was carried out to determine representative model equations for cervical tissue. This model was used in a FE based parametric study focusing on the uncertainties related to the experiment. On this basis, a novel procedure was established which enabled for the first time to conduct mechanical measurements on 50 pregnant women in over 600 applications during gestation. An inverse analysis of the average tissue response at each trimester was performed to determine representative model equations for the cervix in the course of pregnancy. PMID:23274486

Badir, Sabrina; Bajka, Michael; Mazza, Edoardo



Vaginal surgery for uterine descent; which options do we have? A review of the literature.  


Several vaginal procedures are available for treating uterine descent. Vaginal hysterectomy is usually the surgeon's first choice. In this literature review, complications, anatomical and symptomatic outcomes, and quality of life after vaginal hysterectomy, sacrospinous hysteropexy, the Manchester procedure, and posterior intravaginal slingplasty are described. All procedures had low complication rates, except posterior intravaginal slingplasty, with a tape erosion rate of 0-21%. Minimal anatomical success rates regarding apical support ranged from 85% and 93% in favor of the Manchester procedure. Data on symptomatic cure and quality of life are scarce. In studies comparing vaginal hysterectomy with sacrospinous hysteropexy or the Manchester procedure, vaginal hysterectomy had higher morbidity. Because no randomized, controlled trials have been performed comparing these surgical techniques, we can not conclude that one of the procedures prevails. However, one can conclude from the literature that vaginal hysterectomy is not the logical first choice. PMID:19083135

Dietz, Viviane; Schraffordt Koops, Steven E; Koops, Steven E Schraffordt; van der Vaart, C Huub



Outcome of occult uterine leiomyosarcoma after surgery for presumed uterine fibroids: a systematic review.  


There is concern that morcellation of occult leiomyosarcomas during surgery to treat presumed myomas may substantially worsen patient outcome. We reviewed the existing medical literature to better understand whether such a risk was demonstrable and, if so, what the magnitude of that risk might be. We identified 4864 articles initially, of which 60 were evaluated in full. Seventeen were found to have outcomes information and are included in this review. Six studies addressed the question of whether morcellation of occult leiomyosarcomas resulted in inferior outcomes as compared with en bloc uterine and tumor removal. In these 6 studies, results suggested that en bloc removal may result in improved survival and less recurrence; however, the data are highly biased and of poor quality. There is no reliable evidence that morcellation, power or otherwise, substantially results in tumor upstaging. There is no evidence from these 17 studies that power morcellation differs in any way from other types of morcellation or even simple myomectomy insofar as patient outcome. Whether electromechanical morcellation poses a unique danger to the patient with occult leiomyosarcoma is an unanswered question and one clearly in need of more extensive investigation before conclusions are drawn and policies created. PMID:25193444

Pritts, Elizabeth A; Parker, William H; Brown, Jubilee; Olive, David L



Treatment of uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher: a randomized multicenter trial comparing sacrospinous fixation with vaginal hysterectomy (SAVE U trial)  

PubMed Central

Background Pelvic organ prolapse is a common health problem, affecting up to 40% of parous women over 50 years old, with significant negative influence on quality of life. Vaginal hysterectomy is currently the leading treatment method for patients with symptomatic uterine prolapse. Several studies have shown that sacrospinous fixation in case of uterine prolapse is a safe and effective alternative to vaginal hysterectomy. However, no large randomized trials with long-term follow-up have been performed to compare efficacy and quality of life between both techniques. The SAVE U trial is designed to compare sacrospinous fixation with vaginal hysterectomy in the treatment of uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher in terms of prolapse recurrence, quality of life, complications, hospital stay, post-operative recovery and sexual functioning. Methods/design The SAVE U trial is a randomized controlled multi-center non-inferiority trial. The study compares sacrospinous fixation with vaginal hysterectomy in women with uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher. The primary outcome measure is recurrence of uterine prolapse defined as: uterine descent stage 2 or more assessed by pelvic organ prolapse quantification examination and prolapse complaints and/or redo surgery at 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes are subjective improvement in quality of life measured by generic (Short Form 36 and Euroqol 5D) and disease-specific (Urogenital Distress Inventory, Defecatory Distress Inventory and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire) quality of life instruments, complications following surgery, hospital stay, post-operative recovery and sexual functioning (Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire). Analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. Based on comparable recurrence rates of 3% and considering an upper-limit of 7% to be non-inferior (beta 0.2 and one sided alpha 0.025), 104 patients are needed per group. Discussion The SAVE U trial is a randomized multicenter trial that will provide evidence whether the efficacy of sacrospinous fixation is similar to vaginal hysterectomy in women with uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR1866 PMID:21324143



A syndromal and an isolated form of uterine arteriovenous malformations: two case-reports.  


Uterine arteriovenous malformations are rare lesions with a considerable risk potential. Clinical presentation varies from no signs over various degrees of menorrhagia to massive life threatening vaginal bleeding. This is the first report of congenital uterine arteriovenous malformations in two patients with primary infertility. In one case, the uterine lesions were found in conjunction with other congenital malformations suggesting the diagnosis of hemihyperplasia/lipomatosis syndrome. Etiology, symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic work-up are discussed; pathological findings are illustrated. PMID:11728664

Geerinckx, I; Willemsen, W; Hanselaar, T



Variation in the Incidence of Uterine Leiomyoma Among Premenopausal Women by Age and Race  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantify the incidence of uterine leiomyoma confirmed by hysterectomy, ultrasound, or pelvic examination according to age and race among premenopausal women.Methods: From September 1989 through May 1993, 95,061 premenopausal nurses age 25–44 with intact uteri and no history of uterine leiomyoma were followed to determine incidence rates of uterine leiomyoma. The self-reported diagnosis was confirmed in 93% of

Lynn M Marshall; Donna Spiegelman; Robert L Barbieri; Marlene B Goldman; JoAnn E Manson; Graham A Colditz; Walter C Willett; David J Hunter



Uterine Fibroids: Pathogenesis and Interactions with Endometrium and Endomyometrial Junction  

PubMed Central

Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids or myomas) are benign tumors of uterus and clinically apparent in a large part of reproductive aged women. Clinically, they present with a variety of symptoms: excessive menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhoea and intermenstrual bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, and pressure symptoms such as a sensation of bloatedness, increased urinary frequency, and bowel disturbance. In addition, they may compromise reproductive functions, possibly contributing to subfertility, early pregnancy loss, and later pregnancy complications. Despite the prevalence of this condition, myoma research is underfunded compared to other nonmalignant diseases. To date, several pathogenetic factors such as genetics, microRNA, steroids, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix components have been implicated in the development and growth of leiomyoma. This paper summarizes the available literature regarding the ultimate relative knowledge on pathogenesis of uterine fibroids and their interactions with endometrium and subendometrial myometrium. PMID:24163697

Stortoni, Piergiorgio; Montik, Nina; Giannubilo, Stefano R.; Litta, Pietro; Islam, Md. Soriful; Tranquilli, Andrea L.; Reis, Fernando M.



Xanthogranulomatous Salpingitis Associated with a Large Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

A case of xanthogranulomatous salpingitis (XGS) associated with a large uterine leiomyoma in a 50-year-old woman is presented. Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is an uncommon form of chronic inflammation that is destructive to affected organs. It is characterized by the presence of lipid-filled macrophages with admixed lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. A review of the literature revealed that most patients with XGS have a clinical history of long-standing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or, less often, endometriosis. We report a case lacking a history of either PID or endometriosis but with a concurrent large uterine leiomyoma. Although the exact etiology in this case was not clear, the leiomyoma may have played a contributory role in pathogenesis. PMID:20981281

Howey, Joanne Margaret; Mahe, Etienne; Radhi, Jasim



Bits and pieces: the ethics of uterine morcellation.  


Intensive media and policy attention has been focused on the ongoing controversy surrounding uterine morcellation in gynecologic surgery. What has been missing from this impassioned discourse is an objective analysis of the ethical implications of uterine power morcellation in gynecologic surgery. This article discusses competing ethical duties of physicians, industry, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the media to develop a more robust and nuanced understanding of informed consent for the use of morcellation in benign gynecologic surgery. Ultimately, as physicians, we must remain steadfast in our dedication to the use of evolving technologies to better patient health in a safe and ethical manner that is well-studied, informed, and implemented with appropriate training and precautions. PMID:25415172

Arora, Kavita Shah; Spillman, Monique; Milad, Magdy



Alveolar macrophage graded hemosiderin score from bronchoalveolar lavage in horses with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage and controls.  


The objective of this study was to determine if a quantitative scoring system for evaluation of hemosiderin content of alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalevolar lavage provides a more sensitive test for the detection of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) in horses than does endoscopy of the lower airways. A sample population composed of 74 Standardbred racehorses aged 2-5 years was used. Horses were grouped as either control (EIPH-negative) or EIPH-positive based on history and repeated postexertional endoscopic evaluation of the bronchial airways. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and cytocentrifuge slides were stained with Perl's Prussian blue. Alveolar macrophages were scored for hemosiderin content by a method described by Golde and associates to obtain the total hemosiderin score (THS). Test performance criteria were determined with a contingency table. All subjects had some degree of hemosiderin in the alveolar macrophages, regardless of group. The distribution of cells among the different grades followed a significantly different pattern for the control group versus horses with EIPH (P < .05). When using a THS of 75 as a cutoff point, the THS test was found to have a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 88%. The level of agreement beyond chance, between the EIPH status and the THS test result was very good (Cohen's kappa = 74%). The conclusion was made that careful assessment and scoring of alveolar macrophages for hemosiderin by means of the Golde scoring system shows promise as a more sensitive approach than repeated postexertional endoscopy alone to detect EIPH. PMID:12041658

Doucet, Michèle Y; Viel, Laurent



Treatment for Uterine Fibroids: Searching for Effective Drug Therapies  

PubMed Central

Uterine fibroids are common reproductive-age benign tumors that contribute to severe morbidity and infertility. Cumulative incidence is 4 times higher in Africian-Americans compared to Caucasians and constitutes a major health disparity challenge. Fibroids are the leading indication for hysterectomy and their management averages $21 billion annually in the US. No long term minimally invasive therapies exist. Thus, promising drug therapies, their chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical efficacy, focusing first on innovative drug delivery approaches, are reviewed. PMID:23264802

Leppert, Phyllis C.



[Post-trauma uterine prolaps in infant. A case report].  


We report on one case of genital prolaps that happened after an astride fell in a girl aged 7-year-old. The manual reducing of the cervix followed by putting a blown Foley catheter n(o) 8 intravaginally for 1 week has allowed good results. Post-trauma uterine prolaps in infant is a rare condition supposed to be due to connective tissue weakness. Conservative treatment should be as possible applied at this age. PMID:19846260

Hamada, H; Zazi, A



[Uterine cervical cancer screening in kitakyushu city: present and future].  


Uterine cervical cancer is the most common primary gynecologic malignant tumor in Japan. Conventional cervical screening Papanicolaou (Pap) test has been shown to be extremely effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality, but the consultation rate for cancer screening in Japan is markedly low, at 20% of prescribed subjects, in comparison with other developed countries. In 2001, 15,501 women (6.8%) received a Pap test in Kitakyushu City, and that was less than half of national average. From 2009, free coupons for uterine cervical cancer screening were distributed to Japanese woman who were 20, 25, 30, 35 or 40 years of age as part of the project for women-specific cancer screening. The rate of participation in Pap testing was 22.3% in 2012, with 31,970 women receiving cervical tests. It was almost as high as the national level. It's obvious that high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for cervical cancer incidence and HPV mainly infects through sexual practice. The rate of early cervical neoplasms and invasive cancers is currently increasing in young women. Abnormal Pap tests were detected in 2.3% of the women in 2008. To increase the population's participation in this screening process, a cost-effective and efficient system should be established. National and local governments, medical institutions, companies, and educational institutions must have an accurate understanding of the current situation, and take an assertive approach in order to decrease the mortality rate of uterine cervical cancer. PMID:25224713

Matsuura, Yusuke; Oka, Haruko; Yamagata, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Joji; Inoue, Isao; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Toki, Naoyuki; Kawagoe, Toshinori; Hachisuga, Toru; Kashimura, Masamichi



Treatment of early uterine sarcomas: disentangling adjuvant modalities  

PubMed Central

Uterine sarcomas are a rare group of neoplasms with aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis. They are classified into four main histological subtypes in order of decreasing incidence: carcinosarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, endometrial stromal sarcomas and "other" sarcomas. The pathological subtype demands a tailored approach. Surgical resection is regarded as the mainstay of treatment. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy represents the standard treatment of uterine sarcomas. Pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection in carcinosarcomas is recommended, given their high incidence of lymph node metastases, and may have a role in endometrial stromal sarcomas. Adjuvant radiation therapy has historically been of little survival value, but it appears to improve local control and may delay recurrence. Regarding adjuvant chemotherapy, there is little evidence in the literature supporting its use except for carcinosarcomas. However, more trials are needed to address these issues, especially, their sequential application. Patients with uterine sarcomas should be referred to large academic centers for participation in clinical trials. PMID:19356236

Zagouri, Flora; Dimopoulos, Athanasios-Meletios; Fotiou, Stelios; Kouloulias, Vassilios; Papadimitriou, Christos A



Current and emerging treatments for uterine myoma – an update  

PubMed Central

Uterine myomas, the most common benign, solid, pelvic tumors in women, occur in 20%–40% of women in their reproductive years and form the most common indication for hysterectomy. Various factors affect the choice of the best treatment modality for a given patient. Asymptomatic myomas may be managed by reassurance and careful follow up. Medical therapy should be tried as a first line of treatment for symptomatic myomas, while surgical treatment should be reserved only for appropriate indications. Hysterectomy has its place in myoma management in its definitiveness. However, myomectomy, rather than hysterectomy, should be performed when subsequent childbearing is a consideration. Preoperative gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment before myomectomy decreases the size and vascularity of the myoma but may render the capsule more fibrous and difficult to resect. Uterine artery embolization is an effective standard alternative for women with large symptomatic myomas who are poor surgical risks or wish to avoid major surgery. Its effects on future fertility need further evaluation in larger studies. Serial follow-up without surgery for growth and/or development of symptoms is advisable for asymptomatic women, particularly those approaching menopause. The present article is incorporated with multiple clear clinical photographs and simplified elaboration of the available management options for these tumors of uterine smooth muscle to facilitate clear understanding. PMID:21892334

Duhan, Nirmala



Fetal Arthrogryposis Secondary to a Giant Maternal Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenital is a rare condition defined as contractures in multiple joints at birth due to disorders starting in fetal life. Its etiology is associated with many different conditions and in many instances remains unknown. The final common pathway to all of them is decreased fetal movement (fetal akinesia) due to an abnormal intrauterine environment. Causes of decreased fetal movements may be neuropathic abnormalities, abnormalities of connective tissue or muscle, intrauterine vascular compromise, maternal diseases, and space limitations within the uterus. When the cause of arthrogryposis is space limitations in uterus, the most common etiology is oligohydramnios. The same can result from intrauterine tumours as fibroids, although to our knowledge there are only two papers reporting cases of fetal deformities related to uterine leiomyomas. We describe a well-documented exceptional case of arthrogryposis associated with the presence of a large uterine fibroid. It could illustrate the importance of a careful and appropriate assessment of uterine fibroids before and in the course of a pregnancy considering that they can cause both serious maternal and fetal complications. PMID:23198198

Vila-Vives, José María; Hidalgo-Mora, Juan José; Soler, Inmaculada; Rubio, Juan; Quiroga, Ramiro; Perales, Alfredo



Short-course palliative radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of short-course hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) for the palliation of uterine cervical cancer. Materials and Methods Seventeen patients with cancer of the uterine cervix, who underwent palliative hypofractionated 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy between January 2002 and June 2012, were retrospectively analyzed. RT was delivered to symptomatic lesions (both the primary mass and/or metastatic regional lymph nodes). The total dose was 20 to 25 Gy (median, 25 Gy) in 5 Gy daily fractions. Results The median follow-up duration was 12.2 months (range, 4 to 24 months). The median survival time was 7.8 months (range, 4 to 24 months). Vaginal bleeding was the most common presenting symptom followed by pelvic pain (9 patients). The overall response rates were 93.8% and 66.7% for vaginal bleeding control and pelvic pain, respectively. Nine patients did not have any acute side effects and 7 patients showed minor gastrointestinal toxicity. Only 1 patient had grade 3 diarrhea 1 week after completion of treatment, which was successfully treated conservatively. Late complications occurred in 4 patients; however, none of these were of grade 3 or higher severity. Conclusion Short-course hypofractionated RT was effective and well tolerated as palliative treatment for uterine cervical cancer. PMID:24501709

Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Ju Hye; Ki, Yong Kan; Nam, Ji Ho; Kim, Won Taek; Jeon, Ho Sang; Park, Dahl



PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 in uterine physiology and disease  

PubMed Central

It is clear from studies using progesterone receptor (PGR) mutant mice that not all of the actions of progesterone (P4) are mediated by this receptor. Indeed, many rapid, non-classical P4 actions have been reported throughout the female reproductive tract. Progesterone treatment of Pgr null mice results in behavioral changes and in differential regulation of genes in the endometrium. Progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and PGRMC2 belong to the heme-binding protein family and may serve as P4 receptors. Evidence to support this derives chiefly from in vitro culture work using primary or transformed cell lines that lack the classical PGR. Endometrial expression of PGRMC1 in menstrual cycling mammals is most abundant during the proliferative phase of the cycle. Because PGRMC2 expression shows the most consistent cross-species expression, with highest levels during the secretory phase, PGRMC2 may serve as a universal non-classical P4 receptor in the uterus. While the functional importance of PGRMC1/2 in the uterus remains to be fully explored, accumulating evidence suggests that disruption in PGRMC1/2 expression correlates with uterine disease. In this review we will summarize what is known about PGRMC1/2 in uterine physiology and we will provide examples of disrupted expression of these genes in uterine disease states. PMID:24065879

Pru, James K.; Clark, Nicole C.



Temporary balloon occlusion of the uterine arteries to control hemorrhage during hysterectomy in a case of uterine arteriovenous fistula.  


Arteriovenous fistula is any abnormal connection between an artery and a vein that bypasses the normal capillary bed and shunts arterial blood directly to the venous circulation. Uterine arteriovenous fistula (UAVF) is a potentially life-threatening condition by causing massive bleeding. This report describes a case of UAVF with massive hemorrhage. Prior to surgery, endovascular catheters for balloon occlusion were placed within bilateral uterine arteries. During surgery, the surgeon requested temporary balloon inflation for navigating and identifying inflow arteries. The balloon was kept inflated during the ligation of the vessels. Once ligation was completed, the balloon was deflated to confirm hemostasis. A total hysterectomy with removal of the UAVF was successfully achieved without significant blood loss. The fistula, in the resected specimen, was confirmed histologically with Elastica van Gieson staining. The preoperative placement of endovascular balloon-occlusion catheters should be considered when hysterectomy is planned where UAVF is located at the cardinal ligament. PMID:25227922

Yamamoto, Naoko; Koga, Kaori; Akahane, Masaaki; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka



Gene expression analysis reveals an angiogenic profile in uterine leiomyoma pseudocapsule.  


The pseudocapsule (PC) of the uterine leiomyoma (UL) is an anatomic entity that surrounds the myoma separating it from the myometrium (UM). Although a number of microarray experiments have identified differences in gene expression profile in the UL when compared with the UM, there is a lack of systematic studies on the PC. In this study, quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed on 18 matched PC, UL and UM specimens and results showed that the PC displays a specific gene expression profile. The low expression level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-2), a fibroid specific marker, that we found in the PC and the UM when compared with the UL, clearly indicates that the PC is in structural continuity with the UM. However, the significant increase in endoglin expression level in PC with respect to the UL and UM indicates that an active neoangiogenesis is present in PC. Conversely, other angiogenic factors such as von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) seem to have little influence on the PC angiogenesis. Because the endoglin is preferentially expressed in proliferating endothelial cells, whereas the vWF and VEGF-A are preferentially expressed in preexisting endothelial cells, our idea is that the angiogenic activity in the PC is linked to wound healing. The angiogenic activity is also sustained by intermediate expression level of cystein-rich angiogenesis inducer 61, connective tissue growth factor and collagen 4?2 genes all involved in the neoangiogenesis, that we detected in the PC. Taken together our data demonstrate that the specific expression pattern observed in the PC could be the response of the uterine wall's smooth cells to the tension imposed by the tumor. As a consequence, a neovascular structure is generated involving regenerative processes. For these reasons, we suggest that the laparoscopic intracapsular myomectomy (LIM), a new surgical technique that preserves the PC during the UL removal, should always be preferred, to favor a faster and proper uterine healing. PMID:23355533

Di Tommaso, S; Massari, S; Malvasi, A; Bozzetti, M P; Tinelli, A



The uterine gland knock-out ewe: a model to study the role of endometrial glands in uterine function  

E-print Network

morphogenetic events common to all mammalian uterine development include: 1) organization and stratification of the stromal areas; 2) differentiation and development of the myometrium; and 3) coordinated development of the endometrial glands (for review see... Bartol et al. , 1993, 1999). To give rise to the uterus, the paramesonephric duct differentiates into the endometrium and myometrium. The myometrium is the outer, smooth muscle layer and is made up of an inner circular layer, which is derived Rom...

Gray, Catherine Allison



Effect of oestradiol on mouse uterine epithelial cell tumour necrosis factor-? release is mediated through uterine stromal cells  

PubMed Central

Oestradiol-17? (Oe2) stimulates uterine epithelial cell proliferation and is critical for normal uterine differentiation and secretory function. Oe2 can act directly on the epithelium via the epithelial oestrogen receptor (OR) or indirectly via the OR-positive underlying stroma. A primary role for epithelial–stromal interactions has been established for mediating steroid hormone action in the uterus. This study was undertaken to determine the mode of Oe2 action in regulating epithelial cell cytokine release in the uterus. Mouse uterine epithelial and stromal cells were isolated and cultured separately. Transepithelial resistance (TER) was monitored with an EVOM voltohmmeter to determine monolayer polarity and integrity. Epithelial cells grown alone or in coculture with stromal cells were treated with Oe2. Supernatants collected were assayed for transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) by bioassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. While Oe2 treatment of epithelial cells led to a significant decrease in TER, the amount of TNF-? released was not altered. However, when epithelial cells were cocultured with stromal cells and treated with Oe2, apical TNF-? release was significantly decreased, compared to cells not treated with hormone. As determined by oestrogen receptor antagonist studies, Oe2 primed epithelial cells for the action of the stromal paracrine factor(s). In contrast, TGF-? release by epithelial cells was not affected by Oe2 when grown alone or in the presence of stromal cells. These studies indicate that Oe2 has both direct and indirect effects on the uterine epithelium. While epithelial monolayer integrity is directly influenced by Oe2, TNF-? release in response to Oe2 is dependent on the presence of stromal cells, indicating that paracrine communication is necessary for steroid regulation of some but not all cytokines. PMID:15819702

Grant-Tschudy, Katherine S; Wira, Charles R



Midterm Results after Uterine Artery Embolization Versus MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the rate of reintervention and midterm changes in symptom severity (SS) and Total health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores after uterine artery embolization (UAE) and magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-g HIFU) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Methods: Eighty women (median age 38.3 years), equally eligible for MR-g HIFU and UAE who underwent one of both treatments between 2002 and 2009 at our institution, were included. The primary end point of the study was defined as the rate of reintervention after both therapies. The secondary outcome was defined as changes in SS and Total HRQoL scores after treatment. SS and Total HRQoL scores before treatment and at midterm follow-up (median 13.3 months) were assessed by the uterine fibroid symptom and quality-of-life questionnaire (UFS-QoL) and compared. Results: The rate of reintervention was significantly lower after UAE than after MR-g HIFU (p = 0.002). After both treatments, SS and Total HRQoL scores improved significantly from baseline to follow-up (UAE: p < 0.001, p < 0.001; MR-g HIFU: p = 0.002, p < 0.001). Total HRQoL scores were significantly higher after UAE than after MR-g HIFU (p = 0.032). Changes in the SS scores did not differ significantly for both treatments (p = 0.061). Conclusion: UAE and MR-g HIFU significantly improved the health-related quality of life of women with symptomatic uterine fibroids. After UAE, the change in Total HRQoL score improvement was significantly better, and a significantly lower rate of reintervention was observed.

Froeling, V., E-mail:; Meckelburg, K., E-mail:; Scheurig-Muenkler, C., E-mail:; Schreiter, N. F., E-mail:; Kamp, J., E-mail:; Maurer, M. H., E-mail:; Beck, A., E-mail:; Hamm, B., E-mail:; Kroencke, T. J., E-mail: [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)



Mid-term Clinical Results and Patient Satisfaction After Uterine Artery Embolization in Women with Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the mid-term clinical results and patient satisfaction following uterine artery embolization (UAE) in women with symptomatic fibroids. Methods. Between August 1998 and December 2002, 135 patients had UAE for symptomatic uterine fibroids. All patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Questions were aimed at changes in bleeding, pain, and bulk-related symptoms. Symptoms after UAE were scored as disappeared, improved, unchanged or worsened. Adverse events were noted, such as vaginal dryness and discharge, menopausal complaints or fibroid expulsion. Patient satisfaction after UAE was assessed. Patient satisfaction of women embolized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles was compared with satisfaction of women embolized with calibrated microspheres. Results. The questionnaire was returned by 110 of 135 women (81%) at a median time interval of 14 months following UAE. In 10 women additional embolization or hysterectomy had been performed. Of the 110 responders, 86 (78%) were satisfied with the result of UAE. The proportion of satisfied women was higher in the group embolized with calibrated microspheres than in women embolized with PVA, although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.053). Conclusion. UAE in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids leads to improvement of symptoms and patient satisfaction is good in the vast majority after a median follow-up period of 14 months.

Smeets, Albert J.; Lohle, Paul N. M. [St. Elisabeth Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)], E-mail:; Vervest, Harry A. M.; Boekkooi, P. Focco [St. Elisabeth Ziekenhuis, Department of Gynaecology (Netherlands); Lampmann, Leo E.H. [St. Elisabeth Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)




EPA Science Inventory

Adult rats were exposed to 1 ppm (1.96 mg/m3) ozone or air for 2 weeks. nimals were sacrificed at 3,5,7 or 14 days after the onset of exposure and samples of plasma and lung lavage obtained. eat inactivated plasma and lavage from animals exposed to ozone, for 5 or 7 days, signifi...


Deep intra-uterine artificial inseminations using cryopreserved spermatozoa in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).  


Artificial insemination (AI) with liquid-stored spermatozoa and sperm cryopreservation using directional freezing (DF) have been successful in the beluga. This study built on this foundation to develop a deep intra-uterine AI technique with frozen-thawed semen in beluga. Forty-two ejaculates from one male were cryopreserved using DF technology and subsequently used for 10 insemination attempts with seven females. Percentage pre- and post-thaw progressive motility and viability were (mean +/- SD) 73.0 +/- 12.2, 38.4 +/- 8.8, 88.0 +/- 0.1, and 59.3 +/- 15.7%, respectively. A series of GnRH injections (3 x 250 microg, IV, 1.5 to 2 h apart) were used to induce ovulation, once a growing follicle >2.5 cm in diameter was visualized via trans-abdominal ultrasonography. Artificial insemination was performed at 30.1 +/- 3.8 h post-initial GnRH injection with semen deposited in the uterine horn, 92.6 +/- 16.2 cm beyond the genital opening using a flexible endoscope. The external cervical os (cEOS) was located beyond a series of 5 to 10 vaginal rings, 44.8 +/- 9.3 cm from the external genital opening. The internal bifurcation of the uterus was 27 +/- 6.8 cm beyond the cEOS. Ovulation occurred at 8.5 +/- 7.6 h post-AI. Two of 10 inseminations (20%) resulted in pregnancy. The first pregnancy resulted in twins; both calves were born 442 d after AI, with one surviving. The second pregnancy is ongoing. These findings represent the first successful application of AI using frozen-thawed semen in beluga, and are important examples of how assisted reproductive technologies can provide tools for the global management of threatened species. PMID:20570326

Robeck, T R; Steinman, K J; Montano, G A; Katsumata, E; Osborn, S; Dalton, L; Dunn, J L; Schmitt, T; Reidarson, T; O'Brien, J K



An unusual presentation of a submucous leiomyoma accounting to a non-puerperal uterine inversion: A case report  

PubMed Central

Non-puerperal uterine inversion is an extremely rare gynaecological event that is usually associated with uterine tumours such as submucous or cervical leiomyomas. In this report, we describe a case of uterine inversion due to a large submucous leiomyoma in a 42-year-old multiparous and obese Caucasian woman. PMID:24592087

Atalay, Mehmet Aral; Demir, Bilge Çetinkaya; Solak, Ne?e; Atalay, Fatma Oz; Küçükkömürcü, ?akir